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Sample records for activities marine geophysical

  1. 78 FR 8497 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... geophysical (seismic) survey off the central coast of California, November to December, 2012. ADDRESSES: The... incidental to conducting a marine seismic survey within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone of the central coast... (Langseth) and a seismic airgun array to collect seismic data as part of the Offshore Central...

  2. 78 FR 22239 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey on the Mid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the Atlantic Ocean, April 2013... on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the north Atlantic Ocean in international waters, from April 2013... authorized takes for the seismic survey on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the Atlantic Ocean. The results of...

  3. 77 FR 19242 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ...NMFS has received an application from Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (L-DEO), a part of Columbia University, for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting a low-energy marine geophysical survey in the central Pacific Ocean, May through June, 2012. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting......

  4. 77 FR 56613 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ..., and an acoustic Doppler current profiler continuously throughout the survey except while on station for marine coring activities. Acoustic stimuli (i.e., increased underwater sound) generated during... for a more detailed description of the authorized action, including vessel and acoustic...

  5. Marine Geophysics: a Navy Symposium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    post-docs are now the current leaders in marine geology and geophysics, not only in the United States but also in Britain, France, and Australia ...to make it fun both for themselves and for others was the keystone of the success of the marine geology and geophysics program at Scripps. They, with...G. G. Shor, Jr., R. W. Raitt, and M. Henry. 1977. Seismic refraction and reflection studies of crustal structure of the eastern Sunda and western

  6. 78 FR 33369 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to take marine mammals, by Level B harassment, incidental to conducting a low-energy marine geophysical (i.e., seismic) survey in the deep water of the Gulf of Mexico, April to May...

  7. 78 FR 11821 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ...NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting a low-energy marine geophysical (seismic) survey in the Gulf of Mexico, April to May, 2013. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to......

  8. 76 FR 37066 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... in or near the proposed seismic survey areas. This document presents a new table with corrections... densities of marine mammals that may occur in or near the proposed seismic survey area. Accordingly, Table...

  9. 78 FR 10137 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey on the Mid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    .... Marine Mammal Take--Acoustic stimuli (i.e., increased underwater sound) generated during the operation of..., weather conditions, and the need to repeat some lines if data quality is substandard. Therefore, we... sampled subsurface image; and project less acoustic energy into the environment than other types...

  10. TOMO-ETNA MED-SUV.ISES an active seismic and passive seismic experiment at Mt. Etna volcano. An integrated marine and onland geophysical survey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, Jesus. M.; Patane, Domenico; Puglisi, Guisseppe; Zuccarello, Lucciano; Bianco, Francesca; Luehr, Birger; Diaz-Moreno, Alejandro; Prudencio, Janire; Koulakov, Ivan; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Cocina, Ornella; Coltelli, Mauro; Scarfi, Lucciano; De Gori, Pascuale; Carrion, Francisco

    2014-05-01

    An active seismic experiment to study the internal structure of Etna Volcano is going to carried out on Sicily and Aeolian islands. The main objective of the TOMO-ETNA MED-SUV.ISES experiment, beginning in summer 2014, is to perform a high resolution seismic tomography, in velocity and attenuation, in Southern Italy, by using active and passive seismic data, in an area encompassing outstanding volcanoes as Mt. Etna, and Aeolian volcanoes. The achievement of this objective is based on the integration and sharing of the in-situ marine and land experiments and observations and on the implementation of new instruments and monitoring systems. For the purpose, onshore and offshore seismic stations and passive and active seismic data generated both in marine and terrestrial environment will be used. Additionally, other geophysical data, mainly magnetic and gravimetric data will be considered to obtain a joint Upper Mantle-Crust structure that could permit to make progress in the understanding of the dynamic of the region. This multinational experiment which involves institutions from Spain, Italy, Germany, United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Malta, Portugal, Russia, USA and Mexico. During the experiment more than 6.600 air gun shots performed by the Spanish Oceanographic vessel "Sarmiento de Gamboa" will be recorder on a dense local seismic network consisting of 100 on land non-permanent stations, 70 on land permanent stations and 20-25 OBSs. Contemporaneously other marine geophysical measures will be performed using a marine Gravimeter LaCoste&Romberg Air-Sea Gravity System II and a Marine Magnetometer SeaSPY. The experiments will provide a unique data set in terms of data quantity and quality, and it will provide a detailed velocity and attenuation structural image of volcano edifice. The results will be essential in the development and interpretation of future volcanic models. It is noteworthy that this project is fully transversal, multidisciplinary and crosses several

  11. Studies in geophysics: Active tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Active tectonics is defined within the study as tectonic movements that are expected to occur within a future time span of concern to society. Such movements and their associated hazards include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and land subsidence and emergence. The entire range of geology, geophysics, and geodesy is, to some extent, pertinent to this topic. The needs for useful forecasts of tectonic activity, so that actions may be taken to mitigate hazards, call for special attention to ongoing tectonic activity. Further progress in understanding active tectonics depends on continued research. Particularly important is improvement in the accuracy of dating techniques for recent geologic materials.

  12. Marine Magnetic Data Holdings of World Data Center-a for Marine Geology and Geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharman, George F.; Metzger, Dan

    1992-01-01

    The World Data Center-A for Marine Geology and Geophysics is co-located with the Marine Geology & Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO. Fifteen million digital marine magnetic trackline measurements are managed within the GEOphysical DAta System (GEODAS). The bulk of these data were collected with proton precision magnetometers under Transit Satellite navigational control. Along-track sampling averages about 1 sample per kilometer, while spatial density, a function of ship's track and survey pattern, range from 4 to 0.02 data points/sq. km. In the near future, the entire geophysical data set will be available on CD-ROM. The Marine Geology and Geophysics Division (World Data Center-A for MGG), of the National Geophysical Data Center, handles a broad spectrum of marine geophysical data, including measurements of bathymetry, magnetics, gravity, seismic reflection subbottom profiles, and side-scan images acquired by ships throughout the world's oceans. Digital data encompass the first three, while the latter two are in analog form, recorded on 35mm microfilm. The marine geophysical digital trackline data are contained in the GEODAS data base which includes 11.6 million nautical miles of cruise trackline coverage contributed by more than 70 organizations worldwide. The inventory includes data from 3206 cruises with 33 million digital records and indexing to 5.3 million track miles of analog data on microfilm.

  13. Images of The Active Chilean Margin From New Marine Geophysical Data Between 28 Deg S and 44 Deg S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreckenberger, B.; Spoc Scientific Shipboard Party (Leg 2+3), The

    Within the scope of the multi-disciplinary SPOC project (Subduction Processes Off Chile) some 8.700 km were recently acquired using marine magnetic, gravity and swath bathymetric methods whereof 5.200 km were surveyed with multi-channel seismics, including three seismic lines with simultaneous onshore observations. The goal of the project is to identify the variety of subduction features and accompany- ing conditions along the Central Chile segment of the collision zone between the Nazca and S-American plates, i.e. between Coquimbo and Valdivia. An additional line was achieved just south of Chiloe Island entering the submerged Central Valley. The oceanic crust of the Nazca Plate shows at least three sets of structural trends as- sociated with the Mocha and Valdivia Fractures Zones, the spreading lineations and subduction related horst and graben structures. In the study area the trench is filled with well stratified turbidites up to 2 seconds TWT thick. Along the trench axis a tur- bidite channel exceeding 80 m relief exists. Several large deep sea fan complexes are developed at the slope toe. Their distributary canyons cut deep into the slope and shelf and can be traced back to major river mouths. The deformation front is coincident with the slope toe; compressional structures of the trench fill are uncommon. The de- formation front is curved and offset along strike, caused presumably by collision and indentation of structures of the Nazca Plate. The most remarkable features of the MCS - profiles, yet, are the only very rudimentary developed modern accretionary prism as well as the high variability of the lower slope angles. Lower slope angles locally ex- ceed 10. The continental crust extends seawards to the middle slope and acts as a backstop. Several profiles reveal landward dipping reflectors above the downgoing slab, possibly depicting a subduction channel beneath the slope. Thus, the geometry of the subduction units U a young thick trench fill, only

  14. The MARINER Integrated Seismic and Geophysical Mapping Experiment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, R. A.; Canales, J.; Sohn, R. A.; Paulatto, M.; Arai, R.; Szitkar, F.

    2013-12-01

    The MARINER (Mid-Atlantic Ridge INtegrated Experiments at Rainbow) seismic and geophysical mapping experiment was designed to examine the relationship between tectonic rifting, heat/melt supply, and oceanic core complex formation at a non-transform offset (NTO) of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 36°N, the site of the ultramafic-hosted Rainbow hydrothermal system. We present an overview of the components of the experiment and the various projects stemming from it. The 5-week experiment was carried out aboard the R/V M. G. Langseth in April-May 2013, and consisted of a 3D active-source seismic tomography experiment, 2D multi-channel seismic profiles, an on-going nine month passive micro-seismicity study, dense acoustic mapping of the seafloor (including depth and amplitude information), gravity field mapping, and magnetic field mapping. During the tomography experiment, we deployed 46 ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) over a 35 x 80 sq. km area centered on Rainbow. Twenty-six wide-angle seismic lines were carried out using the Langseth's 36-element source, generating ~175,000 seismic records. The MCS experiment, which was also recorded on 20 OBS, consisted of twenty-one densely spaced seismic lines using an 8-km-long hydrophone streamer. Bathymetry, gravity, and magnetic surveys were carried out over a broader, 80x105 sq. km, area centered on Rainbow. Overall, the experiment extends across two segments of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge separated by the Rainbow NTO massif. MARINER multi-beam bathymetry and acoustic imagery provide a broad view of the geologic and geophysical character of the ridge system, emphasizing the strong variability of ridge morphology, tectonics, and lava emplacement. The magnetization map shows a clear central anomaly with normal polarity, flanked by regions of negative polarity, consistent with the Brunhes-Matuyama reversal (~780,000 Ma). Rainbow itself lies in a region of weaker magnetization strength, which could be linked to a decrease in the depth of the

  15. Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course Offered by The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, D.; Davis, M. B.; Allison, M. A.; Gulick, S. P.; Goff, J. A.; Saustrup, S.

    2012-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, part of the Jackson School of Geosciences, annually offers an intensive three-week marine geology and geophysics field course during the spring-summer intersession. Now in year six, the course provides hands-on instruction and training for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students in data acquisition, processing, interpretation, and visualization. Techniques covered include high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, several types of sediment coring, grab sampling, and the sedimentology of resulting seabed samples (e.g., core description, grain size analysis, x-radiography, etc.). Students participate in an initial period of classroom instruction designed to communicate geological context of the field area (which changes each year) along with theoretical and technical background on each field method. The class then travels to the Gulf Coast for a week of at-sea field work. Our field sites at Port Aransas and Galveston, Texas, and Grand Isle, Louisiana, have provided ideal locations for students to investigate coastal and sedimentary processes of the Gulf Coast and continental shelf through application of geophysical techniques. In the field, students rotate between two research vessels: one vessel, the 22' aluminum-hulled R/V Lake Itasca, owned and operated by UTIG, is used principally for multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and sediment sampling; the other, NOAA's R/V Manta or the R/V Acadiana, operated by the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, and is used primarily for high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, gravity coring, and vibrocoring. While at sea, students assist with survey design, learn instrumentation set up, acquisition parameters, data quality control, and safe instrument deployment and retrieval. In teams of three, students work in onshore field labs preparing sediment samples for

  16. The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, D.; Davis, M. B.; Goff, J. A.; Gulick, S. P. S.; McIntosh, K. D.; Saustrup, S., Sr.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, part of the Jackson School of Geosciences, annually offers a three-week marine geology and geophysics field course during the spring-summer intersession. The course provides hands-on instruction and training for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students in high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, several types of sediment coring, grab sampling, and the sedimentology of resulting seabed samples. Students participate in an initial three days of classroom instruction designed to communicate geological context of the field area along with theoretical and technical background on each field method. The class then travels to the Gulf Coast for a week of at-sea field work. Our field sites at Port Aransas, and Galveston, TX, and Grand Isle, LA, provide ideal locations for students to investigate coastal processes of the Gulf Coast and continental shelf through application of geophysical techniques in an exploratory mode. At sea, students assist with survey design and instrumentation set up while learning about acquisition parameters, data quality control, trouble-shooting, and safe instrument deployment and retrieval. In teams of four, students work in onshore field labs preparing sediment samples for particle size analysis and data processing. During the course's final week, teams return to the classroom where they integrate, interpret, and visualize data in a final project using industry-standard software such as Echos, Landmark, Caris, and Fledermaus. The course concludes with a series of final presentations and discussions in which students examine geologic history and/or sedimentary processes represented by the Gulf Coast continental shelf with academic and industry supporters. Students report a greater understanding of marine geology and geophysics through the course's intensive, hands-on, team approach and low instructor to student ratio (sixteen

  17. The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, M. B.; Gulick, S. P.; Allison, M. A.; Goff, J. A.; Duncan, D. D.; Saustrup, S.

    2011-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, part of the Jackson School of Geosciences, annually offers an intensive three-week marine geology and geophysics field course during the spring-summer intersession. Now in year five, the course provides hands-on instruction and training for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students in data acquisition, processing, interpretation, and visualization. Techniques covered include high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, several types of sediment coring, grab sampling, and the sedimentology of resulting seabed samples (e.g., core description, grain size analysis, x-radiography, etc.). Students seek to understand coastal and sedimentary processes of the Gulf Coast and continental shelf through application of these techniques in an exploratory mode. Students participate in an initial three days of classroom instruction designed to communicate geological context of the field area (which changes each year) along with theoretical and technical background on each field method. The class then travels to the Gulf Coast for a week of at-sea field work. In the field, students rotate between two small research vessels: one vessel, the 22' aluminum-hulled R/V Lake Itasca, owned and operated by UTIG, is used principally for multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and sediment sampling; the other, NOAA's R/V Manta or the R/V Acadiana, operated by the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, is used primarily for high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, gravity coring, and vibracoring. While at sea, students assist with survey design, learn instrumentation set up, acquisition parameters, data quality control, and safe instrument deployment and retrieval. In teams of three, students work in onshore field labs preparing sediment samples for particle size analysis and initial data processing. During the course's final week, teams

  18. NGDC Marine Geophysical Data Systems: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharman, G. F.; Divins, D. L.; Metzger, D. R.; Campagnoli, J. G.

    2001-12-01

    For the past quarter century, the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) has disseminated marine geophysical data previously submitted to the national archive which NGDC maintains for the scientific community. Beginning in 1977, with a conference of users to establish an exchange format, GEODAS(GEOphysical DAta System) has been a tool for describing, distributing, and exchanging marine geophysical data. In the last decade CD-ROM technology permitted distribution of entire databases along with GEODAS software. Described in Sharman, et al., Surveying and Land Information Systems, 58,3(1998)pp.141-146, GEODAS is an integrated, home-grown system developed to address a particular class of data in the absence of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) solutions. GEODAS has evolved to index the location and quality of multibeam data as well as providing a 1-minute, vertical beam derivative for those who did not wish to deal with the full array of data. NGDC's Coastal Relief Model (CRM) and Global Relief (ETOPO2) are also delivered with the GEODAS software as the primary management tool. The CRM represents a new evolution of NGDC data practice, delivering a gridded data product derived from, rather than, the primary data. Customer-demand for data easily imported into increasingly popular Geographic Information Systems(GIS) drove this change. Our delivery of the CRM includes "canned" graphic images with a web-structured CD-ROM delivery accessed by Web browsers, thus allowing COTS solutions for multi-platform access. GEODAS software permits resampling, joining, and otherwise reformatting the data for export. Future developments include two proposals to deliver high volume data sets (e.g. multibeam, and acoustic imagery/side scan) and data in a spatially enabled format via the Web. Both will begin using COTS solutions that accommodate the needs of a specialized MGG community and their data. Future directions include increasing use of COTS packages, when applicable, to manage and

  19. Global Bathymetric Prediction For Ocean Modeling and Marine Geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandwell, David T.; Smith, Walter H. F.; Sichoix, Lydie; Frey, Herbert V. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We proposed to construct a complete bathymetric map of the oceans at a 3-10 km resolution by combining all of the available depth soundings collected over the past 30 years with high resolution marine gravity information provided by the Geosat, ERS-1/2, and Topex/Poseidon altimeters. Detailed bathymetry is essential for understanding physical oceanography and marine geophysics. Currents and tides are controlled by the overall shapes of the ocean basins as well as the smaller sharp ocean ridges and seamounts. Because erosion rates are low in the deep oceans, detailed bathymetry reveals the mantle convection patterns, the plate boundaries, the cooling/subsidence of the oceanic lithosphere, the oceanic plateaus, and the distribution of off-ridge volcanoes. We proposed to: (1) Accumulate all available depth soundings collected over the past 30 years; (2) Use the short wavelength (< 160 km) satellite gravity information to interpolate between sparse ship soundings; (3) Improve the resolution of the marine gravity field using enhanced estimates along repeat altimeter profiles together with the dense altimeter measurements; (4) Refine/improve bathymetric predictions using the improved resolution gravity field and also by investigating computer-intensive methods for bathymetric prediction such as inverse theory; and (5) Produce a 'Globe of the Earth' similar to the globe of Venus prepared by the NASA Magellan investigation. This will also include the best available digital land data.

  20. The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, M. B.; Gulick, S. P.; Allison, M. A.; Goff, J. A.; Duncan, D. D.; Saustrup, S.

    2010-12-01

    During the spring-summer intersession, we annually offer an intensive three-week field course designed to provide hands-on instruction and training for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students in the acquisition, processing, interpretation, and visualization of marine geological and geophysical data. Now in year four, the course covers high-resolution air gun and streamer seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, several types of sediment coring, grab sampling, and the sedimentology of resulting seabed samples (e.g., core description, grain size analysis, x-radiography, etc.). Students first participate in three days of classroom instruction designed to provide theoretical and technical background on each field method and impart geologic context of the study area. Students then travel to the Gulf Coast for a week of at-sea field work. In the field, students rotate between two small research vessels: one vessel, the 22’ aluminum-hulled R/V Lake Itasca, owned and operated by UTIG, is used for multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and sediment sampling; the other, NOAA’s R/V Manta or the R/V Acadiana, operated by the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, is used for high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, gravity coring, and vibracoring. Students assist with survey design, learn systems setup and acquisition parameters, and safe instrument deployment and retrieval techniques. Students also perform on-shore sedimentology lab work, data quality control, data processing and visualization using industry-standard software such as Focus, Landmark, Caris, and Fledermaus. During the course’s final week, students return to the classroom where, collaborating in teams of three, they integrate and interpret data in a final project which examines the geologic history and/or sedimentary processes as typified by the Gulf Coast continental shelf. The course culminates in a series of professional

  1. New insights into Wellington Harbours' tectonic settings from marine geophysical and sedimentological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woelz, Susi; Nodder, Scott; Barnes, Philip; Orpin, Alan

    2015-04-01

    After the experience of several damaging coastal earthquakes in New Zealand in the last three years, the importance of locating and characterising the earthquake potential of active faults close to urban areas has become more obvious, especially when cities lie in complex tectonic settings as it is the case for Wellington. To assess the earthquake and tsunami potential and the associated hazard posed by such faults, it is necessary to characterise fault geometry, slip rate, earthquake history and earthquake potential. In the marine environment, we have the advantage that faults can be assessed cross-sectionally through the application of high-resolution geophysical data without having to excavate trenches across the active fault trace. We present new marine data from Wellington Harbour that helps to characterise three faults; the Wellington Fault at Kaiwharawhara, the Evans Bay Fault, and a newly discovered fault off Oriental Bay, informally referred to as the Mount Victoria Fault. New marine geophysical data has better delineated the location and characteristics of these faults. High-resolution multi-beam bathymetric data (50 cm grid-cell size), covering the entire Wellington Harbour, were also used to determine the occurrence of seafloor scarps associated with surface ruptures on the faults. Sediment cores from either side of the Wellington Fault off Kaiwharawhara Stream, in about 17.5 m water depth, provide insight into the late Quaternary-Holocene stratigraphy and age of sediments that have been deformed by activity on the faults delineated in Wellington Harbour. The stratigraphy reveals details of the post-glacial marine flooding of the harbour that occurred about 10,000 years ago.

  2. Marine Geophysical Surveying Along the Hubbard Glacier Terminus, Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, J. A.; Davis, M.; Gulick, S. P.; Lawson, D. E.; Willems, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    Tidewater glaciers are a challenging environment for marine investigations, owing to the dangers associated with calving and restrictions on operations due to dense floating ice. We report here on recent efforts to conduct marine geophysical surveys proximal to the ice face of Hubbard Glacier, in Disenchantment Bay, Alaska. Hubbard is an advancing tidewater glacier that has twice recently (1986 and 2002) impinged on Gilbert Point, which separates Russell Fiord from Disenchantment Bay, thereby temporarily creating a glacially-dammed Russell Lake. Continued advance will likely form a more permanent dam, rerouting brackish outflow waters into the Situk River, near Yakutat, Alaska. Our primary interest is in studying the development and motion of the morainal bank which, for an advancing tidewater glacier, stabilizes it against rapid retreat. For survey work, we operated with a small, fast, aluminum-hulled vessel and a captain experienced in operating in ice-bound conditions, providing a high margin of safety and maneuverability. Differencing of multibeam bathymetric data acquired in different years can identify and quantify areas of deposition and erosion on the morainal bank front and in Disenchantment Bay proper, where accumulation rates are typically > 1 m/yr within 1 km of the glacier terminus. The advance or retreat rate of the morainal bank can be determined by changes in the bed elevation through time; we document advance rates that average > 30 m/yr in Disenchantment Bay, but which vary substantially over different time periods and at different positions along the ice face. Georeferencing of available satellite imagery allows us to directly compare the position of the glacial terminus with the position of the morainal bank. From 1978 to 1999, and then to 2006, the advances in terminus and morainal bank positions were closely synchronized along the length of the glacier face. In the shallower Russell Fiord side of the terminus, a sediment ridge was mapped both

  3. Geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H.; Cassen, P.

    1976-01-01

    Four areas of investigation, each dealing with the measurement of a particular geophysical property, are discussed. These properties are the gravity field, seismicity, magnetism, and heat flow. All are strongly affected by conditions, past or present, in the planetary interior; their measurement is the primary source of information about planetary interiors.

  4. Geophysical Mapping and Monitoring of Active Planets (GMAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGovern, P. J.; Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2017-02-01

    Recent findings require a strongly upward revision of volcano-tectonic activity rate estimates for Venus and Mars. We propose a program of Geophysical Mapping and Monitoring of Active Planets (GMAP) including seismology, gravimetry, InSAR, and GPS.

  5. Characteristics of Sounds Emitted During High-Resolution Marine Geophysical Surveys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    associated with high-resolution marine geophysical surveys performed in U.S. waters. However, data to estimate the ecological risk associated with the...acoustic emissions could present an unrecognized ecological risk if a system thought to operate above the auditory bandwidth of a particular species was...to assess the ecological risks associated with the operation of a given high-resolution survey system has not been generally available. Therefore

  6. 75 FR 33325 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Assessment of a Marine Geophysical Survey by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Arctic Ocean, August-September 2010 AGENCY: U.S. Geological... Environmental Assessment (EA) of a Marine Geophysical Survey by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Arctic Ocean... Geophysical Survey by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Arctic Ocean, August-September 2010 within 30...

  7. Immersive, hands-on, team-based geophysical education at the University of Texas Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saustrup, S.; Gulick, S. P.; Goff, J. A.; Davis, M. B.; Duncan, D.; Reece, R.

    2013-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG), part of the Jackson School of Geosciences, annually offers a unique and intensive three-week marine geology and geophysics field course during the spring/summer semester intersession. Now entering its seventh year, the course transitions students from a classroom environment through real-world, hands-on field acquisition, on to team-oriented data interpretation, culminating in a professional presentation before academic and industry employer representatives. The course is available to graduate students and select upper-division undergraduates, preparing them for direct entry into the geoscience workforce or for further academic study. Geophysical techniques used include high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, sediment coring, grab sampling, data processing, and laboratory analysis of sediments. Industry-standard equipment, methods, software packages, and visualization techniques are used throughout the course, putting students ahead of many of their peers in this respect. The course begins with a 3-day classroom introduction to the field area geology, geophysical methods, and computing resources used. The class then travels to the Gulf Coast for a week of hands-on field and lab work aboard two research vessels: UTIG's 22-foot, aluminum hulled Lake Itasca; and NOAA's 82-foot high-speed catamaran R/V Manta. The smaller vessel handles primarily shallow, inshore targets using multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and grab sampling. The larger vessel is used both inshore and offshore for multichannel seismic, CHIRP profiling, multibeam bathymetry, gravity coring, and vibracoring. Field areas to date have included Galveston and Port Aransas, Texas, and Grand Isle, Louisiana, with further work in Grand Isle scheduled for 2014. In the field, students work in teams of three, participating in survey design, instrument set-up, field deployment

  8. Marine Science Activities, Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for grade 6 students. The unit is divided into the following sections: (1) Pagoo (story of a hermit crab); (2) introduction to marine environments; (3) salt water environment; (4) sea water investigations; (5)…

  9. The sixth presentation of the Maurice Ewing Medal by the American Geophysical Union and the United States Navy to Manik Talwani for leadership in marine geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyeda, Seiya; Talwani, Manik

    Manik Talwani's impact on the geosciences clearly places him among those who deserve to be honored as a Ewing medalist. He has contributed major advances to our understanding of Earth's fundamental characteristics and has provided direction that will help guide geological/geophysical research long into the future.Born in Patiala, India, in 1933, Manik earned bachelor's and master's degrees at Delhi University. In the mid-1950s he moved to the United States and enrolled in Columbia University for his Ph.D. studies. It was the beginning of a long association between Manik and Columbia. When he earned his Ph.D. in 1959, it was already apparent that he was destined to make a significant impact on the geosciences. He has been the recipient of several important awards for his contributions and leadership. These include the first Krishnan Medal in 1965, from his home country, and the Macelwane Award from the American Geophysical Union, in 1967, for his pioneering achievements in the application of marine gravimetry to studies of Earth's crust and upper mantle. Since 1970, Manik has been a professor of geology at Columbia, and for 8 years he served as director of Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory. This evening, for his continued contributions and leadership, Manik is being awarded the Maurice Ewing Medal. He is truly qualified for this distinction, based on his many important original contributions to marine geophysics, ocean technology and instrumentation, and also for his outstanding service to marine science.

  10. Integrated data management system of Korean marine geological and geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Sang-Ho; Kim, Sung-Dae; Park, Soo-Young; Park, Hyuk-Min; Lee, Jin-Hee

    2013-04-01

    An integrated database system was developed to manage and provide marine geological data and marine geophysical data obtained by several Korean institutes. The system consists of two sub systems. One is the archive DB system which manages original data submitted by research scientists, the other is geographic information system which manages GIS data and provides information to the users. We established data management procedure for the data collection, processing, quality control and DB input for continuous data collection. According to the procedure, we collect data from Korean institutes every year and update DB system. Establishment of the archive DB system was accomplished through 7 steps, (1) checking the format of submitted data files (2) grouping data files by data items and research (3) retrieving metadata (position, date and time, etc.) from the submitted data files (4) validation of metadata and observation data (5) making the connection between metadata and observed data (6) rearrange matched metadata and observation data according to the DB structure (7) storing rearranged data into DB system. To make a reliable DB of system, we spent much time to validate submitted marine geological data and geophysical data. In case of marine geological data, we collected size analysis data, columnar section image, photographic data, X-ray data, heavy metal analysis data, organic carbon analysis data obtained from surface sediment samples and core sediment samples. The data formats were image file, ASCII text file and Microsoft Excel file. In case of marine geophysical data, seismic data, magnetic data and gravity data were collected in formats of SEG-Y binary file, image file and ASCII text file. We could retrieve metadata from ASCII files and Excel files directly and specialized software (Seisview2 software or BATHY2000) was used to retrieve metadata from SEG-Y data files. After validation work which checks the observation location and time using the positioning

  11. Marine Science Activities, Grade Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for second grade students. The unit, focusing on awareness of living/non-living factors shaping life of the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: physical characteristics of oceans; fish; sea anemone;…

  12. Application of multiple geophysical methods to hydrologic and environmental investigations at US Marine Corps installations in North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Cardinell, A.P.; Daniel, C.C. III

    1997-10-01

    Hydrologic information for ongoing environmental studies at two U.S. Marine Corps Bases in the Coastal Plain Province of North Carolina was obtained by using a combination of high-resolution land seismic reflection, continuous marine seismic profiling, and borehole geophysics, that included vertical seismic profiling. The geometry of areas of missing confining units at the southern end of Cherry Point Marine Corps Air Station was mapped by using land seismic-reflection compressional (P) waves, marine seismic profiling, and borehole-geophysical and lithologic data from more than 100 water-supply and monitoring wells. The hydrogeologic framework at Camp Lejeune was mapped by using 100 miles of continuous single-channel, marine seismic-profiling data that were correlated with land-based borehole geophysical and lithologic data from 180 water-supply, monitoring, and stratigraphic test wells. These data are being used by both Marine Corps Bases to manage drinking-water supplies and plan investigations of hazardous-waste sites.

  13. Hands-on Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Instruction at the University of Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saustrup, S.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Goff, J. A.; Fernandez, R.; Davis, M. B.; Duncan, D.

    2015-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, part of the Jackson School of Geosciences, annually offers an intensive three-week marine geology and geophysics field course during the spring-summer intersession. Now in its ninth year, the course provides instruction in survey design, data acquisition, processing, interpretation, and visualization. Methods covered include seismic reflection, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and sediment sampling. The emphasis of the course is team-oriented, hands-on, field training in real-world situations. The course begins with classroom instruction covering the field area and field methods, followed by a week of at-sea field work in 4-student teams. The students then return to the classroom where they integrate, interpret, and visualize data using industry-standard software. The teams present results in a series of professional-level final presentations before academic and industry supporters. Our rotating field areas provide ideal locations for students to investigate coastal and sedimentary processes of the Gulf Coast and continental shelf . In the field, student teams rotate between two research vessels: the smaller vessel, the Jackson School's newly-commissioned R/V Scott Petty (26 feet LOA), is used principally for multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and sediment sampling; the other, NOAA's R/V Manta (82 feet LOA) is used for high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, gravity coring, and vibracoring. Teams also rotate through a field laboratory performing processing of geophysical data and sediment samples. This past year's course in Freeport, Texas proceeded unabated despite concurrent record-breaking rainfall and flooding, which offered students a unique opportunity to observe and image, in real time, flood-related bedform migration on a time scale of hours. The data also allowed an in-class opportunity to examine natural and anthropogenic processes recorded in the river

  14. Laboratory scale electrokinetic remediation and geophysical monitoring of metal-contaminated marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masi, Matteo; Pazzi, Veronica; Losito, Gabriella

    2013-04-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is an emerging technology that can be used to remove contaminants from soils and sediments. This technique relies on the application of a low-intensity electric field to extract heavy metals, radionuclides and some organic compounds. When the electric field is applied three main transport processes occur in the porous medium: electromigration, electroosmosis and electrophoresis. Monitoring of electrokinetic processes in laboratory and field is usually conducted by means of point measurements and by collecting samples from discrete locations. Geophysical methods can be very effective in obtaining high spatial and temporal resolution mapping for an adequate control of the electrokinetic processes. This study investigates the suitability of electrokinetic remediation for extracting heavy metals from dredged marine sediments and the possibility of using geophysical methods to monitor the remediation process. Among the geophysical methods, the spectral induced polarization technique was selected because of its capability to provide valuable information about the physico-chemical characteristics of the porous medium. Electrokinetic remediation experiments in laboratory scale were made under different operating conditions, obtained by varying the strength of the applied electric field and the type of conditioning agent used at the electrode compartments in each experiment. Tap water, 0.1M citric acid and 0.1M ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions were used respectively as processing fluids. Metal removal was relevant when EDTA was used as conditioning agent and the electric potential was increased, as these two factors promoted the electroosmotic flow which is considered to be the key transport mechanism. The removal efficiencies ranged from 9.5% to 27% depending on the contaminant concerned. These percentages are likely to be raised by a further increase of the applied electric field. Furthermore, spectral induced polarization

  15. 78 FR 33859 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Geological and Geophysical Exploration Activities in the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... Continental Shelf (OCS) Geological and Geophysical Exploration Activities in the Gulf of Mexico; Correction... in the Federal Register (78 FR 27427) entitled ``Outer Continental Shelf Geological and...

  16. 77 FR 65059 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to ION Geophysical (ION) to take, by harassment, small numbers of nine species of marine mammals incidental to in-ice marine seismic surveys in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, Alaska, during the fall and winter of...

  17. High resolution seismic data coupled to Multibeam bathymetry of Stromboli island collected in the frame of the Stromboli geophysical experiment: implications with the marine geophysics and volcanology of the Aeolian Arc volcanic complex (Sicily, Southern Tyrrhenian sea, Italy).

    PubMed

    Aiello, Gemma; Di Fiore, Vincenzo; Marsella, Ennio; Passaro, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    New high resolution seismic data (Subbottom Chirp) coupled to high resolution Multibeam bathymetry collected in the frame of the Stromboli geophysical experiment aimed at recording active seismic data and tomography of the Stromboli Island are here presented. The Stromboli geophysical experiment has been already carried out based on onshore and offshore data acquisition in order to investigate the deep structure and the location of the magma chambers of the Stromboli volcano. A new detailed swath bathymetry of Stromboli Island is here shown and discussed to reconstruct an up-to-date morpho-bathymetry and marine geology of the area compared to the volcanologic setting of the Aeolian Arc volcanic complex. Due to its high resolution the new Digital Terrain Model of the Stromboli Island gives interesting information about the submerged structure of the volcano, particularly about the volcano-tectonic and gravitational processes involving the submarine flanks of the edifice. Several seismic units have been identified based on the geologic interpretation of Subbottom Chirp profiles recorded around the volcanic edifice and interpreted as volcanic acoustic basement pertaining to the volcano and overlying slide chaotic bodies emplaced during its complex volcano-tectonic evolution. They are related to the eruptive activity of Stromboli, mainly poliphasic and to regional geological processes involving the intriguing geology of the Aeolian Arc, a volcanic area still in activity and needing improved research interest.

  18. Natural hazards activities of the National Geophysical Data Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockridge, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), a part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, has been given the task of collecting, managing, and disseminating the great mass of inofmation produced by scientific observations of the geophysical environment. This article describes NGDC data bases that speifically relate to natural hazards. 

  19. Geo-Seas - a pan-European infrastructure for the management of marine geological and geophysical data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, Helen; Graham, Colin

    2010-05-01

    Geo-Seas - a pan-European infrastructure for the management of marine geological and geophysical data. Helen Glaves1 and Colin Graham2 on behalf of the Geo-Seas consortium The Geo-Seas project will create a network of twenty six European marine geoscience data centres from seventeen coastal countries including six from the Baltic Sea area. This will be achieved through the development of a pan-European infrastructure for the exchange of marine geoscientific data. Researchers will be able to locate and access harmonised and federated marine geological and geophysical datasets and data products held by the data centres through the Geo-Seas data portal, using a common data catalogue. The new infrastructure, an expansion of the exisiting SeaDataNet, will create an infrastructure covering oceanographic and marine geoscientific data. New data products and services will be developed following consultations with users on their current and future research requirements. Common data standards will be implemented across all of the data centres and other geological and geophysical organisations will be encouraged to adopt the protocols, standards and tools which are developed as part of the Geo-Seas project. Oceanographic and marine data include a wide range of variables, an important category of which are the geological and geophysical data sets. This data includes raw observational and analytical data as well as derived data products from seabed sediment samples, boreholes, geophysical surveys (seismic, gravity etc) and sidescan sonar surveys. All of which are essential in order to produce a complete interpretation of seabed geology. Despite there being a large volume of geological and geophysical data available for the marine environment it is currently very difficult to use these datasets in an integrated way between organisations due to different nomenclatures, formats, scales and coordinate systems being used within different organisations and also within different

  20. Assessing landslide movements in volcanic islands using near-shore marine geophysical data: south Pico island, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, N. C.; Quartau, R.; Madeira, J.

    2011-12-01

    Marine geophysical data can help to resolve whether large-scale instability of an edifice has been geologically recently active. We study such data from the coast of Pico Island where a major slump of Topo volcano has been interpreted from arcuate escarpments and a rugged irregular topography above sea-level. Multibeam sonar data collected immediately offshore show little evidence for slump fault movements, in particular on the island shelf. As the shelf rock platform will have been last modified by surf during the postglacial sea-level transgression, it provides a reference surface of intermediate age (7-19 ky) that can potentially reveal any pre-historic movements. Where the arcuate escarpments are continued offshore, no evidence for active faults are observed where the shelf rock platform crops out in the multibeam data. Elsewhere, mobile shelf sediments may disguise evidence for active faulting so we examined boomer profiles able to image the rock platform beneath them. The data reveal a platform that is steep (6.6 degrees) compared with the dips of platforms around the coast of adjacent Faial Island and steeper than the platform outside the proposed slump. This suggests that it was created by coastal erosion over a shorter period and hence is consistent with a younger coastline age. As with the multibeam data, where escarpments are continued offshore, the rock surface imaged with these boomer data also shows no clear evidence of major slump-related fault displacements. This study therefore illustrates how high-resolution boomer seismic and multibeam data could usefully contribute to hazard assessment of volcanic islands, by helping to evaluate areas with no historical movements.

  1. Marine Geophysical Investigation of Selected Sites in Bridgeport Harbor, Connecticut, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Carole D.; White, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    A marine geophysical investigation was conducted in 2006 to help characterize the bottom and subbottom materials and extent of bedrock in selected areas of Bridgeport Harbor, Connecticut. The data will be used by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the design of confined aquatic disposal (CAD) cells within the harbor to facilitate dredging of the harbor. Three water-based geophysical methods were used to evaluate the geometry and composition of subsurface materials: (1) continuous seismic profiling (CSP) methods provide the depth to water bottom, and when sufficient signal penetration can be achieved, delineate the depth to bedrock and subbottom materials; (2) continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) methods were used to define the electrical properties of the shallow subbottom, and to possibly determine the distribution of conductive materials, such as clay, and resistive materials, such as sand and bedrock; (3) and magnetometer data were used to identify conductive anomalies of anthropogenic sources, such as cables and metallic debris. All data points were located using global positioning systems (GPS), and the GPS data were used for real-time navigation. The results of the CRP, CSP, and magnetometer data are consistent with the conceptual site model of a bedrock channel incised beneath the present day harbor. The channel appears to follow a north-northwest to south-southeast trend and is parallel to the Pequannock River. The seismic record and boring data indicate that under the channel, the depth to bedrock is as much as 42.7 meters (m) below mean low-low water (MLLW) in the dredged part of the harbor. The bedrock channel becomes shallower towards the shore, where bedrock outcrops have been mapped at land surface. CSP and CRP data were able to provide a discontinuous, but reasonable, trace from the channel toward the west under the proposed southwestern CAD cell. The data indicate a high amount of relief on the bedrock surface, as well as along the water bottom

  2. FRAM-2012: Norwegians return to the High Arctic with a Hovercraft for Marine Geophysical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. K.; Kristoffersen, Y.; Brekke, H.; Hope, G.

    2012-12-01

    After four years of testing methods, craft reliability, and innovative equipment, the R/H SABVABAA has embarked on its first FRAM-201x expedition to the highest Arctic. Named after the Inupiaq word for 'flows swiftly over it', the 12m by 6m hovercraft has been home-based in Longyearbyen, Svalbard since June 2008. In this, its fifth summer of work on the ice pack north of 81N, the craft is supported by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) via the Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center (NERSC) in Bergen, and the Norwegian Scientific Academy for Polar Research. FRAM-2012 represents renewed Norwegian interest in returning to the highest Arctic some 116 years after the 1893-96 drift of Fridtjof Nansen's ship FRAM, the first serious scientific investigation of the Arctic. When replenished by air or icebreaker, the hovercraft Sabvabaa offers a hospitable scientific platform with crew of two, capable of marine geophysical, geological and oceanographic observations over long periods with relative mobility on the ice pack. FRAM-2012 is the first step towards this goal, accompanying the Swedish icebreaker ODEN to the Lomonosov Ridge, north of Greenland, as part of the LOMROG III expedition. The science plan called for an initial drive from the ice edge to Gakkel Ridge at 85N where micro-earthquakes would be monitored, and then to continue north to a geological sampling area on the Lomonosov Ridge at about 88N, 65W. The micro-earthquake monitoring is part of Gaute Hope's MSc thesis and entails five hydrophones in a WiFi-connected hydrophone array deployed over the Gakkel Rift Valley, drifting with the ice at up to 0.4 knots. On August 3 the hovercraft was refueled from icebreaker ODEN at 84-21'N and both vessels proceeded north. The progress of the hovercraft was hampered by insufficient visibility for safe driving and time consuming maneuvering in and around larger fields of rubble ice impassable by the hovercraft, but of little concern to the icebreaker. It

  3. Marine geological and geophysical records of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet on the continental shelf west of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Cofaigh, Colm; Callard, S. Louise; Benetti, Sara; Chiverell, Richard C.; Saher, Margot; van Landeghem, Katrien; Livingstone, Stephen J.; Scourse, James; Clark, Chris D.

    2015-04-01

    The record of glaciation on the continental shelf west of Ireland has, until recently, been relatively poorly studied. The UK NERC funded project BRITICE-CHRONO collected marine geophysical data in the form of multibeam swath bathymetry and sub-bottom profiles supplemented by over 50 vibro- and piston cores across the continental shelf west of Ireland during cruise JC106 of the RRS James Cook in 2014. Across the western Irish shelf, offshore of counties Galway and Clare, a series of large arcuate moraines record the former presence of a grounded ice sheet on the shelf. However, geophysical data from further to the west across the Porcupine Bank show a series of ridges and wedge-shaped sedimentary features whose form is consistent with an origin as moraines and/or grounding-zone wedges. Sediment cores from several of these landforms recovered stiff, massive diamictons containing reworked shells that are interpreted as subglacial tills. Cores from the eastern Porcupine Bank recovered laminated muds with cold-water glacimarine foraminifera, in some cases overlying till. Collectively the geophysical and sedimentary data imply the presence of grounded ice across the northern Porcupine Bank and thus much further west on the Irish margin than has previously been considered. This ice underwent retreat in a glacimarine setting. The large 'Olex Moraine' on the western Irish shelf is thus interpreted as recessional feature. Work is currently underway to dates these features and to obtain a retreat chronology for this sector of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet.

  4. Active Geophysical Monitoring in Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakulin, A.; Calvert, R.

    2005-12-01

    Effective reservoir management is a Holy Grail of the oil and gas industry. Quest for new technologies is never ending but most often they increase effectiveness and decrease the costs. None of the newcomers proved to be a silver bullet in such a key metric of the industry as average oil recovery factor. This factor is still around 30 %, meaning that 70 % of hydrocarbon reserves are left in the ground in places where we already have expensive infrastructure (platforms, wells) to extract them. Main reason for this inefficiency is our inability to address realistic reservoir complexity. Most of the time we fail to properly characterize our reservoirs before production. As a matter of fact, one of the most important parameters -- permeability -- can not be mapped from remote geophysical methods. Therefore we always start production blind even though reservoir state before production is the simplest one. Once first oil is produced, we greatly complicate the things and quickly become unable to estimate the state and condition of the reservoir (fluid, pressures, faults etc) or oilfield hardware (wells, platforms, pumps) to make a sound next decision in the chain of reservoir management. Our modeling capabilities are such that if we know true state of the things - we can make incredibly accurate predictions and make extremely efficient decisions. Thus the bottleneck is our inability to properly describe the state of the reservoirs in real time. Industry is starting to recognize active monitoring as an answer to this critical issue. We will highlight industry strides in active geophysical monitoring from well to reservoir scale. It is worth noting that when one says ``monitoring" production technologists think of measuring pressures at the wellhead or at the pump, reservoir engineers think of measuring extracted volumes and pressures, while geophysicist may think of change in elastic properties. We prefer to think of monitoring as to measuring those parameters of the

  5. GEOFIM: A WebGIS application for integrated geophysical modeling in active volcanic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currenti, Gilda; Napoli, Rosalba; Sicali, Antonino; Greco, Filippo; Negro, Ciro Del

    2014-09-01

    We present GEOFIM (GEOphysical Forward/Inverse Modeling), a WebGIS application for integrated interpretation of multiparametric geophysical observations. It has been developed to jointly interpret scalar and vector magnetic data, gravity data, as well as geodetic data, from GPS, tiltmeter, strainmeter and InSAR observations, recorded in active volcanic areas. GEOFIM gathers a library of analytical solutions, which provides an estimate of the geophysical signals due to perturbations in the thermal and stress state of the volcano. The integrated geophysical modeling can be performed by a simple trial and errors forward modeling or by an inversion procedure based on NSGA-II algorithm. The software capability was tested on the multiparametric data set recorded during the 2008-2009 Etna flank eruption onset. The results encourage to exploit this approach to develop a near-real-time warning system for a quantitative model-based assessment of geophysical observations in areas where different parameters are routinely monitored.

  6. [Biologically active metabolites of the marine actinobacteria].

    PubMed

    Sobolevskaia, M P; Kuznetsova, T A

    2010-01-01

    This review systematically data on the chemical structure and biological activity of metabolites of obligate and facultative marine actinobacteria, published from 2000 to 2007. We discuss some structural features of the five groups of metabolites related to macrolides and compounds containing lactone, quinone and diketopiperazine residues, cyclic peptides, alkaloids, and compounds of mixed biosynthesis. Survey shows a large chemical diversity of metabolites actinobacteria isolated from marine environment. It is shown that, along with metabolites, identical to previously isolated from terrestrial actinobacteria, marine actinobacteria synthesize unknown compounds not found in other natural sources, including micro organisms. Perhaps the biosynthesis of new chemotypes bioactive compounds in marine actinobacteria is one manifestation of chemical adaptation of microorganisms to environmental conditions at sea. Review stresses the importance of the chemical study of metabolites of marine actinobacteria. These studies are aimed at obtaining new data on marine microorganisms producers of biologically active compounds and chemical structure and biological activity of new low-molecular bioregulators of natural origin.

  7. Marine and estuarine protection: Programs and activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The booklet describes: the mission of the current problems and threats to the coastal and marine waters of the US; the Office of Marine and Estuarine Protection of EPA; EPA's ocean dumping and plastics programs; EPA's point source control activities; near-coastal waters activities; and associated federal legislation.

  8. Marine Science Activities for Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Dennis; And Others

    These marine education materials are based on the approach that students learn best when given a multisensory experience. The activities are intended to develop such experiences for the visually impaired child. Activities are intended to supplement an upper-elementary science curriculum or be the basis of a unit on marine biology. The guide is…

  9. Geophysical characterization of buried active faults: the Concud Fault (Iberian Chain, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueyo Anchuela, Óscar; Lafuente, Paloma; Arlegui, Luis; Liesa, Carlos L.; Simón, José L.

    2016-11-01

    The Concud Fault is a 14-km-long active fault that extends close to Teruel, a city with about 35,000 inhabitants in the Iberian Range (NE Spain). It shows evidence of recurrent activity during Late Pleistocene time, posing a significant seismic hazard in an area of moderate-to-low tectonic rates. A geophysical survey was carried out along the mapped trace of the southern branch of the Concud Fault to evaluate the geophysical signature from the fault and the location of paleoseismic trenches. The survey identified a lineation of inverse magnetic dipoles at residual and vertical magnetic gradient, a local increase in apparent conductivity, and interruptions of the underground sediment structure along GPR profiles. The origin of these anomalies is due to lateral contrast between both fault blocks and the geophysical signature of Quaternary materials located above and directly south of the fault. The spatial distribution of anomalies was successfully used to locate suitable trench sites and to map non-exposed segments of the fault. The geophysical anomalies are related to the sedimentological characteristics and permeability differences of the deposits and to deformation related to fault activity. The results illustrate the usefulness of geophysics to detect and map non-exposed faults in areas of moderate-to-low tectonic activity where faults are often covered by recent pediments that obscure geological evidence of the most recent earthquakes. The results also highlight the importance of applying multiple geophysical techniques in defining the location of buried faults.

  10. Aquarius geophysical model function and combined active passive algorithm for ocean surface salinity and wind retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yueh, Simon; Tang, Wenqing; Fore, Alexander; Hayashi, Akiko; Song, Yuhe T.; Lagerloef, Gary

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes the updated Combined Active-Passive (CAP) retrieval algorithm for simultaneous retrieval of surface salinity and wind from Aquarius' brightness temperature and radar backscatter. Unlike the algorithm developed by Remote Sensing Systems (RSS), implemented in the Aquarius Data Processing System (ADPS) to produce Aquarius standard products, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's CAP algorithm does not require monthly climatology SSS maps for the salinity retrieval. Furthermore, the ADPS-RSS algorithm fully uses the National Center for Environmental Predictions (NCEP) wind for data correction, while the CAP algorithm uses the NCEP wind only as a constraint. The major updates to the CAP algorithm include the galactic reflection correction, Faraday rotation, Antenna Pattern Correction, and geophysical model functions of wind or wave impacts. Recognizing the limitation of geometric optics scattering, we improve the modeling of the reflection of galactic radiation; the results are better salinity accuracy and significantly reduced ascending-descending bias. We assess the accuracy of CAP's salinity by comparison with ARGO monthly gridded salinity products provided by the Asia-Pacific Data-Research Center (APDRC) and Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC). The RMS differences between Aquarius CAP and APDRC's or JAMSTEC's ARGO salinities are less than 0.2 psu for most parts of the ocean, except for the regions in the Intertropical Convergence Zone, near the outflow of major rivers and at high latitudes.

  11. Marine Pyridoacridine Alkaloids: Biosynthesis and Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Mohamed, Gamal A

    2016-01-01

    Pyridoacridines are a class of strictly marine-derived alkaloids that constitute one of the largest chemical families of marine alkaloids. During the last few years, both natural pyridoacridines and their analogues have constituted excellent targets for synthetic works. They have been the subject of intense study due to their significant biological activities; cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, insecticidal, anti-HIV, and anti-parasitic activities. In the present review, 95 pyridoacridine alkaloids isolated from marine organisms are discussed in term of their occurrence, biosynthesis, biological activities, and structural assignment.

  12. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savit, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  13. Status of data, major results, and plans for geophysical activities, Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, H.W.; Hardin, E.L.; Nelson, P.H.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes past and planned geophysical activities associated with the Yucca Mountain Project and is intended to serve as a starting point for integration of geophysical activities. This report relates past results to site characterization plans, as presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Plan (SCP). This report discusses seismic exploration, potential field methods, geoelectrical methods, teleseismic data collection and velocity structural modeling, and remote sensing. This report discusses surface-based, airborne, borehole, surface-to-borehole, crosshole, and Exploratory Shaft Facility-related activities. The data described in this paper, and the publications discussed, have been selected based on several considerations; location with respect to Yucca Mountain, whether the success or failure of geophysical data is important to future activities, elucidation of features of interest, and judgment as to the likelihood that the method will produce information that is important for site characterization. 65 refs., 19 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Antifungal and antibacterial activity of marine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    El Amraoui, B; El Amraoui, M; Cohen, N; Fassouane, A

    2014-03-01

    In order to explore marine microorganisms with pharmaceutical potential, marine bacteria, collected from different coastal areas of the Moroccan Atlantic Ocean, were previously isolated from seawater, sediment, marine invertebrates and seaweeds. The antimicrobial activities of these microorganisms were investigated against the pathogens involved in human pathologies. Whole cultures of 34 marine microorganisms were screened for antimicrobial activities using the method of agar diffusion against three Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, and against yeast. The results showed that among the 34 isolates studied, 28 (82%) strains have antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogen studied, 11 (32%) strains have antifungal activity and 24 (76%) strains are active against Gram-positive bacteria, while 21 (62%) strains are active against Gram-negative bacteria. Among isolates having antimicrobial activity, 14 were identified and were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Chromobacterium, Enterococcus, Pantoea and Pseudomonas. Due to a competitive role for space and nutrient, the marine microorganisms can produce antibiotic substance; therefore, these marine microorganisms were expected to be potential resources of natural antibiotic products.

  15. Marine geophysics. New global marine gravity model from CryoSat-2 and Jason-1 reveals buried tectonic structure.

    PubMed

    Sandwell, David T; Müller, R Dietmar; Smith, Walter H F; Garcia, Emmanuel; Francis, Richard

    2014-10-03

    Gravity models are powerful tools for mapping tectonic structures, especially in the deep ocean basins where the topography remains unmapped by ships or is buried by thick sediment. We combined new radar altimeter measurements from satellites CryoSat-2 and Jason-1 with existing data to construct a global marine gravity model that is two times more accurate than previous models. We found an extinct spreading ridge in the Gulf of Mexico, a major propagating rift in the South Atlantic Ocean, abyssal hill fabric on slow-spreading ridges, and thousands of previously uncharted seamounts. These discoveries allow us to understand regional tectonic processes and highlight the importance of satellite-derived gravity models as one of the primary tools for the investigation of remote ocean basins.

  16. ON THE PHYSICS OF GALVANIC SOURCE ELECTROMAGNETIC GEOPHYSICAL METHODS FOR TERRESTRIAL AND MARINE EXPLORATION

    SciTech Connect

    David Alumbaugh and Evan Um

    2007-06-27

    A numerical study was conducted to investigate the governing physics of galvanic source electromagnetic (EM) methods for terrestrial and marine exploration scenarios. The terrestrial exploration scenario involves the grounded electric dipole source EM (GESTEM) method and the examination of how the GESTEM method can resolve a thin resistive layer representing underground gas and/or hydrocarbon storage. Numerical modeling studies demonstrate that the loop transient EM (TEM) and magnetotelluric (MT) methods are insensitive to a thin horizontal resistor at depth because they utilize horizontal currents. In contrast to these standard EM methods, the GESTEM method generates both vertical and horizontal transient currents. The vertical transient current interacts with a thin horizontal resistor and causes charge buildup on its surface. These charges produce a measurable perturbation in the surface electric field at early time. The degree of perturbation depends on source waveform. When the GESTEM method is energized with step-off waveform, the perturbation due to a thin horizontal resistor is small. This is because the step-off waveform mainly consists of low frequency signals. An alternative is taking the time-derivative of the step-off responses to approximate the impulse response which includes higher frequency signals. In order to improve degree of perturbation especially due to a localized small 3-D resistor, the diffusion angle of the vertical transient current, 45 should be considered to make vertical currents coupled to a resistive target efficiently. The major drawback of the GESTEM method lies in the fact that GESTEM sounding can not be interpreted using 1-D inversion schemes if there is near-surface inhomogeneity. The marine exploration scenario investigates the physics of marine frequency-domain controlled source EM (FDCSEM) and time-domain controlled source EM (TDCSEM) methods to explore resistive hydrocarbon reservoirs in marine environments. Unlike the

  17. Constraining the Hydrogeology of Marine Gas Hydrate Areas in the Gulf of Mexico Using High-Resolution Geophysical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppel, C.; Brooks, J.; O'Brien, T.; Lizarralde, D.; Nimblett, J.

    2002-12-01

    Previous work in our group has demonstrated that fluid (water + aqueous phase gas), gas, and energy fluxes largely control the dynamics of marine gas hydrate provinces. In the Gulf of Mexico, stratigraphic and structural complexities impart a high degree of spatial and temporal variability to these flux regimes and to the resulting concentration and distribution of gas hydrates. While this complexity poses a challenge to understanding the hydrogeology of gas hydrate zones in the Gulf, the juxtaposition of low and high flux regions and of diffuse and focused flux zones provides an important opportunity to study a range of hydrate-related environments at a compressed spatial scale. An additional advantage in this setting is related to elevated thermal gradients and high advective transport rates, which lead to the formation and long-term stability of gas hydrate at the seafloor or in the uppermost meters of sediment in some locations. Gulf of Mexico gas hydrates are therefore sometimes highly accessible to geophysical methods that yield information about the shallowest part of the sedimentary column. In this study, we apply high-resolution geophysical methods to image fluid conduits, describe the thermal state of the gas hydrate reservoir, constrain advective fluid flux rates, and map lateral variability in flow regimes in 3 regions targeted for possible future gas hydrates drilling in the Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon, Bush Hill (GC 185), and Garden Banks 425. Using limited Chirp seismic data, we determine the location of stratigraphic and structural features that focus fluid flow or trap fluids and gas, processes that both contribute to increased concentrations of gas hydrate under many circumstances. In a relatively novel application of traditional marine heat flow methods, we also report the results of high-resolution surveys that exploit the inherent accuracy of the instrumentation to map lateral changes in thermal regimes on multiple spatial scales as one

  18. Marine and land active-source seismic investigation of geothermal potential, tectonic structure, and earthquake hazards in Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Eisses, A.; Kell, A.; Kent, G.; Driscoll, N.; Karlin, R.; Baskin, R.; Louie, J.; Pullammanappallil, S.

    2016-08-01

    Amy Eisses, Annie M. Kell, Graham Kent, Neal W. Driscoll, Robert E. Karlin, Robert L. Baskin, John N. Louie, Kenneth D. Smith, Sathish Pullammanappallil, 2011, Marine and land active-source seismic investigation of geothermal potential, tectonic structure, and earthquake hazards in Pyramid Lake, Nevada: presented at American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, Dec. 5-9, abstract NS14A-08.

  19. Studies on marine algae for haemagglutinic activity.

    PubMed

    Alam, M T; Usmanghani, K

    1994-07-01

    Lectins (agglutinins) are important in medical and immunological applications. Phytohaemagglutinins have been found useful in blood banking. Keeping in view of these facts, the marine algae found at Karachi coastal region have been screened for agglutinic activity by using human erythrocytes of A, B, AB and 0 group. Altogether 53 algal samples were collected and subjected to extraction, fractionation serial dilution and titre determinations. The total marine algae screened for haemagglutinic activity were 44 out of these 14, 13 and 17 belonged to Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, and Rhodophyta respectively. Among these three groups the Rhodophyta showed the highest number of lytic activity. The green marine alga Valoniopsis pachynema showed a titre value between 2(2) and 2(3), which is statistically significant. In case of brown marine algae Colpomenia sinuosa was found to be active (titre 2(3)), while Dictyota dichotoma, D. indica and Iyengaria stellata, furnished week titre value as 2(2). The red marine algae screened were 17, out of these 4 spp. showed significant activity (titre 2(3)), and these are Gelidium usmanghani, Gracilaria foliifera Hypnea pannosa and Hynea valentiae. While Scinaia fascicularis, Scinaia indica and Champia parvula were found to be weak in their onset on human erythrocytes. The results obtained were quite in agreement with those reported in the literature.

