Science.gov

Sample records for activities model answers

  1. Modeling Answer Changes on Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Jeon, Minjeong

    2012-01-01

    The probability of test takers changing answers upon review of their initial choices is modeled. The primary purpose of the model is to check erasures on answer sheets recorded by an optical scanner for numbers and patterns that may be indicative of irregular behavior, such as teachers or school administrators changing answer sheets after their…

  2. Biology Research Activities: Teacher's Edition (with Answers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Barbara

    This book is part of the series "Explorations in Science" which contains enrichment activities for the general science curriculum. Each book in the series contains innovative and traditional projects for both the bright and average, the self-motivated, and those who find activity motivating. Each activity is self-contained and provides everything…

  3. Answering questions about consciousness by modeling perception as covert behavior

    PubMed Central

    Markkula, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    Two main open questions in current consciousness research concern (i) the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) and (ii) the relationship between neural activity and first-person, subjective experience. Here, possible answers are sketched for both of these, by means of a model-based analysis of what is required for one to admit having a conscious experience. To this end, a model is proposed that allows reasoning, albeit necessarily in a simplistic manner, about all of the so called “easy problems” of consciousness, from discrimination of stimuli to control of behavior and language. First, it is argued that current neuroscientific knowledge supports the view of perception and action selection as two examples of the same basic phenomenon, such that one can meaningfully refer to neuronal activations involved in perception as covert behavior. Building on existing neuroscientific and psychological models, a narrative behavior model is proposed, outlining how the brain selects covert (and sometimes overt) behaviors to construct a complex, multi-level narrative about what it is like to be the individual in question. It is hypothesized that we tend to admit a conscious experience of X if, at the time of judging consciousness, we find ourselves acceptably capable of performing narrative behavior describing X. It is argued that the proposed account reconciles seemingly conflicting empirical results, previously presented as evidence for competing theories of consciousness, and suggests that well-defined, experiment-independent NCCs are unlikely to exist. Finally, an analysis is made of what the modeled narrative behavior machinery is and is not capable of. It is discussed how an organism endowed with such a machinery could, from its first-person perspective, come to adopt notions such as “subjective experience,” and of there being “hard problems,” and “explanatory gaps” to be addressed in order to understand consciousness. PMID:26136704

  4. Modelling gene and protein regulatory networks with answer set programming.

    PubMed

    Fayruzov, Timur; Janssen, Jeroen; Vermeir, Dirk; Cornelis, Chris; De Cock, Martine

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many approaches to model regulatory networks have been proposed in the systems biology domain. However, the task is far from being solved. In this paper, we propose an Answer Set Programming (ASP)-based approach to model interaction networks. We build a general ASP framework that describes the network semantics and allows modelling specific networks with little effort. ASP provides a rich and flexible toolbox that allows expanding the framework with desired features. In this paper, we tune our framework to mimic Boolean network behaviour and apply it to model the Budding Yeast and Fission Yeast cell cycle networks. The obtained steady states of these networks correspond to those of the Boolean networks.

  5. Infectious Mononucleosis in Active Patients: Definitive Answers to Common Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auwaerter, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes infectious mononucleosis (IM), examining viral transmission and infection, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. Focuses on answers to several commonly asked questions about IM in sport (e.g., when it is safe to resume sports after IM, how often fatigue or depression are related to earlier bouts of IM, and how often IM is…

  6. The Answering Process for Multiple-Choice Questions in Collaborative Learning: A Mathematical Learning Model Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Nishi, Shinnosuke; Muramatsu, Yuta; Yasutake, Koichi; Yamakawa, Osamu; Tagawa, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a mathematical model for collaborative learning and the answering process for multiple-choice questions. The collaborative learning model is inspired by the Ising spin model and the model for answering multiple-choice questions is based on their difficulty level. An intensive simulation study predicts the possibility of…

  7. A Nominal Response Model Approach for Detecting Answer Copying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollack, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Introduces a new Item Response Theory (IRT) based statistic for detecting answer copying. Compares this omega statistic with the best classical test theory-based statistic under various conditions, and finds omega superior based on Type I error rate and power. (SLD)

  8. Is active commuting the answer to population health?

    PubMed

    Shephard, Roy J

    2008-01-01

    This brief review examines whether active commuting is an effective method of controlling the current obesity epidemic and enhancing the cardiovascular health of the population. Of the many potential methods of active commuting, walking and cycling are the usual choices. Children and adolescents prefer cycling, but for adults issues of safety, cycle storage and company dress codes make walking the preferred option, particularly in North American cities, where urban design and weather conditions often do not favour cycling. Active transportation is more frequent in some European countries with dedicated cycle and pedestrian paths, but in most developed societies, active transportation has declined in recent years.Attempts to increase walking behaviour in the sedentary population have had only limited success to date. A weekly gross energy expenditure of at least 4 MJ is recommended to reduce all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. This can be achieved by walking 1.9 km in 22 minutes twice per day, 5 days per week, or by cycling at 16 km/h for 11 minutes twice per day, 5 days per week. When engaged in level walking, the intensity of effort may be adequate for cardiovascular benefit in older adults, but in fit young workers, it is necessary to either increase the pace or choose a hilly route in order to induce cardio-respiratory benefit; in contrast, cycling is likely to provide an adequate cardiovascular stimulus even for young adults.Empirical data to date have yielded mixed results: a reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality has been observed more frequently in cyclists than in walkers, and more frequently in women and older men than in young active commuters. More information is needed concerning the typical weekly dose of activity provided by active commuting, and the impact of such commuting on overall attitudes towards physical activity. It is also necessary to find better methods of involving the sedentary population, through both counselling and changes

  9. Immediate Feedback and Opportunity to Revise Answers: Application of a Graded Response IRT Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Attali and Powers investigated the usefulness of providing immediate feedback on the correctness of answers to constructed response questions and the opportunity to revise incorrect answers. This article introduces an item response theory (IRT) model for scoring revised responses to questions when several attempts are allowed. The model…

  10. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding.

  11. DEM Solutions Develops Answers to Modeling Lunar Dust and Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Carol Anne; Calle, Carlos; LaRoche, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    With the proposed return to the Moon, scientists like NASA-KSC's Dr. Calle are concerned for a number of reasons. We will be staying longer on the planet's surface, future missions may include dust-raising activities, such as excavation and handling of lunar soil and rock, and we will be sending robotic instruments to do much of the work for us. Understanding more about the chemical and physical properties of lunar dust, how dust particles interact with each other and with equipment surfaces and the role of static electricity build-up on dust particles in the low-humidity lunar environment is imperative to the development of technologies for removing and preventing dust accumulation, and successfully handling lunar regolith. Dr. Calle is currently working on the problems of the electrostatic phenomena of granular and bulk materials as they apply to planetary surfaces, particularly to those of Mars and the Moon, and is heavily involved in developing instrumentation for future planetary missions. With this end in view, the NASA Kennedy Space Center's Innovative Partnerships Program Office partnered with OEM Solutions, Inc. OEM Solutions is a global leader in particle dynamics simulation software, providing custom solutions for use in tackling tough design and process problems related to bulk solids handling. Customers in industries such as pharmaceutical, chemical, mineral, and materials processing as well as oil and gas production, agricultural and construction, and geo-technical engineering use OEM Solutions' EDEM(TradeMark) software to improve the design and operation of their equipment while reducing development costs, time-to-market and operational risk. EDEM is the world's first general-purpose computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool to use state-of-the-art discrete element modeling technology for the simulation and analysis of particle handling and manufacturing operations. With EDEM you'can quickly and easily create a parameterized model of your granular solids

  12. DEM Based Modeling: Grid or TIN? The Answer Depends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, F. L.; Moreno, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    The availability of petascale supercomputing power has enabled process-based hydrological simulations on large watersheds and two-way coupling with mesoscale atmospheric models. Of course with increasing watershed scale come corresponding increases in watershed complexity, including wide ranging water management infrastructure and objectives, and ever increasing demands for forcing data. Simulations of large watersheds using grid-based models apply a fixed resolution over the entire watershed. In large watersheds, this means an enormous number of grids, or coarsening of the grid resolution to reduce memory requirements. One alternative to grid-based methods is the triangular irregular network (TIN) approach. TINs provide the flexibility of variable resolution, which allows optimization of computational resources by providing high resolution where necessary and low resolution elsewhere. TINs also increase required effort in model setup, parameter estimation, and coupling with forcing data which are often gridded. This presentation discusses the costs and benefits of the use of TINs compared to grid-based methods, in the context of large watershed simulations within the traditional gridded WRF-HYDRO framework and the new TIN-based ADHydro high performance computing watershed simulator.

  13. Detecting Answer Copying when the Regular Response Process Follows a Known Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Sotaridona, Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    A statistical test for detecting answer copying on multiple-choice items is presented. The test is based on the exact null distribution of the number of random matches between two test takers under the assumption that the response process follows a known response model. The null distribution can easily be generalized to the family of distributions…

  14. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Public information report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The document presents answers to frequently asked questions about plans for cleanup and decontamination activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to the questions asked are based on information in the NRC 'Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2,' NUREG-0683.

  15. Exhaustively characterizing feasible logic models of a signaling network using Answer Set Programming

    PubMed Central

    Guziolowski, Carito; Videla, Santiago; Eduati, Federica; Thiele, Sven; Cokelaer, Thomas; Siegel, Anne; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Logic modeling is a useful tool to study signal transduction across multiple pathways. Logic models can be generated by training a network containing the prior knowledge to phospho-proteomics data. The training can be performed using stochastic optimization procedures, but these are unable to guarantee a global optima or to report the complete family of feasible models. This, however, is essential to provide precise insight in the mechanisms underlaying signal transduction and generate reliable predictions. Results: We propose the use of Answer Set Programming to explore exhaustively the space of feasible logic models. Toward this end, we have developed caspo, an open-source Python package that provides a powerful platform to learn and characterize logic models by leveraging the rich modeling language and solving technologies of Answer Set Programming. We illustrate the usefulness of caspo by revisiting a model of pro-growth and inflammatory pathways in liver cells. We show that, if experimental error is taken into account, there are thousands (11 700) of models compatible with the data. Despite the large number, we can extract structural features from the models, such as links that are always (or never) present or modules that appear in a mutual exclusive fashion. To further characterize this family of models, we investigate the input–output behavior of the models. We find 91 behaviors across the 11 700 models and we suggest new experiments to discriminate among them. Our results underscore the importance of characterizing in a global and exhaustive manner the family of feasible models, with important implications for experimental design. Availability: caspo is freely available for download (license GPLv3) and as a web service at http://caspo.genouest.org/. Supplementary information: Supplementary materials are available at Bioinformatics online. Contact: santiago.videla@irisa.fr PMID:23853063

  16. [Tannins, a new family of bio-active natural organic compounds (questions and answers)].

    PubMed

    Okuda, T

    1995-02-01

    Twelve questions concerning tannin selected from questions raised by other workers on the author's research were picked up. The answers of each question are as follows. 1. What is tannin?--the differences between the old concept and the new definition of tannin. 2. Is tannic acid the same as tannin? 3. How could each tannin be analyzed as a pure compound? 4. Which tannin found in recent years is implicated with the change of the concept of tannin in medicinal plants? 5. Is it possible that one to several chemical structures represent tannins contained in each plant species? 6. Which tannin-containing plants met in the human life are rich in tannins? 7. Is tannin produced by all species of plants?--a correlation between the occurrence of hydrolyzable tannins and the plant evolution system. 8. When and where are the hydrolyzable tannin oligomers produced, in the plant or after extraction? 9. Are tannins bound to other substances in the plants? 10. Is it appropriate to call tannins "plant polyphenols"? 11. Is it true that tannins are inhibitors of enzymes? 12. What kind of biological activities have been found for tannins.

  17. Question-Answer Activities in Synchronous Virtual Classrooms in Terms of Interest and Usefulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydemir, Melike; Kursun, Engin; Karaman, Selçuk

    2016-01-01

    Instructors generally convey their face to face habits to synchronous virtual classrooms, but these face to face strategies do not work in these environments. In this sense, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of question type and answer format used in synchronous class implementations on perceived interest and usefulness. To…

  18. Answering the Call for Accountability: An Activity and Cost Analysis Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carducci, Rozana; Kisker, Carrie B.; Chang, June; Schirmer, James

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes the findings of a case study on the creation and application of an activity-based cost accounting model that links community college salary expenditures to mission-critical practices within academic divisions of a southern California community college. Although initially applied as a financial management tool in private…

  19. Enfuvirtide for nurses: answering patient questions on activity, safety, and lifestyle impact.

    PubMed

    Glutzer, Eileen; Lalezari, Jacob P

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of enfuvirtide, the first self-administered parenteral antiretroviral, has reinforced the HIV nurse's role in patient education, support, and motivation. Detailed background knowledge of the drug will assist nurses to provide answers to common questions and concerns raised during patient training. Three particular concerns often raised are curiosity about how enfuvirtide works, what side effects can be expected, and how these and the process of daily injection will affect the patient's daily routine. This brief review is designed to provide nurse-educators with clinical information on these three issues to help them better provide the answers patients will need to help them feel confident self-administering this new drug.

  20. The Janus Cosmological Model (JCM) : An answer to the missing cosmological antimatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostini, Gilles; Petit, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Cosmological antimatter absence remains unexplained. Twin universes 1967 Sakarov's model suggests an answer: excess of matter and anti-quarks production in our universe is balanced by equivalent excess of antimatter and quark in twin universe. JCM provides geometrical framework, with a single manifold , two metrics solutions of two coupled field equations, to describe two populations of particles, one with positive energy-mass and the other with negative energy-mass : the `twin matter'. In a quantum point of view, it's a copy of the standard matter but with negative mass and energy. The matter-antimatter duality holds in both sectors. The standard and twin matters do not interact except through the gravitational coupling expressed in field equations. The twin matter is unobservable from matter-made apparatus. Field equations shows that matter and twin matter repel each other. Twin matter surrounding galaxies explains their confinement (dark matter role) and, in the dust universe era, mainly drives the process of expansion of the positive sector, responsible of the observed acceleration (dark energy role).

  1. Rodent models of ischemic stroke lack translational relevance... are baboon models the answer?

    PubMed

    Kwiecien, Timothy D; Sy, Christopher; Ding, Yuchuan

    2014-05-01

    Rodent models of ischemic stroke are associated with many issues and limitations, which greatly diminish the translational potential of these studies. Recent studies demonstrate that significant differences exist between rodent and human ischemic stroke. These differences include the physical characteristics of the stroke, as well as changes in the subsequent inflammatory and molecular pathways following the acute ischemic insult. Non-human primate (NHP) models of ischemic stroke, however, are much more similar to humans. In addition to evident anatomical similarities, the physiological responses that NHPs experience during ischemic stroke are much more applicable to the human condition and thus make it an attractive model for future research. The baboon ischemic stroke model, in particular, has been studied extensively in comparison to other NHP models. Here we discuss the major shortcomings associated with rodent ischemic stroke models and provide a comparative overview of baboon ischemic stroke models. Studies have shown that baboons, although more difficult to obtain and handle, are more representative of ischemic events in humans and may have greater translational potential that can offset these deficiencies. There remain critical issues within these baboon stroke studies that need to be addressed in future investigations. The most critical issue revolves around the size and the variability of baboon ischemic stroke. Compared to rodent models, however, issues such as these can be addressed in future studies. Importantly, baboon models avoid many drawbacks associated with rodent models including vascular variability and inconsistent inflammatory responses - issues that are inherent to the species and cannot be avoided.

  2. Who Really Answers the Questions? Using Glasser's Quality School Model in an Undergraduate Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Jennifer; Plumlee, Gerald L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss the effectiveness of the Quality School model and active learning in an undergraduate classroom setting. They compare performance levels of students in two course sections of Principles of Macroeconomics and two sections of Managerial Communications. Students are given an opportunity to help shape the structure of the…

  3. No Easy Answers: Helping Children with Attention and Activity Level Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jerry; Eddowes, E. Anne; Kuby, Patricia

    Recent developments have increased the need for both theoretical and practical dialogues concerning children's attention and activity levels. This book explores the complex issues and concerns in helping children with attention deficit disorder. The book is organized in three major sections. The first section describes current issues about…

  4. The Law and Student Activities: Answers to Ten Frequently Asked Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strope, John

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how numerous legal sources (Constitutional, federal, state, local, and common law) affect everyday public school operations. Fields 10 questions regarding written and legally sound rules, common rules for district schools, board approval of club bylaws and activities, "in loco parentis," legal image, employee assignments,…

  5. Re-Appropriating a Question/Answer System to Support Dialectical Constructivist Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John M.; Wu, Yu; Shih, Patrick C.; Zheng, Saijing

    2016-01-01

    Learning can be engaged by dialectic, that is, by identifying pros and cons that inhere in propositions, and more generally, by raising questions about the validity of claims. We report here on a classroom case study of dialectical constructivist pedagogy: Students created dialectical analyses of two lectures and four books as core activities in a…

  6. Questions and Answers for Ken Thomas' "Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Russian and Gemini Spacesuits" Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Kenneth Thomas will discuss the Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Russian & Gemini spacesuits. While the United States and Russia adapted to existing launch- and reentry-type suits to allow the first human ventures into the vacuum of space, there were differences in execution and capabilities. Mr. Thomas will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this approach compared to exclusively intravehicular or extra-vehicular suit systems.

  7. Getting the right answers for the right reasons: Linking measurements, analyses, and models to advance the science of hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, James W.

    2006-03-01

    The science of hydrology is on the threshold of major advances, driven by new hydrologic measurements, new methods for analyzing hydrologic data, and new approaches to modeling hydrologic systems. Here I suggest several promising directions forward, including (1) designing new data networks, field observations, and field experiments, with explicit recognition of the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of hydrologic processes, (2) replacing linear, additive "black box" models with "gray box" approaches that better capture the nonlinear and non-additive character of hydrologic systems, (3) developing physically based governing equations for hydrologic behavior at the catchment or hillslope scale, recognizing that they may look different from the equations that describe the small-scale physics, (4) developing models that are minimally parameterized and therefore stand some chance of failing the tests that they are subjected to, and (5) developing ways to test models more comprehensively and incisively. I argue that scientific progress will mostly be achieved through the collision of theory and data, rather than through increasingly elaborate and parameter-rich models that may succeed as mathematical marionettes, dancing to match the calibration data even if their underlying premises are unrealistic. Thus advancing the science of hydrology will require not only developing theories that get the right answers but also testing whether they get the right answers for the right reasons.

  8. ["Need-driven-dementia-compromised-behavior" model and "gentle care" as answer to Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Gallese, Giulia; Stobbione, Tiziana

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by a progressive cognitive, behavioural and functional decline which determines ability loss. With the gradual aging of the population, Alzheimer's disease is becoming a major health and social problem which involves not only the individuals but also their whole family. The aim of this study is to identify the most important needs of patients and to suggest interventions to manage it at home, according to the pattern of Gentle Care. Care needs of Alzheimer's disease patients have been investigated, through the use of semi-structured interview of caregivers who take care of loved ones at home. The survey has been carried out through the use of a data collection tool proposed in the conceptual model of nursing "Need-driven Dementia-compromised Behaviour Model", validated and tested in the United States. Data highlights an high degree of patient dependence from their caregiver for numerous activities of daily living. Interviews show a poor level of information and lack of support from professionals who can help caregivers in their everyday life. On the basis of the data gathered, a number of care interventions, which seams as the most appropriate in order to best take care of patients, were identified. Moreover, main needs of family caregivers were also identified, they need more information and support with respect to caregiving responsibilities.

  9. To screen or not to screen for breast cancer? How do modelling studies answer the question?

    PubMed

    Koleva-Kolarova, R G; Zhan, Z; Greuter, M J W; Feenstra, T L; De Bock, G H

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer screening is a topic of hot debate, and currently no general consensus has been reached on starting and ending ages and screening intervals, in part because of a lack of precise estimations of the benefit-harm ratio. Simulation models are often applied to account for the expected benefits and harms of regular screening; however, the degree to which the model outcomes are reliable is not clear. In a recent systematic review, we therefore aimed to assess the quality of published simulation models for breast cancer screening of the general population. The models were scored according to a framework for qualitative assessment. We distinguished seven original models that utilized a common model type, modelling approach, and input parameters. The models predicted the benefit of regular screening in terms of mortality reduction; and overall, their estimates compared well to estimates of mortality reduction from randomized controlled trials. However, the models did not report on the expected harms associated with regular screening. We found that current simulation models for population breast cancer screening are prone to many pitfalls; their outcomes bear a high overall risk of bias, mainly because of a lack of systematic evaluation of evidence to calibrate the input parameters and a lack of external validation. Our recommendations concerning future modelling are therefore to use systematically evaluated data for the calibration of input parameters, to perform external validation of model outcomes, and to account for both the expected benefits and the expected harms so as to provide a clear balance and cost-effectiveness estimation and to adequately inform decision-makers.

  10. Maximum Likelihood Item Easiness Models for Test Theory without an Answer Key

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Stephen L.; Batchelder, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Cultural consensus theory (CCT) is a data aggregation technique with many applications in the social and behavioral sciences. We describe the intuition and theory behind a set of CCT models for continuous type data using maximum likelihood inference methodology. We describe how bias parameters can be incorporated into these models. We introduce…

  11. Investigations of Human Question Answering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graesser, Arthur C.

    The development and testing of QUEST, a model of human question answering, are reported. QUEST accounts for answers adults produce for different categories of open-class questions, identifying the information sources associated with the content words in questions. Each information source is organized in a conceptual graph structure. The model…

  12. Answering the "Why" Question in Evaluation: The Causal-Model Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrosino, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    Defines causal-model evaluation and uses an example from the crime prevention literature to contrast this approach with traditional evaluations. Discusses benefits and limitations of the approach, as well as other issues. (SLD)

  13. Do water quality BMPs work? Combined monitoring and modeling hold the answer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, M.; Bishop, P.; Easton, Z. M.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2008-12-01

    Although water quality problems associated with agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution have prompted the rapid and widespread adoption of a variety of so called "best management practices" (BMPs), it has proven difficult to assess their cumulative impacts and individual effectiveness in reducing NPS pollution at the watershed scale. In this project we combined long-term monitoring, paired-watershed analyses, and process-based watershed modeling to assess changes in dissolved phosphorus (DP) for a 160 ha catchment in the New York City Catskill water supply watersheds. The land use was a combination of forests and dairy farmland. A suite of BMPs were implemented in the mid-1990s aimed at reducing P loads. Using a nearby 86 ha forested watershed as a control site for a paired-watershed study, we found that the DP loads were reduced by 43% (+/-6%) and particulate P loads dropped by 29%. To assess the roles of individual BMPs in this reduction we used the Variable Source Loading Function (VSLF) model, a distributed watershed model and empirical relationships for DP concentrations in runoff based on on-site rain simulator experiments. The model analysis predicted a total reduction that was within 5% of the paired-watershed analysis and showed that the most effective BMPs were those that disassociated manure spreading and other P sources from areas prone to generating runoff, i.e., hydrologically sensitive areas. Interestingly, barnyard BMPs, which were generally the most expensive, appeared to have little impact on stream water quality. Unfortunately, because we cannot mechanistically model the processes that control particulate P across a whole watershed, the model was unable to make similar assessments of BMP impacts on particulate P. This body of work emphasizes demonstrates that combining both long-term monitoring and process-based modeling allows us to evaluate BMP effectiveness in the "living landscape" without necessarily establishing special research

  14. Was Hercules Happy? Some Answers from a Functional Model of Human Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitterso, Joar; Soholt, Yngvil; Hetland, Audun; Thoresen, Irina Alekseeva; Roysamb, Espen

    2010-01-01

    The article proposes a functional approach as a framework for the analysis of human well-being. The model posits that the adaptive role of hedonic feelings is to regulate stability and homeostasis in human systems, and that these feelings basically are created in states of equilibrium or assimilation. To regulate change and growth, a distinct set…

  15. The Sadder the Story, the Bigger the Check: Reciprocity as an Answer to Organizational Deficit Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gindlesparger, Kathryn Johnson

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic study argues that reciprocity--the attempt to equalize the power dynamics that occur in working relationships--is a way to counteract the widely-used but rarely-critiqued deficit models that dominate the nonprofit landscape. If community work is not done with a near constant attention to power dynamics, programming that is…

  16. Are Equivalent Cross Sections the answer to the computational woes of Distributed Hydrologic Modelling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A.; Khan, U.; Tuteja, N. K.; Ajami, H.

    2014-12-01

    Distributed modelling or conceptual hydrologic modelling - this is a dilemma that hydrologists have grappled with since long. While distributed hydro-ecological models are conceptually elegant and physically defensible, are they practical to apply given the significant computational burden they come at? One possible way of improving their computational efficiency is presented here. A new approach of modelling over an equivalent cross-section (ECS) is investigated. A homogenization test indicates that the representation of soil type is most critical in forming the ECS. If the soil type remains same within the sub-basin, a single ECS is formulated. If the soil type follows a specific pattern, i.e., different soil types near the centre of the river, middle of hillslope and ridge line, three ECSs (left bank, right bank and head water) are required. ECSs are formulated for 8 first order sub-basins and simulated using a 2-dimensional, Richards' equation based distributed hydrological model. Simulated fluxes are multiplied by the weighted area of each ECS to calculate the total fluxes from the sub-basins. To assess the accuracy of the ECS approach, the sub-basins are also divided into equally spaced multiple hillslope cross-sections. These cross-sections are simulated in fully distributed settings using the above model. The simulated fluxes are multiplied by the contributing area of each cross-section to get total fluxes from each sub-basin referred as reference fluxes. At the first order sub-basin scale, results show that the simulated fluxes using an ECS approach are very close to the reference fluxes and computational time is reduced of the order of ~4 to ~22 times compared to the fully distributed settings. Overall, the accuracy achieved in dominant fluxes, transpiration and soil evaporation, is higher than the other fluxes. Over a larger catchment with 822 sub-basins reasonable accuracy in simulated runoff against observed discharge is achieved. As a result, this

  17. Answering the Call for a Bachelors-Prepared Nursing Workforce: An Innovative Model for Academic Progression.

    PubMed

    Giddens, Jean; Keller, Teresa; Liesveld, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Forces that have produced national reform of a fragmented, inefficient, and expensive health care services sector have also set the stage for reform of a fragmented, inefficient, and expensive system for nursing education. Changes in health care, health policy, education policy, and funding for public higher education have led to the development of new nursing education models designed to increase the number of baccalaureate-prepared nurses entering the workforce. This article describes the development and implementation of one such model that features a common concept-based curriculum and university-community college partnerships at its core. This plan increases access for nursing students across the state to earn a prelicensure bachelor of science in nursing degree and preserves the integrity and accessibility of associate degree nursing education.

  18. A Revised Iranian Model of Organ Donation as an Answer to the Current Organ Shortage Crisis.

    PubMed

    Hamidian Jahromi, Alireza; Fry-Revere, Sigrid; Bastani, Bahar

    2015-09-01

    Kidney transplantation has become the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. Six decades of success in the field of transplantation have made it possible to save thousands of lives every year. Unfortunately, in recent years success has been overshadowed by an ever-growing shortage of organs. In the United States, there are currently more than 100 000 patients waiting for kidneys. However, the supply of kidneys (combined cadaveric and live donations) has stagnated around 17 000 per year. The ever-widening gap between demand and supply has resulted in an illegal black market and unethical transplant tourism of global proportions. While we believe there is much room to improve the Iranian model of regulated incentivized live kidney donation, with some significant revisions, the Iranian Model could serve as an example for how other countries could make significant strides to lessening their own organ shortage crises.

  19. 10 CFR 820.27 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Answer. 820.27 Section 820.27 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES Enforcement Process § 820.27 Answer. (a) General. If a respondent files a request for an on-the-record adjudication pursuant to § 820.25, a written answer to the...

  20. Toward probabilistic answers to key scientific questions in source modeling: Bayesian explorations of fault slip and coupling over the earthquake cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivet, Romain; Duputel, Zacharie; Simons, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The ever-increasing amount of data sampling ground displacements over tectonically deforming regions continuously opens new perspectives on fundamental questions on the seismogenic behavior of active faults. How much overlap is inferred between seismic and aseismic slip from geodetic and seismological data? Can we quantify the robustness of potential relationships between fault locking, aseismic slip and coseismic slip? However, knowing how much information we have gained compared to our preconceptions and which parameters of our models still need inputs from additional data is difficult to assess and very rarely quantified because of the size of the problems we are dealing with. We have developed AlTar, a massively parallel Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm exploiting cutting-edge computing capabilities of Graphic Processing Units, to sample Probability Density Functions (PDFs) in large-dimensional spaces. We use this solver to derive the PDFs of fault coupling and fault slip, seismic or aseismic, along active faults, focusing on the creeping section of the San Andreas fault, California, and on the northern Chilean subduction zone. We derive the gain of information from our coseismic and interseismic data sets and interrogate these probabilities to derive quantified answers to questions pertaining to the behavior of these faults during the earthquake cycle. Large amounts of data are an opportunity and we need to assess how much we still don't know about distributions of slip during the inter-, co- and post-seismic phases in order to assess where progress has to be made for future data developments.

  1. A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a CAI Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John S.; And Others

    A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…

  2. Promoting an active form of learning out-of-class via answering online “study questions” leads to higher than expected exam scores in General Biology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A rising need for workers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields has fueled interest in improving teaching within STEM disciplines. Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of active learning approaches on student learning outcomes. However, many of these studies have been conducted in experimental, rather than real-life class, settings. In addition, most of these studies have focused on in-class active learning exercises. This study tested the effects of answering questions outside of class on exam performance for General Biology students at the University of Minnesota. An online database of 1,020 multiple-choice questions covering material from the first half of the course was generated. Students in seven course sections (with an average of ∼265 students per section) were given unlimited access to the online study questions. These students made extensive use of the online questions, with students answering an average of 1,323 questions covering material from the half of the semester for which the questions were available. After students answered a set of questions, they were shown the correct answers for those questions. More specific feedback describing how to arrive at the correct answer was provided for the 73% of the questions for which the correct answers were not deemed to be self-explanatory. The extent to which access to the online study questions improved student learning outcomes was assessed by comparing the performance on exam questions of students in the seven course sections with access to the online study questions with the performance of students in course sections without access to the online study questions. Student performance was analyzed for a total of 89 different exams questions that were not included in the study questions, but that covered the same material covered by the study questions. Each of these 89 questions was used on one to five exams given to students in course sections that had access to the

  3. Promoting an active form of learning out-of-class via answering online "study questions" leads to higher than expected exam scores in General Biology.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Susan I

    2015-01-01

    A rising need for workers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields has fueled interest in improving teaching within STEM disciplines. Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of active learning approaches on student learning outcomes. However, many of these studies have been conducted in experimental, rather than real-life class, settings. In addition, most of these studies have focused on in-class active learning exercises. This study tested the effects of answering questions outside of class on exam performance for General Biology students at the University of Minnesota. An online database of 1,020 multiple-choice questions covering material from the first half of the course was generated. Students in seven course sections (with an average of ∼265 students per section) were given unlimited access to the online study questions. These students made extensive use of the online questions, with students answering an average of 1,323 questions covering material from the half of the semester for which the questions were available. After students answered a set of questions, they were shown the correct answers for those questions. More specific feedback describing how to arrive at the correct answer was provided for the 73% of the questions for which the correct answers were not deemed to be self-explanatory. The extent to which access to the online study questions improved student learning outcomes was assessed by comparing the performance on exam questions of students in the seven course sections with access to the online study questions with the performance of students in course sections without access to the online study questions. Student performance was analyzed for a total of 89 different exams questions that were not included in the study questions, but that covered the same material covered by the study questions. Each of these 89 questions was used on one to five exams given to students in course sections that had access to the

  4. Mystery #27 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... of water? Answer: The body of water is the Dead Sea. 4.   At the bottom left of the image, small city developments are ... areas.  Name this feature. Answer: It is the Arabian Desert. What is the country that fills most of the area in this ...

  5. Uiavy sobi: uchnivs'ski zoshyt [and] vidpovidi do uchnivs'koho zoshyta (Just Imagine: Activity Book [and] Answer Key to Student Activity Book). Collage 3: A Ukrainian Language Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boruszczak, Bohdan, Comp.

    This workbook is one of four intermediate- to advanced-level activity books in a series for teaching the Ukrainian language to both native speakers and second language learners. It offers a selection of exercises, vocabulary builders, dialogs, and writing exercises for language skill development. A teacher's answer key to accompany the activity…

  6. Tsikave: uchnivs'ski zoshyt [and] vidpovidi do uchnivs'koho zoshyta (It's Interesting: Activity Book [and] Answer Key to Student Activity Book). Collage 3: A Ukrainian Language Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boruszczak, Bohdan, Comp.

    This workbook is one of four intermediate- to advanced-level activity books in a series for teaching the Ukrainian language to both native speakers and second language learners. It offers a selection of exercises, vocabulary builders, dialogs, and writing exercises for language skill development. A teacher's answer key to accompany the activity…

  7. I smikh, i plach: uchnivs'ski zoshyt [and] vidpovidi do uchnivs'koho zoshyta (Laughter and Tears: Activity Book [and] Answer Key to Student Activity Book). Collage 3: A Ukrainian Language Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boruszczak, Bohdan, Comp.

    This workbook is one of four intermediate- to advanced-level activity books in a series for teaching the Ukrainian language to both native speakers and second language learners. It offers a selection of exercises, vocabulary builders, dialogs, and writing exercises for language skill development. A teacher's answer key to accompany the activity…

  8. Dva shliakhy: uchnivs'ski zoshyt [and] vidpovidi do uchnivs'koho zoshyta (Two Paths: Student Activity Book [and] Answer Key to Student Activity Book). Collage 3: A Ukrainian Language Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boruszczak, Bohdan, Comp.

    This workbook is one of four intermediate- to advanced-level activity books in a series for teaching the Ukrainian language to both native speakers and second language learners. It offers a selection of exercises, vocabulary builders, dialogs, and writing exercises for language skill development. A teacher's answer key to accompany the activity…

  9. Perchlorate Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA's Interim Health Advisory for Perchlorate in Public Water Systems On January 8, 2009, the Environmental Protection ... thyroid hormone. Questions and Answers about EPA’s Drinking Water Findings If perchlorate is present in my drinking ...

  10. Parent Involvement Activities in School Improvement Plans in the Northwest Region. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2008-No. 064

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speth, Timothy; Saifer, Steffen; Forehand, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    This document presents a summary of the larger report, "Parent Involvement Activities in School Improvement Plans in the Northwest Region." Although the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) spells out parent involvement requirements for schools in need of improvement, the majority of the Northwest Region school improvement plans…

  11. [Answer to the study by von Hopf et al: recommendations to patients with idiopathic scoliosis concerning sports activities].

    PubMed

    von Deimling, U; Vedder, K

    1992-01-01

    A danger for patients with idiopathic scoliosis results not only from push but also from bendstress. For this reason patients treated with a brace should wear it in sports except swimming. Sports with permanent unilateral torsion are to be avoided. Sports with an extremely lordotic or kyphotic effect may be positive in patients with severe kyphosis or lordosis. The patients should take part in school sport activities.

  12. Answers to Health Questions in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert, Ed.

    Culled from the answers of physical education teachers and coaches, this booklet attempts to indicate the scope of health problems and suggests some directions which the solutions may take. It is divided into three parts. Part 1, Health and Safety in Activity Programs, answers questions on first aid, excused absences, and desirability of…

  13. The Plasmid Mobilome of the Model Plant-Symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti: Coming up with New Questions and Answers.

    PubMed

    Lagares, Antonio; Sanjuán, Juan; Pistorio, Mariano

    2014-10-01

    Rhizobia are Gram-negative Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria living in the underground which have the ability to associate with legumes for the establishment of nitrogen-fixing symbioses. Sinorhizobium meliloti in particular-the symbiont of Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp.-has for the past decades served as a model organism for investigating, at the molecular level, the biology, biochemistry, and genetics of a free-living and symbiotic soil bacterium of agricultural relevance. To date, the genomes of seven different S. meliloti strains have been fully sequenced and annotated, and several other draft genomic sequences are also available. The vast amount of plasmid DNA that S. meliloti frequently bears (up to 45% of its total genome), the conjugative ability of some of those plasmids, and the extent of the plasmid diversity has provided researchers with an extraordinary system to investigate functional and structural plasmid molecular biology within the evolutionary context surrounding a plant-associated model bacterium. Current evidence indicates that the plasmid mobilome in S. meliloti is composed of replicons varying greatly in size and having diverse conjugative systems and properties along with different evolutionary stabilities and biological roles. While plasmids carrying symbiotic functions (pSyms) are known to have high structural stability (approaching that of chromosomes), the remaining plasmid mobilome (referred to as the non-pSym, functionally cryptic, or accessory compartment) has been shown to possess remarkable diversity and to be highly active in conjugation. In light of the modern genomic and current biochemical data on the plasmids of S. meliloti, the current article revises their main structural components, their transfer and regulatory mechanisms, and their potential as vehicles in shaping the evolution of the rhizobial genome.

  14. A combination of hand-held models and computer imaging programs helps students answer oral questions about molecular structure and function: a controlled investigation of student learning.

    PubMed

    Harris, Michelle A; Peck, Ronald F; Colton, Shannon; Morris, Jennifer; Chaibub Neto, Elias; Kallio, Julie

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a controlled investigation to examine whether a combination of computer imagery and tactile tools helps introductory cell biology laboratory undergraduate students better learn about protein structure/function relationships as compared with computer imagery alone. In all five laboratory sections, students used the molecular imaging program, Protein Explorer (PE). In the three experimental sections, three-dimensional physical models were made available to the students, in addition to PE. Student learning was assessed via oral and written research summaries and videotaped interviews. Differences between the experimental and control group students were not found in our typical course assessments such as research papers, but rather were revealed during one-on-one interviews with students at the end of the semester. A subset of students in the experimental group produced superior answers to some higher-order interview questions as compared with students in the control group. During the interview, students in both groups preferred to use either the hand-held models alone or in combination with the PE imaging program. Students typically did not use any tools when answering knowledge (lower-level thinking) questions, but when challenged with higher-level thinking questions, students in both the control and experimental groups elected to use the models.

  15. Mystery #10 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... of an anatomical characteristic otherwise typical of marine turtles. Answer: TRUE The pig-nosed turtle found in northern ... Papua, possesses flippers resembling those of marine turtles. 8.   Insect control has been tested as a means of combatting an ...

  16. Mystery #8 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... species of orchids grow. Answer: True The verdant green hues present in the lower right image corner are characteristic of ... 40-50 million years ago. The impact slowed the northward movement and led   to the formation of the Himalayas. 8.   In the ...

  17. Mystery #1 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... area was designated in 1989, and includes a large complex of sand dunes. What is the park's name? Answer:  Its first national park, the Sigatoka Sand Dunes, was designated in July 1989. 3.   The Independence Day ...

  18. Mystery #23 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... 3.   Three of the following four statements related to energy sources within the image area are false. Which one is true?   A. ... meters deep, which was drilled for the purpose of harnessing geothermal energy. Answer: D is TRUE. The geothermal project at ...

  19. Mystery #5 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... the questions are provided. 1.   There are no endemic species of cactus on any of the islands. Answer: FALSE. Endemic ... on this island. 6.   Several plant species are endangered due to decimation by goats and competition with non-native ...

  20. Mystery #2 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... D.   A lakeside town hosts an annual celebration of Celtic music. Answer: B is false Lake Constance provides drinking water for ... lakeside town of   Konstanz, Germany. An annual Celtic music festival is hosted on the Swiss shores of Lake Constance at the town of ...

  1. Mystery #15 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... referred to as Kamchatka Oblast, defined by its political boundaries within a larger country. Answers to the questions are provided. ... the voyage, Steller identified the now-extinct Steller's sea cow and the spectacled cormorant, and described many other Alaskan species, ...

  2. Mystery #14 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-16

    ... soils, and a lake infused by volcanic gases which raise the water's pH to about 10. Answer: FALSE The infusion of volcanic gases lowers the pH of a water body. Volcanic gases such as CO 2  and SO 2  react with water to ...

  3. A Different Approach to Answering a Good Question: A Response to Hewes's Models of Communication Effects on Small Group Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonito, Joseph A.; Sanders, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response to Hewes's (1986, 1996, 2009) models of communication effects on small group outcomes. As sophisticated and thoughtful as Hewes's new model is, however, the authors take issue with it. For one, there is reason to question whether his approach is feasible. For another, his models are not founded on solid…

  4. Getting a Cohesive Answer from a Common Start: Scalable Multidisciplinary Analysis through Transformation of a Systems Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Bjorn; Chung, Seung

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges of systems engineering is in working multidisciplinary problems in a cohesive manner. When planning analysis of these problems, system engineers must trade between time and cost for analysis quality and quantity. The quality often correlates with greater run time in multidisciplinary models and the quantity is associated with the number of alternatives that can be analyzed. The trade-off is due to the resource intensive process of creating a cohesive multidisciplinary systems model and analysis. Furthermore, reuse or extension of the models used in one stage of a product life cycle for another is a major challenge. Recent developments have enabled a much less resource-intensive and more rigorous approach than hand-written translation scripts between multi-disciplinary models and their analyses. The key is to work from a core systems model defined in a MOF-based language such as SysML and in leveraging the emerging tool ecosystem, such as Query/View/Transformation (QVT), from the OMG community. SysML was designed to model multidisciplinary systems. The QVT standard was designed to transform SysML models into other models, including those leveraged by engineering analyses. The Europa Habitability Mission (EHM) team has begun to exploit these capabilities. In one case, a Matlab/Simulink model is generated on the fly from a system description for power analysis written in SysML. In a more general case, symbolic analysis (supported by Wolfram Mathematica) is coordinated by data objects transformed from the systems model, enabling extremely flexible and powerful design exploration and analytical investigations of expected system performance.

  5. Getting a Cohesive Answer from a Common Start: Scalable Multidisciplinary Analysis through Transformation of a System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Bjorn; Chung, Seung H.

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges of systems engineering is in working multidisciplinary problems in a cohesive manner. When planning analysis of these problems, system engineers must tradeoff time and cost for analysis quality and quantity. The quality is associated with the fidelity of the multidisciplinary models and the quantity is associated with the design space that can be analyzed. The tradeoff is due to the resource intensive process of creating a cohesive multidisciplinary system model and analysis. Furthermore, reuse or extension of the models used in one stage of a product life cycle for another is a major challenge. Recent developments have enabled a much less resource-intensive and more rigorous approach than handwritten translation scripts or codes of multidisciplinary models and their analyses. The key is to work from a core system model defined in a MOF-based language such as SysML and in leveraging the emerging tool ecosystem, such as Query-View- Transform (QVT), from the OMG community. SysML was designed to model multidisciplinary systems and analyses. The QVT standard was designed to transform SysML models. The Europa Hability Mission (EHM) team has begun to exploit these capabilities. In one case, a Matlab/Simulink model is generated on the fly from a system description for power analysis written in SysML. In a more general case, a symbolic mathematical framework (supported by Wolfram Mathematica) is coordinated by data objects transformed from the system model, enabling extremely flexible and powerful tradespace exploration and analytical investigations of expected system performance.

  6. Challenges in modelling homogeneous catalysis: new answers from ab initio molecular dynamics to the controversy over the Wacker process.

    PubMed

    Stirling, András; Nair, Nisanth N; Lledós, Agustí; Ujaque, Gregori

    2014-07-21

    We present here a review of the mechanistic studies of the Wacker process stressing the long controversy about the key reaction steps. We give an overview of the previous experimental and theoretical studies on the topic. Then we describe the importance of the most recent Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics (AIMD) calculations in modelling organometallic reactivity in water. As a prototypical example of homogeneous catalytic reactions, the Wacker process poses serious challenges to modelling. The adequate description of the multiple role of the water solvent is very difficult by using static quantum chemical approaches including cluster and continuum solvent models. In contrast, such reaction systems are suitable for AIMD, and by combining with rare event sampling techniques, the method provides reaction mechanisms and the corresponding free energy profiles. The review also highlights how AIMD has helped to obtain a novel understanding of the mechanism and kinetics of the Wacker process.

  7. Getting an Answer Right

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-07-01

    Maintaining the credibility and power of science requires knowledge and experience, healthy skepticism, constant vigilance, and a set of ethical standards. It also requires communication media and willingness on the part of members of the scientific community to discuss their ideas with others when their skepticism leads them to question oral, written, or electronically transmitted statements. Good examples of such discourse are provided in this issue. Parsons (1) suggests that an earlier paper on determining the volume fraction of oxygen in air was in error. He also provides calculations and arguments in support of his hypothesis regarding what really happens. Birk and Lawson (2) describe the long history of the idea that a burning candle in a closed container will not be extinguished until all the oxygen has been used up. Many published experiments for determining the fraction of oxygen in air depend on this hypothesis. Birk and Lawson's results, however, contradict it. A mouse confined with the burning candle remains active and unharmed after the candle goes out, showing no signs of oxygen deprivation. Quantitative measurement of the change in volume of the gas inside the container confirms that only part of the oxygen is consumed before the candle goes out. It is quite clear that we teachers can fool ourselves into thinking we have demonstrated a scientific principle or fact when we have not. Often we show students a captivating visual display of a phenomenon, but interpret it incorrectly. Another of the many examples that have appeared in these pages involves diffusion. Graham's law is usually derived and related to the kinetic-molecular theory based on the speeds of molecules. It was shown some time ago in JCE that molecular speeds are related to rates of effusion of gases into a vacuum through an orifice in a thin barrier (3). A different derivation is required (but a similar result is obtained) when gases at equal pressure diffuse into one another through a

  8. Best Management Strategies for Sustainable Giant Clam Fishery in French Polynesia Islands: Answers from a Spatial Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Van Wynsberge, Simon; Andréfouët, Serge; Gilbert, Antoine; Stein, Arsène; Remoissenet, Georges

    2013-01-01

    The giant clam Tridacna maxima has been largely overexploited in many tropical regions over the past decades, and was therefore listed in appendix II of the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) in 1985. In French Polynesia, several atolls and islands harbor the world’s highest stocks of giant clams in very shallow and accessible areas, which are therefore highly vulnerable to fishing pressure. The local fishery authority (i.e., Direction des Resources Marines or “DRM”) implemented several management schemes in 2002 to control and regulate fishing pressure. However, for further decisions DRM was missing a sensitivity analysis on the effectiveness of the possible management actions. Here, we report on the use of a deterministic Viable Population Analysis (VPA) and spatially-explicit age-based population model that simulated the 30-year trajectory of a Tridacna maxima stock under different management approaches. Specifically, given various scenarios of intra-island larval dispersal, we tested which of No-take-Areas (NTAs), rotational closures, size limits, quotas, and restocking schemes would lead to the highest future stocks in Tubuai and Raivavae, two exploited islands of the Austral archipelago. For both islands, stock abundances were estimated in 2004/2010 and 2005/2010 respectively, and natural mortalities were assessed previously only in Tubuai. When compared to field data, the model successfully predicted the 2010 stocks for Tubuai, but proved to be less reliable for Raivavae, where natural mortality rates may well be different from those on Tubuai. For Tubuai, the spatial model suggested that reducing fishing effort (through fixed quotas) and banning fishing below the 12 cm size limit (as currently implemented) were the most effective management actions to sustain T. maxima populations into the future. Implementing NTAs was of poor effectiveness. NTAs increased giant clam stock inside the protected area, but also increased

  9. Best management strategies for sustainable giant clam fishery in French Polynesia islands: answers from a spatial modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Van Wynsberge, Simon; Andréfouët, Serge; Gilbert, Antoine; Stein, Arsène; Remoissenet, Georges

    2013-01-01

    The giant clam Tridacna maxima has been largely overexploited in many tropical regions over the past decades, and was therefore listed in appendix II of the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) in 1985. In French Polynesia, several atolls and islands harbor the world's highest stocks of giant clams in very shallow and accessible areas, which are therefore highly vulnerable to fishing pressure. The local fishery authority (i.e., Direction des Resources Marines or "DRM") implemented several management schemes in 2002 to control and regulate fishing pressure. However, for further decisions DRM was missing a sensitivity analysis on the effectiveness of the possible management actions. Here, we report on the use of a deterministic Viable Population Analysis (VPA) and spatially-explicit age-based population model that simulated the 30-year trajectory of a Tridacna maxima stock under different management approaches. Specifically, given various scenarios of intra-island larval dispersal, we tested which of No-take-Areas (NTAs), rotational closures, size limits, quotas, and restocking schemes would lead to the highest future stocks in Tubuai and Raivavae, two exploited islands of the Austral archipelago. For both islands, stock abundances were estimated in 2004/2010 and 2005/2010 respectively, and natural mortalities were assessed previously only in Tubuai. When compared to field data, the model successfully predicted the 2010 stocks for Tubuai, but proved to be less reliable for Raivavae, where natural mortality rates may well be different from those on Tubuai. For Tubuai, the spatial model suggested that reducing fishing effort (through fixed quotas) and banning fishing below the 12 cm size limit (as currently implemented) were the most effective management actions to sustain T. maxima populations into the future. Implementing NTAs was of poor effectiveness. NTAs increased giant clam stock inside the protected area, but also increased

  10. Client value models provide a framework for rational library planning (or, phrasing the answer in the form of a question).

    PubMed

    Van Moorsel, Guillaume

    2005-01-01

    Libraries often do not know how clients value their product/ service offerings. Yet at a time when the mounting costs for library support are increasingly difficult to justify to the parent institution, the library's ability to gauge the value of its offerings to clients has never been more critical. Client Value Models (CVMs) establish a common definition of value elements-or a "value vocabulary"-for libraries and their clients, thereby providing a basis upon which to make rational planning decisions regarding product/service acquisition and development. The CVM concept is borrowed from business and industry, but its application has a natural fit in libraries. This article offers a theoretical consideration and practical illustration of CVM application in libraries.

  11. Comparison of individual answer and group answer with and without structured peer assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kablan, Zeynel

    2014-09-01

    Background:Cooperative learning activities provide active participation of students leading to better learning. The literature suggests that cooperative learning activities need to be structured for a more effective and productive interaction. Purpose: This study aimed to test the differences among three instructional conditions in terms of science achievement. Sample:A total of 79 fifth-grade students, 42 males (53%) and 37 females (47%), participated in the study. Design and Methods:In the first condition, students answered the teacher's questions individually by raising hands. In the second condition, students discussed the answer in groups and came up with a single group answer. In this condition, the teacher provided only verbal directions to the groups without using any strategy or material. In the third condition, students used a 'peer assessment form' before giving the group answer. A pre-/post-test experimental design was used. Multiple-choice and open-ended tests were used for data collection. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to test the differences in the test scores between the three groups (individual answer, unstructured group answer and structured group answer). Results:Results showed that there were no significant differences among the three learning conditions in terms of their multiple-choice test scores. In terms of the open-ended test scores, students in the structured group answer condition scored significantly higher than the students in the individual answer condition. Conclusions:Structuring the group work through peer assessment helped to monitor the group discussion, provided a better learning compared to the individual answer condition, and helped students to participate in the activity equally.

  12. Knowledge based question answering

    SciTech Connect

    Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

    1983-01-01

    The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

  13. Strategy trials: the answer?

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1999-02-19

    Although a significant amount of promotional information on drugs was presented at the 6th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, very little of it was related to practical treatment strategy. Doctors and patients have many options but little guidance on selecting which combination of drugs will be most beneficial in long-term use. There is a growing call for "strategy trials" designed to answer those questions. Pharmaceutical companies traditionally have not done strategy trials; their testing is designed to promote their own products. Managing patients in strategy trials is also difficult because they have to fail a treatment before another combination of drugs is used. In addition, collecting valid data from a stragety trial takes longer than collecting data from a starting regimen trial.

  14. Test Theory Without an Answer Key.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelder, William H.; Romney, A. Kimball

    1988-01-01

    A general model is presented for homogeneous, dichotomous items when the answer key is unknown. The model is related to the two-class latent structure model with the roles of respondents and items interchanged. Iterative maximum likelihood estimates of parameters and Monte Carlo assessment of estimation methods are described. (TJH)

  15. Better Questions and Answers Equal Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swicegood, Philip R.; Parsons, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities and behavior problems need instruction designed to increase active thinking and questioning skills. Described methods for teaching these skills include T. Raphael's question-answer relationships, A. Hahn's questioning strategy, reciprocal teaching, and the "ReQuest" procedure. Practice activities for…

  16. [About easy answers].

    PubMed

    Hauck, M E

    2002-11-01

    In the last few months all aspects of stem cell research--biomedical, ethical, legal--have been given broad space in the print and electronic media. Biologists, physicians, lawyers and ethicists covered many of the facets and have thus laid a solid foundation of basic information for a very wide public. The political discussions in the context of the new Swiss Federal law governing the use and protection of supernumerary fertilized oocytes in IVF are about to completely and irreversibly change the character of these discussions. Information has been superseded by lobbying for particular interests. Before society has had time to find widely accepted answers to the many questions raised by stem cell research and to come to terms with it, economic pressure groups demand a legal framework in which therapeutic cloning is permitted. At the same time, patents on genes and stem cells are to be introduced to finance research. Together, the two claims shed a new light on stem cell research. Both claims tend to polarize public opinion. Well-known patterns will dominate the communication process and allow both sides to shirk the real issues: what are the broadly accepted ethical answers to the many questions raised by stem cell research? Again scientists will argue for the freedom of research in an economic context on behalf interest groups. Their closeness to interest groups will undermine their own credibility, the credibility of science and the public confidence. It is to be hoped that other scientists will continue to independently argue the case for their research, to talk about it and its problems and to discuss them in an interdisciplinary exchange with their colleagues from other branches of science with a view to a consensus acceptable to a majority of the public. This consensus, even if it has to be reviewed and redefined constantly in the light of new research, will give scientists the inner security needed for their work. Only the dialogue with society can create

  17. Oriented active shape models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiamin; Udupa, Jayaram K

    2009-04-01

    Active shape models (ASM) are widely employed for recognizing anatomic structures and for delineating them in medical images. In this paper, a novel strategy called oriented active shape models (OASM) is presented in an attempt to overcome the following five limitations of ASM: 1) lower delineation accuracy, 2) the requirement of a large number of landmarks, 3) sensitivity to search range, 4) sensitivity to initialization, and 5) inability to fully exploit the specific information present in the given image to be segmented. OASM effectively combines the rich statistical shape information embodied in ASM with the boundary orientedness property and the globally optimal delineation capability of the live wire methodology of boundary segmentation. The latter characteristics allow live wire to effectively separate an object boundary from other nonobject boundaries with similar properties especially when they come very close in the image domain. The approach leads to a two-level dynamic programming method, wherein the first level corresponds to boundary recognition and the second level corresponds to boundary delineation, and to an effective automatic initialization method. The method outputs a globally optimal boundary that agrees with the shape model if the recognition step is successful in bringing the model close to the boundary in the image. Extensive evaluation experiments have been conducted by utilizing 40 image (magnetic resonance and computed tomography) data sets in each of five different application areas for segmenting breast, liver, bones of the foot, and cervical vertebrae of the spine. Comparisons are made between OASM and ASM based on precision, accuracy, and efficiency of segmentation. Accuracy is assessed using both region-based false positive and false negative measures and boundary-based distance measures. The results indicate the following: 1) The accuracy of segmentation via OASM is considerably better than that of ASM; 2) The number of landmarks

  18. Cooperative answers in database systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaasterland, Terry; Godfrey, Parke; Minker, Jack; Novik, Lev

    1993-01-01

    A major concern of researchers who seek to improve human-computer communication involves how to move beyond literal interpretations of queries to a level of responsiveness that takes the user's misconceptions, expectations, desires, and interests into consideration. At Maryland, we are investigating how to better meet a user's needs within the framework of the cooperative answering system of Gal and Minker. We have been exploring how to use semantic information about the database to formulate coherent and informative answers. The work has two main thrusts: (1) the construction of a logic formula which embodies the content of a cooperative answer; and (2) the presentation of the logic formula to the user in a natural language form. The information that is available in a deductive database system for building cooperative answers includes integrity constraints, user constraints, the search tree for answers to the query, and false presuppositions that are present in the query. The basic cooperative answering theory of Gal and Minker forms the foundation of a cooperative answering system that integrates the new construction and presentation methods. This paper provides an overview of the cooperative answering strategies used in the CARMIN cooperative answering system, an ongoing research effort at Maryland. Section 2 gives some useful background definitions. Section 3 describes techniques for collecting cooperative logical formulae. Section 4 discusses which natural language generation techniques are useful for presenting the logic formula in natural language text. Section 5 presents a diagram of the system.

  19. "Answers," Assemblages, and Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Barko, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Although educational researchers predominately study complex, multidimensional problems, research findings and proposed arguments can sometimes be characterized as definite, simplified, and prone to particular types of answers or expected outcomes. The authors seek to problematize these definite and simplified notions of answers by looking at some…

  20. Instance-Based Question Answering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    answer clustering, composition, and scoring. Moreover, with the effort dedicated to improving monolingual system performance, system parameters are...text collections: document type, manual or automatic annotations (if any), and stylistic and notational differences in technical terms. Monolingual ...forum in which cross language retrieval systems and question answering systems are tested for various Eu- ropean languages. The CLEF QA monolingual task

  1. EINO the Answer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, James; Richie, Sam; Weeks, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the various methods involved in creating an intelligent tutor for the University of Central Florida Web Applets (UCF Web Applets), an online environment where student can perform and/or practice experiments. After conducting research into various methods, two major models emerged. These models include: 1) solving the…

  2. A Model for Diagnostics in Neurological Rehabilitation: An Answer to the Biopsychosocial Disease Consequence Model in Rehabilitation of Talo et al.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faby, S.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the bio-psycho-social disease consequence model in rehabilitation and the model's development in the Finnish "Work Hardening Program for Chronic Pain." The theoretical background of the model is explained and the possibility of applying the model to other fields of rehabilitation is explored. (Author/CR)

  3. Answer Set Programming and Other Computing Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Yunsong

    2013-01-01

    Answer Set Programming (ASP) is one of the most prominent and successful knowledge representation paradigms. The success of ASP is due to its expressive non-monotonic modeling language and its efficient computational methods originating from building propositional satisfiability solvers. The wide adoption of ASP has motivated several extensions to…

  4. Conscience in Childhood: Old Questions, New Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksan, Nazan; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2005-01-01

    Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel…

  5. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html File Formats Help: How ...

  6. An Agent-based Framework for Web Query Answering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Huaiqing; Liao, Stephen; Liao, Lejian

    2000-01-01

    Discusses discrepancies between user queries on the Web and the answers provided by information sources; proposes an agent-based framework for Web mining tasks; introduces an object-oriented deductive data model and a flexible query language; and presents a cooperative mechanism for query answering. (Author/LRW)

  7. An Expedient Study on Back-Propagation (BPN) Neural Networks for Modeling Automated Evaluation of the Answers and Progress of Deaf Students' That Possess Basic Knowledge of the English Language and Computer Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrettaros, John; Vouros, George; Drigas, Athanasios S.

    This article studies the expediency of using neural networks technology and the development of back-propagation networks (BPN) models for modeling automated evaluation of the answers and progress of deaf students' that possess basic knowledge of the English language and computer skills, within a virtual e-learning environment. The performance of the developed neural models is evaluated with the correlation factor between the neural networks' response values and the real value data as well as the percentage measurement of the error between the neural networks' estimate values and the real value data during its training process and afterwards with unknown data that weren't used in the training process.

  8. "Didn't Get Expected Answer, Rectify It." Teaching Science Content in an Elementary Science Classroom Using Hands-On Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Aik-Ling; Wong, Hwei-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The call for inquiry science to be a part of the school science curriculum is popular in many parts of the world. While some research in this area revealed success stories of students' learning when they are engaged in student-directed, open-ended scientific inquiry activities, others are more sceptical about how these activities impact students'…

  9. Information Presentation in Decision and Risk Analysis: Answered, Partly Answered, and Unanswered Questions.

    PubMed

    Keller, L Robin; Wang, Yitong

    2016-09-21

    For the last 30 years, researchers in risk analysis, decision analysis, and economics have consistently proven that decisionmakers employ different processes for evaluating and combining anticipated and actual losses, gains, delays, and surprises. Although rational models generally prescribe a consistent response, people's heuristic processes will sometimes lead them to be inconsistent in the way they respond to information presented in theoretically equivalent ways. We point out several promising future research directions by listing and detailing a series of answered, partly answered, and unanswered questions.

  10. Timing Students' Answers in CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of limiting response time for students' answers focuses on a study of Israeli elementary students that investigated the effects on their performance of increasing the response time in computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for arithmetic drill and practice. Effects on high- versus low-aptitude students, and younger versus older, are…

  11. War Is Not the Answer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besteman, Karst J.

    1989-01-01

    Concludes that a war on drugs is not the answer to the problem of drug abuse in the United States. Stresses that the hostile atmosphere generated by the overemphasis upon interdiction and enforcement of penalties undermines the healing and restoring efforts needed in reducing the individual's demand for drugs. (KO)

  12. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV…

  13. Question, answer, compare: a cross-category comparison of answers on question and answer websites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocepek, Melissa G.; Westbrook, Lynn

    2015-10-01

    Online information seekers make heavy use of websites that accept their natural language questions. This study compared the three types of such websites: social question and answer (Q&A), digital reference services, and ask-an-expert services. Questions reflecting daily life, research, and crisis situations were posed to high use websites of all three types. The resulting answers' characteristics were analyzed in terms of speed, transparency, formality, and intimacy. The results indicate that social Q&A websites excel in speed, ask-an-expert websites in intimacy, and digital reference services in transparency and formality.

  14. Energy Model of Neuron Activation.

    PubMed

    Romanyshyn, Yuriy; Smerdov, Andriy; Petrytska, Svitlana

    2017-02-01

    On the basis of the neurophysiological strength-duration (amplitude-duration) curve of neuron activation (which relates the threshold amplitude of a rectangular current pulse of neuron activation to the pulse duration), as well as with the use of activation energy constraint (the threshold curve corresponds to the energy threshold of neuron activation by a rectangular current pulse), an energy model of neuron activation by a single current pulse has been constructed. The constructed model of activation, which determines its spectral properties, is a bandpass filter. Under the condition of minimum-phase feature of the neuron activation model, on the basis of Hilbert transform, the possibilities of phase-frequency response calculation from its amplitude-frequency response have been considered. Approximation to the amplitude-frequency response by the response of the Butterworth filter of the first order, as well as obtaining the pulse response corresponding to this approximation, give us the possibility of analyzing the efficiency of activating current pulses of various shapes, including analysis in accordance with the energy constraint.

  15. Answer Set Programming: A Primer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiter, Thomas; Ianni, Giovambattista; Krennwallner, Thomas

    Answer Set Programming (ASP) is a declarative problem solving paradigm, rooted in Logic Programming and Nonmonotonic Reasoning, which has been gaining increasing attention during the last years. This article is a gentle introduction to the subject; it starts with motivation and follows the historical development of the challenge of defining a semantics for logic programs with negation. It looks into positive programs over stratified programs to arbitrary programs, and then proceeds to extensions with two kinds of negation (named weak and strong negation), and disjunction in rule heads. The second part then considers the ASP paradigm itself, and describes the basic idea. It shows some programming techniques and briefly overviews Answer Set solvers. The third part is devoted to ASP in the context of the Semantic Web, presenting some formalisms and mentioning some applications in this area. The article concludes with issues of current and future ASP research.