  20. Pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites of marine actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Sivakumar, Kannan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-04-01

    Marine actinobacteria are one of the most efficient groups of secondary metabolite producers and are very important from an industrial point of view. Many representatives of the order Actinomycetales are prolific producers of thousands of biologically active secondary metabolites. Actinobacteria from terrestrial sources have been studied and screened since the 1950s, for many important antibiotics, anticancer, antitumor and immunosuppressive agents. However, frequent rediscovery of the same compounds from the terrestrial actinobacteria has made them less attractive for screening programs in the recent years. At the same time, actinobacteria isolated from the marine environment have currently received considerable attention due to the structural diversity and unique biological activities of their secondary metabolites. They are efficient producers of new secondary metabolites that show a range of biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antitumor, cytotoxic, cytostatic, anti-inflammatory, anti-parasitic, anti-malaria, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-angiogenesis, etc. In this review, an evaluation is made on the current status of research on marine actinobacteria yielding pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites. Bioactive compounds from marine actinobacteria possess distinct chemical structures that may form the basis for synthesis of new drugs that could be used to combat resistant pathogens. With the increasing advancement in science and technology, there would be a greater demand for new bioactive compounds synthesized by actinobacteria from various marine sources in future.

  1. In-situ geophysical measurements in marine sediments: Applications in seafloor acoustics and paleoceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgas, Thomas Joerg

    Acoustic in-situ sound speeds and attenuation were measured on the Eel River shelf, CA, with the Acoustic Lance between 5 and 15 kHz to 2.0 meters below seafloor (mbsf). A comparison with laboratory ultrasonic geoacoustic data obtained at 400 kHz on cored sediments showed faster in-situ and ultrasonic sound speeds in coarse-grained deposits in water depths to 60 m than in fine-grained deposits below that contour line. Ultrasonic attenuation was often greater than in-situ values and remained almost constant below 0.4 mbsf in these heterogeneous deposits. In-situ attenuation decreased with depth. These observations partly agree with results from other field studies, and with theoretical models that incorporate intergranular friction and dispersion from viscosity as main controls on acoustic wave propagation in marine sediments. Deviations among in-situ and laboratory acoustic data from the Eel Margin with theoretical studies were linked to scattering effects. Acoustic Lance was also deployed in homogeneous, fine-grained sediments on the inner shelf of SE Korea, where free gas was identified in late-September, but not in mid-September 1999. Free gas was evidenced by an abrupt decrease of in-situ sound speed and by characteristic changes in acoustic waveforms. These results suggest the presence of a gassy sediment layer as shallow as 2 mbsf along the 70 m bathymetry line, and was attributed to a variable abundance of free gas on short-term and/or small-regional scales on the SE Korea shelf. Bulk density variations in marine sediments obtained along the Walvis Ridge/Basin, SW Africa, at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 1081 to 1084 were spectral-analyzed to compute high-resolution sedimentation rates (SRs) in both the time- and age domains by correctly identifying Milankovitch cycles (MCs). SRs for the ODP sites yielded age-depth models that often correlate positively with biostratigraphic data and with organic mass accumulation rates (MAR Corg), a proxy for

  2. Marine geophysical data—Point Sal to Refugio State Beach, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen; Beeson, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    This data release includes approximately 1,032 km of marine single-channel seismic-reflection data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey on a research cruise (USGS survey 2014-632-FA) in July and August, 2014, between Point Sal and Refugio State Beach. The dataset includes 168 profiles, most of which were collected on tracklines roughly perpendicular to the coast at 1 km line spacing; additional profiles were collected on coast-parallel tie lines. These data were acquired to support the California Seafloor Mapping Program and USGS Geologic Hazards projects.Seismic-reflection data were collected using a minisparker system that creates an acoustic signal by discharging an electrical pulse between electrodes and a ground that generates a frequency spectrum roughly between 200 and 1,600 Hz. At boat speeds of 4 to 4.5 nm/hour, seismic traces were collected roughly every 1 to 2 meters. Water depths were generally between 50 m and 150 m, but as shallow as 10 meters near the shoreline, and as deep as 480 m for profiles crossing the Santa Barbara basin. Acoustic pulses were generated at 0.5-second intervals on most profiles; a 1-second interval was used on the few profiles collected in deeper water. Standard SEG-Y files were generated using a Triton Subbottom Logger (SBL). Seismic data processing was accomplished using Sioseis, a public-domain software developed at Scripps Institute of Oceanography (part of the University of California at San Diego). The processing of these data consisted of a bandpass filter, mute function, automatic gain control, water bottom detect, swell correction, and scaling/plotting. Both raw data in SEG-Y format and processed data (“Corrected SEG-Y”) are provided in this data release. 

  3. Geophysical Imaging of Active Tectonics: A Case Study From the Inter Andean Valley, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Call, C.; Meltzer, A.; Alvardo, A.

    2004-12-01

    The Inter Andean Valley is a Pliocene-Quaternary basin filled with volcanic, lacustrine, fluvial and marine sedimentary deposits. A series of faults sometimes collectively referred to as the Delores-Guayaquil Mega Shear (DGM) traverses the length of the Inter Andean Valley posing a seismic hazard to a number of cities including the capitol, Quito. The DGM is a large right-lateral fault system similar in scale and seismicity to the San Andres Fault system which is understudied, especially in the subsurface. A site characterization study utilizing ground penetrating radar (GPR) and near-surface seismic reflection profiling was conducted in two areas of the Inter Andean Valley where geomorphic evidence suggests active faulting. One area, Nono Valley, exhibits extensional characteristics through basin bounding fault and the second area, Saquisili, has a structure consistent with the geometry of a fault propagation fold. Both areas are covered with thinly layered volcanic ash which is clearly seen in outcrop and the GPR profiles. Saquisili, in addition to the ash layers, has a nonuniform layer of pumice near the surface which was revealed in the drilled holes for the seismic source, which helps to account for the quick attenuation of the higher frequencies. The GPR profiles also image abrupt terminations and offset of horizontal layers, often associated with active faulting. We used a 48 channel multichannel seismograph with 30Hz geophones and a 20ft spacing to collect 24 fold common-midpoint profiles using a Betsy Seis-Gun firing 12 gauge blanks. Preliminary seismic data indicates that the frequency content ranged between 20 and 100 Hz with higher frequencies being systematically filtered out with depth. Seismic velocities range between 740 and 2600 m/s, producing a vertical resolution between 2 and 32.5m to a depth of approximately 900m. The GPR data was collected using a GSSI SIR-2 data accusation system with a 100 MHz antenna. The GPR signal penetrated between 120ns

  4. Geophysical Monitoring of Microbial Activity within a Wetland Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, M.; Zhang, C.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L.; Yee, N.

    2007-05-01

    We performed Induced Polarization (IP) and Self Potential (SP) measurements to record the geoelectrical signatures of microbial activity within a wetland soil. The experiment was conducted in laboratory, utilizing an open flow column set up. Soil samples from Kearny Marsh (KM), a shallow water wetland, were collected and stored at 4o Celsius prior to the start of the experiment. Two columns were dry packed with a mix of KM soil and sterile Ottawa sand (50% by weight). One column was sterilized and used as a control while the other column retained the biologically active soil sample. Both columns were saturated with a minimal salts medium capable of supporting microbial life; after saturation, a steady flow rate of one pore volume per day was maintained throughout the experiment. Ambient temperature and pressure changes (at the inflow and outflow of each column) were continuously monitored throughout the experiment. Common geochemical parameters, such as Eh, pH, and fluid conductivity were measured at the inflow and outflow of each column at regular intervals. IP and SP responses were continuously recorded on both columns utilizing a series of electrodes along the column length; additionally for the SP measurements we used a reference electrode at the inflow tube. Strong SP anomalies were observed for all the locations along the active column. Black visible mineral precipitant also formed in the active column. The observed precipitation coincided with the times that SP anomalies developed at each electrode position. These responses are associated with microbial induced sulfide mineralization. We interpret the SP signal as the result of redox processes associated with this mineralization driven by gradients in ionic concentration and mobility within the column, similar to a galvanic cell mechanism. IP measurements show no correlation with these visual and SP responses. Destructive analysis of the samples followed the termination of the experiment. Scanning electron

  5. Tectonic interactions between India and Arabia since the Jurassic reconstructed from marine geophysics, ophiolite geology, and seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Carmen; Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Spakman, Wim

    2015-05-01

    Gondwana breakup since the Jurassic and the northward motion of India toward Eurasia were associated with formation of ocean basins and ophiolite obduction between and onto the Indian and Arabian margins. Here we reconcile marine geophysical data from preserved oceanic basins with the age and location of ophiolites in NW India and SE Arabia and seismic tomography of the mantle below the NW Indian Ocean. The North Somali and proto-Owen basins formed due to 160-133 Ma N-S extension between India and Somalia. Subsequent convergence destroyed part of this crust, simultaneous with the uplift of the Masirah ophiolites. Most of the preserved crust in the Owen Basin may have formed between 84 and 74 Ma, whereas the Mascarene and the Amirante basins accommodated motion between India and Madagascar/East Africa between 85 and circa 60 Ma and 75 and circa 66 Ma, respectively. Between circa 84 and 45 Ma, oblique Arabia-India convergence culminated in ophiolite obduction onto SE Arabia and NW India and formed the Carlsberg slab in the lower mantle below the NW Indian Ocean. The NNE-SSW oriented slab may explain the anomalous bathymetry in the NW Indian Ocean and may be considered a paleolongitudinal constraint for absolute plate motion. NW India-Asia collision occurred at circa 20 Ma deforming the Sulaiman ranges or at 30 Ma if the Hindu Kush slab north of the Afghan block reflects intra-Asian subduction. Our study highlights that the NW India ophiolites have no relationship with India-Asia motion or collision but result from relative India-Africa/Arabia motions instead.

  6. Marine geophysical research helps to assess the seismic hazard at the Hispaniola Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbó-Gorosabel, A.; Granja Bruña, J.; Llanes Estrada, M.; Munoz Martin, A.; Gómez Ballesteros, M.; Druet, M.; Martín-Dávila, J.; Pazos, A.; Catalan, M.; ten Brink, U. S.; Hernaiz-Huerta, P.; Olaiz, A. J.; Torres, R.; Brothers, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    Detailed swath bathymetry mapping of complete geological provinces together with high-resolution seismic profiles provide critical perspective for the detection and study of active faults and their seismic and tsunami hazard. Since 2003 the Universidad Complutense de Madrid has been leading an international research group to study the north-eastern Caribbean, from the Lesser Antilles to Jamaica. This area comprises the 200 km-wide boundary zone between the North American and the Caribbean plates, where the relative plate motion is 18-20 ±3 mm/year towards 070-075. The highly-oblique convergence between the plates in Hispaniola is accommodated by strain partitioning on seismic fault systems sub-parallel to the plate boundary: strike-slip (the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and the Septentrional fault zones) and the compressive deformed belts (the Muertos thrust belt and the North Hispaniola thrust belt). Results from several research cruises offshore Hispaniola have identified and characterized zones of active deformation that were not observed onshore, such as the Muertos out-of-sequence thrust or the Beata Ridge crest fault zone. The Muertos out-of-sequence thrust could be related to the M≈8 event occurred the 18th of October in 1751 that shook central and south-eastern Hispaniola. In other seismic fault zones, such as the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and the Septentrional fault zones, knowledge of their offshore continuity is limited. Future research cruises will target the offshore continuity of these strike-slip seismic fault zones in the vicinity of Southern Peninsula of Haiti, in the Jamaica Passage and in the Gonave Bay. As part of the NORCARIBE project, a research cruise will be taking place in the spring of 2012 aboard the Spanish R/V Hespérides. Multichannel, high-resolution and wide-angle seismic profiles will be acquired together with swath bathymetry, magnetic and gravity data. The scientific and social interest in studying this region has greatly

  7. 77 FR 41755 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Three Marine Geophysical Surveys in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... evidence of massive acoustic trauma (i.e., permanent and substantial alterations of statocyst sensory hair... McCauley et al. (2003) paper on sensory hair cell damage in pink snapper as a result of exposure...

  8. 76 FR 38621 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... species group (e.g., unidentified dolphin, sperm whale), types and nature of sounds heard (e.g., clicks... distinct population segment (DPS) of beluga whales (Dephinapterus leucas) and the western stock of Steller... considered further in this analysis; all others are managed by NMFS. The Cook Inlet DPS of beluga...

  9. 76 FR 75525 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (L-DEO), a part... array to image the structure of the oceanic lithosphere (i.e., the Earth's crust and the...

  10. 75 FR 64996 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ..., including, but not limited to, migration, breathing, nursing, breeding, feeding, or sheltering . ] Summary... if an animal's maximum underwater time is 45 min, there is only a one in three chance that the last... animal submerges and follows at the speed of the vessel (highly unlikely, especially when...

  11. 78 FR 17359 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... deviation from these dates would be possible, depending on logistics and weather. L-DEO plans to use.... Compass birds will be used to keep the streamer cables and hydrophones at a depth of approximately 10 m (32.8 ft). One compass bird will be placed at the front end of each streamer as well as...

  12. 75 FR 44770 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... echosounder (MBES) and a sub-bottom profiler (SBP) continuously throughout the survey. Acoustic stimuli (i.e... logistics, weather conditions, and the need to repeat some lines if data quality is substandard. Therefore... streamers will receive the returning acoustic signals and transfer the data to the vessel's...

  13. 76 FR 49737 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... (MBES) and a sub-bottom profiler (SBP) continuously throughout the survey. Acoustic stimuli (i.e..., depending on logistics and weather. The seismic survey will collect seismic reflection and refraction... overlying sediments. Acoustic velocities (required to convert measured travel times to true depth) will...

  14. 76 FR 20325 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ...-bottom profiler (SBP) continuously throughout the survey. Acoustic stimuli (i.e., increased underwater... possible, depending on logistics, weather conditions, and the need to repeat some lines if data quality is... towed along the survey lines, the hydrophone streamers will receive the returning acoustic signals...

  15. 76 FR 77782 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... resulted in schedule challenges that forced the survey into an inclement weather period and after further... echosounder (MBES) and a sub-bottom profiler (SBP) continuously throughout the survey. Acoustic stimuli (i.e... these dates is possible, depending on logistics and weather. The proposed seismic survey will...

  16. 76 FR 26255 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ...) and a sub-bottom profiler (SBP) continuously throughout the survey. Acoustic stimuli (i.e., increased... logistics and weather. The proposed seismic survey will collect seismic reflection and refraction data to... streamers will receive the returning acoustic signals and transfer the data to the on-board...

  17. 76 FR 6430 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... echosounder (MBES) and a sub-bottom profiler (SBP) continuously throughout the survey. Acoustic stimuli (i.e... deviation from these dates is possible, depending on logistics, weather conditions, and the need to repeat... receive the returning acoustic signals and transfer the data to the on-board processing system. L-DEO...

  18. 77 FR 6065 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... maintenance issues resulted in schedule challenges that forced the survey into an inclement weather period and... multibeam echosounder (MBES) and a sub-bottom profiler (SBP) continuously throughout the survey. Acoustic... 21, 2012. Some minor deviation from these dates is possible, depending on logistics and weather....

  19. 76 FR 57959 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ...- bottom profiler (SBP) continuously throughout the survey. Acoustic stimuli (i.e., increased underwater... possible, depending on logistics, weather conditions, and the need to repeat some lines if data quality is... receive the returning acoustic signals and transfer the data to the on-board processing system. The...

  20. 76 FR 33705 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... echosounder (MBES) and a sub-bottom profiler (SBP) continuously throughout the survey. Acoustic stimuli (i.e... deviation from these dates is possible, depending on logistics and weather. The seismic survey will collect... the thickness of the overlying sediments. Acoustic velocities (required to convert measured...

  1. 76 FR 33246 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... throughout the survey. Acoustic stimuli (i.e., increased underwater sound) generated during the operation of... logistics and weather. The proposed seismic survey will collect seismic reflection and refraction profiles... sediments. Acoustic velocities (required to convert measured travel times to true depth) will be...

  2. 75 FR 28568 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... throughout the survey. Acoustic stimuli (i.e., increased underwater sound) generated during the operation of... possible, depending on logistics, weather conditions, and the need to repeat some lines if data quality is... lines, the hydrophone streamers will receive the returning acoustic signals and transfer the data to...

  3. 77 FR 25693 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... deviation from these dates is possible, depending on logistics, weather conditions, and the need to repeat..., College Station, TX). NMFS expects that acoustic stimuli resulting from the operation of the single airgun... description of the authorized action, including vessel and acoustic source specifications, the reader...

  4. 75 FR 8652 - Incidental Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Pacific plate. The objective is to understand the water cycle within subduction-systems. Subduction....S. The survey will take place in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the U.S. in water depths... earthquakes occur. Little is known about either of these processes, but water cycling through the system...

  5. 77 FR 4765 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... public record and will generally be posted to http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/permits/incidental.htm... available at the same internet address: the National Science Foundation's (NSF) draft Environmental Analysis... adequate on December 23, 2011. L-DEO, with research funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation...

  6. 76 FR 18167 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... exceed a 10-megabyte file size. All comments received are a part of the public record and will generally... processing system. The OBSs record the returning acoustic signals internally for later analysis. The planned... Specifications The Langseth, owned by the National Science Foundation, will tow the 36 airgun array, as well...

  7. 78 FR 34069 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... National Science Foundation (NSF) (which owns the R/V Marcus G. Langseth) and L-DEO (which operates the R/V... Science Foundation. As the airgun array is towed along the survey lines, the hydrophone streamers would... and OBHs record the returning acoustic signals internally for later analysis. A total of...

  8. 77 FR 58255 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... received are a part of the public record and will generally be posted to http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr...://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/permits/incidental.htm#applications . The National Science Foundation (NSF... seismic studies are outlined in a Science Plan submitted to the National Science Foundation (NSF) by...

  9. 77 FR 25966 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Three Marine Geophysical Surveys in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ...-megabyte file size. All submitted comments are a part of the public record and we will post to http://www...#applications . The National Science Foundation's (Foundation) draft Environmental Assessment (Assessment..., 2012. The Observatory, with research funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation...

  10. Geophysical Monitoring of Active Infiltration Experiments for Recharge Estimation: Gains and Pains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, U.; Lamparter, A.; Houben, G.; Koeniger, P.; Stoeckl, L.; Guenther, T.

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water supply on the island of Langeoog, North Sea, solely depends on groundwater from a freshwater lens. The correct estimation of the recharge rate is critical for a sustainable use of the resource. Extensive hydrogeological and geophysical studies have revealed differences in groundwater recharge by a factor of two and more between the top of the dunes and the dune valleys. The most convincing proof of these differences in recharge is based on isotope analysis (age dating) but boreholes are scarce and a direct proof of recharge is desired. For this purpose active infiltration experiments are performed and geophysically monitored. Former applications of this method in sand and loess soil gave evidence for the applicability of the geophysical observation when combined with tensiometers installed in situ at depth. These results showed firstly that in sandy soil the water reaches the groundwater table quicker than anticipated due to the water repellent characteristic of the dry sand, inhibiting the lateral spreading of the water. The studies also revealed that in loess preferential flow is initiated by ponding and that sprinkling caused very slow movement of water within the unsaturated zone and the water remained near the surface. On the island of Langeoog field experiments underlined the importance of water repellency on the dune surface, indicating that the rain water runs off superficially into the dune valleys where higher recharge is found. The active infiltration zone of the experiment covers an area of some 7m² and includes steeper parts of the dune. The infiltration will vary depending on rainfall intensity and duration, original water content and vegetation cover. What results can we reliably expect from the active experiment and what additional measurements are required to back up the findings? Results are ambiguous with regard to the quantitative assessment but the processes can be visualized by geophysical monitoring in situ.

  11. Trypanocidal Activity of Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Amy J.; Grkovic, Tanja; Sykes, Melissa L.; Avery, Vicky M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine natural products are a diverse, unique collection of compounds with immense therapeutic potential. This has resulted in these molecules being evaluated for a number of different disease indications including the neglected protozoan diseases, human African trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease, for which very few drugs are currently available. This article will review the marine natural products for which activity against the kinetoplastid parasites; Trypanosoma brucei brucei, T.b. rhodesiense and T. cruzi has been reported. As it is important to know the selectivity of a compound when evaluating its trypanocidal activity, this article will only cover molecules which have simultaneously been tested for cytotoxicity against a mammalian cell line. Compounds have been grouped according to their chemical structure and representative examples from each class were selected for detailed discussion. PMID:24152565

  12. Geophysical constraints on the dynamics and retreat of the Barents Sea ice sheet as a paleobenchmark for models of marine ice sheet deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Henry; Andreassen, Karin; Bjarnadóttir, Lilja R.; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Winsborrow, Monica C. M.; Noormets, Riko; Polyak, Leonid; Auriac, Amandine; Hubbard, Alun

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of processes relating to the retreat of marine-based ice sheets, such as the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and tidewater-terminating glaciers in Greenland today, is still limited. In particular, the role of ice stream instabilities and oceanographic dynamics in driving their collapse are poorly constrained beyond observational timescales. Over numerous glaciations during the Quaternary, a marine-based ice sheet has waxed and waned over the Barents Sea continental shelf, characterized by a number of ice streams that extended to the shelf edge and subsequently collapsed during periods of climate and ocean warming. Increasing availability of offshore and onshore geophysical data over the last decade has significantly enhanced our knowledge of the pattern and timing of retreat of this Barents Sea ice sheet (BSIS), particularly so from its Late Weichselian maximum extent. We present a review of existing geophysical constraints that detail the dynamic evolution of the BSIS through the last glacial cycle, providing numerical modelers and geophysical workers with a benchmark data set with which to tune ice sheet reconstructions and explore ice sheet sensitivities and drivers of dynamic behavior. Although constraining data are generally spatially sporadic across the Barents and Kara Seas, behaviors such as ice sheet thinning, major ice divide migration, asynchronous and rapid flow switching, and ice stream collapses are all evident. Further investigation into the drivers and mechanisms of such dynamics within this unique paleo-analogue is seen as a key priority for advancing our understanding of marine-based ice sheet deglaciations, both in the deep past and in the short-term future.

  13. 78 FR 37209 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC564 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Marine Seismic Survey in the Beaufort Sea,...

  14. 76 FR 13130 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Polar Bear Captures AGENCY: National Marine..., incidental to a capture-recapture program of polar bears in the U.S. Chukchi Sea. DATES: Effective March 14... taking, by harassment, of marine mammals incidental to a capture-recapture program of polar bears in...

  15. 76 FR 330 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Polar Bear Captures AGENCY: National Marine...) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to a capture- recapture program of polar bears in...-recapture program of polar bears in the U.S. Chukchi Sea. NMFS reviewed the USFWS' application...

  16. [Bio-active substances derived from marine microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Liu, Quanyong; Hu, Jiangchun; Xue, Delin; Ma, Chengxin; Wang, Shujin

    2002-07-01

    Marine microorganisms, which are taxonomically diverse and genetically special, have powerful potential in producing novel bio-active substances. This article summarized research progress in this respect. The results showed that marine bacteria which are main marine microorganism flora can produce rich kinds of bio-active substances and that even though marine actinomycetes and marine fungi are not as many as marine bacteria in species and quantity, they should be paid no less attention about their bio-active substances. Besides, present research are limited to those marine microorganisms which are easily cultured. One of the future research trends will be focused on bio-active substances derived from non-culturable marine microorganisms.

  17. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  18. Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Kelman, Dovi; Posner, Ellen Kromkowski; McDermid, Karla J.; Tabandera, Nicole K.; Wright, Patrick R.; Wright, Anthony D.

    2012-01-01

    Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer. PMID:22412808

  19. Bromophenols from marine algae with potential anti-diabetic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiukun; Liu, Ming

    2012-12-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols with a variety of biological activities, including antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-diabetic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress in researches on the biomaterials from marine algae, emphasizing the relationship between the structure and the potential anti-diabetic applications. Bromophenols from marine algae display their hyperglycemic effects by inhibiting the activities of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, α-glucosidase, as well as other mechanisms.

  20. Marine soundscape shaped by fishing activity

    PubMed Central

    Lossent, Julie; Grall, Jacques; Chauvaud, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Marine communities face anthropogenic pressures that degrade ecosystems. Because underwater soundscapes carry information about habitat quality, we explored whether destructive impacts of fishing could be evaluated via the soundscape. Maerl beds are recognized as biodiversity hotspots and they experience major worldwide degradation owing to fishing. We collected field acoustic recordings in maerl beds exposed to different fishing practices. We found that unfished maerl beds were threefold louder and exhibited sound frequencies more diversified than those recorded in fished maerl beds. Analyses of associated fauna samples indicated that snapping shrimps provided a major contribution to the maerl bed soundscape. Moreover, sea urchins and squat lobsters most likely contributed to differences between the soundscapes of unfished and fished maerl beds. Our results supported the idea that the soundscape can provide valuable information on maerl bed ecosystem health related to fishing activity. PMID:28280559

  1. An overview on integrated data system for archiving and sharing marine geology and geophysical data in Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Sung Dae; Park, Hyuk Min; Lee, SeungHa

    2016-04-01

    We established and have operated an integrated data system for managing, archiving and sharing marine geology and geophysical data around Korea produced from various research projects and programs in Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST). First of all, to keep the consistency of data system with continuous data updates, we set up standard operating procedures (SOPs) for data archiving, data processing and converting, data quality controls, and data uploading, DB maintenance, etc. Database of this system comprises two databases, ARCHIVE DB and GIS DB for the purpose of this data system. ARCHIVE DB stores archived data as an original forms and formats from data providers for data archive and GIS DB manages all other compilation, processed and reproduction data and information for data services and GIS application services. Relational data management system, Oracle 11g, adopted for DBMS and open source GIS techniques applied for GIS services such as OpenLayers for user interface, GeoServer for application server, PostGIS and PostgreSQL for GIS database. For the sake of convenient use of geophysical data in a SEG Y format, a viewer program was developed and embedded in this system. Users can search data through GIS user interface and save the results as a report.

  2. Marine peptides and their anti-infective activities.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee Kyoung; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

    2015-01-16

    Marine bioresources are a valuable source of bioactive compounds with industrial and nutraceutical potential. Numerous clinical trials evaluating novel chemotherapeutic agents derived from marine sources have revealed novel mechanisms of action. Recently, marine-derived bioactive peptides have attracted attention owing to their numerous beneficial effects. Moreover, several studies have reported that marine peptides exhibit various anti-infective activities, such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, anti-tuberculosis, and antiviral activities. In the last several decades, studies of marine plants, animals, and microbes have revealed tremendous number of structurally diverse and bioactive secondary metabolites. However, the treatments available for many infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses are limited. Thus, the identification of novel antimicrobial peptides should be continued, and all possible strategies should be explored. In this review, we will present the structures and anti-infective activity of peptides isolated from marine sources (sponges, algae, bacteria, fungi and fish) from 2006 to the present.

  3. Marine Peptides and Their Anti-Infective Activities

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee Kyoung; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

    2015-01-01

    Marine bioresources are a valuable source of bioactive compounds with industrial and nutraceutical potential. Numerous clinical trials evaluating novel chemotherapeutic agents derived from marine sources have revealed novel mechanisms of action. Recently, marine-derived bioactive peptides have attracted attention owing to their numerous beneficial effects. Moreover, several studies have reported that marine peptides exhibit various anti-infective activities, such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, anti-tuberculosis, and antiviral activities. In the last several decades, studies of marine plants, animals, and microbes have revealed tremendous number of structurally diverse and bioactive secondary metabolites. However, the treatments available for many infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses are limited. Thus, the identification of novel antimicrobial peptides should be continued, and all possible strategies should be explored. In this review, we will present the structures and anti-infective activity of peptides isolated from marine sources (sponges, algae, bacteria, fungi and fish) from 2006 to the present. PMID:25603351

  4. 78 FR 18965 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to an Exploration Drilling Program in the Chukchi Sea... harassment, incidental to conducting offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in... small numbers of marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting offshore exploration...

  5. High-resolution geophysical data collected along the Delmarva Peninsula 2014, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2014-002-FA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth; Ackerman, Seth; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Danforth, William W.; Foster, David S.; Thieler, E. Robert; Brothers, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The Delmarva Peninsula is a 220-kilometer-long headland, spit, and barrier island complex that was significantly affected by Hurricane Sandy. A U.S. Geological Survey cruise was conducted in the summer of 2014 to map the inner continental shelf of the Delmarva Peninsula using geophysical and sampling techniques to define the geologic framework that governs coastal system evolution at storm-event and longer timescales. Data collected during the 2014 cruise include swath bathymetry, sidescan sonar, chirp and boomer seismic-reflection profiles, acoustic Doppler current profiler, and sample and bottom photograph data. Processed data in raster and vector format are released for the swath bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and seismic-reflection profiles. More information about the USGS survey conducted as part of the Hurricane Sandy Response-- Geologic Framework and Coastal Vulnerability Study can be found at the project website or on the Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center Field Activity Web pages:

  6. Record of the Solar Activity and of Other Geophysical Phenomenons in Tree Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigozo, Nivaor Rodolfo

    1999-01-01

    Tree ring studies are usually used to determine or verify climatic factors which prevail in a given place or region and may cause tree ring width variations. Few studies are dedicated to the geophysical phenomena which may underlie these tree ring width variations. In order to look for periodicities which may be associated to the solar activity and/or to other geophysical phenomena which may influence tree ring growth, a new interactive image analysis method to measure tree ring width was developed and is presented here. This method makes use of a computer and a high resolution flatbed scanner; a program was also developed in Interactive Data Language (IDL 5.0) to study ring digitized images and transform them into time series. The main advantage of this method is the tree ring image interactive analysis without needing complex and high cost instrumentation. Thirty-nine samples were collected: 12 from Concordia - S. C., 9 from Canela - R. S., 14 from Sao Francisco de Paula - R. S., one from Nova Petropolis - R. S., 2 from Sao Martinho da Serra - R. S. e one from Chile. Fit functions are applied to ring width time series to obtain the best long time range trend (growth rate of every tree) curves and are eliminated through a standardization process that gives the tree ring index time series from which is performed spectral analysis by maximum entropy method and iterative regression. The results obtained show periodicities close to 11 yr, 22 yr Hale solar cycles and 5.5 yr for all sampling locations 52 yr and Gleissberg cycles for Concordia - S. C. and Chile samples. El Nino events were also observed with periods around 4 e 7 yr.

  7. Marine Activity Dynamics (M.A.D.). Unit S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence. Education Information Center.

    This curriculum guide describes an activity-oriented marine study program, designed for use with middle school children (grade 5). The content focuses primarily upon the life sciences, with some emphasis on chemistry and geology. Following the development of a rationale for the inclusion of marine sciences in the school curriculum, a middle…

  8. The study of the midlatitude ionospheric response to geomagnetic activity at Nagycenk Geophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berényi, Kitti; Kis, Árpád; Barta, Veronika; Novák, Attila

    2016-04-01

    Geomagnetic storms affect the ionospheric regions of the terrestrial upper atmosphere, causing several physical and chemical atmospheric processes. The changes and phenomena, which can be seen as a result of these processes, generally called ionospheric storm. These processes depend on altitude, term of the day, and the strength of solar activity, the geomagnetic latitude and longitude. The differences between ionospheric regions mostly come from the variations of altitude dependent neutral and ionized atmospheric components, and from the physical parameters of solar radiation. We examined the data of the ground-based radio wave ionosphere sounding instruments of the European ionospheric stations (mainly the data of Nagycenk Geophysical Observatory), called ionosonde, to determine how and what extent a given strength of a geomagnetic disturbance affect the middle latitude ionospheric regions in winter. We chose the storm for the research from November 2012 and March 2015. As the main result of our research, we can show significant differences between the each ionospheric (F1 and F2) layer parameters on quiet and strong stormy days. When we saw, that the critical frequencies (foF2) increase from their quiet day value, then the effect of the ionospheric storm was positive, otherwise, if they drop, they were negative. With our analysis, the magnitude of these changes could be determined. Furthermore we demonstrated, how a full strong geomagnetic storm affects the ionospheric foF2 parameter during different storm phases. It has been showed, how a positive or negative ionospheric storm develop during a geomagnetic storm. For a more completed analysis, we compared also the evolution of the F2 layer parameters of the European ionosonde stations on a North-South geographic longitude during a full storm duration. Therefore we determined, that the data of the ionosonde at Nagycenk Geophysical Observatory are appropriate, it detects the same state of ionosphere like the

  9. A NEW UNDERSTANDING OF THE EUROPA ATMOSPHERE AND LIMITS ON GEOPHYSICAL ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Shemansky, D. E.; Liu, X.; Yoshii, J.; Yung, Y. L.; Hansen, C. J.; Hendrix, A. R.; Esposito, L. W.

    2014-12-20

    Deep extreme ultraviolet spectrograph exposures of the plasma sheet at the orbit of Europa, obtained in 2001 using the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph experiment, have been analyzed to determine the state of the gas. The results are in basic agreement with earlier results, in particular with Voyager encounter measurements of electron density and temperature. Mass loading rates and lack of detectable neutrals in the plasma sheet, however, are in conflict with earlier determinations of atmospheric composition and density at Europa. A substantial fraction of the plasma species at the Europa orbit are long-lived sulfur ions originating at Io, with ∼25% derived from Europa. During the outward radial diffusion process to the Europa orbit, heat deposition forces a significant rise in plasma electron temperature and latitudinal size accompanied with conversion to higher order ions, a clear indication that mass loading from Europa is very low. Analysis of far ultraviolet spectra from exposures on Europa leads to the conclusion that earlier reported atmospheric measurements have been misinterpreted. The results in the present work are also in conflict with a report that energetic neutral particles imaged by the Cassini ion and neutral camera experiment originate at the Europa orbit. An interpretation of persistent energetic proton pitch angle distributions near the Europa orbit as an effect of a significant population of neutral gas is also in conflict with the results of the present work. The general conclusion drawn here is that Europa is geophysically far less active than inferred in previous research, with mass loading of the plasma sheet ≤4.5 × 10{sup 25} atoms s{sup –1} two orders of magnitude below earlier published calculations. Temporal variability in the region joining the Io and Europa orbits, based on the accumulated evidence, is forced by the response of the system to geophysical activity at Io. No evidence for the direct injection of H{sub 2}O

  10. Study of Seismic Activity Using Geophysical and Radio Physical Equipment for Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvavadze, N.; Tsereteli, N. S.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most dangerous and destructive natural hazards are earthquakes, which is confirmed by recent earthquakes such as Nepal 2015, Japan and Turkey 2011. Because of this, study of seismic activity is important. Studying any process, it is necessary to use different methods of observation, which allows us to increase accuracy of obtained data. Seismic activity is a complex problem and its study needs different types of observation methods. Two main problems of seismic activity study are: reliable instrumental observations and earthquake short-term predictions. In case of seismic risks it is necessary to have reliable accelerometer data. One of the most promising field in earthquake short-term prediction is very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic wave propagation in ionosphere observation. To study Seismic activity of Caucasus region, was created observation complex using Accelerometer, Velocimeter and VLF electromagnetic waves received from communication stations (located in different area of the world) reflected from low ionosphere. System is created and operates at Tbilisi State University Ionosphere Observatory, near Tbilisi in Tabakhmela 42.41'70 N, 44.80'92 E, Georgia. Data obtained is sent to a local server located at M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics, TSU, for storage and processing. Diagram for complex is presented. Also data analysis methods were created and preliminary processing was done. In this paper we present some of the results: Earthquake data from ionosphere observations as well as local earthquakes recorded with accelerometer and velocimeter. Complex is first in 6 that will be placed around Georgia this year. We plan on widening network every year.

  11. A forward modeling approach to relate geophysical observables at active volcanoes to deep magma dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagna, C. P.; Longo, A.; Papale, P.; Vassalli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Cassioli, A.

    2010-12-01

    Geophysical signals usually recorded at active volcanoes mainly consist of i) seismicity - high frequency volcano-tectonic events, volcanic tremor, and LP, VLP, and ULP events, ii) ground displacement, and iii) gravity changes. These signals are inverted to constrain the characteristics of the underground signal source, usually under the simplifying assumptions of point source or small volume homogeneous source with simple geometry. We have instead designed a forward approach, that complements the more classical inverse approaches, whereby magma chamber dynamics are numerically solved for compressible-to-incompressible multi-component magmas in geometrically complex systems constituted by one or more magma chambers connected through dykes. Our new code, that we named GALES (GAlerkin LEast Squares), solves the complex time-space-dependent dynamics of convection and mixing of magmas with different composition and properties, and reveals patterns of overpressure much more complex than commonly assumed in inverse analyses. Time-space-dependent stress distributions computed along the rigid magma-wall boundaries are employed as boundary conditions in either numerical simulations of wave propagation through the rock system by taking into account wall rock heterogeneities and topographic surface, or semi-analytical solutions of the Green’s functions in homogeneous infinite space. Ground displacement computed at the topographic surface ranges from the seismic to the quasi-static frequency band. Density variations associated to the simulated magma convection dynamics are instead employed to determine the corresponding gravity change at the surface. Seismicity, ground deformation, and gravity changes associated to deep magma dynamics are therefore computed as a function of time at different points on the Earth’s surface. Performed numerical simulations involve cases with largely different magma/dyke size, geometry and depth, and magma compositions from basaltic to

  12. Plasma Jet Motion Across the Geomagnetic Field in the ``North Star'' Active Geophysical Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, B. G.; Zetzer, J. I.; Podgorny, I. M.; Sobyanin, D. B.; Meng, C.-I.; Erlandson, R. E.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Pfaff, R. F.; Lynch, K. A.

    2003-01-01

    The active geophysical rocket experiment ``North Star'' was carried out in the auroral ionosphere on January 22, 1999, at the Poker Flat Research Range (Alaska, USA) using the American research rocket Black Brant XII with explosive plasma generators on board. Separable modules with scientific equipment were located at distances of from 170 to 1595 m from the plasma source. The experiment continued the series of the Russian-American joint experiments started by the ``Fluxus'' experiment in 1997. Two injections of aluminum plasma across the magnetic field were conducted in the ``North Star'' experiment. They were different, since in the first injection a neutral gas cloud was formed in order to increase the plasma ionization due to the interaction of neutrals of the jet and cloud. The first and second injections were conducted at heights of 360 and 280 km, respectively. The measurements have shown that the charged particle density was two orders of magnitude higher in the experiment with the gas release. The magnetic field in the first injection was completely expelled by the dense plasma of the jet. The displacement of the magnetic field in the second injection was negligible. The plasma jet velocity in both injections decreased gradually due to its interaction with the geomagnetic field. One of the most interesting results of the experiment was the conservation of high plasma density during the propagation of the divergent jet to considerable distances. This fact can be explained by the action of the critical ionization velocity mechanism.

  13. 78 FR 27427 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Geological and Geophysical Exploration Activities in the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... environmental analysis under NEPA for the National Marine Fisheries Service's (NMFS) Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) rulemaking governing authorization for unintentional marine mammal takes during G&G... Walton Beach, Florida 32548; one meeting beginning at 6:30 p.m. CDT; Mobile, Alabama: Wednesday, June...

  14. Terrestrial Planet Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Terrestrial planet geophysics beyond our home sphere had its start arguably in the early 1960s, with Keith Runcorn contending that the second-degree shape of the Moon is due to convection and Mariner 2 flying past Venus and detecting no planetary magnetic field. Within a decade, in situ surface geophysical measurements were carried out on the Moon with the Apollo program, portions of the lunar magnetic and gravity fields were mapped, and Jack Lorell and his colleagues at JPL were producing spherical harmonic gravity field models for Mars using tracking data from Mariner 9, the first spacecraft to orbit another planet. Moreover, Mariner 10 discovered a planetary magnetic field at Mercury, and a young Sean Solomon was using geological evidence of surface contraction to constrain the thermal evolution of the innermost planet. In situ geophysical experiments (such as seismic networks) were essentially never carried out after Apollo, although they were sometimes planned just beyond the believability horizon in planetary mission queues. Over the last three decades, the discipline of terrestrial planet geophysics has matured, making the most out of orbital magnetic and gravity field data, altimetric measurements of surface topography, and the integration of geochemical information. Powerful constraints are provided by tectonic and volcanic information gleaned from surface images, and the engagement of geologists in geophysical exercises is actually quite useful. Accompanying these endeavors, modeling techniques, largely adopted from the Earth Science community, have become increasingly sophisticated and have been greatly enhanced by the dramatic increase in computing power over the last two decades. The future looks bright with exciting new data sets emerging from the MESSENGER mission to Mercury, the promise of the GRAIL gravity mission to the Moon, and the re-emergence of Venus as a worthy target for exploration. Who knows? With the unflagging optimism and persistence

  15. Active geodynamics of the Marmara Sea region: How to combine all geophysical observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabulut, Hayrullah; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Lengliné, Olivier; Bouchon, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The Marmara Sea region is presently hosting a major seismic gap along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF). The region is located at the western termination of a unique sequence of large earthquakes initiated by the 1939 Mw 7.9 Erzincan earthquake and propagated westwards over 1000 km. Understanding the active geodynamics of the Marmara region is essential to assess the seismic behaviour of the Main Marmara Fault (MMF) and its related structures. We therefore have taken an initiative to give a comprehensive view of the regional lithosphere and the geomechanical response of the fault trying to combine all important geophysical observations. Using the broadband seismic data acquired between 2007-2015, we computed crustal seismic velocity distribution (from ambient noise tomography), crustal thickness map (from receiver function analysis) and uppermost mantle velocity distribution (from Pn tomography). The vast amount of data provides a good spatial coverage of the region and high resolution of images. Along the Main Marmara Fault (MMF), we present the seismicity below the Marmara Sea for the period the 2006-2015 to provide insights on the seismic response of the fault. The analysis shows that the seismic behaviour is varying along the fault. In addition, long term repeating earthquakes are searched along the MMF and found in the western part of the MMF. In the light of accurate and extensive observations, several open questions emerge from this compilation: Is the cumulated seismic moment released by the repeaters comparable to tectonic rate of the fault in the region? Are there any correlations between the rheology of the crust and the seismic response of the fault? Is there an influence of the fault asymmetry on the fault rupture?

  16. Active fungi amidst a marine subsurface RNA paleome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsi, W.; Biddle, J.; Edgcomb, V.

    2012-12-01

    The deep marine subsurface is a vast habitat for microbial life where cells may live on geologic timescales. Since extracellular DNA in sediments may be preserved on long timescales, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is suggested to be a proxy for the active fraction of a microbial community in the subsurface. During an investigation of eukaryotic 18S rRNA signatures by amplicon pyrosequencing, metazoan, plant, and diatom rRNA signatures were recovered from marine sediments up to 2.7 million years old, suggesting that rRNA may be much more stable than previously considered in the marine subsurface. This finding confirms the concept of a paleome, extending it to include rRNA. Within the same dataset, unique profiles of fungi were found across a range of marine subsurface provinces exhibiting statistically significant correlations with total organic carbon (TOC), sulfide, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Sequences from metazoans, plants and diatoms showed different correlation patterns, consistent with a depth-controlled paleome. The fungal correlations with geochemistry allow the inference that some fungi are active and adapted for survival in the marine subsurface. A metatranscriptomic analysis of fungal derived mRNA confirms that fungi are metabolically active and utilize a range of organic and inorganic substrates in the marine subsurface.

  17. Geophysical signature of hydration-dehydration processes in active subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynard, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    inclusions in arc lavas. High electrical conductivities up to 1 S/m in the hydrated wedge of the hot subductions (Ryukyu, Kyushu, Cascadia) reflect high fluid concentration, while low to moderate (<0.01 S/m) conductivities in the cold subductions (N-E Japan, Bolivia) reflect low fluid flow. This is consistent with the seismic observations of extensive shallow serpentinization in hot subduction zones, while serpentinization is sluggish in cold subduction zones. Bezacier, L., et al. 2010. Elasticity of antigorite, seismic detection of serpentinites, and anisotropy in subduction zones. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 289, 198-208. Reynard, B., 2012. Serpentine in active subduction zones. Lithos, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2012.10.012. Reynard, B., Mibe, K. & Van de Moortele, B., 2011. Electrical conductivity of the serpentinised mantle and fluid flow in subduction zones. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 307, 387-394. Reynard, B., Nakajima, J. & Kawakatsu, H., 2010. Earthquakes and plastic deformation of anhydrous slab mantle in double Wadati-Benioff zones. Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L24309.

  18. 78 FR 56659 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ...NMFS has received a request from the U.S. Navy (Navy) for authorization to take marine mammals incidental to construction activities as part of a pier maintenance project. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting public comment on its proposal to issue an incidental harassment authorization (IHA) to the Navy to take, by harassment only, two species of marine......

  19. High-resolution geophysical data collected along the Delmarva Peninsula 2014, USGS Field Activity 2014-002-FA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth E.; Ackerman, Seth D.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Danforth, William W.; Foster, David S.; Thieler, E. Robert; Brothers, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    The Delmarva Peninsula is a 220-kilometer-long headland, spit, and barrier island complex that was significantly affected by Hurricane Sandy. A USGS cruise was conducted in the summer of 2014 to map the inner-continental shelf of the Delmarva Peninsula using geophysical and sampling techniques to define the geologic framework that governs coastal system evolution at storm-event and longer timescales. Geophysical data collected during the 2014 cruise include swath bathymetric, sidescan sonar, chirp and boomer seismic reflection profiles, acoustic Doppler current profiler, and sample and bottom photograph and video data. Preliminary datasets of backscatter and bathymetry are released here to the public and collaborators while final datasets for all data collected will be released in 2015. More information about the USGS survey conducted as part of the Hurricane Sandy Response-- Geologic Framework and Coastal Vulnerability Study can be found at the project website or on the WHCMSC Field Activity Web pages

  20. Geophysical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Robert, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    Geophysical measurements involve no magic or mystery but straightforward applications of physical principles. This book is both a geophysical survey and a reference guide. It explains the physical principles involved in geophysical methods. Over one-third of the text is devoted to seismic methods. Comprehensive topics in the volume include: the measurement of different physical properties and their geological significance; how different kinds of measurements are combined to draw geological conclusions; surface, borehole, airborne, and satellite measurements; computer processing and interactive methods; geodetic, gravity, magnetic, radioactive, heat flow, and electrical methods; interpretation of natural processes such as earthquakes and heat flow; and a summation of present knowledge of the earth.

  1. Integrated Interpretation of Geophysical, Geotechnical, and Environmental Monitoring Data to Define Precursors for Landslide Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlemann, S.; Chambers, J.; Merritt, A.; Wilkinson, P.; Meldrum, P.; Gunn, D.; Maurer, H.; Dixon, N.

    2014-12-01

    To develop a better understanding of the failure mechanisms leading to first time failure or reactivation of landslides, the British Geological Survey is operating an observatory on an active, shallow landslide in North Yorkshire, UK, which is a typical example of slope failure in Lias Group mudrocks. This group and the Whitby Mudstone Formation in particular, show one of the highest landslide densities in the UK. The observatory comprises geophysical (i.e., ERT and self-potential monitoring, P- and S-wave tomography), geotechnical (i.e. acoustic emission and inclinometer), and hydrological and environmental monitoring (i.e. weather station, water level, soil moisture, soil temperature), in addition to movement monitoring using real-time kinematic GPS. In this study we focus on the reactivation of the landslide at the end of 2012, after an exceptionally wet summer. We present an integrated interpretation of the different data streams. Results show that the two lobes (east and west), which form the main focus of the observatory, behave differently. While water levels, and hence pore pressures, in the eastern lobe are characterised by a continuous increase towards activation resulting in significant movement (i.e. metres), water levels in the western lobe are showing frequent drainage events and thus lower pore pressures and a lower level of movement (i.e. tens of centimetres). This is in agreement with data from the geoelectrical monitoring array. During the summer season, resistivities generally increase due to decreasing moisture levels. However, during the summer of 2012 this seasonal pattern was interrupted, with the reactivated lobe displaying strongly decreasing resistivities (i.e. increasing moisture levels). The self-potential and soil moisture data show clear indications of moisture accumulation prior to the reactivation, followed by continuous discharge towards the base of the slope. Using the different data streams, we present 3D volumetric images of

  2. Environmental Assessment for a Marine Geophysical Survey of Parts of the Arctic Ocean, August-September 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haley, Beth; Ireland, Darren; Childs, Jonathan R.

    2010-01-01

    /details-eng.cfm?pid=38185 (2008) and http://www.ceaa.gc.ca/052/details-eng.cfm?pid=46518 (2009). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) are undertaking a similar partnership again for 2010 in a limited area of U.S. waters during the period between ~10 and 16 August. The survey vessels will then proceed to international or Canadian waters where surveying will proceed until ~3 September, when the two icebreakers will separate to conduct independent work. The survey area of the joint work will be bounded approximately by 145? to 158? W longitude and 71? to 84? N latitude in water depths ranging from ~2,000 to 4,000 m (fig. 1). Ice conditions are expected to range from open water to 10/10 ice cover. The Louis S. St. Laurent will join accompanying vessel Healy in or near the survey area around 10 August to begin the joint survey work. As its energy source, the seismic system aboard Louis S. St. Laurent will employ a 3-airgun array consisting of three Sercel G-airguns. Two guns will have a discharge volume of 500 in3 and the third a discharge volume of 150 in3 for a total array discharge volume of 1,150 in3. The seismic survey will take place in water depths 2,000?4,000 m. This airgun array is identical to the system used in the 2008 and 2009 field programs by the Geological Survey of Canada. The USGS requested that the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) issue an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to authorize the incidental, that is, not intentional, harassment of small numbers of cetaceans and seals should this occur during the seismic survey in U.S. waters. USGS is also consulting with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) regarding concerns about disturbance to walruses and polar bears. Through informal consultation with the Office of Protected Resources with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), USGS proposes that no ESA-listed marine species?bowhead, fin, humpback or sperm whale?w

  3. 76 FR 4093 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Exploration Drilling Programs in the Chukchi and.... (Shell) incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the... IHAs were not issued, and Shell did not conduct the proposed exploration drilling programs in...

  4. 78 FR 24731 - Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to an Exploration Drilling Program in the Chukchi Sea... drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during the 2014 open-water... exploration drilling in the Chukchi Sea during the 2014 open- ] water season. NMFS published a Notice...

  5. 77 FR 51773 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... retinal injury. Biosonics Up to three Bird-Guard broadcasting units (bird distress calls) could be used to... distress and predator calls could be used. The bird calls are naturally occurring sounds and are not... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Bird Mitigation Research in the Farallon...

  6. 77 FR 50990 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... approaches if pinnipeds are hauled out directly in the study plots or while biologists walk from one location... vicinity of the permanent abalone study plots. Disturbance may result in reactions ranging from an animal... associated with the proposed activity is the quadrat locations being marked with marine epoxy. The...

  7. 78 FR 35851 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Sources The acoustic sources of primary concern are the airguns that will be deployed from the seismic... on Marine Mammals Operating active acoustic sources such as airgun arrays, navigational sonars, and... desirable acoustic environment; and Cease feeding or social interaction. For example, at the Guerreo...

  8. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  9. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espey, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    Describes geophysical techniques such as seismic, gravity, and magnetic surveys of offshare acreage, and land-data gathering from a three-dimensional representation made from closely spaced seismic lines. (MLH)

  10. Shipboard surveys track magnetic sources in marine sediments--geophysical studies of the Stono and North Edisto Inlets near Charleston, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Anjana K.; Harris, M. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic field data are traditionally used to analyze igneous and metamorphic rocks, but recent efforts have shown that magnetic sources within sediments may be detectable, suggesting new applications for high-resolution magnetic field surveys. Candidates for sedimentary sources include heavy mineral sand concentrations rich in magnetite or hematite, alteration-induced glauconite, or biogenic magnetite. Magnetic field surveys can be used to map the distributions of such sources with much denser and more widespread coverage than possible by sampling. These data can then provide constraints on the composition history of local sediments. Mapping such sediments requires the sensor to be relatively close to the source, and filtering approaches may be needed to distinguish signals from both system noise and deeper basement features. Marine geophysical surveys conducted in July, 2010, over the Stono and North Edisto River inlets and their riverine inputs south of Charleston, South Carolina, showed 10- to 40-m-wide, 1- to 6-nT magnetic anomalies associated with shallow, sand-covered seabed. These anomalies are distinct from system noise but are too narrow to represent basement features. The anomalies are present mostly in shallow areas where river sediments originating from upland areas enter the inlets. Surface grab samples from the North Edisto River contain trace amounts of heavy mineral sediments including hematite, maghemite, ilmenite, and magnetite, as well as garnet, epidote, zircon, and rutile. Previous stream sediment analyses show enhanced titanium over much of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The combined data suggest that the anomalies are generated by titanium- and iron-rich heavy mineral sands ultimately originating from the Piedmont and Blue Ridge provinces, which are then reworked and concentrated by tidal currents.

  11. Geological and geophysical activities at Spallanzani Science Department (Liceo Scientifico Statale "Lazzaro Spallanzani" - Tivoli, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favale, T.; De Angelis, F.; De Filippis, L.

    2012-04-01

    The high school Liceo Scientifico "Lazzaro Spallanzani" at Tivoli (Rome) has been fully involved in the study of geological and geophysical features of the town of Tivoli and the surrounding area in the last twelve years. Objective of this activity is to promote the knowledge of the local territory from the geological point of view. Main activities: • School year 2001-2002: Setting up inside the school building of a Geological Museum focusing on "Geological Evolution of Latium, Central Italy" (in collaboration with colleagues M. Mancini, and A. Pierangeli). • March, 15, 2001: Conference of Environmental Geology. Lecturer: Prof. Raniero Massoli Novelli, L'Aquila University and Società Italiana di Geologia Ambientale. • School years 2001-2002 and 2002-2003: Earth Sciences course for students "Brittle deformation and tectonic stress in Tivoli area". • November, 2003: Conference of Geology, GIS and Remote Sensing. Lecturers: Prof. Maurizio Parotto and Dr Alessandro Cecili (Roma Tre University, Rome), and Dr Stefano Pignotti (Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sulla Montagna, Rome). • November, 2003, 2004 and 2005: GIS DAY, organized in collaboration with ESRI Italia. • School year 2006-2007: Earth Sciences course for students "Acque Albule basin and the Travertine of Tivoli, Latium, Central Italy" (focus on travertine formation). • School year 2010-2011: Earth Sciences course for students "Acque Albule basin and the Travertine of Tivoli. Geology, Hydrogeology and Microbiology of the basin, Latium, Central Italy" (focus on thermal springs and spa). In the period 2009-2010 a seismic station with three channels, currently working, was designed and built in our school by the science teachers Felice De Angelis and Tomaso Favale. Our seismic station (code name LTTV) is part of Italian Experimental Seismic Network (IESN) with identification code IZ (international database IRIS-ISC). The three drums are online in real time on websites http

  12. 76 FR 14924 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management Activities AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... incidental to Russian River estuary management activities. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA... Channel Adaptive Management Plan. NMFS' Environmental Assessment (2010) and associated Finding of...

  13. 77 FR 27189 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... reflection and refraction profiles to monitor the post-seismic response of the outer acretionary prism, the...-energy seismic methodology to monitor the post-seismic response of the outer accretionary prism, the...

  14. 76 FR 68720 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... extent of Cretaceous-aged volcanic crust. This will be assessed by carrying out a seismic reflection and... prevent by denial, all applications that cause intrusive sound waves into an already confusing...

  15. 77 FR 14744 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... underwater sound) generated during the operation of the seismic airgun array may have the potential to cause... airgun, the one responsible for introducing the sound pulse into the ocean, is 45 in\\3\\, depending on how... its shape, and does not introduce more sound into the water. The two GI airguns will be towed 8 m...

  16. 78 FR 57354 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... determinations and proposing to issue an IHA. The notice initiated a 30-day public comment period. Acoustic... October 2013. Some minor deviation from these dates would be possible, depending on logistics and weather... airguns are towed along the survey lines, the hydrophone streamer will receive the returning...

  17. 76 FR 45518 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    .... Acoustic stimuli (i.e., increased underwater sound) generated during the operation of the seismic airgun... December 17, 2011. Some minor deviation from these dates is possible, depending on logistics and weather... discharge volume of 105 in\\3\\) at a tow depth of 3 m (9.8 ft). The acoustic receiving system will consist...

  18. 78 FR 33811 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... of the Western Pacific Warm Pool to better assess controls on the hydrologic cycle in the Western... (Philippines) (see Figure 1 of the IHA application). Water depths in the survey area range from 450 to 3,000... cycle in the Western Pacific Warm Pool, and a limited meridional coverage to test hypotheses related...

  19. Biological Activity of Recently Discovered Halogenated Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the biological activity—antibacterial, antifungal, anti-parasitic, antiviral, antitumor, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and enzymatic activity—of halogenated marine natural products discovered in the past five years. Newly discovered examples that do not report biological activity are not included. PMID:26133553

  20. Particle Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki K. M.

    2014-05-01

    Geophysics research has long been dominated by classical mechanics, largely disregarding the potential of particle physics to augment existing techniques. The purpose of this article is to review recent progress in probing Earth's interior with muons and neutrinos. Existing results for various volcanological targets are reviewed. Geoneutrinos are also highlighted as examples in which the neutrino probes elucidate the composition of Earth's deep interior. Particle geophysics has the potential to serve as a useful paradigm to transform our understanding of Earth as dramatically as the X-ray transformed our understanding of medicine and the body.

  1. Preliminary report on geophysical well-logging activity on the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, Imperial Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, R.H.; Hodges, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project has culminated in a 10,564-ft deep test well, State 2-14 well, in the Imperial Valley of southern California. A comprehensive scientific program of drilling, coring, and downhole measurements, which was conducted for about 5 months, has obtained much scientific information concerning the physical and chemical processes associated with an active hydrothermal system. This report primarily focuses on the geophysical logging activities at the State 2-14 well and provides early dissemination of geophysical data to other investigators working on complementary studies. Geophysical-log data were obtained by a commercial logging company and by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Most of the commercial logs were obtained during three visits to the site; only one commercial log was obtained below a depth of 6,000 ft. The commercial logs obtained were dual induction, natural gamma, compensated neutron formation density, caliper and sonic. The USGS logging effort consisted of four primary periods, with many logs extending below a depth of 6,000 ft. The USGS logs obtained were temperature, caliper, natural gamma, gamma spectral, epithermal neutron, acoustic velocity, full-waveform, and acoustic televiewer. Various problems occurred throughout the drilling phase of the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project that made successful logging difficult: (1) borehole constrictions, possibly resulting from mud coagulation, (2) maximum temperatures of about 300 C, and (3) borehole conditions unfavorable for logging because of numerous zones of fluid loss, cement plugs, and damage caused by repeated trips in and out of the hole. These factors hampered and compromised logging quality at several open-hole intervals. The quality of the logs was dependent on the degree of probe sophistication and sensitivity to borehole-wall conditions. Digitized logs presented were processed on site and are presented in increments of 1,000 ft. A summary of the numerous

  2. Extracts of marine algae show inhibitory activity against osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that play a crucial role in bone resorption. The imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation results in osteoporosis. Therefore, substances that can suppress osteoclast formation are potential candidate materials for drug development or functional foods. There have been reports that extracts or purified compounds from marine micro- and macroalgae can suppress osteoclast differentiation. Symbioimine, isolated from the cultured dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp., had suppressive effects against osteoclast differentiation in osteoclast-like cells. Norzoanthamine, isolated from the colonial zoanthid Zoanthas sp., has been shown to have antiosteoporosis activity in ovariectomized mice. With regard to marine extracts, the fucoxanthin-rich component from brown algae has been shown to have suppressive effects against osteoclast differentiation. An extract of Sargassum fusiforme has recently been shown to have antiosteoporosis activity. This extract suppressed both osteoclast differentiation and accelerated osteoblast formation in separate in vitro experiments. It also showed antiosteoporosis activity in ovariectomized mice by regulating the balance between bone resorption and bone formation. These marine algae and their extracts may be sources of marine medicinal foods for the prevention of osteoporosis.

  3. Sustainable production of biologically active molecules of marine based origin.

    PubMed

    Murray, Patrick M; Moane, Siobhan; Collins, Catherine; Beletskaya, Tanya; Thomas, Olivier P; Duarte, Alysson W F; Nobre, Fernando S; Owoyemi, Ifeloju O; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Sette, L D; McHugh, Edward; Causse, Eric; Pérez-López, Paula; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma T; Rubiolo, Juan; Leirós, Marta; Botana, Luis M; Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui; Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Allewaert, Celine; Verween, Annick; Vyverman, Wim; Laptev, Ivan; Sineoky, Sergei; Bisio, Angela; Manconi, Renata; Ledda, Fabio; Marchi, Mario; Pronzato, Roberto; Walsh, Daniel J

    2013-09-25

    The marine environment offers both economic and scientific potential which are relatively untapped from a biotechnological point of view. These environments whilst harsh are ironically fragile and dependent on a harmonious life form balance. Exploitation of natural resources by exhaustive wild harvesting has obvious negative environmental consequences. From a European industry perspective marine organisms are a largely underutilised resource. This is not due to lack of interest but due to a lack of choice the industry faces for cost competitive, sustainable and environmentally conscientious product alternatives. Knowledge of the biotechnological potential of marine organisms together with the development of sustainable systems for their cultivation, processing and utilisation are essential. In 2010, the European Commission recognised this need and funded a collaborative RTD/SME project under the Framework 7-Knowledge Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) Theme 2 Programme 'Sustainable culture of marine microorganisms, algae and/or invertebrates for high value added products'. The scope of that project entitled 'Sustainable Production of Biologically Active Molecules of Marine Based Origin' (BAMMBO) is outlined. Although the Union is a global leader in many technologies, it faces increasing competition from traditional rivals and emerging economies alike and must therefore improve its innovation performance. For this reason innovation is placed at the heart of a European Horizon 2020 Strategy wherein the challenge is to connect economic performance to eco performance. This article provides a synopsis of the research activities of the BAMMBO project as they fit within the wider scope of sustainable environmentally conscientious marine resource exploitation for high-value biomolecules.

  4. Shipboard magnetic field data trace magnetic sources in marine sediments: Geophysical studies of the Stono and North Edisto Inlets near Charleston, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A. K.; Harris, S.

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic field data are traditionally used to analyze igneous and metamorphic rocks, but recent efforts have shown that magnetic sources within sediments may be detectable. Candidates for such sources include heavy mineral sands transported from upland sources, biogenic magnetite, and certain forms of glauconite. Magnetic field surveys can then be used to map distributions of these sediments with much denser and widespread coverage than possible by sampling, providing constraints on the deposition and transport of local sediments. However, as sedimentary sources are likely to be much weaker than their crystalline counterparts, mapping requires the sensor to be relatively close to the source, and filtering approaches are needed to distinguish signals from both system noise and deeper basement features. In July 2010, we conducted marine geophysical surveys over the Stono and North Edisto inlets and their riverine inputs south of Charleston, SC using a total field cesium magnetometer and 900 kHz sidescan sonar. In these tidally influenced estuarine environments, unconsolidated Quaternary sediments of thickness typically vary within 0-10 meters overly an indurated Tertiary substrate. Calm survey conditions allowed the towing of sensors 2-20 m above the seabed with background magnetometer variations less than 0.5 nT for a measurement spacing of less than 0.4 m. Anomalies associated with metallic objects such as crab pots or other anthropogenic debris were filtered in part by comparisons to the high-resolution sonar. Using spectral processing to highlight short-wavelength magnetic anomalies, we find that shallow areas where sidescan data indicate a sand-covered seabed are associated with 10-40 m wide, 1-6 nT magnetic anomalies. These anomalies are distinct from system noise, but are too narrow to represent basement features. The anomalies are observed mostly in shallow areas where rivers that originate from upland areas enter the inlets. In contrast, the anomalies are

  5. Ocean Planet. Interdisciplinary Marine Science Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branca, Barbara

    The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution designed to share with the public what recent research has revealed about the oceans and to encourage ocean conservation. This booklet of lessons and activities adapts several themes from the exhibition for use in middle and high school classrooms. Lesson plans include:…

  6. Late Quaternary activity along the Ferrara thrust inferred from stratigraphic architecture and geophysical surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefani, Marco; Bignardi, Samuel; Caputo, Riccardo; Minarelli, Luca; Abu-Zeid, Nasser; Santarato, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    Since Late Miocene, the Emilia-Romagna portion of the Po Plain-Adriatic foredeep basin was progressively affected by compressional deformation, due to the northward propagation of the Apennines fold-and-thrust belt. The major tectonic structures within the basin have been recognised and are relatively well known, thanks to the widespread, even if outdated, seismic survey, performed after WW II, for hydrocarbon exploration. More recently, a large amount of surface and shallow-subsurface information has been provided by the CARG geological mapping project. The region therefore provides a valuable opportunity to discuss the genetic relationship between tectonic deformation, eustatic-paleoclimatic fluctuations, and depositional architecture. The activity of blind thrusts and fault-propagation folds induced repeated angular unconformities and impressive lateral variations in the Pliocene-Quaternary stratigraphy, causing thickness changes, from a few metres, close to the Apennines piedmont line, to more than 9 km, in fast subsiding depocenters (e.g. Lido di Savio). In the Ferrara region, the post-Miocene succession ranges from about 4 km, west of Sant'Agostino, to less than 200 m, on the Casaglia anticline, where Late Quaternary fluvial strata rest on Miocene marine marls, with an angular unconformity relationship. In this sector of the Po Plain, the tip-line of the northernmost thrust has been reconstructed north of the Po River (Occhiobello) and is associated with the growth of a large fold (Ferrara-Casaglia anticline), cross-cut by a complex splay of minor backthrusts and reverse faults. The thrust-anticline structure hosts an energy producing geothermal field, whose hydrogeological behaviour is largely influenced by the fracture pattern. The Apennines frontal thrust probably provided the seismic source for the earthquakes that severely damaged Ferrara, during the 1570 a.D. fall season, as documented by the structural damage still visible in many historic buildings (e

  7. Marine Mammal Active Sonar Test 2004 (MAST 2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Peter J.; Vandiver, Amy; Edelson, Geoffrey S.; Frankel, Adam S.; Clark, Christopher W.

    2004-05-01

    The Marine Mammal Active Sonar Test was conducted in January 2004 off the central California coast during the gray whale migration. The purpose of the test was to collect data to significantly advance active sonar detection, classification, and tracking of marine mammals out to ranges of 1 mile. The R/V NEW HORIZON was moored in the migration path. Two different sonar systems operating between 210 and 220 dB were deployed off the vessel, the IMAPS phased array sonar system that operates from 20-30 kHz and the MAST mechanical system that uses rotating parabolic transducers operating from 30 to 40 kHz. Marine mammal observers were deployed on the bluffs overlooking the experiment and aboard the NEW HORIZON. The observers tracked the whales using electronic theodelites, providing ground truth for the sonar systems. They also looked for any severe reactions from the animals, and called for a shutdown if any marine mammals were observed within 100 m of the sonar. Here, we discuss the experiment and the results to date, including any reaction of the whales to the sonar system. We will also touch on the legal battle to conduct the experiment, and lessons learned.

  8. Antifouling activities of marine bacteria associated with sponge ( Sigmadocia sp.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satheesh, S.; Soniamby, A. R.; Sunjaiy Shankar, C. V.; Mary Josephine Punitha, S.

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed at assessing the antifouling activity of bacteria associated with marine sponges. A total of eight bacterial strains were isolated from the surface of sponge Sigmadocia sp., of them, SS02, SS05 and SS06 showed inhibitory activity against biofilm-forming bacteria. The extracts of these 3 strains considerably affected the extracellular polymeric substance producing ability and adhesion of biofilm-forming bacterial strains. In addition to disc diffusion assay, microalgal settlement assay was carried out with the extracts mixed with polyurethane wood polish and coated onto stainless steel coupons. The extract of strain SS05 showed strong microalgal settlement inhibitory activity. Strain SS05 was identified as Bacillus cereus based on its 16S rRNA gene. Metabolites of the bacterial strains associated with marine invertebrates promise to be developed into environment-friendly antifouling agents.

  9. Antioxidant Activity of Marine Algal Polyphenolic Compounds: A Mechanistic Approach.

    PubMed

    Fernando, I P Shanura; Kim, Misook; Son, Kwang-Tae; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Polyphenolic compounds isolated from marine algae exhibit a broad spectrum of beneficial biological properties, including antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic activities, along with several other bioactivities centered on their antioxidant properties. Consequently, polyphenolic compounds are increasingly being investigated for their potential use in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications. The antioxidant activities of these compounds have been explored widely through experimental studies. Nonetheless, a theoretical understanding of the structural and electronic properties could broaden research perspectives, leading to the identification and synthesis of efficient structural analogs with prophylactic uses. This review briefly summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding antioxidant polyphenolic compounds in marine algae with an attempt to describe the structure-activity relationship.

  10. The European-wide Geo-Seas data space for marine geological and geophysical data and its novel approach in Metadata, Data models and Semantics emerging from the case of Seismic data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diviacco, Paolo; Busato, Alessandro; Glaves, Helen M.; Schaap, Dick M. A.

    2013-04-01

    The Geo-Seas EU FP7 project aims at providing means to deliver and access integrated sets of primary marine geological and geophysical data. These are among the most important elements in the process of scientific and applied marine research, economic activities, and sustainable environmental management, at regional, European and global scales. Such data space requires an European-wide services infrastructure, standardised practices by the data repositories, and middleware so that end users can identify, locate and access the data they might be interested in. Being Geo-Seas a sibling of the SeaDataNet project, it adopts technologies developed within the latter, extending them and introducing new paradigms. Within this perspective a specific attention was reserved to Seismic data, due to its value in commercial use and scientific community positioning, on one hand, and to the difficulties in handling its file size on the other. To tackle these issues a novel approach was devised, that uses web based data-owner-side visualization facilities installed at each data provider premise. This overcomes the limitations of the common practices in data dissemination, where eventually the data is downloaded and used "off-line" at the end-user workstation. This solution is based on a seismic data visualization software that is strictly integrated with the GeoSeas (and SeaDataNet) project middleware and that therefore allows to perform consistent user authentications and requests handling across all domains and partners. Considering the large and ever increasing number of datasets made available within the project, and that deep examination of seismic data via the viewer could take time, it was devised to introduce a more efficient way to select useful hits within the Geo-Seas data space extending the already existent ISO19115-based SeaDataNet discovery mechanism (CDI). This has been achieved through the introduction of a "browsing" level linked to the CDI where further

  11. Geophysics of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A physical model of Mars is presented on the basis of light-scattering observations of the Martian atmosphere and surface and interior data obtained from observations of the geopotential field. A general description of the atmosphere is presented, with attention given to the circulation and the various cloud types, and data and questions on the blue haze-clearing effect and the seasonal darkening wave are summarized and the Mie scattering model developed to explain these observations is presented. The appearance of the planet from earth and spacecraft through Mariner 9 is considered, and attention is given to the preparation of topographical contour maps, the canal problem and large-scale lineaments observed from Mariner 9, the gravity field and shape of the planet and the application of Runcorn's geoid/convection theory to Mars. Finally, a summary of Viking results is presented and their application to the understanding of Martian geophysics is discussed.

  12. Teaching oriented geophysical software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Victor; Rivero, Lluis; Casas, Albert

    2000-08-01

    Interactive teaching techniques encourage students to adopt an active role in their education and should therefore be used at different levels of the teaching sequence. In order to mitigate the lack of educational software for Applied Geophysics, a fully interactive graphic software has been developed. The program is written in Visual Basic with some subroutines in FORTRAN and is designed for IBM-PC microcomputers using a Windows environment. The program offers the majority of the processes involved in geophysical data handling, modelling, tutorials, and instrument simulators.

  13. Application of geotechnical and geophysical field measurements in an active alpine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, D. R.; Fankhauser, K.; Springman, S. M.

    2015-09-01

    Rainfall can trigger landslides, rockfalls and debris flow events. When rainfall infiltrates into the soil, the suction (if there is any) is reduced, until positive water pressure can be developed, decreasing the effective stresses and leading to a potential failure. A challenging site for the study of mass movement is the Meretschibach catchment, a location in the Swiss Alps in the vicinity of Agarn, Canton of Valais. To study the effect of rainfall on slope stabilities, the soil characterization provides valuable insight on soil properties, necessary to establish a realistic ground model. This model, together with an effective long term-field monitoring, deliver the essential information and boundary conditions for predicting and validating rainfall- induced slope instabilities using numerical and physical modelling. Geotechnical monitoring, including soil temperature and volumetric water content measurements, has been performed on the study site together with geophysical measurements (ERT) to study the effect of rainfall on the (potential) triggering of landslides on a scree slope composed of a surficial layer of gravelly soil. These techniques were combined to provide information on the soil characteristics and depth to the bedrock. Seasonal changes of precipitation and temperature were reflected in corresponding trends in all measurements. A comparison of volumetric water content records was obtained from decagons, time domain reflectometry (TDR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) conducted throughout the spring and summer months of 2014, yielding a reasonable agreement.

  14. Integrated near surface geophysics across the active Mount Marzano Fault System (southern Italy): seismogenic hints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, P. A. C.; Giocoli, A.; Peronace, E.; Piscitelli, S.; Quadrio, B.; Bellanova, J.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we describe an original geophysical multi-method approach applied to the Mount Marzano Fault System. This is one of the most hazardous seismogenic faults of the Apennines (Irpinia, southern Italy), and it was responsible for the 1980, Mw 6.9, earthquake, along with many others before. We carried out electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements, and horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) microtremor analysis along several common transects designed across the potential and/or certain fault traces. The data obtained from these non-invasive, inexpensive, expeditious methods mutually integrate with and complement each other, providing a valuable subsurface image of the near surface fault architecture. ERT depicts the general shallow image of the fault zone and of the fault-controlled sedimentary basin, with the depth of the buried bedrock cross-correlated through ambient-noise HVSR results. GPR delineates the very shallow geometry of the fault and of the associated deformation. Coupled with previous paleoseismological studies, these data allow the evaluation of some fault parameters and the precise locating of the fault trace, to aid future paleoseismological investigations aimed at seismic risk reduction programs.

  15. Active part of Charlie--Gibbs fracture zone: A study using sonar and other geophysical techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Searle, R.

    1981-01-10

    A short survey with Gloria side-scan sonar and other geophysical instruments has revealed new information about Charlie--Gibbs fracture zone between 29/sup 0/ and 36 /sup 0/W. The traces of two transform faults have been clearly delineated. They fit small circles about the pole of rotation with an rms error of only about 1 km, but they do not always follow the deepest parts of the transform valleys. The transforms are joined by a short spreading center at 31 /sup 0/45 'W. The median transverse ridge appears to have been produced by normal seafloor spreading at this center and bears identifiable Vine-Matthews magnetic anomalies. A transverse ridge along the eastern inactive part of the northern transform may be an intrusive feature. Considerable thickness of sediment appear to have been deposited in the northern transform valley from Norwegian Sea overflow water passing through the fracture zone, but transverse ridges have prevented the sediment reaching the southern valley.

  16. Delineation of tidal scour through marine geophysical techniques at Sloop Channel and Goose Creek bridges, Jones Beach State Park, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumm, Frederick; Chu, Anthony; Reynolds, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    Inspection of the Goose Creek Bridge in southeastern Nassau County in April 1998 by the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) indicated a separation of bridge piers from the road bed as a result of pier instability due to apparent seabed scouring by tidal currents. This prompted a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey with the NYSDOT to delineate the extent of tidal scour at this bridge and at the Sloop Channel Bridge, about 0.5 mile to the south, through several marine- geophysical techniques. These techniques included use of a narrow-beam, 200-kilohertz, research-grade fathometer, a global positioning system accurate to within 3 feet, a 3.5 to 7-kilohertz seismic-reflection profiler, and an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). The ADCP was used only at the Sloop Channel Bridge; the other techniques were used at both bridges.Results indicate extensive tidal scour at both bridges. The fathometer data indicate two major scour holes nearly parallel to the Sloop Channel Bridge—one along the east side, and one along the west side (bridge is oriented north-south). The scour-hole depths are as much as 47 feet below sea level and average more than 40 feet below sea level; these scour holes also appear to have begun to connect beneath the bridge. The deepest scour is at the north end of the bridge beneath the westernmost piers. The east-west symmetry of scour at Sloop Channel Bridge suggests that flood and ebb tides produce extensive scour.The thickness of sediment that has settled within scour holes could not be interpreted from fathometer data alone because fathometer frequencies cannot penetrate beneath the sea-floor surface. The lower frequencies used in seismic-reflection profiling can penetrate the sea floor and underlying sediments, and indicate the amount of infilling of scour holes, the extent of riprap under the bridge, and the assemblages of clay, sand, and silt beneath the sea floor. The seismic- reflection surveys detected 2 to

  17. Delineation of tidal scour through marine geophysical techniques at Sloop Channel and Goose Creek bridges, Jones Beach State Park, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumm, Frederick; Chu, Anthony; Reynolds, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    Inspection of the Goose Creek Bridge in southeastern Nassau County in April 1998 by the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) indicated a separation of bridge piers from the road bed as a result of pier instability due to apparent seabed scouring by tidal currents. This prompted a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey with the NYSDOT to delineate the extent of tidal scour at this bridge and at the Sloop Channel Bridge, about 0.5 mile to the south, through several marine- geophysical techniques. These techniques included use of a narrow-beam, 200-kilohertz, research-grade fathometer, a global positioning system accurate to within 3 feet, a 3.5 to 7-kilohertz seismic-reflection profiler, and an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). The ADCP was used only at the Sloop Channel Bridge; the other techniques were used at both bridges. Results indicate extensive tidal scour at both bridges. The fathometer data indicate two major scour holes nearly parallel to the Sloop Channel Bridge -- one along the east side, and one along the west side (bridge is oriented north-south). The scour-hole depths are as much as 47 feet below sea level and average more than 40 feet below sea level; these scour holes also appear to have begun to connect beneath the bridge. The deepest scour is at the north end of the bridge beneath the westernmost piers. The east-west symmetry of scour at Sloop Channel Bridge suggests that flood and ebb tides produce extensive scour. The thickness of sediment that has settled within scour holes could not be interpreted from fathometer data alone because fathometer frequencies cannot penetrate beneath the sea-floor surface. The lower frequencies used in seismic-reflection profiling can penetrate the sea floor and underlying sediments, and indicate the amount of infilling of scour holes, the extent of riprap under the bridge, and the assemblages of clay, sand, and silt beneath the sea floor. The seismic- reflection surveys detected 2

  18. 33 CFR 3.70-20 - Activities Far East Marine Inspection Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Activities Far East Marine... SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fourteenth Coast Guard District § 3.70-20 Activities Far East Marine Inspection Zone....

  19. 33 CFR 3.70-20 - Activities Far East Marine Inspection Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Activities Far East Marine... SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fourteenth Coast Guard District § 3.70-20 Activities Far East Marine Inspection Zone....

  20. 33 CFR 3.70-20 - Activities Far East Marine Inspection Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Activities Far East Marine... SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fourteenth Coast Guard District § 3.70-20 Activities Far East Marine Inspection Zone....

  1. High-resolution geophysical data collected along the Delmarva Peninsula, 2014, USGS Field Activity 2014-002-FA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth; Ackerman, Seth D.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Danforth, William W.; Foster, David S.; Thieler, E. Robert; Brothers, Laura L.

    2016-01-01

    The Delmarva Peninsula is a 220-kilometer-long headland, spit, and barrier island complex that was significantly affected by Hurricane Sandy. A U.S. Geological Survey cruise was conducted in the summer of 2014 to map the inner continental shelf of the Delmarva Peninsula using geophysical and sampling techniques to define the geologic framework that governs coastal system evolution at storm-event and longer timescales. Data collected during the 2014 cruise include swath bathymetry, sidescan sonar, chirp and boomer seismic-reflection profiles, acoustic Doppler current profiler, and sample and bottom photograph data. Processed data in raster and vector format are released here for the swath bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and seismic-reflection profiles. More information about the USGS survey conducted as part of the Hurricane Sandy Response-- Geologic Framework and Coastal Vulnerability Study can be found at the project website or on the WHCMSC Field Activity Web pages:

  2. Report on studies to monitor the interactions between offshore geophysical exploration activities and bowhead whales in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, Fall 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, R.; Ljungblad, D.; Clarke, J.T.

    1983-07-01

    A total of 34 survey flights were initiated between 27 August and 4 October 1982 to assess the potential effects of marine geophysical survey work on westward migrating bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). No overt changes in whale behavior were observed that could unequivocally be interpreted as responses to seismic noise, with the possible exception of huddling behavior observed on 14-15 September that may have been caused by the onset of seismic sounds. Statistical analyses were performed on four categories of respiratory behavior (blows per surfacing, mean blow interval per surfacing, surface times and dive times) to test for differences between times when whales were and were not exposed to seismic sounds.

  3. The geophysical contribution to the safeguard of historical sites in active volcanic areas.. The Vesuvius case-history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patella, Domenico; Mauriello, Paolo

    1999-03-01

    The Earth's surface is characterized by the presence of many active volcanoes, most of which are surrounded by ancient villages. High-valued historical sites are often so exposed that it becomes imperative to perform volcanic risk assessment including cultural heritage. For the safeguard of the historical property in volcanic areas, two major problems are definition of (a) criteria for diagnosis and evaluation of hazard and vulnerability, and (b) methods for risk prevention and mitigation. In this paper, we first review the state-of-the-art and most outstanding geophysical prospecting and modeling methods currently on the use, which contribute to the solution of the problems mentioned above. We then show the results of an application on the most alarming volcano in Italy, Mount Vesuvius in the Neapolitan area. The imaged configuration of the feeding and plumbing systems induces to consider Vesuvius a high-risk volcano with a high probability of pyroclastic flow in case of reactivation. Finally, we show the results from a modeling approach of a pyroclastic flow simulating the eruptive scenario of Vesuvius compatible with its internal structure and dynamics. The simulation shows that the emplacement of artificial barriers close to the eruptive vent is a practical solution to reduce the local radial momentum of the pyroclastic flow and to transfer the related energy to the vertical buoyant cloud. The Vesuvius case history allows us to conclude that the integrated geophysical surveying and modeling approach can notably contribute to make decisions and also for the protection of the historical heritage in active volcanic areas.

  4. Human activities change marine ecosystems by altering predation risk.

    PubMed

    Madin, Elizabeth M P; Dill, Lawrence M; Ridlon, April D; Heithaus, Michael R; Warner, Robert R

    2016-01-01

    In ocean ecosystems, many of the changes in predation risk - both increases and decreases - are human-induced. These changes are occurring at scales ranging from global to local and across variable temporal scales. Indirect, risk-based effects of human activity are known to be important in structuring some terrestrial ecosystems, but these impacts have largely been neglected in oceans. Here, we synthesize existing literature and data to explore multiple lines of evidence that collectively suggest diverse human activities are changing marine ecosystems, including carbon storage capacity, in myriad ways by altering predation risk. We provide novel, compelling evidence that at least one key human activity, overfishing, can lead to distinct, cascading risk effects in natural ecosystems whose magnitude exceeds that of presumed lethal effects and may account for previously unexplained findings. We further discuss the conservation implications of human-caused indirect risk effects. Finally, we provide a predictive framework for when human alterations of risk in oceans should lead to cascading effects and outline a prospectus for future research. Given the speed and extent with which human activities are altering marine risk landscapes, it is crucial that conservation and management policy considers the indirect effects of these activities in order to increase the likelihood of success and avoid unfortunate surprises.

  5. Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) Regulatory Networks in Marine Organisms: From Physiological Observations towards Marine Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Young; Orlikova, Barbora; Diederich, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Part of our ocean’s richness comes from its extensive history of supporting life, resulting in a highly diverse ecological system. To date, over 250,000 species of marine organisms have been identified, but it is speculated that the actual number of marine species exceeds one million, including several hundreds of millions of species of marine microorganisms. Past studies suggest that approximately 70% of all deep-sea microorganisms, gorgonians, and sea sponges produce secondary metabolites with anti-cancer activities. Recently, novel FDA-approved drugs derived from marine sponges have been shown to reduce metastatic breast cancer, malignant lymphoma, and Hodgkin’s disease. Despite the fact that many marine natural products have been shown to possess a good inhibition potential against most of the cancer-related cell signaling pathways, only a few marine natural products have been shown to target JAK/STAT signaling. In the present paper, we describe the JAK/STAT signaling pathways found in marine organisms, before elaborating on the recent advances in the field of STAT inhibition by marine natural products and the potential application in anti-cancer drug discovery. PMID:26262624

  6. Grazing-activated chemical defence in a unicellular marine alga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Gordon V.; Steinke, Michael; Kirst, Gunter O.

    1997-06-01

    Marine plankton use a variety of defences against predators, some of which affect trophic structure and biogeochemistry. We have previously shown that, during grazing by the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina on the alga Emiliania huxleyi, dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) from the prey is converted to dimethyl sulphide (DMS) when lysis of ingested prey cells initiates mixing of algal DMSP and the enzyme DMSP lyase. Such a mechanism is similar to macrophyte defence reactions,. Here we show that this reaction deters protozoan herbivores, presumably through the production of highly concentrated acrylate, which has antimicrobial activity. Protozoan predators differ in their ability to ingest and survive on prey with high-activity DMSP lyase, but all grazers preferentially select strains with low enzyme activity when offered prey mixtures. This defence system involves investment in a chemical precursor, DMSP, which is not self-toxic and has other useful metabolic functions. We believe this is the first report of grazing-activated chemical defence in unicellular microorganisms.

  7. 75 FR 49709 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Shell Offshore Inc. (Shell) to take, by harassment, small numbers of 8 species of marine mammals incidental to a marine survey program, which includes site clearance and shallow hazards, ice gouge, and strudel scour surveys,......

  8. 75 FR 49759 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Statoil USA E&P Inc. (Statoil) to take, by harassment, small numbers of 12 species of marine mammals incidental to a marine seismic survey program in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during the 2010 Arctic open water...

  9. 75 FR 39335 - Incidental Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Marine Seismic Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ...NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take small numbers of marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting a marine seismic survey in the Arctic Ocean during August to September, 2010. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS requests comments on its proposal to authorize USGS to......

  10. Microbial activity in the marine deep biosphere: progress and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Orcutt, Beth N.; LaRowe, Douglas E.; Biddle, Jennifer F.; Colwell, Frederick S.; Glazer, Brian T.; Reese, Brandi Kiel; Kirkpatrick, John B.; Lapham, Laura L.; Mills, Heath J.; Sylvan, Jason B.; Wankel, Scott D.; Wheat, C. Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The vast marine deep biosphere consists of microbial habitats within sediment, pore waters, upper basaltic crust and the fluids that circulate throughout it. A wide range of temperature, pressure, pH, and electron donor and acceptor conditions exists—all of which can combine to affect carbon and nutrient cycling and result in gradients on spatial scales ranging from millimeters to kilometers. Diverse and mostly uncharacterized microorganisms live in these habitats, and potentially play a role in mediating global scale biogeochemical processes. Quantifying the rates at which microbial activity in the subsurface occurs is a challenging endeavor, yet developing an understanding of these rates is essential to determine the impact of subsurface life on Earth's global biogeochemical cycles, and for understanding how microorganisms in these “extreme” environments survive (or even thrive). Here, we synthesize recent advances and discoveries pertaining to microbial activity in the marine deep subsurface, and we highlight topics about which there is still little understanding and suggest potential paths forward to address them. This publication is the result of a workshop held in August 2012 by the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) “theme team” on microbial activity (www.darkenergybiosphere.org). PMID:23874326

  11. 78 FR 30273 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ...NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Navy (Navy) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to construction activities as part of a barge mooring project. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to the Navy to take, by Level B Harassment only, four species......

  12. Pre-Launch Phase 1 Calibration and Validation Rehearsal of Geophysical Data Products of Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, A.; Jackson, T. J.; Chan, S.; Dunbar, R.; Das, N. N.; Kim, S.; Reichle, R. H.; De Lannoy, G. J.; Liu, Q.; Kimball, J. S.; Yi, Y.; Cosh, M. H.; Bindlish, R.; Crow, W. T.; Dang, L.; Yueh, S. H.; Njoku, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled for launch in October 2014. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. SMAP utilizes an L-band radar and radiometer sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna. The instruments will operate onboard the SMAP spacecraft in a 685-km Sun-synchronous near-polar orbit, viewing the surface at a constant 40-degree incidence angle with a 1000-km swath width. Merging of active and passive L-band observations of the mission will enable an unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrieval. SMAP measurements will enable significantly improved estimates of water, energy and carbon transfers between the land and atmosphere. The SMAP science data product suite of geophysical parameters will include estimates of surface (top 5 cm) and root-zone (down to 1-m depth) soil moisture, net ecosystem exchange, and classification of the frozen/non-frozen state of the landscape. The primary validation reference of the data products will be ground-based measurements. Other remote sensing and model-based products will be used as additional resources. The post-launch timeline of the mission requires that the geophysical data products are validated (with respect to the mission requirements) within 12 months after a 3-month in-orbit check-out phase. SMAP is taking several preparatory steps in order to meet this schedule. One of the main steps consists of running a rehearsal to exercise calibration and validation procedures planned for the Cal/Val Phase. The rehearsal is divided into two stages. Phase 1, which was conducted in June-August 2013, focused on validation methodologies for the geophysical data products. Phase 2, which will be conducted in May-June 2014, includes operational aspects including a fully functioning SMAP Science Data System. (Note that the rehearsals do not include an airborne field

  13. Astronomical and Geophysical Activities in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) during 1781-88 by Bento Sanches Dorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, J. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Gallego, M. C.

    2006-08-01

    We summarized the works realised by Bento Sanches Dorta, a Portuguese Royal Astronomer who went to South America to perform a great number of astronomical and geophysical observations during the period 1781-1788.

  14. 75 FR 16830 - Geological and Geophysical Exploration (G&G) on the Mid- and South Atlantic Outer Continental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... Minerals Management Service Geological and Geophysical Exploration (G&G) on the Mid- and South Atlantic... siting for renewable energy projects, oil and gas exploration, and marine minerals extraction; these..., aircraft, shore); and The degree to which those activities can overlap in space and time....

  15. Regulatory Assistance, Stakeholder Outreach, and Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Activities in Support of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Geerlofs, Simon H.; Copping, Andrea E.; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Blake, Kara M.; Hanna, Luke A.

    2011-09-01

    This fiscal year 2011 progress report summarizes activities carried out under DOE Water Power Task 2.1.7, Permitting and Planning. Activities under Task 2.1.7 address the concerns of a wide range of stakeholders with an interest in the development of the marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy industry, including regulatory and resource management agencies, tribes, nongovernmental organizations, and industry.

  16. Solar-geophysical data number 499, March 1986, supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This supplement contains the description and explanation of the data in the monthly publication Solar-Geophysical Data, compiled by the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) in Boulder, Colo., USA. Solar-Geophysical Data is intended to keep research workers informed on a timely schedule of the major events of solar activity and the associated interplanetary, ionospheric, radio propagation and other geophysical effects.

  17. 76 FR 68974 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...NMFS received an application from Shell Offshore Inc. (Shell) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to Shell to take, by......

  18. 78 FR 12541 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ...NMFS received an application from ConocoPhillips Company (COP) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to COP to take, by......

  19. 76 FR 43639 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Liquefied Natural Gas Port Facility in Massachusetts Bay AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to operating a liquefied natural gas (LNG) port facility... diameter natural gas pipeline which interconnects the Port to an offshore natural gas pipeline known as...

  20. 76 FR 9250 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... marine mammal and sound research (funded by the Navy or otherwise) Any verified information which reveals... the shelf break, sea surface temperature (SST), and chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration was formulated... mammals to levels of sound likely to result in injury or death of marine mammals; (3) several...

  1. 77 FR 40007 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to BP Exploration (Alaska), Inc. (BP) to take, by harassment, small numbers of 10 species of marine mammals incidental to ocean bottom cable (OBC) seismic surveys in the Simpson Lagoon area of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska, during the......

  2. 76 FR 46729 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Statoil USA E&P Inc. (Statoil) to take, by harassment, small numbers of 13 species of marine mammals incidental to shallow hazards and geotechnical surveys in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during the 2011 Arctic open-water...

  3. 77 FR 27321 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Shell Gulf of Mexico Inc. (Shell) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Chukchi Sea,...

  4. 77 FR 27283 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Shell Offshore Inc. (Shell) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Beaufort Sea,...

  5. Diversity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Bacillus Species: Chemistry and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mondol, Muhammad Abdul Mojid; Shin, Hee Jae; Islam, Mohammad Tofazzal

    2013-01-01

    Marine Bacillus species produce versatile secondary metabolites including lipopeptides, polypeptides, macrolactones, fatty acids, polyketides, and isocoumarins. These structurally diverse compounds exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and antialgal activities. Some marine Bacillus strains can detoxify heavy metals through reduction processes and have the ability to produce carotenoids. The present article reviews the chemistry and biological activities of secondary metabolites from marine isolates. Side by side, the potential for application of these novel natural products from marine Bacillus strains as drugs, pesticides, carotenoids, and tools for the bioremediation of heavy metal toxicity are also discussed. PMID:23941823

  6. Geophysical Sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, E.

    1998-01-01

    Of the many geophysical remote-sensing techniques available today, a few are suitable for the water ice-rich, layered material expected at the north martian ice cap. Radio echo sounding has been used for several decades to determine ice thickness and internal structure. Selection of operating frequency is a tradeoff between signal attenuation (which typically increases with frequency and ice temperature) and resolution (which is proportional to wavelength). Antenna configuration and size will be additional considerations for a mission to Mars. Several configurations for ice-penetrating radar systems are discussed: these include orbiter-borne sounders, sounding antennas trailed by balloons and penetrators, and lander-borne systems. Lander-borne systems could include short-wave systems capable of resolving fine structure and layering in the upper meters beneath the lander. Spread-spectrum and deconvolution techniques can be used to increase the depth capability of a radar system. If soundings over several locations are available (e.g., with balloons, rovers, or panning short-wave systems), then it will be easier to resolve internal layering, variations in basal reflection coefficient (from which material properties may be inferred), and the geometry of nonhorizontal features. Sonic sounding has a long history in oil and gas exploration. It is, however, unlikely that large explosive charges, or even swept-frequency techniques such as Vibroseis, would be suitable for a Polar lander -- these systems are capable of penetrating several kilometers of material at frequencies of 10-200 Hz, but the energy required to generate the sound waves is large and potentially destructive. The use of audio-frequency and ultrasonic sound generated by piezoelectric crystals is discussed as a possible method to explore layering and fine features in the upper meters of the ice cap. Appropriate choice of transducer(s) will permit operation over a range of fixed or modulated frequencies

  7. Geophysical exploration of an active pockmark field in the Bay of Concarneau, southern Brittany, and implications for resident suspension feeders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltzer, Agnès; Ehrhold, Axel; Rigolet, Carinne; Souron, Aurélie; Cordier, Céline; Clouet, Hélène; Dubois, Stanislas F.

    2014-06-01

    About a decade ago, a large field of pockmarks (individual features up to 30 m in diameter and <2 m deep) was discovered in water depths of 15-40 m in the Bay of Concarneau in southern Brittany along the French Atlantic coast, covering an overall area of 36 km2 and characterised by unusually high pockmark densities in places reaching 2,500 per square kilometre. As revealed by geophysical swath and subbottom profile data ground-truthed by sediment cores collected during two campaigns in 2005 and 2009, the confines of the pockmark field show a spectacular spatial association with those of a vast expanse of tube mats formed by a benthic community of the suspension-feeding amphipod Haploops nirae. The present study complements those findings with subbottom chirp profiles, seabed sonar imagery and ultrasonic backscatter data from the water column acquired in April 2011. Results show that pockmark distribution is influenced by the thickness of Holocene deposits covering an Oligocene palaeo-valley system. Two groups of pockmarks were identified: (1) a group of large (>10 m diameter), more widely scattered pockmarks deeply rooted (up to 8 ms two-way travel time, TWTT) in the Holocene palaeo-valley infills, and (2) a group of smaller, more densely spaced pockmarks shallowly rooted (up to 2 ms TWTT) in interfluve deposits. Pockmark pore water analyses revealed high methane concentrations peaking at ca. 400 μl/l at 22 and 30 cm core depth in silty sediments immediately above Haploops-bearing layers. Water column data indicate acoustic plumes above pockmarks, implying ongoing pockmark activity. Pockmark gas and/or fluid expulsion resulting in increased turbidity (resuspension of, amongst others, freshly settled phytoplankton) could at least partly account for the strong spatial association with the phytoplankton-feeding H. nirae in the Bay of Concarneau, exacerbating impacts of anthropogenically induced eutrophication and growing offshore trawling activities. Tidally driven

  8. 78 FR 52148 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    .... Effects to marine mammals from the specified activity are expected to result from underwater sound... southward parallel to the coast. Sea surface temperatures range from around 16 C in winter to 28 C in summer... to the St. Johns River by a 500-ft-wide entrance channel, will largely contain sound produced...

  9. Activity of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira Volcanoes (Dem. Rep. of Congo) Revealed Using Geological, Geophysical and InSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wauthier, C.; Cayol, V.; Hooper, A.; Kervyn, F.; Marinkovic, P.; D'Oreye, N.; Poland, M. P.

    2010-12-01

    the 3D ground displacement field. A 3D Mixed Boundary Element Method is used to infer geometry and physical characteristics of the sources controlling volcanic unrest and tectonic activity. In addition, we combined our InSAR database with other available data, such as seismicity from a network maintained since 2002 and results from geological and geophysical surveys from the volcanoes, to better constrain source processes. The improved understanding and constraints on volcanic processes in the North Kivu area made possible by this multidisciplinary approach will be highlighted with a few case studies of recent volcanic activity.

  10. 78 FR 1941 - Marine Mammals; Incidental Take During Specified Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339, 24 hours a day... potential to injure a marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild'' [the MMPA calls this Level A..., breeding, feeding, or sheltering'' [the MMPA calls this Level B harassment] (16 U.S.C. 1362). The...

  11. Preliminary results of the Deep Freeze 85 marine geologic and geophysical survey of the Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf and South Orkney Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.B.; Bartek, L.; Griffith, T.; Herron, M.; Kennedy, D.; Singer, J.; Smith, M.

    1985-01-01

    Seismic profiles from the South Orkney Plateau show a relatively thick (>0.7 seconds), laminated sequence resting on block faulted acoustic basement and deformed strata. This represents the rifting of the plateau from the Antarctic Peninsula and subsequent pelagic sedimentation. A glacial erosional surface and associated glacial trough were identified on the platform, and possible basal till collected in at least one piston core. Seismic lines from the continental shelf north of the South Shetland Plateau show gently folded reflectors that have been truncated by a widespread erosional unconformity and probable moraines situated near the shelf edge. A line across the Bransfield Strait, a modern back-arc basin, shows the structural features of the basin and thick (>1.0 second) laminated sediments within the center of the basin. One of several deep channels which dissect the shelf was surveyed, but the origin of these features remains uncertain. Geophysical data and piston cores were acquired in several of the bays and fjords of the peninsula region. This is the first detailed survey of Antarctic bays and fjords. The preliminary results show striking differences in sedimentation between Antarctic fjords and those of Arctic and Subarctic regions, the most important difference being the limited role of meltwater runoff in the supply of sediment to Antarctic fjords.

  12. Optimization and geophysical inverse problems

    SciTech Connect

    Barhen, J.; Berryman, J.G.; Borcea, L.; Dennis, J.; de Groot-Hedlin, C.; Gilbert, F.; Gill, P.; Heinkenschloss, M.; Johnson, L.; McEvilly, T.; More, J.; Newman, G.; Oldenburg, D.; Parker, P.; Porto, B.; Sen, M.; Torczon, V.; Vasco, D.; Woodward, N.B.

    2000-10-01

    A fundamental part of geophysics is to make inferences about the interior of the earth on the basis of data collected at or near the surface of the earth. In almost all cases these measured data are only indirectly related to the properties of the earth that are of interest, so an inverse problem must be solved in order to obtain estimates of the physical properties within the earth. In February of 1999 the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a workshop that was intended to examine the methods currently being used to solve geophysical inverse problems and to consider what new approaches should be explored in the future. The interdisciplinary area between inverse problems in geophysics and optimization methods in mathematics was specifically targeted as one where an interchange of ideas was likely to be fruitful. Thus about half of the participants were actively involved in solving geophysical inverse problems and about half were actively involved in research on general optimization methods. This report presents some of the topics that were explored at the workshop and the conclusions that were reached. In general, the objective of a geophysical inverse problem is to find an earth model, described by a set of physical parameters, that is consistent with the observational data. It is usually assumed that the forward problem, that of calculating simulated data for an earth model, is well enough understood so that reasonably accurate synthetic data can be generated for an arbitrary model. The inverse problem is then posed as an optimization problem, where the function to be optimized is variously called the objective function, misfit function, or fitness function. The objective function is typically some measure of the difference between observational data and synthetic data calculated for a trial model. However, because of incomplete and inaccurate data, the objective function often incorporates some additional form of regularization, such as a measure of smoothness

  13. 33 CFR 3.70-20 - Activities Far East Marine Inspection Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities Far East Marine Inspection Zone. 3.70-20 Section 3.70-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE...

  14. 33 CFR 3.70-20 - Activities Far East Marine Inspection Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Activities Far East Marine Inspection Zone. 3.70-20 Section 3.70-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE...

  15. 78 FR 72655 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Bremerton Ferry Terminal Wingwall...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Specified Activities; Bremerton Ferry Terminal Wingwall Replacement Project AGENCY: National Marine... terminal in Washington State. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting... replacement of wingwalls at the Bremerton ferry terminal in Washington State. On June 12, 2013, NMFS issued...

  16. 77 FR 12010 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ...NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Navy (Navy) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting research, development, test and evaluation (RDT&E) activities at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division (NSWC PCD). Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its......

  17. 75 FR 5045 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... of detecting differences in temperature from thermal energy (heat) radiated from living bodies or... combination with remotely sensed habitat parameters (i.e., sea surface temperature and chlorophyll), these... DPI to marine mammals is considered highly unlikely. Therefore, the risk of injury or mortality is...

  18. 75 FR 41440 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... vessels will cease any movement in the area if a marine mammal other than a right whale is sighted within... cease any movement in the construction area if a right whale is sighted within or approaching to a... movement. (D) The material barges and tugs used for repair work shall transit from the operations dock...

  19. 76 FR 43267 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... by causing disruption of natural behavioral patterns, including, but not limited to, migration... optical and electronic sensors are also employed for target clearance. If any marine mammals are detected... sensors (IR), and visual means. An alternative area would be selected if any cetaceans or vessels...

  20. 78 FR 80385 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... areas (see Figure 2 in Apache's application). Vessels will lay and retrieve nodal sensors on the sea... the intertidal and marine environment. For the land operator, a single-component sensor land node will... submersible multi-component system made up of three velocity sensors and a hydrophone (see Figure 5...

  1. 78 FR 77433 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Structure Monitoring, Intertidal Biodiversity Surveys, Marine Protected Area Baseline Monitoring, Intertidal... application (see ADDRESSES). Biodiversity Surveys, which are part of a long-term monitoring project and are... measurements. Table 2 in PISCO's application (see ADDRESSES) lists established biodiversity sites in Oregon...

  2. 77 FR 64320 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... monitoring projects include Community Structure Monitoring, Intertidal Biodiversity Surveys, Marine Protected... Table 1 in PISCO's application (see ADDRESSES). Biodiversity Surveys, which are part of a long-term... biodiversity sites in Oregon and California. In September 2007, the state of California began establishing...

  3. 77 FR 72327 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... Biodiversity Surveys, Marine Protected Area Baseline Monitoring, Intertidal Recruitment Monitoring, and Ocean... each site are presented in Table 1 in PISCO's application (see ADDRESSES). Biodiversity Surveys, which... ADDRESSES) lists established biodiversity sites in Oregon and California. In September 2007, the state...

  4. 76 FR 62778 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility in the Massachusetts Bay for a period of 1 year. DATES: This... Natural Gas Port Facility in Massachusetts Bay AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...) long, 24-inch (61-centimeter) outside diameter natural gas pipeline which interconnects the Port to...

  5. 78 FR 47495 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... and weather conditions will influence when and where the open- water marine surveys will be conducted... sub-seafloor) using acoustic methods. The ice gouge surveys will be conducted using the conventional survey method where the acoustic instrumentation will be towed behind the survey vessel. These...

  6. Application of geophysical methods to the delineation of paleochannels and missing confining units above the Castle Hayne Aquifer at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniel, C. C.; Miller, R.D.; Wrege, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, is underlain by four freshwater-bearing aquifers--the surficial, Yorktown, and upper and lower Castle Hayne. The upper and lower Castle Hayne aquifers serve as the principal supply of freshwater for the Air Station. The potential for movement of contaminated water from the surficial aquifer downward to the water-supply aquifer is greatest in areas where clay confining units are missing. Missing confining units may indicate the presence of paleochannels filled with permeable material. Seismic-reflection techniques were successful in delinea- ting paleochannels of Quaternary and Tertiary age within unconsoli- dated sediments less than 180 feet deep at several locations. Continuous single-channel marine seismic-reflection profiling in the Neuse River was effective in delineating a large paleochannel complex consisting of at least two superimposed paleochannels within hydrogeologic units overlying the upper Castle Hayne aquifer. The complex was found immediately north of the Air Station and is thought to continue south beneath the Air Station. Shallow high-resolution land seismic-reflection techniques were used at the Air Station to delineate structures and correlate strati- graphy between the limestone of the upper Castle Hayne aquifer and the Yorktown confining unit. Three different land seismic-reflection techniques proved effective for the horizontal extrapolation of geo- logic features and identification of paleochannels at several locations. The northeastern margin of a large paleochannel was identified beneath the southern part of the Air Station. This feature strikes northwest to southeast and cuts through the Yorktown and upper Castle Hayne aquifer confining units.

  7. Biological activities and potential health benefits of bioactive peptides derived from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Dai-Hung; Vo, Thanh-Sang; Ngo, Dai-Nghiep; Wijesekara, Isuru; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2012-11-01

    Marine organisms have been recognized as rich sources of bioactive compounds with valuable nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potentials. Recently, marine bioactive peptides have gained much attention because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Notably, these peptides exhibit various biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-proliferative, anticoagulant, calcium-binding, anti-obesity and anti-diabetic activities. This review mainly presents biological activities of peptides from marine organisms and emphasizing their potential applications in foods as well as pharmaceutical areas.

  8. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  9. Planetary Geophysics and Tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The broad objective of this work is to improve understanding of the internal structures and thermal and stress histories of the solid planets by combining results from analytical and computational modeling, and geophysical data analysis of gravity, topography and tectonic surface structures. During the past year we performed two quite independent studies in the attempt to explain the Mariner 10 magnetic observations of Mercury. In the first we revisited the possibility of crustal remanence by studying the conditions under which one could break symmetry inherent in Runcorn's model of a uniformly magnetized shell to produce a remanent signal with a dipolar form. In the second we applied a thin shell dynamo model to evaluate the range of intensity/structure for which such a planetary configuration can produce a dipole field consistent with Mariner 10 results. In the next full proposal cycle we will: (1) develop numerical and analytical and models of thin shell dynamos to address the possible nature of Mercury s present-day magnetic field and the demise of Mars magnetic field; (2) study the effect of degree-1 mantle convection on a core dynamo as relevant to the early magnetic field of Mars; (3) develop models of how the deep mantles of terrestrial planets are perturbed by large impacts and address the consequences for mantle evolution; (4) study the structure, compensation, state of stress, and viscous relaxation of lunar basins, and address implications for the Moon s state of stress and thermal history by modeling and gravity/topography analysis; and (5) use a three-dimensional viscous relaxation model for a planet with generalized vertical viscosity distribution to study the degree-two components of the Moon's topography and gravity fields to constrain the primordial stress state and spatial heterogeneity of the crust and mantle.

  10. Marine Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Bernard L.

    The five papers in this publication on marine careers were selected so that science teachers, guidance councilors, and students could benefit from the experience and knowledge of individuals active in marine science. The areas considered are indicated by the titles: Professional Careers in Marine Science with the Federal Government, Marine Science…

  11. Biological activities and health effects of terpenoids from marine fungi.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Li, Yong-Xin

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed by the consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in the nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and pharmaceutical products due to their various health beneficial effects. Hence, it can be suggested that bioactive functional ingredients from marine bioresources and their by-products are alternative sources for synthetic ingredients that can contribute to consumer's well-being, as a part of nutraceuticals and functional foods. Marine-derived fungi produce a vast array of secondary metabolites including terpenes, steroids, polyketides, peptides, alkaloids, and polysaccharides. These secondary metabolites serve many biopharmaceutical purposes. This chapter discusses about marine fungi-derived terpenoids and presents an overview of their beneficial health effects.

  12. Marine organic aerosol and oceanic biological activity: what we know and what we need (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchini, M.

    2009-12-01

    Observations carried out in the North Atlantic as well as in other marine locations evidenced a seasonal dependence of sub micron particle chemical composition on biological oceanic activity and a potentially important marine aerosol organic component from primary and/or secondary formation processes associated to marine vegetation and its seasonal cycle. Primary organics generated by bubble bursting in high biological activity periods are almost entirely water insoluble (WIOM up to 96 ± 2 % )and are constituted by aggregation of lipopolysaccharides exuded by phytoplankton with dominant surface tension character. In many marine environments the secondary organic fraction is dominated by MSA and by several oxygenated species (mainly carboxylic acids). New measurements also show the potential importance of secondary organic N species (biogenic amine salts ). However a large fraction of the secondary organic fraction (SOA) is still not characterized and the precursors are not identified. For modeling marine organics, besides reducing the uncertainty in the knowledge of the chemical composition and new precursors, it is of crucial importance to link marine aerosol organic composition to satellite products that could be better proxy for marine biological activity and of its decomposition products than chlorophyll-a.

  13. 78 FR 35363 - Marine Mammals; Incidental Take During Specified Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA), and its implementing regulations, we, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service or we), are finalizing regulations that authorize the nonlethal, incidental, unintentional take of small numbers of Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) during oil and gas Industry......

  14. The Crowded Sea: Incorporating Multiple Marine Activities in Conservation Plans Can Significantly Alter Spatial Priorities

    PubMed Central

    Mazor, Tessa; Possingham, Hugh P.; Edelist, Dori; Brokovich, Eran; Kark, Salit

    2014-01-01

    Successful implementation of marine conservation plans is largely inhibited by inadequate consideration of the broader social and economic context within which conservation operates. Marine waters and their biodiversity are shared by a host of stakeholders, such as commercial fishers, recreational users and offshore developers. Hence, to improve implementation success of conservation plans, we must incorporate other marine activities while explicitly examining trade-offs that may be required. In this study, we test how the inclusion of multiple marine activities can shape conservation plans. We used the entire Mediterranean territorial waters of Israel as a case study to compare four planning scenarios with increasing levels of complexity, where additional zones, threats and activities were added (e.g., commercial fisheries, hydrocarbon exploration interests, aquaculture, and shipping lanes). We applied the marine zoning decision support tool Marxan to each planning scenario and tested a) the ability of each scenario to reach biodiversity targets, b) the change in opportunity cost and c) the alteration of spatial conservation priorities. We found that by including increasing numbers of marine activities and zones in the planning process, greater compromises are required to reach conservation objectives. Complex plans with more activities incurred greater opportunity cost and did not reach biodiversity targets as easily as simplified plans with less marine activities. We discovered that including hydrocarbon data in the planning process significantly alters spatial priorities. For the territorial waters of Israel we found that in order to protect at least 10% of the range of 166 marine biodiversity features there would be a loss of ∼15% of annual commercial fishery revenue and ∼5% of prospective hydrocarbon revenue. This case study follows an illustrated framework for adopting a transparent systematic process to balance biodiversity goals and economic

  15. Contribution of geophysical data in delineating the active subsurface structures along the southeastern Mediterranean and northern Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Salah; Elwan, Mostafa

    2016-04-01

    The solution obtained with 3D Euler deconvolution gives better-focused depth estimates, which are closer to the real position of sources; the results presented here can be used to constrain depth to active crustal structures (fault system, magmatic activity and subduction zones) for southeastern Mediterranean and northern Egypt. The results indicated that the area was affected by sets of structural systems, which primarily trended in the NE-SW to NNE-SSW and NW-SE, directions. The estimated shallow Bouguer results (for SI dikes, sills and flows models) shows an abrupt change depth values (1-8 km) almost clustered along the eastern segment of the Cyprian arc, Indicates continuation of the ophiolite at a depth below younger sediments of the Latakia and southern Antalya Basins. This means that, the Eratosthenes Seamount block is in the process of dynamically subsiding beneath Cyprus to the north and thrusted onto the Levantine Basin to the south. Nevertheless, the Cyprian arc region is dominated by several compressional shallow fault systems (0-4 km) trended E-W to WNW direction, which may initiated due to the northward-directed movement of Africa and ongoing subducting the Levant oceanic segment beneath the Tauric arc south of Cyprus. However, the deep magnetic depths (28 km, for SI of dipole model) correspond more closely to the Moho depth in the oceanic regions of marine part, with a high proportion of Younger Granites (Eratosthenes Seamount, Florence Rise, South Cyprus, eastern part of Levantine Basin and north Nile Cone) which are accompanied with low heat flow values. We can state that the clustering of most shallow earthquakes along this structures (especially beneath southern part of Florence Rise) may most likely be attributed to the active mantle upwelling (volcanic earthquakes), which are ultimately related to volcanic processes. Whereas, the Moho depth reaches to 35 km beneath the continental regions of Nile Delta basins and northern Sinai, which are

  16. Applied high resolution geophysical methods: Offshore geoengineering hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Trabant, P.K.

    1984-01-01

    This book is an examination of the purpose, methodology, equipment, and data interpretation of high-resolution geophysical methods, which are used to assess geological and manmade engineering hazards at offshore construction locations. It is a state-of-the-art review. Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Maring geophysics, an overview. 3. Marine geotechnique, an overview. 4. Echo sounders. 5. Side scan sonar. 6. Subbottom profilers. 7. Seismic sources. 8. Single-channel seismic reflection systems. 9. Multifold acquisition and digital processing. 10. Marine magnetometers. 11. Marine geoengineering hazards. 12. Survey organization, navigation, and future developments. Appendix. Glossary. References. Index.

  17. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Homuth, Emil F.

    1991-01-01

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.

  18. 78 FR 19652 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Office of Naval Research Acoustic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... Specified Activities; Office of Naval Research Acoustic Technology Experiments in the Western North Pacific... Acoustic Technology Experiments (ATE) in the western North Pacific Ocean. The Navy's activities are... underwater active acoustic sources are likely to result in the take of marine mammals. Take, by Level...

  19. 77 FR 87 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Marine Corps Training Exercises...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... significant potential to injure a marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild [Level A Harassment]; or (ii) Any act that disturbs or is likely to disturb a marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild... training, including bombing, strafing, special (laser systems) weapons; surface fires using...

  20. EUMETSAT activities in preparation of the Sentinel-3 Marine Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonekamp, H.; O'Carroll, A.; Kwiatkowska, E.; Montagner, F.; Wilson, H.; Fournier Sicre, V.; Santacesaria, V.; Loddo, C.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the EUMETSAT preparations towards the operational phase of the sentinel-3A mission scheduled for launch in 2013. EUMETSAT is expanding its operational services for applications related to the marine environment and climate monitoring. In its phase E, EUMETSAT will be the Sentinel-3 satellite and Sentinel-3 Marine Centre operator. EUMETSAT has joined up with ESA for the definition of the cal val plans and systems, and to define the set-ups ensuring that the core mission performances and operational products will be state of the art. Specific aspects are the validation and monitoring against in-situ data, and different modes of operations. To support the science discussion in this session with a general familiarisation with the planned operational data streams, the presentation will provide an overview of the set-up of product monitoring and services originating from the EUMETSAT premises. Major recent developments of other marine missions involving EUMETSAT partnerships will also be debriefed.