  16. Breathing for answering: the time course of response planning in conversation

    PubMed Central

    Torreira, Francisco; Bögels, Sara; Levinson, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the timing of pre-answer inbreaths in order to shed light on the time course of response planning and execution in conversational turn-taking. Using acoustic and inductive plethysmography recordings of seven dyadic conversations in Dutch, we show that pre-answer inbreaths in conversation typically begin briefly after the end of questions. We also show that the presence of a pre-answer inbreath usually co-occurs with substantially delayed answers, with a modal latency of 576 vs. 100 ms for answers not preceded by an inbreath. Based on previously reported minimal latencies for internal intercostal activation and the production of speech sounds, we propose that vocal responses, either in the form of a pre-utterance inbreath or of speech proper when an inbreath is not produced, are typically launched in reaction to information present in the last portion of the interlocutor's turn. We also show that short responses are usually made on residual breath, while longer responses are more often preceded by an inbreath. This relation of inbreaths to answer length suggests that by the time an inbreath is launched, typically during the last few hundred milliseconds of the question, the length of the answer is often prepared to some extent. Together, our findings are consistent with a two-stage model of response planning in conversational turn-taking: early planning of content often carried out in overlap with the incoming turn, and late launching of articulation based on the identification of turn-final cues. PMID:25814976

  17. Modeling Cytoskeletal Active Matter Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, Robert

    Active networks of filamentous proteins and crosslinking motor proteins play a critical role in many important cellular processes. One of the most important microtubule-motor protein assemblies is the mitotic spindle, a self-organized active liquid-crystalline structure that forms during cell division and that ultimately separates chromosomes into two daughter cells. Although the spindle has been intensively studied for decades, the physical principles that govern its self-organization and function remain mysterious. To evolve a better understanding of spindle formation, structure, and dynamics, I investigate course-grained models of active liquid-crystalline networks composed of microtubules, modeled as hard spherocylinders, in diffusive equilibrium with a reservoir of active crosslinks, modeled as hookean springs that can adsorb to microtubules and and translocate at finite velocity along the microtubule axis. This model is investigated using a combination of brownian dynamics and kinetic monte carlo simulation. I have further refined this model to simulate spindle formation and kinetochore capture in the fission yeast S. pombe. I then make predictions for experimentally realizable perturbations in motor protein presence and function in S. pombe.

  18. Modeling inter-subject variability in fMRI activation location: A Bayesian hierarchical spatial model

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lei; Johnson, Timothy D.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nee, Derek E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The aim of this work is to develop a spatial model for multi-subject fMRI data. There has been extensive work on univariate modeling of each voxel for single and multi-subject data, some work on spatial modeling of single-subject data, and some recent work on spatial modeling of multi-subject data. However, there has been no work on spatial models that explicitly account for inter-subject variability in activation locations. In this work, we use the idea of activation centers and model the inter-subject variability in activation locations directly. Our model is specified in a Bayesian hierarchical frame work which allows us to draw inferences at all levels: the population level, the individual level and the voxel level. We use Gaussian mixtures for the probability that an individual has a particular activation. This helps answer an important question which is not addressed by any of the previous methods: What proportion of subjects had a significant activity in a given region. Our approach incorporates the unknown number of mixture components into the model as a parameter whose posterior distribution is estimated by reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo. We demonstrate our method with a fMRI study of resolving proactive interference and show dramatically better precision of localization with our method relative to the standard mass-univariate method. Although we are motivated by fMRI data, this model could easily be modified to handle other types of imaging data. PMID:19210732

  19. A Computational Model of Active Vision for Visual Search in Human-Computer Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    the Model Mixed Density Task CVC Task 3. ANSWERING THE FOUR QUESTIONS OF ACTIVE VISION 3.1. When do the Eyes Move? Modeling Fixation...from two experiments: a mixed density search task and a CVC (consonant-vowel- consonant) search task. The mixed density experiment (Halverson & Hornof...2004b) investigated the effects of varying the visual density of elements in a structured layout. The CVC search experiment (Hornof, 2004

  20. Information Extraction Supported Question Answering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-15

    cymfony.com, wei@cymfony.com phone : (716) 565-9114 fax: (716) 565-0308 15 October, 1999 Abstract This paper discusses the use of our information...display a currently valid OMB control number . 1. REPORT DATE 19 OCT 1999 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-10-1999 to 00-10-1999 4. TITLE AND...SUBTITLE Information Extraction Supported Question Answering 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  1. Modeling Activities in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Kathy

    2014-05-01

    Students usually find science to be quite abstract. This is especially true of disciplines like Earth Science where it is difficult for the students to conduct and design hands-on experiments in areas such as Plate Tectonics that would allow them to develop predictive models. In the United States the new Next Generation Science Standards explicitly requires students to experience the science disciplines via modeling based activities. This poster presentation will discuss an activity that demonstrates how modeling, plate tectonics and student discourse converge in the earth science classroom. The activities featured on the poster will include using cardboard and shaving cream to demonstrate convergent plate boundaries, a Milky Way candy bar to demonstrate divergent boundaries and silly putty to demonstrate a strike slip boundary. I will discuss how students report back to the group about the findings from the lab and the techniques that can be used to heighten the student discourse. The activities outlined in this poster were originally designed for a middle school Earth Science class by Suzi Shoemaker for a graduate thesis at Arizona State University.

  2. 37 CFR 2.114 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... withdrawn without prejudice before the answer is filed. After the answer is filed, the petition may not be withdrawn without prejudice except with the written consent of the registrant or the registrant's...

  3. Answers to Your Questions About American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Many of the frequent questions which arise concerning the relationship between Indians and the Federal Government are answered in this document. These questions and answers, in general, relate to Indians with whom the Federal government still retains a special relationship. Questions and answers pertain to the following areas: (1) the Indian…

  4. 39 CFR 3030.14 - Answer contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Answer contents. 3030.14 Section 3030.14 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES FOR COMPLAINTS Form and Manner Requirements of Initial Pleadings § 3030.14 Answer contents. (a) An answer must: (1) Contain a clear and concise statement of any disputed factual allegations...

  5. 39 CFR 3030.14 - Answer contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Answer contents. 3030.14 Section 3030.14 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES FOR COMPLAINTS Form and Manner Requirements of Initial Pleadings § 3030.14 Answer contents. (a) An answer must: (1) Contain a clear and concise statement of any disputed factual allegations...

  6. 39 CFR 3030.14 - Answer contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Answer contents. 3030.14 Section 3030.14 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES FOR COMPLAINTS Form and Manner Requirements of Initial Pleadings § 3030.14 Answer contents. (a) An answer must: (1) Contain a clear and concise statement of any disputed factual allegations...

  7. 39 CFR 3030.14 - Answer contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Answer contents. 3030.14 Section 3030.14 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES FOR COMPLAINTS Form and Manner Requirements of Initial Pleadings § 3030.14 Answer contents. (a) An answer must: (1) Contain a clear and concise statement of any disputed factual allegations...

  8. 10 CFR 13.9 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Answer. 13.9 Section 13.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.9 Answer. (a) The defendant may request a hearing by filing an answer with the reviewing official within thirty (30) days of service of the complaint. Service of...

  9. 39 CFR 3030.14 - Answer contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Answer contents. 3030.14 Section 3030.14 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES FOR COMPLAINTS Form and Manner Requirements of Initial Pleadings § 3030.14 Answer contents. (a) An answer must: (1) Contain a clear and concise statement of any disputed factual allegations...

  10. 12 CFR 622.5 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Requirements of answer; effect of failure to deny. An answer filed under this section shall concisely state any... shall have the effect of a denial. Any allegation not denied shall be deemed to be admitted. A party who... thereto within the time provided in § 622.13. (d) Effect of failure to answer. Failure of a party to...

  11. 37 CFR 41.69 - Examiner's answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examiner's answer. 41.69... Examiner's answer. (a) The primary examiner may, within such time as directed by the Director, furnish a written answer to the owner's and/or requester's appellant brief or respondent brief including, as may...

  12. 31 CFR 16.9 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Answer. 16.9 Section 16.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.9 Answer. (a) The defendant may request a hearing by filing an answer with...

  13. Modeling Electrically Active Viscoelastic Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sitikantha; Brownell, William E.; Spector, Alexander A.

    2012-01-01

    The membrane protein prestin is native to the cochlear outer hair cell that is crucial to the ear's amplification and frequency selectivity throughout the whole acoustic frequency range. The outer hair cell exhibits interrelated dimensional changes, force generation, and electric charge transfer. Cells transfected with prestin acquire unique active properties similar to those in the native cell that have also been useful in understanding the process. Here we propose a model describing the major electromechanical features of such active membranes. The model derived from thermodynamic principles is in the form of integral relationships between the history of voltage and membrane resultants as independent variables and the charge density and strains as dependent variables. The proposed model is applied to the analysis of an active force produced by the outer hair cell in response to a harmonic electric field. Our analysis reveals the mechanism of the outer hair cell active (isometric) force having an almost constant amplitude and phase up to 80 kHz. We found that the frequency-invariance of the force is a result of interplay between the electrical filtering associated with prestin and power law viscoelasticity of the surrounding membrane. Paradoxically, the membrane viscoelasticity boosts the force balancing the electrical filtering effect. We also consider various modes of electromechanical coupling in membrane with prestin associated with mechanical perturbations in the cell. We consider pressure or strains applied step-wise or at a constant rate and compute the time course of the resulting electric charge. The results obtained here are important for the analysis of electromechanical properties of membranes, cells, and biological materials as well as for a better understanding of the mechanism of hearing and the role of the protein prestin in this mechanism. PMID:22701528

  14. Neural Correlates of Feigned Memory Impairment are Distinguishable from Answering Randomly and Answering Incorrectly: An fMRI and Behavioral Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Chun-Yu; Xu, Zhi-Yuan; Mei, Wei; Wang, Li-Li; Xue, Li; Lu, De Jian; Zhao, Hu

    2012-01-01

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified activation in the prefrontal-parietal-sub-cortical circuit during feigned memory impairment when comparing with truthful telling. Here, we used fMRI to determine whether neural activity can differentiate between answering correctly, answering randomly, answering…

  15. Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Activities Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Strategies and Plans Related CDC Education Programs Global Activities Measuring Outpatient Antibiotic Prescribing Tracking Antibiotic-Resistant ...

  16. Priority Intelligence Requirement Answering and Commercial Question-Answering: Identifying the Gaps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    15th ICCRTS “The Evolution of C2” Priority Intelligence Requirement Answering and Commercial Question-Answering: Identifying the Gaps Topic...2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Priority Intelligence Requirement Answering and Commercial Question-Answering: Identifying the Gaps 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...text?based logic or ?semantic web? technologies; and social questionanswering technologies. We identify gaps in the PIR answering process that cannot

  17. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-10-03

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.

  18. 37 CFR 2.114 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... An answer may contain any defense, including the affirmative defenses of unclean hands, laches... withdrawn without prejudice except with the written consent of the registrant or the registrant's...

  19. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  20. Does Anyone Know the Answer to that Question? Individual Differences in Judging Answerability

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Bodil S. A.; Allwood, Carl Martin; Buratti, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Occasionally people may attempt to judge whether a question can be answered today, or if not, if it can be answered in the future. For example, a person may consider whether enough is known about the dangers of living close to a nuclear plant, or to a major electricity cable, for them to be willing to do so, and state-authorities may consider whether questions about the dangers of new technologies have been answered, or in a reasonable future can be, for them to be willing to invest money in research aiming develop such technologies. A total of 476 participants, for each of 22 knowledge questions, either judged whether it was answerable today (current answerability), or judged when it could be answered (future answerability). The knowledge questions varied with respect to the expected consensus concerning their answerability: consensus questions (high expected consensus), non-consensus questions (lower expected consensus), and illusion questions (formulated to appear answerable, but with crucial information absent). The questions’ judged answerability level on the two scales was highly correlated. For both scales, consensus questions were rated more answerable than the non-consensus questions, with illusion questions falling in-between. The result for the illusion questions indicates that a feeling of answerability can be created even when it is unlikely that somebody can come up with an answer. The results also showed that individual difference variables influenced the answerability judgments. Higher levels of belief in certainty of knowledge, mankind’s knowledge, and mankind’s efficacy were related to judging the non-consensus questions as more answerable. Participants rating the illusion questions as answerable rated the other answerability questions as more, or equally, answerable compared to the other participants and showed tendencies to prefer a combination of more epistemic default processing and less intellectual processing. PMID:26793164

  1. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

    2003-10-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both “outcome” and “process” goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the “energy future.” Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: · What are the AFCI program goals? · Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? · What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? · How do we address proliferation resistance? · Which potential energy futures do we plan for? · What potential external triggers do we

  2. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  3. So, What Is the Answer? Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Don

    2005-01-01

    Leaders are barraged daily by teachers, administrators, and students seeking answers to questions ranging from the simplistic to the metaphysical in their complexity. The author is sure leaders wonder at times, "How in the world can I free up enough time to answer them all?" Well, the author states that he hates to break the news, but it is…

  4. 12 CFR 19.19 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fact. A statement of lack of information has the effect of a denial. Denials must fairly meet the... respondent. (c) Default—(1) Effect of failure to answer. Failure of a respondent to file an answer required... for entry of an order of default. Upon a finding that no good cause has been shown for the failure...

  5. 12 CFR 19.19 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fact. A statement of lack of information has the effect of a denial. Denials must fairly meet the... respondent. (c) Default—(1) Effect of failure to answer. Failure of a respondent to file an answer required... for entry of an order of default. Upon a finding that no good cause has been shown for the failure...

  6. Striving for Optimal Relevance when Answering Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Raymond W., Jr.; Bryant, Gregory A.

    2008-01-01

    When people are asked "Do you have the time?" they can answer in a variety of ways, such as "It is almost 3," "Yeah, it is quarter past two," or more precisely as in "It is now 1:43." We present the results of four experiments that examined people's real-life answers to questions about the time. Our hypothesis, following previous research…

  7. 41 CFR 50-203.3 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... administrative law judge, unless the respondent disclaims knowledge upon which to make a denial. If the answer... consideration, such reasons and circumstances should be fully but concisely stated. (b) Such answer shall be in... shall be filed with the Chief administrative law judge, Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. (e) In...

  8. 12 CFR 308.508 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Answer. 308.508 Section 308.508 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.508 Answer. (a) The defendant may request...

  9. 12 CFR 308.508 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Answer. 308.508 Section 308.508 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.508 Answer. (a) The defendant may request...

  10. 12 CFR 308.508 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Answer. 308.508 Section 308.508 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.508 Answer. (a) The defendant may request...

  11. 12 CFR 308.508 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Answer. 308.508 Section 308.508 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.508 Answer. (a) The defendant may request...

  12. 37 CFR 41.39 - Examiner's answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examiner's answer. 41.39... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE BOARD OF PATENT APPEALS AND INTERFERENCES Ex Parte Appeals § 41.39 Examiner's... appealable action, the primary examiner shall make such determination of record. (2) An examiner's answer...

  13. 20 CFR 355.9 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Answer. 355.9 Section 355.9 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS REGULATIONS UNDER THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 355.9 Answer. (a) The defendant may request...

  14. 20 CFR 355.9 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Answer. 355.9 Section 355.9 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS REGULATIONS UNDER THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 355.9 Answer. (a) The defendant may request...

  15. 20 CFR 355.9 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Answer. 355.9 Section 355.9 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS REGULATIONS UNDER THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 355.9 Answer. (a) The defendant may request...

  16. AnswerPro: Designing to Motivate Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlSugair, Balsam; Hopkins, Gail; FitzGerald, Elizabeth; Brailsford, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and initial testing of AnswerPro, a mobile academic peer support system for school pupils aged 11-16 years. AnswerPro is a mobile optimised web application that enables pupils to seek support with school work from knowledgeable peers on various subjects. This paper presents research findings from the project, and in…

  17. 38 CFR 42.9 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Answer. 42.9 Section 42.9 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 42.9 Answer. (a) The defendant may request a hearing by...

  18. 38 CFR 42.9 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Answer. 42.9 Section 42.9 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 42.9 Answer. (a) The defendant may request a hearing by...

  19. Shakespeare Answering Machines: A Popular Culture and Creative Dramatics Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiff, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity for English classes combining elements of popular culture and creative dramatics by having students, after they have read a Shakespeare play, create answering machine messages for the various characters. Notes that other students portraying different characters can leave messages. Shows how this creates opportunities for…

  20. Teaching about Immigration Issues [and] Immigration: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interchange (Population Education Newsletter), 1982

    1982-01-01

    This issue of "Interchange" contains a reading, discussion questions, activities, and ideas to help educators teach secondary students and adults about immigration issues. Students are expected to read and discuss the reading entitled "Immigration: Questions and Answers." This reading analyzes the concerns about current levels of immigration and…

  1. The Eras and Trends of Automatic Short Answer Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Steven; Gurevych, Iryna; Stein, Benno

    2015-01-01

    Automatic short answer grading (ASAG) is the task of assessing short natural language responses to objective questions using computational methods. The active research in this field has increased enormously of late with over 80 papers fitting a definition of ASAG. However, the past efforts have generally been ad-hoc and non-comparable until…

  2. Advertising, a Distributive Education Manual and Answer Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Charles H.; Cyrus, Cinda L.

    This revised manual for individualized instruction of distributive education trainees at the high school or junior college level in basic advertising and sales promotion activities includes 15 self-study assignments, teaching suggestions, and a bibliography. Together with a separate answer key, each assignment provides student questions and…

  3. Recognizing Question Entailment for Medical Question Answering

    PubMed Central

    Abacha, Asma Ben; Dina, Demner-Fushman

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing heterogeneity and specialization of medical texts, automated question answering is becoming more and more challenging. In this context, answering a given medical question by retrieving similar questions that are already answered by human experts seems to be a promising solution. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the detection of similar questions based on Recognizing Question Entailment (RQE). In particular, we consider Frequently Asked Question (FAQs) as a valuable and widespread source of information. Our final goal is to automatically provide an existing answer if FAQ similar to a consumer health question exists. We evaluate our approach using consumer health questions received by the National Library of Medicine and FAQs collected from NIH websites. Our first results are promising and suggest the feasibility of our approach as a valuable complement to classic question answering approaches. PMID:28269825

  4. A Simple Answer to a Simple Question on Changing Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent

    2012-01-01

    In an article in the Winter 2011 issue of the "Journal of Educational Measurement", van der Linden, Jeon, and Ferrara suggested that "test takers should trust their initial instincts and retain their initial responses when they have the opportunity to review test items." They presented a complex IRT model that appeared to show that students would…

  5. Quartet-based phylogeny reconstruction with answer set programming.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; You, Jia-Huai; Lin, Guohui

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a new representation is presented for the Maximum Quartet Consistency (MQC) problem, where solving the MQC problem becomes searching for an ultrametric matrix that satisfies a maximum number of given quartet topologies. A number of structural properties of the MQC problem in this new representation are characterized through formulating into answer set programming, a recent powerful logic programming tool for modeling and solving search problems. Using these properties, a number of optimization techniques are proposed to speed up the search process. The experimental results on a number of simulated data sets suggest that the new representation, combined with answer set programming, presents a unique perspective to the MQC problem.

  6. The SOL: No Easy Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasi, Raymond

    2000-01-01

    Since the state board adopted the Standards of Learning, Virginia high-school teachers maintain tighter schedules and more often use direct instruction instead of group activities to cover the new curriculum. A two-edged sword, the SOL has engendered an increased interest in professional collaboration. (MLH)

  7. Answering Questions about Complex Events

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-19

    STRIPS: Fikes and Nilsson 1971) to work in probabilistic models of planning, events and causality ( Astrom 1965; Pearl 2001), employing many... Astrom , K. J. (1965). "Optimal control of Markov decision processes with incomplete state estimation." J1 Math1 Anal1 Applic. 10: 174-205. Barker, K

  8. Supporting Mediated Peer-Evaluation to Grade Answers to Open-Ended Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Marsico, Maria; Sciarrone, Filippo; Sterbini, Andrea; Temperini, Marco

    2017-01-01

    We show an approach to semi-automatic grading of answers given by students to open ended questions (open answers). We use both peer-evaluation and teacher evaluation. A learner is modeled by her Knowledge and her assessments quality (Judgment). The data generated by the peer- and teacher-evaluations, and by the learner models is represented by a…

  9. 37 CFR 2.106 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... An answer may contain any defense, including the affirmative defenses of unclean hands, laches... prejudice except with the written consent of the applicant or the applicant's attorney or other...

  10. 7 CFR 15.84 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... deny each allegation of the notice, unless the applicant or recipient is without knowledge, in which case the answer shall so state, and the statement will be considered a denial. Failure to file...

  11. 43 CFR 4.1284 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Applicable to Surface Coal Mining Hearings and Appeals Appeals to the Board from Decisions of the Office of Surface Mining § 4.1284 Answer. (a) Any party served with a notice of appeal who wishes to participate...

  12. 43 CFR 4.1284 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Applicable to Surface Coal Mining Hearings and Appeals Appeals to the Board from Decisions of the Office of Surface Mining § 4.1284 Answer. (a) Any party served with a notice of appeal who wishes to participate...

  13. 43 CFR 4.1284 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Applicable to Surface Coal Mining Hearings and Appeals Appeals to the Board from Decisions of the Office of Surface Mining § 4.1284 Answer. (a) Any party served with a notice of appeal who wishes to participate...

  14. 43 CFR 4.1284 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Applicable to Surface Coal Mining Hearings and Appeals Appeals to the Board from Decisions of the Office of Surface Mining § 4.1284 Answer. (a) Any party served with a notice of appeal who wishes to participate...

  15. 43 CFR 4.818 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Procedural Rules Applicable to Practice and Procedure for Hearings, Decisions, and Administrative Review... Interior-Effectuation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Procedures § 4.818 Answer. In any...

  16. Questions and Answers for Architectural Coatings Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA compiled this question and answer document from inquiries received after the publication of the 1999 final architectural coatings rule and from questions raised at meetings with industry associations.

  17. Olympics: Questions & Answers on the Major Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Alan

    This book presents background information on the major Olympic events with a question-answer format. Events considered include track and field, swimming, diving, boxing, weightlifting, the equestrian events, and gymnastics. Line drawings illustrate the text. (MM)

  18. One Answer to "What Is Calculus?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shilgalis, Thomas W.

    1979-01-01

    A number of questions are posed that can be answered with the aid of calculus. These include best value problems, best shape problems, problems involving integration, and growth and decay problems. (MP)

  19. Dynamic Models of Insurgent Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-19

    for repeat activity in security applications. The research team has made great strides in applying such ideas to urban domestic crime applications...developed new basic research to extend many of these ideas beyond domestic crime applications to problems abroad involving insurgents and also to other...for repeat activity in security applications. The research team has made great strides in applying such ideas to urban domestic crime applications

  20. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-20

    Order Code RL33537 Military Medical Care : Questions and Answers Updated May 20, 2008 Richard A. Best Jr. Specialist in National Defense Foreign...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 20 MAY 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Medical Care : Questions and...8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Military Medical Care : Questions and Answers Summary The primary mission of the military health system, which

  1. Modeling biological activities of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Epa, V Chandana; Burden, Frank R; Tassa, Carlos; Weissleder, Ralph; Shaw, Stanley; Winkler, David A

    2012-11-14

    Products are increasingly incorporating nanomaterials, but we have a poor understanding of their adverse effects. To assess risk, regulatory authorities need more experimental testing of nanoparticles. Computational models play a complementary role in allowing rapid prediction of potential toxicities of new and modified nanomaterials. We generated quantitative, predictive models of cellular uptake and apoptosis induced by nanoparticles for several cell types. We illustrate the potential of computational methods to make a contribution to nanosafety.

  2. Discursive Positionings and Emotions in Modelling Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daher, Wajeeh

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modelling is suggested as an activity through which students engage in meaningful mathematics. In the current research, the modelling activity of a group of four seventh-grade students was analysed using the discursive analysis framework. The research findings show that the positionings and emotions of the group members during their…

  3. Modelling Typical Online Language Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoro, Carlos; Hampel, Regine; Stickler, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the methods and results of a four-year-long research project focusing on the language learning activity of individual learners using online tasks conducted at the University of Guanajuato (Mexico) in 2009-2013. An activity-theoretical model (Blin, 2010; Engeström, 1987) of the typical language learning activity was used to…

  4. Evaluating a Model of Youth Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzler, Carrie D.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Sirard, John R.; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between social influences, self-efficacy, enjoyment, and barriers and physical activity. Methods: Structural equation modeling examined relationships between parent and peer support, parent physical activity, individual perceptions, and objectively measured physical activity using accelerometers among a…

  5. Associative memory model with spontaneous neural activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurikawa, Tomoki; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2012-05-01

    We propose a novel associative memory model wherein the neural activity without an input (i.e., spontaneous activity) is modified by an input to generate a target response that is memorized for recall upon the same input. Suitable design of synaptic connections enables the model to memorize input/output (I/O) mappings equaling 70% of the total number of neurons, where the evoked activity distinguishes a target pattern from others. Spontaneous neural activity without an input shows chaotic dynamics but keeps some similarity with evoked activities, as reported in recent experimental studies.

  6. Discursive positionings and emotions in modelling activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daher, Wajeeh

    2015-11-01

    Mathematical modelling is suggested as an activity through which students engage in meaningful mathematics. In the current research, the modelling activity of a group of four seventh-grade students was analysed using the discursive analysis framework. The research findings show that the positionings and emotions of the group members during their participation in the modelling activity changed as the activity proceeded. Overall, it can be said that three of the four group members acted as insiders, while the fourth acted as an outsider, and only, towards the end of the group's work on the activity, he acted as an insider. Moreover, the research findings point at four factors that affected the group members' positionings and emotions during the modelling activity: the member's characteristics, the member's history of learning experiences, the activity characteristics and the modelling phases. Furthermore, the different positionings of the group members in the different modelling phases were accompanied by different emotions experienced by them, where being an insider and a collaborator resulted in positive emotions, while being an outsider resulted in negative emotions.

  7. Fluxon Modeling of Active Region Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deforest, C. E.; Kankelborg, C. C.; Davey, A. R.; Rachmeler, L.

    2006-12-01

    We present current results and status on fluxon modeling of free energy buildup and release in active regions. Our publicly available code, FLUX, has the unique ability to track magnetic energy buildup with a truly constrained topology in evolving, nonlinear force-free conditions. Recent work includes validation of the model against Low &Lou force-free field solutions, initial evolution studies of idealized active regions, and inclusion of locally parameterized reconnection into the model. FLUX is uniquely able to simulate complete active regions in 3-D on a single workstation; we estimate that a parallelized fluxon model, together with computer vision code to ingest solar data, could run faster than real time on a cluster of \\textasciitilde 30 CPUs and hence provide a true predictive space weather model in the style of predictive simulations of terrestrial weather.

  8. Modeling Sexual Activity among Schoolgirls in Zambia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillai, Vijayan K.; Gupta, Rashmi

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a model of sexual activity among secondary school-going Zambian girls. Identifies the role of dating as an intervening variable in explaining the variation in sexual activity among teenagers. Schools are an important setting for the young to meet and initiate sexual relationships. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed.…

  9. Investigating Nitrogen Pollution: Activities and Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green Teacher, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Introduces activities on nitrogen, nitrogen pollution from school commuters, nitrogen response in native and introduced species, and nutrient loading models. These activities help students determine the nitrogen contribution from their parents' cars, test native plant responses to nitrogen, and experiment with the results of removing water from…

  10. 40 CFR 209.6 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (3) contends that he or she is entitled to judgment as a matter of law, he or she shall file a... after service of the complaint. Initiation of informal conferences with the Agency under § 209.19 does not add to the -twenty (20) day period. The time per-iod in which to file an answer may be extended...

  11. 22 CFR 224.9 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Answer. 224.9 Section 224.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 224.9... of time as provided in § 224.11. For good cause shown, the ALJ may grant the defendant up to...

  12. 22 CFR 224.9 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Answer. 224.9 Section 224.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 224.9... of time as provided in § 224.11. For good cause shown, the ALJ may grant the defendant up to...

  13. 7 CFR 47.8 - The answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The answer. 47.8 Section 47.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT Rules Applicable to Reparation Proceedings § 47.8...

  14. Questions & Answers about Aeronautics and Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Answers to 27 questions about aeronautics, space, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are provided in this pamphlet. Among the topics dealt with in these questions are: costs of the space program; NASA's role in aeronautics; benefits received from the space program; why the United States hasn't developed means of rescuing…

  15. 43 CFR 4.1293 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Answer. 4.1293 Section 4.1293 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES Special Rules Applicable to Surface Coal Mining Hearings and Appeals Petitions for Award of Costs and Expenses...

  16. 43 CFR 4.1293 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Answer. 4.1293 Section 4.1293 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES Special Rules Applicable to Surface Coal Mining Hearings and Appeals Petitions for Award of Costs and Expenses...

  17. American Indians Today: Answers to Your Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This booklet attempts to answer briefly the most common questions about American Indians asked by students, people who believe they have Indian ancestors, individuals who want to visit or volunteer to work on a reservation, or those who want to know the current Indian policy. Separate sections outline President Reagan's American Indian policy;…

  18. 16 CFR 3.12 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... appropriate findings and conclusions and a final order disposing of the proceeding. In such an answer, the respondent may, however, reserve the right to submit proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law under... conclusions and a final order disposing of the proceeding....

  19. Answering Wh- Questions About Sentences and Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Murray

    1986-01-01

    Describes a study designed to identify the mental operations that contribute to people's ability to answer wh- questions, that is, questions which request information that plays a particular role in relation to some action or event. Wh- questions are signaled by interrogative pronouns and adverbs like who, what, when, and where. (SED)

  20. 41 CFR 105-70.009 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Answer. 105-70.009 Section 105-70.009 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services Administration...

  1. 12 CFR 509.19 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE IN ADJUDICATORY... the notice, respondent shall file an answer as designated in the notice. In a civil money penalty... upon consent. (2) Effect of failure to request a hearing in civil money penalty proceedings....

  2. 12 CFR 509.19 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE IN ADJUDICATORY... the notice, respondent shall file an answer as designated in the notice. In a civil money penalty... upon consent. (2) Effect of failure to request a hearing in civil money penalty proceedings....

  3. Understanding the Minimum Wage: Issues and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Policies Inst. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which is designed to clarify facts regarding the minimum wage's impact on marketplace economics, contains a total of 31 questions and answers pertaining to the following topics: relationship between minimum wages and poverty; impacts of changes in the minimum wage on welfare reform; and possible effects of changes in the minimum wage…

  4. Memory, Knowledge, and the Answering of Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Donald A.

    An examination of the nature of memory reveals that the representation of knowledge cannot be separated from the uses of knowledge. The answering of questions is not a simple retrieval and response of stored information; rather the process is embedded in a general structural framework containing knowledge of the questioner, the question, and the…

  5. What's Your Answer? Searching for Triangles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meagher, Michael S.; Edwards, Michael Todd; Özgün-Koca, S. Asli

    2016-01-01

    The article opens with a Geoboard Triangle Quest in this form: "How many noncongruent triangles can be constructed on a 4 × 4 geoboard? How do you know? Justify your answer with significant supporting work." The use of advanced digital technologies as tools for problem solving receives much attention in the methods classes if the…

  6. 41 CFR 60-30.6 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Answer. 60-30.6 Section 60-30.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts OFFICE... attorney, and served on the Government in accordance with § 60-30.4(b). (b) Contents; failure to file....

  7. Global Perspectives: Some Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Global Perspectives, New York, NY.

    To enlighten the reader on the status, objectives, and needs of global education, this paper poses and answers questions related to global perspectives. A global perspective is interpreted to include heightened awareness and understanding of the global system as well as increased consciousness of the intimate relationship of self, humankind, and…

  8. Questions and Answers about CD ROM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Carolyn

    1987-01-01

    Question and answer column about the CD ROM medium discusses: (1) optical storage devices available; (2) language teaching applications; (3) types of courseware available; (4) costs to hook up a CD ROM drive as a peripheral to an existing system; (5) how to go about developing and mastering a disk; and (6) mastering and replication costs.…

  9. Survey Questions Answered Only by Psychosocial Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Twelve tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 48 experts in the psychosocial treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of self-injurious or aggressive behavior, specific psychiatric disorders, specific target symptoms, use of applied behavior analysis…

  10. From Asking to Answering: Making Questions Explicit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Gene

    2006-01-01

    "From Asking To Answering: Making Questions Explicit" describes a pedagogical procedure the author has used in writing classes (expository, technical and creative) to help students better understand the purpose, and effect, of text-questions. It accomplishes this by means of thirteen discrete categories (e.g., CLAIMS, COMMITMENT, ANAPHORA, or…

  11. 12 CFR 109.19 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... deny each allegation of fact. A statement of lack of information has the effect of a denial. Denials... defenses, if any, asserted by the respondent. (c) Default—(1) Effect of failure to answer. Failure of a..., Enforcement Counsel may file a motion for entry of an order of default. Upon a finding that no good cause...