  1. The Structure-Activity Relationship between Marine Algae Polysaccharides and Anti-Complement Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Weihua; Zhang, Wenjing; Liang, Hongze; Zhang, Quanbin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 33 different polysaccharides were prepared to investigate the structure-activity relationships between the polysaccharides, mainly from marine algae, and anti-complement activity in the classical pathway. Factors considered included extraction methods, fractionations, molecular weight, molar ratio of galactose to fucose, sulfate, uronic acid (UA) content, linkage, branching, and the type of monosaccharide. It was shown that the larger the molecular weights, the better the activities. The molar ratio of galactose (Gal) to fucose (Fuc) was a positive factor at a concentration lower than 10 µg/mL, while it had no effect at a concentration more than 10 µg/mL. In addition, sulfate was necessary; however, the sulfate content, the sulfate pattern, linkage and branching had no effect at a concentration of more than 10 µg/mL. Moreover, the type of monosaccharide had no effect. Laminaran and UA fractions had no activity; however, they could reduce the activity by decreasing the effective concentration of the active composition when they were mixed with the active compositions. The effect of the extraction methods could not be determined. Finally, it was observed that sulfated galactofucan showed good anti-complement activity after separation. PMID:26712768

  2. The Structure-Activity Relationship between Marine Algae Polysaccharides and Anti-Complement Activity.

    PubMed

    Jin, Weihua; Zhang, Wenjing; Liang, Hongze; Zhang, Quanbin

    2015-12-25

    In this study, 33 different polysaccharides were prepared to investigate the structure-activity relationships between the polysaccharides, mainly from marine algae, and anti-complement activity in the classical pathway. Factors considered included extraction methods, fractionations, molecular weight, molar ratio of galactose to fucose, sulfate, uronic acid (UA) content, linkage, branching, and the type of monosaccharide. It was shown that the larger the molecular weights, the better the activities. The molar ratio of galactose (Gal) to fucose (Fuc) was a positive factor at a concentration lower than 10 µg/mL, while it had no effect at a concentration more than 10 µg/mL. In addition, sulfate was necessary; however, the sulfate content, the sulfate pattern, linkage and branching had no effect at a concentration of more than 10 µg/mL. Moreover, the type of monosaccharide had no effect. Laminaran and UA fractions had no activity; however, they could reduce the activity by decreasing the effective concentration of the active composition when they were mixed with the active compositions. The effect of the extraction methods could not be determined. Finally, it was observed that sulfated galactofucan showed good anti-complement activity after separation.

  3. 75 FR 45527 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Military Training Activities and Research, Development...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ...NMFS, upon application from the U.S. Navy (Navy) on behalf of the Department of Defense (including the Navy, the U.S. Air Force (USAF), and the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC)), is issuing regulations to govern the unintentional taking of marine mammals incidental to activities conducted in the Mariana Islands Range Complex (MIRC) study area for the period of July 2010 through July 2015. The Navy's......

  4. National Geophysical Data Center Tsunami Data Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroker, K. J.; Dunbar, P. K.; Brocko, R.

    2008-12-01

    NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and co-located World Data Center for Geophysics and Marine Geology long-term tsunami data archive provides data and derived products essential for tsunami hazard assessment, forecast and warning, inundation modeling, preparedness, mitigation, education, and research. As a result of NOAA's efforts to strengthen its tsunami activities, the long-term tsunami data archive has grown from less than 5 gigabyte in 2004 to more than 2 terabytes in 2008. The types of data archived for tsunami research and operation activities have also expanded in fulfillment of the P.L. 109-424. The archive now consists of: global historical tsunami, significant earthquake and significant volcanic eruptions database; global tsunami deposits and proxies database; reference database; damage photos; coastal water-level data (i.e. digital tide gauge data and marigrams on microfiche); bottom pressure recorder (BPR) data as collected by Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) buoys. The tsunami data archive comes from a wide variety of data providers and sources. These include the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers, NOAA National Data Buoy Center, NOAA National Ocean Service, IOC/NOAA International Tsunami Information Center, NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Geological Survey, tsunami catalogs, reconnaissance reports, journal articles, newspaper articles, internet web pages, and email. NGDC has been active in the management of some of these data for more than 50 years while other data management efforts are more recent. These data are openly available, either directly on-line or by contacting NGDC. All of the NGDC tsunami and related databases are stored in a relational database management system. These data are accessible over the Web as tables, reports, and interactive maps. The maps provide integrated web-based GIS access to individual GIS layers including tsunami sources, tsunami effects, significant earthquakes

  5. Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Elíca Amara Cecília; de Carvalho, Cenira M; Ribeiro Junior, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Lisboa Ribeiro, Thyago Fernando; de Barros, Lurdiana Dayse; de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; Prado Moura, Flávia de Barros; Goulart Sant'ana, Antônio Euzebio

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40  μ g·mL(-1) (11.1460  μ g·mL(-1) and 25.8689  μ g·mL(-1), resp.), and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40  μ g·mL(-1) (29.018  μ g·mL(-1) and 17.230  μ g·mL(-1), resp.). The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277  μ g·mL(-1) and 706.990  μ g·mL(-1)) showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar.

  6. Geophysical Investigations in the Caucasus (1925 - 2012): Initial, Basic and Modern Stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.

    2012-04-01

    The Caucasian Mountains occupy an area of about 440,000 km2. A number of important mineral resources are concentrated there. Geophysical data on the geological structure of Caucasus can shed light on the basic principles of evolution of the Earth, the distribution of minerals and seismic activity. However, geophysical surveys under complex conditions are generally riddled by poor accessibility to certain mountainous regions, the unevenness of observation surfaces, as well as by a great variety and frequent changes of tectonic structures and geological bodies with variable physical properties. These factors either restrict geophysical surveys in difficult environments or confine the scope of useful information drawn from the results obtained. This has led to the development of special techniques in geophysical surveys, data processing and interpretation that draws heavily on the experience accumulated in the specific conditions of these mountainous regions. First applied geophysical observations in the Caucasus region - thermal measurements in boreholes - were carried out by Bazevich (1881) in the Absheron Peninsula. At the same time, start of the initial stage is usually referred to as the mid 20-s of the XX century, when the rare, but systematic geophysical observations (mainly gravity and magnetic) were begun in some Caucasian areas. Somewhat later began to apply the resistivity method. Mid 30-s is characterized by the beginning of application of borehole geophysics and seismic prospecting. The marine seismics firstly in the former Soviet Union was tested in the Caspian Sea. In general, the initial stage is characterized by slow, but steady rise (except during World War II) lasted until 1960. A basic stage (1960-1991) is characterized by very intensive employment of geophysical methods (apparently, any possible geophysical methods were tested in this region). At this time the Caucasus region is considered in the former Soviet Union as a geophysical polygon for

  7. Imprints of Natural Phenomena and Human Activity Observed During 10 Years of ELF Magnetic Measurements at the Hylaty Geophysical Station in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieckarz, Zenon

    2016-12-01

    Current human activity produces strong electromagnetic pollution. The power spectrum in the extremely low frequency (ELF, 3-3000 Hz) range is mainly polluted by anthropogenic narrow spectral lines at 16.66, 50, and 60 Hz and their harmonics. Meanwhile, signatures connected with natural phenomena appearing in the Earth's atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere are also observed in the same frequency range. This paper presents the amplitude behaviour of the anthropogenic lines in the years 2005-2014 based on the 10 years of activity of the Hylaty station situated in southeast Poland. The analysis includes, i.a., an assessment of the correctness of the choice of the Bieszczady mountains as a location for the installation of an ELF station for long-term geophysical and climatological studies.

  8. Effects of culture medium compositions on antidiabetic activity and anticancer activity of marine endophitic bacteria isolated from sponge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryani, Faiza; Mulyani, Hani; Artanti, Nina; Udin, Linar Zalinar; Dewi, Rizna Triana; Hanafi, Muhammad; Murniasih, Tutik

    2017-01-01

    High diversity of Indonesia marine spesies and their ability in producing secondary metabolite that can be used as a drug candidate cause this fascinating topic need to explore. Most of marine organisms explored to discover drug is macroorganism whereas microorganism (such as Indonesia marine bacteria) is very limited. Therefore, in this report, antidiabetic and anticancer activity of Indonesia marine bacteria isolated from Sponges's extract have been studied. Bacteria strain 8.9 which are collection of Research Center for Oseanography, Indonesian Institute of Sciences were from Barrang Lompo Island, Makasar, Indonesia. Bacteria were cultured in different culture medium compositions (such as: different pH, source of glucose and water) for 48 hours on a shaker, then they were extracted with ethyl asetate. Extracts of bacteria were tested by DPPH method (antioxidant activity), alpha glucosidase inhibitory activity method (antidiabetic activity), and Alamar Blue assay (anticancer activity) at 200 ppm. According to result, extract of bacteria in pH 8.0 exhibited the greatest antioxidant (19.27% inhibition), antidiabetic (63.95% inhibition) and anticancer activity of T47D cell line (44.62% cell viability) compared to other extracts. However, effect of addition of sugar sources (such as: glucose, sucrose, and soluble starch) and effect of addition of water/sea water exhibited less influence on their bioactivities. In conclusion, Indonesia marine bacteria isolated from sponge have potential a source of bioactive compound in drug discovery field.

  9. Biological activities and potential health benefits of fucoxanthin derived from marine brown algae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Pangestuti, Ratih

    2011-01-01

    The importance of marine algae as sources of functional ingredients has been well recognized due to their valuable health beneficial effects. Therefore, isolation and investigation of novel bioactive ingredients with biological activities from marine algae have attracted great attention. Among functional ingredients identified from marine algae, fucoxanthin has received particular interest. Fucoxanthin has been attributed with extraordinary potential for protecting the organism against a wide range of diseases and has considerable potential and promising applications in human health. Fucoxanthin has been reported to exhibit various beneficial biological activities such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, and neuroprotective activities. In this chapter, the currently available scientific literatures regarding the most significant activities of fucoxanthin are summarized.

  10. Serious games for Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Valerio; Rubbia, Giuliana

    2015-04-01

    Childhood stage is indispensable in the education of human beings and especially critical to arise scientific interest in children. We discuss the participatory design of a didactic videogame, i.e. a "serious" game to teach geophysics and Earth sciences to high and low-school students. Geophysics is the application of the laws and techniques of physics to uncover knowledge about the earth's dynamic processes and subsurface structure. It explores phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis to improve our understanding of the earth's physical processes and our ability to predict reoccurrences. Effective mitigation of risks from catastrophic geologic hazards requires knowledge and understanding of local geology and geologic processes. Scientific outreach can be defined as discourse activity, whose main objective is to communicate some knowledge previously produced in scientific contexts to a non-expert massive audience. One of the difficulties science educators need to overcome is to explain specific concepts from a given discipline in a language simple and understandable for their audience. Digital games today play a large role in young people's lives. Games are directly connected to the life of today's adolescents. Therefore, digital games should be included and broached as a subject in the classroom. The ardor and enthusiasm that digital games evoke in teenagers has indeed brought many researchers, school leaders and teachers to the question "how video games" can be used to engage young people and support their learning inside the classroom. Additionally, studies have shown that digital games can enhance various skills such as the ability to concentrate, stamina, tactical aptness, anticipatory thinking, orientation in virtual spaces, and deductive reasoning. Thus, videogames become an effective didactic mechanism and should have a place in the classroom. The project aims to explore the potentials of entertainment technologies in educational processes

  11. Analysis of marine sediment and lobster hepatopancreas reference materials by instrumental photon activation

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, S.; Davidson, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    By use of instrumental photon activation analysis, twelve trace (As, Ba, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, U, Zn, and Zr) and eight minor (C, Na, Mg, Co, K, Ca, Tl, and Fe) elements were determined in a certified marine sediment standard reference material as well as eight trace (Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd, and Pb) and four minor (Na, Mg, Cl, and Ca) elements in a certified marine tissue (lobster hepatopancreas) standard reference material. The precision and accuracy of the present results when compared to the accepted values clearly demonstrate the reliability of this nondestructive technique and its applicability to marine environmental or marine geochemical studies. 24 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  12. Environmental and Engineering Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prem V.

    1997-12-01

    Geophysical imaging methods provide solutions to a wide variety of environmental and engineering problems: protection of soil and groundwater from contamination; disposal of chemical and nuclear waste; geotechnical site testing; landslide and ground subsidence hazard detection; location of archaeological artifacts. This book comprehensively describes the theory, data acquisition and interpretation of all of the principal techniques of geophysical surveying: gravity, magnetic, seismic, self-potential, resistivity, induced polarization, electromagnetic, ground-probing radar, radioactivity, geothermal, and geophysical borehole logging. Each chapter is supported by a large number of richly illustrated case histories. This book will prove to be a valuable textbook for senior undergraduates and postgraduates in environmental and applied geophysics, a supplementary course book for students of geology, engineering geophysics, civil and mining engineering, and a reference work for professional earth scientists, engineers and town planners.

  13. Caffeine Use among Active Duty Navy and Marine Corps Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Knapik, Joseph J.; Trone, Daniel W.; McGraw, Susan; Steelman, Ryan A.; Austin, Krista G.; Lieberman, Harris R.

    2016-01-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicate 89% of Americans regularly consume caffeine, but these data do not include military personnel. This cross-sectional study examined caffeine use in Navy and Marine Corps personnel, including prevalence, amount of daily consumption, and factors associated with use. A random sample of Navy and Marine Corps personnel was contacted and asked to complete a detailed questionnaire describing their use of caffeine-containing substances, in addition to their demographic, military, and lifestyle characteristics. A total of 1708 service members (SMs) completed the questionnaire. Overall, 87% reported using caffeinated beverages ≥1 time/week, with caffeine users consuming a mean ± standard error of 226 ± 5 mg/day (242 ± 7 mg/day for men, 183 ± 8 mg/day for women). The most commonly consumed caffeinated beverages (% users) were coffee (65%), colas (54%), teas (40%), and energy drinks (28%). Multivariable logistic regression modeling indicated that characteristics independently associated with caffeine use (≥1 time/week) included older age, white race/ethnicity, higher alcohol consumption, and participating in less resistance training. Prevalence of caffeine use in these SMs was similar to that reported in civilian investigations, but daily consumption (mg/day) was higher. PMID:27735834

  14. Caffeine Use among Active Duty Navy and Marine Corps Personnel.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J; Trone, Daniel W; McGraw, Susan; Steelman, Ryan A; Austin, Krista G; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-10-09

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicate 89% of Americans regularly consume caffeine, but these data do not include military personnel. This cross-sectional study examined caffeine use in Navy and Marine Corps personnel, including prevalence, amount of daily consumption, and factors associated with use. A random sample of Navy and Marine Corps personnel was contacted and asked to complete a detailed questionnaire describing their use of caffeine-containing substances, in addition to their demographic, military, and lifestyle characteristics. A total of 1708 service members (SMs) completed the questionnaire. Overall, 87% reported using caffeinated beverages ≥1 time/week, with caffeine users consuming a mean ± standard error of 226 ± 5 mg/day (242 ± 7 mg/day for men, 183 ± 8 mg/day for women). The most commonly consumed caffeinated beverages (% users) were coffee (65%), colas (54%), teas (40%), and energy drinks (28%). Multivariable logistic regression modeling indicated that characteristics independently associated with caffeine use (≥1 time/week) included older age, white race/ethnicity, higher alcohol consumption, and participating in less resistance training. Prevalence of caffeine use in these SMs was similar to that reported in civilian investigations, but daily consumption (mg/day) was higher.

  15. Antiviral activity of natural products extracted from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Uzair, Bushra; Mahmood, Zahra; Tabassum, Sobia

    2011-01-01

    Many epidemics have broken out over the centuries. Hundreds and thousands of humans have died over a disease. Available treatments for infectious diseases have always been limited. Some infections are more deadly than the others, especially viral pathogens. These pathogens have continuously resisted all kinds of medical treatment, due to a need for new treatments to be developed. Drugs are present in nature and are also synthesized in vitro and they help in combating diseases and restoring health. Synthesizing drugs is a hard and time consuming task, which requires a lot of man power and financial aid. However, the natural compounds are just lying around on the earth, may it be land or water. Over a thousand novel compounds isolated from marine organisms are used as antiviral agents. Others are being pharmacologically tested. Today, over forty antiviral compounds are present in the pharmacological market. Some of these compounds are undergoing clinical and preclinical stages. Marine compounds are paving the way for a new trend in modern medicine.

  16. 50 CFR 18.27 - Regulations governing small takes of marine mammals incidental to specified activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... specified activity (other than commercial fishing) within a specified geographical region. (b) Scope of... specified geographical region and potentially involves the taking of small numbers of marine mammals. The specified activity and specified geographical region should be identified so that the anticipated effects...

  17. Marine-derived Penicillium in Korea: diversity, enzyme activity, and antifungal properties.

    PubMed

    Park, Myung Soo; Fong, Jonathan J; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Sohn, Jae Hak; Lim, Young Woon

    2014-08-01

    The diversity of marine-derived Penicillium from Korea was investigated using morphological and multigene phylogenetic approaches, analyzing sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region, β-tubulin gene, and RNA polymerase subunit II gene. In addition, the biological activity of all isolated strains was evaluated. We tested for the extracellular enzyme activity of alginase, endoglucanase, and β-glucosidase, and antifungal activity against two plant pathogens (Colletotrichum acutatum and Fusarium oxysporum). A total of 184 strains of 36 Penicillium species were isolated, with 27 species being identified. The most common species were Penicillium polonicum (19.6 %), P. rubens (11.4 %), P. chrysogenum (11.4 %), and P. crustosum (10.9 %). The diversity of Penicillium strains isolated from soil (foreshore soil and sand) and marine macroorganisms was higher than the diversity of strains isolated from seawater. While many of the isolated strains showed alginase and β-glucosidase activity, no endoglucanase activity was found. More than half the strains (50.5 %) showed antifungal activity against at least one of the plant pathogens tested. Compared with other strains in this study, P. citrinum (strain SFC20140101-M662) showed high antifungal activity against both plant pathogens. The results reported here expand our knowledge of marine-derived Penicillium diversity. The relatively high proportion of strains that showed antifungal and enzyme activity demonstrates that marine-derived Penicillium have great potential to be used in the production of natural bioactive products for pharmaceutical and/or industrial use.

  18. 77 FR 27720 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... produced from active acoustic sources (primarily airguns) used in the surveys. There is also an onshore... day, if weather conditions allow. NMFS outlined the purpose of the program in a previous notice for... detailed description of the activity, including vessel and acoustic source specifications, the...

  19. Geophysics in INSPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sőrés, László

    2013-04-01

    INSPIRE is a European directive to harmonize spatial data in Europe. Its' aim is to establish a transparent, multidisciplinary network of environmental information by using international standards and OGC web services. Spatial data themes defined in the annex of the directive cover 34 domains that are closely bundled to environment and spatial information. According to the INSPIRE roadmap all data providers must setup discovery, viewing and download services and restructure data stores to provide spatial data as defined by the underlying specifications by 2014 December 1. More than 3000 institutions are going to be involved in the progress. During the data specification process geophysics as an inevitable source of geo information was introduced to Annex II Geology. Within the Geology theme Geophysics is divided into core and extended model. The core model contains specifications for legally binding data provisioning and is going to be part of the Implementation Rules of the INSPIRE directives. To minimize the work load of obligatory data transformations the scope of the core model is very limited and simple. It covers the most essential geophysical feature types that are relevant in economic and environmental context. To fully support the use cases identified by the stake holders the extended model was developed. It contains a wide range of spatial object types for geophysical measurements, processed and interpreted results, and wrapper classes to help data providers in using the Observation and Measurements (O&M) standard for geophysical data exchange. Instead of introducing the traditional concept of "geophysical methods" at a high structural level the data model classifies measurements and geophysical models based on their spatial characteristics. Measurements are classified as geophysical station (point), geophysical profile (curve) and geophysical swath (surface). Generic classes for processing results and interpretation models are curve model (1D), surface

  20. 75 FR 54095 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Seismic Survey in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...NMFS has received an application from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) of the University of California for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting a low-energy marine seismic survey. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to SIO to take, by......

  1. In vitro screening of antifungal activity of marine sponge extracts against five phytopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    El Amraoui, Belkassem; El Wahidi, Majida; Fassouane, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our research is the screening of extracts of marine sponges for their antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi. The in vitro screening of hydroalcoholic and organic extracts of ten marine sponges from Atlantic coast of Morocco against five phytopathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris, Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium digitatum) showed that only two sponges (Haliclona viscosa and Cynachirella tarentina) are active against all phytopathogenic fungi studied.

  2. In vitro anti-HMPV activity of meroditerpenoids from marine alga Stypopodium zonale (Dictyotales).

    PubMed

    Mendes, Gabriella; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Sigiliano, Lorena; Machado, Fernanda; Kaiser, Carlos; Romeiro, Nelilma; Gestinari, Lísia; Santos, Norma; Romanos, Maria Teresa Villela

    2011-10-10

    In this paper, we evaluated the antiviral activity against HMPV replication of crude extract of the marine algae Stypopodium zonale and of two meroditerpenoids obtained from it, atomaric acid and epitaondiol, and a methyl ester derivative of atomaric acid. Their selectivity indexes were 20.78, >56.81, 49.26 and 12.82, respectively. Compared to ribavirin, the substances showed a relatively low cytotoxicity on LLC-MK2 cells, with a significant antiviral activity, inhibiting at least 90% of viral replication in vitro, which demonstrates the potential of these marine natural products to combat infections caused by HMPV in vitro.

  3. High temperature geophysical instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, H.C.

    1988-06-01

    The instrumentation development program was to proceed in parallel with scientific research and was driven by the needs of researchers. The development of these instruments has therefore included numerous geophysical field tests, many of which have resulted in the publication of scientific articles. This paper is a brief summary of some of the major geophysical instruments that have been developed and tested under the High Temperature Geophysics Program. These instruments are briefly described and references are given for further detailed information and for scientific papers that have resulted from the use of these instruments. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  4. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Homuth, E.F.

    1991-03-19

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor is described in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects. 2 figures.

  5. Marine Invertebrate Xenobiotic-Activated Nuclear Receptors: Their Application as Sensor Elements in High-Throughput Bioassays for Marine Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Ingrid; Fidler, Andrew E.

    2014-01-01

    Developing high-throughput assays to screen marine extracts for bioactive compounds presents both conceptual and technical challenges. One major challenge is to develop assays that have well-grounded ecological and evolutionary rationales. In this review we propose that a specific group of ligand-activated transcription factors are particularly well-suited to act as sensors in such bioassays. More specifically, xenobiotic-activated nuclear receptors (XANRs) regulate transcription of genes involved in xenobiotic detoxification. XANR ligand-binding domains (LBDs) may adaptively evolve to bind those bioactive, and potentially toxic, compounds to which organisms are normally exposed to through their specific diets. A brief overview of the function and taxonomic distribution of both vertebrate and invertebrate XANRs is first provided. Proof-of-concept experiments are then described which confirm that a filter-feeding marine invertebrate XANR LBD is activated by marine bioactive compounds. We speculate that increasing access to marine invertebrate genome sequence data, in combination with the expression of functional recombinant marine invertebrate XANR LBDs, will facilitate the generation of high-throughput bioassays/biosensors of widely differing specificities, but all based on activation of XANR LBDs. Such assays may find application in screening marine extracts for bioactive compounds that could act as drug lead compounds. PMID:25421319

  6. Marine invertebrate xenobiotic-activated nuclear receptors: their application as sensor elements in high-throughput bioassays for marine bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Richter, Ingrid; Fidler, Andrew E

    2014-11-24

    Developing high-throughput assays to screen marine extracts for bioactive compounds presents both conceptual and technical challenges. One major challenge is to develop assays that have well-grounded ecological and evolutionary rationales. In this review we propose that a specific group of ligand-activated transcription factors are particularly well-suited to act as sensors in such bioassays. More specifically, xenobiotic-activated nuclear receptors (XANRs) regulate transcription of genes involved in xenobiotic detoxification. XANR ligand-binding domains (LBDs) may adaptively evolve to bind those bioactive, and potentially toxic, compounds to which organisms are normally exposed to through their specific diets. A brief overview of the function and taxonomic distribution of both vertebrate and invertebrate XANRs is first provided. Proof-of-concept experiments are then described which confirm that a filter-feeding marine invertebrate XANR LBD is activated by marine bioactive compounds. We speculate that increasing access to marine invertebrate genome sequence data, in combination with the expression of functional recombinant marine invertebrate XANR LBDs, will facilitate the generation of high-throughput bioassays/biosensors of widely differing specificities, but all based on activation of XANR LBDs. Such assays may find application in screening marine extracts for bioactive compounds that could act as drug lead compounds.

  7. 78 FR 12720 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... beluga whales, to sound levels that may result in injury. For example, protected species observers will... to confirm that the majority of beluga whales have moved out of the proposed survey area before initiating those activities. Response: Beluga whales remain in Cook Inlet year-round, but...

  8. 75 FR 32379 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... m) behind the vessel. Each array is composed of three strings for a total of 26 active G-guns (4 60... and 12 single airguns). The proposed 3,000 in\\3\\ array is also composed of three strings with a...

  9. 75 FR 25729 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... continuous sound sources. Sound measurements from the Discoverer have not previously been conducted in the Arctic or elsewhere; however, sounds from a similar drillship, the Northern Explorer II, were measured at... level for modeling the combined drilling activities. The underwater received sound pressure level...

  10. Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of marine macro algae (Dictyotaceae and Ulvaceae) from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mashjoor, Sakineh; Yousefzadi, Morteza; Esmaeili, Mohamad Ali; Rafiee, Roya

    2016-10-01

    Pharmaceutical industry now accept the worlds ocean which contains a vast array of organisms with unique biological properties, as a major frontier for medical investigation. Bioactive compounds with different modes of action, such as, antiproliferative, antioxidant, antimicrotubule, have been isolated from marine sources, specifically macro and micro algae, and cyanobacteria. The aim of this work was to investigate antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the extracts of marine macro algae Ulva flexuosa, Padina antillarum and Padina boergeseni from the northern coasts of the Persian Gulf, Qeshm Island, Iran, against three cell lines including MCF7, HeLa and Vero, as well as their inhibitory effects against a wide array (i.e. n = 11) of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Antimicrobial activity of the marine macro algal extracts was assessed using a disc diffusion method; an MTT cytotoxicity assay was employed to test the effects of the extracts on each cancer cell line. The algal extracts showed considerable antimicrobial activity against the majority of the tested bacteria and fungi. Both ethyl acetate and methanol extracts at the highest concentration (100 µg/ml) caused cell death, with the IC50 values calculated for each cell type and each algal extracts. Results are exhibited a higher decrease in the viability of the cells treated at the highest concentration of marine macro algal ethyl acetate extracts compared to the methanol extracts (78.9 % death in Vero cells by ethyl acetate extracts from U. flexuosa). Despite, the ethyl acetate extracts with lower dose- response of cells, exhibited better cytotoxic activity than methanol extracts (IC50: 55.26 μg/ml in Vero cells by ethyl acetate extracts from U. flexuosa). Based on the findings, it is concluded that the marine macro algal extracts from the Persian Gulf possess antibacterial and cytotoxic potential, which could be considered for future applications in medicine and identifying novel drugs from the

  11. Excision and transposition activity of Tc1/mariner superfamily transposons in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Sasakura, Yasunori; Yaguchi, Junko; Yaguchi, Shunsuke; Yajima, Mamiko

    2010-03-01

    Tc1/mariner superfamily transposons are used as transformation vectors in various model organisms. The utility of this transposon family is evidenced by the fact that Tc1/mariner transposons have loose host specificity. However, the activity of these transposons has been observed in only a few organisms, and a recent study in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis suggests that not all Tc1/ mariner transposons show loose host specificity. To understand host specificity, we used sea urchins, since they have a long history as materials of embryology and developmental biology. Transposon techniques have not been reported in this organism, despite the likelihood that these techniques would open up many experimental possibilities. Here we tested the activity of three Tc1/ mariner transposons (Minos, Sleeping Beauty, and Frog Prince) in the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. Minos has both excision and transposition activity in H. pulcherrimus embryos, whereas no excision activity was detected for Sleeping Beauty or Frog Prince. This study suggests that Minos is active in a broad range of non-host organisms and can be used as a transformation tool in sea urchin embryos.

  12. Deep Sequencing of Subseafloor Eukaryotic rRNA Reveals Active Fungi across Marine Subsurface Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Orsi, William; Biddle, Jennifer F.; Edgcomb, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The deep marine subsurface is a vast habitat for microbial life where cells may live on geologic timescales. Because DNA in sediments may be preserved on long timescales, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is suggested to be a proxy for the active fraction of a microbial community in the subsurface. During an investigation of eukaryotic 18S rRNA by amplicon pyrosequencing, unique profiles of Fungi were found across a range of marine subsurface provinces including ridge flanks, continental margins, and abyssal plains. Subseafloor fungal populations exhibit statistically significant correlations with total organic carbon (TOC), nitrate, sulfide, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). These correlations are supported by terminal restriction length polymorphism (TRFLP) analyses of fungal rRNA. Geochemical correlations with fungal pyrosequencing and TRFLP data from this geographically broad sample set suggests environmental selection of active Fungi in the marine subsurface. Within the same dataset, ancient rRNA signatures were recovered from plants and diatoms in marine sediments ranging from 0.03 to 2.7 million years old, suggesting that rRNA from some eukaryotic taxa may be much more stable than previously considered in the marine subsurface. PMID:23418556

  13. Deep sequencing of subseafloor eukaryotic rRNA reveals active Fungi across marine subsurface provinces.

    PubMed

    Orsi, William; Biddle, Jennifer F; Edgcomb, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The deep marine subsurface is a vast habitat for microbial life where cells may live on geologic timescales. Because DNA in sediments may be preserved on long timescales, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is suggested to be a proxy for the active fraction of a microbial community in the subsurface. During an investigation of eukaryotic 18S rRNA by amplicon pyrosequencing, unique profiles of Fungi were found across a range of marine subsurface provinces including ridge flanks, continental margins, and abyssal plains. Subseafloor fungal populations exhibit statistically significant correlations with total organic carbon (TOC), nitrate, sulfide, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). These correlations are supported by terminal restriction length polymorphism (TRFLP) analyses of fungal rRNA. Geochemical correlations with fungal pyrosequencing and TRFLP data from this geographically broad sample set suggests environmental selection of active Fungi in the marine subsurface. Within the same dataset, ancient rRNA signatures were recovered from plants and diatoms in marine sediments ranging from 0.03 to 2.7 million years old, suggesting that rRNA from some eukaryotic taxa may be much more stable than previously considered in the marine subsurface.

  14. Marine Invertebrate Metabolites with Anticancer Activities: Solutions to the “Supply Problem”

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Nelson G. M.; Dasari, Ramesh; Chandra, Sunena; Kiss, Robert; Kornienko, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Marine invertebrates provide a rich source of metabolites with anticancer activities and several marine-derived agents have been approved for the treatment of cancer. However, the limited supply of promising anticancer metabolites from their natural sources is a major hurdle to their preclinical and clinical development. Thus, the lack of a sustainable large-scale supply has been an important challenge facing chemists and biologists involved in marine-based drug discovery. In the current review we describe the main strategies aimed to overcome the supply problem. These include: marine invertebrate aquaculture, invertebrate and symbiont cell culture, culture-independent strategies, total chemical synthesis, semi-synthesis, and a number of hybrid strategies. We provide examples illustrating the application of these strategies for the supply of marine invertebrate-derived anticancer agents. Finally, we encourage the scientific community to develop scalable methods to obtain selected metabolites, which in the authors’ opinion should be pursued due to their most promising anticancer activities. PMID:27213412

  15. Basic exploration geophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, E.S.

    1988-01-01

    An introduction to geophysical methods used to explore for natural resources and to survey earth's geology is presented in this volume. It is suitable for second-and third-year undergraduate students majoring in geology or engineering and for professional engineering and for professional engineers and earth scientists without formal instruction in geophysics. The author assumes the reader is familiar with geometry, algebra, and trigonometry. Geophysical exploration includes seismic refraction and reflection surveying, electrical resistivity and electromagnetic field surveying, and geophysical well logging. Surveying operations are described in step-by-step procedures and are illustrated by practical examples. Computer-based methods of processing and interpreting data as well as geographical methods are introduced.

  16. Synergy of tectonic geomorphology, applied geophysics and remote sensing techniques reveals new data for active extensional tectonism in NW Peloponnese (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountoulis, Ioannis; Vassilakis, Emmanuel; Mavroulis, Spyridon; Alexopoulos, John; Dilalos, Spyridon; Erkeki, Athanasia

    2015-05-01

    In tectonically active areas, such as in the northwest Peloponnese of western Greece, geomorphic processes are strongly influenced by active faulting; in many cases such faults cannot be easily identified. In this paper we apply multidisciplinary analysis (morphotectonic indices, neotectonic mapping, geophysical surveys and remote sensing techniques) to map the recently-recognized east-west trending Pineios River normal fault zone with a high degree of accuracy, and to better understand its contribution to the evolution of the ancient region of Elis during Holocene time. Fault activity seems to be related to frequent changes in river flow patterns and to displacements of the nearby shoreline. We argue that fault activity is the main reason for migration of Pineios river mouth as documented for several time periods during historical time. Quantitative constraints on deformation caused by the faulting were applied through the application of the morphotectonic indices proposed in this paper, including drainage network asymmetry and sinuosity, and mountain front sinuosity, all of which indicate that this is a highly active structure. Slip rates calculated to be as high as 0.48 mm/yr for the last 209 ka (based on previously published dating) were verified by applied geophysical methods. The fault surface discontinuity was identified at depth using vertical electrical resistivity measurements and depositional layers of different resistivity were found to be clearly offset. Displacement increases toward the west, reaching an observed maximum of 110 m. The most spectacular landform alteration due to surface deformation is the north-south migration of the river estuary into completely different open sea areas during the late Quaternary, mainly during the Holocene. The sediment transport path has been altered several times due to these changes in river geometry with and the most recent seeming to have occurred almost 2000 years ago. The river estuary migrated to its

  17. 75 FR 78228 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Columbia River Crossing Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ..., Permits, Conservation and Education Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries... to disturb a marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild by causing disruption of...

  18. 78 FR 49729 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Air Force Launches, Aircraft and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... Specified Activities; U.S. Air Force Launches, Aircraft and Helicopter Operations, and Harbor Activities Related to Launch Vehicles From Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB), California AGENCY: National Marine... has received a request from the U.S. Air Force (USAF) for authorization to take marine...

  19. 75 FR 13498 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Dumbarton Bridge Seismic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Specified Activities; Dumbarton Bridge Seismic Retrofit Project, California AGENCY: National Marine... Dumbarton Bridge Seismic Retrofit Project. DATES: Effective August 15, 2010, through August 14, 2011... Seismic Retrofit Project. NMFS issued a notice in the Federal Register ] on December 4, 2009 (74 FR...

  20. Total Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship of Glycoglycerolipids from Marine Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Chunxia; Yu, Guangli; Guan, Huashi

    2014-01-01

    Glycoglycerolipids occur widely in natural products, especially in the marine species. Glycoglycerolipids have been shown to possess a variety of bioactivities. This paper will review the different methodologies and strategies for the synthesis of biological glycoglycerolipids and their analogs for bioactivity assay. In addition, the bioactivities and structure-activity relationship of the glycoglycerolipids are also briefly outlined. PMID:24945415

  1. Directory of Facilities. Development Activities in the Marine Environment of the Coastal Plains Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Philip G.

    Described in this directory are marine activities on the coasts of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, and the adjacent offshore area, known administratively as the Coastal Plains Region. The facilities for each state are described within these categories: educational institutions, state agencies, federal agencies, and industrial…

  2. Only One Ocean: Marine Science Activities for Grades 5-8. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halversen, Catherine; Strang, Craig

    This guide was designed by the Marine Activities, Resources & Education (MARE) Program through the Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) ongoing curriculum development program for middle school students. This GEMS guide addresses the concepts of the interconnectedness of the ocean basins, respect for organisms, oceanography, physical…

  3. 50 CFR 18.27 - Regulations governing small takes of marine mammals incidental to specified activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... anticipated impact of the activity upon the habitat of the marine mammal populations and the likelihood of restoration of the affected habitat; (v) The anticipated impact of the loss or modification of the habitat on... habitat and on the availability of the species for subsistence uses, paying particular attention...

  4. 75 FR 18160 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Antioch Bridge Seismic Retrofit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... existing bridge structure. This is where water depths are less than 10-ft below mean lower-low water (MLLW... Specified Activities; Antioch Bridge Seismic Retrofit Project, California AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Bridge Seismic Retrofit Project. DATES: Effective August 15, 2010, through August 14, 2011. ADDRESSES:...

  5. 78 FR 23910 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction at Orcas Island and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Specified Activities; Construction at Orcas Island and Friday Harbor Ferry Terminals AGENCY: National Marine... at the Orcas Island and Friday Harbor ferry terminals in Washington State between September 2013 and... the Orcas Island and Friday Harbor ferry terminals in Washington State. On July 20, WSDOT submitted...

  6. 78 FR 36527 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction at Bremerton Ferry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... Specified Activities; Construction at Bremerton Ferry Terminal AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... Bremerton Ferry Terminal in Washington State between September 2013 and August 2014. DATES: Effective... Ferry Terminal in Washington State. On December 4, 2012, WSDOT submitted a revised IHA application....

  7. 77 FR 14736 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Pile Placement for Fishermen's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ...-month period (May-August) to allow for permitting and weather delays. Pile driving would only occur in weather that provides adequate visibility for marine mammal monitoring activities. Region of Proposed... passive acoustic monitoring. Records show that bottlenose dolphins and a single unidentified pinniped...

  8. 50 CFR 18.27 - Regulations governing small takes of marine mammals incidental to specified activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the species or stock through effects on annual rates of recruitment or survival. Small numbers means a... specified activity and specified geographical region should be identified so that the anticipated effects on... information; (A) An estimate of the species and numbers of marine mammals likely to be taken by age, sex,...

  9. Phillips Laboratory Geophysics Scholar Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-30

    research at Phillips Laboratory . Research sponsored by Air Force Geophysics Laboratory ...Geophysics Laboratory (now the Phillips Laboratory , Geophysics Directorate), United States Air Force for its sponsorship of this research through the Air ...September 1993 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited PHILLIPS LABORATORY Directorate of Geophysics AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND

  10. 76 FR 33721 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Harbor Activities Related to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ..., 120 36.580' W. Acoustic and visual stimuli generated by the use of heavy equipment during the Delta...). Potential Effects on Marine Mammals Acoustic and visual stimuli generated by: The use of heavy equipment.... This disturbance from acoustic and visual stimuli is the principal means of marine mammal...

  11. A model to predict anti-tuberculosis activity: value proposition for marine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miaomiao; Grkovic, Tanja; Zhang, Lixin; Liu, Xueting; Quinn, Ronald J

    2016-08-01

    The development of new antibiotics effective against all strains of tuberculosis (TB) is needed. To evaluate the potential of marine microbe-derived natural products as anti-TB leads, we analyzed and compared the physico-chemical properties of 39 current TB drugs and candidates against 60 confirmed mycobacteria-active natural products. We showed that anti-TB natural products sourced from marine microbes have a large overlap with TB drug-like space. A model to predict potential anti-TB drugs is proposed.

  12. High-resolution Geophysical Mapping of Submarine Glacial Landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, M.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Canals, M.; Todd, B. J.; Dowdeswell, E. K.; Hogan, K. A.; Mayer, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Glacial landforms are generated from the activity of glaciers and display spatial dimensions ranging from below one meter up to tens of kilometers. Glacial landforms are used as diagnostic features of past activity of ice sheets and glaciers; they are specifically important in the field of palaeoglaciology. Mapping of submarine glacial landforms is largely dependent on geophysical survey methods capable of imaging the seafloor and sub-bottom through the water column. Full "global" seafloor mapping coverage, equivalent to what exists for land elevation, is to-date only achieved by the powerful method of deriving bathymetry from altimeters on satellites like GEOSAT and ERS-1. The lateral resolution of satellite derived bathymetry is, however, limited by the footprint of the satellite and the need to average out local wave and wind effects resulting in values of around 15 km. Consequently, mapping submarine glacial landforms requires for the most part higher resolution than is achievable by satellite derived bathymetry. The most widely-used methods for mapping submarine glacial landforms are based on echo-sounding principles. This presentation shows how the evolution of marine geophysical mapping techniques, in particular the advent of side-scan and multibeam bathymetric sonars, has made it possible to study submarine glacial landforms in unprecedented detail. Examples are shown from the Atlas of Submarine Glacial Landforms: Modern, Quaternary and Ancient, which will be published in late 2015 in the Memoir Series of the Geological Society of London.

  13. Neutron activation analysis of major, minor, and trace elements in marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, S.F.; Zeisler, R.; Koster, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques are well established in the multielement assay of geological materials. Similarly, applications of NAA to the analysis of marine sediments have been described. The different emphasis on elemental composition in studying and monitoring the health of the environment, however, presents a new challenge to the analyst. To investigate as many elements as possible, previous multielement procedures need to be reevaluated and modified. In this work, the authors have utilized the NAA steps of a recently developed sequential analysis procedure that obtained concentrations for 45 biological and pollutant elements in marine bivalves. This procedure, with modification, was applied to samples of marine sediments collected for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Status and Trends (NS T) specimen banking program.

  14. Investigation of Marine-Derived Fungal Diversity and Their Exploitable Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Hong, Joo-Hyun; Jang, Seokyoon; Heo, Young Mok; Min, Mihee; Lee, Hwanhwi; Lee, Young Min; Lee, Hanbyul; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-06-30

    Marine fungi are potential producers of bioactive compounds that may have pharmacological and medicinal applications. Fungi were cultured from marine brown algae and identified using multiple target genes to confirm phylogenetic placement. These target genes included the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the nuclear large subunit (LSU), and the β-tubulin region. Various biological activities of marine-derived fungi were evaluated, including their antifungal, antioxidant and cellulolytic enzyme activities. As a result, a total of 50 fungi was isolated from the brown algae Sargassum sp. Among the 50 isolated fungi, Corollospora angusta was the dominant species in this study. The genus Arthrinium showed a relatively strong antifungal activity to all of the target plant pathogenic fungi. In particular, Arthrinium saccharicola KUC21221 showed high radical scavenging activity and the highest activities in terms of filter paper units (0.39 U/mL), endoglucanase activity (0.38 U/mL), and β-glucosidase activity (1.04 U/mL).

  15. Selection of commercial hydrolytic enzymes with potential antifouling activity in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Zanaroli, Giulio; Negroni, Andrea; Calisti, Cecilia; Ruzzi, Maurizio; Fava, Fabio

    2011-12-10

    In this work, the marine antifouling potential of some commercially available hydrolytic enzymes acting on the main constituents of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) involved in bacterial biofilm formation was determined. The selected protease (i.e., alpha-chymotrypsin from bovine pancreas), carbohydrase (i.e., alpha-amylase from porcine pancreas) and lipase (from porcine pancreas) exhibited remarkable hydrolytic activities towards target macromolecules typically composing EPS under a wide range of pHs (6.5-9.0 for alpha-chymotrysin and alpha-amylase; 7.0-8.5 for the lipase) and temperatures (from 10 °C to 30 °C), as well as relevant half-lives (from about 2 weeks to about 2 months), in a marine synthetic water. The activity displayed by each enzyme was poorly affected by the co-presence of the other enzymes, thus indicating their suitability to be employed in combination. None of the enzymes was able to inhibit the formation of biofilm by an actual site marine microbial community when applied singly. However, a mixture of the same enzymes reduced biofilm formation by about 90% without affecting planktonic growth of the same microbial community. This indicates that multiple hydrolytic activities are required to efficiently prevent biofilm formation by complex microbial communities, and that the mixture of enzymes selected in this study has the potential to be employed as an environmental friendly antifouling agent in marine antifouling coatings.

  16. Antialgal and antilarval activities of bioactive compounds extracted from the marine dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xianyu; Han, Xiurong; Gao, Min; Su, Rongguo; Wang, Ke; Li, Xuzhao; Lu, Wei

    2016-12-01

    With the global ban on the application of organotin-based marine coatings by the International Maritime Organization, the development of environmentally friendly, low-toxic and nontoxic antifouling compounds for marine industries has become an urgent need. Marine microorganisms have been considered as a potential source of natural antifoulants. In this study, the antifouling potential of marine dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae, the toxic and red-tide microalgae, was investigated. We performed a series of operations to extract the bioactive substances from Amphidinium carterae and tested their antialgal and antilarval activities. The crude extract of Amphidinium carterae showed significant antialgal activity and the EC50 value against Skeletonema costatum was 55.4 μg mL-1. After purification, the isolated bioactive substances (the organic extract C) exhibited much higher antialgal and antilarval activities with EC50 of 12.9 μg mL-1 against Skeletonema costatum and LC50 of 15.1 μg mL-1 against Amphibalanus amphitrite larvae. Subsequently, IR, Q-TOFMS, and GC-MS were utilized for the structural elucidation of the bioactive compounds, and a series of unsaturated and saturated 16- to 22-carbon fatty acids were detected. The data suggested the bioactive compounds isolated from Amphidinium carterae exhibited a significant inhibiting effect against the diatom Skeletonema costatum and Amphibalanus amphitrite larvae, and could be substitutes for persistent, toxic antifouling compounds.

  17. Transposition of Mboumar-9: identification of a new naturally active mariner-family transposon.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-López, Martín; Siddique, Azeem; Bischerour, Julien; Lorite, Pedro; Chalmers, Ronald; Palomeque, Teresa

    2008-10-10

    Although mariner transposons are widespread in animal genomes, the vast majority harbor multiple inactivating mutations and only two naturally occurring elements are known to be active. Previously, we discovered a mariner-family transposon, Mboumar, in the satellite DNA of the ant Messor bouvieri. Several copies of the transposon contain a full-length open reading frame, including Mboumar-9, which has 64% nucleotide identity to Mos1 of Drosophila mauritiana. To determine whether Mboumar is currently active, we expressed and purified the Mboumar-9 transposase and demonstrate that it is able to catalyze the movement of a transposon from one plasmid to another in a genetic in vitro hop assay. The efficiency is comparable to that of the well-characterized mariner transposon Mos1. Transposon insertions were precise and were flanked by TA duplications, a hallmark of mariner transposition. Mboumar has been proposed to have a role in the evolution and maintenance of satellite DNA in M. bouvieri and its activity provides a means to examine the involvement of the transposon in the genome dynamics of this organism.

  18. Waste production and regional growth of marine activities an econometric model.

    PubMed

    Bramati, Maria Caterina

    2016-11-15

    Coastal regions are characterized by intense human activity and climatic pressures, often intensified by competing interests in the use of marine waters. To assess the effect of public spending on the regional economy, an econometric model is here proposed. Not only are the regional investment and the climatic risks included in the model, but also variables related to the anthropogenic pressure, such as population, economic activities and waste production. Feedback effects of economic and demographic expansion on the pollution of coastal areas are also considered. It is found that dangerous waste increases with growing shipping and transportation activities and with growing population density in non-touristic coastal areas. On the other hand, the amount of non-dangerous wastes increases with marine mining, defense and offshore energy production activities. However, lower waste production occurs in areas where aquaculture and touristic industry are more exploited, and accompanied by increasing regional investment in waste disposal.

  19. A Case of Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome in a Healthy Active Duty Marine.

    PubMed

    Thota, Darshan; Portouw, Steven J; Bruner, David I

    2015-10-01

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is an uncommon disorder that can lead to small bowel obstructions or perforations. Typical populations include young females with anorexia. However, there have been a few reports of healthy males with acute vomiting reported to have SMA syndrome. Our case report highlights an active duty Marine who developed SMA syndrome and the importance of recognizing this disease given the severity in delay of diagnosis in population of young healthy active duty members.

  20. Geophysical investigation at Fort Detrick Maryland. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Llopis, J.L.; Simms, J.E.

    1993-07-01

    Results of a comprehensive, integrated geophysical investigation of 15 suspected disposal areas at Area B, Fort Detrick, Maryland, are presented. Between 1943 and 1969, Fort Detrick served as the nation's center for military offensive and defensive biological research. As a result of this activity, chemically and biologically contaminated materials were generated and disposed in burial pits at Site B. Based on historical and visual information, 15 sites suspected of containing burial pits were selected to be examined in greater detail using geophysical methods. The geophysical investigations were designed to detect anomalous conditions indicative of past disposal activities. The geophysical program included electromagnetic (EM), magnetic, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and seismic refraction methods. Anomalous conditions were found at several of the sites tested and noted. The anomalous conditions may have resulted from the presence of buried material or from physical and/or chemical soil changes caused by disposal activities.... Geophysics, Electromagnetics ground penetrating radar, Geophysical surveys, Magnetics, Seismic refraction.

  1. The geology and geophysics of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    The current state of knowledge concerning the regional geology and geophysics of Mars is summarized. Telescopic observations of the planet are reviewed, pre-Mariner models of its interior are discussed, and progress achieved with the Mariner flybys, especially that of Mariner 9, is noted. A map of the Martian geological provinces is presented to provide a summary of the surface geology and morphology. The contrast between the northern and southern hemispheres is pointed out, and the characteristic features of the surface are described in detail. The global topography of the planet is examined along with its gravitational field, gravity anomalies, and moment of inertia. The general sequence of events in Martian geological history is briefly outlined.

  2. Screening of a Marine Algal Extract for Antifungal Activities.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Graciliana; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few years algal extracts have become increasingly interesting to the scientific community due to their promising biological properties. Phlorotannin extracts are particularly attractive partly due to their reported antifungal activity against several yeast and dermatophyte strains.The micromethod used for the evaluation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum lethal concentration (MLC) represents an effective and solvent-saving procedure to evaluate the antifungal activity of algae extracts. Here we describe the micromethod for determining the MIC and the MLC of algal extracts by using the example of a purified phlorotannin extract of brown algae.

  3. Antifouling activity of secondary metabolites isolated from chinese marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Xin; Wu, Hui-Xian; Xu, Ying; Shao, Chang-Lun; Wang, Chang-Yun; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2013-10-01

    Biofouling results in tremendous economic losses to maritime industries around the world. A recent global ban on the use of organotin compounds as antifouling agents has further raised demand for safe and effective antifouling compounds. In this study, 49 secondary metabolites, including diterpenoids, steroids, and polyketides, were isolated from soft corals, gorgonians, brown algae, and fungi collected along the coast of China, and their antifouling activity was tested against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) amphitrite. Twenty of the compounds were found to inhibit larval settlement significantly at a concentration of 25 μg ml(-1). Two briarane diterpenoids, juncin O (2) and juncenolide H (3), were the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates, with EC50 values less than 0.13 μg ml(-1) and a safety ratio (LC50/EC50) higher than 400. A preliminary structure-activity relationships study indicated that both furanon and furan moieties are important for antifouling activity. Intriguingly, the presence of hydroxyls enhanced their antisettlement activity.

  4. Marine Biology Field Trip Sites. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  5. Vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity concentration in marine sediments at Amvrakikos Gulf, western of Greece.

    PubMed

    Tsabaris, C; Patiris, D L; Fillis-Tsirakis, E; Kapsimalis, V; Pilakouta, M; Pappa, F K; Vlastou, R

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present work is the study of (137)Cs migration in sediment column taking into account the sedimentation rate in the Amvrakikos Gulf, at the western part of Greece. Marine core sediments were collected and the measurements were performed using the high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry method. The vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity concentration, as part of anthropogenic marine radioactivity, provided averaged sedimentation rate by identifying the depths of activity concentrations due to the Chernobyl accident and the nuclear tests signals. Furthermore, (137)Cs measurements were reproduced using the proposed one-dimensional diffusion-advection model which provides mainly as an output, the sedimentation rate and the average diffusivity of (137)Cs in the sediment column. The proposed model estimates the temporal variation of (137)Cs activity concentration from 1987 (one year after the Chernobyl accident) till today (2014).

  6. Antitumor activity of palmitic acid found as a selective cytotoxic substance in a marine red alga.

    PubMed

    Harada, Hideki; Yamashita, Uki; Kurihara, Hideyuki; Fukushi, Eri; Kawabata, Jun; Kamei, Yuto

    2002-01-01

    In a previous report, we discussed an extract from a marine red alga, Amphiroa zonata, which shows selective cytotoxic activity to human leukemic cells, but no cytotoxicity to normal human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells in vitro. In this study, we identified palmitic acid, a selective cytotoxic substance from the marine algal extract, and investigated its biological activities. At concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 50 micrograms/ml, palmitic acid shows selective cytotoxicity to human leukemic cells, but no cytotoxicity to normal HDF cells. Furthermore, palmitic acid induces apoptosis in the human leukemic cell line MOLT-4 at 50 micrograms/ml. Palmitic acid also shows in vivo antitumor activity in mice. One molecular target of palmitic acid in tumor cells is DNA topoisomerase I, however, interestingly, it does not affect DNA topoisomerase II, suggesting that palmitic acid may be a lead compound of anticancer drugs.

  7. Differentiation of Chitinase-Active and Non-Chitinase-Active Subpopulations of a Marine Bacterium during Chitin Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Baty, Ace M.; Eastburn, Callie C.; Diwu, Zhenjun; Techkarnjanaruk, Somkiet; Goodman, Amanda E.; Geesey, Gill G.

    2000-01-01

    The ability of marine bacteria to adhere to detrital particulate organic matter and rapidly switch on metabolic genes in an effort to reproduce is an important response for bacterial survival in the pelagic marine environment. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between chitinolytic gene expression and extracellular chitinase activity in individual cells of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 attached to solid chitin. A green fluorescent protein reporter gene under the control of the chiA promoter was used to evaluate chiA gene expression, and a precipitating enzyme-linked fluorescent probe, ELF-97–N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminide, was used to evaluate extracellular chitinase activity among cells in the bacterial population. Evaluation of chiA expression and ELF-97 crystal location at the single-cell level revealed two physiologically distinct subpopulations of S91 on the chitin surface: one that was chitinase active and remained associated with the surface and another that was non-chitinase active and released daughter cells into the bulk aqueous phase. It is hypothesized that the surface-associated, non-chitinase-active population is utilizing chitin degradation products that were released by the adjacent chitinase-active population for cell replication and dissemination into the bulk aqueous phase. PMID:10919822

  8. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of the Marine Pyrroloiminoquinone Makaluvamines

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Eva; Alvariño, Rebeca; Leirós, Marta; Tabudravu, Jioji N.; Feussner, Klaus; Dam, Miriam A.; Rateb, Mostafa E.; Jaspars, Marcel; Botana, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    Makaluvamines are pyrroloiminoquinones isolated from Zyzzya sponges. Until now, they have been described as topoisomerase II inhibitors with cytotoxic effects in diverse tumor cell lines. In the present work, seven makaluvamines were tested in several antioxidant assays in primary cortical neurons and neuroblastoma cells. Among the alkaloids studied, makaluvamine J was the most active in all the assays. This compound was able to reduce the mitochondrial damage elicited by the well-known stressor H2O2. The antioxidant properties of makaluvamine J are related to an improvement of the endogenous antioxidant defenses of glutathione and catalase. SHSY5Y assays proved that this compound acts as a Nrf2 activator leading to an improvement of antioxidant defenses. A low concentration of 10 nM is able to reduce the reactive oxygen species release and maintain a correct mitochondrial function. Based on these results, non-substituted nitrogen in the pyrrole plus the presence of a p-hydroxystyryl without a double bond seems to be the most active structure with a complete antioxidant effect in neuronal cells. PMID:27801775

  9. Antibacterial activity and QSAR of chalcones against biofilm-producing bacteria isolated from marine waters.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, P M; Prabhawathi, V; Doble, M

    2010-04-01

    Biofouling in the marine environment is a major problem. In this study, three marine organisms, namely Bacillus flexus (LD1), Pseudomonas fluorescens (MD3) and Vibrio natriegens (MD6), were isolated from biofilms formed on polymer and metal surfaces immersed in ocean water. Phylogenetic analysis of these three organisms indicated that they were good model systems for studying marine biofouling. The in vitro antifouling activity of 47 synthesized chalcone derivatives was investigated by estimating the minimum inhibitory concentration against these organisms using a twofold dilution technique. Compounds C-5, C-16, C-24, C-33, C-34 and C-37 were found to be the most active. In the majority of the cases it was found that these active compounds had hydroxyl substitutions. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) was developed after dividing the total data into training and test sets. The statistical measures r(2), [image omitted] (>0.6) q(2) (>0.5) and the F-ratio were found to be satisfactory. Spatial, structural and electronic descriptors were found to be predominantly affecting the antibiofouling activity of these compounds. Among the spatial descriptors, Jurs descriptors showed their contribution in all the three antibacterial QSARs.

  10. Defence force activities in marine protected areas: environmental management of Shoalwater Bay Training Area, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen; Wang, Xiaohua; Paull, David; Kesby, Julie

    2010-05-01

    Environmental management of military activities is of growing global concern by defence forces. As one of the largest landholders in Australia, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) is increasingly concerned with sustainable environmental management. This paper focuses on how the ADF is maintaining effective environmental management, especially in environmentally sensitive marine protected areas. It uses Shoalwater Bay Training Area (SWBTA) as a research example to examine environmental management strategies conducted by the ADF. SWBTA is one of the most significant Defence training areas in Australia, with a large number of single, joint and combined military exercises conducted in the area. With its maritime component contained in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA), and abutting Queensland’s State Marine Parks, it has high protection values. It is therefore vital for the ADF to adopt environmentally responsible management while they are conducting military activities. As to various tools employed to manage environmental performance, the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) is widely used by the ADF. This paper examines military activities and marine environmental management within SWBTA, using the Talisman Saber (TS) exercise series as an example. These are extensive joint exercises conducted by the ADF and the United States defence forces. The paper outlines relevant legislative framework and environmental policies, analyses how the EMS operates in environmental management of military activities, and how military activities comply with these regulations. It discusses the implementation of the ADF EMS, including risk reduction measures, environmental awareness training, consultation and communication with stakeholders. A number of environmental management actions used in the TS exercises are presented to demonstrate the EMS application. Our investigations to this point indicate that the ADF is

  11. Active fault segments as potential earthquake sources: Inferences from integrated geophysical mapping of the Magadi fault system, southern Kenya Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuria, Z. N.; Woldai, T.; van der Meer, F. D.; Barongo, J. O.

    2010-06-01

    Southern Kenya Rift has been known as a region of high geodynamic activity expressed by recent volcanism, geothermal activity and high rate of seismicity. The active faults that host these activities have not been investigated to determine their subsurface geometry, faulting intensity and constituents (fluids, sediments) for proper characterization of tectonic rift extension. Two different models of extension direction (E-W to ESE-WNW and NW-SE) have been proposed. However, they were based on limited field data and lacked subsurface investigations. In this research, we delineated active fault zones from ASTER image draped on ASTER DEM, together with relocated earthquakes. Subsequently, we combined field geologic mapping, electrical resistivity, ground magnetic traverses and aeromagnetic data to investigate the subsurface character of the active faults. Our results from structural studies identified four fault sets of different age and deformational styles, namely: normal N-S; dextral NW-SE; strike slip ENE-WSW; and sinistral NE-SW. The previous studies did not recognize the existence of the sinistral oblique slip NE-SW trending faults which were created under an E-W extension to counterbalance the NW-SE faults. The E-W extension has also been confirmed from focal mechanism solutions of the swarm earthquakes, which are located where all the four fault sets intersect. Our findings therefore, bridge the existing gap in opinion on neo-tectonic extension of the rift suggested by the earlier authors. Our results from resistivity survey show that the southern faults are in filled with fluid (0.05 and 0.2 Ωm), whereas fault zones to the north contain high resistivity (55-75 Ωm) material. The ground magnetic survey results have revealed faulting activity within active fault zones that do not contain fluids. In addition, the 2D inversion of the four aero-magnetic profiles (209 km long) revealed: major vertical to sub vertical faults (dipping 75-85° east or west); an

  12. Geophysical Fiber Interferometer Gyroscope.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-31

    gravitational antenna. Basically, their device was a Twyman -Green laser interferometer that was allegedly well-isolated from its thermal and...r ~AD-AO92 913 UTAH UNIV RESEARCH INST SALT LAKE CITY GEOSPACE SCIE-EYC F/B 20/6 GEOPHYSICAL FIBER INTERFEROMETER GYROSCOPE(U) .S DEC 79 L 0 WEAVER...ACCESSION no: S, 111CIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER AF6ii M_ __ _ __I_ _ 4. TItLIL (eovm4jk"IU .TYEo nPaTawn.ocoet GEOPHYSICAL FIBER INTERFEROMETER GYROSCOPE. / 9

  13. Pre-Launch phase 2 rehearsal of the calibration and validation of soil moisture active passive (SMAP) geophysical data products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled for launch in early November 2014. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and landscape freeze/thaw state. SMAP utilizes L-band radar and radiometer measurements sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna...

  14. Antifouling activities against colonizer marine bacteria of extracts from marine invertebrates collected in the Colombian Caribbean Sea and on the Brazilian coast (Santa Catarina).

    PubMed

    Mora-Cristancho, Jennyfer A; Arévalo-Ferro, Catalina; Ramos, Freddy A; Tello, Edisson; Duque, Carmenza; Lhullier, Cintia; Falkenberg, Miriam; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo

    2011-01-01

    The growth inhibition of 12 native marine bacteria isolated from Aplysina sponge surfaces, the shell of a bivalve, and Phytagel immersed for 48 h in sea water were used as indicator of the antifouling activity of the extracts of 39 marine organisms (octocorals, sponges, algae, and zoanthid) collected in the Colombian Caribbean Sea and on the Brazilian coast (Santa Catarina). Gram-negative bacteria represented 75% of the isolates; identified strains belonged to Oceanobacillus iheyensis, Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense, Vibrio campbellii, Vibrio harveyi, and Bacillus megaterium species and seven strains were classified at genus level by the 16S rRNA sequencing method. The extracts of the octocorals Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae, four Eunicea octocorals, and the sponges Topsentia ophiraphidites, Agelas citrina, Neopetrosia carbonaria, Monanchora arbuscula, Cliona tenuis, Iotrochota imminuta, and Ptilocaulis walpersii were the most active, thus suggesting those species as antifoulant producers. This is the first study of natural antifoulants from marine organisms collected on the Colombian and Brazilian coasts.

  15. Organism activity levels predict marine invertebrate survival during ancient global change extinctions.

    PubMed

    Clapham, Matthew E

    2017-04-01

    Multistressor global change, the combined influence of ocean warming, acidification, and deoxygenation, poses a serious threat to marine organisms. Experimental studies imply that organisms with higher levels of activity should be more resilient, but testing this prediction and understanding organism vulnerability at a global scale, over evolutionary timescales, and in natural ecosystems remain challenging. The fossil record, which contains multiple extinctions triggered by multistressor global change, is ideally suited for testing hypotheses at broad geographic, taxonomic, and temporal scales. Here, I assess the importance of activity level for survival of well-skeletonized benthic marine invertebrates over a 100-million-year-long interval (Permian to Jurassic periods) containing four global change extinctions, including the end-Permian and end-Triassic mass extinctions. More active organisms, based on a semiquantitative score incorporating feeding and motility, were significantly more likely to survive during three of the four extinction events (Guadalupian, end-Permian, and end-Triassic). In contrast, activity was not an important control on survival during nonextinction intervals. Both the end-Permian and end-Triassic mass extinctions also triggered abrupt shifts to increased dominance by more active organisms. Although mean activity gradually returned toward pre-extinction values, the net result was a permanent ratcheting of ecosystem-wide activity to higher levels. Selectivity patterns during ancient global change extinctions confirm the hypothesis that higher activity, a proxy for respiratory physiology, is a fundamental control on survival, although the roles of specific physiological traits (such as extracellular pCO2 or aerobic scope) cannot be distinguished. Modern marine ecosystems are dominated by more active organisms, in part because of selectivity ratcheting during these ancient extinctions, so on average may be less vulnerable to global change

  16. Seasonal variation of antifouling activities of marine algae from the Brittany coast (France).

    PubMed

    Hellio, Claire; Marechal, Jean-Philippe; Véron, Benoît; Bremer, Graham; Clare, Anthony S; Le Gal, Yves

    2004-01-01

    The antifouling activity of extracts (aqueous, ethanol, and dichloromethane) of 9 marine macroalgae against bacteria, fungi, diatoms, macroalgal spores, mussel phenoloxidase activity, and barnacle cypris larvae has been investigated in relation to season in bimonthly samples from the Bay of Concarneau (France). Of the extracts tested, 48.2% were active against at least one of the fouling organisms, and of these extracts, 31.2% were seasonally active with a peak of activity in summer corresponding to maximal values for water temperature, light intensity, and fouling pressure, and 17% were active throughout the year. This seasonal activity may be adaptive as it coincides with maximal fouling pressure in the Bay of Concarneau. Dichloromethane extracts of Rhodophyceae were the most active in the antifouling assays.

  17. Inventory of non-federally funded marine pollution research, development, and monitoring activities: West Coast region

    SciTech Connect

    Canton, G.M.; Opresko, D.M.; Weaver, R.S.

    1987-12-01

    Knowledge of current marine pollution research and monitoring programs is an important factor in planning and guiding future national efforts to control such pollution. To supplement these reports on Federal activities, NMPPO published a series of reports in 1980 on non-federally funded marine pollution research and monitoring activities in various regions. The following document presents an update of one of these reports. It presents an inventory of the non-federally funded research and monitoring projects for the West Coast region of the United States. It is one in a series of four updates that will collectively provide an updated inventory of non-federally funded projects for all the coastal regions of the United States.

  18. Passive drift or active swimming in marine organisms?

    PubMed Central

    Lumpkin, Rick; Sacco, Alexander E.; Mansfield, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Predictions of organismal movements in a fluid require knowing the fluid's velocity and potential contributions of the organism's behaviour (e.g. swimming or flying). While theoretical aspects of this work are reasonably well-developed, field-based validation is challenging. A much-needed study recently published by Briscoe and colleagues in Proceedings of the Royal Society B compared movements and distribution of satellite-tracked juvenile sea turtles to virtual particles released in a data-assimilating hindcast ocean circulation model. Substantial differences observed between turtles and particles were considered evidence for an important role of active swimming by turtles. However, the experimental design implicitly assumed that transport predictions were insensitive to (i) start location, (ii) tracking duration, (iii) depth, and (iv) physical processes not depicted in the model. Here, we show that the magnitude of variation in physical parameters between turtles and virtual particles can profoundly alter transport predictions, potentially sufficient to explain the reported differences without evoking swimming behaviour. We present a more robust method to derive the environmental contributions to individual movements, but caution that resolving the ocean velocities experienced by individual organisms remains a problem for assessing the role of behaviour in organismal movements and population distributions. PMID:27974518

  19. An efficient synthesis method targeted to marine alkaloids marinacarbolines A-D and their antitumor activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Tang, Yang; Jin, Hui-Juan; Cui, Yi-Di; Zhang, Li-Juan; Jiang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Marinacarbolines A-D are a series of marine β-carboline alkaloids isolated from actinomycete Marinactinospora thermotolerans of the deep South China Sea with antiplasmodial activities. In inhibition assays of in vitro growth of Plasmodium falciparum, marinacarbolines exhibited antiplasmodial activity against drug-sensitive line 3D7 and drug-resistant line Dd2 of P. falciparum. However, approaches for the synthesis of such useful compounds are very limited. In this work, we reported a simple, efficient, and versatile process to synthesize marinacarbolines A-D (1-4). On the basis of that, the antitumor activities of marinacarbolines in a structure-dependent manner were allowed to be unveiled.

  20. Geophysics News 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Stephen

    The last two years have witnessed many major geophysical events such as the Loma Prieta earthquake, new insights into plate motions, new seismic and mid-ocean ridge observational programs, and new views of a distant planet. AGU's Public Information Committee, chaired by Debra Knopman of the U.S. Geological Survey, was asked by the American Institute of Physics to prepare a series of articles on the major topics in geophysics for publication in Physics News in 1990. Several of those papers did appear in the AIP publication. In the absence of a comparable publication devoted solely to a summary of news in geophysics, AGU is publishing the 20 articles solicited by the Public Information Committee as a booklet, Geophysics News 1990, that is being distributed to the media. The articles are also being published in Eos starting with this issue and continuing for the next several weeks. The topics covered in these articles range from the world's deepest rocks to the powerful blast waves from major solar flares.

  1. Cytotoxic and HIV-1 enzyme inhibitory activities of Red Sea marine organisms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer and HIV/AIDS are two of the greatest public health and humanitarian challenges facing the world today. Infection with HIV not only weakens the immune system leading to AIDS and increasing the risk of opportunistic infections, but also increases the risk of several types of cancer. The enormous biodiversity of marine habitats is mirrored by the molecular diversity of secondary metabolites found in marine animals, plants and microbes which is why this work was designed to assess the anti-HIV and cytotoxic activities of some marine organisms of the Red Sea. Methods The lipophilic fractions of methanolic extracts of thirteen marine organisms collected from the Red Sea (Egypt) were screened for cytotoxicity against two human cancer cell lines; leukaemia (U937) and cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. African green monkey kidney cells (Vero) were used as normal non-malignant control cells. The extracts were also tested for their inhibitory activity against HIV-1 enzymes, reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR). Results Cytotoxicity results showed strong activity of the Cnidarian Litophyton arboreum against U-937 (IC50; 6.5 μg/ml ±2.3) with a selectivity index (SI) of 6.45, while the Cnidarian Sarcophyton trochliophorum showed strong activity against HeLa cells (IC50; 5.2 μg/ml ±1.2) with an SI of 2.09. Other species showed moderate to weak cytotoxicity against both cell lines. Two extracts showed potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 protease; these were the Cnidarian jelly fish Cassiopia andromeda (IC50; 0.84 μg/ml ±0.05) and the red algae Galaxura filamentosa (2.6 μg/ml ±1.29). It is interesting to note that the most active extracts against HIV-1 PR, C. andromeda and G. filamentosa showed no cytotoxicity in the three cell lines at the highest concentration tested (100 μg/ml). Conclusion The strong cytotoxicity of the soft corals L. arboreum and S. trochliophorum as well as the anti-PR activity of the jelly fish C. andromeda and the red

  2. Mutagenic activation of aromatic amines by molluscs as a biomarker of marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Méndez, F M; Rodríguez-Ariza, A; Usero-García, J; Pueyo, C; López-Barea, J

    1998-01-01

    Mutagenic activation of arylamines by mollusc S9 fractions was evaluated as a biomarker for marine pollution. Two bivalve species were used as bioindicators, the common mussel (Mytilus edulis) and the striped venus (Chameleo gallina). A strain of Salmonella typhimurium overproducing O-acetyltransferase was used as indicator of mutagenicity. Mussels from an area of the North Atlantic Spanish zone that was exposed to an accidental crude oil spill were compared to bivalves from a reference area. C. gallina samples were from low polluted and highly polluted areas of the South Atlantic Spanish littoral. The promutagen 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) was activated to mutagenic derivative(s) by S9 fractions from both C. gallina and M. edulis. Animals from contaminated sites showed higher arylamine activation capabilities than reference animals. This was further correlated with the mutagenic activities of corresponding cyclopentone-dichloromethane animal extracts. 2-AA activation by mollusc S9 was potentiated by alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF), known to inhibit PAH-inducible CYP1A cytochromes from vertebrates, but inhibited by methimazole (MZ), a substrate of the flavin monooxygenase (FMO) system. 2-AA-activating enzymes were mainly cytosolic; this localization clearly suggests that such activity could be attributed to soluble enzymes, different from the CYP1A or FMO systems. In conclusion, mutagenic activation of arylamines by mollusc S9, using as indicator a strain of Salmonella typhimurium that overproduces O-acetyltransferase, could be a reliable biomarker for marine pollution.

  3. Comparison between two methods of assaying relative microbial activity in marine environments.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, R P; Hayasaka, S S; McNamara, T M; Morita, R Y

    1977-01-01

    Two methods for determining relative microbial activity in the marine environment were compared. In one method, a single concentration of a labeled substrate was used to calculate rates of substrate utilization; in the other, multiple concentrations of the same substrate (heterotrophic activity method) were used to calculate maximum potential substrate utilization rates. These studies were made on 232 seawater and 79 sediment samples taken from a variety of marine environments. The highest correlations between these two methods were seen in the sediment samples tested. The lowest correlation coerfficient seen in the sediment samples was 0.90, and the highest was 0.98. In seawater samples (six studies), the lowest correlation coefficient was 0.77 and the highest was 0.95. The correlation between these two methods was also substrate concentration dependent. Higher correlation coefficients were observed when higher substrate concentrations were used. Under certain conditions, these two methods appear to be comparable for estimating relative levels of microbial activity in the marine environment. PMID:339837

  4. Mutagen content and metabolic activation of promutagens by molluscs as biomarkers of marine pollution.

    PubMed

    López-Barea, J; Pueyo, C

    1998-03-13

    Organisms combat pollutants by inducing biotransformation pathways, which can be used for biomonitoring. Several parameters--biomarkers--change in stressed organisms or populations at different organisation levels. Molecular or cellular biomarkers are early-warning indicators of pollution. Xenobiotics are first biotransformed by phase I enzymes and then conjugated with endogenous metabolites by phase II enzymes. Many organic xenobiotics are initially biotransformed by cytochrome P4501A1; in mammals, it is induced by pollutants via Ah receptor, although in marine invertebrates, its inducibility is much more equivocal. Metallothioneins are small Cys-rich proteins which bind transition metals; they detoxicate pollutant metals and are clearly induced in metal-exposed marine invertebrates. Some pollutants are genotoxins or can be converted into them. Determination of mutagens in bivalve molluscs following extraction with solvents and assay of mutagenicity with bacterial tests is a useful biomarker for marine pollution. While some pollutants are directly mutagenic, others are only mutagenic after they are activated to mutagenic derivatives by monooxygenases or conjugative enzymes. Many of these catalysts are induced by xenobiotics; thus, increased activation of known promutagens can be used as biomarker of environmental pollution. Bioactivation of promutagens requires the simultaneous action of different pathways, thus, reproducing more closely the in vivo situation than the specific assay of individual biotransforming enzymes. Study of molluscs with different pollution levels indicates that polluted animals have higher capacity to activate 2-aminoanthracene and contain more apolar mutagens than those from reference areas.

  5. Survival and activity of Streptococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli in petroleum-contaminated tropical marine waters

    SciTech Connect

    Santo Domingo, J.W.; Fuentes, F.A.; Hazen, T.C.

    1987-12-31

    The in situ survival and activity of Streptococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli were studied using membrane diffusion chambers in tropical marine waters receiving oil refinery effluents. Protein synthesis, DNA synthesis, respiration or fermentation, INT reduced per cell, and ATP per cell were used to measure physiological activity. Cell densities decreased significantly over time at both sites for both S. faecalis and E. coli; however, no significant differences in survival pattern were observed between S. faecalis and E.coli. Differences in protein synthesis between the two were only observed at a study site which was not heavily oiled. Although fecal streptococci have been suggested as a better indicator of fecal contamination than fecal coliforms in marine waters, in this study both E. coli and S. faecalis survived and remained physiologically active for extended periods of time. These results suggest that the fecal streptococci group is not a better indicator of fecal contamination in tropical marine waters than the fecal coliform group, especially when that environment is high in long-chained hydrocarbons.

  6. Membrane-active peptides from marine organisms--antimicrobials, cell-penetrating peptides and peptide toxins: applications and prospects.

    PubMed

    Ponnappan, Nisha; Budagavi, Deepthi Poornima; Yadav, Bhoopesh Kumar; Chugh, Archana

    2015-03-01

    Marine organisms are known to be a rich and unique source of bioactive compounds as they are exposed to extreme conditions in the oceans. The present study is an attempt to briefly describe some of the important membrane-active peptides (MAPs) such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and peptide toxins from marine organisms. Since both AMPs and CPPs play a role in membrane perturbation and exhibit interchangeable role, they can speculatively fall under the broad umbrella of MAPs. The study focuses on the structural and functional characteristics of different classes of marine MAPs. Further, AMPs are considered as a potential remedy to antibiotic resistance acquired by several pathogens. Peptides from marine organisms show novel post-translational modifications such as cysteine knots, halogenation and histidino-alanine bridge that enable these peptides to withstand harsh marine environmental conditions. These unusual modifications of AMPs from marine organisms are expected to increase their half-life in living systems, contributing to their increased bioavailability and stability when administered as drug in in vivo systems. Apart from AMPs, marine toxins with membrane-perturbing properties could be essentially investigated for their cytotoxic effect on various pathogens and their cell-penetrating activity across various mammalian cells. The current review will help in identifying the MAPs from marine organisms with crucial post-translational modifications that can be used as template for designing novel therapeutic agents and drug-delivery vehicles for treatment of human diseases.

  7. The marine sponge-derived polyketide endoperoxide plakortide F acid mediates its antifungal activity by interfering with calcium homeostasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plakortide F acid (PFA) is a marine-derived polyketide endoperoxide exhibiting strong inhibitory activity against several clinically important fungal pathogens. In the present study, transcriptional profiling coupled with mutant and biochemical analyses were conducted using the model organism Sacch...

  8. Effects of Pharmaceuticals Used for Breast Cancer Treatment on Reproduction and Aromatase Activity in a Marine Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) to evaluate whether four pharmaceuticals used in breast cancer treatment have an impact on reproduction or aromatase activity. Tamoxifen binds to estrogen receptors, while anastrozole, let...

  9. 75 FR 69295 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Navy Training Activities Conducted Within the Northwest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... physiological effects (such as threshold shift), acoustic masking, impaired communications, stress responses... on Hearing of Marine Animals, and Passive Acoustic Detection, Classification, and Tracking of Marine... acoustic monitoring of marine mammals. The workshops brought together acoustic experts and...

  10. Marine pharmacology in 2007-8: Marine compounds with antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral activities; affecting the immune and nervous system, and other miscellaneous mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Alejandro M S; Rodríguez, Abimael D; Berlinck, Roberto G S; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2011-03-01

    The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature in 2007-8 is covered in this review, which follows a similar format to the previous 1998-2006 reviews of this series. The preclinical pharmacology of structurally characterized marine compounds isolated from marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria is discussed in a comprehensive manner. Antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis and antiviral activities were reported for 74 marine natural products. Additionally, 59 marine compounds were reported to affect the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems as well as to possess anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, 65 marine metabolites were shown to bind to a variety of receptors and miscellaneous molecular targets, and thus upon further completion of mechanism of action studies, will contribute to several pharmacological classes. Marine pharmacology research during 2007-8 remained a global enterprise, with researchers from 26 countries, and the United States, contributing to the preclinical pharmacology of 197 marine compounds which are part of the preclinical marine pharmaceuticals pipeline. Sustained preclinical research with marine natural products demonstrating novel pharmacological activities, will probably result in the expansion of the current marine pharmaceutical clinical pipeline, which currently consists of 13 marine natural products, analogs or derivatives targeting a limited number of disease categories.

  11. Investigating on the Correlation Between Some Biological Activities of Marine Sponge-Associated Bacteria Extracts and Isolated Diketopiperazines.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hady, Faten K; Fayad, Walid; Iodice, Carmine; El-Shahid, Zeinab A; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed S; Crudele, Egle; Tommonaro, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    Marine organisms have been considered as the richest sources of novel bioactive metabolites, which can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. In the last years, the interest for marine microorganisms has grown for their enormous biodiversity and for the evidence that many novel compounds isolated from marine invertebrates are really synthesized by their associated bacteria. Nevertheless, the discovery of a chemical communication Quorum sensing (QS) between bacterial cells and between bacteria and host has gained the researchers to expand the aim of their study toward the role of bacteria associated with marine invertebrates, such as marine sponge. In the present paper, we report the evaluation of biological activities of different extracts of bacteria Vibrio sp. and Bacillus sp. associated with marine sponges Dysidea avara and Ircinia variabilis, respectively. Moreover, we evaluated the biological activities of some diketopiperazines (DKPs), previously isolated, and able to activate QS mechanism. The results showed that all extracts, fractions, and DKPs showed low scavenging activity against DPPH and superoxide anion, low cytotoxic and anti-tyrosinase activities, but no antimicrobial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. One DKP [cyclo-(trans-4-hydroxy-L-prolyl-L-leucine)] has the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity even than the standard acarbose.

  12. In vitro evaluation of marine-microorganism extracts for anti-viral activity.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara-Bell, Jarred; Yang, Yongbo; Barlow, Russell; Trapido-Rosenthal, Hank; Lu, Yuanan

    2010-08-07

    Viral-induced infectious diseases represent a major health threat and their control remains an unachieved goal, due in part to the limited availability of effective anti-viral drugs and measures. The use of natural products in drug manufacturing is an ancient and well-established practice. Marine organisms are known producers of pharmacological and anti-viral agents. In this study, a total of 20 extracts from marine microorganisms were evaluated for their antiviral activity. These extracts were tested against two mammalian viruses, herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), using Vero cells as the cell culture system, and two marine virus counterparts, channel catfish virus (CCV) and snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV), in their respective cell cultures (CCO and EPC). Evaluation of these extracts demonstrated that some possess antiviral potential. In sum, extracts 162M(4), 258M(1), 298M(4), 313(2), 331M(2), 367M(1) and 397(1) appear to be effective broad-spectrum antivirals with potential uses as prophylactic agents to prevent infection, as evident by their highly inhibitive effects against both virus types. Extract 313(2) shows the most potential in that it showed significantly high inhibition across all tested viruses. The samples tested in this study were crude extracts; therefore the development of antiviral application of the few potential extracts is dependent on future studies focused on the isolation of the active elements contained in these extracts.

  13. The antimicrobial activity of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from the marine sponge Erylus deficiens (Astrophorida, Geodiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Graça, Ana Patrícia; Viana, Flávia; Bondoso, Joana; Correia, Maria Inês; Gomes, Luis; Humanes, Madalena; Reis, Alberto; Xavier, Joana R.; Gaspar, Helena; Lage, Olga M.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the study of marine sponges and their associated microbiome has increased both for ecological reasons and for their great biotechnological potential. In this work, heterotrophic bacteria associated with three specimens of the marine sponge Erylus deficiens, were isolated in pure culture, phylogenetically identified and screened for antimicrobial activity. The isolation of bacteria after an enrichment treatment in heterotrophic medium revealed diversity in bacterial composition with only Pseudoalteromonas being shared by two specimens. Of the 83 selected isolates, 58% belong to Proteobacteria, 23% to Actinobacteria and 19% to Firmicutes. Diffusion agar assays for bioactivity screening against four bacterial strains and one yeast, revealed that a high number of the isolated bacteria (68.7%) were active, particularly against Candida albicans and Vibrio anguillarum. Pseudoalteromonas, Microbacterium, and Proteus were the most bioactive genera. After this preliminary screening, the bioactive strains were further evaluated in liquid assays against C. albicans, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Filtered culture medium and acetone extracts from three and 5 days-old cultures were assayed. High antifungal activity against C. albicans in both aqueous and acetone extracts as well as absence of activity against B. subtilis were confirmed. Higher levels of activity were obtained with the aqueous extracts when compared to the acetone extracts and differences were also observed between the 3 and 5 day-old extracts. Furthermore, a low number of active strains was observed against E. coli. Potential presence of type-I polyketide synthases (PKS-I) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) genes were detected in 17 and 30 isolates, respectively. The high levels of bioactivity and the likely presence of associated genes suggest that Erylus deficiens bacteria are potential sources of novel marine bioactive compounds. PMID:25999928

  14. Viewing Marine Bacteria, Their Activity and Response to Environmental Drivers from Orbit

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, D. Jay; Ford, Tim E.; Colwell, Rita R.; Baker-Austin, Craig; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Subramaniam, Ajit; Capone, Douglas G.

    2014-01-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing of marine microorganisms has become a useful tool in predicting human health risks associated with these microscopic targets. Early applications were focused on harmful algal blooms, but more recently methods have been developed to interrogate the ocean for bacteria. As satellite-based sensors have become more sophisticated and our ability to interpret information derived from these sensors has advanced, we have progressed from merely making fascinating pictures from space to developing process models with predictive capability. Our understanding of the role of marine microorganisms in primary production and global elemental cycles has been vastly improved as has our ability to use the combination of remote sensing data and models to provide early warning systems for disease outbreaks. This manuscript will discuss current approaches to monitoring cyanobacteria and vibrios, their activity and response to environmental drivers, and will also suggest future directions. PMID:24477922

  15. The Sound of Silence: Activating Silent Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in Marine Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Reen, F Jerry; Romano, Stefano; Dobson, Alan D W; O'Gara, Fergal

    2015-07-31

    Unlocking the rich harvest of marine microbial ecosystems has the potential to both safeguard the existence of our species for the future, while also presenting significant lifestyle benefits for commercial gain. However, while significant advances have been made in the field of marine biodiscovery, leading to the introduction of new classes of therapeutics for clinical medicine, cosmetics and industrial products, much of what this natural ecosystem has to offer is locked in, and essentially hidden from our screening methods. Releasing this silent potential represents a significant technological challenge, the key to which is a comprehensive understanding of what controls these systems. Heterologous expression systems have been successful in awakening a number of these cryptic marine biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). However, this approach is limited by the typically large size of the encoding sequences. More recently, focus has shifted to the regulatory proteins associated with each BGC, many of which are signal responsive raising the possibility of exogenous activation. Abundant among these are the LysR-type family of transcriptional regulators, which are known to control production of microbial aromatic systems. Although the environmental signals that activate these regulatory systems remain unknown, it offers the exciting possibility of evoking mimic molecules and synthetic expression systems to drive production of potentially novel natural products in microorganisms. Success in this field has the potential to provide a quantum leap forward in medical and industrial bio-product development. To achieve these new endpoints, it is clear that the integrated efforts of bioinformaticians and natural product chemists will be required as we strive to uncover new and potentially unique structures from silent or cryptic marine gene clusters.

  16. The Sound of Silence: Activating Silent Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in Marine Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Reen, F. Jerry; Romano, Stefano; Dobson, Alan D.W.; O’Gara, Fergal

    2015-01-01

    Unlocking the rich harvest of marine microbial ecosystems has the potential to both safeguard the existence of our species for the future, while also presenting significant lifestyle benefits for commercial gain. However, while significant advances have been made in the field of marine biodiscovery, leading to the introduction of new classes of therapeutics for clinical medicine, cosmetics and industrial products, much of what this natural ecosystem has to offer is locked in, and essentially hidden from our screening methods. Releasing this silent potential represents a significant technological challenge, the key to which is a comprehensive understanding of what controls these systems. Heterologous expression systems have been successful in awakening a number of these cryptic marine biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). However, this approach is limited by the typically large size of the encoding sequences. More recently, focus has shifted to the regulatory proteins associated with each BGC, many of which are signal responsive raising the possibility of exogenous activation. Abundant among these are the LysR-type family of transcriptional regulators, which are known to control production of microbial aromatic systems. Although the environmental signals that activate these regulatory systems remain unknown, it offers the exciting possibility of evoking mimic molecules and synthetic expression systems to drive production of potentially novel natural products in microorganisms. Success in this field has the potential to provide a quantum leap forward in medical and industrial bio-product development. To achieve these new endpoints, it is clear that the integrated efforts of bioinformaticians and natural product chemists will be required as we strive to uncover new and potentially unique structures from silent or cryptic marine gene clusters. PMID:26264003

  17. Equal Opportunities for Women in Marine Sciences in Kiel: Activities and Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamm, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Women are still largely underrepresented in geosciences in general. Particularly at the level of professorships and permanent research staff positions this also applies to marine science institutions in Kiel, i.e. the research focus Kiel Marine Sciences at Kiel University and the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel. Both institutions are closely collaborating, for instance in the frame of two major third-party funded collaborative projects: The Cluster of Excellence 'The Future Ocean', funded within the German Excellence Initiative, and the Collaborative Research Centre 'Climate - Biogeochemistry Interactions in the Tropical Ocean' (SFB 754) financed through the German Research Foundation (DFG). Both funding schemes request for measures to increase the participation of female scientists in leading positions. As an innovative approach, The Future Ocean and SFB 754 jointly finance the position of a coordinator for gender measures who is based at the university's Central Office for Gender Equality, Diversity & Family since 2012. This allows for the coordinated development and implementation of programmes to support female marine scientists, with a focus on the postdoctoral phase, and to offer a broader spectrum of activities to raise awareness of gender imbalance in the research community. The aim of this presentation is to give insight into activities and achievements, among them the mentoring programme via:mento_ocean for female postdocs in marine sciences. The programme via:mento_ocean has been acknowledged as a best practice instrument to support women scientists in a close disciplinary but international setting and was incorporated into the DFG's online toolbox of gender equality measures.

  18. Lipolytic activity levels and colipase presence in digestive glands of some marine animals.

    PubMed

    Smichi, Nabil; Fendri, Ahmed; Zarai, Zied; Bouchaala, Emna; Chérif, Slim; Gargouri, Youssef; Miled, Nabil

    2012-10-01

    Studies on the digestive secretions in aquatic animals can elucidate certain aspects of their nutritive physiology. The aim of the present study was to compare the digestive lipase and phospholipase activities in ten marine species belonging to four classes following the taxonomic classification of marine organisms. All aquatic digestive tissues tested are equipped with lipase and phospholipase activities, assuming the hydrolysis of fat-rich food. The lipolytic activities determined in the pancreases of cartilaginous fishes were greater than those in bony fishes, molluscs and crustaceans. This finding might be explained by the strong digestive utilization of fat-rich macronutrients by these carnivorous fishes. A trend of activities and stabilities at different pH and temperatures for crude lipases and phospholipases from these aquatic animals suggests that the optimum pH and temperature for marine lipases are species dependent. Interestingly, the sardine caecal lipase and phospholipase were found to be mostly stable in a broad range of acidic pH values. The maximum activities of lipolytic enzymes from the hepatopancreases of Hexaplex trunculus (molluscs) and Carcinus mediterranus (crustaceans) were found to be 50 and 60 °C, respectively, whereas the optimal temperature of lipolytic enzymes for the other species was classically around 40 °C. Thermoactivity of molluscs' lipolytic preparations makes them potential candidates in industrial applications. Among digestive glands studied, only pancreas (cartilaginous fish) contained the classically known colipase. Regarded as the most primitive living jawed vertebrates, cartilaginous fishes represented by sharks and rays could be considered as the oldest vertebrates possessing a complex digestive system like that of mammals.

  19. Cell cycle arrest and activation of development in marine invertebrate deuterostomes.

    PubMed

    Costache, Vlad; McDougall, Alex; Dumollard, Rémi

    2014-08-01

    Like most metazoans, eggs of echinoderms and tunicates (marine deuterostomes, there is no data for the cephalochordates) arrest awaiting fertilization due to the activity of the Mos/MEK/MAPK cascade and are released from this cell cycle arrest by sperm-triggered Ca2+ signals. Invertebrate deuterostome eggs display mainly three distinct types of cell cycle arrest before fertilization mediated by potentially different cytostatic factors (CSF): one CSF causes arrest during meiotic metaphase I (MI-CSF in tunicates and some starfishes), another CSF likely causes arrest during meiotic metaphase II (amphioxus), and yet another form of CSF causes arrest to occur after meiotic exit during G1 of the first mitotic cycle (G1-CSF). In tunicates and echinoderms these different CSF activities have been shown to rely on the Mos//MAPK pathway for establishment and on Ca2+ signals for their inactivation. Despite these molecular similarities, release of MI-CSF arrest is caused by APC/C activation (to destroy cyclin B) whereas release from G1-CSF is caused by stimulating S phase and the synthesis of cyclins. Further research is needed to understand how both the Mos//MAPK cascade and Ca2+ achieve these tasks in different marine invertebrate deuterostomes. Another conserved feature of eggs is that protein synthesis of specific mRNAs is necessary to proceed through oocyte maturation and to maintain CSF-induced cell cycle arrest. Then activation of development at fertilization is accompanied by an increase in the rate of protein synthesis but the mechanisms involved are still largely unknown in most of the marine deuterostomes. How the sperm-triggered Ca2+ signals cause an increase in protein synthesis has been studied mainly in sea urchin eggs. Here we review these conserved features of eggs (arrest, activation and protein synthesis) focusing on the non-vertebrate deuterostomes.

  20. Biological activities of ethanolic extracts from deep-sea Antarctic marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Turk, Tom; Ambrožič Avguštin, Jerneja; Batista, Urška; Strugar, Gašper; Kosmina, Rok; Čivović, Sandra; Janussen, Dorte; Kauferstein, Silke; Mebs, Dietrich; Sepčić, Kristina

    2013-04-02

    We report on the screening of ethanolic extracts from 33 deep-sea Antarctic marine sponges for different biological activities. We monitored hemolysis, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, cytotoxicity towards normal and transformed cells and growth inhibition of laboratory, commensal and clinically and ecologically relevant bacteria. The most prominent activities were associated with the extracts from sponges belonging to the genus Latrunculia, which show all of these activities. While most of these activities are associated to already known secondary metabolites, the extremely strong acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential appears to be related to a compound unknown to date. Extracts from Tetilla leptoderma, Bathydorus cf. spinosus, Xestospongia sp., Rossella sp., Rossella cf. racovitzae and Halichondria osculum were hemolytic, with the last two also showing moderate cytotoxic potential. The antibacterial tests showed significantly greater activities of the extracts of these Antarctic sponges towards ecologically relevant bacteria from sea water and from Arctic ice. This indicates their ecological relevance for inhibition of bacterial microfouling.

  1. Biological Activities of Ethanolic Extracts from Deep-Sea Antarctic Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Tom; Ambrožič Avguštin, Jerneja; Batista, Urška; Strugar, Gašper; Kosmina, Rok; Čivović, Sandra; Janussen, Dorte; Kauferstein, Silke; Mebs, Dietrich; Sepčić, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    We report on the screening of ethanolic extracts from 33 deep-sea Antarctic marine sponges for different biological activities. We monitored hemolysis, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, cytotoxicity towards normal and transformed cells and growth inhibition of laboratory, commensal and clinically and ecologically relevant bacteria. The most prominent activities were associated with the extracts from sponges belonging to the genus Latrunculia, which show all of these activities. While most of these activities are associated to already known secondary metabolites, the extremely strong acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential appears to be related to a compound unknown to date. Extracts from Tetilla leptoderma, Bathydorus cf. spinosus, Xestospongia sp., Rossella sp., Rossella cf. racovitzae and Halichondria osculum were hemolytic, with the last two also showing moderate cytotoxic potential. The antibacterial tests showed significantly greater activities of the extracts of these Antarctic sponges towards ecologically relevant bacteria from sea water and from Arctic ice. This indicates their ecological relevance for inhibition of bacterial microfouling. PMID:23549284

  2. Asteroid Surface Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, N.; Sánchez, P.; Schwartz, S. R.; Miyamoto, H.

    The regolith-covered surfaces of asteroids preserve records of geophysical processes that have occurred both at their surfaces and sometimes also in their interiors. As a result of the unique microgravity environment that these bodies possess, a complex and varied geophysics has given birth to fascinating features that we are just now beginning to understand. The processes that formed such features were first hypothesized through detailed spacecraft observations and have been further studied using theoretical, numerical, and experimental methods that often combine several scientific disciplines. These multiple approaches are now merging toward a further understanding of the geophysical states of the surfaces of asteroids. In this chapter we provide a concise summary of what the scientific community has learned so far about the surfaces of these small planetary bodies and the processes that have shaped them. We also discuss the state of the art in terms of experimental techniques and numerical simulations that are currently being used to investigate regolith processes occurring on small-body surfaces and that are contributing to the interpretation of observations and the design of future space missions.

  3. Antimicrobial activities of novel cultivable bacteria isolated from marine sponge Tedania anhelans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Ke, Caihuan; Wang, Dexiang

    2013-05-01

    Marine sponge Tedania anhelans distributes throughout the intertidal zone of Fujian, southeastern China, and is a potential source of natural bioactive products. The sponge harbors a large number of bacterial groups that have been identified using various techniques, including fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Fractionation of dissociated sponge allowed isolation of 25 bacterial species. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, phylogenetic analysis attributed most of these eubacteria to α- Proteobacteria, γ- Proteobacteria, Cytophaga / Flavobacterium / Bacteroidetes (CFB group), and the family Bacillaceae of Gram-positive bacteria. In sequence similarity, five putatively novel species were identified with less than 98% similarity to other strains in the NCBI database. Tests for antimicrobial activities were performed against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, antitumor indicators Escherichia coli 343/591 (with DNA repair deficiency), regular E. coli 343/636 (with different DNA repair capacity), and 10 bacterial isolates exhibited inhibitory bioactivities. Among these strains, three isolates were detected involving function gene NRPS-A domains, which were most closely related to the amino acid sequences of linear gramicidin synthetase and pyoverdine synthetase. These results contribute to our knowledge of the microbes associated with marine sponges and further reveal novel bacterial resources for the screening of bioactive marine natural products.

  4. 76 FR 79409 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... environmental reasons (such as presence of marine mammals). Pile driving would typically take place 6 days per... underwater acoustic environment consists of ambient sound, defined as environmental background sound levels... reduction in sound levels. Both environmental conditions and the characteristics of the sound...

  5. 77 FR 42279 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... marbled murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus; an ESA-listed bird under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Fish... source, was estimated as so-called ``practical spreading loss''. This model follows a geometric... marine mammals and implement shutdown or delay procedures when applicable by calling for the shutdown...

  6. 78 FR 42042 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Marine Corps Training Exercises...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... restricted areas. Acoustic stimuli (i.e., increased underwater sound) generated during the training exercises... also requested that we require the Marine Corps to use the passive acoustic monitoring system to... University to develop and test a real-time passive acoustic monitoring system that will allow...

  7. 76 FR 6406 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... marine mammals transiting the project area. Transmission loss (TL) underwater is the decrease in acoustic intensity as an acoustic pressure wave propagates out from a source. TL parameters vary with frequency.... There is a lack of empirical data regarding the acoustic output of chipping hammers. As a...

  8. 78 FR 44539 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... vibratory hammer for their initial embedment depths and finished with an impact hammer for proofing, as... to marine mammals. Description of Sound Sources and Distances to Thresholds An in-depth description...) Physical environment: shallow depth (less than 100 ft ). Representative data for pile driving SPLs...

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Marine and Black Band Disease Cyanobacteria against Coral-Associated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gantar, Miroslav; Kaczmarsky, Longin T.; Stanić, Dina; Miller, Aaron W.; Richardson, Laurie L.

    2011-01-01

    Black band disease (BBD) of corals is a cyanobacteria-dominated polymicrobial disease that contains diverse populations of heterotrophic bacteria. It is one of the most destructive of coral diseases and is found globally on tropical and sub-tropical reefs. We assessed ten strains of BBD cyanobacteria, and ten strains of cyanobacteria isolated from other marine sources, for their antibacterial effect on growth of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from BBD, from the surface mucopolysaccharide layer (SML) of healthy corals, and three known bacterial coral pathogens. Assays were conducted using two methods: co-cultivation of cyanobacterial and bacterial isolates, and exposure of test bacteria to (hydrophilic and lipophilic) cyanobacterial cell extracts. During co-cultivation, 15 of the 20 cyanobacterial strains tested had antibacterial activity against at least one of the test bacterial strains. Inhibition was significantly higher for BBD cyanobacteria when compared to other marine cyanobacteria. Lipophilic extracts were more active than co-cultivation (extracts of 18 of the 20 strains were active) while hydrophilic extracts had very limited activity. In some cases co-cultivation resulted in stimulation of BBD and SML bacterial growth. Our results suggest that BBD cyanobacteria are involved in structuring the complex polymicrobial BBD microbial community by production of antimicrobial compounds. PMID:22073011

  10. Functional marine metagenomic screening for anti-quorum sensing and anti-biofilm activity.

    PubMed

    Yaniv, Karin; Golberg, Karina; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Marks, Robert; Pushkarev, Alina; Béjà, Oded; Kushmaro, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS), a cell-to-cell communication process, entails the production of signaling molecules that enable synchronized gene expression in microbial communities to regulate myriad microbial functions, including biofilm formation. QS disruption may constitute an innovative approach to the design of novel antifouling and anti-biofilm agents. To identify novel quorum sensing inhibitors (QSI), 2,500 environmental bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) from uncultured marine planktonic bacteria were screened for QSI activity using soft agar overlaid with wild type Chromobacterium violaceum as an indicator. Of the BAC library clones, 7% showed high QSI activity (>40%) against the indicator bacterium, suggesting that QSI is common in the marine environment. The most active compound, eluted from BAC clone 14-A5, disrupted QS signaling pathways and reduced biofilm formation in both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. The mass spectra of the active BAC clone (14-A5) that had been visualized by thin layer chromatography was dominated by a m/z peak of 362.1.

  11. Effects of cadmium on growth and superoxide dismutase activity of the marine microalga Tetraselmis gracilis (Prasinophyceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, O.K.; Asano, C.S.; Aidar, E.; Colepicolo, P.

    1996-02-01

    Marine planktonic algae are frequently exposed to metallic contaminants. Because heavy metals can be assimilated and accumulated by algal cells, they can then be transferred to higher trophic levels of food chains. We studied the effects of cadmium on protein production and the growth of the marine prasinophyte Tetraselmis gracilis (Kylin) Butcher. By means of toxicological assays, we estimated the LC{sub 50} of cadmium as 3.2 ppm and 1.8 ppm after 48 h and 96 h of exposure to this heavy metal, respectively. The growth of curves and survival percentages of cell cultures in the presence of cadmium were determined, and a proportional reduction of both parameters with increasing metal concentrations of cadmium, T. gracilis contained high levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, one of the main enzymes of the cell`s antioxidant defense mechanism. Under these growth conditions, total SOD activity in crude extracts was increased by 41% (at 1.5 ppm) and 107% (at 3.0 ppm). Assays of SOD activity in nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels also showed a similar induction by cadmium. These results show that cadmium has potentially toxic properties since it significantly inhibited the growth of T. gracilis at low concentrations and promoted by induction of SOD activity, suggestive of an oxidative stress state. Besides being the first report of SOD in T. gracilis, this work describes experimental evidence of SOD induction by cadmium in this species. 56 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Spatio-temporal variability in the GDH activity to ammonium excretion ratio in epipelagic marine zooplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Urruzola, I.; Osma, N.; Packard, T. T.; Maldonado, F.; Gómez, M.

    2016-11-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activities have been widely used in oceanographic research as an index of in situ NH4+ excretion rates (RNH4+) in zooplankton. Here we study the variability in the relationship between the enzymatic rates and the actual rates measured in epipelagic marine zooplankton between several marine ecosystems. Although both measures were significantly correlated across zooplankton assemblages, the regression models yielded different GDH/RNH4+ ratios across ecosystems. Accordingly, the error of a general equation increased up to ±42.5 % when regressing all our data together. Aside from possible interspecific differences, some of the variability was explained by the unequal allometric relation that each rate maintained with protein. Scaling exponents were 1.38 for GDH activities and 0.87 for RNH4+, which would induce uncertainties in the GDH/RNH4+ ratios when organisms with different sizes were considered. Nevertheless, the main factor causing divergence between GDH activities and RNH4+ was the potential prey availability. We compared the excretory metabolism of the zooplankton community at different productivity periods in waters off Gran Canaria, and observed an important decrease in the RNH4+ during stratification. A similar decrease was found in the internal pool of glutamate, which may be critical in the regulation of in vivo rates. Strengthening our knowledge of the relationship between GDH activities and the RNH4+ will lead to more meaningful predictions of phytoplankton regeneration and community nitrogen fluxes across large spatial scales.

  13. INFLUENCE OF MODERATE TEMPERATURE ON GROWTH AND MALIC DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY OF A MARINE PSYCHROPHILE.

    PubMed

    MORITA, R Y; BURTON, S D

    1963-11-01

    Morita, Richard Y. (Oregon State University, Corvallis), and Sheril D. Burton. Influence of moderate temperature on growth and malic dehydrogenase activity of a marine psychrophile. J. Bacteriol. 86:1025-1029. 1963.-The maximal and optimal growth temperatures for a marine psychrophilic vibrio (PS 207) were determined to be 30 and 24.5 C, respectively. Malic dehydrogenase was found to be functioning in whole cells at about 1/20 of its observed maximum. Incubation of the cells, prior to or during the assay, at temperatures above the maximal growth temperature permitted the malic dehydrogenase to operate nearer its maximum, but this also inactivated the intracellular enzyme. The heating of whole cells gave an apparent effect of increasing malic dehydrogenase activity. Lysis of the cells permitted the enzyme to function at its full potential but rendered the enzyme more sensitive to heat denaturation. Lysis of the cells also caused the enzyme to lose approximately one-half of its malic dehydrogenase activity with each 10 C drop in temperature, whereas whole cells only lose approximately 1/5 of their enzyme activity at low temperatures with each 10 C drop.

  14. Molluscicidal activity of some marine substances against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca, Planorbidae).

    PubMed

    Miyasato, P A; Kawano, T; Freitas, J C; Berlinck, R G S; Nakano, E; Tallarico, L F

    2012-05-01

    Freshwater snails of the genus Biomphalaria play a major role as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, the etiologic agent of schistosomiasis. While Biomphalaria spp. control by molluscicides is one of the main strategies to reduce the snail population in infected areas, there are few effective molluscicides commercially available. Natural products may be considered as potentially useful and safe molluscicides. We have evaluated the molluscicidal activity of 12 extracts from ten marine organisms on adult and embryonic stages of Biomphalaria glabrata. Only extracts of the red algae Liagora farinosa and of the sponge Amphimedon viridis presented molluscicidal activity. Lethal concentration (LC)(50) values obtained were 120 μg/mL for L. farinosa CH(2)Cl(2) extract (apolar fraction) and 20 μg/mL for A. viridis extract and halitoxin. The polar alga fraction and halitoxin had no effect on B. glabrata embryos. The algae apolar fraction was active on B. glabrata in all embryonic development stages, with LC(50) values for blastulae at 42 μg/mL, gastrulae at 124 μg/mL, trochophore at 180 μg/mL, and veliger at 222 μg/mL. This is the first report of extracts from marine organisms which presented molluscicidal activity.

  15. Recent Articles, Activities, and Other Documents in the Marine Education Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This annotated bibliography of marine education contains 35 documents published in 1976-1977 and an unpublished masters thesis (1969). The majority of the works are laboratory projects in marine science for students at the elementary and secondary school level. Other entries include marine science units for science teachers, marine education grant…

  16. Active Marine Subsurface Bacterial Population Composition in Low Organic Carbon Environments from IODP Expedition 320

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, A.; Reese, B. K.; Mills, H. J.; IODP Expedition 320 Shipboard Science Party

    2011-12-01

    The marine subsurface environment contains abundant and active microorganisms. These microbial populations are considered integral players in the marine subsurface biogeochemical system with significance in global geochemical cycles and reservoirs. However, variations in microbial community structure, activity and function associated with the wide-ranging sedimentary and geochemical environments found globally have not been fully resolved. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 320 recovered sediments from site U1332. Two sampling depths were selected for analysis that spanned differing lithological units in the sediment core. Sediments were composed of mostly clay with zeolite minerals at 8 meters below sea floor (mbsf). At 27 mbsf, sediments were composed of alternating clayey radiolarian ooze and nannofossil ooze. The concentration of SO42- had little variability throughout the core and the concentration of Fe2+ remained close to, or below, detection limits (0.4 μM). Total organic carbon content ranged from a low of 0.03 wt% to a high of 0.07 wt% between 6 and 30 mbsf providing an opportunity to evaluate marine subsurface microbial communities under extreme electron donor limiting conditions. The metabolically active fraction of the bacterial population was isolated by the extraction and amplification of 16S ribosomal RNA. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA transcripts and subsequent bioinformatic analyses provided a robust data set (15,931 total classified sequences) to characterize the community at a high resolution. As observed in other subsurface environments, the overall diversity of active bacterial populations decreased with depth. The population shifted from a diverse but evenly distributed community at approximately 8 mbsf to a Firmicutes dominated population at 27 mbsf (80% of sequences). A total of 95% of the sequences at 27 mbsf were grouped into three genera: Lactobacillus (phylum Firmicutes) at 80% of the total sequences, Marinobacter (phylum

  17. Ectoenzyme activity in coastal marine waters: response to temperature and metal ion availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedenbeck, J. K.; Neino, V.; Allison, S. D.; Martiny, A.

    2009-12-01

    Ectoenzymes in the ocean are vital for the breakdown of complex organic substrates and for the uptake of nutrients by marine organisms. The activity levels of these enzymes affect the turnover rate of nutrient pools within the ocean, and thus have a significant impact on global biogeochemical nutrient cycles. This study measured the activity of extracellular enzymes from seawater samples under different environmental conditions. Samples were collected daily from coastal waters in the subtropical North Pacific (Lat.: 33°). Ambient seawater temperatures were between 18° and 20° C for the duration of the study. The activity response of four enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, β-glucosidase, β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, and leucine aminopeptidase) was measured over a range of temperatures (4° to 40° C). The optimal temperatures of all four enzymes were above the ambient seawater temperature of the samples: optimal temperatures of β-glucosidase, β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, and leucine aminopeptidase in the seawater samples were between 28° and 34° C, while alkaline phosphatase activity increased with the temperature over the range tested. Enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase was further investigated under several metal ion conditions. Activity was highest in the presence of Co2+ ions, while the availability of other ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+/Zn2+) had a lesser effect. The influence of Co2+ on alkaline phosphatase activity indicates the presence of a Co2+-dependent alkaline phosphatase in coastal marine waters. These results suggest that variations in environmental conditions (such as temperature and ion concentration) have discernable effects on enzyme activity, and thus affect turnover rates of nutrient pools in the ocean.

  18. Hygroscopic growth and cloud droplet activation of xanthan gum as a proxy for marine hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, K. W.; Petters, M. D.; Meskhidze, N.; Petters, S. Suda; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2016-10-01

    Knowledge of the physical characteristics and chemical composition of marine organic aerosols is needed for the quantification of their effects on cloud microphysical processes and solar radiative transfer. Here we use xanthan gum (XG)—a bacterial biopolymer—as a proxy for marine hydrogels. Measurements were performed for pure XG particles and mixtures of XG with sodium chloride, calcium nitrate, and calcium carbonate. The aerosol hygroscopicity parameter (κ) is derived from hygroscopic growth factor measurements (κgf) at variable water activity (aw) and from cloud condensation nuclei activation efficiency (κccn). The Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR) hygroscopicity parameter derived for multicomponent systems (κmix, sol) is used to compare measurements of κgf and κccn. Pure XG shows close agreement of κgf (at aw = 0.9) and κccn of 0.09 and 0.10, respectively. Adding salts to the system results in deviations of κgf (at aw = 0.9) from κccn. The measured κgf and ZSR-derived hygroscopicity parameter (κmix, sol) values for different solutions show close agreement at aw > 0.9, while κgf is lower in comparison to κmix, sol at aw < 0.9. The differences between predicted κmix, sol and measured κgf and κccn values are explained by the effects of hydration and presence of salt ions on the structure of the polymer networks. Results from this study imply that at supersaturations of 0.1 and 0.5%, the presence of 30% sea salt by mass can reduce the activation diameter of pure primary marine organic aerosols from 257 to 156 nm and from 87 to 53 nm, respectively.

  19. The speciation of marine particulate iron adjacent to active and passive continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Ohnemus, Daniel C.; Marcus, Matthew A.

    2012-03-01

    We use synchrotron-based chemical-species mapping techniques to compare the speciation of suspended (1-51 μm) marine particulate iron collected in two open ocean environments adjacent to active and passive continental margins. Chemical-species mapping provides speciation information for heterogeneous environmental samples, and is especially good for detecting spectroscopically distinct trace minerals and species that could not be detectable by other methods. The average oxidation state of marine particulate iron determined by chemical-species mapping is comparable to that determined by standard bulk X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure spectroscopy. Using chemical-species mapping, we find that up to 43% of particulate Fe in the Northwest Pacific at the depth of the adjacent active continental margin is in the Fe(II) state, with the balance Fe(III). In contrast, particulate iron in the eastern tropical North Atlantic, which receives the highest dust deposition on Earth and is adjacent to a passive margin, is dominated by weathered and oxidized Fe compounds, with Fe(III) contributing 90% of total iron. The balance is composed primarily of Fe(II)-containing species, but we detected individual pyrite particles in some samples within an oxygen minimum zone in the upper thermocline. Several lines of evidence point to the adjacent Mauritanian continental shelf as the source of pyrite to the water column. The speciation of suspended marine particulate iron reflects the mineralogy of iron from the adjacent continental margins. Since the solubility of particulate iron has been shown to be a function of its speciation, this may have implications for the bioavailability of particulate iron adjacent to passive compared to active continental margins.

  20. Antimicrobial activities of a promising glycolipid biosurfactant from a novel marine Staphylococcus saprophyticus SBPS 15.

    PubMed

    Mani, P; Dineshkumar, G; Jayaseelan, T; Deepalakshmi, K; Ganesh Kumar, C; Senthil Balan, S

    2016-12-01

    Biosurfactants have gained a renewed interest in the recent years for their commercial application in diverse research areas. Recent evidences suggest that the antimicrobial activities exhibited by biosurfactants make them promising molecules for the application in the field of therapeutics. Marine microbes are well known for their unique metabolic and functional properties; however, few reports are available till date regarding their biosurfactant production and antimicrobial potential. In an ongoing survey for bioactive microbial metabolites from microbes isolated from diverse ecological niches, a marine Staphylococcus saprophyticus SBPS 15 isolated from the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated coastal site, Puducherry, India, was identified as a promising biosurfactant producer based on multiple screening methods. This bacterium exhibited growth-dependent biosurfactant production and the recorded yield was 1.345 ± 0.056 g/L (on dry weight basis). The biosurfactant was purified and chemically characterized as a glycolipid with a molecular mass of 606.7 Da, based on TLC, biochemical estimation methods, FT-IR spectrum and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Further, the estimated molecular mass was different from the earlier reports on biosurfactants. This new glycolipid biosurfactant exhibited a board range of pH and temperature stability. Furthermore, it revealed a promising antimicrobial activity against many tested human pathogenic bacterial and fungal clinical isolates. Based on these observations, the isolated biosurfactant from the marine S. saprophyticus revealed board physicochemical stabilities and possess excellent antimicrobial activities which proves its significance for possible use in various therapeutic and biomedical applications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a biosurfactant from the bacterium, S. saprophyticus.

  1. Tracking small mountainous river derived terrestrial organic carbon across the active margin marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childress, L. B.; Blair, N. E.; Orpin, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Active margins are particularly efficient in the burial of organic carbon due to the close proximity of highland sources to marine sediment sinks and high sediment transport rates. Compared with passive margins, active margins are dominated by small mountainous river systems, and play a unique role in marine and global carbon cycles. Small mountainous rivers drain only approximately 20% of land, but deliver approximately 40% of the fluvial sediment to the global ocean. Unlike large passive margin systems where riverine organic carbon is efficiently incinerated on continental shelves, small mountainous river dominated systems are highly effective in the burial and preservation of organic carbon due to the rapid and episodic delivery of organic carbon sourced from vegetation, soil, and rock. To investigate the erosion, transport, and burial of organic carbon in active margin small mountainous river systems we use the Waipaoa River, New Zealand. The Waipaoa River, and adjacent marine depositional environment, is a system of interest due to a large sediment yield (6800 tons km-2 yr-1) and extensive characterization. Previous studies have considered the biogeochemistry of the watershed and tracked the transport of terrestrially derived sediment and organics to the continental shelf and slope by biogeochemical proxies including stable carbon isotopes, lignin phenols, n-alkanes, and n-fatty acids. In this work we expand the spatial extent of investigation to include deep sea sediments of the Hikurangi Trough. Located in approximately 3000 m water depth 120 km from the mouth of the Waipaoa River, the Hikurangi Trough is the southern extension of the Tonga-Kermadec-Hikurangi subduction system. Piston core sediments collected by the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA, NZ) in the Hikurangi Trough indicate the presence of terrestrially derived material (lignin phenols), and suggest a continuum of deposition, resuspension, and transport across the margin

  2. 75 FR 5055 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Navy's Atlantic Fleet Active Sonar Training (AFAST)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    .... Navy's Atlantic Fleet Active Sonar Training (AFAST) AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., testing, and evaluation (RDT&E) activities to be conducted within the Atlantic Fleet Active Sonar Training... side mine hunting sonar in the AFAST Study area, which reduces use from 4474 hours annually to 0....