  12. Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more than…

  13. The American Indians: Answers to 101 Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Presented in a simple and straightforward manner, this publication answers questions basic to an understanding of the American Indian and his socioeconomic position in the United States. The following identify major areas covered and representative questions: (1) The Indian People (Who is an Indian?); (2) The Legal Status of Indians (Are Indians…

  14. Michigan PTA Presents the Parents' Answer Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Alice R., Ed.; And Others

    This book was written to help parents build on their already existing skills and knowledge in the area of child rearing, become more competent parents, and mobilize their resources to strengthen family functioning. It consists of a series of questions posed by readers of the "Parent Talk Page" of the "Detroit Free Press" newspaper and answers to…

  15. 47 CFR 1.724 - Answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... admitting or denying such averment. General denials are prohibited. Denials based on information and belief... complainant or any other source. If the defendant is without knowledge or information sufficient to form a... made in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section. (f) The answer shall include an...

  16. 20 CFR 901.37 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Answer. 901.37 Section 901.37 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTUARIAL SERVICES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 Suspension or Termination of...

  17. 7 CFR 47.8 - The answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false The answer. 47.8 Section 47.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT Rules Applicable to Reparation Proceedings § 47.8...

  18. 7 CFR 47.8 - The answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false The answer. 47.8 Section 47.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT Rules Applicable to Reparation Proceedings § 47.8...

  19. 7 CFR 47.8 - The answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The answer. 47.8 Section 47.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT Rules Applicable to Reparation Proceedings § 47.8...

  20. 47 CFR 1.724 - Answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... admitting or denying such averment. General denials are prohibited. Denials based on information and belief... complainant or any other source. If the defendant is without knowledge or information sufficient to form a... made in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section. (f) The answer shall include an...

  1. 47 CFR 1.724 - Answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... admitting or denying such averment. General denials are prohibited. Denials based on information and belief... complainant or any other source. If the defendant is without knowledge or information sufficient to form a... made in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section. (f) The answer shall include an...

  2. 47 CFR 14.42 - Answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Answers. 14.42 Section 14.42 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY... search and the criteria used to identify such persons, documents, data compilations, tangible things,...

  3. Question and Answer Guide to OCLC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Sidney S. C.

    The purpose of this guide is to provide basic factual information about the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC), its data base, its operation, and its functions. It is intended for libraries which have not yet participated in OCLC, but would be useful as a reference guide in all libraries. Presented in question and answer form, the guide consists…

  4. 47 CFR 1.724 - Answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Reports Involving Common Carriers Formal Complaints § 1.724 Answers. (a) Subject to paragraph (k) of this... service of the formal complaint by the complainant, unless otherwise directed by the Commission. (b) The... admitting or denying such averment. General denials are prohibited. Denials based on information and...

  5. Survey Questions Answered Only by Medication Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Fifty-eight tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 45 experts in the medication treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of specific disorders, ratings of various medications for specific disorders or symptoms, and preferences in mood stabilizers,…

  6. Modelling the Active Hearing Process in Mosquitoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avitabile, Daniele; Homer, Martin; Jackson, Joe; Robert, Daniel; Champneys, Alan

    2011-11-01

    A simple microscopic mechanistic model is described of the active amplification within the Johnston's organ of the mosquito species Toxorhynchites brevipalpis. The model is based on the description of the antenna as a forced-damped oscillator coupled to a set of active threads (ensembles of scolopidia) that provide an impulsive force when they twitch. This twitching is in turn controlled by channels that are opened and closed if the antennal oscillation reaches a critical amplitude. The model matches both qualitatively and quantitatively with recent experiments. New results are presented using mathematical homogenization techniques to derive a mesoscopic model as a simple oscillator with nonlinear force and damping characteristics. It is shown how the results from this new model closely resemble those from the microscopic model as the number of threads approach physiologically correct values.

  7. A Kinetic Model of Active Extensile Bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Daniel; Chakraborty, Bulbul; Baskaran, Aparna

    Recent experiments in active filament networks reveal interesting rheological properties (Dan Chen: APS March Meeting 2015 D49.00001). This system consumes ATP to produce an extensile motion in bundles of microtubules. This extension then leads to self generated stresses and spontaneous flows. We propose a minimal model where the activity is modeled by self-extending bundles that are part of a cross linked network. This network can reorganize itself through buckling of extending filaments and merging events that alter the topology of the network. We numerically simulate this minimal kinetic model and examine the emergent rheological properties and determine how stresses are generated by the extensile activity. We will present results that focus on the effects of confinement and network connectivity of the bundles on stress fluctuations and response of an active gel.

  8. Active gel model of amoeboid cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callan-Jones, A. C.; Voituriez, R.

    2013-02-01

    We develop a model of amoeboid cell motility based on active gel theory. Modeling the motile apparatus of a eukaryotic cell as a confined layer of finite length of poroelastic active gel permeated by a solvent, we first show that, due to active stress and gel turnover, an initially static and homogeneous layer can undergo a contractile-type instability to a polarized moving state in which the rear is enriched in gel polymer. This agrees qualitatively with motile cells containing an actomyosin-rich uropod at their rear. We find that the gel layer settles into a steadily moving, inhomogeneous state at long times, sustained by a balance between contractility and filament turnover. In addition, our model predicts an optimal value of the gel-substrate adhesion leading to maximum layer speed, in agreement with cell motility assays. The model may be relevant to motility of cells translocating in complex, confining environments that can be mimicked experimentally by cell migration through microchannels.

  9. Domain and Intelligence Based Multimedia Question Answering System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, K. Magesh; Valarmathie, P.

    2016-01-01

    Multimedia question answering systems have become very popular over the past few years. It allows users to share their thoughts by answering a given question or obtain information from a set of answered questions. However, existing QA systems support only textual answer which is not so instructive for many users. The user's discussion can be…

  10. Answers at your fingertips: Access to the Internet influences willingness to answer questions.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Amanda M; McLean, David; Risko, Evan F

    2015-12-01

    Recent technological advances have given rise to an information-gathering tool unparalleled by any in human history-the Internet. Understanding how access to such a powerful informational tool influences how we think represents an important question for psychological science. In the present investigation we examined the impact of access to the Internet on the metacognitive processes that govern our decisions about what we "know" and "don't know." Results demonstrated that access to the Internet influenced individuals' willingness to volunteer answers, which led to fewer correct answers overall but greater accuracy when an answer was offered. Critically, access to the Internet also influenced feeling-of-knowing, and this accounted for some (but not all) of the effect on willingness to volunteer answers. These findings demonstrate that access to the Internet can influence metacognitive processes, and contribute novel insights into the operation of the transactive memory system formed by people and the Internet.

  11. 12 CFR 509.203 - Answer, consequences of failure to answer, and consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of information has the effect of a denial. Denials must fairly meet the substance of each allegation... entered. A respondent that believes that there was good cause for it to not file an answer within the...

  12. Activity of a social dynamics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reia, Sandro M.; Neves, Ubiraci P. C.

    2015-10-01

    Axelrod's model was proposed to study interactions between agents and the formation of cultural domains. It presents a transition from a monocultural to a multicultural steady state which has been studied in the literature by evaluation of the relative size of the largest cluster. In this article, we propose new measurements based on the concept of activity per agent to study the Axelrod's model on the square lattice. We show that the variance of system activity can be used to indicate the critical points of the transition. Furthermore the frequency distribution of the system activity is able to show a coexistence of phases typical of a first order phase transition. Finally, we verify a power law dependence between cluster activity and cluster size for multicultural steady state configurations at the critical point.

  13. LOGMIS Programmed Texts, Tests and Answers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    This publication contains the programmed text and related test and answer booklets produced to teach field users correct procedures for utilization of the Army’s Logistics Management Information System (LOGMIS). It was prepared by ARINC Research Corporation under Contract DAEA18-77-C-0184 for the Logistics Evaluation Branch, Plans and Programs Division of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Logistics, U.S. Army Communications Command. (Author)

  14. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-29

    COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Medical Care : Questions and Answers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...deliver health care during wartime. The military health system also provides health care services through either Department of Defense (DOD...medical facilities, known as “military treatment facilities” or “MTFs” as space is available, or, through private health care providers. Known as “Tricare

  15. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-14

    providers, subject to regulations. Certain types of care , such as most dentistry and chiropractic services, are excluded. In addition to Tricare...COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Medical Care : Questions and Answers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...deliver health care during wartime. The military health system also provides health care services through either Department of Defense (DOD) medical

  16. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-04

    providers, subject to regulations. Certain types of care , such as most dentistry and chiropractic services, are excluded. In addition to Tricare Standard...Order Code RL33537 Military Medical Care : Questions and Answers Updated August 4, 2008 Richard A. Best Jr. Specialist in National Defense Foreign...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 04 AUG 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Medical Care : Questions and

  17. Students' Comparison of Their Trigonometric Answers with the Answers of a Computer Algebra System in Terms of Equivalence and Correctness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonisson, Eno; Lepp, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The answers offered by computer algebra systems (CAS) can sometimes differ from those expected by the students or teachers. The comparison of the students' answers and CAS answers could provide ground for discussion about equivalence and correctness. Investigating the students' comparison of the answers gives the possibility to study different…

  18. Query Answering Driven by Collaborating Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    We assume that there is a group of collaborating agents where each agent is defined as an Information System coupled with a Query Answering System (QAS). Values of attributes in an information system S form atomic expressions of a language used by the agent associated with S to communicate with other agents. Collaboration among agents is initiated when one of the agent's, say the one associated with S and called a client, is asked by user to resolve a query containing nonlocal attributes for S. Then, the client will ask for help other agents to have that query answered. As the result of this request, knowledge in the form of defnitions of locally foreign attribute values for S is extracted at information systems representing other agents and sent to the client. The outcome of this step is a knowledge-base KB created at the client site and used to answer the query. In this paper we present a method of identifying which agents are semantically the closest to S and show that the precision and recall of QAS is getting increased when only these agents are ask for help by the client.

  19. Workflow Modeling Using Stochastic Activity Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javadi Mottaghi, Fatemeh; Abdollahi Azgomi, Mohammad

    The essence of workflow systems is workflow patterns. The aim is to use an existing powerful formal modeling language with workflow systems. Stochastic activity networks (SANs) are a powerful extension of Petri nets. Having the SAN model of a system, one can verify the functional aspects and evaluate the operational measures, both on a same model. SANs have already been used in a wide range of applications. As a new application area, we have used SANs for modeling workflow systems. The results show that the most important workflow patterns can be modeled in SANs. In addition, the resulting SAN models of workflow systems can be used for model checking and/or performance evaluation purposes using the existing tools. In this paper, we will present the results of this work. For this purpose, we will present the SAN submodels corresponding to the most important workflow patterns. Then, the proposed SAN submodels are used in a case study for workflow modeling, which will also be presented in this paper. Finally, we will present the results of the evaluation of the model using the Möbius modeling tool.

  20. Realistic Real World Contexts: Model Eliciting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doruk, Bekir Kürsat

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have proposed a variety of methods to make a connection between real life and mathematics so that it can be learned in a practical way and enable people to utilise mathematics in their daily lives. Model-eliciting activities (MEAs) were developed to fulfil this need and are very capable of serving this purpose. The reason MEAs are so…

  1. MODELING MERCURY CONTROL WITH POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents a mathematical model of total mercury removed from the flue gas at coal-fired plants equipped with powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection for Mercury control. The developed algorithms account for mercury removal by both existing equipment and an added PAC in...

  2. 24 CFR 1006.225 - Model activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Model activities. 1006.225 Section 1006.225 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK...

  3. Using Hybrid Modeling to Develop Innovative Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Brenda; Avans, Diana

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a hybrid activities model that physical educators can use with students in grades four and above to create virtually a limitless array of novel games. A brief introduction to the basic theory is followed by descriptions of some hybrid games. Hybrid games are typically the result of merging two traditional sports or other…

  4. The Seasons Explained by Refutational Modeling Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frede, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the principles and investigation of a small-group laboratory activity based on refutational modeling to teach the concept of seasons to preservice elementary teachers. The results show that these teachers improved significantly when they had to refute their initial misconceptions practically. (Contains 8 figures and 1 table.)

  5. Characterization and modeling of compliant active materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, S. P.; Ramesh, K. T.; Douglas, A. S.

    2003-09-01

    Active materials respond mechanically to changes in environmental conditions. One example of a compliant active material is a polymer gel. Active polymer gels expand and contract in response to certain environmental stimuli, such as the application of an electric field or a change in the pH level of the surroundings. This ability to achieve large, reversible deformations with no external mechanical loading has generated much interest in the use of these gels as actuators and "artificial muscles". While much work has been done to study the behavior and properties of these gels, little information is available regarding the full constitutive description of the mechanical and actuation properties. This work focuses on developing a means of characterizing the mechanical properties of compliant active materials. A thermodynamically consistent finite-elastic constitutive model was developed to describe the mechanical and actuation behaviors of these kinds of materials. The mechanical properties of compliant active materials are characterized by a free-energy function, and the model utilizes an evolving internal variable to describe the actuation state. A biaxial testing system has been developed which can measure stresses and deformations of polymer gel films in a variety of liquid environments. This testing system is used to determine the form and parameters of the free-energy function for a specific active polymer gel, poly(vinyl alcohol)-poly(acrylic acid) gel.

  6. Bacteriophage: A Model System for Active Learning

    PubMed Central

    LUCIANO, CARL S.; YOUNG, MATTHEW W.; PATTERSON, ROBIN R.

    2002-01-01

    Although bacteriophage provided a useful model system for the development of molecular biology, its simplicity, accessibility, and familiarity have not been fully exploited in the classroom. We describe a student-centered laboratory course in which student teams selected phage from sewage samples and characterized the phage in a semester-long project that modeled real-life scientific research. The course used an instructional approach that included active learning, collaboration, and learning by inquiry. Cooperative student teams had primary responsibility for organizing the content of the course, writing to learn using a journal article format, involving the entire group in shared laboratory responsibilities, and applying knowledge to the choice of new experiments. The results of student evaluations indicated a high level of satisfaction with the course. Our positive experience with this course suggests that phage provides an attractive model system for an active-learning classroom. PMID:23653543

  7. Kinetic model of excess activated sludge thermohydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Imbierowicz, Mirosław; Chacuk, Andrzej

    2012-11-01

    Thermal hydrolysis of excess activated sludge suspensions was carried at temperatures ranging from 423 K to 523 K and under pressure 0.2-4.0 MPa. Changes of total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in a solid and liquid phase were measured during these studies. At the temperature 423 K, after 2 h of the process, TOC concentration in the reaction mixture decreased by 15-18% of the initial value. At 473 K total organic carbon removal from activated sludge suspension increased to 30%. It was also found that the solubilisation of particulate organic matter strongly depended on the process temperature. At 423 K the transfer of TOC from solid particles into liquid phase after 1 h of the process reached 25% of the initial value, however, at the temperature of 523 K the conversion degree of 'solid' TOC attained 50% just after 15 min of the process. In the article a lumped kinetic model of the process of activated sludge thermohydrolysis has been proposed. It was assumed that during heating of the activated sludge suspension to a temperature in the range of 423-523 K two parallel reactions occurred. One, connected with thermal destruction of activated sludge particles, caused solubilisation of organic carbon and an increase of dissolved organic carbon concentration in the liquid phase (hydrolysate). The parallel reaction led to a new kind of unsolvable solid phase, which was further decomposed into gaseous products (CO(2)). The collected experimental data were used to identify unknown parameters of the model, i.e. activation energies and pre-exponential factors of elementary reactions. The mathematical model of activated sludge thermohydrolysis appropriately describes the kinetics of reactions occurring in the studied system.

  8. The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program planned monitoring and modeling activities for Texas, 2013–23

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ging, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program was established by Congress in 1992 to answer the following question: What is the status of the Nation’s water quality and is it getting better or worse? Since 1992, NAWQA has been a primary source of nationally consistent data and information on the quality of the Nation’s streams and groundwater. Data and information obtained from objective and nationally consistent water-quality monitoring and modeling activities provide answers to where, when, and why the Nation’s water quality is degraded and what can be done to improve and protect it for human and ecosystem needs. For NAWQA’s third decade (2013–23), a new strategic Science Plan has been developed that describes a strategy for building upon and enhancing the USGS’s ongoing assessment of the Nation’s freshwater quality and aquatic ecosystems.

  9. Monotonically improving approximate answers to relational algebra queries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kenneth P.; Liu, J. W. S.

    1989-01-01

    We present here a query processing method that produces approximate answers to queries posed in standard relational algebra. This method is monotone in the sense that the accuracy of the approximate result improves with the amount of time spent producing the result. This strategy enables us to trade the time to produce the result for the accuracy of the result. An approximate relational model that characterizes appromimate relations and a partial order for comparing them is developed. Relational operators which operate on and return approximate relations are defined.

  10. Phase Transitions in Model Active Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redner, Gabriel S.

    The amazing collective behaviors of active systems such as bird flocks, schools of fish, and colonies of microorganisms have long amazed scientists and laypeople alike. Understanding the physics of such systems is challenging due to their far-from-equilibrium dynamics, as well as the extreme diversity in their ingredients, relevant time- and length-scales, and emergent phenomenology. To make progress, one can categorize active systems by the symmetries of their constituent particles, as well as how activity is expressed. In this work, we examine two categories of active systems, and explore their phase behavior in detail. First, we study systems of self-propelled spherical particles moving in two dimensions. Despite the absence of an aligning interaction, this system displays complex emergent dynamics, including phase separation into a dense active solid and dilute gas. Using simulations and analytic modeling, we quantify the phase diagram and separation kinetics. We show that this nonequilibrium phase transition is analogous to an equilibrium vapor-liquid system, with binodal and spinodal curves and a critical point. We also characterize the dense active solid phase, a unique material which exhibits the structural signatures of a crystalline solid near the crystal-hexatic transition point, as well as anomalous dynamics including superdiffusive motion on intermediate timescales. We also explore the role of interparticle attraction in this system. We demonstrate that attraction drastically changes the phase diagram, which contains two distinct phase-separated regions and is reentrant as a function of propulsion speed. We interpret this complex situation with a simple kinetic model, which builds from the observed microdynamics of individual particles to a full description of the macroscopic phase behavior. We also study active nematics, liquid crystals driven out of equilibrium by energy-dissipating active stresses. The equilibrium nematic state is unstable in these

  11. Modeling neural activity with cumulative damage distributions.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Víctor; Tejo, Mauricio; Guiraud, Pierre; Schmachtenberg, Oliver; Orio, Patricio; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    Neurons transmit information as action potentials or spikes. Due to the inherent randomness of the inter-spike intervals (ISIs), probabilistic models are often used for their description. Cumulative damage (CD) distributions are a family of probabilistic models that has been widely considered for describing time-related cumulative processes. This family allows us to consider certain deterministic principles for modeling ISIs from a probabilistic viewpoint and to link its parameters to values with biological interpretation. The CD family includes the Birnbaum-Saunders and inverse Gaussian distributions, which possess distinctive properties and theoretical arguments useful for ISI description. We expand the use of CD distributions to the modeling of neural spiking behavior, mainly by testing the suitability of the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution, which has not been studied in the setting of neural activity. We validate this expansion with original experimental and simulated electrophysiological data.

  12. Electromechanical Modelling of an Active Isolation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn , AL 36849, U.S.A. Active Control of Automobile Two-Stage Suspension System-Half Car Model...element model ..... one d.imensnional modelo -ilo0- S-120 1 L 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 Frequency(f/fO) 6(b) Sensor Voltage S20 10 16

  13. Modeling of an Active Tablet Coating Process.

    PubMed

    Toschkoff, Gregor; Just, Sarah; Knop, Klaus; Kleinebudde, Peter; Funke, Adrian; Djuric, Dejan; Scharrer, Georg; Khinast, Johannes G

    2015-12-01

    Tablet coating is a common unit operation in the pharmaceutical industry, during which a coating layer is applied to tablet cores. The coating uniformity of tablets in a batch is especially critical for active coating, that is, coating that contains an active pharmaceutical ingredient. In recent years, discrete element method (DEM) simulations became increasingly common for investigating tablet coating. In this work, DEM was applied to model an active coating process as closely as possible, using measured model parameters and non-spherical particles. We studied how operational conditions (rotation speed, fill level, number of nozzles, and spray rate) influence the coating uniformity. To this end, simulation runs were planned and interpreted according to a statistical design of (simulation) experiments. Our general goal was to achieve a deeper understanding of the process in terms of residence times and dimensionless scaling laws. With that regard, the results were interpreted in light of analytical models. The results were presented at various detail levels, ranging from an overview of all variations to in-depth considerations. It was determined that the biggest uniformity improvement in a realistic setting was achieved by increasing the number of spray nozzles, followed by increasing the rotation speed and decreasing the fill level.

  14. Simplified Modeling of Active Magnetic Regenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdyny, Thomas

    Active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigeration is an alternative technology to conventional vapor-compression refrigerators that has the potential to operate at higher efficiencies. Based on the magnetocaloric effect, this technology uses the magnetization and demagnetization of environmentally neutral solid refrigerants to produce a cooling effect. To become competitive however, a large amount of research into the optimal device configurations, operating parameters and refrigerants is still needed. To aid in this research, a simplified model for predicting the general trends of AMR devices at a low computational cost is developed. The derivation and implementation of the model for an arbitrary AMR is presented. Simulations from the model are compared to experimental results from two different devices and show good agreement across a wide range of operating parameters. The simplified model is also used to study the impacts of Curie temperature spacing, material weighting and devices on the performance of multilayered regenerators. Future applications of the simplified AMR model include costing and optimization programs where the low computational demand of the model can be fully exploited.

  15. On a Quantum Model of Brain Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, K.-H.; Fichtner, L.; Freudenberg, W.; Ohya, M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main activities of the brain is the recognition of signals. A first attempt to explain the process of recognition in terms of quantum statistics was given in [6]. Subsequently, details of the mathematical model were presented in a (still incomplete) series of papers (cf. [7, 2, 5, 10]). In the present note we want to give a general view of the principal ideas of this approach. We will introduce the basic spaces and justify the choice of spaces and operations. Further, we bring the model face to face with basic postulates any statistical model of the recognition process should fulfill. These postulates are in accordance with the opinion widely accepted in psychology and neurology.

  16. 14 CFR 302.308 - Replies to answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replies to answers. 302.308 Section 302.308... REGULATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS Rules Applicable to Exemption and Certain Other Proceedings § 302.308 Replies to answers. Within seven (7) days after the last day for filing an answer, any...

  17. Question/Answer Adjacency Pairs in a Performance Appraisal Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Katherine L.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the conversational structure of questions and answers in a performance appraisal interview between a manager and an employee. Results demonstrated that both the manager and employee used question-and-answer pairs to demonstrate their understanding of the expectancy to ask and answer questions and to provide sequential implicativeness and…

  18. 45 CFR 672.8 - Answer to the complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Answer to the complaint. 672.8 Section 672.8 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT... within twenty (20) days after service of the complaint. (b) Contents of the answer. The answer...

  19. 45 CFR 672.8 - Answer to the complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Answer to the complaint. 672.8 Section 672.8 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT... within twenty (20) days after service of the complaint. (b) Contents of the answer. The answer...

  20. 27 CFR 71.65 - Answer admitting facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Answer admitting facts. 71... Hearing Procedure Answers § 71.65 Answer admitting facts. If the respondent desires to waive the hearing on the allegations of fact set forth in the order to show cause, and does not contest the facts,...

  1. 27 CFR 71.65 - Answer admitting facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Answer admitting facts. 71... Hearing Procedure Answers § 71.65 Answer admitting facts. If the respondent desires to waive the hearing on the allegations of fact set forth in the order to show cause, and does not contest the facts,...

  2. Activity-Dependent Model for Neuronal Avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Arcangelis, L.

    Networks of living neurons represent one of the most fascinating systems of modern biology. If the physical and chemical mechanisms at the basis of the functioning of a single neuron are quite well understood, the collective behavior of a system of many neurons is an extremely intriguing subject. Crucial ingredient of this complex behavior is the plasticity property of the network, namely the capacity to adapt and evolve depending on the level of activity. This plastic ability is believed, nowadays, to be at the basis of learning and memory in real brains. This fundamental problem in neurobiology has recently shown a number of features in common to other complex systems. These features mainly concern the morphology of the network, namely the spatial organization of the established connections, and a novel kind of neuronal activity. Experimental data have, in fact, shown that electrical information propagates in a cortex slice via an avalanche mode. Both features have been found in other problems in the context of the physics of complex systems and successful models have been developed to describe their behavior. In this contribution, we apply a statistical mechanical model to describe the complex activity in a neuronal network. The network is chosen to have a number of connections in long range, as found for neurons in vitro. The model implements the main physiological properties of living neurons and is able to reproduce recent experimental results. The numerical power spectra for electrical activity reproduces also the power law behavior measured in an EEG of man resting with the eyes closed.

  3. An Activation Threshold Model for Response Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Hayley J.; McMorland, Angus J. C.; Stinear, Cathy M.; Coxon, James P.; Byblow, Winston D.

    2017-01-01

    Reactive response inhibition (RI) is the cancellation of a prepared response when it is no longer appropriate. Selectivity of RI can be examined by cueing the cancellation of one component of a prepared multi-component response. This substantially delays execution of other components. There is debate regarding whether this response delay is due to a selective neural mechanism. Here we propose a computational activation threshold model (ATM) and test it against a classical “horse-race” model using behavioural and neurophysiological data from partial RI experiments. The models comprise both facilitatory and inhibitory processes that compete upstream of motor output regions. Summary statistics (means and standard deviations) of predicted muscular and neurophysiological data were fit in both models to equivalent experimental measures by minimizing a Pearson Chi-square statistic. The ATM best captured behavioural and neurophysiological dynamics of partial RI. The ATM demonstrated that the observed modulation of corticomotor excitability during partial RI can be explained by nonselective inhibition of the prepared response. The inhibition raised the activation threshold to a level that could not be reached by the original response. This was necessarily followed by an additional phase of facilitation representing a secondary activation process in order to reach the new inhibition threshold and initiate the executed component of the response. The ATM offers a mechanistic description of the neural events underlying RI, in which partial movement cancellation results from a nonselective inhibitory event followed by subsequent initiation of a new response. The ATM provides a framework for considering and exploring the neuroanatomical constraints that underlie RI. PMID:28085907

  4. Answering Questions and Questioning Answers. Part I. University of Central Florida Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, C. C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Brief analyses are provided of presentations at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues, and application. Papers…

  5. Answering Questions and Questioning Answers. Part II. University of Central Florida Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, C. C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Brief analyses are provided of presentations made at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues and application.…

  6. What questions can a placebo answer?

    PubMed

    Hey, Spencer Phillips; Weijer, Charles

    2016-03-01

    The concept of clinical equipoise restricts the use of placebo controls in clinical trials when there already exists a proven effective treatment. Several critics of clinical equipoise have put forward alleged counter-examples to this restriction-describing instances of ethical placebo-controlled trials that apparently violate clinical equipoise. In this essay, we respond to these examples and show that clinical equipoise is not as restrictive of placebos as these authors assume. We argue that a subtler appreciation for clinical equipoise-in particular the distinction between de facto and de jure interpretations of the concept-allows the concept to explain when and why a placebo control may be necessary to answer a question of clinical importance.

  7. Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, Ian

    2012-01-01

    contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

  8. Interpretation of genomic data: questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Simon, Richard

    2008-07-01

    Using a question and answer format we describe important aspects of using genomic technologies in cancer research. The main challenges are not managing the mass of data, but rather the design, analysis, and accurate reporting of studies that result in increased biological knowledge and medical utility. Many analysis issues address the use of expression microarrays but are also applicable to other whole genome assays. Microarray-based clinical investigations have generated both unrealistic hype and excessive skepticism. Genomic technologies are tremendously powerful and will play instrumental roles in elucidating the mechanisms of oncogenesis and in bringing on an era of predictive medicine in which treatments are tailored to individual tumors. Achieving these goals involves challenges in rethinking many paradigms for the conduct of basic and clinical cancer research and for the organization of interdisciplinary collaboration.

  9. Answer or Publish - Energizing Online Democracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antal, Miklós; Mikecz, Dániel

    Enhanced communication between citizens and decision makers furthering participation in public decision making is essential to ease today's democratic deficit. However, it is difficult to sort out the most important public inputs from a large number of comments and questions. We propose an online solution to the selection problem by utilizing the general publicity of the internet. In the envisioned practice, decision makers are obliged either to answer citizens' questions or initiatives or to publish the letter received on a publicly accessible web page. The list of unaddressed questions would mean a motivation to consider public inputs without putting unnecessary burdens on decision makers - due to the reliance on the public, their workload would converge to the societal optimum. The proposed method is analyzed in the course of the existing Hungarian e-practices. The idea is found valuable as a restriction for representatives and a relief for some other officials.

  10. Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions

    ScienceCinema

    Hinchliffe, Ian

    2016-07-12

    contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

  11. Towards a “Sample-In, Answer-Out” Point-of-Care Platform for Nucleic Acid Extraction and Amplification: Using an HPV E6/E7 mRNA Model System

    PubMed Central

    Gulliksen, Anja; Keegan, Helen; Martin, Cara; O'Leary, John; Solli, Lars A.; Falang, Inger Marie; Grønn, Petter; Karlgård, Aina; Mielnik, Michal M.; Johansen, Ib-Rune; Tofteberg, Terje R.; Baier, Tobias; Gransee, Rainer; Drese, Klaus; Hansen-Hagge, Thomas; Riegger, Lutz; Koltay, Peter; Zengerle, Roland; Karlsen, Frank; Ausen, Dag; Furuberg, Liv

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a “proof-of-principle” hands-free and self-contained diagnostic platform for detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA in clinical specimens. The automated platform performs chip-based sample preconcentration, nucleic acid extraction, amplification, and real-time fluorescent detection with minimal user interfacing. It consists of two modular prototypes, one for sample preparation and one for amplification and detection; however, a common interface is available to facilitate later integration into one single module. Nucleic acid extracts (n = 28) from cervical cytology specimens extracted on the sample preparation chip were tested using the PreTect HPV-Proofer and achieved an overall detection rate for HPV across all dilutions of 50%–85.7%. A subset of 6 clinical samples extracted on the sample preparation chip module was chosen for complete validation on the NASBA chip module. For 4 of the samples, a 100% amplification for HPV 16 or 33 was obtained at the 1 : 10 dilution for microfluidic channels that filled correctly. The modules of a “sample-in, answer-out” diagnostic platform have been demonstrated from clinical sample input through sample preparation, amplification and final detection. PMID:22235204

  12. An immunological model for detecting bot activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Md E.; Phoha, Vir V.; Sultan, Md A.

    2009-05-01

    We develop a hierarchical immunological model to detect bot activities in a computer network. In the proposed model antibody (detector)-antigen (foreign object) reactions are defined using negative selection based approach and negative systems-properties are defined by various temporal as well as non-temporal systems features. Theory of sequential hypothesis testing has been used in the literature for identifying spatial-temporal correlations among malicious remote hosts and among the bots within a botnet. We use it for combining multiple immunocomputing based decisions too. Negative selection based approach defines a self and helps identifying non-selves. We define non-selves with respect to various systems characteristics and then use different combinations of non-selves to design bot detectors. Each detector operates at the client sites of the network under surveillance. A match with any of the detectors suggests presence of a bot. Preliminary results suggest that the proposed model based solutions can improve the identification of bot activities.