  3. A Sourcebook of Marine Activities Developed in the Milwaukee Great Lakes Summer Education Program, 1977 and 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Richard E., Ed.

    Twenty-seven activities dealing with the marine environment of the Great Lakes are presented. Designed for junior and senior high school students, these activities develop awareness of the biological, physical, social, economical, and aesthetic dimensions of the Great Lakes. Field trips, films, discussion, and hands-on activities are used to teach…

  4. Macrolactone Nuiapolide, Isolated from a Hawaiian Marine Cyanobacterium, Exhibits Anti-Chemotactic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Shogo; Williams, Howard; Cagle, Davey; Karanovich, Kristopher; Horgen, F. David; Smith, Roger; Watanabe, Coran M. H.

    2015-01-01

    A new bioactive macrolactone, nuiapolide (1) was identified from a marine cyanobacterium collected off the coast of Niihau, near Lehua Rock. The natural product exhibits anti-chemotactic activity at concentrations as low as 1.3 μM against Jurkat cells, cancerous T lymphocytes, and induces a G2/M phase cell cycle shift. Structural characterization of the natural product revealed the compound to be a 40-membered macrolactone with nine hydroxyl functional groups and a rare tert-butyl carbinol residue. PMID:26473885

  5. Synthesis and Anti-Tuberculosis Activity of the Marine Natural Product Caulerpin and Its Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Canché Chay, Cristina I.; Gómez Cansino, Rocío; Espitia Pinzón, Clara I.; Torres-Ochoa, Rubén O.; Martínez, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Caulerpin (1a), a bis-indole alkaloid from the marine algal Caulerpa sp., was synthesized in three reaction steps with an overall yield of 11%. The caulerpin analogues (1b–1g) were prepared using the same synthetic pathway with overall yields between 3% and 8%. The key reaction involved a radical oxidative aromatic substitution involving xanthate (3) and 3-formylindole compounds (4a–4g). All bis-indole compounds synthesized were evaluated against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv, and 1a was found to display excellent activity (IC50 0.24 µM). PMID:24681629

  6. Phylogenetic diversity and antimicrobial activity of marine bacteria associated with the soft coral Sarcophyton glaucum.

    PubMed

    ElAhwany, Amani M D; Ghozlan, Hanan A; ElSharif, Hafed A; Sabry, Soraya A

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs are the most biodiverse and biologically productive of all marine ecosystems. Corals harbor diverse and abundant prokaryotic groups. However, little is known about the diversity of coral-associated microorganisms. We used molecular techniques to identify and compare the culturable bacterial assemblages associated with the soft coral Sarcophyton glaucum from the Red sea. Different media were utilized for microbial isolation, and the phylogeny of the culturable bacteria associated with the coral was analyzed based on 16S rDNA sequencing. The coral associated bacteria were found to be representatives within the Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Antimicrobial activities of twenty bacterial isolates were tested against four pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio fluvialis) and three fungi (Penicillium sp., Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans). A relatively high proportion of bacterial strains displayed distinct antibacterial and antifungal activities, suggesting that soft coral-associated microorganisms may aid their host in protection against marine pathogens. Members of genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas had the highest proportion of antimicrobial activity which supported the hypothesis that they might play a protective role in the coral hosts.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of the marine alkaloids, clathrodin and oroidin, and their synthetic analogues.

    PubMed

    Zidar, Nace; Montalvão, Sofia; Hodnik, Žiga; Nawrot, Dorota A; Žula, Aleš; Ilaš, Janez; Kikelj, Danijel; Tammela, Päivi; Mašič, Lucija Peterlin

    2014-02-14

    Marine organisms produce secondary metabolites that may be valuable for the development of novel drug leads as such and can also provide structural scaffolds for the design and synthesis of novel bioactive compounds. The marine alkaloids, clathrodin and oroidin, which were originally isolated from sponges of the genus, Agelas, were prepared and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against three bacterial strains (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) and one fungal strain (Candida albicans), and oroidin was found to possess promising Gram-positive antibacterial activity. Using oroidin as a scaffold, 34 new analogues were designed, prepared and screened for their antimicrobial properties. Of these compounds, 12 exhibited >80% inhibition of the growth of at least one microorganism at a concentration of 50 µM. The most active derivative was found to be 4-phenyl-2-aminoimidazole 6h, which exhibited MIC₉₀ (minimum inhibitory concentration) values of 12.5 µM against the Gram-positive bacteria and 50 µM against E. coli. The selectivity index between S. aureus and mammalian cells, which is important to consider in the evaluation of a compound's potential as an antimicrobial lead, was found to be 2.9 for compound 6h.

  8. Antimalarial activity from three ascidians: an exploration of different marine invertebrate phyla.

    PubMed

    Mendiola, Judith; Hernández, Hilda; Sariego, Idalia; Rojas, Lázara; Otero, Anabel; Ramírez, Angel; Chávez, María de Los Angeles; Payrol, Juan Abreu; Hernández, Aida

    2006-10-01

    Recent research suggests that marine organisms may produce compounds with activity against malaria parasites. Of a total of 27 aqueous extracts from different marine species, collected on the northwest Cuban coast, 20 were considered as showing no significant activity against Plasmodium falciparum F32, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) >500 microg/ml, while seven extracts (MIC < or =500 microg/ml) were selected for further investigation by determining their selectivity indices and in vivo antimalarial activity. Three species of tunicates were chosen, as more than 50% reduction of P. berghei parasitaemia was produced after administration of 250 or 500 mg/kg of their crude extracts into infected mice. The aqueous extracts of Microcosmus goanus, Ascidia sydneiensis and Phallusia nigra were partitioned between water and n-butanol; the organic phases inhibited P. falciparum growth by 50% at concentrations of 17.5 microg/ml, 20.9 microg/ml and 29.4 microg/ml respectively. In general, these results are similar to those of most ethnobotanical surveys. Further chemical studies are being undertaken in order to isolate new antimalarial compounds from these Caribbean tunicates.

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of the Marine Alkaloids, Clathrodin and Oroidin, and Their Synthetic Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Zidar, Nace; Montalvão, Sofia; Hodnik, Žiga; Nawrot, Dorota A.; Žula, Aleš; Ilaš, Janez; Kikelj, Danijel; Tammela, Päivi; Peterlin Mašič, Lucija

    2014-01-01

    Marine organisms produce secondary metabolites that may be valuable for the development of novel drug leads as such and can also provide structural scaffolds for the design and synthesis of novel bioactive compounds. The marine alkaloids, clathrodin and oroidin, which were originally isolated from sponges of the genus, Agelas, were prepared and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against three bacterial strains (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) and one fungal strain (Candida albicans), and oroidin was found to possess promising Gram-positive antibacterial activity. Using oroidin as a scaffold, 34 new analogues were designed, prepared and screened for their antimicrobial properties. Of these compounds, 12 exhibited >80% inhibition of the growth of at least one microorganism at a concentration of 50 µM. The most active derivative was found to be 4-phenyl-2-aminoimidazole 6h, which exhibited MIC90 (minimum inhibitory concentration) values of 12.5 µM against the Gram-positive bacteria and 50 µM against E. coli. The selectivity index between S. aureus and mammalian cells, which is important to consider in the evaluation of a compound’s potential as an antimicrobial lead, was found to be 2.9 for compound 6h. PMID:24534840

  10. In-vitro antimicrobial activity of marine actinobacteria against multidrug resistance Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Sathish, Kumar SR; Kokati, Venkata Bhaskara Rao

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibacterial activity of marine actinobacteria against multidrug resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA). Methods Fifty one actinobacterial strains were isolated from salt pans soil, costal area in Kothapattanam, Ongole, Andhra Pradesh. Primary screening was done using cross-streak method against MDRSA. The bioactive compounds are extracted from efficient actinobacteria using solvent extraction. The antimicrobial activity of crude and solvent extracts was performed using Kirby-Bauer method. MIC for ethyl acetate extract was determined by modified agar well diffusion method. The potent actinobacteria are identified using Nonomura key, Shirling and Gottlieb 1966 with Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology. Results Among the fifty one isolates screened for antibacterial activity, SRB25 were found efficient against MDRSA. The ethyl acetate extracts showed high inhibition against test organism. MIC test was performed with the ethyl acetate extract against MDRSA and found to be 1 000 µg/mL. The isolated actinobacteria are identified as Streptomyces sp with the help of Nonomura key. Conclusions The current investigation reveals that the marine actinobacteria from salt pan environment can be able to produce new drug molecules against drug resistant microorganisms. PMID:23569848

  11. DOD Financial Management: Actions Are Needed on Audit Issues Related to the Marine Corps 2012 Schedule of Budgetary Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    DOD FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Actions Are Needed on Audit Issues Related to the Marine Corps’ 2012 Schedule of Budgetary...DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DOD Financial Management: Actions Are Needed on Audit Issues Related to the...2015 DOD FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Actions Are Needed on Audit Issues Related to the Marine Corps’ 2012 Schedule of Budgetary Activity Why GAO Did

  12. Utilizing Pro-bono Commercial Assets for Marine Mammal Surveys in High Naval Activity Area in Hawaiian Waters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-12

    3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/01/12-06/30/13 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Utilizing Pro- bono Commercial Assets for Marine Mammal Surveys In High Naval...and use our acoustic instruments to collect data, on a pro- bono basis. The goal was to establish a robust database of information that currently...for public release; distribution is unlimited Utilizing Pro- bono Commercial Assets for Marine Mammal Surveys In High Naval Activity Area in Hawaiian

  13. Geophysics publications honored

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geophysics and geology publications by the U.S. Geological Survey were awarded one first- and two third-place prizes at the ‘Blue Pencil’ ceremony last month, sponsored by the National Association of Government Communicators.First place in the news release category went to Frank Forrester, an AGU member and recently retired USGS information officer. Editors and artists of the bimonthly USGS Earthquake Information Bulletin were awarded third place in the category for technical magazines using at least two colors.

  14. Structure and activity of DmmA, a marine haloalkane dehalogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Gehret, Jennifer J.; Gu, Liangcai; Geders, Todd W.; Brown, William Clay; Gerwick, Lena; Gerwick, William H.; Sherman, David H.; Smith, Janet L.

    2012-08-01

    DmmA is a haloalkane dehalogenase (HLD) identified and characterized from the metagenomic DNA of a marine microbial consortium. Dehalogenase activity was detected with 1,3-dibromopropane as substrate, with steady-state kinetic parameters typical of HLDs (K{sub m} = 0.24 {+-} 0.05 mM, k{sub cat} = 2.4 {+-} 0.1 s{sup -1}). The 2.2-{angstrom} crystal structure of DmmA revealed a fold and active site similar to other HLDs, but with a substantially larger active site binding pocket, suggestive of an ability to act on bulky substrates. This enhanced cavity was shown to accept a range of linear and cyclic substrates, suggesting that DmmA will contribute to the expanding applications of HLDs.

  15. Antidiatom activity of marine bacteria associated with sponges from San Juan Island, Washington.

    PubMed

    Jin, Cuili; Xin, Xiaying; Yu, Siyu; Qiu, Jingjing; Miao, Li; Feng, Ke; Zhou, Xiaojian

    2014-04-01

    Crude extracts of 52 marine bacteria associated with sponges, which were collected from the sea near San Juan Island, Washington, USA, were screened using diatom attachment assays against Amphora sp., Nitzschia closterium, Sellaphora sp. and Stauroneis sp. to investigate their antidiatom activities. Among these samples, five expressed strong anti-adhesion effects on all four tested diatoms. There was no negative effect observed from those five active samples on the growth of Amphora sp. Those five active samples were prepared from respective isolates, which all belonged to the genus Bacillus based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The results of present study indicate that Bacillus may play important roles for sponges' chemical defence against biofouling of diatoms and that the metabolites of Bacillus may be a potential source of natural antifouling compounds.

  16. An Aqueous Extract of Marine Microalgae Exhibits Antimetastatic Activity through Preferential Killing of Suspended Cancer Cells and Anticolony Forming Activity

    PubMed Central

    Somasekharan, Syam Prakash; El-Naggar, Amal; Sorensen, Poul H.

    2016-01-01

    Research on marine natural products as potential anticancer agents is still limited. In the present study, an aqueous extract of a Canadian marine microalgal preparation was assessed for anticancer activities using various assays and cell lines of human cancers, including lung, prostate, stomach, breast, and pancreatic cancers, as well as an osteosarcoma. In vitro, the microalgal extract exhibited marked anticolony forming activity. In addition, it was more toxic, as indicated by increased apoptosis, to nonadherent cells (grown in suspension) than to adherent cells. In vivo, an antimetastatic effect of the extract was observed in NOD-SCID mice carrying subrenal capsule xenografts of PC3 prostate cancer cells. The results of the present study suggest that the antimetastatic effect of the aqueous microalgal extract is based on inhibition of colony forming ability of cancer cells and the preferential killing of suspended cancer cells. Further research aimed at identification of the molecular basis of the anticancer activities of the microalgal extract appears to be warranted. PMID:27656243

  17. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  18. Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the technical parameters and the technical staff of the VLBI system at the fundamental station GGAO. It also gives an overview about the VLBI activities during the report year. The Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) consists of a 5-meter radio telescope for VLBI, a new 12-meter radio telescope for VLBI2010 development, a 1-meter reference antenna for microwave holography development, an SLR site that includes MOBLAS-7, the NGSLR development system, and a 48" telescope for developmental two-color Satellite Laser Ranging, a GPS timing and development lab, a DORIS system, meteorological sensors, and a hydrogen maser. In addition, we are a fiducial IGS site with several IGS/IGSX receivers. GGAO is located on the east coast of the United States in Maryland. It is approximately 15 miles NNE of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland.

  19. Inventory of non-federally funded marine pollution research, development and monitoring activities: Northeast and Mid-Atlantic Region

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, G.M.; Opresko, D.M.; Weaver, S.S.; Margulies, D.; Zacherle, A.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report includes descriptions of projects which were partially funded by the Federal Government, although the Federal contributions are not considered in the funding analyses. This report only considers marine pollution research, development, and monitoring activities. ''Research'' projects include studies, investigations, and surveys to study the sources, behavior, and effects of pollutants and polluting activities as well as studies concerning natural oceanic processes if these studies are conducted to improve understanding concerning pollutants and polluting activities. ''Development'' projects include efforts to provide analytical methods, instrumentation, and equipment necessary for research and monitoring of marine pollution. ''Monitoring'' projects include time-series observations of marine environmental conditions to determine the existing levels, trends in time and space, and natural variations in parameters measured. Some projects fall into the category of ''compliance'' monitoring. ''Compliance'' monitoring is generally undertaken for a permitted or licensed resource development activity to assure that an unacceptable level of environmental change has not occurred.

  20. Anthraquinones and Derivatives from Marine-Derived Fungi: Structural Diversity and Selected Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Fouillaud, Mireille; Venkatachalam, Mekala; Girard-Valenciennes, Emmanuelle; Caro, Yanis; Dufossé, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Anthraquinones and their derivatives constitute a large group of quinoid compounds with about 700 molecules described. They are widespread in fungi and their chemical diversity and biological activities recently attracted attention of industries in such fields as pharmaceuticals, clothes dyeing, and food colorants. Their positive and/or negative effect(s) due to the 9,10-anthracenedione structure and its substituents are still not clearly understood and their potential roles or effects on human health are today strongly discussed among scientists. As marine microorganisms recently appeared as producers of an astonishing variety of structurally unique secondary metabolites, they may represent a promising resource for identifying new candidates for therapeutic drugs or daily additives. Within this review, we investigate the present knowledge about the anthraquinones and derivatives listed to date from marine-derived filamentous fungi′s productions. This overview highlights the molecules which have been identified in microorganisms for the first time. The structures and colors of the anthraquinoid compounds come along with the known roles of some molecules in the life of the organisms. Some specific biological activities are also described. This may help to open doors towards innovative natural substances. PMID:27023571

  1. Antiangiogenic activity of low-temperature lysozyme from a marine bacterium in vivo and in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenhua; Liu, Jincheng; Su, Ai; Sun, Mi; Wang, Chunbo

    2009-11-01

    We extracted marine low-temperature lysozyme (MLTL), a novel lysozyme, from a marine microorganism through fermentation. Our previous study suggested that a low molecular weight (16 kDa) may exert anti-tumor activity through antiangiogenesis. In this study, we extracted a high weight (39 kDa) and investigated its antiangiogenic activity in vivo and in vitro. Using zebrafish embryos as an in vivo study model, we found that treatment with MLTL significantly inhibited the growth of subintestinal vessels (SIVs) in a dose-dependent manner and that 400 µg/ml MLTL was sufficient to block the growth of SIVs. An in vitro study conducted using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) revealed that MLTL suppressed the proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, assays by flow cytometry and DNA electrophoresis indicated that MLTL was able to induce apoptosis of HUVECs. Moreover, further study demonstrated that the disruption of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis may play an important role in MLTL induced apoptosis of HUVECs. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate for the first time that MLTL inhibits angiogenesis through its pleiotropic effects on vascular endothelial cells and induces apoptosis through regulation of cellular Ca2+ levels. The results of this study also revealed a possible mechanism underlying the antiangiogenic effect of MLTL and suggested that MLTL may be a promising new antiangiogenic agent for use in cancer therapy.

  2. A Summary Comparison of Active Acoustic Detections and Visual Observations of Marine Mammals in the Canadian Beaufort Sea.

    PubMed

    Pyć, Cynthia D; Geoffroy, Maxime; Knudsen, Frank R

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries sonar was used to determine the applicability of active acoustic monitoring (AAM) for marine mammal detection in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. During 170 h of simultaneous observation by marine mammal observers and active acoustic observation, 119 Balaena mysticetus (bowheads) and 4 Delphinapterus leucas (belugas) were visually sighted, while 59 acoustic signals of bowheads were detected by AAM operators. Observations and detection of seals were also recorded. Comparative results indicate that commercially available active acoustic systems can detect seals at distances up to 500 m and large baleen whales at distances up to 2 km.

  3. Geophysical and atmospheric evolution of habitable planets.

    PubMed

    Lammer, Helmut; Selsis, Frank; Chassefière, Eric; Breuer, Doris; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Kulikov, Yuri N; Erkaev, Nikolai V; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Biernat, Helfried K; Leblanc, Francois; Kallio, Esa; Lundin, Richard; Westall, Frances; Bauer, Siegfried J; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Eiroa, Carlos; Fridlund, Malcolm; Gröller, Hannes; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Hausleitner, Walter; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Léger, Alain; Leitzinger, Martin; Lichtenegger, Herbert I M; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Motschmann, Uwe; Odert, Petra; Paresce, Francesco; Parnell, John; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Rauer, Heike; Röttgering, Huub; Schneider, Jean; Spohn, Tilman; Stadelmann, Anja; Stangl, Günter; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of Earth-like habitable planets is a complex process that depends on the geodynamical and geophysical environments. In particular, it is necessary that plate tectonics remain active over billions of years. These geophysically active environments are strongly coupled to a planet's host star parameters, such as mass, luminosity and activity, orbit location of the habitable zone, and the planet's initial water inventory. Depending on the host star's radiation and particle flux evolution, the composition in the thermosphere, and the availability of an active magnetic dynamo, the atmospheres of Earth-like planets within their habitable zones are differently affected due to thermal and nonthermal escape processes. For some planets, strong atmospheric escape could even effect the stability of the atmosphere.

  4. Aspects of marine geoscience: a review and thoughts on potential for observing active processes and progress through collaboration between the ocean sciences.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Neil C

    2012-12-13

    Much progress has been made in the UK in characterizing the internal structures of major physiographic features in the oceans and in developing understanding of the geological processes that have created or shaped them. UK researchers have authored articles of high impact in all areas described here. In contrast to terrestrial geoscience, however, there have been few instrumented observations made of active processes by UK scientists. This is an area that could be developed over the next decades in the UK. Research on active processes has the potential ability to engage the wider public: Some active processes present significant geo-hazards to populations and offshore infrastructure that require monitoring and there could be commercial applications of technological developments needed for science. Some of the suggestions could involve studies in shallow coastal waters where ship costs are much reduced, addressing tighter funding constraints over the near term. The possibilities of measuring aspects of volcanic eruptions, flowing lava, turbidity currents and mass movements (landslides) are discussed. A further area of potential development is in greater collaboration between the ocean sciences. For example, it is well known in terrestrial geomorphology that biological agents are important in modulating erosion and the transport of sediments, ultimately affecting the shape of the Earth's surface in various ways. The analogous effect of biology on large-scale geomorphology in the oceans is also known but remains poorly quantified. Physical oceanographic models are becoming increasingly accurate and could be used to study further the patterns of erosion, particle transport and deposition in the oceans. Marine geological and geophysical data could in turn be useful for further verification of such models. Adapting them to conditions of past oceans could address the shorter-period movements, such as due to internal waves and tides, which have been barely addressed in

  5. α-Glucosidase inhibitory activity of marine sponges collected in Mauritius waters.

    PubMed

    Ramanjooloo, Avin; Cresteil, Thierry; Lebrasse, Cindy; Beedessee, Girish; Oogarah, Preeti; van Soest, Rob W M; Marie, Daniel E P

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the use of α-glucosidase to evaluate the anti-diabetic potential of extracts from marine sponges collected in the Mauritius waters. Initial screening at 1.0 mg/mL of 141 extracts obtained from 47 sponge species revealed 10 extracts with inhibitory activity greater than 85%. Seven of the 10 extracts were further tested at 0.1 and 0.01 mg/mL and only the methanol extract of two sponges namely Acanthostylotella sp. (ASSM) and Echinodictyum pykei (EPM) showed inhibition activity greater than 60% at 0.1 mg/mL with an IC50 value of 0.16 ± 0.02 and 0.04 ± 0.01 mg/mL, respectively, while being inactive at 0.01 mg/mL.

  6. Association of orogenic activity with the Ordovician radiation of marine life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. I.; Mao, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Ordovician radiation of marine life was among the most substantial pulses of diversification in Earth history and coincided in time with a major increase in the global level of orogenic activity. To investigate a possible causal link between these two patterns, the geographic distributions of 6576 individual appearances of Ordovician vician genera around the world were evaluated with respect to their proximity to probable centers of orogeny (foreland basins). Results indicate that these genera, which belonged to an array of higher taxa that diversified in the Middle and Late Ordovician (trilobites, brachiopods, bivalves, gastropods, monoplacophorans), were far more diverse in, and adjacent to, foreland basins than they were in areas farther removed from orogenic activity (carbonate platforms). This suggests an association of orogeny with diversification at that time.

  7. Disk Diffusion Assay to Assess the Antimicrobial Activity of Marine Algal Extracts.

    PubMed

    Desbois, Andrew P; Smith, Valerie J

    2015-01-01

    Marine algae are a relatively untapped source of bioactive natural products, including those with antimicrobial activities. The ability to assess the antimicrobial activity of cell extracts derived from algal cultures is vital to identifying species that may produce useful novel antibiotics. One assay that is used widely for this purpose is the disk diffusion assay due to its simplicity, rapidity, and low cost. Moreover, this assay gives output data that are easy to interpret and can be used to screen many samples at once irrespective of the solvent used during preparation. In this chapter, a step-by-step protocol for performing a disk diffusion assay is described. The assay is particularly well suited to testing algal cell extracts and fractions resulting from separation through bioassay-guided approaches.

  8. 77 FR 32943 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Pile Driving in the Columbia River, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Specified Activities; Pile Driving in the Columbia River, WA AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., incidental to pile driving during construction of the Terminal 5 Bulk Potash Handling Facility. DATES... (Eumatopius jubatus) ] incidental to pile driving activities conducted during the construction of the...

  9. Learning about Marine Biology. Superific Science Book VI. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Lorraine

    Based on the assumption that most students have a natural curiosity about the plant and animal life residing in the oceans, this document provides students in grades five through eight with activities in marine biology. The book provides illustrated information and learning activities dealing with: (1) diatoms; (2) the life cycle of the jellyfish;…

  10. Larvicidal, repellent, and ovicidal activity of marine actinobacteria extracts against Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex gelidus.

    PubMed

    Karthik, L; Gaurav, K; Rao, K V Bhaskara; Rajakumar, G; Rahuman, A Abdul

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of crude extracts of marine actinobacteria on larvicidal, repellent, and ovicidal activities against Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex gelidus (Diptera: Culicidae). The early fourth instar larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus and C. gelidus, reared in the laboratory, were used for larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent assay with crude extracts of actinobacteria. Saccharomonospora spp. (LK-1), Streptomyces roseiscleroticus (LK-2), and Streptomyces gedanensis (LK-3) were identified as potential biocide producers. Based on the antimicrobial activity, three strains were chosen for larvicidal activity. The marine actinobacterial extracts showed moderate to high larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm and the highest larval mortality was found in extract of LK-3 (LC(50) = 108.08 ppm and LC(90) = 609.15 ppm) against the larvae of C. gelidus and (LC(50) = 146.24 ppm and LC(90) = 762.69 ppm) against the larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus. Complete protections for 240 min were found in crude extract of LK-2 and LK-3 at 1,000 ppm, against mosquito bites of C. tritaeniorhynchus and C. gelidus, respectively. After 24-h treatment, mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Crude extracts of LK-1 and LK-3 showed no hatchability at 1,000 ppm against C. tritaeniorhynchus and C. gelidus, respectively. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of Japanese encephalitis vectors, C. tritaeniorhynchus and C. gelidus.

  11. Toward a harmonized approach for environmental assessment of human activities in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Tamis, Jacqueline E; de Vries, Pepijn; Jongbloed, Ruud H; Lagerveld, Sander; Jak, Robbert G; Karman, Chris C; Van der Wal, Jan Tjalling; Slijkerman, Diana Me; Klok, Chris

    2016-10-01

    With a foreseen increase in maritime activities, and driven by new policies and conventions aiming at sustainable management of the marine ecosystem, spatial management at sea is of growing importance. Spatial management should ensure that the collective pressures caused by anthropogenic activities on the marine ecosystem are kept within acceptable levels. A multitude of approaches to environmental assessment are available to provide insight for sustainable management, and there is a need for a harmonized and integrated environmental assessment approach that can be used for different purposes and variable levels of detail. This article first provides an overview of the main types of environmental assessments: "environmental impact assessment" (EIA), "strategic environmental assessment" (SEA), "cumulative effect assessment" (CEA), and "environmental (or ecological) risk assessment" (ERA). Addressing the need for a conceptual "umbrella" for the fragmented approaches, a generic framework for environmental assessment is proposed: cumulative effects of offshore activities (CUMULEO). CUMULEO builds on the principle that activities cause pressures that may lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Basic elements and variables are defined that can be used consistently throughout sequential decision-making levels and diverse methodological implementations. This enables environmental assessment to start at a high strategic level (i.e., plan and/or program level), resulting in early environmental awareness and subsequently more informed, efficient, and focused project-level assessments, which has clear benefits for both industry and government. Its main strengths are simplicity, transparency, flexibility (allowing the use of both qualitative and quantitative data), and visualization, making it a powerful framework to support discussions with experts, stakeholders, and policymakers. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:632-642. © 2015 SETAC.

  12. Antibiofilm Activity of the Marine Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain 3J6▿

    PubMed Central

    Dheilly, Alexandra; Soum-Soutéra, Emmanuelle; Klein, Géraldine L.; Bazire, Alexis; Compère, Chantal; Haras, Dominique; Dufour, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Biofilm formation results in medical threats or economic losses and is therefore a major concern in a variety of domains. In two-species biofilms of marine bacteria grown under dynamic conditions, Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain 3J6 formed mixed biofilms with Bacillus sp. strain 4J6 but was largely predominant over Paracoccus sp. strain 4M6 and Vibrio sp. strain D01. The supernatant of Pseudoalteromonas sp. 3J6 liquid culture (SN3J6) was devoid of antibacterial activity against free-living Paracoccus sp. 4M6 and Vibrio sp. D01 cells, but it impaired their ability to grow as single-species biofilms and led to higher percentages of nonviable cells in 48-h biofilms. Antibiofilm molecules of SN3J6 were able to coat the glass surfaces used to grow biofilms and reduced bacterial attachment about 2-fold, which might partly explain the biofilm formation defect but not the loss of cell viability. SN3J6 had a wide spectrum of activity since it affected all Gram-negative marine strains tested except other Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilm biovolumes of the sensitive strains were reduced 3- to 530-fold, and the percentages of nonviable cells were increased 3- to 225-fold. Interestingly, SN3J6 also impaired biofilm formation by three strains belonging to the human-pathogenic species Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli. Such an antibiofilm activity is original and opens up a variety of applications for Pseudoalteromonas sp. 3J6 and/or its active exoproducts in biofilm prevention strategies. PMID:20363799

  13. Marine Pharmacology in 2009–2011: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Antidiabetic, Antifungal, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Immune and Nervous Systems, and other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action †

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Alejandro M. S.; Rodríguez, Abimael D.; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature from 2009 to 2011 is presented in this review, following the format used in the 1998–2008 reviews of this series. The pharmacology of structurally-characterized compounds isolated from marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria is discussed in a comprehensive manner. Antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral pharmacological activities were reported for 102 marine natural products. Additionally, 60 marine compounds were observed to affect the immune and nervous system as well as possess antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, 68 marine metabolites were shown to interact with a variety of receptors and molecular targets, and thus will probably contribute to multiple pharmacological classes upon further mechanism of action studies. Marine pharmacology during 2009–2011 remained a global enterprise, with researchers from 35 countries, and the United States, contributing to the preclinical pharmacology of 262 marine compounds which are part of the preclinical pharmaceutical pipeline. Continued pharmacological research with marine natural products will contribute to enhance the marine pharmaceutical clinical pipeline, which in 2013 consisted of 17 marine natural products, analogs or derivatives targeting a limited number of disease categories. PMID:23880931

  14. Marine pharmacology in 2009-2011: marine compounds with antibacterial, antidiabetic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral activities; affecting the immune and nervous systems, and other miscellaneous mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Alejandro M S; Rodríguez, Abimael D; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2013-07-16

    The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature from 2009 to 2011 is presented in this review, following the format used in the 1998-2008 reviews of this series. The pharmacology of structurally-characterized compounds isolated from marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria is discussed in a comprehensive manner. Antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral pharmacological activities were reported for 102 marine natural products. Additionally, 60 marine compounds were observed to affect the immune and nervous system as well as possess antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, 68 marine metabolites were shown to interact with a variety of receptors and molecular targets, and thus will probably contribute to multiple pharmacological classes upon further mechanism of action studies. Marine pharmacology during 2009-2011 remained a global enterprise, with researchers from 35 countries, and the United States, contributing to the preclinical pharmacology of 262 marine compounds which are part of the preclinical pharmaceutical pipeline. Continued pharmacological research with marine natural products will contribute to enhance the marine pharmaceutical clinical pipeline, which in 2013 consisted of 17 marine natural products, analogs or derivatives targeting a limited number of disease categories.

  15. 77 FR 38832 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ...; Marine Terminals and Longshoring Standards ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: On June 29, 2012, the Department of... collection request (ICR) titled, ``Marine Terminals and Longshoring Standards'' to the Office of Management... at DOL_PRA_PUBLIC@dol.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Marine Terminals and Longshoring...

  16. 76 FR 50457 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Military Training Activities and Research Conducted Within...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA567 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals...: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of issuance of a Letter of Authorization. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine...

  17. Antimicrobial Activity of Marine Bacterial Symbionts Retrieved from Shallow Water Hydrothermal Vents.

    PubMed

    Eythorsdottir, Arnheidur; Omarsdottir, Sesselja; Einarsson, Hjorleifur

    2016-06-01

    Marine sponges and other sessile macro-organisms were collected at a shallow water hydrothermal site in Eyjafjörður, Iceland. Bacteria were isolated from the organisms using selective media for actinomycetes, and the isolates were screened for antimicrobial activity. A total of 111 isolates revealed antimicrobial activity displaying different antimicrobial patterns which indicates production of various compounds. Known test strains were grown in the presence of ethyl acetate extracts from one selected isolate, and a clear growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus was observed down to 0.1 % extract concentration in the medium. Identification of isolates shows different species of Actinobacteria with Streptomyces sp. playing the largest role, but also members of Bacilli, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Sponges have an excellent record regarding production of bioactive compounds, often involving microbial symbionts. At the hydrothermal vents, however, the majority of active isolates originated from other invertebrates such as sea anemones or algae. The results indicate that antimicrobial assays involving isolates in full growth can detect activity not visible by other methods. The macro-organisms inhabiting the Eyjafjörður hydrothermal vent area host diverse microbial species in the phylum Actinobacteria with antimicrobial activity, and the compounds responsible for the activity will be subject to further research.

  18. Verification and Improvement of ERS-1/2 Altimeter Geophysical Data Records for Global Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shum, C. K.

    2000-01-01

    This Final Technical Report summarizes the research work conducted under NASA's Physical Oceanography Program entitled, Verification And Improvement Of ERS-112 Altimeter Geophysical Data Recorders For Global Change Studies, for the time period from January 1, 2000 through June 30, 2000. This report also provides a summary of the investigation from July 1, 1997 - June 30, 2000. The primary objectives of this investigation include verification and improvement of the ERS-1 and ERS-2 radar altimeter geophysical data records for distribution of the data to the ESA-approved U.S. ERS-1/-2 investigators for global climate change studies. Specifically, the investigation is to verify and improve the ERS geophysical data record products by calibrating the instrument and assessing accuracy for the ERS-1/-2 orbital, geophysical, media, and instrument corrections. The purpose is to ensure that the consistency of constants, standards and algorithms with TOPEX/POSEIDON radar altimeter for global climate change studies such as the monitoring and interpretation of long-term sea level change. This investigation has provided the current best precise orbits, with the radial orbit accuracy for ERS-1 (Phases C-G) and ERS-2 estimated at the 3-5 cm rms level, an 30-fold improvement compared to the 1993 accuracy. We have finalized the production and verification of the value-added ERS-1 mission (Phases A, B, C, D, E, F, and G), in collaboration with JPL PODAAC and the University of Texas. Orbit and data verification and improvement of algorithms led to the best data product available to-date. ERS-2 altimeter data have been improved and we have been active on Envisat (2001 launch) GDR algorithm review and improvement. The data improvement of ERS-1 and ERS-2 led to improvement in the global mean sea surface, marine gravity anomaly and bathymetry models, and a study of Antarctica mass balance, which was published in Science in 1998.

  19. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busse, F. H.

    In the past 8 years, since Pedlosky's book was first published, it has found a well established place in the literature of dynamical meteorology and physical oceanography. Geophysicists less familiar with these fields may need to be reminded that the subject of geophysical fluid dynamics, in the narrow definition used in the title of the book, refers to the theory of the large-scale motions of the atmosphere and the oceans. Topics such as thermal convection in the atmosphere or in Earth's mantle and core are not treated in this book, and the reader will search in vain for a discussion of atmospheric or oceanic tides. The theory of quasi-geostrophic flow is described comprehensively, however, and its major applications to problems of atmospheric and oceanic circulations are considered in detail.

  20. Sampling functions for geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacaglia, G. E. O.; Lunquist, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    A set of spherical sampling functions is defined such that they are related to spherical-harmonic functions in the same way that the sampling functions of information theory are related to sine and cosine functions. An orderly distribution of (N + 1) squared sampling points on a sphere is given, for which the (N + 1) squared spherical sampling functions span the same linear manifold as do the spherical-harmonic functions through degree N. The transformations between the spherical sampling functions and the spherical-harmonic functions are given by recurrence relations. The spherical sampling functions of two arguments are extended to three arguments and to nonspherical reference surfaces. Typical applications of this formalism to geophysical topics are sketched.

  1. Marine pharmacology in 2005–6: Marine Compounds with Anthelmintic, Antibacterial, Anticoagulant, Antifungal, Anti-inflammatory, Antimalarial, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; affecting the Cardiovascular, Immune and Nervous Systems, and other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Alejandro M. S.; Rodriguez, Abimael D.; Berlinck, Roberto G. S.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The review presents the 2005–2006 peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature, and follows a similar format to the authors’ 1998–2004 reviews. The preclinical pharmacology of chemically characterized marine compounds isolated from marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria is systematically presented. RESULTS Anthelminthic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis and antiviral activities were reported for 78 marine chemicals. Additionally 47 marine compounds were reported to affect the cardiovascular, immune and nervous system as well as possess anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, 58 marine compounds were shown to bind to a variety of molecular targets, and thus could potentially contribute to several pharmacological classes. CONCLUSIONS Marine pharmacology research during 2005–2006 was truly global in nature, involving investigators from 32 countries, and the United States, and contributed 183 marine chemical leads to the research pipeline aimed at the discovery of novel therapeutic agents. SIGNIFICANCE Continued preclinical and clinical research with marine natural products demonstrating a broad spectrum of pharmacological activity and will probably result in novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of multiple disease categories. PMID:19303911

  2. Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. PMID:25257786

  3. Oxidative DNA damage levels and catalase activity in the clam Ruditapes decussatus as pollution biomarkers of Tunisian marine environment.

    PubMed

    Jebali, Jamel; Banni, Mohamed; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves; Boussetta, Hamadi

    2007-01-01

    Levels of the oxidative DNA damage 7, 8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and catalase (CAT) activity were measured in the digestive gland and gills of clams Ruditapes decussatus, related to the presence of pollutants along Tunisian marine environment. Increased levels of CAT were observed in tissues of clams from all the sites studied, compared to control values, and elevated 8-oxodG levels were observed at specific sites. Results obtained in this work indicate that the measurement of 8-oxodG levels and CAT activity in tissues of R. decussatus is promising in pollution monitoring studies of the Tunisian marine environment.

  4. Effect of solar activity and geophysical disturbance on physical-chemical processes in liquid medium: Preliminary analysis of storm-glass activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranovsky, E. A.; Tarashchuk, V. P.; Vladimirsky, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    Changes in the state of a solution in storm glasses (Fitzroy retort) have been recorded by measuring the height of the level of crystals. Devices manufactured by a group of Crimean researchers have been used to measure these characteristics daily since 1995. Fragments of an accumulated observation dataset have been processed employing standard meteorological and cosmophysical indices. It is found that, 2-3 days before isolated sharp drops in the atmospheric pressure, crystal formation intensifies synchronously in two devices. A relationship is found between the activity under study and changes in the A p geomagnetic-disturbance index and the flare-intensity index. There is a set of quasi-stable periods in variations of the activity of storm glasses, of which the 120-, 185-, and 360-day periods are most significant. The obtained results are generally consistent with views that changes in the background electromagnetic low-frequency fields are a physical agent influencing the process of crystal formation.

  5. Formation of marine snow and enhanced enzymatic activities in oil-contaminated seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziervogel, K.; McKay, L.; Yang, T.; Rhodes, B.; Nigro, L.; Gutierrez, T.; Teske, A.; Arnosti, C.

    2010-12-01

    The fate of oil spilled into the ocean depends on its composition, as well as on biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of the spill site. We investigated the effects of oil addition from the Deepwater Horizon (DH) spill on otherwise uncontaminated water collected close to the spill site. Incubation on a roller table mimicked the physical dynamics of natural seawater, leading to the formation of marine snow-oil aggregates. We measured the enzymatic activities of heterotrophic microbes associated with the aggregates and in the surrounding water, and assessed microbial population and community composition as oil-marine snow aggregates formed and aged in the water. Surface seawater taken near the spill site in May 2010 that had no visible crude oil was incubated in 1-l glass bottles with (oil-bottles) and without (no-oil bottles) a seawater-oil mixture collected from the same site. In the oil-bottles formation of brownish, densely packed marine snow (2-3 cm diameter) was observed within the first hour of the roller table incubation. In contrast no-oil bottles showed aggregate formation only after 3 days, and aggregates were almost transparent, less abundant, and smaller in size (< 1cm diameter). Subsamples of the water surrounding the aggregates were taken throughout 21 days of the roller table incubation, and analyzed for bacterial abundance and community structure as well as the activities of hydrolytic enzymes that are used by heterotrophic bacteria to degrade organic matter. We monitored oil-degrading activities with MUF-stearate and -butyrate, and also measured b-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase, and six different polysaccharide hydrolase activities. Enzymatic activities were up to one order of magnitude higher in the oil-bottles compared with the no-oil bottles throughout the entire incubation time. Butyrate hydrolysis was elevated throughout the time course of the incubation, and stearate hydrolysis was particularly high over the

  6. Screening for antibacterial and antifungal activities in marine benthic invertebrates from northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Margey; Gulliksen, Bjørn; Strøm, Morten B; Styrvold, Olaf B; Haug, Tor

    2008-11-01

    Benthic marine invertebrates collected from sub-Arctic regions of northern Norway, were found to be a promising source of novel bioactive compounds against human and fish pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Lyophilized material from seven species of ascidians, six sponges and one soft alcyonid coral were extracted with 60% acidified acetonitrile (ACN). After separation into an ACN-rich phase (ACN-extract) and an aqueous phase, and subsequent solid-phase extraction of the aqueous phase, fractions differing in polarity were obtained and screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities, along with the more lipophilic ACN-extracts. Antimicrobial activity was determined against two gram-negative, two gram-positive bacteria, and two strains of fungi. Notably, all the invertebrate species in the study showed activity against all four strains of bacteria and the two strains of fungi. In general, the aqueous fractions displayed highest antimicrobial activity, and the most potent extracts were obtained from the colonial ascidian Synoicum pulmonaria which displayed activity against bacteria and fungi at a concentration of 0.02 mg/ml; the lowest concentration tested.

  7. Triclosan causes toxic effects to algae in marine biofilms, but does not inhibit the metabolic activity of marine biofilm bacteria.

    PubMed

    Johansson, C Henrik; Janmar, Lisa; Backhaus, Thomas

    2014-07-15

    Effects of the antimicrobial agent triclosan to natural periphyton communities (biofilms, comprising primarily microalgae and bacteria) were assessed in two independent experiments during spring and summer. For that purpose a semi-static test system was used in which periphyton was exposed to a concentration range of 5-9054 nmol/L triclosan. Effects on algae were analyzed as content and composition of photosynthetic pigments. The corresponding EC50 values were 39.25 and 302.45 nmol/L for the spring and summer experiment, respectively. Effects on periphytic bacteria were assessed as effects on carbon utilization patterns, using Biolog Ecoplates. No inhibition of either total carbon utilization or functional diversity was observed, indicating a pronounced triclosan tolerance of the marine bacteria. In contrast, a small stimulation of the total carbon utilization was observed at triclosan concentrations exceeding 100 nmol/L.

  8. East Pacific rise: hot springs and geophysical experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Spiess, F.N.; Macdonald, K.C.; Atwater, T.

    1980-03-28

    Hydrothermal vents jetting out water at 380/sup 0/ +- 30/sup 0/C have been discovered on the axis of the East Pacific Rise. The hottest waters issue from mineralized chimneys and are blackened by sulfide precipitates. These hydrothermal springs are the sites of actively forming massive sulfide mineral deposits. Cooler springs are clean to milky and support exotic benthic communities of giant tube worms, clams, and crabs similar to those found at the Galapagos spreading center. Four prototype geophysical experiments were successfully conducted in and near the vent area: seismic refraction measurements with both source (thumper) and receivers on the sea floor, on-bottom gravity measurements, in situ magnetic gradiometer measurements from the submersible Alvin over a sea-floor magnetic reversal boundary, and an active electrical sounding experiment. These high-resolution determinations of crustal properties along the spreading center were made to gain knowledge of the source of new oceanic crust and marine magnetic anomalies, the nature of the axial magma chamber, and the depth of hydrothermal circulation.

  9. Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Immobilization onto Hippospongia communis Marine Demosponge Skeleton and Its Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Małgorzata; Bartczak, Przemysław; Zdarta, Jakub; Tomala, Wiktor; Żurańska, Barbara; Dobrowolska, Anna; Piasecki, Adam; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Ehrlich, Hermann; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Hippospongia communis marine demosponge skeleton was used as an adsorbent for sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC). Obtained results indicate the high sorption capacity of this biomaterial with respect to SCC. Batch experiments were performed under different conditions and kinetic and isotherms properties were investigated. Acidic pH and the addition of sodium chloride increased SCC adsorption. The experimental data were well described by a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms were determined and the experimental data were analyzed using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The effectiveness of the process was confirmed by 13C Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C CP/MAS NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). This novel SCC-sponge-based functional hybrid material was found to exhibit antimicrobial activity against the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:27690001

  10. Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Immobilization onto Hippospongia communis Marine Demosponge Skeleton and Its Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Norman, Małgorzata; Bartczak, Przemysław; Zdarta, Jakub; Tomala, Wiktor; Żurańska, Barbara; Dobrowolska, Anna; Piasecki, Adam; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Ehrlich, Hermann; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2016-09-27

    In this study, Hippospongia communis marine demosponge skeleton was used as an adsorbent for sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC). Obtained results indicate the high sorption capacity of this biomaterial with respect to SCC. Batch experiments were performed under different conditions and kinetic and isotherms properties were investigated. Acidic pH and the addition of sodium chloride increased SCC adsorption. The experimental data were well described by a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms were determined and the experimental data were analyzed using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The effectiveness of the process was confirmed by (13)C Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((13)C CP/MAS NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). This novel SCC-sponge-based functional hybrid material was found to exhibit antimicrobial activity against the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus.

  11. Geophysical Technologies to Image Old Mine Works

    SciTech Connect

    Kanaan Hanna; Jim Pfeiffer

    2007-01-15

    ZapataEngineering, Blackhawk Division performed geophysical void detection demonstrations for the US Department of Labor Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). The objective was to advance current state-of-practices of geophysical technologies for detecting underground mine voids. The presence of old mine works above, adjacent, or below an active mine presents major health and safety hazards to miners who have inadvertently cut into locations with such features. In addition, the presence of abandoned mines or voids beneath roadways and highway structures may greatly impact the performance of the transportation infrastructure in terms of cost and public safety. Roads constructed over abandoned mines are subject to potential differential settlement, subsidence, sinkholes, and/or catastrophic collapse. Thus, there is a need to utilize geophysical imaging technologies to accurately locate old mine works. Several surface and borehole geophysical imaging methods and mapping techniques were employed at a known abandoned coal mine in eastern Illinois to investigate which method best map the location and extent of old works. These methods included: 1) high-resolution seismic (HRS) using compressional P-wave (HRPW) and S-wave (HRSW) reflection collected with 3-D techniques; 2) crosshole seismic tomography (XHT); 3) guided waves; 4) reverse vertical seismic profiling (RVSP); and 5) borehole sonar mapping. In addition, several exploration borings were drilled to confirm the presence of the imaged mine voids. The results indicated that the RVSP is the most viable method to accurately detect the subsurface voids with horizontal accuracy of two to five feet. This method was then applied at several other locations in Colorado with various topographic, geologic, and cultural settings for the same purpose. This paper presents the significant results obtained from the geophysical investigations in Illinois.

  12. Geophysical Signitures From Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, M.; Jardani, A.

    2015-12-01

    The task of delineating the contamination plumes as well as studying their impact on the soil and groundwater biogeochemical properties is needed to support the remediation efforts and plans. Geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization (IP), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and self-potential (SP) have been previously used to characterize contaminant plumes and investigate their impact on soil and groundwater properties (Atekwana et al., 2002, 2004; Benson et al., 1997; Campbell et al., 1996; Cassidy et al., 2001; Revil et al., 2003; Werkema et al., 2000). Our objective was to: estimate the hydrocarbon contamination extent in a contaminated site in northern France, and to adverse the effects of the oil spill on the groundwater properties. We aim to find a good combination of non-intrusive and low cost methods which we can use to follow the bio-remediation process, which is planned to proceed next year. We used four geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography, IP, GPR, and SP. The geophysical data was compared to geochemical ones obtained from 30 boreholes installed in the site during the geophysical surveys. Our results have shown: low electrical resistivity values; high chargeability values; negative SP anomalies; and attenuated GPR reflections coincident with groundwater contamination. Laboratory and field geochemical measurements have demonstrated increased groundwater electrical conductivity and increased microbial activity associated with hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater. Our study results support the conductive model suggested by studies such as Sauck (2000) and Atekwana et al., (2004), who suggest that biological alterations of hydrocarbon contamination can substantially modify the chemical and physical properties of the subsurface, producing a dramatic shift in the geo-electrical signature from resistive to conductive. The next stage of the research will include time lapse borehole

  13. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antimutagenic activities of selected marine natural products and tobacco cembranoids.

    PubMed

    Aqil, Farrukh; Zahin, Maryam; El Sayed, Khalid A; Ahmad, Iqbal; Orabi, Khaled Y; Arif, Jamal M

    2011-04-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in microorganisms is a cause of major concern for clinicians and pharmaceutical industries. Continuous development of new antimicrobial drugs with multiple targets and potentials is expected to efficiently combat MDR in these microorganisms. In a continued exploration of new antimicrobial drug leads, 11 marine natural products, semisynthetic, or related synthetic analogs (1-11) and two tobacco cembranoids (12 and 13) were screened for their antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antimutagenic activities. Eight compounds showed varying levels of both antibacterial and antifungal activities. Compounds such as 17-O-methyllatrunculin-A, verongiaquinol, (1S,2E,4R,6R,7E,11E)-2,7,11-cembratriene-4,6-diol), and manzamine-A showed a broad spectrum of activity, inhibiting six of seven tested bacteria with zone of inhibition diameter from 9 to 30 mm. Four of these active compounds also showed antifungal activity. The findings of the in vitro time-kill assay of the most active compound, verongiaquinol, against Staphylococcus aureus indicated its subinhibitory effect at the level lower than the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values (i.e., 2 and 4 µg/mL). At the MIC (8 µg/mL), bacterial cells were completely killed within 18 hours of incubation. DPPH free radical scavenging activity was demonstrated by five compounds in the range of 89.65-36.19% decolorization. Further, four compounds evaluated for their antimutagenic activity against the directly acting mutagens, methyl methanesulfonate and sodium azide, in Salmonella typhimurium strains, interestingly, showed no sign of mutagenicity. Verongiaquinol and manzamine A, in fact, reduced the mutagenicity by 50-75% at a dose of 5 µg/plate in different test strains. Our study seems to provide some novel antimicrobial leads with strong antioxidant potential and the associated ability of antimutagenicity.

  14. Zinc affects differently growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and phytochelatin synthase expression of four marine diatoms.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Deroche, Thi Le Nhung; Caruso, Aurore; Le, Thi Trung; Bui, Trang Viet; Schoefs, Benoît; Tremblin, Gérard; Morant-Manceau, Annick

    2012-01-01

    Zinc-supplementation (20 μM) effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase), and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa). Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The Zn treatment decreased the electron transport rate except in A. coffeaeformis and in E. paludosa at high irradiance. A linear relationship was found between the efficiency of light to evolve oxygen and the size of the light-harvesting antenna. The external carbonic anhydrase activity was stimulated in Zn-supplemented E. paludosa but was not correlated with an increase of photosynthesis. The total activity of the antioxidant enzymes did not display any clear increase except in ascorbate peroxidase activity in N. palea. The phytochelatin synthase gene was identified in the four diatoms, but its expression was only revealed in N. palea, without a clear difference between control and Zn-supplemented cells. Among the four species, A. paludosa was the most sensitive and A. coffeaeformis, the most tolerant. A. acutiuscula seemed to be under metal starvation, whereas, to survive, only N. palea developed several stress responses.

  15. Amy63, a novel type of marine bacterial multifunctional enzyme possessing amylase, agarase and carrageenase activities

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ge; Wu, Shimei; Jin, Weihua; Sun, Chaomin

    2016-01-01

    A multifunctional enzyme is one that performs multiple physiological functions, thus benefiting the organism. Characterization of multifunctional enzymes is important for researchers to understand how organisms adapt to different environmental challenges. In the present study, we report the discovery of a novel multifunctional enzyme Amy63 produced by marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus 63. Remarkably, Amy63 possesses amylase, agarase and carrageenase activities. Amy63 is a substrate promiscuous α-amylase, with the substrate priority order of starch, carrageenan and agar. Amy63 maintains considerable amylase, carrageenase and agarase activities and stabilities at wide temperature and pH ranges, and optimum activities are detected at temperature of 60 °C and pH of 6.0, respectively. Moreover, the heteroexpression of Amy63 dramatically enhances the ability of E. coli to degrade starch, carrageenan and agar. Motif searching shows three continuous glycosyl hydrolase 70 (GH70) family homologs existed in Amy63 encoding sequence. Combining serial deletions and phylogenetic analysis of Amy63, the GH70 homologs are proposed as the determinants of enzyme promiscuity. Notably, such enzymes exist in all kingdoms of life, thus providing an expanded perspective on studies of multifunctional enzymes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amylase having additional agarase and carrageenase activities. PMID:26725302

  16. Interactions between Carotenoids from Marine Bacteria and Other Micronutrients: Impact on Stability and Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Sy, Charlotte; Dangles, Olivier; Borel, Patrick; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine

    2015-11-19

    Recently isolated spore-forming pigmented marine bacteria Bacillus indicus HU36 are sources of oxygenated carotenoids with original structures (about fifteen distinct yellow and orange pigments with acylated d-glucosyl groups). In this study, we evaluated the stability (sensitivity to iron-induced autoxidation) and antioxidant activity (inhibition of iron-induced lipid peroxidation) of combinations of bacterial HU36 carotenoids with the bacterial vitamin menaquinone MQ-7 and with phenolic antioxidants (vitamin E, chlorogenic acid, rutin). Unexpectedly, MQ-7 strongly improves the ability of HU36 carotenoids to inhibit Fe(II)-induced lipid peroxidation, although MQ-7 was not consumed in the medium. We propose that their interaction modifies the carotenoid antioxidant mechanism(s), possibly by allowing carotenoids to scavenge the initiating radicals. For comparison, β-carotene and lycopene in combination were shown to exhibit a slightly higher stability toward iron-induced autoxidation, as well as an additive antioxidant activity as compared to the carotenoids, individually. HU36 carotenoids and phenolic antioxidants displayed synergistic activities in the inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation induced by heme iron, but not by free iron. Synergism could arise from antioxidants interacting via electron transfer through the porphyrin nucleus of heme iron. Overall, combining antioxidants acting via complementary mechanisms could be the key for optimizing the activity of this bacterial carotenoid cocktail.

  17. Interactions between Carotenoids from Marine Bacteria and Other Micronutrients: Impact on Stability and Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sy, Charlotte; Dangles, Olivier; Borel, Patrick; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Recently isolated spore-forming pigmented marine bacteria Bacillus indicus HU36 are sources of oxygenated carotenoids with original structures (about fifteen distinct yellow and orange pigments with acylated d-glucosyl groups). In this study, we evaluated the stability (sensitivity to iron-induced autoxidation) and antioxidant activity (inhibition of iron-induced lipid peroxidation) of combinations of bacterial HU36 carotenoids with the bacterial vitamin menaquinone MQ-7 and with phenolic antioxidants (vitamin E, chlorogenic acid, rutin). Unexpectedly, MQ-7 strongly improves the ability of HU36 carotenoids to inhibit FeII-induced lipid peroxidation, although MQ-7 was not consumed in the medium. We propose that their interaction modifies the carotenoid antioxidant mechanism(s), possibly by allowing carotenoids to scavenge the initiating radicals. For comparison, β-carotene and lycopene in combination were shown to exhibit a slightly higher stability toward iron-induced autoxidation, as well as an additive antioxidant activity as compared to the carotenoids, individually. HU36 carotenoids and phenolic antioxidants displayed synergistic activities in the inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation induced by heme iron, but not by free iron. Synergism could arise from antioxidants interacting via electron transfer through the porphyrin nucleus of heme iron. Overall, combining antioxidants acting via complementary mechanisms could be the key for optimizing the activity of this bacterial carotenoid cocktail. PMID:26610529

  18. Penicillium chrysogenum DSOA associated with marine sponge (Tedania anhelans) exhibit antimycobacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Visamsetti, Amarendra; Ramachandran, Santhosh Sarojini; Kandasamy, Dhevendaran

    2016-04-01

    A strain of Penicillium chrysogenum was isolated from Tedania anhelans (marine sponge) collected from Indian Ocean (8°22'30″N latitude and 76°59'16″ longitude) and deposited in culture collection centers. The strain subjected to different culture conditions for production of extrolites were extracted using ethyl acetate and chloroform. When both extracts were subjected for antibacterial activity, latter had high activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration of chloroform extract ranged from 31.25-1000 μg/mL in tested microbes such as, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium vaccae, Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae. No cytotoxicity was observed in Vero cell line up to 399.10 μg/mL. Antibacterial activity previously reported by Parameswaran et al. in 1997 from ethyl acetate extract of T. anhelans might be due to the diketopiperazines, Cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe) and Cyclo-(L-Leu-L-Pro) produced by the associated fungi-P. chrysogenum DSOA. It is producing a metabolites having antimycobacterial activity, a first report.

  19. Vertical activity distribution of dissimilatory nitrate reduction in coastal marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, A.; de Beer, D.; Stief, P.

    2013-05-01

    The relative importance of two dissimilatory nitrate reduction pathways, denitrification (DEN) and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), was investigated in intact sediment cores from five different coastal marine field sites. The vertical distribution of DEN activity was examined using the acetylene inhibition technique combined with N2O microsensor measurements, whereas NH4+ production via DNRA was measured with a recently developed gel probe-stable isotope technique. At all field sites, dissimilatory nitrate reduction was clearly dominated by DEN (> 59% of the total NO3- reduced) rather than by DNRA, irrespective of the sedimentary inventories of electron donors such as organic carbon, sulfide, and iron. Ammonium production via DNRA (8.9% of the total NO3- reduced) was exclusively found at one site with very high concentrations of total sulfide and NH4+ in the layer of NO3- reduction and below. Sediment from two field sites, one with and one without DNRA activity in the core incubations, was also used for slurry incubations. Now, in both sediments high DNRA activity was detected accounting for 37-77% of the total NO3- reduced. These contradictory results can be explained by enhanced NO3- availability for DNRA bacteria in the sediment slurries compared to the core-incubated sediments. It can be argued that the gel probe technique gives more realistic estimates of DNRA activity in diffusion-dominated sediments, while slurry incubations are more suitable for advection-dominated sediments.

  20. Structure-Activity Relationships of the Bioactive Thiazinoquinone Marine Natural Products Thiaplidiaquinones A and B.

    PubMed

    Harper, Jacquie L; Khalil, Iman M; Shaw, Lisa; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise; Dubois, Joëlle; Valentin, Alexis; Barker, David; Copp, Brent R

    2015-08-10

    In an effort to more accurately define the mechanism of cell death and to establish structure-activity relationship requirements for the marine meroterpenoid alkaloids thiaplidiaquinones A and B, we have evaluated not only the natural products but also dioxothiazine regioisomers and two precursor quinones in a range of bioassays. While the natural products were found to be weak inducers of ROS in Jurkat cells, the dioxothiazine regioisomer of thiaplidiaquinone A and a synthetic precursor to thiaplidiaquinone B were found to be moderately potent inducers. Intriguingly, and in contrast to previous reports, the mechanism of Jurkat cell death (necrosis vs. apoptosis) was found to be dependent upon the positioning of one of the geranyl sidechains in the compounds with thiaplidiaquinone A and its dioxothiazine regioisomer causing death dominantly by necrosis, while thiaplidiaquinone B and its dioxothiazine isomer caused cell death via apoptosis. The dioxothiazine regioisomer of thiaplidiaquinone A exhibited more potent in vitro antiproliferative activity against human tumor cells, with NCI sub-panel selectivity towards melanoma cell lines. The non-natural dioxothiazine regioisomers were also more active in antiplasmodial and anti-farnesyltransferase assays than their natural product counterparts. The results highlight the important role that natural product total synthesis can play in not only helping understand the structural basis of biological activity of natural products, but also the discovery of new bioactive scaffolds.

  1. Halogenated pyrrolopyrimidine analogues of adenosine from marine organisms: pharmacological activities and potent inhibition of adenosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Davies, L P; Jamieson, D D; Baird-Lambert, J A; Kazlauskas, R

    1984-02-01

    Two novel halogenated pyrrolopyrimidine analogues of adenosine, isolated from marine sources, have been examined for pharmacological and biochemical activities. 4-Amino-5-bromo-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine, from a sponge of the genus Echinodictyum, had bronchodilator activity at least as potent as theophylline but with a different biochemical profile; unlike theophylline it had no antagonist activity at CNS adenosine receptors and it was quite a potent inhibitor of adenosine uptake and adenosine kinase in brain tissue. 5'-Deoxy-5-iodotubercidin, isolated from the red alga Hypnea valentiae, caused potent muscle relaxation and hypothermia when injected into mice. This compound was a very potent inhibitor of adenosine uptake into rat and guinea-pig brain slices and an extremely potent inhibitor of adenosine kinase from guinea-pig brain and rat brain and liver. Neither of these two pyrrolopyrimidine analogues was a substrate for, or an inhibitor of, adenosine deaminase. Neither compound appeared to have any direct agonist activity on guinea-pig brain adenosine-stimulated adenylate cyclase (A2 adenosine receptors). 5'-Deoxy-5-iodotubercidin is unique in two respects: it appears to be the first naturally-occurring example of a 5'-deoxyribosyl nucleoside and is the first example of a specifically iodinated nucleoside from natural sources. It may be the most potent adenosine kinase inhibitor yet described and, by virtue of its structure, may prove to be the most specific.

  2. Archaeological Geophysics in Israel: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.

    2009-04-01

    . Application of multifocusing seismic processing to the GPR data analysis. Proceed. of the Symp. on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems, Hyatt Regency Crystal City, Arlington, USA, 597-606. Borradaile, G. J., 2003. Viscous magnetization, archaeology and Bayesian statistics of small samples from Israel and England. Geophysical Research Letters, 30 (10), 1528, doi:10.1029/2003GL016977. Boyce, J.I., Reinhardt, E.G., Raban, A., and Pozza, M.R., 2004. The utility of marine magnetic surveying for mapping buried hydraulic concrete harbour structures: Marine Magnetic Survey of a Submerged Roman Harbour, Caesarea Maritima, Israel. The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 33, 1, 122-136. Bruins, H.J., van der Plicht, J., and Mazar, A., 2003. 14C dates from Tel-Rehov: Iron-age chronology, Pharaohs and Hebrew kings. Science, 300, 315-318. Daniels, J., Blumberg, D.J., Vulfson, L.D., Kotlyar, A.L., Freiliker, V., Ronen, G., and Ben-Asher, J., 2003. Microwave remote sensing of physically buried objects in the Negev Desert: implications for environmental research. Remote Sensing of Environment, 86, 243-256, 2003. Dolphin, L.T., 1981. Geophysical methods for archaeological surveys in Israel. Stanford Research International, Menlo Park, Calif., USA, 7 pp. Ellenblum, R., Marco, M., Agnon, A., Rockwell, T., and Boas, A., 1998. Crusader castle torn apart by earthquake at dawn, 20 May 1202. Geology, 26, No. 4, 303-306. Eppelbaum, L.V., 1999. Quantitative interpretation of resistivity anomalies using advanced methods developed in magnetic prospecting. Trans. of the XXIV General Assembly of the Europ. Geoph. Soc., Strasburg 1 (1), p.166. Eppelbaum, L.V., 2000a. Detailed geophysical investigations at archaeological sites. In: (Ed. A. Nissenbaum), Relation between archaeology and other scientific disciplines, Collection of Papers, Weitzman Inst., Rehovot, Israel, No.8, 39-54 (in Hebrew). Eppelbaum, L.V., 2000b. Applicability of geophysical methods for

  3. Integration of remote sensing and geophysical techniques for coastal monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoniello, T.; Carone, M. T.; Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Imbrenda, V.; D'Emilio, M.; Guariglia, A.

    2009-04-01

    Coastal areas are of great environmental, economic, social, cultural and recreational relevance; therefore, the implementation of suitable monitoring and protection actions is fundamental for their preservation and for assuring future use of this resource. Such actions have to be based on an ecosystem perspective for preserving coastal environment integrity and functioning and for planning sustainable resource management of both the marine and terrestrial components (ICZM-EU initiative). We implemented an integrated study based on remote sensing and geophysical techniques for monitoring a coastal area located along the Ionian side of Basilicata region (Southern Italy). This area, between the Bradano and Basento river mouths, is mainly characterized by a narrow shore (10-30 m) of fine sandy formations and by a pine forest planted in the first decade of 50's in order to preserve the coast and the inland cultivated areas. Due to drought and fire events and saltwater intrusion phenomena, such a forest is affected by a strong decline with consequent environmental problems. Multispectral satellite data were adopted for evaluating the spatio-temporal features of coastal vegetation and the structure of forested patterns. The increase or decrease in vegetation activity was analyzed from trends estimated on a time series of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) maps. The fragmentation/connection levels of vegetated patterns was assessed form a set of landscape ecology metrics elaborated at different structure scales (patch, class and landscape) on satellite cover classifications. Information on shoreline changes were derived form a multi-source data set (satellite data, field-GPS surveys and Aerial Laser Scanner acquisitions) by taking also into account tidal effects. Geophysical campaigns were performed for characterizing soil features and limits of salty water infiltrations. Form vertical resistivity soundings (VES), soil resistivity maps at different a deeps (0

  4. Screening for antibacterial and antifungal activities in some marine algae from the Fujian coast of China with three different solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Chen, Yin-Shan; Lu, Hai-Sheng

    2001-12-01

    Three different solvents viz ethanol, acetone and methanol-toluene (3:1) were used to extract antibiotics from 23 species of marine algae belonging to the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta. Their crude extracts were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among them, the ethanol extract showed the strongest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested. Four species of the Rhodophyta ( Laurencia okamurai, Dasya scoparia, Grateloupia filicina and plocamium telfairiae) showed a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. Every solvent extract from the four species was active against all the bacteria tested. The test bacterium Pseudomonas solancearum and the fungus Penicilium citrinum were most sensitive to the extracts of marine algae. In general, the extracts of seaweeds inhibited bacteria more strongly than fungi and species of the Rhodophyta showed the greatest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested.

  5. Assessing Acoustic Sound Levels Associated with Active Source Seismic Surveys in Shallow Marine Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Tolstoy, M.; Thode, A.; Diebold, J. B.; Webb, S. C.

    2004-12-01

    The potential effect of active source seismic research on marine mammal populations is a topic of increasing concern, and controversy surrounding such operations has begun to impact the planning and permitting of academic surveys [e.g., Malakoff, 2002 Science]. Although no causal relationship between marine mammal strandings and seismic exploration has been proven, any circumstantial evidence must be thoroughly investigated. A 2002 stranding of two beaked whales in the Gulf of California within 50 km of a R/V Ewing seismic survey has been a subject of concern for both marine seismologists and environmentalists. In order to better understand possible received levels for whales in the vicinity of these operations, modeling is combined with ground-truth calibration measurements. A wide-angle parabolic equation model, which is capable of including shear within the sediment and basement layers, is used to generate predictive models of low-frequency transmission loss within the Gulf of California. This work incorporates range-dependent bathymetry, sediment thickness, sound velocity structure and sub-bottom properties. Oceanic sounds speed profiles are derived from the U.S. Navy's seasonal GDEM model and sediment thicknesses are taken from NOAA's worldwide database. The spectral content of the Ewing's 20-airgun seismic array is constrained by field calibration in the spring of 2003 [Tolstoy et al., 2004 GRL], indicating peak energies at frequencies below a few hundred Hz, with energy spectral density showing an approximate power-law decrease at higher frequencies (being ~40 dB below peak at 1 kHz). Transmission loss is estimated along a series of radials extending from multiple positions along the ship's track, with the directivity of the array accounted for by phase-shifting point sources that are scaled by the cube root of the individual airgun volumes. This allows the time-space history of low-frequency received levels to be reconstructed within the Gulf of California

  6. S.E.A. Lab. Science Experiments and Activities. Marine Science for High School Students in Chemistry, Biology and Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kathy, Ed.

    A series of science experiments and activities designed for secondary school students taking biology, chemistry, physics, physical science or marine science courses are outlined. Each of the three major sections--chemistry, biology, and physics--addresses concepts that are generally covered in those courses but incorporates aspects of marine…

  7. Exploring Marine Ecosystems with Elementary School Portuguese Children: Inquiry-Based Project Activities Focused on "Real-Life" Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilherme, Elsa; Faria, Cláudia; Boaventura, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how young students engage in an inquiry-based project driven by real-life contexts. Elementary school children were engaged in a small inquiry project centred on marine biodiversity and species adaptations. All activities included the exploration of an out-of-school setting as a learning context. A total…

  8. Pre-Trip Expectations and Post-Trip Satisfaction with Marine Tour Interpretation in Hawaii: Applying the Norm Activation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Kerrie; Needham, Mark D.; Szuster, Brian W.; Jordan, Evan J.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines environmental education by focusing on recreationist expectations for interpretation on marine tours, satisfaction with this interpretation and whether expectations were met, and how these perceptions correlate with components of the norm activation model. Recreationists surveyed before and after tours to Molokini, Hawaii (n…

  9. 30 CFR 285.801 - How must I conduct my approved activities to protect marine mammals, threatened and endangered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... protect marine mammals, threatened and endangered species, and designated critical habitat? 285.801... mammals, threatened and endangered species, and designated critical habitat? (a) You must not conduct any activity under your lease or grant that may affect threatened or endangered species or that may...

  10. 30 CFR 585.801 - How must I conduct my approved activities to protect marine mammals, threatened and endangered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... protect marine mammals, threatened and endangered species, and designated critical habitat? 585.801... endangered species, and designated critical habitat? (a) You must not conduct any activity under your lease or grant that may affect threatened or endangered species or that may affect designated...

  11. 30 CFR 585.801 - How must I conduct my approved activities to protect marine mammals, threatened and endangered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... protect marine mammals, threatened and endangered species, and designated critical habitat? 585.801... endangered species, and designated critical habitat? (a) You must not conduct any activity under your lease or grant that may affect threatened or endangered species or that may affect designated...

  12. 30 CFR 585.801 - How must I conduct my approved activities to protect marine mammals, threatened and endangered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... protect marine mammals, threatened and endangered species, and designated critical habitat? 585.801... endangered species, and designated critical habitat? (a) You must not conduct any activity under your lease or grant that may affect threatened or endangered species or that may affect designated...

  13. 30 CFR 285.801 - How must I conduct my approved activities to protect marine mammals, threatened and endangered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... protect marine mammals, threatened and endangered species, and designated critical habitat? 285.801... endangered species, and designated critical habitat? (a) You must not conduct any activity under your lease or grant that may affect threatened or endangered species or that may affect designated...

  14. 78 FR 73009 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Navy Training and Testing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... considered military readiness activities. Marine mammals present in the Study Area may be exposed to sound... sources of underwater non-impulsive sound or impulsive energy, the Navy developed a series of source... sound is emitted as a narrow, focused beam, or whether sound is emitted in all directions); and...

  15. 78 FR 24161 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Training Conducted at the Silver...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Specified Activities; Navy Training Conducted at the Silver Strand Training Complex, San Diego Bay AGENCY...) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting training exercises at the Silver Strand Training Complex (SSTC) in the vicinity of San Diego Bay, California. Pursuant to the...

  16. 77 FR 19231 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Training Conducted at the Silver...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Specified Activities; Navy Training Conducted at the Silver Strand Training Complex, San Diego Bay AGENCY... Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting training exercises at the Silver Strand Training Complex (SSTC) in the vicinity of San Diego Bay, California....

  17. 77 FR 43238 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Training Conducted at the Silver...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... Specified Activities; Navy Training Conducted at the Silver Strand Training Complex, San Diego Bay AGENCY... harassment, incidental to conducting training exercises at the Silver Strand Training Complex (SSTC) in the... taking, by harassment, of marine mammals incidental to conducting training exercises at the Navy's...

  18. Jesuit Geophysical Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udias, Agustin; Stauder, William

    Jesuits have had ah interest in observing and explaining geophysical phenomena since this religious order, the Society of Jesus, was founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1540. Three principal factors contributed to this interest: their educational work in colleges and universities, their missionary endeavors to remote lands where they observed interesting and often as yet undocumented natural phenomena, and a network of communication that brought research of other Jesuits readily to their awareness.One of the first and most important Jesuit colleges was the Roman College (today the Gregorian University) founded in 1551 in Rome, which served as a model for many other universities throughout the world. By 1572, Christopher Clavius (1537-1612), professor of mathematics at the Roman College, had already initiated an important tradition of Jesuit research by emphasizing applied mathematics and insisting on the need of serious study of mathematics in the program of studies in the humanities. In 1547 he directed a publication of Euclid's work with commentaries, and published several treatises on mathematics, including Arithmetica Practica [1585], Gnomonicae [1581], and Geometrica Practica [1606]. Clavius was also a Copernican and supported his friend Galileo when he announced the discovery of the satellites of Jupiter.

  19. A ``model`` geophysics program

    SciTech Connect

    Nyquist, J.E.

    1994-03-01

    In 1993, I tested a radio-controlled airplane designed by Jim Walker of Brigham Young University for low-elevation aerial photography. Model-air photography retains most of the advantages of standard aerial photography --- the photographs can be used to detect lineaments, to map roads and buildings, and to construct stereo pairs to measure topography --- and it is far less expensive. Proven applications on the Oak Ridge Reservation include: updating older aerial records to document new construction; using repeated overflights of the same area to capture seasonal changes in vegetation and the effects of major storms; and detecting waste trench boundaries from the color and character of the overlying grass. Aerial photography is only one of many possible applications of radio-controlled aircraft. Currently, I am funded by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development to review the state of the art in microavionics, both military and civilian, to determine ways this emerging technology can be used for environmental site characterization. Being particularly interested in geophysical applications, I am also collaborating with electrical engineers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to design a model plane that will carry a 3-component flux-gate magnetometer and a global positioning system, which I hope to test in the spring of 1994.

  20. United States Marine Corps 2012 Financial Report. Schedule of Budgetary Activity for Fiscal Year 2012 Appropriations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    in 2012 –– Sustaining U.S. Global Leadership: Priorities for 21st Century Defense –– provides the framework by which the Marine Corps will balance...civilian and military leaders. As a maritime nation with global commitments and responsibilities, the United States relies on the Marine Corps for...the unparalleled ability to project U.S. power rapidly across the global land, sea, air, space, and cyber “commons.” Today, Marines stand ready to

  1. Treatment of saline wastewaters from marine-products processing factories by activated sludge reactor.

    PubMed

    Khannous, L; Souissi, N; Ghorbel, B; Jarboui, R; Kallel, M; Nasri, M; Gharsallah, N

    2003-10-01

    An activated sludge reactor, operated at room temperature (20-30 degrees C) was used to treat saline wastewaters generated by marine-products industries. The system was operated continuously and the influence of the organic loading rates (OLRs), varying from 250 to 1000 mg COD l(-1) day(-1), on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was investigated. The system, inoculated with NaCl-acclimated culture, removed up to 98% and 88% of the influent COD concentrations at OLRs of 250 and 1000 mg COD L(-1) day(-1), respectively. Since the organic pollution is essentially composed of proteins, microorganisms, which produced proteolytic enzymes, were isolated from the activated sludge culture. One bacterium with the highest protease activity, identified as Bacillus cereus, was chosen for protease production in fishery wastewaters of different concentrations containing combined heads and viscera powder. Protease synthesis was strongly enhanced when cells were cultivated in two times diluted fishery wastewaters. The enhancement of protease synthesis could have been due to the presence in effluent of organic matters or salts, which stimulated the growth of the strain and protease production.

  2. Corticosterone suppresses immune activity in territorial Galápagos marine iguanas during reproduction.

    PubMed

    Berger, Silke; Martin, Lynn B; Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Vitousek, Maren N; Rödl, Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Individuals that display elaborate sexually selected characters often show reduced immune function. According to the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis, testosterone (T) is responsible for this result as it drives the development and maintenance of sexual characters and causes immunosuppression. But glucocorticoids also have strong influences on immune function and may also be elevated in reproductively active males. Here, we compared immune activity using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin test in three discrete groups of male marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus): territorials, satellites, and bachelors. Males of these three reproductive phenotypes had indistinguishable T concentrations during the height of the breeding season, but their corticosterone (cort) concentrations, body condition and hematocrit were significantly different. Territorial males, the animals with the most elaborate sexual ornaments and behaviors, had lower immune responses and body condition but higher cort concentrations and hematocrit than satellites or bachelors. To test directly cort's immunosuppressive role, we elevated cort by either restraining animals or additionally injecting cort and compared their PHA swelling response with the response of free-roaming animals. Such experimental elevation of cort significantly decreased immune activity in both restrained and cort-injected animals. Our data show that cort can induce immunosuppression, but they do not support the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis in its narrow sense because T concentrations were not related to immunosuppression.

  3. (129)I record of nuclear activities in marine sediment core from Jiaozhou Bay in China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yukun; Hou, Xiaolin; Zhou, Weijian; Liu, Guangshan

    2016-04-01

    Iodine-129 has been used as a powerful tool for environmental tracing of human nuclear activities. In this work, a sediment core collected from Jiaozhou Bay, the east coast of China, in 2002 was analyzed for (129)I to investigate the influence of human nuclear activities in this region. Significantly enhanced (129)I level was observed in upper 70 cm of the sediment core, with peak values in the layer corresponding to 1957, 1964, 1974, 1986, and after 1990. The sources of (129)I and corresponding transport processes in this region are discussed, including nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds, global fallout from a large numbers of nuclear weapon tests in 1963, the climax of Chinese nuclear weapons testing in the early 1970s, the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and long-distance dispersion of European reprocessing derived (129)I. The very well (129)I records of different human nuclear activities in the sediment core illustrate the potential application of (129)I in constraining ages and sedimentation rates of the recent sediment. The releases of (129)I from the European nuclear fuel reprocessing plants at La Hague (France) and Sellafield (UK) were found to dominate the inventory of (129)I in the Chinese sediments after 1990, not only the directly atmospheric releases of these reprocessing plants, but also re-emission of marine discharged (129)I of these reprocessing plants in the highly contaminated European seas.

  4. Antitumor and immune regulation activities of the extracts of some Chinese marine invertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lixin; Fan, Xiao; Han, Lijun

    2005-03-01

    Extracts of 21 marine invertebrates belonging to Coelenterata, Mollusca, Annelida, Bryozoa, Echiura, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Urochordata were screened for the studies on their antitumor and immune regulation activities. Antitumor activity was determined by MTT method and immune regulation activity was studied using T- and B-lymphocytes in mice spleen in vitro. It was found that the n-butanol part of Asterina pectinifera, the acetic ether part of Tubuaria marina, 95% ethanol extract of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus have a high inhibition rate of 96.7%, 63.9% and 50.5% respectively on tumor cell line HL-60 at the concentration of 0.063 mg/ml. The inhibition rate of the acetic ether part of Tubuaria marina on the tumor cell line A-549 is 65.4% at concentration of 0.063 mg/mL. The 95% ethanol extract of Meretrix meretrix has so outstanding promoting effect on T-lymphocytes that their multiplication increases 25% when the sample concentration is only 1 μg/ml. On B-lymphocytes, the 95% extract of Rapana venosa, at concentration of 100 μg/ml, has a promotion percentage of 60%. On the other hand, under the condition of no cytotoxic effect, the 95% ethanol extracts of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus and Cellana toreum can reach 92% inhibition rate on T lymphocyte at concentration of 100 μg/ml, while the inhibition rate on B lymphocyte of the 95% extract of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus reaches 92% at the same concentration.

  5. Marine Hazards, a Result of Naval War Activities in the Pacific 1942-1945?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernaerts, A.

    2014-12-01

    The clash between the United States and Japan in the Pacific from December 1942 to August 1945 presumably caused marine geohazards exceeding significantly many submarine earthquakes, explosive volcanic eruptions and tsunamis. Most significantly the most pronounced shift in Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) took place within the shortest period of time ever observed, and when the Allies navies approached Japan's coast line two years later, winter air temperatures (December to February 1944/45) fell to the lowest level ever observed. The Naval War in the Pacific from 1943 - 1945 was not only devastating to man and material, but also substantially altered the structure of the sea surface layer down to 100 meter and more, with a subsequent impact on air temperatures, and PDO balance across the Northern Pacific. Until now the question has received little attention although it is obvious that a global rising temperature trend prior the early 1940s turned into a decreasing mode during the time when huge naval war activities took place across the oceans in the Northern Hemisphere that eventually lasted for three decades until the mid-1970s While the impact of screw driven vessels since their invention in the 19th Century on the sea surface structure is difficult to assess, and no investigations have been made yet . The naval war in the Pacific from 1943 - 1945 could be regarded as a huge scale 'field experiment' on manmade marine geohazards due to the suddenness, the magnitude and the intensity, penetrating the ocean to considerable depths. Naval operations and available sea and climate data need to be identified, linked, evaluated and discussed. What kind of impact did the Pacific War have on climate? It seems due time to pay attention to this issue.

  6. Tributyltin sorption to marine sedimentary black carbon and to amended activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Brändli, Rahel C; Breedveld, Gijsbert D; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2009-03-01

    Under marine conditions, tributyltin (TBT) is speciated mainly as an uncharged hydroxyl complex (TBTOH) that is expected to have a similar fate to hydrophobic organic contaminants. Earlier studies indicated that for the later compounds, sorption to black carbon (BC) can be more than two orders of magnitude stronger than sorption to organic carbon, notably at low and environmentally relevant concentrations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sorption strength of spiked TBT to a sediment and its BC isolate. It was observed that carbon-normalized sorption coefficients were in the same range for the sediment total organic carbon (TOC) and for its BC (log K(TOC) 5.05 L/kg(TOC) and log K(BC) 5.09 L/kg(BC), respectively). This indicates that TBT does not sorb as strongly to BC as other hydrophobic organic contaminants. Activated carbon (AC), a strong man-made sorbent, has the potential to be used for in situ remediation of contaminated sediments and soils, in particular for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. In the present study, both granular and powdered AC were found to strongly sorb TBT under marine conditions, with a log sorption coefficient of 6.8 L/kg(carbon). Tributyl- and dibutyltin concentrations in the pore water of a natively contaminated sediment were reduced by more than 70% on addition of 2% of powdered AC, whereas granular AC did not show a similar reduction. The results indicate that powdered AC might be a feasible remediation agent for sediments contaminated by organotins.

  7. Kalkipyrone B, a marine cyanobacterial γ-pyrone possessing cytotoxic and anti-fungal activities

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Matthew J; Demirkiran, Ozlem; Navarro, Gabriel; Moss, Nathan A; Lee, John; Goldgof, Gregory M; Vigil, Edgar; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Valeriote, Fred A; Gerwick, William H

    2015-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of two marine cyanobacterial extracts using the H-460 human lung cancer cell line and the OVC-5 human ovarian cancer cell line led to the isolation of three related α-methoxy-β, β’-dimethyl-γ-pyrones each containing a modified alkyl chain, one of which was identified as the previously reported kalkipyrone and designated kalkipyrone A. The second compound was an analog designated kalkipyrone B. The third was identified as the recently reported yoshipyrone A, also isolated from a marine cyanobacterium. Kalkipyrone A and B were obtained from a field-collection of the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. from Fagasa Bay, American Samoa, while yoshipyrone A was isolated from a field-collection of cyanobacteria (cf. Schizothrix sp.) from Panama. One-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments were used to determine the overall structures and relative configurations of the kalkipyrones, and the absolute configuration of kalkipyrone B was determined by 1H NMR analysis of diastereomeric Mosher’s esters. Kalkipyrone A showed good cytotoxicity to H-460 human lung cancer cells (EC50 = 0.9 µM), w M), while kalkipyrone B and yoshipyrone A were less active (EC50 = 9.0 µM and > 10 µM, respectively). Both kalkipyrone A and B showed moderate toxicity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae ABC16-Monster strain (IC50 = 14.6 and 13.4 µM, respectively), whereas yoshipyrone A was of low toxicity to this yeast strain (IC50 = 63.8 µM). PMID:26632528

  8. Anti-Biofilm Activities from Marine Cold Adapted Bacteria Against Staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Papa, Rosanna; Selan, Laura; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Tilotta, Marco; Sannino, Filomena; Feller, Georges; Tutino, Maria L.; Artini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Microbial biofilms have great negative impacts on the world’s economy and pose serious problems to industry, public health and medicine. The interest in the development of new approaches for the prevention and treatment of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation has increased. Since, bacterial pathogens living in biofilm induce persistent chronic infections due to the resistance to antibiotics and host immune system. A viable approach should target adhesive properties without affecting bacterial vitality in order to avoid the appearance of resistant mutants. Many bacteria secrete anti-biofilm molecules that function in regulating biofilm architecture or mediating the release of cells from it during the dispersal stage of biofilm life cycle. Cold-adapted marine bacteria represent an untapped reservoir of biodiversity able to synthesize a broad range of bioactive compounds, including anti-biofilm molecules. The anti-biofilm activity of cell-free supernatants derived from sessile and planktonic cultures of cold-adapted bacteria belonging to Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, and Psychromonas species were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Reported results demonstrate that we have selected supernatants, from cold-adapted marine bacteria, containing non-biocidal agents able to destabilize biofilm matrix of all tested pathogens without killing cells. A preliminary physico-chemical characterization of supernatants was also performed, and these analyses highlighted the presence of molecules of different nature that act by inhibiting biofilm formation. Some of them are also able to impair the initial attachment of the bacterial cells to the surface, thus likely containing molecules acting as anti-biofilm surfactant molecules. The described ability of cold-adapted bacteria to produce effective anti-biofilm molecules paves the way to further characterization of the most promising molecules and to test their

  9. Monitoring Spawning Activity in a Southern California Marine Protected Area Using Molecular Identification of Fish Eggs.

    PubMed

    Harada, Alice E; Lindgren, Elise A; Hermsmeier, Maiko C; Rogowski, Peter A; Terrill, Eric; Burton, Ronald S

    2015-01-01

    In order to protect the diverse ecosystems of coastal California, a series of marine protected areas (MPAs) have been established. The ability of these MPAs to preserve and potentially enhance marine resources can only be assessed if these habitats are monitored through time. This study establishes a baseline for monitoring the spawning activity of fish in the MPAs adjacent to Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, CA, USA) by sampling fish eggs from the plankton. Using vertical plankton net tows, 266 collections were made from the Scripps Pier between 23 August 2012 and 28 August 2014; a total of 21,269 eggs were obtained. Eggs were identified using DNA barcoding: the COI or 16S rRNA gene was amplified from individual eggs and sequenced. All eggs that were successfully sequenced could be identified from a database of molecular barcodes of California fish species, resulting in species-level identification of 13,249 eggs. Additionally, a surface transport model of coastal circulation driven by current maps from high frequency radar was used to construct probability maps that estimate spawning locations that gave rise to the collected eggs. These maps indicated that currents usually come from the north but water parcels tend to be retained within the MPA; eggs sampled at the Scripps Pier have a high probability of having been spawned within the MPA. The surface transport model also suggests that although larvae have a high probability of being retained within the MPA, there is also significant spillover into nearby areas outside the MPA. This study provides an important baseline for addressing the extent to which spawning patterns of coastal California species may be affected by future changes in the ocean environment.

  10. Monitoring Spawning Activity in a Southern California Marine Protected Area Using Molecular Identification of Fish Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Alice E.; Lindgren, Elise A.; Hermsmeier, Maiko C.; Rogowski, Peter A.; Terrill, Eric; Burton, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    In order to protect the diverse ecosystems of coastal California, a series of marine protected areas (MPAs) have been established. The ability of these MPAs to preserve and potentially enhance marine resources can only be assessed if these habitats are monitored through time. This study establishes a baseline for monitoring the spawning activity of fish in the MPAs adjacent to Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, CA, USA) by sampling fish eggs from the plankton. Using vertical plankton net tows, 266 collections were made from the Scripps Pier between 23 August 2012 and 28 August 2014; a total of 21,269 eggs were obtained. Eggs were identified using DNA barcoding: the COI or 16S rRNA gene was amplified from individual eggs and sequenced. All eggs that were successfully sequenced could be identified from a database of molecular barcodes of California fish species, resulting in species-level identification of 13,249 eggs. Additionally, a surface transport model of coastal circulation driven by current maps from high frequency radar was used to construct probability maps that estimate spawning locations that gave rise to the collected eggs. These maps indicated that currents usually come from the north but water parcels tend to be retained within the MPA; eggs sampled at the Scripps Pier have a high probability of having been spawned within the MPA. The surface transport model also suggests that although larvae have a high probability of being retained within the MPA, there is also significant spillover into nearby areas outside the MPA. This study provides an important baseline for addressing the extent to which spawning patterns of coastal California species may be affected by future changes in the ocean environment. PMID:26308928

  11. Anti-Biofilm Activities from Marine Cold Adapted Bacteria Against Staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Papa, Rosanna; Selan, Laura; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Tilotta, Marco; Sannino, Filomena; Feller, Georges; Tutino, Maria L; Artini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Microbial biofilms have great negative impacts on the world's economy and pose serious problems to industry, public health and medicine. The interest in the development of new approaches for the prevention and treatment of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation has increased. Since, bacterial pathogens living in biofilm induce persistent chronic infections due to the resistance to antibiotics and host immune system. A viable approach should target adhesive properties without affecting bacterial vitality in order to avoid the appearance of resistant mutants. Many bacteria secrete anti-biofilm molecules that function in regulating biofilm architecture or mediating the release of cells from it during the dispersal stage of biofilm life cycle. Cold-adapted marine bacteria represent an untapped reservoir of biodiversity able to synthesize a broad range of bioactive compounds, including anti-biofilm molecules. The anti-biofilm activity of cell-free supernatants derived from sessile and planktonic cultures of cold-adapted bacteria belonging to Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, and Psychromonas species were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Reported results demonstrate that we have selected supernatants, from cold-adapted marine bacteria, containing non-biocidal agents able to destabilize biofilm matrix of all tested pathogens without killing cells. A preliminary physico-chemical characterization of supernatants was also performed, and these analyses highlighted the presence of molecules of different nature that act by inhibiting biofilm formation. Some of them are also able to impair the initial attachment of the bacterial cells to the surface, thus likely containing molecules acting as anti-biofilm surfactant molecules. The described ability of cold-adapted bacteria to produce effective anti-biofilm molecules paves the way to further characterization of the most promising molecules and to test their

  12. Geology of the Crust and Mantle, Western United States: Geophysical data reveal a thin crust and anomalous upper mantle characteristic of active regions.

    PubMed

    Thompson, G A; Talwani, M

    1964-12-18

    compressional and transverse waves in the upper mantle may be related to this problem. Whatever its origin and composition, an anomalous upper mantle characterizes many regions of present or recent tectonic activity, such as Japan and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (39). The anomalous mantle of western North America might form a continuous belt to the south, with anomalous mantle beneath the crest of the East Pacific Rise (40). The anomalous upper mantle may thus be an essential part of the heat engine driving the tectonic activity of these regions. The Basin and Range region was broken into blocks and laterally extended during the Cenozoic uplift, so that some blocks lagged behind, or sank. Some of the intricate disruption of the upper crust may be related to shallow Cenozoic volcanism. The relatively large and rigid Sierra Nevada block may have been tilted westward during Basin-Range deformation because of the high density of greenstones on the west side and the lower density of granitic rocks to the east. Man's environment, in the longer view of geologic time, is strongly influenced by mountain-building processes originating in the earth's crust and mantle. In the scale of a few lifetimes, climate, sea level, and the shape of the land are appreciably altered. How this comes about, and whether man can hope to influence the processes, are challenging, unsolved problems. But enough has now been learned about the crust and mantle to suggest precisely what questions must be answered and what critical experiments performed. Note added in proof: Osborne (42) has directed our attention to the possibility that the granitic rocks and also the andesites and dacites were formed by fractional crystallization of basaltic magma under conditions of high oxygen pressure. This possibility in no way conflicts with the geophysical data. In fact, such direct additions to the silicic upper crust from the mantle or lower crust would simplify the perplexing problem of how the crust is replenished in areas

  13. Phylogenetic Tree Analysis of the Cold-Hot Nature of Traditional Chinese Marine Medicine for Possible Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xuxia; Li, Xuebo; Zhang, Fengcong; Wang, Changyun

    2017-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Marine Medicine (TCMM) represents one of the medicinal resources for research and development of novel anticancer drugs. In this study, to investigate the presence of anticancer activity (AA) displayed by cold or hot nature of TCMM, we analyzed the association relationship and the distribution regularity of TCMMs with different nature (613 TCMMs originated from 1,091 species of marine organisms) via association rules mining and phylogenetic tree analysis. The screened association rules were collected from three taxonomy groups: (1) Bacteria superkingdom, Phaeophyceae class, Fucales order, Sargassaceae family, and Sargassum genus; (2) Viridiplantae kingdom, Streptophyta phylum, Malpighiales class, and Rhizophoraceae family; (3) Holothuroidea class, Aspidochirotida order, and Holothuria genus. Our analyses showed that TCMMs with closer taxonomic relationship were more likely to possess anticancer bioactivity. We found that the cluster pattern of marine organisms with reported AA tended to cluster with cold nature TCMMs. Moreover, TCMMs with salty-cold nature demonstrated properties for softening hard mass and removing stasis to treat cancers, and species within Metazoa or Viridiplantae kingdom of cold nature were more likely to contain AA properties. We propose that TCMMs from these marine groups may enable focused bioprospecting for discovery of novel anticancer drugs derived from marine bioresources. PMID:28191021

  14. 77 FR 60109 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Harbor Activities Related to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... was not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of the southern sea otter. The activities covered... maintenance dredging may have the potential to cause California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), Pacific...; 86 California sea lions; and 43 Northern elephant seals by Level B harassment only. We have...

  15. Inversion Algorithms for Geophysical Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-16

    ktdud* Sccumy Oass/Kjoon) Inversion Algorithms for Geophysical Problems (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Lanzano, Paolo 13 «. TYPE OF REPORT Final 13b...spectral density. 20. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 13 UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED D SAME AS RPT n OTIC USERS 22a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...Research Laboratory ’^^ SSZ ’.Washington. DC 20375-5000 NRLrMemorandum Report-6138 Inversion Algorithms for Geophysical Problems p. LANZANO Space

  16. Phosphate oxygen isotope ratio proxy for specific microbial activity in marine sediments (Peru Margin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Y.; Blake, R. E.

    2005-12-01

    Oxygen (O) isotope ratios of biogenic apatites have been widely used as paleotemperature and environmental geochemical proxies. With improved knowledge of the phosphate O isotope effects of different P cycling pathways, the δ18O value of inorganic phosphate (δ18OP) has been proposed as a useful proxy and tracer of biological reactions and P cycling in natural environments[1,2,3,4]. Being the only way of removing P from oceanic water, sedimentary P burial is one of the most important processes during biogeochemical cycling of P. The high concentrations of organic matter and pronounced microbial activity at ODP Site 1230 along the Peru Margin result in unusually high interstitial water phosphate concentrations, which provides a unique opportunity to use δ18OP to investigate inorganic phosphate (Pi) regeneration and P cycling pathways in marine sediments. The isotopic measurements of both dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) and bulk sediment Pi show that DIP δ18OP values are affected by three different processes, which are all induced by specific microbial activities present in the sediments. In sediments at ~ 65 to 120 mbsf, porewater DIP is derived from dissolved organophosphorus compounds (DOP) through enzymatic degradation pathways, evidenced by both DIP δ18OP values and interstitial water chemistry. Measured porewater DIP δ18OP values also suggest that 4 to 8% of interstitial water DIP reflects regeneration of Pi from Porg by microbially-synthesized enzymes. Throughout the sediment column and especially at ~ 120 to 150 mbsf, DIP is released from the sediments by microbially-induced reductive dissolution of Fe-oxides, which contributes to the overall high DIP concentrations at Site 1230. The third and dominant process controlling measured DIP δ18OP values is microbial turnover of regenerated Pi. The presence of high microbial activities in organic-rich Site 1230 sediments promotes the remobilization of P and affects marine P cycling by potentially enhancing

  17. Antibacterial Activities of Bacteria Isolated from the Marine Sponges Isodictya compressa and Higginsia bidentifera Collected from Algoa Bay, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Matobole, Relebohile Matthew; van Zyl, Leonardo Joaquim; Parker-Nance, Shirley; Davies-Coleman, Michael T.; Trindade, Marla

    2017-01-01

    Due to the rise in multi-drug resistant pathogens and other diseases, there is renewed interest in marine sponge endosymbionts as a rich source of natural products (NPs). The South African marine environment is rich in marine biota that remains largely unexplored and may represent an important source for the discovery of novel NPs. We first investigated the bacterial diversity associated with five South African marine sponges, whose microbial populations had not previously been investigated, and select the two sponges (Isodictya compressa and Higginsia bidentifera) with highest species richness to culture bacteria. By employing 33 different growth conditions 415 sponge-associated bacterial isolates were cultured and screened for antibacterial activity. Thirty-five isolates showed antibacterial activity, twelve of which exhibited activity against the multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli 1699, implying that some of the bioactive compounds could be novel. Genome sequencing of two of these isolates confirmed that they harbour uncharacterized biosynthetic pathways that may encode novel chemical structures. PMID:28218694

  18. 78 FR 29705 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    .... Pile driving and removal activities would occur only within an approved in-water work window from July... occur between July 16, 2013, and July 15, 2014. All in-water construction activities within the Hood... (183 m) offshore at water depths of 60-100 ft (18-30 m), and would consist of the main wharf, a...

  19. Factors to be Considered in Long-Term Monitoring of a Former Nuclear Test Site in a Geophysically Active and Water-rich Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J.; Hill, G.; Patrick, M.; Freymueller, J.; Barnes, D.; Kelley, J.; Layer, P.

    2001-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) is currently undertaking an ambitious program of environmental remediation of the surface of Amchitka Island in the western Aleutians, where three underground nuclear tests were conducted during 1963-1971. Among these tests was Cannikin, at approximately 5 megatons the largest nuclear device ever exploded underground by the United States and equivalent in seismic energy release to a magnitude 7 earthquake. The blast caused about 1 m of uplift of the Bering Sea coastline in the 3-km-wide fault-bounded block within which it was detonated. The impending final transfer of stewardship of this area to the US Fish and Wildlife Service as part of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge raises anew the question of the potential for transport of radionuclides from the shot cavity, located at 1791 m depth in mafic laharic breccias, into the accessible environment. In particular, there is concern about whether such contaminants could become concentrated in the marine food chain that is used for subsistence by Alaskan Natives (and by the broader international community through the North Pacific and Bering Fisheries). Both possible transport pathways in the form of faults and transport medium in the form of abundant water are present. Since the pre-plate tectonics paradigm days of active testing, the scientific community's understanding of the tectonic context of the Aleutian Islands has grown tremendously. Recently, the first direct measurements of motion within the arc have been made. How this new understanding should guide plans for long-term monitoring of the site is an important question. Convergence due to subduction of the North Pacific plate beneath North America ranges from near-normal at the Alaska Peninsula and eastern Aleutian islands to highly oblique in the west. Amchitka itself can be seen as a subaerial portion of a 200-km-long Rat Island arc crest segment. This fragment has torn from the Andreanof Islands to the east at

  20. Sustainable urban development and geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lanbo; Chan, L. S.

    2007-09-01

    The new millennium has seen a fresh wave of world economic development especially in the Asian-Pacific region. This has contributed to further rapid urban expansion, creating shortages of energy and resources, degradation of the environment, and changes to climatic patterns. Large-scale, new urbanization is mostly seen in developing countries but urban sprawl is also a major social problem for developed nations. Urbanization has been accelerating at a tremendous rate. According to data collected by the United Nations [1], 50 years ago less than 30% of the world population lived in cities. Now, more than 50% are living in urban settings which occupy only about 1% of the Earth's surface. During the period from 1950 to 1995, the number of cities with a population higher than one million increased from 83 to 325. By 2025 it is estimated that more than 60% of 8.3 billion people (the projected world population [1]) will be city dwellers. Urbanization and urban sprawl can affect our living quality both positively and negatively. In recent years geophysics has found significant and new applications in highly urbanized settings. Such applications are conducive to the understanding of the changes and impacts on the physical environment and play a role in developing sustainable urban infrastructure systems. We would like to refer to this field of study as 'urban geophysics'. Urban geophysics is not simply the application of geophysical exploration in the cities. Urbanization has brought about major changes to the geophysical fields of cities, including those associated with electricity, magnetism, electromagnetism and heat. An example is the increased use of electromagnetic waves in wireless communication, transportation, office automation, and computer equipment. How such an increased intensity of electromagnetic radiation affects the behaviour of charged particles in the atmosphere, the equilibrium of ecological systems, or human health, are new research frontiers to be

  1. Ninety Years of International Cooperation in Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Beer, T.

    2009-05-01

    , climate dynamics, and in geodetic, hydrological, meteorological, oceanographic, seismological, and volcanological research. IUGG also places particular emphasis on the scientific problems of economically less-developed countries by sponsoring activities relevant to their scientific needs (e.g. Geosciences in Africa, Water Resources, Health and Well-Being etc.) The American Geophysical Union was established as the U.S. National Committee for IUGG in 1919 and today has become a distinguished union of individual geoscientists around the world. Several regional geoscience societies also evolved during the last several decades, most prominent being the European Geosciences Union and the Asia Oceania Geosciences Society. These, and some other national and regional geophysical societies, together with IUGG play a strong part in the international cooperation and promotion of geophysical sciences. At the same time the "geosciences" space is getting crowded, and there is a lot of overlap. International linkages between IUGG, AGU, EGU and other geophysical societies as well as their linkage with International Scientific Unions, that comprise the GeoUnions, are going to become more and more important. Working together is going to be more fruitful than territorial disputes. But what mechanisms can be used to encourage relationships between the international, national and regional geophysical and geoscientific bodies? We will discuss some possibilities on how to come together, to develop and to implement joint programs, research meeting, open forums, and policy statements.

  2. The influence of marine microbial activities on aerosol production: A laboratory mesocosm study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Peter A.; Kilthau, Wendy P.; Bothe, Dylan W.; Radway, JoAnn C.; Aller, Josephine Y.; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2015-09-01

    The oceans cover most of the Earth's surface, contain nearly half the total global primary biomass productivity, and are a major source of atmospheric aerosol particles. Here we experimentally investigate links between biological activity in seawater and sea spray aerosol (SSA) flux, a relationship of potential significance for organic aerosol loading and cloud formation over the oceans and thus for climate globally. Bubbles were generated in laboratory mesocosm experiments either by recirculating impinging water jets or glass frits. Experiments were conducted with Atlantic Ocean seawater collected off the eastern end of Long Island, NY, and with artificial seawater containing cultures of bacteria and phytoplankton Thalassiosira pseudonana, Emiliania huxleyi, and Nannochloris atomus. Changes in SSA size distributions occurred during all phases of bacterial and phytoplankton growth, as characterized by cell concentrations, dissolved organic carbon, total particulate carbon, and transparent exopolymer particles (gel-forming polysaccharides representing a major component of biogenic exudate material). Over a 2 week growth period, SSA particle concentrations increased by a factor of less than 2 when only bacteria were present and by a factor of about 3 when bacteria and phytoplankton were present. Production of jet-generated SSA particles of diameter less than 200 nm increased with time, while production of all particle diameters increased with time when frits were used. The implications of a marine biological activity dependent SSA flux are discussed.

  3. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers with potent and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity from the marine sponge Dysidea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shi; Canning, Corene B; Bhargava, Kanika; Sun, Xiuxiu; Zhu, Wenjun; Zhou, Ninghui; Zhang, Yifan; Zhou, Kequan

    2015-01-01

    Three polybrominated diphenyl ethers, 2-(2',4'-dibromophenoxy)-3,5-dibromophenol (1) and 2-(2',4'-dibromophenoxy)-3,4,5-tribromophenol (2) were isolated from the marine sponge Dysidea granulosa; and 2-(2',4'-dibromophenoxy)-4,6-dibromophenol (3) from Dysidea spp. They exhibited potent and broad spectrum in vitro antibacterial activity, especially against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated against 12 clinical and standard strains of Gram positive and negative bacteria. The observed MIC range was 0.1-4.0mg/L against all the Gram positive bacteria and 0.1-16.0mg/L against Gram negative bacteria. 2-(2',4″-Dibromophenoxy)-3,5-dibromophenol showed stronger broad spectrum antibacterial activity than other two compounds. 2-(2',4″-Dibromophenoxy)-3,5-dibromophenol and 2-(2',4'-dibromophenoxy)-4,6-dibromophenol are thermo-stable. The results suggest that 2-(2',4'-dibromophenoxy)-3,5-dibromophenol could be used as a potential lead molecule for anti-MRSA, anti-E. coli O157:H7, and anti-Salmonella for drug development.

  4. Marine pharmacology in 2001–2002: Marine compounds with anthelmintic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antidiabetic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antiplatelet, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral activities; affecting the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems and other miscellaneous mechanisms of action

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Alejandro M.S.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    During 2001–2002, research on the pharmacology of marine chemicals continued to be global in nature involving investigators from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, United Kingdom, and the United States. This current article, a sequel to the authors’ 1998, 1999 and 2000 marine pharmacology reviews, classifies 106 marine chemicals derived from a diverse group of marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria, on the basis of peer-reviewed preclinical pharmacology. Anthelmintic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, antimalarial, antiplatelet, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis or antiviral activities were reported for 56 marine chemicals. An additional 19 marine compounds were shown to have significant effects on the cardiovascular, immune and nervous system as well as to possess anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects. Finally, 31 marine compounds were reported to act on a variety of molecular targets and thus may potentially contribute to several pharmacological classes. Thus, during 2001–2002 pharmacological research with marine chemicals continued to contribute potentially novel chemical leads for the ongoing global search for therapeutic agents for the treatment of multiple disease categories. PMID:15919242

  5. Characterisation of novel modified active carbons and marine algal biomass for the selective adsorption of lead.

    PubMed

    Malik, D J; Strelko, V; Streat, M; Puziy, A M

    2002-03-01

    This paper discusses the sorption performance of novel materials for the removal of lead(II) and copper(II) from near-neutral aqueous solutions. Active carbons with surface heteroatoms of oxygen and phosphorus have been prepared. The surface functional groups display weakly acidic ion exchange characteristics. The optimum solution pH for maximum metal sorption is related to the pK values of the surface functional groups. In oxygenated active carbons, pK values are not distinct but can be obtained by describing proton binding to the heterogeneous adsorbent surface as a continuous proton affinity distribution. Information derived from zeta-potential measurements combined with knowledge of the pK distribution function and concentration of surface functional groups has been used to explain the selectivity of oxidised active carbons towards lead(lI) in the presence of copper(II) from multi-metal bearing solutions. Marine algal-based biosorbents have been challenged with lead(II) and copper(II)-bearing wastewater. The weakly acidic carboxyl groups of structural polysaccharides present within the algal matrix display high sorption capacity for both metals. The negative surface charge of algal particles results in electrostatic interactions as well as coordination between metal species and the adsorbent surface. Proton affinity for the algal surface lowers the negative surface potential at pH values around 2. The surface functional groups in algae unlike those in oxidised active carbons may be represented by discrete acid-dissociation constant values. The influence of conformational differences in uronic-acid segments upon metal ion selectivity is discussed.

  6. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Activities of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles Using Marine Algae Ecklonia cava

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Kim, Se-Kwon; Shim, Min Suk

    2016-01-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has gained great interest as a simple and eco-friendly alternative to conventional chemical methods. In this study, AgNPs were synthesized by using extracts of marine algae Ecklonia cava as reducing and capping agents. The formation of AgNPs using aqueous extract of Ecklonia cava was confirmed visually by color change and their surface plasmon resonance peak at 418 nm, measured by UV-visible spectroscopy. The size, shape, and morphology of the biosynthesized AgNPs were observed by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis. The biosynthesized AgNPs were nearly spherical in shape with an average size around 43 nm. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis confirmed the presence of phenolic compounds in the aqueous extract of Ecklonia cava as reducing and capping agents. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was also carried out to demonstrate the crystalline nature of the biosynthesized AgNPs. Antimicrobial results determined by an agar well diffusion assay demonstrated a significant antibacterial activity of the AgNPs against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Antioxidant results determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay revealed an efficient antioxidant activity of the biosynthesized AgNPs. The biosynthesized AgNPs also exhibited a strong apoptotic anticancer activity against human cervical cancer cells. Our findings demonstrate that aqueous extract of Ecklonia cava is an effective reducing agent for green synthesis of AgNPs with efficient antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. PMID:28335363

  7. Marine enzymes.

    PubMed

    Debashish, Ghosh; Malay, Saha; Barindra, Sana; Joydeep, Mukherjee

    2005-01-01

    Marine enzyme biotechnology can offer novel biocatalysts with properties like high salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, barophilicity, cold adaptivity, and ease in large-scale cultivation. This review deals with the research and development work done on the occurrence, molecular biology, and bioprocessing of marine enzymes during the last decade. Exotic locations have been accessed for the search of novel enzymes. Scientists have isolated proteases and carbohydrases from deep sea hydrothermal vents. Cold active metabolic enzymes from psychrophilic marine microorganisms have received considerable research attention. Marine symbiont microorganisms growing in association with animals and plants were shown to produce enzymes of commercial interest. Microorganisms isolated from sediment and seawater have been the most widely studied, proteases, carbohydrases, and peroxidases being noteworthy. Enzymes from marine animals and plants were primarily studied for their metabolic roles, though proteases and peroxidases have found industrial applications. Novel techniques in molecular biology applied to assess the diversity of chitinases, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia-metabolizing, and pollutant-degrading enzymes are discussed. Genes encoding chitinases, proteases, and carbohydrases from microbial and animal sources have been cloned and characterized. Research on the bioprocessing of marine-derived enzymes, however, has been scanty, focusing mainly on the application of solid-state fermentation to the production of enzymes from microbial sources.

  8. The geology and geophysics of the Oslo rift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruder, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    The regional geology and geophysical characteristics of the Oslo graben are reviewed. The graben is part of a Permian age failed continental rift. Alkali olivine, tholefitic, and monzonitic intrusives as well as basaltic lavas outline the extent of the graben. Geophysical evidence indicates that rifting activity covered a much greater area in Skagerrak Sea as well as the Paleozoic time, possibly including the northern Skagerrak Sea as well as the Oslo graben itself. Much of the surficial geologic characteristics in the southern part of the rift have since been eroded or covered by sedimentation. Geophysical data reveal a gravity maximum along the strike of the Oslo graben, local emplacements of magnetic material throughout the Skagerrak and the graben, and a slight mantle upward beneath the rift zone. Petrologic and geophysical maps which depict regional structure are included in the text. An extensive bibliography of pertinent literature published in English between 1960 and 1980 is also provided.

  9. Fatty acids from lipids of marine organisms: molecular biodiversity, roles as biomarkers, biologically active compounds, and economical aspects.

    PubMed

    Bergé, Jean-Pascal; Barnathan, Gilles

    2005-01-01

    Because of their characteristic living environments, marine organisms produce a variety of lipids. Fatty acids constitute the essential part of triglycerides and wax esters, which are the major components of fats and oils. Nevertheless, phospholipids and glycolipids have considerable importance and will be taken into account, especially the latter compounds that excite increasing interest regarding their promising biological activities. Thus, in addition to the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, a great number of various fatty acids occur in marine organisms, e.g. saturated, mono- and diunsaturated, branched, halogenated, hydroxylated, methoxylated, non-methylene-interrupted. Various unprecedented chemical structures of fatty acids, and lipid-containing fatty acids, have recently been discovered, especially from the most primitive animals such as sponges and gorgonians. This review of marine lipidology deals with recent advances in the field of fatty acids since the end of the 1990s. Different approaches will be followed, mainly developing biomarkers of trophic chains in marine ecosystems and of chemotaxonomic interest, reporting new structures, especially those with biological activities or biosynthetic interest. An important part of this review will be devoted to the major PUFA, their relevance to health and nutrition, their biosynthesis, their sources (usual and promising) and market.

  10. Marine pharmacology in 2003-4: Marine Compounds with Anthelminthic, Antibacterial, Anticoagulant, Antifungal, Anti-inflammatory, Antimalarial, Antiplatelet, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; affecting the Cardiovascular, Immune and Nervous Systems, and other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Alejandro M.S.; Rodriguez, Abimael D.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2007-01-01

    The current marine pharmacology review that covers the peer-reviewed literature during 2003 and 2004 is a sequel to the authors' 1998-2002 reviews, and highlights the preclinical pharmacology of 166 marine chemicals derived from a diverse group of marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria. Anthelminthic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, antimalarial, antiplatelet, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis or antiviral activities were reported for 67 marine chemicals. Additionally 45 marine compounds were shown to have significant effects on the cardiovascular, immune and nervous system as well as possessing anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, 54 marine compounds were reported to act on a variety of molecular targets and thus may potentially contribute to several pharmacological classes. Thus, during 2003-2004, research on the pharmacology of marine natural products which involved investigators from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Belgium, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Morocco, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, the Philippines, Portugal, Russia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom, and the United States, contributed numerous chemical leads for the continued global search for novel therapeutic agents with broad spectrum activity. PMID:17392033

  11. Blind Geothermal System Exploration in Active Volcanic Environments; Multi-phase Geophysical and Geochemical Surveys in Overt and Subtle Volcanic Systems, Hawai’i and Maui

    SciTech Connect

    Fercho, Steven; Owens, Lara; Walsh, Patrick; Drakos, Peter; Martini, Brigette; Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Kennedy, Burton M.

    2015-08-01

    Suites of new geophysical and geochemical exploration surveys were conducted to provide evidence for geothermal resource at the Haleakala Southwest Rift Zone (HSWRZ) on Maui Island, Hawai’i. Ground-based gravity (~400 stations) coupled with heli-bourne magnetics (~1500 line kilometers) define both deep and shallow fractures/faults, while also delineating potentially widespread subsurface hydrothermal alteration on the lower flanks (below approximately 1800 feet a.s.l.). Multi-level, upward continuation calculations and 2-D gravity and magnetic modeling provide information on source depths, but lack of lithologic information leaves ambiguity in the estimates. Additionally, several well-defined gravity lows (possibly vent zones) lie coincident with magnetic highs suggesting the presence of dike intrusions at depth which may represent a potentially young source of heat. Soil CO2 fluxes were measured along transects across geophysically-defined faults and fractures as well as young cinder cones along the HSWRZ. This survey generally did not detect CO2 levels above background, with the exception of a weak anomalous flux signal over one young cinder cone. The general lack of observed CO2 flux signals on the HSWRZ is likely due to a combination of lower magmatic CO2 fluxes and relatively high biogenic surface CO2 fluxes which mix with the magmatic signal. Similar surveys at the Puna geothermal field on the Kilauea Lower East Rift Zone (KLERZ) also showed a lack of surface CO2 flux signals, however aqueous geochemistry indicated contribution of magmatic CO2 and He to shallow groundwater here. As magma has been intercepted in geothermal drilling at the Puna field, the lack of measured surface CO2 flux indicative of upflow of magmatic fluids here is likely due to effective “scrubbing” by high groundwater and a mature hydrothermal system. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations, δ13C compositions and 3He/4He values were sampled at Maui from several shallow

  12. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase and xanthine oxidase activities in erythrocytes and plasma from marine, semiaquatic and terrestrial mammals.

    PubMed

    López-Cruz, Roberto I; Pérez-Milicua, Myrna Barjau; Crocker, Daniel E; Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bernal-Vertiz, Jaime A; de la Rosa, Alejandro; Vázquez-Medina, José P; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2014-05-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) and xanthine oxidase (XO) are key enzymes involved in the purine salvage pathway. PNP metabolizes purine bases to synthetize purine nucleotides whereas XO catalyzes the oxidation of purines to uric acid. In humans, PNP activity is reported to be high in erythrocytes and XO activity to be low in plasma; however, XO activity increases after ischemic events. XO activity in plasma of northern elephant seals has been reported during prolonged fasting and rest and voluntary associated apneas. The objective of this study was to analyze circulating PNP and XO activities in marine mammals adapted to tolerate repeated cycles of ischemia/reperfusion associated with diving (bottlenose dolphin, northern elephant seal) in comparison with semiaquatic (river otter) and terrestrial mammals (human, pig). PNP activities in plasma and erythrocytes, as well as XO activity in plasma, from all species were quantified by spectrophotometry. No clear relationship in circulating PNP or XO activity could be established between marine, semiaquatic and terrestrial mammals. Erythrocytes from bottlenose dolphins and humans are highly permeable to nucleosides and glucose, intraerythrocyte PNP activity may be related to a release of purine nucleotides from the liver. High-energy costs will probably mean a higher ATP degradation rate in river otters, as compared to northern elephant seals or dolphins. Lower erythrocyte PNP activity and elevated plasma XO activity in northern elephant seal could be associated with fasting and/or sleep- and dive-associated apneas.