  13. The Effects of Answer Copying on the Ability Level Estimates of Cheater Examinees in Answer Copying Pairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zopluoglu, Cengiz; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of answer copying on the ability level estimates of cheater examinees in answer copying pairs. The study generated answer copying pairs for each of 1440 conditions, source ability (12) x cheater ability (12) x amount of copying (10). The average difference between the ability level estimates…

  14. Dietary polyphenols as antioxidants and anticancer agents: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miao-Lin

    2011-01-01

    High intake of fruit and vegetables is believed to be beneficial to human health. Fruit, vegetables and some beverages, such as tea and coffee, are particularly rich in dietary polyphenols. Various studies have suggested (but not proven) that dietary polyphenols may protect against cardiovasucalar diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and some forms of cancer. Dietary polyphenols may exert their anticancer effects through several possible mechanisms, such as removal of carcinogenic agents, modulation of cancer cell signaling and antioxidant enzymatic activities, and induction of apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest. Some of these effects may be related, at least partly, to their antioxidant activities. In recent years, a new concept of the antioxidant effects of dietary polyphenols has emerged, i.e., direct scavenging activity toward reactive species and indirect antioxidant activity; the latter activity is thought to arise primarily via the activation of nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 which stimulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase, catalase, NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), and/or phase II enzymes. The direct antioxidant activity of dietary polyphenols in vivo is probably limited because of their low concentrations in vivo, except in the gastrointestinal tract where they are present in high concentrations. Paradoxically, the pro-oxidant effect of dietary polyphenols may contribute to the activation of antioxidant enzymes and protective proteins in cultured cells and animal models because of the adaptation of cells and tissues to mild/moderate oxidative stress. Despite a plethora of in vitro studies on dietary polyphenols, many questions remain to be answered, such as: (1) How relevant are the direct and indirect antioxidant activities of dietary polyphenols in vivo? (2) How important are these activities in the anticancer effects of dietary polyphenols? (3) Do the pro

  15. Activated Dynamics in Dense Model Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shijie; Schweizer, Kenneth

    The nonlinear Langevin equation approach is applied to investigate the ensemble-averaged activated dynamics of small molecule liquids (or disconnected segments in a polymer melt) in dense nanocomposites under model isobaric conditions where the spherical nanoparticles are dynamically fixed. Fully thermalized and quenched-replica integral equation theory methods are employed to investigate the influence on matrix dynamics of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium nanocomposite structure, respectively. In equilibrium, the miscibility window can be narrow due to depletion and bridging attraction induced phase separation which limits the study of activated dynamics to regimes where the barriers are relatively low. In contrast, by using replica integral equation theory, macroscopic demixing is suppressed, and the addition of nanoparticles can induce much slower activated matrix dynamics which can be studied over a wide range of pure liquid alpha relaxation times, interfacial attraction strengths and ranges, particle sizes and loadings, and mixture microstructures. Numerical results for the mean activated relaxation time, transient localization length, matrix elasticity and kinetic vitrification in the nanocomposite will be presented.

  16. CFD Modeling for Active Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, Pieter G.

    2001-01-01

    This presentation describes current work under UEET Active Flow Control CFD Research Tool Development. The goal of this work is to develop computational tools for inlet active flow control design. This year s objectives were to perform CFD simulations of fully gridded vane vortex generators, micro-vortex genera- tors, and synthetic jets, and to compare flowfield results with wind tunnel tests of simple geometries with flow control devices. Comparisons are shown for a single micro-vortex generator on a flat plate, and for flow over an expansion ramp with sidewall effects. Vortex core location, pressure gradient and oil flow patterns are compared between experiment and computation. This work lays the groundwork for evaluating simplified modeling of arrays of devices, and provides the opportunity to test simple flow control device/sensor/ control loop interaction.

  17. Space Station Active Thermal Control System modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hye, Abdul; Lin, Chin H.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) has been modeled using modified SINDA/SINFLO programs to solve two-phase Thermo-fluid problems. The modifications include changes in several subroutines to incorporate implicit solution which allows larger time step as compared to that for explicit solutions. Larger time step saves computer time but involves larger computational error. Several runs were made using various time steps for the ATCS model. It has been found that for a reasonable approach, three times larger time step as compared to that used in explicit method is a good value which will reduce the computer time by approximately 50 percent and still maintain the accuracy of the output data to within 90 percent of the explicit values.

  18. Quantitative modeling of multiscale neural activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Peter A.; Rennie, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    The electrical activity of the brain has been observed for over a century and is widely used to probe brain function and disorders, chiefly through the electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded by electrodes on the scalp. However, the connections between physiology and EEGs have been chiefly qualitative until recently, and most uses of the EEG have been based on phenomenological correlations. A quantitative mean-field model of brain electrical activity is described that spans the range of physiological and anatomical scales from microscopic synapses to the whole brain. Its parameters measure quantities such as synaptic strengths, signal delays, cellular time constants, and neural ranges, and are all constrained by independent physiological measurements. Application of standard techniques from wave physics allows successful predictions to be made of a wide range of EEG phenomena, including time series and spectra, evoked responses to stimuli, dependence on arousal state, seizure dynamics, and relationships to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fitting to experimental data also enables physiological parameters to be infered, giving a new noninvasive window into brain function, especially when referenced to a standardized database of subjects. Modifications of the core model to treat mm-scale patchy interconnections in the visual cortex are also described, and it is shown that resulting waves obey the Schroedinger equation. This opens the possibility of classical cortical analogs of quantum phenomena.

  19. Do Melt Inclusions Answer Big Questions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A. W.; Sobolev, A. V.

    2009-12-01

    In a pioneering paper, Sobolev and Shimizu (1993) demonstrated the existence of ultra-depleted melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts in MORB. They interpreted these as evidence for the preservation of parental melts formed by progressive near-fractional melting. Subsequently many cases have been described where melt inclusions from single basalt samples display enormous chemical and isotopic heterogeneity. The interpretation of these observations hinges critically on whether such melt inclusions can faithfully preserve primary or parental melt composition. If they do, melt inclusion data can truly answer big questions from small-scale observations. If they do not, they answer rather small questions. Favoring the second possibility, Danyushevsky et al. (2004) have suggested that much of the observed variability of highly incompatible trace elements in melt inclusions “may not represent geologically significant melts, but instead reflect localized, grain-scale reaction processes within the magmatic plumbing system.” We disagree and show that this mechanism cannot, for example, explain isotopic heterogeneity measured in several suites of melt inclusions, nor does it not account for the presence of ultra-depleted melts and "ghost" plagioclase signatures in other inclusions. More recently, Spandler et al. (2007) have suggested on the basis of experimental evidence that diffusion rates for REE in olivine are so rapid that parental melt compositions in melt inclusions are rapidly falsified by diffusional exchange with (evolved) host lava. We show that the very fact that extreme chemical and isotopic heterogeneities are routinely preserved in melt inclusions demonstrates that this conclusion is unwarranted, either because residence times of the olivine phenocrysts are much shorter than assumed by Spandler et al. or because the high experimental diffusion rates are caused by an unknown experimental artifact. Although there is no obvious flaw in design and execution of

  20. Theory and modeling of active brazing.

    SciTech Connect

    van Swol, Frank B.; Miller, James Edward; Lechman, Jeremy B.; Givler, Richard C.

    2013-09-01

    Active brazes have been used for many years to produce bonds between metal and ceramic objects. By including a relatively small of a reactive additive to the braze one seeks to improve the wetting and spreading behavior of the braze. The additive modifies the substrate, either by a chemical surface reaction or possibly by alloying. By its nature, the joining process with active brazes is a complex nonequilibrium non-steady state process that couples chemical reaction, reactant and product diffusion to the rheology and wetting behavior of the braze. Most of the these subprocesses are taking place in the interfacial region, most are difficult to access by experiment. To improve the control over the brazing process, one requires a better understanding of the melting of the active braze, rate of the chemical reaction, reactant and product diffusion rates, nonequilibrium composition-dependent surface tension as well as the viscosity. This report identifies ways in which modeling and theory can assist in improving our understanding.

  1. Kinetic modeling of active plasma resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberrath, Jens

    2016-09-01

    The term ``active plasma resonance spectroscopy'' (APRS) refers to a plasma diagnostic method which employs the natural ability of plasmas to resonate close to the plasma frequency. Essential for this method is an appropriate model to determine the relation between the resonance parameters and demanded plasma parameters. Measurements with these probes in plasmas of a few Pa typically show a broadening of the spectrum that cannot be predicted by a fluid model. Thus, a kinetic model is necessary. A general kinetic model of APRS probes, which can be described in electorstatic approximation, valid for all pressures has been presented. This model is used to analyze the dynamic behavior of such probes by means of functional analytic methods. One of the main results is, that the system response function Y (ω) is given in terms of the matrix elements of the resolvent of the dynamic operator evaluated for values on the imaginary axis. The spectrum of this operator is continuous which implies a new phenomenon related to anomalous or non-collisional dissipation. Based on the scalar product, which is motivated by the kinetic free energy, the non-collisional damping can be interpreted: In a periodic state, the probe constantly emits plasma waves which propagate to ``infinity''. The free energy simply leaves the ``observation range'' of the probe which is recorded as damping. The kinetic damping, which depends on the mean kinetic energy of the electrons, is responsible for the broadening of a resonance peak in the measured spectrum of APRS probes. The ultimate goal is to determine explicit formulas for the relation between the broadening of the resonance peak and the ``equivalent electron temperature'', especially in the case of the spherical Impedance Probe and the Multipole Resonance Probe. Gratitude is expressed to the internal funding of Leuphana University, the BMBF via PluTO+, the DFG via Collaborative Research Center TR 87, and the Ruhr University Research School.

  2. Active State Model for Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Han; Chien, Steve; Zak, Michail; James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Fisher, Forest

    2003-01-01

    The concept of the active state model (ASM) is an architecture for the development of advanced integrated fault-detection-and-isolation (FDI) systems for robotic land vehicles, pilotless aircraft, exploratory spacecraft, or other complex engineering systems that will be capable of autonomous operation. An FDI system based on the ASM concept would not only provide traditional diagnostic capabilities, but also integrate the FDI system under a unified framework and provide mechanism for sharing of information between FDI subsystems to fully assess the overall health of the system. The ASM concept begins with definitions borrowed from psychology, wherein a system is regarded as active when it possesses self-image, self-awareness, and an ability to make decisions itself, such that it is able to perform purposeful motions and other transitions with some degree of autonomy from the environment. For an engineering system, self-image would manifest itself as the ability to determine nominal values of sensor data by use of a mathematical model of itself, and selfawareness would manifest itself as the ability to relate sensor data to their nominal values. The ASM for such a system may start with the closed-loop control dynamics that describe the evolution of state variables. As soon as this model was supplemented with nominal values of sensor data, it would possess self-image. The ability to process the current sensor data and compare them with the nominal values would represent self-awareness. On the basis of self-image and self-awareness, the ASM provides the capability for self-identification, detection of abnormalities, and self-diagnosis.

  3. Peeking into personality test answers: inter- and intraindividual variety in item interpretations.

    PubMed

    Arro, Grete

    2013-03-01

    Personality research of today applies basically inventories having neither unambiguously interpretable items nor responses. The substantive process of generating the test answer is rarely investigated and thus the possible field of meanings, out of which the answer is created, remains hidden. In order to investigate the possible array of spontaneous answers to personality test items, a situative open-ended personality inventory was developed to determine individuals' ways of interpreting personality test items and relevant personality descriptions for individuals. The children's sample (N = 704 of 10-13 year olds) answered five free-response contextualized personality test questions, each related to one of the Five Factor Model personality dimensions. It was revealed that there is no universal interpretation of an item. First, different children's answers to same question described different personality dimensions - substantial number of the respondents' answers did not reflect the personality domain assumed in an item. So there are several ways to interpret test questions; answers may refer to different personality dimensions and not necessarily the one assumed by the researcher. Second, a number of children mentioned more than one personality trait for one item, indicating that even within one person there may be several relevant interpretations of the same item. Considering personality traits as occurring one by one and mutually exclusively during personality test answering may be artificial; in reality trait combinations may reflect actual reaction. In sum, the results suggest there is no single predictable interpretational trajectory in meaning construction process if semiotically mediated constructs, e.g., personality reflection, are assessed.

  4. Answering Physicians' Clinical Questions: Obstacles and Potential Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ely, John W.; Osheroff, Jerome A.; Chambliss, M. Lee; Ebell, Mark H.; Rosenbaum, Marcy E.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify the most frequent obstacles preventing physicians from answering their patient-care questions and the most requested improvements to clinical information resources. Design: Qualitative analysis of questions asked by 48 randomly selected generalist physicians during ambulatory care. Measurements: Frequency of reported obstacles to answering patient-care questions and recommendations from physicians for improving clinical information resources. Results: The physicians asked 1,062 questions but pursued answers to only 585 (55%). The most commonly reported obstacle to the pursuit of an answer was the physician's doubt that an answer existed (52 questions, 11%). Among pursued questions, the most common obstacle was the failure of the selected resource to provide an answer (153 questions, 26%). During audiotaped interviews, physicians made 80 recommendations for improving clinical information resources. For example, they requested comprehensive resources that answer questions likely to occur in practice with emphasis on treatment and bottom-line advice. They asked for help in locating information quickly by using lists, tables, bolded subheadings, and algorithms and by avoiding lengthy, uninterrupted prose. Conclusion: Physicians do not seek answers to many of their questions, often suspecting a lack of usable information. When they do seek answers, they often cannot find the information they need. Clinical resource developers could use the recommendations made by practicing physicians to provide resources that are more useful for answering clinical questions. PMID:15561792

  5. Functional symptoms in neurology: questions and answers

    PubMed Central

    Reuber, M; Mitchell, A; Howlett, S; Crimlisk, H; Grunewald, R

    2005-01-01

    Between 10 and 30% of patients seen by neurologists have symptoms for which there is no current pathophysiological explanation. The objective of this review is to answer questions many neurologists have about disorders characterised by unexplained symptoms (functional disorders) by conducting a multidisciplinary review based on published reports and clinical experience. Current concepts explain functional symptoms as resulting from auto-suggestion, innate coping styles, disorders of volition or attention. Predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating aetiological factors can be identified and contribute to a therapeutic formulation. The sympathetic communication of the diagnosis by the neurologist is important and all patients should be screened for psychiatric or psychological symptoms because up to two thirds have symptomatic psychiatric comorbidity. Treatment programmes are likely to be most successful if there is close collaboration between neurologists, (liaison) psychiatrists, psychologists, and general practitioners. Long term, symptoms persist in over 50% of patients and many patients remain dependent on financial help from the government. Neurologists can acquire the skills needed to engage patients in psychological treatment but would benefit from closer working relationships with liaison psychiatry or psychology. PMID:15716517

  6. PrimeAnswers: A practical interface for answering primary care questions.

    PubMed

    Ketchell, Debra S; St Anna, Leilani; Kauff, David; Gaster, Barak; Timberlake, Diane

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an institutional approach taken to build a primary care reference portal. The objective for the site is to make access to and use of clinical reference faster and easier and to facilitate the use of evidence-based answers in daily practice. Reference objects were selected and metadata applied to a core set of sources. Metadata were used to search, sort, and filter results and to define deep-linked queries and structure the interface. User feedback resulted in an expansion in the scope of reference objects to meet the broad spectrum of information needs, including patient handouts and interactive risk management tools. RESULTS of a user satisfaction survey suggest that a simple interface to customized content makes it faster and easier for primary care clinicians to find information during the clinic day and to improve care to their patients. The PrimeAnswers portal is a first step in creating a fast search of a customized set of reference objects to match a clinician's patient care questions in the clinic. The next step is developing methods to solve the problem of matching a clinician's question to a specific answer through precise retrieval from reference sources; however, lack of internal structure and Web service standards in most clinical reference sources is an unresolved problem.

  7. Modelling carbon oxidation in pulp mill activated sludge systems: calibration of Activated Sludge Model No 3.

    PubMed

    Barañao, P A; Hall, E R

    2004-01-01

    Activated Sludge Model No 3 (ASM3) was chosen to model an activated sludge system treating effluents from a mechanical pulp and paper mill. The high COD concentration and the high content of readily biodegradable substrates of the wastewater make this model appropriate for this system. ASM3 was calibrated based on batch respirometric tests using fresh wastewater and sludge from the treatment plant, and on analytical measurements of COD, TSS and VSS. The model, developed for municipal wastewater, was found suitable for fitting a variety of respirometric batch tests, performed at different temperatures and food to microorganism ratios (F/M). Therefore, a set of calibrated parameters, as well as the wastewater COD fractions, was estimated for this industrial wastewater. The majority of the calibrated parameters were in the range of those found in the literature.

  8. Modeling active memory: Experiment, theory and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amit, Daniel J.

    2001-06-01

    Neuro-physiological experiments on cognitively performing primates are described to argue that strong evidence exists for localized, non-ergodic (stimulus specific) attractor dynamics in the cortex. The specific phenomena are delay activity distributions-enhanced spike-rate distributions resulting from training, which we associate with working memory. The anatomy of the relevant cortex region and the physiological characteristics of the participating elements (neural cells) are reviewed to provide a substrate for modeling the observed phenomena. Modeling is based on the properties of the integrate-and-fire neural element in presence of an input current of Gaussian distribution. Theory of stochastic processes provides an expression for the spike emission rate as a function of the mean and the variance of the current distribution. Mean-field theory is then based on the assumption that spike emission processes in different neurons in the network are independent, and hence the input current to a neuron is Gaussian. Consequently, the dynamics of the interacting network is reduced to the computation of the mean and the variance of the current received by a cell of a given population in terms of the constitutive parameters of the network and the emission rates of the neurons in the different populations. Within this logic we analyze the stationary states of an unstructured network, corresponding to spontaneous activity, and show that it can be stable only if locally the net input current of a neuron is inhibitory. This is then tested against simulations and it is found that agreement is excellent down to great detail. A confirmation of the independence hypothesis. On top of stable spontaneous activity, keeping all parameters fixed, training is described by (Hebbian) modification of synapses between neurons responsive to a stimulus and other neurons in the module-synapses are potentiated between two excited neurons and depressed between an excited and a quiescent neuron

  9. Modeling Criminal Activity in Urban Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantingham, Patricia; Glässer, Uwe; Jackson, Piper; Vajihollahi, Mona

    Computational and mathematical methods arguably have an enormous potential for serving practical needs in crime analysis and prevention by offering novel tools for crime investigations and experimental platforms for evidence-based policy making. We present a comprehensive formal framework and tool support for mathematical and computational modeling of criminal behavior to facilitate systematic experimental studies of a wide range of criminal activities in urban environments. The focus is on spatial and temporal aspects of different forms of crime, including opportunistic and serial violent crimes. However, the proposed framework provides a basis to push beyond conventional empirical research and engage the use of computational thinking and social simulations in the analysis of terrorism and counter-terrorism.

  10. What is the size of a floating sheath? An answer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Farina; Naggary, Schabnam; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2016-09-01

    The formation of a non-neutral boundary sheath in front of material surfaces is universal plasma phenomenon. Despite several decades of research, however, not all related issues are fully clarified. In a recent paper, Chabert pointed out that this lack of clarity applies even to the seemingly innocuous question ``What the size of a floating sheath?'' This contribution attempts to provide an answer that is not arbitrary: The size of a floating sheath is defined as the plate separation of an equivalent parallel plate capacitor. The consequences of the definition are explored with the help of a self-consistent sheath model, and a comparison is made with other sheath size definitions. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft within SFB TR 87.

  11. Wnt signaling in planarians: new answers to old questions.

    PubMed

    Almuedo-Castillo, Maria; Sureda-Gómez, Miquel; Adell, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Wnts are secreted glycoproteins involved in a broad range of essential cell functions, including proliferation, migration and cell-fate determination. Recent years have seen substantial research effort invested in elucidating the role of the Wnt signaling pathway in planarians, flatworms with incredible regenerative capacities. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the role of canonical (β-catenin-dependent) and non-canonical (β-catenin-independent) Wnt signaling in planarians, not only during regeneration, but also during normal homeostasis. We also describe some of the preliminary data that has been obtained regarding the role of these pathways during embryogenesis. Models are proposed to integrate the different results which have been obtained to date and highlight those questions that still remain to be answered.

  12. Sentence Topics Based Knowledge Acquisition for Question Answering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyo-Jung; Yun, Bo-Hyun

    This paper presents a knowledge acquisition method using sentence topics for question answering. We define templates for information extraction by the Korean concept network semi-automatically. Moreover, we propose the two-phase information extraction model by the hybrid machine learning such as maximum entropy and conditional random fields. In our experiments, we examined the role of sentence topics in the template-filling task for information extraction. Our experimental result shows the improvement of 18% in F-score and 434% in training speed over the plain CRF-based method for the extraction task. In addition, our result shows the improvement of 8% in F-score for the subsequent QA task.

  13. The Effect of Problems Format on Student's Answer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, Ganesh; Thacker, Beth

    2012-10-01

    We have analyzed the effect of problem format on students' answers to quiz questions. Students were given the same question in three different formats: calculate ranking and multiple choice ranking. We compared the correctness of the students' answers and the types of incorrect answers in each of the different formats. We also compared to a similar, previous study done with a different quiz question written in different formats: multiple choice, explain your reasoning and ranking.

  14. Models Constraints from Observations of Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffel, R.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Dametto, N. Z.; Ruschel-Dutra, D.; Riffel, R. A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Martins, L. P.; Mason, R.; Ho, L. C.; Palomar XD Team

    2015-08-01

    Studying the unresolved stellar content of galaxies generally involves disentangling the various components contributing to the spectral energy distribution (SED), and fitting a combination of simple stellar populations (SSPs) to derive information about age, metallicity, and star formation history. In the near-infrared (NIR, 0.85-2.5 μm), the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase - the last stage of the evolution of intermediate-mass (M ≲ 6 M⊙) stars - is a particularly important component of the SSP models. These stars can dominate the emission of stellar populations with ages ˜ 0.2-2 Gyr, being responsible for roughly half of the luminosity in the K band. In addition, when trying to describe the continuum observed in active galactic nuclei, the signatures of the central engine and from the dusty torus cannot be ignored. Over the past several years we have developed a method to disentangle these three components. Our synthesis shows significant differences between Seyfert 1 (Sy 1) and Seyfert 2 (Sy 2) galaxies. The central few hundred parsecs of our galaxy sample contain a substantial fraction of intermediate-age populations with a mean metallicity near solar. Two-dimensional mapping of the near-infrared stellar population of the nuclear region of active galaxies suggests that there is a spatial correlation between the intermediate-age stellar population and a partial ring of low stellar velocity dispersion (σ*). Such an age is consistent with a scenario in which the origin of the low-σ* rings is a past event which triggered an inflow of gas and formed stars which still keep the colder kinematics of the gas from which they have formed. We also discuss the fingerprints of features attributed to TP-AGB stars in the spectra of the nuclear regions of nearby galaxies.

  15. Some questions and answers about the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Office of Energy Research, US DOE is evaluating the concept of obtaining significant amounts of electrical energy from space through the Satellite Power System Project Office (SPS PO) formed for that purpose. The SPS PO prepared and is implementing a Concept Development and Evaluation Program plan. The CDEP runs roughly three years (from July 1977 through July 1980) and consists of four primary elements: (1) Systems Definition, (2) Environmental Assessment, (3) Societal Assessment, and (4) Comparative Assessment. One facet of the Societal Assessment is an investigation of public concerns. To further this investigation, a public outreach experiment was initiated to determine the initial response of three selected interest groups to the SPS, both qualitatively and quantititavely, and to gain some experience for use in future public participation activities. Three groups were contacted and agreed to participate in the experiment. They were: the Citizens Energy Project (CEP), the Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST), and the L-5 Society (L-5). They each agreed to condense twenty final SPS reports into approximately four pages each, have them typeset, printed and distributed to 3,000 of their constituents for their review, together with a request that they respond to the parent organization regarding the information presented. All responses were summarized and provided to Planning Research Corporation who then solicited the answers from the SPS PO investigator most directly concerned.The questions and answers are presented and will be distributed by the three groups to the individual respondents. Each of the three groups is also preparing a report to the Project Office detailing their work and results. These, together with other responses and studies will be used to more effectively involve the public in the SPS Participatory Technology Process.

  16. Rituals and Right Answers: Barriers and Supports to Autonomous Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Marcy B.

    2016-01-01

    Student autonomy has been an important object of study for mathematics educators for many years. Over time, framings of autonomy have moved from a focus on the individual to considerations of how an individual's autonomy is entangled in classroom-level interactions. What has been less closely studied is how classroom interactions provide uneven…

  17. Use of Feedback-Oriented Online Exercises to Help Physiology Students Construct Well-Organized Answers to Short-Answer Questions

    PubMed Central

    Carnegie, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Postsecondary education often requires students to use higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) such as analysis, evaluation, and creation as they assess situations and apply what they have learned during lecture to the formulation of solutions. Summative assessment of these abilities is often accomplished using short-answer questions (SAQs). Quandary was used to create feedback-oriented interactive online exercises to help students strengthen certain HOCS as they actively constructed answers to questions concerning the regulation of 1) metabolic rate, 2) blood sugar, 3) erythropoiesis, and 4) stroke volume. Each exercise began with a SAQ presenting an endocrine dysfunction or a physiological challenge; students were prompted to answer between six and eight multiple-choice questions while building their answer to the SAQ. Student outcomes on the SAQ sections of summative exams were compared before and after the introduction of the online tool and also between subgroups of students within the posttool-introduction population who demonstrated different levels of participation in the online exercises. While overall SAQ outcomes were not different before and after the introduction of the online exercises, once the SAQ tool had become available, those students who chose to use it had improved SAQ outcomes compared with those who did not. PMID:26113627

  18. Scavenger Hunts: Chasing Down Scientific Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Marshall S.; Dew, Nancy; Kronberg, Joyce R.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a scavenger hunt activity that stimulates active learning. Presents objectives, examples, pitfalls, grading methods, and evaluation based on course experiences with the technique. Although the method was used with lower division biology courses, it is applicable to a wide variety of science courses at various levels. (SAH)

  19. Keys to Success: School Facilities Primer, Questions & Answers 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Jim

    This publication provides answers to basic questions to help school board members more fully address the complexities of the planning, design, and construction process in order to maximize the goal of student success. The 101 questions and answers are in the areas of: facility planning; learning environment; information technology; safe schools;…

  20. 31 CFR 501.714 - Answer to Order Instituting Proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... respondent does not have, and is unable to obtain, sufficient information to admit or deny each allegation in... matter constituting an affirmative defense shall be asserted in the answer. Any allegation not... respondent may file with an answer a motion for a more definite statement of specified matters of fact or...

  1. 31 CFR 501.714 - Answer to Order Instituting Proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... respondent does not have, and is unable to obtain, sufficient information to admit or deny each allegation in... matter constituting an affirmative defense shall be asserted in the answer. Any allegation not... respondent may file with an answer a motion for a more definite statement of specified matters of fact or...

  2. Semantic representation of consumer questions and physician answers.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Laura A; Soergel, Dagobert; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the underlying semantics of health consumers' questions and physicians' answers in order to analyze the semantic patterns within these texts. We manually identified semantic relationships within question-answer pairs from Ask-the-Doctor Web sites. Identification of the semantic relationship instances within the texts was based on the relationship classes and structure of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Semantic Network. We calculated the frequency of occurrence of each semantic relationship class, and conceptual graphs were generated, joining concepts together through the semantic relationships identified. We then analyzed whether representations of physician's answers exactly matched the form of the question representations. Lastly, we examined characteristics of the answer conceptual graphs. We identified 97 semantic relationship instances in the questions and 334 instances in the answers. The most frequently identified semantic relationship in both questions and answers was brings_about (causal). We found that the semantic relationship propositions identified in answers that most frequently contain a concept also expressed in the question were: brings_about, isa, co_occurs_with, diagnoses, and treats. Using extracted semantic relationships from real-life questions and answers can produce a valuable analysis of the characteristics of these texts. This can lead to clues for creating semantic-based retrieval techniques that guide users to further information. For example, we determined that both consumers and physicians often express causative relationships and these play a key role in leading to further related concepts.

  3. 99 Facts about the FBI: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Bureau of Investigation, Quantico, VA.

    This booklet on the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) attempts to provide an overview of the FBI's functions. Presented in a question and answer format, the 99 questions and answers discuss the federal government agency's history, administrative matters, jurisdiction, criminal investigations, security matters, foreign counter-intelligence, and…

  4. 47 CFR 101.303 - Answers to notices of violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Answers to notices of violation. 101.303 Section 101.303 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions § 101.303 Answers to notices...

  5. 47 CFR 101.303 - Answers to notices of violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Answers to notices of violation. 101.303 Section 101.303 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions § 101.303 Answers to notices...

  6. 47 CFR 101.303 - Answers to notices of violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Answers to notices of violation. 101.303 Section 101.303 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions § 101.303 Answers to notices...

  7. 10 CFR 590.302 - Motions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Motions and answers. 590.302 Section 590.302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.302 Motions and answers....

  8. The Answerable Question and a Hierarchy of Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, John

    2005-01-01

    The concept of a hierarchy of evidence is useful in rapid electronic searching to answer questions arising during the natural course of clinical practice. The answerable question often begins "What is the evidence that ..." and, when focused on a treatment, usually includes a population, an intervention, a comparison group, and an outcome, often…

  9. 15 CFR 280.207 - Answer and demand for hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... this part. (d) English language required. The answer, all other papers, and all documentary evidence... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Answer and demand for hearing. 280.207 Section 280.207 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade...

  10. Regulation of Memory Accuracy with Multiple Answers: The Plurality Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Karlos; Higham, Philip A.; Martin-Luengo, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    We report two experiments that investigated the regulation of memory accuracy with a new regulatory mechanism: the plurality option. This mechanism is closely related to the grain-size option but involves control over the number of alternatives contained in an answer rather than the quantitative boundaries of a single answer. Participants were…

  11. Relation of Questions and Answers in Kennedy's Press Conferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostman, Ronald E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes the questions posed by reporters and the answers given by President John F. Kennedy in his formal press conferences. Concludes that questions that followed the rules for interviewing set forth by experts produced better answers than those that did not follow rules. (FL)

  12. Validity of Scoring "Dangerous Answers" on a Written Certification Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slogoff, Stephen; Hughes, Francis P.

    1987-01-01

    A study of the use of "dangerous answers" as a scoring method for certification examinations in anesthesiology concluded that selection of dangerous answers in multiple-choice tests results from lack of information rather than purposeful action, and that implementation of the scoring method is unjustified and unfairly punitive. (MSE)

  13. Questions and answers about energy recovery from waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-09-01

    Questions and answers about the developing waste-to-energy industry are presented. They are intended as a ready reference for the general public and others interested in exploring the option of utilizing municipal waste as a renewable energy resource. Questions were researched and answered in six broad categories: general information; state-of-the-art; economics/financial; environmental; institutional; and project implementation.

  14. 47 CFR 6.19 - Answers to informal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Answers to informal complaints. 6.19 Section 6..., TELECOMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT AND CUSTOMER PREMISES EQUIPMENT BY PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES Enforcement § 6.19 Answers to informal complaints. Any manufacturer or provider to whom an informal complaint is directed by...

  15. 47 CFR 7.19 - Answers to informal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Answers to informal complaints. 7.19 Section 7.19 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Enforcement § 7.19 Answers to...

  16. 17 CFR 12.18 - Answer; election of procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Answer; election of procedure...; election of procedure. An answer filed pursuant to § 12.16 of these rules shall meet the following... wishes to pursue under § 12.19 of these rules; (7) An election of an alternative decisional...

  17. Palliative Care Questions and Answers (Hospice Care Comparison)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Answers Palliative Care Questions and Answers Question Palliative Care Hospice Care Who can receive this care? Anyone with a ... a package deal? No, there is no ‘palliative care’ benefit package Yes, hospice is a comprehensive benefit covered by Medicare and ...

  18. 15 CFR 785.4 - Request for hearing and answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....4 Request for hearing and answer. (a) Deadline for answering the NOVA. If the respondent wishes to contest the NOVA issued by BIS, the respondent must submit a written request for a hearing to BIS within 15 business days from the date of service of the NOVA. If the respondent requests a hearing,...

  19. 15 CFR 785.4 - Request for hearing and answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....4 Request for hearing and answer. (a) Deadline for answering the NOVA. If the respondent wishes to contest the NOVA issued by BIS, the respondent must submit a written request for a hearing to BIS within 15 business days from the date of service of the NOVA. If the respondent requests a hearing,...

  20. 15 CFR 785.4 - Request for hearing and answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....4 Request for hearing and answer. (a) Deadline for answering the NOVA. If the respondent wishes to contest the NOVA issued by BIS, the respondent must submit a written request for a hearing to BIS within 15 business days from the date of service of the NOVA. If the respondent requests a hearing,...

  1. 15 CFR 785.4 - Request for hearing and answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....4 Request for hearing and answer. (a) Deadline for answering the NOVA. If the respondent wishes to contest the NOVA issued by BIS, the respondent must submit a written request for a hearing to BIS within 15 business days from the date of service of the NOVA. If the respondent requests a hearing,...

  2. 15 CFR 785.4 - Request for hearing and answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....4 Request for hearing and answer. (a) Deadline for answering the NOVA. If the respondent wishes to contest the NOVA issued by BIS, the respondent must submit a written request for a hearing to BIS within 15 business days from the date of service of the NOVA. If the respondent requests a hearing,...

  3. Learning Basic Addition Facts from Choosing between Alternative Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Galen, Mirte S.; Reitsma, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    The acquisition of addition facts was investigated in a practice study. Participants were 103 Grade 1 children who practiced simple addition problems with three different methods: (a) writing down the answer, (b) choosing between two alternative answers, and (c) filling in the second missing addend. On a test with simple addition problems,…

  4. 45 CFR 81.52 - Answer to notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... without knowledge, in which case his answer should so state, and the statement will be deemed a denial. Allegations of fact in the notice not denied or controverted by answer shall be deemed admitted. Matters... matters of fact recited in the notice....

  5. 47 CFR 101.303 - Answers to notices of violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Answers to notices of violation. 101.303 Section 101.303 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions § 101.303 Answers to notices...

  6. 47 CFR 101.303 - Answers to notices of violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Answers to notices of violation. 101.303 Section 101.303 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions § 101.303 Answers to notices...

  7. 9 CFR 202.106 - Rule 6: Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rule 6: Answer. 202.106 Section 202.106 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND.... (b) Required contents. If a respondent desires to make a defense, the answer of such person...

  8. 9 CFR 202.106 - Rule 6: Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 6: Answer. 202.106 Section 202.106 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND.... (b) Required contents. If a respondent desires to make a defense, the answer of such person...

  9. 9 CFR 202.106 - Rule 6: Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rule 6: Answer. 202.106 Section 202.106 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND.... (b) Required contents. If a respondent desires to make a defense, the answer of such person...

  10. 9 CFR 202.106 - Rule 6: Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rule 6: Answer. 202.106 Section 202.106 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND.... (b) Required contents. If a respondent desires to make a defense, the answer of such person...

  11. 9 CFR 202.106 - Rule 6: Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rule 6: Answer. 202.106 Section 202.106 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND.... (b) Required contents. If a respondent desires to make a defense, the answer of such person...

  12. Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Native Americans (DHEW/OHDS), Washington, DC.

    The question and answer booklet highlights the provisions of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 which was designed to protect the best interests of Indian children and to promote the stability and security of Indian tribes and families. The booklet attempts to answer 28 important questions concerning title I of the Act. Examples of questions…

  13. 7 CFR 1.309 - Answer and request for hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Answer and request for hearing. 1.309 Section 1.309 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Procedures Related to Administrative Hearings Under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986 § 1.309 Answer and request for...

  14. 10 CFR 590.304 - Protests and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protests and answers. 590.304 Section 590.304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.304 Protests and answers. (a)...

  15. 10 CFR 590.302 - Motions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Motions and answers. 590.302 Section 590.302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.302 Motions and answers....

  16. 10 CFR 590.303 - Interventions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interventions and answers. 590.303 Section 590.303 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.303 Interventions and answers....

  17. 10 CFR 590.304 - Protests and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protests and answers. 590.304 Section 590.304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.304 Protests and answers. (a)...

  18. 10 CFR 590.302 - Motions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Motions and answers. 590.302 Section 590.302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.302 Motions and answers....

  19. 10 CFR 590.303 - Interventions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interventions and answers. 590.303 Section 590.303 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.303 Interventions and answers....

  20. 10 CFR 590.304 - Protests and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protests and answers. 590.304 Section 590.304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.304 Protests and answers. (a)...

  1. 10 CFR 590.302 - Motions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Motions and answers. 590.302 Section 590.302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.302 Motions and answers....

  2. 10 CFR 590.303 - Interventions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interventions and answers. 590.303 Section 590.303 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.303 Interventions and answers....

  3. Using Separate Answer Sheets with Grade 3 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Thomas; O'Malley, Kimberly; Ragland, Shelley; Young, Michael; Kirkpatrick, Rob

    2014-01-01

    The authors compared the performance of third-grade students testing on answer sheets with those testing on machine-scored test booklets. The 1,832 students in the nationally representative sample were assigned at the campus level to complete the Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition in 1 of 4 conditions: (a) Form A answer sheet, (b)…

  4. Further Support for Changing Multiple-Choice Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabrey, Lawrence J.; Case, Susan M.

    1985-01-01

    The effect on test scores of changing answers to multiple-choice questions was studied and compared to earlier research. The current setting was a nationally administered, in-training, specialty examination for medical residents in obstetrics and gynecology. Both low and high scorers improved their scores when they changed answers. (SW)

  5. A Procedure Using Calculators to Express Answers in Fractional Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Earnest

    A procedure is described that enables students to perform operations on fractions with a calculator, expressing the answer as a fraction. Patterns using paper-and-pencil procedures for each operation with fractions are presented. A microcomputer software program illustrates how the answer can be found using integer values of the numerators and…

  6. Metacognitive Strategies Applied during Correcting Text-Related Answers of Three Students with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzuner, Yildiz

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the metacognitive strategies applied during the controlling-correcting activities of three hearing-impaired youths' written answers to text-related questions. The data have been derived from a pilot action research effort. The research journal, students' portfolios, archival information, interviews, surveys…

  7. Getting Down to Business: Answering Service, Module 17. [Student Guide]. Entrepreneurship Training Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Norma

    This module on owning and operating an answering service is one of 36 in a series on entrepreneurship. The introduction tells the student what topics will be covered and suggests other modules to read in related occupations. Each unit includes student goals, a case study, and a discussion of the unit subject matter. Learning activities are divided…

  8. Questions and Answers about Sex (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the child learns to use them in a direct manner, without embarrassment. In fact, this is what ... to interrupt the play. You may wish to direct your child's attention to another activity without making ...

  9. A Semi-Supervised Learning Approach to Enhance Health Care Community–Based Question Answering: A Case Study in Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Klabjan, Diego; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Background Community-based question answering (CQA) sites play an important role in addressing health information needs. However, a significant number of posted questions remain unanswered. Automatically answering the posted questions can provide a useful source of information for Web-based health communities. Objective In this study, we developed an algorithm to automatically answer health-related questions based on past questions and answers (QA). We also aimed to understand information embedded within Web-based health content that are good features in identifying valid answers. Methods Our proposed algorithm uses information retrieval techniques to identify candidate answers from resolved QA. To rank these candidates, we implemented a semi-supervised leaning algorithm that extracts the best answer to a question. We assessed this approach on a curated corpus from Yahoo! Answers and compared against a rule-based string similarity baseline. Results On our dataset, the semi-supervised learning algorithm has an accuracy of 86.2%. Unified medical language system–based (health related) features used in the model enhance the algorithm’s performance by proximately 8%. A reasonably high rate of accuracy is obtained given that the data are considerably noisy. Important features distinguishing a valid answer from an invalid answer include text length, number of stop words contained in a test question, a distance between the test question and other questions in the corpus, and a number of overlapping health-related terms between questions. Conclusions Overall, our automated QA system based on historical QA pairs is shown to be effective according to the dataset in this case study. It is developed for general use in the health care domain, which can also be applied to other CQA sites. PMID:27485666

  10. Aligning Learning Activities with Instructional Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurvitch, Rachel; Metzler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Model-based instruction has been increasingly used in physical education for the past two decades. Metzler (2011) identified eight instructional models that are commonly used in physical education today. Each model is designed to promote certain kinds of learning outcomes for students and to address different combinations of the national…

  11. Supporting Students' Knowledge Transfer in Modeling Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piksööt, Jaanika; Sarapuu, Tago

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates ways to enhance secondary school students' knowledge transfer in complex science domains by implementing question prompts. Two samples of students applied two web-based models to study molecular genetics--the model of genetic code (n = 258) and translation (n = 245). For each model, the samples were randomly divided into…

  12. Can Distributional Approximations Give Exact Answers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Some mathematical activities and investigations for the classroom or the lecture theatre can appear rather contrived. This cannot, however, be levelled at the idea given here, since it is based on a perfectly sensible question concerning distributional approximations that was posed by an undergraduate student. Out of this simple question, and…

  13. NASA GSFC CCMC Recent Model Validation Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastaetter, L.; Pulkkinen, A.; Taktakishvill, A.; Macneice, P.; Shim, J. S.; Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Hesse, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) holds the largest assembly of state-of-the-art physics-based space weather models developed by the international space physics community. In addition to providing the community easy access to these modern space research models to support science research, its another primary goal is to test and validate models for transition from research to operations. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the space science models available at CCMC. Then we will focus on the community-wide model validation efforts led by CCMC in all domains of the Sun-Earth system and the internal validation efforts at CCMC to support space weather servicesjoperations provided its sibling organization - NASA GSFC Space Weather Center (http://swc.gsfc.nasa.gov). We will also discuss our efforts in operational model validation in collaboration with NOAA/SWPC.

  14. Physical activity for people with a disability: a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P; van der Beek, Allard J; van der Woude, Luc H V; van Mechelen, Willem

    2004-01-01

    The promotion of a physically active lifestyle has become an important issue in health policy in first-world countries. A physically active lifestyle is accompanied by several fitness and health benefits. Individuals with a disability can particularly benefit from an active lifestyle: not only does it reduce the risk for secondary health problems, but all levels of functioning can be influenced positively. The objective of this article is to propose a conceptual model that describes the relationships between physical activity behaviour, its determinants and functioning of people with a disability. The literature was systematically searched for articles considering physical activity and disability, and models relating both topics were looked for in particular. No models were found relating physical activity behaviour, its determinants and functioning in people with a disability. Consequently, a new model, the Physical Activity for people with a Disability (PAD) model, was constructed based on existing models of disability and models of determinants of physical activity behaviour. The starting point was the new WHO Model of Functioning and Disability, part of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), which describes the multidimensional aspects of functioning and disability. Physical activity behaviour and its determinants were integrated into the ICF model. The factors determining physical activity were based mainly on those used in the Attitude, Social influence and self-Efficacy (ASE) model. The proposed model can be used as a theoretical framework for future interventions and research on physical activity promotion in the population of people with a disability. The model currently forms the theoretical basis for a large physical activity promotion trial in ten Dutch rehabilitation centres.

  15. [Model of active peristaltic transport in biosystems].

    PubMed

    Klochkov, B N; Romanov, A S

    2013-01-01

    A nonlinear distributed mathematical model of soft vessel with the nonmonotonous static characteristic is proposed and considered. The model describes space-time dynamics of vessel clearance change. Wave phenomena in vessels of different nature and the possibility of peristaltic fluid pumping are discussed and analyzed. The model is rather common in character and represents a description of the whole class of transport phenomena. Lymphatic vessels are particularly considered.

  16. Merida Initiative: The Answer for Mexico?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-15

    Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Prior to September 11, 2001, internal strife and drug trafficking increased immensely in Colombia ...Plan Colombia should be the model for Mexico as the Mérida Initiative is still in its infancy. It concludes with recommendations for strengthening the...Mérida Initiative. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Plan Colombia ; Mérida Initiative 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18

  17. An Activity Model for Scientific Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, William

    2004-01-01

    Most people are frustrated with the current scientific method presented in textbooks. The scientific method--a simplistic model of the scientific inquiry process--fails in most cases to provide a successful guide to how science is done. This is not shocking, really. Many simple models used in science are quite useful within their limitations. When…

  18. Rodent model of activity-based anorexia.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Olaia; Fraga, Ángela; Pellón, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, Emilio

    2014-04-10

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) consists of a procedure that involves the simultaneous exposure of animals to a restricted feeding schedule, while free access is allowed to an activity wheel. Under these conditions, animals show a progressive increase in wheel running, a reduced efficiency in food intake to compensate for their increased activity, and a severe progression of weight loss. Due to the parallelism with the clinical manifestations of anorexia nervosa including increased activity, reduced food intake and severe weight loss, the ABA procedure has been proposed as the best analog of human anorexia nervosa (AN). Thus, ABA research could both allow a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying AN and generate useful leads for treatment development in AN.

  19. CFD Modeling Activities at the NASA Stennis Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allgood, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on NASA Stennis Space Center's Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling activities is shown. The topics include: 1) Overview of NASA Stennis Space Center; 2) Role of Computational Modeling at NASA-SSC; 3) Computational Modeling Tools and Resources; and 4) CFD Modeling Applications.

  20. What Is the Correct Answer about The Dress’ Colors? Investigating the Relation between Optimism, Previous Experience, and Answerability

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Bodil S. A.; Allwood, Carl Martin

    2016-01-01

    The Dress photograph, first displayed on the internet in 2015, revealed stunning individual differences in color perception. The aim of this study was to investigate if lay-persons believed that the question about The Dress colors was answerable. Past research has found that optimism is related to judgments of how answerable knowledge questions with controversial answers are (Karlsson et al., 2016). Furthermore, familiarity with a question can create a feeling of knowing the answer (Reder and Ritter, 1992). Building on these findings, 186 participants saw the photo of The Dress and were asked about the correct answer to the question about The Dress’ colors (“blue and black,” “white and gold,” “other, namely…,” or “there is no correct answer”). Choice of the alternative “there is no correct answer” was interpreted as believing the question was not answerable. This answer was chosen more often by optimists and by people who reported they had not seen The Dress before. We also found that among participants who had seen The Dress photo before, 19%, perceived The Dress as “white and gold” but believed that the correct answer was “blue and black.” This, in analogy to previous findings about non-believed memories (Scoboria and Pascal, 2016), shows that people sometimes do not believe the colors they have perceived are correct. Our results suggest that individual differences related to optimism and previous experience may contribute to if the judgment of the individual perception of a photograph is enough to serve as a decision basis for valid conclusions about colors. Further research about color judgments under ambiguous circumstances could benefit from separating individual perceptual experience from beliefs about the correct answer to the color question. Including the option “there is no correct answer” may also be beneficial. PMID:27933007

  1. Prediction limits of mobile phone activity modelling

    PubMed Central

    Grauwin, Sebastian; Kallus, Zsófia; Gódor, István; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Ratti, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Thanks to their widespread usage, mobile devices have become one of the main sensors of human behaviour and digital traces left behind can be used as a proxy to study urban environments. Exploring the nature of the spatio-temporal patterns of mobile phone activity could thus be a crucial step towards understanding the full spectrum of human activities. Using 10 months of mobile phone records from Greater London resolved in both space and time, we investigate the regularity of human telecommunication activity on urban scales. We evaluate several options for decomposing activity timelines into typical and residual patterns, accounting for the strong periodic and seasonal components. We carry out our analysis on various spatial scales, showing that regularity increases as we look at aggregated activity in larger spatial units with more activity in them. We examine the statistical properties of the residuals and show that it can be explained by noise and specific outliers. Also, we look at sources of deviations from the general trends, which we find to be explainable based on knowledge of the city structure and places of attractions. We show examples how some of the outliers can be related to external factors such as specific social events. PMID:28386443

  2. Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions Past Issues / ... Drug Abuse during their first Drug Facts Chat Day. Photo courtesy of NIDA The questions poured in… ...

  3. 38 CFR 18b.31 - Answer to notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... detail each allegation of the notice, unless the respondent party is without knowledge, in which case the answer should so state, and the statement will be deemed a denial. Allegations of fact in the notice...

  4. 40 CFR 22.15 - Answer to the complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... respondent has any knowledge. Where respondent has no knowledge of a particular factual allegation and so states, the allegation is deemed denied. The answer shall also state: The circumstances or...

  5. Qualified answers that reflect user needs and preferences

    SciTech Connect

    Gaasterland, T.; Lobo, J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper introduces a formalism to describe the needs and preferences of database users. Because of the precise formulation of these concepts, we have found an automatic and {ital very simple} mechanism to incorporate user needs and preferences into the query answering process. In the formalism, the user provides a lattice of domain independent values that define preferences and needs and a set of domain specific {ital user constraints} qualified with lattice values. The constraints are automatically incorporated into a relational or deductive database through a series of syntactic transformations that produces an annotated deductive database. Query answering procedures for deductive databases are then used, with minor modifications, to obtain annotated answers to queries. Because preference declaration is separated from data representation and management, preferences can be easily altered without touching the database. Also, the query language allows users to ask for answers at different preference levels. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Questions and Answers About Alternatives in Each Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following list of questions and answers provides an overview of the regulations governing the use of substitutes that are reviewed under the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program in various industrial sectors.

  7. American Iron and Steel Requirement - Guidance and Questions and Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Explanation of the P.L. 113-76, Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 its implementation for the American Iron and Steel (AIS) requirement and other questions and answers in regards to AIS requirements

  8. 17 CFR 12.18 - Answer; election of procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (during business hours) of each respondent on whose behalf the answer is filed; (2) A complete description..., Office of Proceedings, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, Three Lafayette Centre, 1155 21st Street,...

  9. Questions and answers based on revised 10 CFR Part 20

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, T.; Stafford, R.S.; Lu, P.Y.; Carter, D.

    1994-05-01

    NUREG/CR-6204 is a collection of questions and answers that were originally issued in seven sets and which pertain to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions came from both outside and within the NRC. The answers were compiled and provided by NRC staff within the offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Nuclear Regulatory Research, the Office of State Programs, and the five regional offices. Although all of the questions and answers have been reviewed by attorneys in the NRC Office of the General Counsel, they do not constitute official legal interpretations relevant to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions and answers do, however, reflect NRC staff decisions and technical options on aspects of the revised 10 CFR Part 20 regulatory requirements. This NUREG is being made available to encourage communication among the public, industry, and NRC staff concerning the major revisions of the NRC`s standards for protection against radiation.

  10. Army Non-Programmer System for Working Encyclopedia Request (ANSWER)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    1.2 ANSWER Program Objectives The objective of the ANSWER program is to conduct reseach and develop prototype tools that provide uniform, integrated...Pushbutton "OK" to close the dialog and accept changes to the selected node. - Pushbutton " Cancer to close the dialog and make no changes to the selected node...8217Integrate" to command the integration to take place; enabled if at least one set of items have been declared equivalent - Pushbutton " Cancer to close

  11. Berkeley Lab Answers Your Home Energy Efficiency Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain

    2013-02-14

    In this follow-up "Ask Berkeley Lab" video, energy efficiency expert Iain Walker answers some of your questions about home energy efficiency. How do you monitor which appliances use the most energy? Should you replace your old windows? Are photovoltaic systems worth the cost? What to do about a leaky house? And what's the single biggest energy user in your home? Watch the video to get the answers to these and more questions.

  12. Two New Statistics To Detect Answer Copying. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotaridona, Leonardo S.; Meijer, Rob R.

    Two new indices to detect answer copying on a multiple-choice test, S(1) and S(2) (subscripts), are proposed. The S(1) index is similar to the K-index (P. Holland, 1996) and the K-overscore(2), (K2) index (L. Sotaridona and R. Meijer, in press), but the distribution of the number of matching incorrect answers of the source (examinee s) and the…

  13. Detecting Bot-Answerable Questions in Ubuntu Chat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Detecting Bot -Answerable Questions in Ubuntu Chat David C. Uthus NRC/NRL Postdoctoral Fellow Washington, DC 20375 duthus@google.com David W. Aha Navy...Chat technical support channel has bots that output specific messages in response to com- mand words from other channel users. These messages can be...automatically distinguish bot -answerable questions, which would mitigate this prob- lem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work on investigating

  14. Berkeley Lab Answers Your Home Energy Efficiency Questions

    ScienceCinema

    Walker, Iain

    2016-07-12

    In this follow-up "Ask Berkeley Lab" video, energy efficiency expert Iain Walker answers some of your questions about home energy efficiency. How do you monitor which appliances use the most energy? Should you replace your old windows? Are photovoltaic systems worth the cost? What to do about a leaky house? And what's the single biggest energy user in your home? Watch the video to get the answers to these and more questions.

  15. Atmospheric transmittance model for photosynthetically active radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Paulescu, Marius; Stefu, Nicoleta; Gravila, Paul; Paulescu, Eugenia; Boata, Remus; Pacurar, Angel; Mares, Oana; Pop, Nicolina; Calinoiu, Delia

    2013-11-13

    A parametric model of the atmospheric transmittance in the PAR band is presented. The model can be straightforwardly applied for calculating the beam, diffuse and global components of the PAR solar irradiance. The required inputs are: air pressure, ozone, water vapor and nitrogen dioxide column content, Ångström's turbidity coefficient and single scattering albedo. Comparison with other models and ground measured data shows a reasonable level of accuracy for this model, making it suitable for practical applications. From the computational point of view the calculus is condensed into simple algebra which is a noticeable advantage. For users interested in speed-intensive computation of the effective PAR solar irradiance, a PC program based on the parametric equations along with a user guide are available online at http://solar.physics.uvt.ro/srms.

  16. Interactive Activation Model of Speech Perception.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    contract. 0 Elar, .l... & .McC’lelland .1.1. Speech perception a, a cognitive proces,: The interactive act ia- %e., tion model of speech perception. In...attempts to provide a machine solution to the problem of speech perception. A second kind of model, growing out of Cognitive Psychology, attempts to...architectures to cognitive and perceptual problems. We also owe a debt to what we might call the computational connectionists -- those who have applied highly

  17. Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance: More questions than answers

    PubMed Central

    Daxinger, Lucia; Whitelaw, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications are widely accepted as playing a critical role in the regulation of gene expression and thereby contributing to the determination of the phenotype of multicellular organisms. In general, these marks are cleared and re-established each generation, but there have been reports in a number of model organisms that at some loci in the genome this clearing is incomplete. This phenomenon is referred to as transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. Moreover, recent evidence shows that the environment can stably influence the establishment of the epigenome. Together, these findings suggest that an environmental event in one generation could affect the phenotype in subsequent generations, and these somewhat Lamarckian ideas are stimulating interest from a broad spectrum of biologists, from ecologists to health workers. PMID:21041414

  18. Industrial melanism: Do we have the answers?

    PubMed

    Brakefield, P M

    1987-05-01

    Entomologists from the late 19th century onwards recognized the evolutionary interest of the association of black forms of the peppered moth with industrialization. They developed a qualitative explanation of the phenomenon involving a change in relative crypsis of the phenotypes due to the blackening of the moth's resting background by air pollution. More recently, ecological geneticists have obtained some estimates of predation by birds and of population parameters such as migration rate. Models incorporating these estimates have explored the ways in which natural selection influences spatial variation and the maintenance of polymorphism. Studies on the peppered moth and some of the many other insects exhibiting industrial melanism have concentrated on the variability and dynamics of adult populations. Recent work which has begun to examine the ecology and behaviour of individuals, complete life cycles, and gene-phenotype relationships, is refining our understanding of this adaptation and also of present-day declines in melanic frequencies in response to falling air pollution.

  19. The Role of Various Curriculum Models on Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Dean O.; Tarr, Susan J.; Killion, Lorraine E.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that physical education curricula can be highly effective in increasing physical activity levels at school (Sallis & Owen, 1999). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of various curriculum models on physical activity. Total steps were measured on 1,111 subjects and three curriculum models were studied…

  20. Modelling Activities In Kinematics Understanding quantitative relations with the contribution of qualitative reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orfanos, Stelios

    2010-01-01

    In Greek traditional teaching a lot of significant concepts are introduced with a sequence that does not provide the students with all the necessary information required to comprehend. We consider that understanding concepts and the relations among them is greatly facilitated by the use of modelling tools, taking into account that the modelling process forces students to change their vague, imprecise ideas into explicit causal relationships. It is not uncommon to find students who are able to solve problems by using complicated relations without getting a qualitative and in-depth grip on them. Researchers have already shown that students often have a formal mathematical and physical knowledge without a qualitative understanding of basic concepts and relations." The aim of this communication is to present some of the results of our investigation into modelling activities related to kinematical concepts. For this purpose, we have used ModellingSpace, an environment that was especially designed to allow students from eleven to seventeen years old to express their ideas and gradually develop them. The ModellingSpace enables students to build their own models and offers the choice of observing directly simulations of real objects and/or all the other alternative forms of representations (tables of values, graphic representations and bar-charts). The students -in order to answer the questions- formulate hypotheses, they create models, they compare their hypotheses with the representations of their models and they modify or create other models when their hypotheses did not agree with the representations. In traditional ways of teaching, students are educated to utilize formulas as the most important strategy. Several times the students recall formulas in order to utilize them, without getting an in-depth understanding on them. Students commonly use the quantitative type of reasoning, since it is primarily used in teaching, although it may not be fully understood by them

  1. Active Member Design, Modeling, and Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umland, Jeffrey W.; Webster, Mark; John, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    The design and development of active members intended for use in structural control applications is presented. The use of three different solid state actuation materials, namely, piezoelectric, electrostictive, and magnetostrictive, is discussed. Test data is given in order to illustrate the actuator and device characteristics and performance.

  2. Gaussian Process for Activity Modeling and Anomaly Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, W.; Rosenhahn, B.; Yang, M. Ying

    2015-08-01

    Complex activity modeling and identification of anomaly is one of the most interesting and desired capabilities for automated video behavior analysis. A number of different approaches have been proposed in the past to tackle this problem. There are two main challenges for activity modeling and anomaly detection: 1) most existing approaches require sufficient data and supervision for learning; 2) the most interesting abnormal activities arise rarely and are ambiguous among typical activities, i.e. hard to be precisely defined. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to model complex activities and detect anomalies by using non-parametric Gaussian Process (GP) models in a crowded and complicated traffic scene. In comparison with parametric models such as HMM, GP models are nonparametric and have their advantages. Our GP models exploit implicit spatial-temporal dependence among local activity patterns. The learned GP regression models give a probabilistic prediction of regional activities at next time interval based on observations at present. An anomaly will be detected by comparing the actual observations with the prediction at real time. We verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed model on the QMUL Junction Dataset. Furthermore, we provide a publicly available manually labeled ground truth of this data set.

  3. Models of Early Childhood Education: Questions but No Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavatelli, Celia S.

    1972-01-01

    A review of Experiments in Primary Education: Aspects of Project Follow-Through" (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich), by Eleanor E. Maccoby and Miriam Zellner. A preliminary report of Project Follow-Through, the U.S. Office of Education-sponsored project designed to continue selected experimental preschool programs through the primary grades of…

  4. Ferromagnetic interaction model of activity level in workplace communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Yano, Kazuo

    2013-03-01

    The nature of human-human interaction, specifically, how people synchronize with each other in multiple-participant conversations, is described by a ferromagnetic interaction model of people’s activity levels. We found two microscopic human interaction characteristics from a real-environment face-to-face conversation. The first characteristic is that people quite regularly synchronize their activity level with that of the other participants in a conversation. The second characteristic is that the degree of synchronization increases as the number of participants increases. Based on these microscopic ferromagnetic characteristics, a “conversation activity level” was modeled according to the Ising model. The results of a simulation of activity level based on this model well reproduce macroscopic experimental measurements of activity level. This model will give a new insight into how people interact with each other in a conversation.

  5. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Hungry for an Answer

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been defined in several ways, but in general describes a condition in which the fetus exhibits poor growth in utero. This complication of pregnancy poses a significant public health burden as well as increased morbidity and mortality for the offspring. In human IUGR, alteration in fetal glucose and insulin homeostasis occurs in an effort to conserve energy and survive at the expense of fetal growth in an environment of inadequate nutrient provision. Several animal models of IUGR have been utilized to study the effects of IUGR on fetal glucose handling, as well as the postnatal reprogramming of energy metabolite handling, which may be unmasked in adulthood as a maladaptive propensity for cardiometabolic disease. This developmental programming may be mediated in part by epigenetic modification of essential regulators of glucose homeostasis. Several pharmacological therapies and nonpharmacological lifestyle modifications have shown early promise in mitigating the risk for or severity of adult metabolic phenotypes but still require further study of unanticipated and/or untoward side effects. PMID:26889018

  6. Great productivity debate: the answer is energy

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson, D.W.

    1980-11-01

    In this interview, Dr. Jorgenson views the rapid US economic growth from 1948 to 1976 as due largely to expanded capital input, followed by growth in productivity and labor inputs. The decline since 1973 is almost entirely due to the drop in productivity. When the data are disaggregated to the level of 35 individual industrial and government sectors to determine gross intermediate outputs, the model is able to determine how the relative prices of sectoral inputs affect the growth of sectoral productivity. A tax package which cuts both payroll and capital taxes will stimulate capital formation and productivity growth. The concept of a First Year Capital Recovery System (FYCRS) insulates capital-consumption allowances from inflation and allows tax rates to reflect present value as well as reducing business paperwork. This approach would also spur technological innovation and improve the US position in international competition using trade adjustment and unemployment assistance in a way that won't prolong the life of noncompetitive industries. Specific measures that can redirect research and training need to link the scientific and business sectors in the planning process. (DCK)

  7. Modeling of Equivalent Nonlinear Resistance and Capacitance of Active Cochlea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    based on the studies of OAEs, partially because OAEs can be objectively measured at ear canal and viewed as an observation of OHC activities. Zweig ...actually supports the previous models proposed by Zweig and Talmadge, and by Hubbard on the following grounds. First, all these models are based on...the classical passive one-dimensional transmission line cochlear model. Second, both the models of Zweig and of Hubbard, and the model proposed in

  8. Bacteriophage: A Model System for Active Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luciano, Carl S.; Young, Matthew W.; Patterson, Robin R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a student-centered laboratory course in which student teams select phage from sewage samples and characterize the phage in a semester-long project that models real-life scientific research. Results of student evaluations indicate a high level of satisfaction with the course. (Author/MM)

  9. Testing a Theoretical Model of Immigration Transition and Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sun Ju; Im, Eun-Ok

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to develop a theoretical model to explain the relationships between immigration transition and midlife women's physical activity and test the relationships among the major variables of the model. A theoretical model, which was developed based on transitions theory and the midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity theory, consists of 4 major variables, including length of stay in the United States, country of birth, level of acculturation, and midlife women's physical activity. To test the theoretical model, a secondary analysis with data from 127 Hispanic women and 123 non-Hispanic (NH) Asian women in a national Internet study was used. Among the major variables of the model, length of stay in the United States was negatively associated with physical activity in Hispanic women. Level of acculturation in NH Asian women was positively correlated with women's physical activity. Country of birth and level of acculturation were significant factors that influenced physical activity in both Hispanic and NH Asian women. The findings support the theoretical model that was developed to examine relationships between immigration transition and physical activity; it shows that immigration transition can play an essential role in influencing health behaviors of immigrant populations in the United States. The NH theoretical model can be widely used in nursing practice and research that focus on immigrant women and their health behaviors. Health care providers need to consider the influences of immigration transition to promote immigrant women's physical activity.

  10. MEDLINE as a Source of Just-in-Time Answers to Clinical Questions

    PubMed Central

    Demner-Fushman, Dina; Hauser, Susan E.; Humphrey, Susanne M.; Ford, Glenn M.; Jacobs, Joshua L.; Thoma, George R.