  13. Vertical activity distribution of dissimilatory nitrate reduction in coastal marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, A.; de Beer, D.; Stief, P.

    2013-11-01

    The relative importance of two dissimilatory nitrate reduction pathways, denitrification (DEN) and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), was investigated in intact sediment cores from five different coastal marine field sites (Dorum, Aarhus Bight, Mississippi Delta, Limfjord and Janssand). The vertical distribution of DEN activity was examined using the acetylene inhibition technique combined with N2O microsensor measurements, whereas NH4+ production via DNRA was measured with a recently developed gel probe-stable isotope technique. At all field sites, dissimilatory nitrate reduction was clearly dominated by DEN (59-131% of the total NO3- reduced) rather than by DNRA, irrespective of the sedimentary inventories of electron donors such as organic carbon, sulfide, and iron. Highest ammonium production via DNRA, accounting for up to 8.9% of the total NO3- reduced, was found at a site with very high concentrations of total sulfide and NH4+ within and below the layer in which NO3- reduction occurred. Sediment from two field sites, one with low and one with high DNRA activity in the core incubations, was also used for slurry incubations. Now, in both sediments high DNRA activity was detected accounting for 37-77% of the total NO3- reduced. These contradictory results might be explained by enhanced NO3- availability for DNRA bacteria in the sediment slurries compared to the core-incubated sediments in which diffusion of NO3- from the water column may only reach DEN bacteria, but not DNRA bacteria. The true partitioning of dissimilatory nitrate reduction between DNRA and DEN may thus lie in between the values found in whole core (underestimation of DNRA) and slurry incubations (overestimation of DNRA).

  14. Activation of potassium channels in erythrocytes of marine teleost Scorpaena porcus.

    PubMed

    Silkin, Y A; Silkina, E N; Sherstobitov, A O; Gusev, G P

    2001-01-01

    To assess the possibility of stimulating Ca2+-activated K+ channels, marine fish erythrocytes were incubated at 20-22 degrees C in saline containing a Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor (orthovanadate), a Ca2+ ionophore (A23187), propranolol or Pb2+. Incubation of the cells for up to 2 h under control conditions or in the presence of 5 mM NH4VO3 and 1 mM Ca2+ did not affect the intracellular K+ and Na+ concentrations. About 50% cellular K+ was lost from erythrocytes incubated in the presence of 0.01 mM A23187, 1 mM EGTA and 0.4-1.0 mM Ca2+. There was a significant loss of cellular K+ after the addition of 0.05-0.2 mM propranolol to the incubation medium. The stimulatory effect of propranolol on the K+ efflux was independent of external Ca2+. Blockers of Ca2+ transport, verapamil and Co2+, caused only a small decrease in the K+ loss induced by propranolol. The treatment of erythrocytes with 1-2 microM Pb2+ led to a minor K+ loss, but at a Pb2+ concentration of 20-50 microM, about 70% cellular K+ was lost. The K+ efflux induced by propranolol or Pb2+ was completely blocked by 1 mM quinine. The induced K+ loss from the erythrocytes was accompanied by a slight increase in the intracellular Na+ concentration. These data indicate the possibility of inducing Ca2+- and Pb2+-activated potassium channels in erythrocytes of S. porcus. A distinctive feature of the cells is a high sensitivity to propranolol, which activates K+ channels in the absence of external Ca2+.

  15. Mass Transport in Global Geophysical Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, B. F.

    1999-01-01

    Mass transports occurring in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-solid Earth-core system (the "global geophysical fluids") are important geophysical phenomena. They occur on all temporal and spatial scales. Examples include air mass and ocean circulations, tides, hydrological water redistribution, mantle processes such as post-glacial rebound, earthquakes and tectonic motions, and core geodynamo activities. With only a few exceptions on the Earth surface, the temporal history and spatial pattern of such mass transport are often not amenable to direct observations. Space geodesy techniques, however, have the capability of monitoring certain direct consequences of the mass transport, including Earth's rotation variations, gravitational field variations, and the geocenter motion. These techniques include the very-long-baseline interferometry, satellite laser ranging and Doppler tracking, and the Global Positioning System, all entail global observational networks. While considerable advances have been made in observing and understanding of the dynamics of Earth's rotation, only the lowest-degree gravitational variations have been observed and limited knowledge of geocenter motion obtained. New space missions, projects and initiatives promise to further improve the measurements and hence our knowledge about the global mass transports. The latter contributes to our understanding and modeling capability of the geophysical processes that produce and regulate the mass transports, as well as the solid Earth's response to such changes in constraining the modeling of Earth's mechanical properties.

  16. Bacterial exopolysaccharides from extreme marine habitats: production, characterization and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Poli, Annarita; Anzelmo, Gianluca; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2010-06-03

    Many marine bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) as a strategy for growth, adhering to solid surfaces, and to survive adverse conditions. There is growing interest in isolating new EPS producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from extreme marine environments such as deep-sea hydrothermal vents characterized by high pressure and temperature and heavy metal presence. Marine EPS-producing microorganisms have been also isolated from several extreme niches such as the cold marine environments typically of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, characterized by low temperature and low nutrient concentration, and the hypersaline marine environment found in a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems such as salt lakes and salterns. Most of their EPSs are heteropolysaccharides containing three or four different monosaccharides arranged in groups of 10 or less to form the repeating units. These polymers are often linear with an average molecular weight ranging from 1 x 10(5) to 3 x 10(5) Da. Some EPS are neutral macromolecules, but the majority of them are polyanionic for the presence of uronic acids or ketal-linked pyruvate or inorganic residues such as phosphate or sulfate. EPSs, forming a layer surrounding the cell, provide an effective protection against high or low temperature and salinity, or against possible predators. By examining their structure and chemical-physical characteristics it is possible to gain insight into their commercial application, and they are employed in several industries. Indeed EPSs produced by microorganisms from extreme habitats show biotechnological promise ranging from pharmaceutical industries, for their immunomodulatory and antiviral effects, bone regeneration and cicatrizing capacity, to food-processing industries for their peculiar gelling and thickening properties. Moreover, some EPSs are employed as biosurfactants and in detoxification mechanisms of petrochemical oil-polluted areas. The aim of this paper is to

  17. Bacterial Exopolysaccharides from Extreme Marine Habitats: Production, Characterization and Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Annarita; Anzelmo, Gianluca; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Many marine bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) as a strategy for growth, adhering to solid surfaces, and to survive adverse conditions. There is growing interest in isolating new EPS producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from extreme marine environments such as deep-sea hydrothermal vents characterized by high pressure and temperature and heavy metal presence. Marine EPS-producing microorganisms have been also isolated from several extreme niches such as the cold marine environments typically of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, characterized by low temperature and low nutrient concentration, and the hypersaline marine environment found in a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems such as salt lakes and salterns. Most of their EPSs are heteropolysaccharides containing three or four different monosaccharides arranged in groups of 10 or less to form the repeating units. These polymers are often linear with an average molecular weight ranging from 1 × 105 to 3 × 105 Da. Some EPS are neutral macromolecules, but the majority of them are polyanionic for the presence of uronic acids or ketal-linked pyruvate or inorganic residues such as phosphate or sulfate. EPSs, forming a layer surrounding the cell, provide an effective protection against high or low temperature and salinity, or against possible predators. By examining their structure and chemical-physical characteristics it is possible to gain insight into their commercial application, and they are employed in several industries. Indeed EPSs produced by microorganisms from extreme habitats show biotechnological promise ranging from pharmaceutical industries, for their immunomodulatory and antiviral effects, bone regeneration and cicatrizing capacity, to food-processing industries for their peculiar gelling and thickening properties. Moreover, some EPSs are employed as biosurfactants and in detoxification mechanisms of petrochemical oil-polluted areas. The aim of this paper is to give

  18. 76 FR 30130 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice... action. Description of the Specified Activity In accordance with regulations implementing the MMPA, NMFS... description of the action was included in that notice and will not be reproduced here. NBKB is located on...

  19. Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids by Space Geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Dehant, V.; Gross, R. S.; Ray, R. D.; Salstein, D. A.; Watkins, M.

    1999-01-01

    Since its establishment on 1/1/1998 by the International Earth Rotation Service, the Coordinating Center for Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids (MGGF) and its seven Special Bureaus have engaged in an effort to support and facilitate the understanding of the geophysical fluids in global geodynamics research. Mass transports in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-solid Earth-core system (the "global geophysical fluids") will cause the following geodynamic effects on a broad time scale: (1) variations in the solid Earth's rotation (in length-of-day and polar motion/nutation) via the conservation of angular momentum and effected by torques at the fluid-solid Earth interface; (2) changes in the global gravitational field according to Newton's gravitational law; and (3) motion in the center of mass of the solid Earth relative to that of the whole Earth ("geocenter") via the conservation of linear momentum. These minute signals have become observable by space geodetic techniques, primarily VLBI, SLR, GPS, and DORIS, with ever increasing precision/accuracy and temporal/spatial resolution. Each of the seven Special Bureaus within MGGF is responsible for calculations related to a specific Earth component or aspect -- Atmosphere, Ocean, Hydrology, Ocean Tides, Mantle, Core, and Gravity/Geocenter. Angular momenta and torques, gravitational coefficients, and geocenter shift will be computed for geophysical fluids based on global observational data, and from state-of-the-art models, some of which assimilate such data. The computed quantities, algorithm and data formats are standardized. The results are archived and made available to the scientific research community. This paper reports the status of the MGGF activities and current results.

  20. Reverse transcriptase genes are highly abundant and transcriptionally active in marine plankton assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Lescot, Magali; Hingamp, Pascal; Kojima, Kenji K; Villar, Emilie; Romac, Sarah; Veluchamy, Alaguraj; Boccara, Martine; Jaillon, Olivier; Iudicone, Daniele; Bowler, Chris; Wincker, Patrick; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Genes encoding reverse transcriptases (RTs) are found in most eukaryotes, often as a component of retrotransposons, as well as in retroviruses and in prokaryotic retroelements. We investigated the abundance, classification and transcriptional status of RTs based on Tara Oceans marine metagenomes and metatranscriptomes encompassing a wide organism size range. Our analyses revealed that RTs predominate large-size fraction metagenomes (>5 μm), where they reached a maximum of 13.5% of the total gene abundance. Metagenomic RTs were widely distributed across the phylogeny of known RTs, but many belonged to previously uncharacterized clades. Metatranscriptomic RTs showed distinct abundance patterns across samples compared with metagenomic RTs. The relative abundances of viral and bacterial RTs among identified RT sequences were higher in metatranscriptomes than in metagenomes and these sequences were detected in all metatranscriptome size fractions. Overall, these observations suggest an active proliferation of various RT-assisted elements, which could be involved in genome evolution or adaptive processes of plankton assemblage. PMID:26613339

  1. Reverse transcriptase genes are highly abundant and transcriptionally active in marine plankton assemblages.

    PubMed

    Lescot, Magali; Hingamp, Pascal; Kojima, Kenji K; Villar, Emilie; Romac, Sarah; Veluchamy, Alaguraj; Boccara, Martine; Jaillon, Olivier; Iudicone, Daniele; Bowler, Chris; Wincker, Patrick; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Genes encoding reverse transcriptases (RTs) are found in most eukaryotes, often as a component of retrotransposons, as well as in retroviruses and in prokaryotic retroelements. We investigated the abundance, classification and transcriptional status of RTs based on Tara Oceans marine metagenomes and metatranscriptomes encompassing a wide organism size range. Our analyses revealed that RTs predominate large-size fraction metagenomes (>5 μm), where they reached a maximum of 13.5% of the total gene abundance. Metagenomic RTs were widely distributed across the phylogeny of known RTs, but many belonged to previously uncharacterized clades. Metatranscriptomic RTs showed distinct abundance patterns across samples compared with metagenomic RTs. The relative abundances of viral and bacterial RTs among identified RT sequences were higher in metatranscriptomes than in metagenomes and these sequences were detected in all metatranscriptome size fractions. Overall, these observations suggest an active proliferation of various RT-assisted elements, which could be involved in genome evolution or adaptive processes of plankton assemblage.

  2. Antimicrobial Activity of Heterotrophic Bacterial Communities from the Marine Sponge Erylus discophorus (Astrophorida, Geodiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Graça, Ana Patrícia; Bondoso, Joana; Gaspar, Helena; Xavier, Joana R.; Monteiro, Maria Cândida; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Oves-Costales, Daniel; Vicente, Francisca; Lage, Olga Maria

    2013-01-01

    Heterotrophic bacteria associated with two specimens of the marine sponge Erylus discophorus were screened for their capacity to produce bioactive compounds against a panel of human pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus wild type and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus), fish pathogen (Aliivibrio fischeri) and environmentally relevant bacteria (Vibrio harveyi). The sponges were collected in Berlengas Islands, Portugal. Of the 212 isolated heterotrophic bacteria belonging to Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, 31% produced antimicrobial metabolites. Bioactivity was found against both Gram positive and Gram negative and clinically and environmentally relevant target microorganisms. Bioactivity was found mainly against B. subtilis and some bioactivity against S. aureus MRSA, V. harveyi and A. fisheri. No antifungal activity was detected. The three most bioactive genera were Pseudovibrio (47.0%), Vibrio (22.7%) and Bacillus (7.6%). Other less bioactive genera were Labrenzia, Acinetobacter, Microbulbifer, Pseudomonas, Gordonia, Microbacterium, Micrococcus and Mycobacterium, Paenibacillus and Staphylococcus. The search of polyketide I synthases (PKS-I) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) genes in 59 of the bioactive bacteria suggested the presence of PKS-I in 12 strains, NRPS in 3 strains and both genes in 3 strains. Our results show the potential of the bacterial community associated with Erylus discophorus sponges as producers of bioactive compounds. PMID:24236081

  3. Mode of action of thiocoraline, a natural marine compound with anti-tumour activity

    PubMed Central

    Erba, E; Bergamaschi, D; Ronzoni, S; Faretta, M; Taverna, S; Bonfanti, M; Catapano, C V; Faircloth, G; Jimeno, J; D'Incalci, M

    1999-01-01

    Thiocoraline, a new anticancer agent derived from the marine actinomycete Micromonospora marina, was found to induce profound perturbations of the cell cycle. On both LoVo and SW620 human colon cancer cell lines, thiocoraline caused an arrest in G1 phase of the cell cycle and a decrease in the rate of S phase progression towards G2/M phases, as assessed by using bromodeoxyuridine/DNA biparametric flow cytometric analysis. Thiocoraline does not inhibit DNA-topoisomerase II enzymes in vitro, nor does it induce DNA breakage in cells exposed to effective drug concentrations. The cell cycle effects observed after exposure to thiocoraline appear related to the inhibition of DNA replication. By using a primer extension assay it was found that thiocoraline inhibited DNA elongation by DNA polymerase α at concentrations that inhibited cell cycle progression and clonogenicity. These studies indicate that the new anticancer drug thiocoraline probably acts by inhibiting DNA polymerase α activity. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10362104

  4. Neutron activation analysis of stoney spherules from a marine sediment sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millar, H. T., Jr.; Englert, P.

    1984-01-01

    The identification of extraterrestrial material in samples collected at the surface of the Earth is discussed. Criteria were established for black magnetic spherules which involve the presence of: Fe, Ni, and Co in iron meteoritic ratios, wustite, and Fe-Ni metal while reliable criteria for stoney spherules are not well established. Neutron activation analysis was performed on eight stony spherules separated from the same marine sediment used by Millard and Finkelman. The 22 elements were determined by Compton suppression and triple coincidence gamma counting. It is found that Fe, Mg, Al, Ni, Cr, Co, Ir, and Sc are the best discriminators between chondritic and terrestrial compositions. Three of the spherules have compositions very close to chondrites and of these, two contain 0.5 and 0.25 ppm Ir. The other five spherules contain much less than chondritic concentrations of Ni but this element may be segregated and lost during ablation of the parent meteorite. One of these five low Ni spherules contains 2.9 ppm Ir while the other four contain less than 0.05 ppm Ir.

  5. Global distribution and surface activity of macromolecules in offline simulations of marine organic chemistry

    DOE PAGES

    Ogunro, Oluwaseun O.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott; ...

    2015-10-13

    Here, organic macromolecules constitute high percentage components of remote sea spray. They enter the atmosphere through adsorption onto bubbles followed by bursting at the ocean surface, and go on to influence the chemistry of the fine mode aerosol. We present a global estimate of mixed-layer organic macromolecular distributions, driven by offline marine systems model output. The approach permits estimation of oceanic concentrations and bubble film surface coverages for several classes of organic compound. Mixed layer levels are computed from the output of a global ocean biogeochemistry model by relating the macromolecules to standard biogeochemical tracers. Steady state is assumed formore » labile forms, and for longer-lived components we rely on ratios to existing transported variables. Adsorption is then represented through conventional Langmuir isotherms, with equilibria deduced from laboratory analogs. Open water concentrations locally exceed one micromolar carbon for the total of protein, polysaccharide and refractory heteropolycondensate. The shorter-lived lipids remain confined to regions of strong biological activity. Results are evaluated against available measurements for all compound types, and agreement is generally quite reasonable. Global distributions are further estimated for both fractional coverage of bubble films at the air-water interface and the two-dimensional concentration excess. Overall, we show that macromolecular mapping provides a novel tool for the comprehension of oceanic surfactant distributions. Results may prove useful in planning field experiments and assessing the potential response of surface chemical behaviors to global change.« less

  6. Global distribution and surface activity of macromolecules in offline simulations of marine organic chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Ogunro, Oluwaseun O.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott; Frossard, Amanda A.; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Letscher, Robert T.; Moore, J. Keith; Russell, Lynn M.; Wang, Shanlin; Wingenter, Oliver W.

    2015-10-13

    Here, organic macromolecules constitute high percentage components of remote sea spray. They enter the atmosphere through adsorption onto bubbles followed by bursting at the ocean surface, and go on to influence the chemistry of the fine mode aerosol. We present a global estimate of mixed-layer organic macromolecular distributions, driven by offline marine systems model output. The approach permits estimation of oceanic concentrations and bubble film surface coverages for several classes of organic compound. Mixed layer levels are computed from the output of a global ocean biogeochemistry model by relating the macromolecules to standard biogeochemical tracers. Steady state is assumed for labile forms, and for longer-lived components we rely on ratios to existing transported variables. Adsorption is then represented through conventional Langmuir isotherms, with equilibria deduced from laboratory analogs. Open water concentrations locally exceed one micromolar carbon for the total of protein, polysaccharide and refractory heteropolycondensate. The shorter-lived lipids remain confined to regions of strong biological activity. Results are evaluated against available measurements for all compound types, and agreement is generally quite reasonable. Global distributions are further estimated for both fractional coverage of bubble films at the air-water interface and the two-dimensional concentration excess. Overall, we show that macromolecular mapping provides a novel tool for the comprehension of oceanic surfactant distributions. Results may prove useful in planning field experiments and assessing the potential response of surface chemical behaviors to global change.

  7. Core Angular Momentum and the IERS Sub-Centers Activity for Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids. Part 1; Core Angular Momentum and Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Xia-Dong; Chao, Benjamin (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The part of the grant was to use recordings of seismic waves travelling through the earth's core (PKP waves) to study the inner core rotation and constraints on possible density anomalies in the fluid core. The shapes and relative arrival times of such waves associated with a common source were used to reduce the uncertainties in source location and excitation and the effect of unknown mantle structure. The major effort of the project is to assemble historical seismograms with long observing base lines. We have found original paper records of SSI earthquakes at COL between 1951 and 1966 in a warehouse of the U.S. Geological Survey office in Golden, Colorado, extending the previous measurements at COL by Song and Richards [1996] further back 15 years. Also in Alaska, the University of Alaska, Fairbanks Geophysical Institute (UAFGI) has been operating the Alaskan Seismic Network with over 100 stations since the late 1960s. Virtually complete archives of seismograms are still available at UAFGI. Unfortunately, most of the archives are in microchip form (develocorders), for which the use of waveforms is impossible. Paper seismograms (helicorders) are available for a limited number of stations, and digital recordings of analog signals started around 1989. Of the paper records obtained, stations at Gilmore Dome (GLM, very close to COL), Yukon (FYU), McKinley (MCK), and Sheep Creek Mountain (SCM) have the most complete continuous recordings.

  8. Effects of Man's Activities on the Marine Environment; Committee on Commerce, United States Senate, Ninety-Fourth Congress, First Session. Committee Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce.

    This report, prepared for the Committee on Commerce and the National Ocean Policy Study Committee, describes many aspects of water pollution, both national and international. Specific sections are devoted to: (1) assessing man's influence on the oceans, (2) activities that generate marine pollution, (3) specific marine pollutants, (4) policy for…

  9. SAGE celebrates 25 years of learning geophysics by doing geophysics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiracek, G.R.; Baldridge, W.S.; Sussman, A.J.; Biehler, S.; Braile, L.W.; Ferguson, J.F.; Gilpin, B.E.; McPhee, D.K.; Pellerin, L.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing world demand and record-high costs for energy and mineral resources, along with the attendant environmental and climate concerns, have escalated the need for trained geophysicists to unprecedented levels. This is not only a national need; it's a critical global need. As Earth scientists and educators we must seriously ask if our geophysics pipeline can adequately address this crisis. One program that has helped to answer this question in the affirmative for 25 years is SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience). SAGE continues to develop with new faculty, new collaborations, and additional ways to support student participation during and after SAGE. ?? 2008 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  10. Hydrogeological-Geophysical Methods for Subsurface Site Characterization - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Yoram

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to increase water savings and show better ecological control of natural vegetation by developing hydrogeological-geophysical methods for characterizing the permeability and content of water in soil. The ground penetrating radar (GPR) tool was developed and used as the surface geophysical method for monitoring water content. Initial results using the tool suggest that surface GPR is a viable technique for obtaining precision volumetric water content profile estimates, and that laboratory-derived petrophysical relationships could be applied to field-scale GPR data. A field-scale bacterial transport study was conducted within an uncontaminated sandy Pleistocene aquifer to evaluate the importance of heterogeneity in controlling the transport of bacteria. Geochemical, hydrological, geological, and geophysical data were collected to characterize the site prior to and after chemical and bacterial injection experiments. Study results shows that, even within the fairly uniform shallow marine deposits of the narrow channel focus area, heterogeneity existed that influenced the chemical tracer transport over lateral distances of a few meters and vertical distances of less than a half meter. The interpretation of data suggest that the incorporation of geophysical data with limited hydrological data may provide valuable information about the stratigraphy, log conductivity values, and the spatial correlation structure of log conductivity, which have traditionally been obtainable only by performing extensive and intrusive hydrological sampling.

  11. Investigating Passively Floating and Weakly Swimming Organisms: An Activity for Beginning Marine Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This document presents the outline of a marine biology science unit designed to introduce students to the study and collection of plankton. Extensive details on plankton collections and a seven-item quiz are included. (SL)

  12. Tracking system analytic calibration activities for the Mariner Mars 1971 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madrid, G. A.; Chao, C. C.; Fliegel, H. F.; Leavitt, R. K.; Mottinger, N. A.; Winn, F. B.; Wimberly, R. N.; Yip, K. B.; Zielenbach, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    Data covering various planning aspects of Mariner Mars 1971 mission are summarized. Data cover calibrating procedures for tracking stations, radio signal propagation in the troposphere, effects of charged particles on radio transmission, orbit calculation, and data smoothing.

  13. First hydroacoustic evidence of marine, active fluid vents in the Naples Bay continental shelf (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passaro, Salvatore; Genovese, Simona; Sacchi, Marco; Barra, Marco; Rumolo, Paola; Tamburrino, Stella; Mazzola, Salvatore; Basilone, Gualtiero; Placenti, Francesco; Aronica, Salvatore; Bonanno, Angelo

    2014-09-01

    We present the first results of a multidisciplinary research aimed at the detection and mapping of Active Fluid Vents (AFVs) at the seafloor of the Naples Bay, Italy. This segment of the Campania continental margin is characterised by severe Quaternary extension and intense volcanism at Ischia and Procida islands, the Campi Flegrei and Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complexes. High resolution hydroacoustic profilers were used to identify and localize fluid emission from the seafloor. ROV direct observation showed that each emission centre is generally composed by the coalescence of several emitting points. CTD probes showed that there are no significant gradients in temperature profiles. The results of this study include the detection and mapping of 54 fluid emission points all located in the - 71/- 158 m depth range, and spatially distributed into four main clusters. Three of the described clusters are located along the margin of a complex, toe-shaped seafloor morphology southwest of the Somma-Vesuvius, representing the shallow expression of partly buried, coalesced depositional features (namely, two flank collapses and one pyroclastic flow) associated with the Late Pleistocene activity of the volcano. The fourth AFV cluster was detected at the morphological - high, located about 8 km south of Naples (Banco della Montagna), represented by a field of volcaniclastic diapirs composed of massive pumiceous deposits originated from the Campi Flegrei intruding rising through the latest Quaternary-Holocene marine deposits. Our study suggests that the occurrence of AFV in this area could be genetically linked to the interaction between volcanic related seafloor morphologies and the main, NE striking faults present in the area, i.e. the Magnaghi-Sebeto line and the Vesuvian fault.

  14. Comparative Pharmacokinetic Properties and Antitumor Activity of the Marine HDACi Largazole and Largazole Peptide Isostere

    PubMed Central

    Pilon, John L.; Clausen, Dane J.; Hansen, Ryan J.; Lunghofer, Paul J.; Charles, Brad; Rose, Barbara J.; Thamm, Douglas H.; Gustafson, Daniel L.; Bradner, James E.; Williams, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Largazole is a potent class I selective HDACi natural product isolated from the marine cyanobacteria Symploca sp. The purpose of this study was to test synthetic analogs of Largazole to identify potential scaffold structural modifications that would improve the drug-like properties of this clinically relevant natural product. Methods The impact of Largazole scaffold replacements on in vitro growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, pharmacokinetic properties, and in vivo activity using a xenograft model were investigated. Results In vitro studies in colon, lung, and pancreatic cancer cell lines showed that pyridyl substituted Largazole analogs had low nanomolar/high-picomolar activity on cell proliferation, and induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at concentrations equivalent to or lower than the parent compound Largazole. Using IV bolus delivery at 5mg/kg, two compartmental pharmacokinetic modeling on the peptide isostere analog of Largazole indicated improved pharmacokinetics including AUC, CL, and Vss. In the A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma xenograft model using a dosage of 5 mg/kg administered intraperitoneally every other day, Largazole, Largazole thiol, and Largazole peptide isostere demonstrated tumor growth inhibition (TGI%) of 32, 44, and 66 percent respectively. Moreover, the decreased tumor growth rate for Largazole peptide isostere was statistically significant compared to control (p=0.002) and superior to Largazole (p=0.006). Surprisingly tumor growth inhibition in this system and treatment regimen was not observed with the potent pyridyl-based analogs. Conclusions Our results establish that replacing the depsipepitde linkage in Largazole with an amide may impart pharmacokinetic advantage and that alternative prodrug forms of largazole are feasible. PMID:25616967

  15. Purification and characterization of chitinase from Alcaligenes faecalis AU02 by utilizing marine wastes and its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Neelamegam; Veeramuthu Rajeswari, Mayavan; Vijayalakshmi, Shanmugam; Balasubramanian, Thangavel

    2011-12-01

    Marine waste is an abundant renewable source for the recovery of several value added metabolites with potential industrial applications. This study describes the production of chitinase on marine waste, with the subsequent use of the same marine waste for the extraction of antioxidants. A chitinase-producing bacterium isolated from seafood effluent was identified as Alcaligenes faecalis AU02. Optimal chitinase production was obtained in culture conditions of 37°C for 72 h in 100 ml medium containing 1% shrimp and crab shell powder (1:1) (w/v), 0.1% K(2)HPO(4), and 0.05% MgSO(4)·7H(2)O. The molecular weight of chitinase was determined by SDS-PAGE to be 36 kDa. The optimum pH, temperature, pH stability, and thermal stability of chitinase were about 8, 37°C, 5-12, and 40-80°C, respectively. The antioxidant activity of A. faecalis AU02 culture supernatant was determined through scavenging ability on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as 84%, and the antioxidant compound was characterized by TLC and its FT-IR spectrum. The present study proposed that marine wastes can be utilized to generate a high-value-added product and that pharmacological studies can extend its use to the field of medicine.

  16. β-Cyanoalanine Production by Marine Bacteria on Cyanide-Free Medium and Its Specific Inhibitory Activity toward Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Adachi, Kyoko; Nishijima, Miyuki; Takadera, Takahide; Tamaki, Seiji; Harada, Ken-ichi; Mochida, Kenichi; Sano, Hiroshi

    2000-01-01

    In screening the culture broth of marine bacteria collected at Yap (Micronesia), Palau (Belau), and Okinawa (the southwest islands of Japan) for antimicroalgal activity, 37 out of 2,594 bacterial isolates tested were found to produce anticyanobacterial substances against Oscillatoria amphibia NIES-361. One strain, C-979, identified as a Vibrio sp., was selected and cultured in 2.4 liters of marine broth 2216 to identify the bioactive compound produced by the strain. The purified very hydrophilic compound (16.4 mg) was determined to be β-cyano-l-alanine (l-CNAla) by instrumental analyses and the application of the advanced Marfey method. l-CNAla did not inhibit the growth of bacteria, yeast, or eukaryotic microalgae, but some cyanobacteria were found to be sensitive to l-CNAla at a concentration of 0.4 to 25 μg/ml. The effect of l-CNAla on some other environmental organisms, including invertebrates and a macroalgae, is discussed. CNAla production in marine broth was examined by thin-layer chromatography for the 37 bacterial isolates which produced an anticyanobacterial substance. The broth of 36 of these strains contained CNAla, suggesting the wide distribution of CNAla production by marine bacteria. This is the first report on bacteria that produce CNAla without a supply of the cyanide ion in the medium. PMID:10653741

  17. Marine Pharmacology in 2000: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Anticoagulant, Antifungal, Anti-inflammatory, Antimalarial, Antiplatelet, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Cardiovascular, Immune, and Nervous Systems and Other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Alejandro M. S.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    During 2000 research on the pharmacology of marine chemicals involved investigators from Australia, Brazil, Canada, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Phillipines, Singapore, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the United States. This current review, a sequel to the authors’ 1998 and 1999 reviews, classifies 68 peer-reviewed articles on the basis of the reported preclinical pharmacologic properties of marine chemicals derived from a diverse group of marine animals, algae, fungi, and bacteria. Antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, antimalarial, antiplatelet, antituberculosis, or antiviral activity was reported for 35 marine chemicals. An additional 20 marine compounds were shown to have significant effects on the cardiovascular and nervous system, and to possess anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressant properties. Finally, 23 marine compounds were reported to act on a variety of molecular targets and thus could potentially contribute to several pharmacologic classes. Thus, as in 1998 and 1999, during 2000 pharmacologic research with marine chemicals continued to contribute potentially novel chemical leads to the ongoing global search for therapeutic agents in the treatment of multiple disease categories. PMID:14583811

  18. Towards adaptive management of the natural capital: Disentangling trade-offs among marine activities and seagrass meadows.

    PubMed

    Bas Ventín, Leticia; de Souza Troncoso, Jesús; Villasante, Sebastián

    2015-12-15

    This paper investigates the ecological, social and institutional dimensions of the synergies and trade-offs between seagrasses and human activities operating in the Natura 2000 protected site of San Simón Bay (Galicia, NW Spain). By means of a multidisciplinary approach that brings together the development of a biological inventory combined with participatory mapping processes we get key spatial and contextual understanding regarding how, where and why marine users interact with seagrasses and how seagrasses are considered in policy making. The results highlight the fisheries' reliance on seagrass meadows and the controversial links with shellfisheries. The study also reveals unresolved conflicts among those management plans that promote the protection of natural values and those responsible for the exploitation of marine resources. We conclude that the adoption of pre-planning bottom-up participatory processes is crucial for the design of realistic strategies where both seagrasses and human activities were considered as a couple system.

  19. Object Storage for Geophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermann, T.; Readey, J.

    2015-12-01

    Object storage systems (such as Amazon S3 or Ceph) have been shown to be cost-effective and highly scalable for data repositories in the Petabyte range and larger. However traditionally data storage used for geophysical software systems has centered on file-based systems and libraries such as NetCDF and HDF5. In this session we'll discuss the advantages and challenges of moving to an object store-based model for geophysical data. We'll review a proposed model for a geophysical data service that provides an API-compatible library for traditional NetCDF and HDF5 applications while providing high scalability and performance. One further advantage of this approach is that any dataset or dataset selection can be referenced as a URI. By using versioning, the data the URI references can be guaranteed to be unmodified, thus enabling reproducibility of referenced data.

  20. Continental crust: a geophysical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Meissner, R.

    1986-01-01

    This book develops an integrated and balanced picture of present knowledge of the continental crust. Crust and lithosphere are first defined, and the formation of crusts as a general planetary phenomenon is described. The background and methods of geophysical studies of the earth's crust and the collection of related geophysical parameters are examined. Creep and friction experiments and the various methods of radiometric age dating are addressed, and geophysical and geological investigations of the crustal structure in various age provinces of the continents are studied. Specific tectonic structures such as rifts, continental margins, and geothermal areas are discussed. Finally, an attempt is made to give a comprehensive view of the evolution of the continental crust and to collect and develop arguments for crustal accretion and recycling. 647 references.

  1. Quorum Sensing in Vibrio fischeri Cell Density-Dependent Activation of Symbiosis-Related Genes in a Marine Bacterium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE August 3, 1998 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Quorum Sensing in Vibrio fischeri Cell...of the proposed research is to fully elucidate the mechanism of quorum sensing and response in bacteria by continuing investigations of the most well...Regulation/Marine bacteria/Symbiosis Genes/ Transcriptional activation/ Quorum Sensing 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT u NSN 7540-01-280

  2. Studies on the Synthesis of Derivatives of Marine-Derived Bostrycin and Their Structure-Activity Relationship against Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Zhong, Lili; Long, Yuhua; Li, Jia; Wu, Jueheng; Liu, Lan; Chen, Shengping; Lin, Yongcheng; Li, Mengfeng; Zhu, Xun; She, Zhigang

    2012-01-01

    A series of new derivatives (5–29) of marine-derived bostrycin (1) were synthesized. The in vitro cytotoxic activities of all compounds were evaluated against MCF-7, MDA-MB-435, A549, HepG2, HCT-116 and MCF-10A cells using the MTT method. The compounds 7, 8, 22, 23, 25, 28 and 29 of the total showed comparable activity to epirubicin, the positive control, against the tested cancer cell lines. However, these compounds also exhibited cytotoxicity towards MCF-10A cells. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of bostrycin derivatives was also discussed based on the obtained experimental data. PMID:22690152

  3. Energy Survey Activities off Atlantic Coast Get Green Light From Obama Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-03-01

    The 27 February release of an environmental review of geological and geophysical (G&G) survey activities off the mid- and South Atlantic outer continental shelf is a key step toward potentially opening the area to oil and gas exploration, according to industry and environmental groups. That is a prospect industry groups favor and environmental groups say will harm marine life.

  4. Geological & Geophysical findings from seismic, well log and core data for marine gas hydrate deposits at the 1st offshore methane hydrate production test site in the eastern Nankai Trough, offshore Japan: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, T.; Noguchi, S.; Takayama, T.; Suzuki, K.; Yamamoto, K.

    2012-12-01

    In order to evaluate productivity of gas from marine gas hydrate by the depressurization method, Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation is planning to conduct a full-scale production test in early 2013 at the AT1 site in the north slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan. The test location was determined using the combination of detailed 3D seismic reflection pattern analysis, high-density velocity analysis, and P-impedance inversion analysis, which were calibrated using well log data obtained in 2004. At the AT1 site, one production well (AT1-P) and two monitoring wells (AT1-MC and MT1) were drilled from February to March 2012, followed by 1 coring well (AT1-C) from June to July 2012. An extensive logging program with logging while drilling (LWD) and wireline-logging tools, such as GeoVISION (resistivity image), EcoScope (neutron/density porosity, mineral spectroscopy etc.), SonicScanner (Advanced Sonic tool), CMR/ProVISION (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Tools), XPT (formation pressure, fluid mobility), and IsolationScanner (ultrasonic cement evaluation tools) was conducted at AT1-MC well to evaluate physical reservoir properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, to determine production test interval in 2013, and to evaluate cement bonding. Methane hydrate concentrated zone (MHCZ) confirmed by the well logging at AT1-MC was thin turbidites (tens of centimeters to few meters) with 60 m of gross thickness, which is composed of lobe type sequences in the upper part of it and channel sand sequences in the lower part. The gross thickness of MHCZ in the well is thicker than previous wells in 2004 (A1, 45 m) located around 150 m northeast, indicating that the prediction given by seismic inversion analysis was reasonable. Well-to-well correlation between AT1-MC and MT1 wells within 40 m distance exhibited that lateral continuity of these sand layers (upper part of reservoir) are fairly good, which representing ideal reservoir for the production

  5. Culturable diversity and antimicrobial activity of Actinobacteria from marine sediments in Valparaíso bay, Chile.

    PubMed

    Claverías, Fernanda P; Undabarrena, Agustina; González, Myriam; Seeger, Michael; Cámara, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Marine-derived Actinobacteria are a source of a broad variety of secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities, such as antibiotics and antitumorals; many of which have been developed for clinical use. Rare Actinobacteria represent an untapped source of new bioactive compounds that have been scarcely recognized. In this study, rare Actinobacteria from marine sediments were isolated from the Valparaíso bay, Chile, and their potential to produce antibacterial compounds was evaluated. Different culture conditions and selective media that select the growth of Actinobacteria were used leading to the isolation of 68 bacterial strains. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences led to identifying isolates that belong to the phylum Actinobacteria with genetic affiliations to 17 genera: Aeromicrobium, Agrococcus, Arthrobacter, Brachybacterium, Corynebacterium, Dietzia, Flaviflexus, Gordonia, Isoptericola, Janibacter, Microbacterium, Mycobacterium, Ornithinimicrobium, Pseudonocardia, Rhodococcus, Streptomyces, and Tessaracoccus. Also, one isolate could not be consistently classified and formed a novel phylogenetic branch related to the Nocardiopsaceae family. The antimicrobial activity of these isolates was evaluated, demonstrating the capability of specific novel isolates to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In conclusion, this study shows a rich biodiversity of culturable Actinobacteria, associated to marine sediments from Valparaíso bay, highlighting novel rare Actinobacteria, and their potential for the production of biologically active compounds.

  6. Culturable diversity and antimicrobial activity of Actinobacteria from marine sediments in Valparaíso bay, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Claverías, Fernanda P.; Undabarrena, Agustina; González, Myriam; Seeger, Michael; Cámara, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Marine-derived Actinobacteria are a source of a broad variety of secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities, such as antibiotics and antitumorals; many of which have been developed for clinical use. Rare Actinobacteria represent an untapped source of new bioactive compounds that have been scarcely recognized. In this study, rare Actinobacteria from marine sediments were isolated from the Valparaíso bay, Chile, and their potential to produce antibacterial compounds was evaluated. Different culture conditions and selective media that select the growth of Actinobacteria were used leading to the isolation of 68 bacterial strains. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences led to identifying isolates that belong to the phylum Actinobacteria with genetic affiliations to 17 genera: Aeromicrobium, Agrococcus, Arthrobacter, Brachybacterium, Corynebacterium, Dietzia, Flaviflexus, Gordonia, Isoptericola, Janibacter, Microbacterium, Mycobacterium, Ornithinimicrobium, Pseudonocardia, Rhodococcus, Streptomyces, and Tessaracoccus. Also, one isolate could not be consistently classified and formed a novel phylogenetic branch related to the Nocardiopsaceae family. The antimicrobial activity of these isolates was evaluated, demonstrating the capability of specific novel isolates to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In conclusion, this study shows a rich biodiversity of culturable Actinobacteria, associated to marine sediments from Valparaíso bay, highlighting novel rare Actinobacteria, and their potential for the production of biologically active compounds. PMID:26284034

  7. Cluster analysis applied to multiparameter geophysical dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giuseppe, M. G.; Troiano, A.; Troise, C.; De Natale, G.

    2012-04-01

    Multi-parameter acquisition is a common geophysical field practice nowadays. Regularly seismic velocity and attenuation, gravity and electromagnetic dataset are acquired in a certain area, to obtain a complete characterization of the some investigate feature of the subsoil. Such a richness of information is often underestimated, although an integration of the analysis could provide a notable improving in the imaging of the investigated structures, mostly because the handling of distinct parameters and their joint inversion still presents several and severe problems. Post-inversion statistical techniques represent a promising approach to these questions, providing a quick, simple and elegant way to obtain this advantageous but complex integration. We present an approach based on the partition of the analyzed multi parameter dataset in a number of different classes, identified as localized regions of high correlation. These classes, or 'Cluster', are structured in such a way that the observations pertaining to a certain group are more similar to each other than the observations belonging to a different one, according to an optimal logical criterion. Regions of the subsoil sharing the same physical characteristic are so identified, without a-priori or empirical relationship linking the distinct measured parameters. The retrieved imaging results highly affordable in a statistical sense, specifically due to this lack of external hypothesis that are, instead, indispensable in a full joint inversion, were works, as matter of fact, just a real constrain for the inversion process, not seldom of relative consistence. We apply our procedure to a certain number of experimental dataset, related to several structures at very different scales presents in the Campanian district (southern Italy). These structures goes from the shallows evidence of the active fault zone originating the M 7.9 Irpinia earthquake to the main feature characterizing the Campi Flegrei Caldera and the Mt

  8. Applied Geophysics Opportunities in the Petroleum Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olgaard, D. L.; Tikku, A.; Roberts, J. C.; Martinez, A.

    2012-12-01

    Meeting the increasing global demand for energy over the next several decades presents daunting challenges to engineers and scientists, including geoscientists of all disciplines. Many opportunities exist for geophysicists to find and produce oil and gas in a safe, environmentally responsible and affordable manner. Successful oil and gas exploration involves a 'Plates to Pores' approach that integrates multi-scale data from satellites, marine and land seismic and non-seismic field surveys, lab experiments, and even electron microscopy. The petroleum industry is at the forefront of using high performance computing to develop innovative methods to process and analyze large volumes of seismic data and perform realistic numerical modeling, such as finite element fluid flow and rock deformation simulations. Challenging and rewarding jobs in exploration, production and research exist for students with BS/BA, MS and PhD degrees. Geophysics students interested in careers in the petroleum industry should have a broad foundation in science, math and fundamental geosciences at the BS/BA level, as well as mastery of the scientific method, usually gained through thesis work at MS and PhD levels. Field geology or geophysics experience is also valuable. Other personal attributes typical for geoscientists to be successful in industry include a passion for solving complex geoscience problems, the flexibility to work on a variety of assignments throughout a career and skills such as teamwork, communication, integration and leadership. In this presentation we will give examples of research, exploration and production opportunities for geophysicists in petroleum companies and compare and contrast careers in academia vs. industry.

  9. Chemoautotrophic carbon fixation rates and active bacterial communities in intertidal marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Boschker, Henricus T S; Vasquez-Cardenas, Diana; Bolhuis, Henk; Moerdijk-Poortvliet, Tanja W C; Moodley, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Chemoautotrophy has been little studied in typical coastal marine sediments, but may be an important component of carbon recycling as intense anaerobic mineralization processes in these sediments lead to accumulation of high amounts of reduced compounds, such as sulfides and ammonium. We studied chemoautotrophy by measuring dark-fixation of 13C-bicarbonate into phospholipid derived fatty acid (PLFA) biomarkers at two coastal sediment sites with contrasting sulfur chemistry in the Eastern Scheldt estuary, The Netherlands. At one site where free sulfide accumulated in the pore water right to the top of the sediment, PLFA labeling was restricted to compounds typically found in sulfur and ammonium oxidizing bacteria. At the other site, with no detectable free sulfide in the pore water, a very different PLFA labeling pattern was found with high amounts of label in branched i- and a-PLFA besides the typical compounds for sulfur and ammonium oxidizing bacteria. This suggests that other types of chemoautotrophic bacteria were also active, most likely Deltaproteobacteria related to sulfate reducers. Maximum rates of chemoautotrophy were detected in first 1 to 2 centimeters of both sediments and chemosynthetic biomass production was high ranging from 3 to 36 mmol C m(-2) d(-1). Average dark carbon fixation to sediment oxygen uptake ratios were 0.22±0.07 mol C (mol O2)(-1), which is in the range of the maximum growth yields reported for sulfur oxidizing bacteria indicating highly efficient growth. Chemoautotrophic biomass production was similar to carbon mineralization rates in the top of the free sulfide site, suggesting that chemoautotrophic bacteria could play a crucial role in the microbial food web and labeling in eukaryotic poly-unsaturated PLFA was indeed detectable. Our study shows that dark carbon fixation by chemoautotrophic bacteria is a major process in the carbon cycle of coastal sediments, and should therefore receive more attention in future studies on

  10. The variability in DMSP content and DMSP lyase activity in marine dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruana, Amandine M. N.; Malin, Gill

    2014-01-01

    More than 20 years ago Maureen Keller and co-workers published a study that identified dinoflagellates as an important marine phytoplankton group with respect to the production of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP). Here, we present a synthesis and analysis of all the DMSP and DMSP lyase activity (DLA) measurements currently available for dinoflagellates. The data cover 110 species and strains and reveal over 6 orders of magnitude variability in intracellular DMSP concentrations and substantial variations in DLA in 23 strains. Inter-specific variability was explored with reference to a range of biological characteristics. The presence of a theca did not appear to be related to DMSP concentration but there was a potential relationship with toxicity (P = 0.06) and bioluminescent species produced significantly lower concentrations (P < 0.01) than non-bioluminescent ones. DMSP concentrations were related to plastid types (P < 0.05); dinoflagellates with haptophyte-like plastids contained lower amounts of DMSP than those with peridinin plastids (P < 0.01), whereas those containing cryptomonad-like plastids tended to have higher DMSP concentrations. Heterotrophic dinoflagellates were also considered given their importance in the natural environment. They are the only heterotrophs known to synthesise DMSP and this ability may support the theory that they are of photosynthetic origin. However, the heterotrophic species investigated so far suggest wide variability in DMSP content and the species Oxyrrhis marina had no detectable DMSP. The oceanic province of origin significantly affected the DMSP concentrations (P < 0.05) with higher DMSP content observed in dinoflagellates from the Mediterranean province, the Kuroshio Current province and the East Coastal Australian province. Overall this study supports the concept that DMSP-containing dinoflagellates are an important potential source of DMS to the global atmosphere and highlights current gaps in knowledge.

  11. Extraction and PTP1B inhibitory activity of bromophenols from the marine red alga Symphyocladia latiuscula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xu; Li, Xiaoming; Gao, Lixin; Cui, Chuanming; Li, Chunshun; Li, Jia; Wang, Bingui

    2011-05-01

    Previously, we had characterized several structurally interesting brominated phenols from the marine red alga Symphyocladia latiuscula collected from various sites. However, Phytochemical investigations on this species collected from the Weihai coastline of Shandong Province remains blank. Therefore, we characterized the chemical constituents of individuals of this species collected from the region. Eight bromophenols were isolated and identified. Using detailed spectroscopic techniques and comparisons with published data, these compounds were identified as 2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl methyl ether ( 1), 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid ( 2), 2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxymethylbenzene ( 3), 2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde ( 4), 2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl methyl ether ( 5), bis(2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)methane ( 6), 1,2-bis(2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethane ( 7), and 1-(2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl)-pyrrolidin-2-one ( 8). Among these compounds, 1 and 2 were isolated for the first time from S. latiuscula. Each compound was evaluated on the ability to inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), which is a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Bromophenols 5, 6, and 7 showed strong activities with IC50 values of 3.9, 4.3, and 3.5 μmol/L, respectively. This study provides further evidence that bromophenols are predominant among the chemical constituents of Symphyocladia, and that some of these compounds may be candidates for the development of anti-diabetes drugs.

  12. Potential impact of stress activated retrotransposons on genome evolution in a marine diatom

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA sequences present in the genomes of most organisms. They have been extensively studied in animals, fungi, and plants, and have been shown to have important functions in genome dynamics and species evolution. Recent genomic data can now enlarge the identification and study of TEs to other branches of the eukaryotic tree of life. Diatoms, which belong to the heterokont group, are unicellular eukaryotic algae responsible for around 40% of marine primary productivity. The genomes of a centric diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana, and a pennate diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, that likely diverged around 90 Mya, have recently become available. Results In the present work, we establish that LTR retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) are the most abundant TEs inhabiting these genomes, with a much higher presence in the P. tricornutum genome. We show that the LTR-RTs found in diatoms form two new phylogenetic lineages that appear to be diatom specific and are also found in environmental samples taken from different oceans. Comparative expression analysis in P. tricornutum cells cultured under 16 different conditions demonstrate high levels of transcriptional activity of LTR retrotransposons in response to nitrate limitation and upon exposure to diatom-derived reactive aldehydes, which are known to induce stress responses and cell death. Regulatory aspects of P. tricornutum retrotransposon transcription also include the occurrence of nitrate limitation sensitive cis-regulatory components within LTR elements and cytosine methylation dynamics. Differential insertion patterns in different P. tricornutum accessions isolated from around the world infer the role of LTR-RTs in generating intraspecific genetic variability. Conclusion Based on these findings we propose that LTR-RTs may have been important for promoting genome rearrangements in diatoms. PMID:20028555

  13. Isolation, phylogenetic analysis and screening of marine mollusc-associated bacteria for antimicrobial, hemolytic and surface activities.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Uchino, Masataka; Kalinovskaya, Natalia I; Mikhailov, Valery V

    2008-01-01

    This study was undertaken to survey culturable heterotrophic bacteria associated with the marine ark shell Anadara broughtoni inhabiting in the Sea of Japan, and to test isolates for their antimicrobial, hemolytic and surface activities with an emphasis on low-molecular-weight metabolites search. A total of 149 strains were isolated and identified phenotypically. A total of 27 strains were selected to be investigated phylogenetically by 165 rRNA gene sequence analysis. The most bacteria were affiliated with members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria, and Less with Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) group. The isolates capable of hemolysis were numerically abundant in the genera Pseudoalteromonas, Aeromonas and Bacillus. The six Gram-positive isolates belonging to the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Saccharothrix and two Gram-negative strains related to Pseudomonas and Sphingomonas, possessed antimicrobial activity against indicator strains and to each other. Antimicrobial, hemolytic and surface activities were revealed in butanot extracts of cells or cell-free supernatant of six active strains. This points to availability of active low-molecular-weight metabolites. Substances with hemolytic and surface activities were isolated from strain Bacillus pumilus An 112 and characterized as cyclic depsipeptides with molecular masses 1021, 1035, 1049, 1063 and 1077 Da. The recovery of strains producing antimicrobial and surface-active substances suggests that microorganisms associated with the marine bivalve are potential source of bioactive metabolites.

  14. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT: Underwater Active Acoustic Monitoring Network For Marine And Hydrokinetic Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Peter J.; Edson, Patrick L.

    2013-12-20

    This project saw the completion of the design and development of a second generation, high frequency (90-120 kHz) Subsurface-Threat Detection Sonar Network (SDSN). The system was deployed, operated, and tested in Cobscook Bay, Maine near the site the Ocean Renewable Power Company TidGen™ power unit. This effort resulted in a very successful demonstration of the SDSN detection, tracking, localization, and classification capabilities in a high current, MHK environment as measured by results from the detection and tracking trials in Cobscook Bay. The new high frequency node, designed to operate outside the hearing range of a subset of marine mammals, was shown to detect and track objects of marine mammal-like target strength to ranges of approximately 500 meters. This performance range results in the SDSN system tracking objects for a significant duration - on the order of minutes - even in a tidal flow of 5-7 knots, potentially allowing time for MHK system or operator decision-making if marine mammals are present. Having demonstrated detection and tracking of synthetic targets with target strengths similar to some marine mammals, the primary hurdle to eventual automated monitoring is a dataset of actual marine mammal kinematic behavior and modifying the tracking algorithms and parameters which are currently tuned to human diver kinematics and classification.

  15. Reflection of processes of non-equilibrium two-phase filtration in oil-saturated hierarchical medium in data of active wave geophysical monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Andrey; Khachay, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    structure located in layer number J of an N-layered elastic medium. The algorithm developed for modeling, and the method of mapping and monitoring of heterogenic highly complicated two-phase medium can be used for managing viscous oil extraction in mining conditions and light oil in sub-horizontal boreholes. The demand for effective economic parameters and fuller extraction of oil and gas from deposits dictates the necessity of developing new geotechnology based on the fundamental achievements in the area of geophysics and geomechanics

  16. Seasonal Response and Characterization of a Scree Slope and Active Debris Flow Catchment Using Multiple Geophysical Techniques: The case of the Meretschibach Catchment, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fankhauser, Kerstin; Guzman, Daisy R. Lucas; Oggier, Nicole; Maurer, Hansruedi; Springman, Sarah M.

    2015-04-01

    Various types of mass movements cause extensive natural hazards in populated mountain regions. They need to be quantified, and possibly predicted, for implementing effective mitigation and protection measures. The Meretschibach catchment in the Valais area, Switzerland, is a source region for such events. Various forms of instabilities occur on the steep slopes. They manifest themselves in form of smaller rock falls and rock slides on the open scree slopes. Moreover, large sediment volumes of channelized stream deposits can evolve into debris flows, with a substantial run-out along the Meretschibach. Geophysical methods, such as electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground-penetrating-radar (GPR) have been proven to be powerful tools for characterizing mass movements and slope instabilities. They complement other remote sensing techniques and in-situ geotechnical experiments. Ground-based and helicopter-borne GPR measurements were carried out at the Meretschibach test site, to determine the depth to the bedrock. The results indicate that the bedrock is generally shallow, ranging from a few centimetres to about 5 metres vertically below the surface. A particularly interesting aspect of the GPR investigations was the observation that bedrock depth could be resolved by both, ground-based and helicopter-borne GPR data. Ground-based GPR surveying proved to be extremely challenging on the steep slopes, and some areas were even inaccessible due to safety concerns. It is therefore encouraging for future projects that helicopter-borne GPR acquisition offers a promising alternative. The spatial distribution of the soil moisture content and the temporal variations were determined with repeated ERT measurements. The resulting tomograms allowed a conductive soil layer and more resistive bedrock to be distinguished clearly. The ERT results were in good agreement with in-situ geotechnical measurements in a nearby test pit, and the depth of the soil-bedrock interface was

  17. Modulation of aromatase activity as a mode of action for endocrine disrupting chemicals in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Mills, Lesley J; Gutjahr-Gobell, Ruth E; Zaroogian, Gerald E; Horowitz, Doranne Borsay; Laws, Susan C

    2014-02-01

    The steroidogenic enzyme aromatase catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens and therefore plays a central role in reproduction. In contrast to most vertebrates, teleost fish have two distinct forms of aromatase. Because brain aromatase activity in fish is up to 1000 times that in mammals, fish may be especially susceptible to negative effects from environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that impact aromatase activity. In this study, the effects of estradiol (E2), ethynylestradiol (EE2), octylphenol (OP), and androstatrienedione (ATD) on reproduction and aromatase activity in brains and gonads from the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) was investigated. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship between changes in aromatase activity and reproductive output in a marine fish, as well as compare aromatase activity to two commonly used indicators of EDC exposure, plasma vitellogenin (VTG) and gonadosomatic index (GSI). Results with E2, EE2, and ATD indicate that aromatase activity in cunner brain and ovary are affected differently by exposure to these EDCs. In the case of E2 and EE2, male brain aromatase activity was signficantly increased by these treatments, female brain aromatase activity was unaffected, and ovarian aromatase activity was significantly decreased. Treatment with the aromatase inhibitor ATD resulted in significantly decreased aromatase activity in male and female brain, but had no significant impact on ovarian aromatase activity. Regardless of test chemical, a decrease or an increase in male brain aromatase activity relative to controls was associated with decreased egg production in cunner and was also correlated with significant changes in GSI in both sexes. E2 and EE2 significantly elevated plasma VTG in males and females, while ATD had no significant effect. Treatment of cunner with OP had no significant effect on any measured endpoint. Overall, results with these exposures indicate EDCs that impact

  18. Geophysical applications of satellite altimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Sandwell, D.T. )

    1991-01-01

    Publications related to geophysical applications of Seasat and Geosat altimetry are reviewed for the period 1987-1990. Problems discussed include geoid and gravity errors, regional geoid heights and gravity anomalies, local gravity field/flexure, plate tectonics, and gridded geoid heights/gravity anomalies. 99 refs.

  19. BROADBAND DIGITAL GEOPHYSICAL TELEMETRY SYSTEM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seeley, Robert L.; Daniels, Jeffrey J.

    1984-01-01

    A system has been developed to simultaneously sample and transmit digital data from five remote geophysical data receiver stations to a control station that processes, displays, and stores the data. A microprocessor in each remote station receives commands from the control station over a single telemetry channel.

  20. Monodisperse Ag@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles as active inhibitors for marine anticorrosion applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Sheng; Wang, Jie-Xin; Xu, Ke; Le, Yuan; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2011-04-01

    Monodisperse Ag@SiO2 core-shell structured nanoparticles were firstly utilized as a novel corrosion inhibitor for marine anticorrosion applications. The related marine anticorrosion properties were evaluated with an electrochemical noise (ECN) analysis during 2 weeks of accelerated immersion tests in natural seawater with the addition of various inorganic salts and nutriments. The experimental results indicate that the corrosion activity is markedly reduced by nearly 1-3 orders of magnitude owing to the introduction of Ag@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles into coating. The inhibition efficiency of corrosion can reach as high as about 99%. More importantly, such a coating exhibits an excellent long-term sustained marine anticorrosion effect. So it could be reasonably inferred that silver cores as active inhibitors effectively prevent the corrosion damage from microorganisms, while silica shells act as a good protection for silver nanoparticles, delay the release of silver ions, and also function as the corrosion inhibiting action for inorganic salts. Therefore, this would make monodisperse Ag@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles a potential and promising corrosion inhibitor for developing future advanced multifunctional coatings.