    2006-01-01

    Clinicians increasingly use handheld devices to support evidence-based practice and for clinical decision support. However, support of clinical decisions through information retrieval from MEDLINE® and other databases lags behind popular daily activities such as patient information or drug formulary look-up. The objective of the current study is to determine whether relevant information can be retrieved from MEDLINE to answer clinical questions using a handheld device at the point of care. Analysis of search and retrieval results for 108 clinical questions asked by members of clinical teams during 28 daily rounds in a 12-bed intensive care unit confirm MEDLINE as a potentially valuable resource for just-in-time answers to clinical questions. Answers to 93 (86%) questions were found in MEDLINE by two resident physicians using handheld devices. The majority of answers, 88.9% and 97.7% respectively, were found during rounds. Strategies that facilitated timely retrieval of results include using PubMed® Clinical Queries and Related Articles, spell check, and organizing retrieval results into topical clusters. Further possible improvements in organization of retrieval results such as automatic semantic clustering and providing patient outcome information along with the titles of the retrieved articles are discussed. PMID:17238329

  11. MEDLINE as a source of just-in-time answers to clinical questions.

    PubMed

    Demner-Fushman, Dina; Hauser, Susan E; Humphrey, Susanne M; Ford, Glenn M; Jacobs, Joshua L; Thoma, George R

    2006-01-01

    Clinicians increasingly use handheld devices to support evidence-based practice and for clinical decision support. However, support of clinical decisions through information retrieval from MEDLINE(R) and other databases lags behind popular daily activities such as patient information or drug formulary look-up. The objective of the current study is to determine whether relevant information can be retrieved from MEDLINE to answer clinical questions using a handheld device at the point of care. Analysis of search and retrieval results for 108 clinical questions asked by members of clinical teams during 28 daily rounds in a 12-bed intensive care unit confirm MEDLINE as a potentially valuable resource for just-in-time answers to clinical questions. Answers to 93 (86%) questions were found in MEDLINE by two resident physicians using handheld devices. The majority of answers, 88.9% and 97.7% respectively, were found during rounds. Strategies that facilitated timely retrieval of results include using PubMed(R) Clinical Queries and Related Articles, spell check, and organizing retrieval results into topical clusters. Further possible improvements in organization of retrieval results such as automatic semantic clustering and providing patient outcome information along with the titles of the retrieved articles are discussed.

  12. CRAFFT: An Activity Prediction Model based on Bayesian Networks.

    PubMed

    Nazerfard, Ehsan; Cook, Diane J

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in the areas of pervasive computing, data mining, and machine learning offer unique opportunities to provide health monitoring and assistance for individuals facing difficulties to live independently in their homes. Several components have to work together to provide health monitoring for smart home residents including, but not limited to, activity recognition, activity discovery, activity prediction, and prompting system. Compared to the significant research done to discover and recognize activities, less attention has been given to predict the future activities that the resident is likely to perform. Activity prediction components can play a major role in design of a smart home. For instance, by taking advantage of an activity prediction module, a smart home can learn context-aware rules to prompt individuals to initiate important activities. In this paper, we propose an activity prediction model using Bayesian networks together with a novel two-step inference process to predict both the next activity features and the next activity label. We also propose an approach to predict the start time of the next activity which is based on modeling the relative start time of the predicted activity using the continuous normal distribution and outlier detection. To validate our proposed models, we used real data collected from physical smart environments.

  13. Representation of Dormant and Active Microbial Dynamics for Ecosystem Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Gangsheng; Mayes, Melanie; Gu, Lianhong; Schadt, Christopher Warren

    2014-01-01

    Dormancy is an essential strategy for microorganisms to cope with environmental stress. However, global ecosystem models typically ignore microbial dormancy, resulting in notable model uncertainties. To facilitate the consideration of dormancy in these large-scale models, we propose a new microbial physiology component that works for a wide range of substrate availabilities. This new model is based on microbial physiological states and the major parameters are the maximum specific growth and maintenance rates of active microbes and the ratio of dormant to active maintenance rates. A major improvement of our model over extant models is that it can explain the low active microbial fractions commonly observed in undisturbed soils. Our new model shows that the exponentially-increasing respiration from substrate-induced respiration experiments can only be used to determine the maximum specific growth rate and initial active microbial biomass, while the respiration data representing both exponentially-increasing and non-exponentially-increasing phases can robustly determine a range of key parameters including the initial total live biomass, initial active fraction, the maximum specific growth and maintenance rates, and the half-saturation constant. Our new model can be incorporated into existing ecosystem models to account for dormancy in microbially-driven processes and to provide improved estimates of microbial activities.

  14. Human milk research for answering questions about human health.

    PubMed

    Wang, Richard Y; Bates, Michael N; Goldstein, Daniel A; Haynes, Suzanne G; Hench, Karen D; Lawrence, Ruth A; Paul, Ian M; Qian, Zhengmin

    2005-10-22

    Concerns regarding human milk in our society are diverse, ranging from the presence of environmental chemicals to the health of breastfed infants and the economic value of breastfeeding to society. The panel convened for the Technical Workshop on Human Milk Surveillance and Biomonitoring for Environmental Chemicals in the United States, held at the Hershey Medical Center, Pennsylvania State College of Medicine, on 24--26 September 2004, considered how human milk research may contribute to environmental health initiatives to benefit society. The panel concluded that infant, maternal, and community health can benefit from studies using human milk biomonitoring. Unlike other biological specimens, human milk provides information regarding exposure of the mother and breastfed infant to environmental chemicals. Some of the health topics relevant to this field of research include disorders of growth and development in infants, cancer origins in women, and characterization of the trend of exposure to environmental chemicals in the community. The research focus will determine the design of the study and the need for the collection of alternative biological specimens and the long-term storage of these specimens. In order to strengthen the ability to interpret study results, it is important to identify reference ranges for the chemicals measured and to control for populations with high environmental chemical exposure, because the amount of data on environmental chemical levels in human milk that is available for comparison is extremely limited. In addition, it will be necessary to validate models used to assess infant exposure from breastfeeding because of the variable nature of current models. Information on differences between individual and population risk estimates for toxicity needs to be effectively communicated to the participant. Human milk research designed to answer questions regarding health will require additional resources to meet these objectives.

  15. Model Eliciting Activities: Fostering 21st Century Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohlmann, Micah

    2013-01-01

    Real world mathematical modeling activities can develop needed and valuable 21st century skills. The knowledge and skills to become adept at mathematical modeling need to develop over time and students in the elementary grades should have experiences with mathematical modeling. For this to occur elementary teachers need to have positive…

  16. The DoD Enterprise Model. Volume 1. Strategic Activity and Data Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    to depict activities while IDEFIX is used to depict the data that support those activities. This appendix shows the DoD Enterprise Activity models; the...Strategic Data Model. C.1 IDEF IX DATA MODELING NOTATION The DoD Strategic Data Model uses IDEFIX notation to describe information requirements that... IDEFIX syntax concerning entities and attributes, category notation, and relationships. C. 1.1 Entities and Attributes In the DoD Strategic Data

  17. A Multiscale Survival Process for Modeling Human Activity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianyang; Cui, Peng; Song, Chaoming; Zhu, Wenwu; Yang, Shiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Human activity plays a central role in understanding large-scale social dynamics. It is well documented that individual activity pattern follows bursty dynamics characterized by heavy-tailed interevent time distributions. Here we study a large-scale online chatting dataset consisting of 5,549,570 users, finding that individual activity pattern varies with timescales whereas existing models only approximate empirical observations within a limited timescale. We propose a novel approach that models the intensity rate of an individual triggering an activity. We demonstrate that the model precisely captures corresponding human dynamics across multiple timescales over five orders of magnitudes. Our model also allows extracting the population heterogeneity of activity patterns, characterized by a set of individual-specific ingredients. Integrating our approach with social interactions leads to a wide range of implications. PMID:27023682

  18. Stochastic modelling of muscle recruitment during activity

    PubMed Central

    Martelli, Saulo; Calvetti, Daniela; Somersalo, Erkki; Viceconti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Muscle forces can be selected from a space of muscle recruitment strategies that produce stable motion and variable muscle and joint forces. However, current optimization methods provide only a single muscle recruitment strategy. We modelled the spectrum of muscle recruitment strategies while walking. The equilibrium equations at the joints, muscle constraints, static optimization solutions and 15-channel electromyography (EMG) recordings for seven walking cycles were taken from earlier studies. The spectrum of muscle forces was calculated using Bayesian statistics and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, whereas EMG-driven muscle forces were calculated using EMG-driven modelling. We calculated the differences between the spectrum and EMG-driven muscle force for 1–15 input EMGs, and we identified the muscle strategy that best matched the recorded EMG pattern. The best-fit strategy, static optimization solution and EMG-driven force data were compared using correlation analysis. Possible and plausible muscle forces were defined as within physiological boundaries and within EMG boundaries. Possible muscle and joint forces were calculated by constraining the muscle forces between zero and the peak muscle force. Plausible muscle forces were constrained within six selected EMG boundaries. The spectrum to EMG-driven force difference increased from 40 to 108 N for 1–15 EMG inputs. The best-fit muscle strategy better described the EMG-driven pattern (R2 = 0.94; RMSE = 19 N) than the static optimization solution (R2 = 0.38; RMSE = 61 N). Possible forces for 27 of 34 muscles varied between zero and the peak muscle force, inducing a peak hip force of 11.3 body-weights. Plausible muscle forces closely matched the selected EMG patterns; no effect of the EMG constraint was observed on the remaining muscle force ranges. The model can be used to study alternative muscle recruitment strategies in both physiological and pathophysiological neuromotor conditions. PMID:25844155

  19. STS-103 Commander Brown answers question during interview at Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    STS-103 Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. answers a question from the media about the mission. As a preparation for launch, the crew have been participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. Other crew members are Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, who is with the European Space Agency (ESA), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, who is also with ESA. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  20. On a Mathematical Model of Brain Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Fichtner, K.-H.; Fichtner, L.; Freudenberg, W.; Ohya, M.

    2007-12-03

    The procedure of recognition can be described as follows: There is a set of complex signals stored in the memory. Choosing one of these signals may be interpreted as generating a hypothesis concerning an 'expexted view of the world'. Then the brain compares a signal arising from our senses with the signal chosen from the memory leading to a change of the state of both signals. Furthermore, measurements of that procedure like EEG or MEG are based on the fact that recognition of signals causes a certain loss of excited neurons, i.e. the neurons change their state from 'excited' to 'nonexcited'. For that reason a statistical model of the recognition process should reflect both--the change of the signals and the loss of excited neurons. A first attempt to explain the process of recognition in terms of quantum statistics was given. In the present note it is not possible to present this approach in detail. In lieu we will sketch roughly a few of the basic ideas and structures of the proposed model of the recognition process (Section). Further, we introduce the basic spaces and justify the choice of spaces used in this approach. A more elaborate presentation including all proofs will be given in a series of some forthcoming papers. In this series also the procedures of creation of signals from the memory, amplification, accumulation and transformation of input signals, and measurements like EEG and MEG will be treated in detail.

  1. Preference as a Function of Active Interresponse Times: A Test of the Active Time Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misak, Paul; Cleaveland, J. Mark

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe a test of the active time model for concurrent variable interval (VI) choice. The active time model (ATM) suggests that the time since the most recent response is one of the variables controlling choice in concurrent VI VI schedules of reinforcement. In our experiment, pigeons were trained in a multiple concurrent…

  2. Active matter model of Myxococcus xanthus aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patch, Adam; Bahar, Fatmagul; Liu, Guannan; Thutupalli, Shashi; Welch, Roy; Yllanes, David; Shaevitz, Joshua; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    Myxococcus xanthus is a soil-dwelling bacterium that exhibits several fascinating collective behaviors including streaming, swarming, and generation of fruiting bodies. A striking feature of M. xanthus is that it periodically reverses its motility direction. The first stage of fruiting body formation is characterized by the aggregation of cells on a surface into round mesoscopic structures. Experiments have shown that this aggregation relies heavily on regulation of the reversal rate and local mechanical interactions, suggesting motility-induced phase separation may play an important role. We have adapted self-propelled particle models to include cell reversal and motility suppression resulting from sporulation observed in aggregates. Using 2D molecular dynamics simulations, we map the phase behavior in the space of Péclet number and local density and examine the kinetics of aggregation for comparison to experiments.

  3. Testing Models: A Key Aspect to Promote Teaching Activities Related to Models and Modelling in Biology Lessons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krell, Moritz; Krüger, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated biology teachers' (N = 148) understanding of models and modelling (MoMo), their model-related teaching activities and relations between the two. A framework which distinguishes five aspects of MoMo in science ("nature of models," "multiple models," "purpose of models," "testing…

  4. Human Activity Modeling: Toward A Pragmatic Integration of Activity Theory and Usage-Centered Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantine, Larry L.

    Human activity modeling is a systematic approach to organizing and representing the contextual aspects of tool use that is both well-grounded in an accepted theoretical framework and embedded within a proven design method. Activity theory provides the vocabulary and conceptual framework for understanding the human use of tools and other artifacts. Usage-centered design provides the methodological scaffolding for applying activity theory in practice. In this chapter, activity theory and usage-centered design are outlined and the connections between the two are highlighted. Simple extensions to the models of usage-centered design are introduced that together succinctly model the salient and most essential features of the activities within which tool use is embedded. Although not intended as a tutorial, examples of Activity Maps, Activity Profiles, and Participation Maps are provided.

  5. Rethinking food anticipatory activity in the activity-based anorexia rat model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hemmings; van Kuyck, Kris; Tambuyzer, Tim; Luyten, Laura; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Nuttin, Bart

    2014-01-29

    When a rat is on a limited fixed-time food schedule with full access to a running wheel (activity-based anorexia model, ABA), its activity level will increase hours prior to the feeding period. This activity, called food-anticipatory activity (FAA), is a hypothesized parallel to the hyperactivity symptom in human anorexia nervosa. To investigate in depth the characteristics of FAA, we retrospectively analyzed the level of FAA and activities during other periods in ABA rats. To our surprise, rats with the most body weight loss have the lowest level of FAA, which contradicts the previously established link between FAA and the severity of ABA symptoms. On the contrary, our study shows that postprandial activities are more directly related to weight loss. We conclude that FAA alone may not be sufficient to reflect model severity, and activities during other periods may be of potential value in studies using ABA model.

  6. Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship Models for the Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Kaiying; Wang, Zhaojing

    2016-01-01

    In this study, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models for the antioxidant activity of polysaccharides were developed with 50% effective concentration (EC50) as the dependent variable. To establish optimum QSAR models, multiple linear regressions (MLR), support vector machines (SVM) and artificial neural networks (ANN) were used, and 11 molecular descriptors were selected. The optimum QSAR model for predicting EC50 of DPPH-scavenging activity consisted of four major descriptors. MLR model gave EC50 = 0.033Ara-0.041GalA-0.03GlcA-0.025PC+0.484, and MLR fitted the training set with R = 0.807. ANN model gave the improvement of training set (R = 0.96, RMSE = 0.018) and test set (R = 0.933, RMSE = 0.055) which indicated that it was more accurately than SVM and MLR models for predicting the DPPH-scavenging activity of polysaccharides. 67 compounds were used for predicting EC50 of the hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity of polysaccharides. MLR model gave EC50 = 0.12PC+0.083Fuc+0.013Rha-0.02UA+0.372. A comparison of results from models indicated that ANN model (R = 0.944, RMSE = 0.119) was also the best one for predicting the hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity of polysaccharides. MLR and ANN models showed that Ara and GalA appeared critical in determining EC50 of DPPH-scavenging activity, and Fuc, Rha, uronic acid and protein content had a great effect on the hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity of polysaccharides. The antioxidant activity of polysaccharide usually was high in MW range of 4000–100000, and the antioxidant activity could be affected simultaneously by other polysaccharide properties, such as uronic acid and Ara. PMID:27685320

  7. Questions and answers on the Belgian model of integral end-of-life care: experiment? Prototype? : "Eu-euthanasia": the close historical, and evidently synergistic, relationship between palliative care and euthanasia in Belgium: an interview with a doctor involved in the early development of both and two of his successors.

    PubMed

    Bernheim, Jan L; Distelmans, Wim; Mullie, Arsène; Ashby, Michael A

    2014-12-01

    This article analyses domestic and foreign reactions to a 2008 report in the British Medical Journal on the complementary and, as argued, synergistic relationship between palliative care and euthanasia in Belgium. The earliest initiators of palliative care in Belgium in the late 1970s held the view that access to proper palliative care was a precondition for euthanasia to be acceptable and that euthanasia and palliative care could, and should, develop together. Advocates of euthanasia including author Jan Bernheim, independent from but together with British expatriates, were among the founders of what was probably the first palliative care service in Europe outside of the United Kingdom. In what has become known as the Belgian model of integral end-of-life care, euthanasia is an available option, also at the end of a palliative care pathway. This approach became the majority view among the wider Belgian public, palliative care workers, other health professionals, and legislators. The legal regulation of euthanasia in 2002 was preceded and followed by a considerable expansion of palliative care services. It is argued that this synergistic development was made possible by public confidence in the health care system and widespread progressive social attitudes that gave rise to a high level of community support for both palliative care and euthanasia. The Belgian model of so-called integral end-of-life care is continuing to evolve, with constant scrutiny of practice and improvements to procedures. It still exhibits several imperfections, for which some solutions are being developed. This article analyses this model by way of answers to a series of questions posed by Journal of Bioethical Inquiry consulting editor Michael Ashby to the Belgian authors.

  8. Epistemic game for answer making in learning about hydrostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2013-06-01

    Previous research into problem solving in physics resulted in researchers introducing six epistemic games to describe the organizational structures of locally coherent resources. We present a new epistemic game—the “answer-making epistemic game”—which was identified in this paper through the analysis of interviews carried out to validate a survey focusing on students’ understanding of Archimedes’ principle and Pascal’s law. In the game, the ultimate goal is a solution to a problem posed by the survey. Students may remember or intuit an answer, then use conceptual and/or mathematical reasoning to justify it. Alternately, they may use conceptual and/or mathematical reasoning to generate an answer. We demonstrate how students generate their solutions using these two different paths and discuss some implications for instruction.

  9. Modeling the Activity of Single Genes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mjolsness, Eric; Gibson, Michael

    1999-01-01

    the key questions in gene regulation are: What genes are expressed in a certain cell at a certain time? How does gene expression differ from cell to cell in a multicellular organism? Which proteins act as transcription factors, i.e., are important in regulating gene expression? From questions like these, we hope to understand which genes are important for various macroscopic processes. Nearly all of the cells of a multicellular organism contain the same DNA. Yet this same genetic information yields a large number of different cell types. The fundamental difference between a neuron and a liver cell, for example, is which genes are expressed. Thus understanding gene regulation is an important step in understanding development. Furthermore, understanding the usual genes that are expressed in cells may give important clues about various diseases. Some diseases, such as sickle cell anemia and cystic fibrosis, are caused by defects in single, non-regulatory genes; others, such as certain cancers, are caused when the cellular control circuitry malfunctions - an understanding of these diseases will involve pathways of multiple interacting gene products. There are numerous challenges in the area of understanding and modeling gene regulation. First and foremost, biologists would like to develop a deeper understanding of the processes involved, including which genes and families of genes are important, how they interact, etc. From a computation point of view, there has been embarrassingly little work done. In this chapter there are many areas in which we can phrase meaningful, non-trivial computational questions, but questions that have not been addressed. Some of these are purely computational (what is a good algorithm for dealing with a model of type X) and others are more mathematical (given a system with certain characteristics, what sort of model can one use? How does one find biochemical parameters from system-level behavior using as few experiments as possible?). In

  10. CMU OAQA at TREC 2015 LiveQA: Discovering the Right Answer with Clues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-20

    retrieved a collection of web pages based on those queries. Then we extracted answer can- didates from web pages in the form of answer passages and their...Answer candidates (title/body/answer tuples that represent either con- ceptional questions or answer texts) are extracted from web pages, and ranked...ument title and search snippet extracted from a web page. Finally, we heuristically select answer passage text a passage based on its relative position

  11. Advanced Performance Modeling with Combined Passive and Active Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Dovrolis, Constantine; Sim, Alex

    2015-04-15

    To improve the efficiency of resource utilization and scheduling of scientific data transfers on high-speed networks, the "Advanced Performance Modeling with combined passive and active monitoring" (APM) project investigates and models a general-purpose, reusable and expandable network performance estimation framework. The predictive estimation model and the framework will be helpful in optimizing the performance and utilization of networks as well as sharing resources with predictable performance for scientific collaborations, especially in data intensive applications. Our prediction model utilizes historical network performance information from various network activity logs as well as live streaming measurements from network peering devices. Historical network performance information is used without putting extra load on the resources by active measurement collection. Performance measurements collected by active probing is used judiciously for improving the accuracy of predictions.

  12. New Model Predicts Fire Activity in South America

    NASA Video Gallery

    UC Irvine scientist Jim Randerson discusses a new model that is able to predict fire activity in South America using sea surface temperature observations of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. The find...

  13. Models of neural networks with fuzzy activation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, A. T.; Korikov, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the application of a new form of neuron activation functions that are based on the fuzzy membership functions derived from the theory of fuzzy systems. On the basis of the results regarding neuron models with fuzzy activation functions, we created the models of fuzzy-neural networks. These fuzzy-neural network models differ from conventional networks that employ the fuzzy inference systems using the methods of neural networks. While conventional fuzzy-neural networks belong to the first type, fuzzy-neural networks proposed here are defined as the second-type models. The simulation results show that the proposed second-type model can successfully solve the problem of the property prediction for time – dependent signals. Neural networks with fuzzy impulse activation functions can be widely applied in many fields of science, technology and mechanical engineering to solve the problems of classification, prediction, approximation, etc.

  14. Using multiple linear regression model to estimate thunderstorm activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suparta, W.; Putro, W. S.

    2017-03-01

    This paper is aimed to develop a numerical model with the use of a nonlinear model to estimate the thunderstorm activity. Meteorological data such as Pressure (P), Temperature (T), Relative Humidity (H), cloud (C), Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV), and precipitation on a daily basis were used in the proposed method. The model was constructed with six configurations of input and one target output. The output tested in this work is the thunderstorm event when one-year data is used. Results showed that the model works well in estimating thunderstorm activities with the maximum epoch reaching 1000 iterations and the percent error was found below 50%. The model also found that the thunderstorm activities in May and October are detected higher than the other months due to the inter-monsoon season.

  15. A network model for activity-dependent sleep regulation.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sandip; Krueger, James M; Rector, David M; Wan, Yan

    2008-08-07

    We develop and characterize a dynamical network model for activity-dependent sleep regulation. Specifically, in accordance with the activity-dependent theory for sleep, we view organism sleep as emerging from the local sleep states of functional units known as cortical columns; these local sleep states evolve through integration of local activity inputs, loose couplings with neighboring cortical columns, and global regulation (e.g. by the circadian clock). We model these cortical columns as coupled or networked activity-integrators that transition between sleep and waking states based on thresholds on the total activity. The model dynamics for three canonical experiments (which we have studied both through simulation and system-theoretic analysis) match with experimentally observed characteristics of the cortical-column network. Most notably, assuming connectedness of the network graph, our model predicts the recovery of the columns to a synchronized state upon temporary overstimulation of a single column and/or randomization of the initial sleep and activity-integration states. In analogy with other models for networked oscillators, our model also predicts the possibility for such phenomena as mode-locking.

  16. 3D MHD Models of Active Region Loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofman, Leon

    2004-01-01

    Present imaging and spectroscopic observations of active region loops allow to determine many physical parameters of the coronal loops, such as the density, temperature, velocity of flows in loops, and the magnetic field. However, due to projection effects many of these parameters remain ambiguous. Three dimensional imaging in EUV by the STEREO spacecraft will help to resolve the projection ambiguities, and the observations could be used to setup 3D MHD models of active region loops to study the dynamics and stability of active regions. Here the results of 3D MHD models of active region loops are presented, and the progress towards more realistic 3D MHD models of active regions. In particular the effects of impulsive events on the excitation of active region loop oscillations, and the generation, propagations and reflection of EIT waves are shown. It is shown how 3D MHD models together with 3D EUV observations can be used as a diagnostic tool for active region loop physical parameters, and to advance the science of the sources of solar coronal activity.

  17. Speech Perception as a Cognitive Process: The Interactive Activation Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    one another in COHORT, the nodes for sell, your, light, and cellulite , wil all bc in active competition with one another. The system will have no way...7 AD-AI28 787 SPEECH PERCEPTION AS A COGNITIVE PROCESS: THE INTERACTIVE ACTIVATION MODE..(U) CALIFORNIA UNIV SAN D IEGO LA dOLLA INST FOR COGNITIVE...TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Speech Perception as a Cognitive Process: Technical Report The Interactive Activation Model S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT

  18. Active Player Modeling in the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyunsoo; Kim, Kyung-Joong

    2016-01-01

    The iterated prisoner's dilemma (IPD) is well known within the domain of game theory. Although it is relatively simple, it can also elucidate important problems related to cooperation and trust. Generally, players can predict their opponents' actions when they are able to build a precise model of their behavior based on their game playing experience. However, it is difficult to make such predictions based on a limited number of games. The creation of a precise model requires the use of not only an appropriate learning algorithm and framework but also a good dataset. Active learning approaches have recently been introduced to machine learning communities. The approach can usually produce informative datasets with relatively little effort. Therefore, we have proposed an active modeling technique to predict the behavior of IPD players. The proposed method can model the opponent player's behavior while taking advantage of interactive game environments. This experiment used twelve representative types of players as opponents, and an observer used an active modeling algorithm to model these opponents. This observer actively collected data and modeled the opponent's behavior online. Most of our data showed that the observer was able to build, through direct actions, a more accurate model of an opponent's behavior than when the data were collected through random actions.

  19. An Active Learning Exercise for Introducing Agent-Based Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in agent-based modeling as a method of systems analysis and optimization indicate that students in business analytics need an introduction to the terminology, concepts, and framework of agent-based modeling. This article presents an active learning exercise for MBA students in business analytics that demonstrates agent-based…

  20. Incorporation of Active Elements into the Articulated Total Body Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-30

    the elbow , shoulder, hip and knee joints, 20. OISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21. ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED X SAME...Active Elements into the Articulated Total Body Model Block 19 continued. Several validation studies were performed. One simulated elbow flexion with...29 V. PHASE III- MODELLING THE GENERAL MUSCULATURE .... ........ ... 31 """. iii A. Elbow Joint

  1. Active Player Modeling in the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunsoo; Kim, Kyung-Joong

    2016-01-01

    The iterated prisoner's dilemma (IPD) is well known within the domain of game theory. Although it is relatively simple, it can also elucidate important problems related to cooperation and trust. Generally, players can predict their opponents' actions when they are able to build a precise model of their behavior based on their game playing experience. However, it is difficult to make such predictions based on a limited number of games. The creation of a precise model requires the use of not only an appropriate learning algorithm and framework but also a good dataset. Active learning approaches have recently been introduced to machine learning communities. The approach can usually produce informative datasets with relatively little effort. Therefore, we have proposed an active modeling technique to predict the behavior of IPD players. The proposed method can model the opponent player's behavior while taking advantage of interactive game environments. This experiment used twelve representative types of players as opponents, and an observer used an active modeling algorithm to model these opponents. This observer actively collected data and modeled the opponent's behavior online. Most of our data showed that the observer was able to build, through direct actions, a more accurate model of an opponent's behavior than when the data were collected through random actions. PMID:26989405

  2. A Vessel Active Contour Model for Vascular Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qingli; Wang, Wei; Peng, Yu; Wang, Qingjun; Wu, Zhongke; Zhou, Mingquan

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a vessel active contour model based on local intensity weighting and a vessel vector field. Firstly, the energy function we define is evaluated along the evolving curve instead of all image points, and the function value at each point on the curve is based on the interior and exterior weighted means in a local neighborhood of the point, which is good for dealing with the intensity inhomogeneity. Secondly, a vascular vector field derived from a vesselness measure is employed to guide the contour to evolve along the vessel central skeleton into thin and weak vessels. Thirdly, an automatic initialization method that makes the model converge rapidly is developed, and it avoids repeated trails in conventional local region active contour models. Finally, a speed-up strategy is implemented by labeling the steadily evolved points, and it avoids the repeated computation of these points in the subsequent iterations. Experiments using synthetic and real vessel images validate the proposed model. Comparisons with the localized active contour model, local binary fitting model, and vascular active contour model show that the proposed model is more accurate, efficient, and suitable for extraction of the vessel tree from different medical images. PMID:25101262

  3. "Legal Problem Question Answer Genre" across Jurisdictions and Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessuto, Girolamo

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyse discourse patterns of legal opinions in two languages and cultures--namely, Legal Problem Question Answers (LPQs) in the UK academic writing context and Pareri (Ps) in the Italian professional writing context. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of discourse in this paper, based on the tenets of genre analysis,…

  4. Robust Detection of Examinees with Aberrant Answer Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belov, Dmitry I.

    2015-01-01

    The statistical analysis of answer changes (ACs) has uncovered multiple testing irregularities on large-scale assessments and is now routinely performed at testing organizations. However, AC data has an uncertainty caused by technological or human factors. Therefore, existing statistics (e.g., number of wrong-to-right ACs) used to detect examinees…

  5. Temporal Preparation for Speaking in Question-Answer Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Magyari, Lilla; De Ruiter, Jan P.; Levinson, Stephen C.

    2017-01-01

    In every-day conversations, the gap between turns of conversational partners is most frequently between 0 and 200 ms. We were interested how speakers achieve such fast transitions. We designed an experiment in which participants listened to pre-recorded questions about images presented on a screen and were asked to answer these questions. We tested whether speakers already prepare their answers while they listen to questions and whether they can prepare for the time of articulation by anticipating when questions end. In the experiment, it was possible to guess the answer at the beginning of the questions in half of the experimental trials. We also manipulated whether it was possible to predict the length of the last word of the questions. The results suggest when listeners know the answer early they start speech production already during the questions. Speakers can also time when to speak by predicting the duration of turns. These temporal predictions can be based on the length of anticipated words and on the overall probability of turn durations. PMID:28270782

  6. Self-Injury: Answers to Questions for Parents, Teachers, & Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakke, Bruce L.

    This guide to preventing self-injurious behavior, in question-and-answer format, is intended for parents, teachers, and other caregivers of people with disabilities. It describes the more common types of self-injurious behavior, discusses methods for identifying causes of self injury, and outlines interventions. Specifically, the guide covers: (1)…

  7. 15 CFR 766.6 - Answer and demand for hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... will go forward in accordance with the procedures set forth in § 766.15 of this part. (d) English language required. The answer, all other papers, and all documentary evidence must be submitted in English, or translations into English must be filed and served at the same time....

  8. Cognitive and Neural Prerequisites for Time in Language: Any Answers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullberg, Marianne; Indefrey, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In the position article to this volume, Klein outlines a set of questions that are relevant for furthering the linguist's understanding of what the cognitive and neural prerequisites for time in language might be. He also declares a certain skepticism regarding the likelihood that new methods from other disciplines will provide answers to those…

  9. Epistemic Game for Answer Making in Learning about Hydrostatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ying; Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research into problem solving in physics resulted in researchers introducing six epistemic games to describe the organizational structures of locally coherent resources. We present a new epistemic game--the "answer-making epistemic game"--which was identified in this paper through the analysis of interviews carried out to validate a…

  10. 37 CFR 11.36 - Answer to complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 11.36 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE Investigations and... whom filed. The answer shall be filed in writing with the hearing officer at the address specified...

  11. 47 CFR 68.419 - Answers to informal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Answers to informal complaints. 68.419 Section 68.419 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Complaint Procedures § 68.419...

  12. Teacher Deployment of "Oh" in Known-Answer Question Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosoda, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    This conversation analytic study describes some specific interactional contexts in which native English-speaking teachers produce "oh" in known-answer question sequences in English language classes. The data for this study come from 10 video-recorded Japanese primary school English language class sessions. The analysis identified three…

  13. 500 Questions and Answers for New Teachers: A Survival Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torreano, Joanna Montagna

    This book presents tips, in the form of questions and answers, to help beginning teachers feel less isolated. There are six sections. "Getting Your Act Together" includes "What To Do Before School Opens"; "The First Day of School"; "Open House"; "Goal Setting"; and "Last Day of School.""Getting To Know You" includes "Administrators"; "Board of…

  14. 34 CFR Appendix A to Part 361 - Questions and Answers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Questions and Answers A Appendix A to Part 361 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION SERVICES...

  15. 34 CFR Appendix A to Part 361 - Questions and Answers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Questions and Answers A Appendix A to Part 361 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION SERVICES PROGRAM Pt. 361, App....

  16. 34 CFR Appendix A to Part 361 - Questions and Answers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Questions and Answers A Appendix A to Part 361 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION SERVICES...

  17. 5 CFR 1201.130 - Rights; answer to complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... agency involved, and the Office of Personnel Management. 5 U.S.C. 1214(b)(3)(A). (3) The judge to whom... judge's decision. (c) Content. An answer must contain a specific denial, admission, or explanation of each fact alleged in the complaint. If the respondent agency has no knowledge of a fact, it must say...

  18. Sentence Similarity Analysis with Applications in Automatic Short Answer Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohler, Michael A. G.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I explore unsupervised techniques for the task of automatic short answer grading. I compare a number of knowledge-based and corpus-based measures of text similarity, evaluate the effect of domain and size on the corpus-based measures, and also introduce a novel technique to improve the performance of the system by integrating…

  19. What about the Bottle? Answers to Common Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    Acknowledges the large amount of confusing information about bottle feeding in areas including nutrition, sanitation, dental health, psychology, and child development. Answers specific questions pertaining to choice of formula and formula preparation, supporting breastfeeding, bottle choice, solid food introduction, feeding position, spitting up,…

  20. Solutions for Early Childhood Directors: Real Answers to Everyday Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kathy

    Noting that directors of early care and education programs face numerous challenges on a daily basis, this book is designed to provide real-world answers to common situations, in a format that directors can access immediately. The book is organized into seven chapters. Chapter 1 addresses staff-related challenges and includes a list of "how…

  1. When Web Sites Post Test Answers, Professors Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Several Web sites have emerged in recent years that encourage students to upload old exams to build a bank of test questions and answers that can be consulted by other students. This article reports that some professors have raised concerns about these sites, arguing that these could be used to cheat, especially if professors reuse old tests.…

  2. 5 CFR 831.1105 - Answer; request for hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Answer; request for hearing. 831.1105 Section 831.1105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... notice, unless he states that he is without knowledge. If a hearing is desired, the annuitant must file...

  3. Answering the Critics of School Administration, 2nd Ed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    All too often, the public perception of school administration is that it is a large bureaucracy diverting critical resources from instruction. According to "Answering the Critics of School Administration: What Are the Facts? Second Edition," by Nancy Protheroe, the data show otherwise. Six common misperceptions of school administration are…

  4. 43 CFR 4.1192 - Contents of answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contents of answer. 4.1192 Section 4.1192 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES Special Rules Applicable to Surface Coal Mining Hearings and Appeals Proceedings for Suspension Or Revocation of Permits Under Section...

  5. 43 CFR 4.1166 - Contents of answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contents of answer. 4.1166 Section 4.1166 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES Special Rules Applicable to Surface Coal Mining Hearings and Appeals Review of Section 521 Notices of Violation and Orders of Cessation §...

  6. 15 CFR 719.6 - Request for hearing and answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the NOVA and proposed order issued by the Secretary of State, the respondent must request a hearing in writing within 15 business days from the postmarked date of the NOVA. If the respondent requests a hearing, the respondent must answer the NOVA within 30 days from the date of the request for hearing....

  7. 15 CFR 719.6 - Request for hearing and answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the NOVA and proposed order issued by the Secretary of State, the respondent must request a hearing in writing within 15 business days from the postmarked date of the NOVA. If the respondent requests a hearing, the respondent must answer the NOVA within 30 days from the date of the request for hearing....

  8. 15 CFR 719.6 - Request for hearing and answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the NOVA and proposed order issued by the Secretary of State, the respondent must request a hearing in writing within 15 business days from the postmarked date of the NOVA. If the respondent requests a hearing, the respondent must answer the NOVA within 30 days from the date of the request for hearing....

  9. 15 CFR 719.6 - Request for hearing and answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the NOVA and proposed order issued by the Secretary of State, the respondent must request a hearing in writing within 15 business days from the postmarked date of the NOVA. If the respondent requests a hearing, the respondent must answer the NOVA within 30 days from the date of the request for hearing....

  10. 15 CFR 719.6 - Request for hearing and answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the NOVA and proposed order issued by the Secretary of State, the respondent must request a hearing in writing within 15 business days from the postmarked date of the NOVA. If the respondent requests a hearing, the respondent must answer the NOVA within 30 days from the date of the request for hearing....

  11. Academic Peer Instruction: Reference and Training Manual (with Answers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaritsky, Joyce; Toce, Andi

    2013-01-01

    This manual consists of an introduction to our Academic Peer Instruction (API) program at LaGuardia Community College, a compilation of the materials we have developed and use for training of our tutors (with answers), and a bibliography. API is based on an internationally recognized peer tutoring program, Supplemental Instruction. (Contains 6…

  12. Question and Answer: Observation in the Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Kay

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Kay Baker sets out to answer the questions, "What is observation? What is the nature of observation in the elementary class? How can observation help the adult guide the development of children?" She responds by listing the areas that can be observed in the elementary class (the prepared environment, the work of the…

  13. Questions and Answers about Writing a Lau Compliance Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence.

    The Lau v. Nichols decision and its implications for school districts are explained in this question and answer format paper. Lau compliance plans are described in full. The number of students necessary for development of a plan or program, what a Lau plan should include, and appropriate program types are detailed. (MK)

  14. Does Previewing Answer Choice Options Improve Performance on Reading Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Qian; Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Yang, Li; Liu, Lihui

    2016-01-01

    Previewing answer-choice options before finishing reading the text is a widely employed test-taking behavior. In the present study we examined whether previewing is related to item response accuracy and response time, using data from Chinese learners of varying English proficiency levels and English native speakers. We examined eye movement…

  15. 7 CFR 900.52a - Answer to petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Practice Governing Proceedings on Petitions To Modify or To Be Exempted From Marketing Orders § 900.52a... promptly upon the petitioner. (b) Contents. The answer shall specify which of the material allegations...

  16. Apparel Marketing. [Student Manual] and Answer Book/Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskill, Melissa Lynn

    This document on apparel marketing contains both a student's manual and an answer book/teacher's guide. The student's manual contains the following 16 assignments: (1) introduction to fashion and fashion merchandising; (2) current fashion; (3) careers in fashion; (4) buying; (5) retailing; (6) merchandise basics; (7) merchandise--promotion and…

  17. 10 CFR 590.505 - Answers to applications for rehearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Answers to applications for rehearing. 590.505 Section 590.505 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Applications for Rehearing §...

  18. 10 CFR 590.505 - Answers to applications for rehearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Answers to applications for rehearing. 590.505 Section 590.505 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Applications for Rehearing §...

  19. Consistent Query Answering of Conjunctive Queries under Primary Key Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pema, Enela

    2014-01-01

    An inconsistent database is a database that violates one or more of its integrity constraints. In reality, violations of integrity constraints arise frequently under several different circumstances. Inconsistent databases have long posed the challenge to develop suitable tools for meaningful query answering. A principled approach for querying…

  20. Introduction to Psychology and Leadership. Answer and Confirmation Sheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Learning Corp., Annapolis, MD.

    The answer and confirmation sheets for the United States Naval Academy course on psychology and leadership developed by Westinghouse Corporation are contained in this document. The text-workbooks from which test questions are drawn appear under EM 010 420 through EM 010 447, and the test items accompanying each appear under EM 010 451 through EM…

  1. 20 CFR 901.39 - Reply to answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reply to answer. 901.39 Section 901.39 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTUARIAL SERVICES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 Suspension or Termination...

  2. Answers to Essential Questions about Standards, Assessments, Grading, & Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2013-01-01

    How do assessments for learning differ from assessments of learning? What is the purpose of grading? After nearly two decades of immersion in standards-based curriculua and instruction, our nation's educators are often still confounded by the (admittedly complex) landscape of standards, assessment, and reporting. In "Answers to Essential…

  3. Detection of Answer Copying with Unknown Item and Trait Parameters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollack, James A.; Cohen, Allan S.

    1998-01-01

    Investigated empirical Type I error rates and the power of omega (index of answer copying developed by J. Wollack, 1997) when item and trait (theta) parameters were unknown and estimated from datasets of 100 and 500 examinees. Type I error was unaffected by estimating item parameters, with power slightly lower for the smaller sample. (SLD)

  4. Wholesale Selling, a Distributive Education Manual and Answer Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batis, Harry P.

    This document containing assignments on 16 varied topics, with objectives, content information, and a separate answer book was designed to be used by secondary or post-secondary distributive education students and by wholesale distributors for use as training guides for employees. Topics discussed include: (1) thinking about selling today, (2)…

  5. Brief Answers to 20 Questions about Group Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vriend, John

    1979-01-01

    The president of Association for Specialists in Group Work, a counselor trainer, and a consultant on group counseling, reported questions most often asked and framed responses mindful of beginning and practicing group counselors. Answers cover such topics as group size, selection, emotions, roles, leadership and other areas. (Author/CMG)

  6. 7 CFR 900.52a - Answer to petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Practice Governing Proceedings on Petitions To Modify or To Be Exempted From Marketing Orders § 900.52a... promptly upon the petitioner. (b) Contents. The answer shall specify which of the material allegations...

  7. 7 CFR 900.52a - Answer to petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Practice Governing Proceedings on Petitions To Modify or To Be Exempted From Marketing Orders § 900.52a... promptly upon the petitioner. (b) Contents. The answer shall specify which of the material allegations...

  8. Improving Multiplication Fact Fluency by Choosing between Competing Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Helen C.; Gemmink, Michelle; Broens-Paffen, Marije; Kirschner, Paul A.; Jolles, Jelle

    2015-01-01

    Developing fluency in arithmetic facts is instrumental to mathematics learning. This study compares the effects of two practice conditions on children's fluency in simple multiplication facts. Third and fourth graders in the Netherlands (N = 282) practised in either a conventional "recall" condition where they produced answers to…

  9. 13 CFR 134.206 - The answer or response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Disputes, see Standard Operating Procedure 37 71 02, available at www.sba.gov/library/soproom.html. (2) The... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The answer or response. 134.206 Section 134.206 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF PROCEDURE...

  10. Answering the Call: How Group Mentoring Makes a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altus, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    Mentoring programs answer the call for social justice for many students who are in success-inhibiting environments. This study employed a case study design to investigate the perceived benefits from a group mentoring program. Data was collected from pre- and post-assessments focus groups, and artifacts. Four participant benefits were revealed:…

  11. Nuclear Power and the Environment--Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney

    This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of…

  12. Fillers as Signals: Evidence from a Question-Answering Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Esther J.; Risko, Evan F.; Kingstone, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of a human or computer "partner" on the production of fillers ("um" and "uh") during a question and answer task. Experiment 1 investigated whether or not responding to a human partner as opposed to a computer partner results in a higher rate of filler production. Participants…

  13. The Silver Bullet Skunk Works: Holistic design of the answering system 1300

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    The Silver Bullet Skunk Works, and experimental product realization team at AT T Consumer Products, designed and shipped a new telephone answering system to market in eight months, approximately one year faster than previous AT T products of similar complexity. This paper outlines the Design for X'' (DFX) philosophies and the team structure that enabled the group to accelerate the Product Realization Process. The Answering System 1300, developed in record time, was a successful product that met its schedule and cost objectives, and sold out its entire high-volume manufacturing run. Lessons learned from the Skunk Works experience have since been applied to other development activities in AT T Consumer Products. 3 figs.

  14. Thermal and hydrodynamic modelling of active catheters for interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Marchandise, Emilie; Flaud, Patrice; Royon, Laurent; Blanc, Raphaël; Szewczyk, Jérome

    2011-07-01

    Interventional radiologists desire to improve their operating tools such as catheters. Active catheters in which the tip is moved using shape memory alloy actuators activated using the Joule effect present a promising approach for easier navigation in the small vessels. However, the increase in temperature caused by this Joule effect must be controlled in order to prevent damage to blood cells and tissues. This paper is devoted to the simulation and experimental validation of a fluid-thermal model of an active catheter prototype. Comparisons between computer-predicted and experimentally measured temperatures are presented for both experiments in air and water at 37°C. Good agreement between the computational and experimental results is found, demonstrating the validity of the developed computer model. These comparisons enable us to highlight some important issues in the modelling process and to determine the optimal current for the activation of the catheter.

  15. Suppression of antigen-specific lymphocyte activation in modeled microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D.; Pride, M. W.; Brown, E. L.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Various parameters of immune suppression are observed in lymphocytes from astronauts during and after a space flight. It is difficult to ascribe this suppression to microgravity effects on immune cells in crew specimens, due to the complex physiological response to space flight and the resultant effect on in vitro immune performance. Use of isolated immune cells in true and modeled microgravity in immune performance tests, suggests a direct effect of microgravity on in vitro cellular function. Specifically, polyclonal activation of T-cells is severely suppressed in true and modeled microgravity. These recent findings suggest a potential suppression of oligoclonal antigen-specific lymphocyte activation in microgravity. We utilized rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors as an analog of microgravity for cell cultures to analyze three models of antigen-specific activation. A mixed-lymphocyte reaction, as a model for a primary immune response, a tetanus toxoid response and a Borrelia burgdorferi response, as models of a secondary immune response, were all suppressed in the RWV bioreactor. Our findings confirm that the suppression of activation observed with polyclonal models also encompasses oligoclonal antigen-specific activation.

  16. Aerosol activation: parameterised versus explicit calculation for global models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tost, H.; Pringle, K.; Metzger, S.; Lelieveld, J.

    2009-04-01

    A key process in studies of the aerosol indirect effects on clouds is the activation of particles into droplets at 100% relative humidity. To model this process in cloud, meteorological and climate models is a difficult undertaking because of the wide range of scales involved. The chemical composition of the atmospheric aerosol, originating from both air pollution and natural sources, substantially impacts the aerosol water uptake and growth due to its hygroscopicity. In this study a comparison of aerosol activation, using state-of-the-art aerosol activation parameterisations, and explicit activation due to hygroscopic growth is performed.For that purpose we apply the GMXe aerosol model - treating both dynamic and thermodynamic aerosol properties - within the EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric chemistry, an atmospheric chemistry general circulation) model. This new aerosol model can explicitely calculate the water uptake of aerosols due to hygroscopicity, allowing the growth of aerosol particles into the regimes of cloud droplets in case of sufficient water vapour availability. Global model simulations using both activation schemes will be presented and compared, elucidating the advantages of each approach.

  17. Suppression of antigen-specific lymphocyte activation in modeled microgravity.

    PubMed

    Cooper, D; Pride, M W; Brown, E L; Risin, D; Pellis, N R

    2001-02-01

    Various parameters of immune suppression are observed in lymphocytes from astronauts during and after a space flight. It is difficult to ascribe this suppression to microgravity effects on immune cells in crew specimens, due to the complex physiological response to space flight and the resultant effect on in vitro immune performance. Use of isolated immune cells in true and modeled microgravity in immune performance tests, suggests a direct effect of microgravity on in vitro cellular function. Specifically, polyclonal activation of T-cells is severely suppressed in true and modeled microgravity. These recent findings suggest a potential suppression of oligoclonal antigen-specific lymphocyte activation in microgravity. We utilized rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors as an analog of microgravity for cell cultures to analyze three models of antigen-specific activation. A mixed-lymphocyte reaction, as a model for a primary immune response, a tetanus toxoid response and a Borrelia burgdorferi response, as models of a secondary immune response, were all suppressed in the RWV bioreactor. Our findings confirm that the suppression of activation observed with polyclonal models also encompasses oligoclonal antigen-specific activation.

  18. Internal models for interpreting neural population activity during sensorimotor control.

    PubMed

    Golub, Matthew D; Yu, Byron M; Chase, Steven M

    2015-12-08

    To successfully guide limb movements, the brain takes in sensory information about the limb, internally tracks the state of the limb, and produces appropriate motor commands. It is widely believed that this process uses an internal model, which describes our prior beliefs about how the limb responds to motor commands. Here, we leveraged a brain-machine interface (BMI) paradigm in rhesus monkeys and novel statistical analyses of neural population activity to gain insight into moment-by-moment internal model computations. We discovered that a mismatch between subjects' internal models and the actual BMI explains roughly 65% of movement errors, as well as long-standing deficiencies in BMI speed control. We then used the internal models to characterize how the neural population activity changes during BMI learning. More broadly, this work provides an approach for interpreting neural population activity in the context of how prior beliefs guide the transformation of sensory input to motor output.

  19. PATTERNS OF ACTIVITY IN A GLOBAL MODEL OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, S. J.; Viall, N. M. E-mail: Nicholeen.M.Viall@nasa.gov

    2016-04-10

    In this work we investigate the global activity patterns predicted from a model active region heated by distributions of nanoflares that have a range of frequencies. What differs is the average frequency of the distributions. The activity patterns are manifested in time lag maps of narrow-band instrument channel pairs. We combine hydrodynamic and forward modeling codes with a magnetic field extrapolation to create a model active region and apply the time lag method to synthetic observations. Our aim is not to reproduce a particular set of observations in detail, but to recover some typical properties and patterns observed in active regions. Our key findings are the following. (1) Cooling dominates the time lag signature and the time lags between the channel pairs are generally consistent with observed values. (2) Shorter coronal loops in the core cool more quickly than longer loops at the periphery. (3) All channel pairs show zero time lag when the line of sight passes through coronal loop footpoints. (4) There is strong evidence that plasma must be re-energized on a timescale comparable to the cooling timescale to reproduce the observed coronal activity, but it is likely that a relatively broad spectrum of heating frequencies are operating across active regions. (5) Due to their highly dynamic nature, we find nanoflare trains produce zero time lags along entire flux tubes in our model active region that are seen between the same channel pairs in observed active regions.

  20. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) model for supply chain collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    CHAPMAN,LEON D.; PETERSEN,MARJORIE B.

    2000-03-13

    The Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) project during the last five years of work with the U.S. Integrated Textile Complex (retail, apparel, textile, and fiber sectors) has developed an inter-enterprise architecture and collaborative model for supply chains. This model will enable improved collaborative business across any supply chain. The DAMA Model for Supply Chain Collaboration is a high-level model for collaboration to achieve Demand Activated Manufacturing. The five major elements of the architecture to support collaboration are (1) activity or process, (2) information, (3) application, (4) data, and (5) infrastructure. These five elements are tied to the application of the DAMA architecture to three phases of collaboration - prepare, pilot, and scale. There are six collaborative activities that may be employed in this model: (1) Develop Business Planning Agreements, (2) Define Products, (3) Forecast and Plan Capacity Commitments, (4) Schedule Product and Product Delivery, (5) Expedite Production and Delivery Exceptions, and (6) Populate Supply Chain Utility. The Supply Chain Utility is a set of applications implemented to support collaborative product definition, forecast visibility, planning, scheduling, and execution. The DAMA architecture and model will be presented along with the process for implementing this DAMA model.

  1. Toward Automated Consumer Question Answering: Automatically Separating Consumer Questions from Professional Questions in the Healthcare Domain

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feifan; Antieau, Lamont D.; Yu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Objective Both healthcare professionals and healthcare consumers have information needs that can be met through the use of computers, specifically via medical question answering systems. However, the information needs of both groups are different in terms of literacy levels and technical expertise, and an effective question answering system must be able to account for these differences if it is to formulate the most relevant responses for users from each group. In this paper, we propose that a first step toward answering the queries of different users is automatically classifying questions according to whether they were asked by healthcare professionals or consumers. Design We obtained two sets of consumer questions (~10,000 questions in total) from Yahoo answers. The professional questions consist of two question collections: 4654 point-of-care questions (denoted as PointCare) obtained from interviews of a group of family doctors following patient visits and 5378 questions from physician practices through professional online services (denoted as OnlinePractice). With more than 20,000 questions combined, we developed supervised machine-learning models for automatic classification between consumer questions and professional questions. To evaluate the robustness of our models, we tested the model that was trained on the Consumer-PointCare dataset on the Consumer-OnlinePractice dataset. We evaluated both linguistic features and statistical features and examined how the characteristics in two different types of professional questions (PointCare vs. OnlinePractice) may affect the classification performance. We explored information gain for feature reduction and the back-off linguistic category features. Results 10-fold cross-validation results showed the best F1-measure of 0.936 and 0.946 on Consumer-PointCare and Consumer-OnlinePractice respectively, and the best F1-measure of 0.891 when testing the Consumer-PointCare model on the Consumer-OnlinePractice dataset

  2. Parental influence on children's answers to an oral-health-related quality of life questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Dantas, Laíza Rocha; Dantas, Lívia Rocha; da Silva, Bruno Rafael Cruz; Perazzo, Matheus de França; Siqueira, Maria Betânia Lins Dantas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate parental influence on children's answers to an oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) questionnaire. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a non-probabilistic sample of 84 pairs of 5-year-olds and parents/guardians. The participants were selected from a primary family healthcare center in Campina Grande, Brazil. First, the children and parents answered respective versions of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (SOHO-5). Seven days later, the children answered their version of the SOHO-5, without the presence of their parents/guardians, and underwent a clinical exam of dental caries, traumatic dental injury and malocclusion, by a previously calibrated researcher. Statistical analysis involved a comparison of mean scores and the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Poisson regression models were used to associate the variables (α = 5%). No significant differences were found between the mean SOHO-5 scores of the children when alone or accompanied by parents/guardians (p > 0.05). The ICC between the answers of the children alone or accompanied was 0.84. White spot (PR = 6.32; 95%CI: 1.36 - 29.40) and cavitated lesions (PR = 9.81; 95%CI: 3.22 - 29.85) had an impact on OHRQoL, according to the children's self-report, whereas cavitated lesions (PR = 90.52; 95%CI: 13.26 - 617.74) and anterior open bite (PR = 1.95; 95%IC: 1.07 - 3.53) remained on the final model, according to the parents' version of the SOHO-5. In conclusion, parents did not influence the children's responses, and dental caries are the oral health problem exerting the greatest impact on the children's OHRQoL.

  3. Computer models to study uterine activation at labour.

    PubMed

    Sharp, G C; Saunders, P T K; Norman, J E

    2013-11-01

    Improving our understanding of the initiation of labour is a major aim of modern obstetric research, in order to better diagnose and treat pregnant women in which the process occurs abnormally. In particular, increased knowledge will help us identify the mechanisms responsible for preterm labour, the single biggest cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Attempts to improve our understanding of the initiation of labour have been restricted by the inaccessibility of gestational tissues to study during pregnancy and at labour, and by the lack of fully informative animal models. However, computer modelling provides an exciting new approach to overcome these restrictions and offers new insights into uterine activation during term and preterm labour. Such models could be used to test hypotheses about drugs to treat or prevent preterm labour. With further development, an effective computer model could be used by healthcare practitioners to develop personalized medicine for patients on a pregnancy-by-pregnancy basis. Very promising work is already underway to build computer models of the physiology of uterine activation and contraction. These models aim to predict changes and patterns in uterine electrical excitation during term labour. There have been far fewer attempts to build computer models of the molecular pathways driving uterine activation and there is certainly scope for further work in this area. The integration of computer models of the physiological and molecular mechanisms that initiate labour will be particularly useful.

  4. Applying Transtheoretical Model to Promote Physical Activities Among Women

    PubMed Central

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Ghofranipour, Fazllolah; Feizi, Awat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is one of the most important indicators of health in communities but different studies conducted in the provinces of Iran showed that inactivity is prevalent, especially among women. Objectives: Inadequate regular physical activities among women, the importance of education in promoting the physical activities, and lack of studies on the women using transtheoretical model, persuaded us to conduct this study with the aim of determining the application of transtheoretical model in promoting the physical activities among women of Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This research was a quasi-experimental study which was conducted on 141 women residing in Isfahan, Iran. They were randomly divided into case and control groups. In addition to the demographic information, their physical activities and the constructs of the transtheoretical model (stages of change, processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy) were measured at 3 time points; preintervention, 3 months, and 6 months after intervention. Finally, the obtained data were analyzed through t test and repeated measures ANOVA test using SPSS version 16. Results: The results showed that education based on the transtheoretical model significantly increased physical activities in 2 aspects of intensive physical activities and walking, in the case group over the time. Also, a high percentage of people have shown progress during the stages of change, the mean of the constructs of processes of change, as well as pros and cons. On the whole, a significant difference was observed over the time in the case group (P < 0.01). Conclusions: This study showed that interventions based on the transtheoretical model can promote the physical activity behavior among women. PMID:26834796

  5. Active Ageing: An Empirical Approach to the WHO Model

    PubMed Central

    Paúl, Constança; Ribeiro, Oscar; Teixeira, Laetitia

    2012-01-01

    Background. In the beginning of the 21st century, the world summit on population taking place in Madrid approved active ageing, WHO (2002) as the main objective of health and social policies for old people. Few studies have been done on the scientific validity of the construct. This study aims to validate the construct of active ageing and test empirically the WHO (2002) model of Active Ageing in a sample of community-dwelling seniors. Methods. 1322 old people living in the community were interviewed using an extensive assessment protocol to measure WHO's determinants of active ageing and performed an exploratory factor analysis followed by a confirmatory factor analyses. Results. We did not confirm the active ageing model, as most of the groups of determinants are either not independent or not significant. We got to a six-factor model (health, psychological component, cognitive performance, social relationships, biobehavioural component, and personality) explaining 54.6% of total variance. Conclusion. The present paper shows that there are objective as well as subjective variables contributing to active ageing and that psychological variables seem to give a very important contribute to the construct. The profile of active ageing is expected to vary between contexts and cultures and can be used to guide specific community and individually based interventions. PMID:23193396

  6. Use of Credibility Heuristics in a Social Question-Answering Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study looked at the effect of community peripheral cues (specifically voting score and answerer's reputation) on the user's credibility rating of answers. Method: Students in technology and philosophy were asked to assess the credibility of answers to questions posted on a social question-answering platform. Through the use of a…

  7. Immediate Feedback and Opportunity to Revise Answers to Open-Ended Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal; Powers, Don

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examine the psychometric effects of providing immediate feedback on the correctness of answers to open-ended questions, and allowing participants to revise their answers following feedback. Participants answering verbal and math questions are able to correct many of their initial incorrect answers, resulting in higher revised…

  8. Instructor-Aided Asynchronous Question Answering System for Online Education and Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Dunwei; Cuzzola, John; Brown, Lorna; Kinshuk

    2012-01-01

    Question answering systems have frequently been explored for educational use. However, their value was somewhat limited due to the quality of the answers returned to the student. Recent question answering (QA) research has started to incorporate deep natural language processing (NLP) in order to improve these answers. However, current NLP…

  9. Answerers' Motivations and Strategies for Providing Information and Social Support in Social Q&A an Investigation of Health Question Answering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Sanghee

    2010-01-01

    Social Q&A allows people to ask and answer questions for each other and to solve problems in everyday life collaboratively. The purpose of the current study is to understand the motivations and strategies of answerers in social Q&A. Thus, three research questions were investigated: (1) Why do answerers participate and contribute in social Q&A? (2)…

  10. Multiple-Choice Answers: To Change or Not to Change? Perhaps Not Such a Simple Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainscott, Heidi

    2016-11-01

    When grading students' quizzes and exams, I find that students are seemingly always changing their answers from the right answer to the wrong answer. In fact, I have cautioned students against changing their answer. Colleagues have made similar observations and some books on test-taking strategies advise against answer-changing. In an effort to find out how pervasive the answer-changing problem was, I collected some data and dug a little deeper into the research. My hypothesis was that students most frequently changed their answers from right to wrong. Have you made similar observations? If yes, then the results of this study may surprise you.

  11. NASA's Long-term Debris Environment and Active Debris Removal Modeling Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the modeling activities for modeling of the long-term debris environment, the updated assessments of the environment, and the necessity to model the effectiveness of the technologies aimed at the removal of orbital debris. The model being used is named a LEO to GEO environment debris (LEGEND). It is a high fidelity three dimensional numerical simulation model with the capability to treat objects individually. It uses a Monte Carlo approach and a collision probability evaluation algorithm to simulate future satellite breakups and the growth of the debris populations.

  12. Dynamic Modeling of EMIC Wave Activity in a Realistic Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollough, J. P., II; Elkington, S. R.; Usanova, M.; Bortnik, J.

    2015-12-01

    On 14-16 December 2006, A geomagnetic storm was observed accompanied by electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (EMIC) wave activity. We use a 3D test particle simulation in a realistic magnetosphere from the global Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) MHD code to compute the phase space density dynamics of warm electrons responsible for chorus wave growth. We use these results to compute the temperature anisotropy and density for input into a linear convective wave growth rate for EMIC waves. We then follow Bortnik et al. [2010] to compute EMIC saturation amplitudes to provide a global dynamical picture of EMIC wave activity for this event. We will perform a data-model comparison of the modeled wave amplitudes with the observed wave activity, aiding in understanding the spatio-temporal and spectral response of EMIC wave activity to geomagnetic disturbances.

  13. CERCLA Site Assessment questions and answers (Qs&As)

    SciTech Connect

    Traceski, T.T.

    1993-11-09

    This documents contains commonly asked questions and corresponding answers (Qs&As) on the CERCLA Site Assessment process. These questions were derived from DOE element responses to a solicitation calling for the identification of (unresolved) issues associated with the conduct of CERCLA site assessments, and from inquiries received during a series of Site Assessment Workshops provided by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231). Answers to these questions were prepared by EH-231 in cooperation with the EPA Federal Facilities Team in Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Site Assessment Branch, and in coordination with the Office of Environmental Compliance, Facilities Compliance Division (EH-222).

  14. Stellar model chromospheres. IX - Chromospheric activity in dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelch, W. L.; Worden, S. P.; Linsky, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    High-resolution Ca II K line profiles are used to model the upper photospheres and lower chromospheres of eight main-sequence stars ranging in spectral type from F0 to M0 and exhibiting different degrees of chromospheric activity. The model chromospheres are studied as a function of spectral type and activity for stars of similar spectral type in order to obtain evidence of enhanced nonradiative heating in the upper-photospheric models and in the ratio of minimum temperature at the base of the chromosphere to effective temperature, a correlation between activity and temperature in the lower chromospheres, and a correlation of the width at the base of the K-line emission core and at the K2 features with activity. Chromospheric radiative losses are estimated for the modelled stars and other previously analyzed main-sequence stars. The results obtained strengthen the argument that dMe flare stars exhibit fundamentally solar-type activity but on an increased scale.

  15. Biofidelic Human Activity Modeling and Simulation with Large Variability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-25

    capture data to replicate a human activity in 3D space. Since technologies for simultaneously capturing human motion and dynamic shapes are not yet ready...for practical use, a motion capture system can be used to capture markers on the body during motion and a 3D body scanner can be used to capture the...animation-capable model that can replicate a human activity in 3D space with the true shape and true motion of a human. Using this approach, a model

  16. Mergers and acquisitions. Frequently asked questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Lin, S M; Smeltzer, C H; Thomas, C

    2000-03-01

    This article is structured in a question/answer format based on interviews with Dr. Carolyn Hope Smeltzer and Salima Manji Lin of PricewaterhouseCoopers, Chicago, and Chuck Thomas of Hinshaw & Culbertson, Rockford. The questions come from CEO's, healthcare executives, and nurse executives at hospitals that are contemplating mergers or that have both succeeded and failed to merge their institutions. The experts share their knowledge.

  17. Leasing: is it really the answer to your financing needs?

    PubMed

    Gagnon, J A

    1977-01-01

    Leasing hospital equipment may not be the best method of financing such purchases. Early reimbursement agreements offered significant financial benefits to the leasing institution in terms of increased cash flow and additional cash reimbursement dollars. However, changes in the third-party reimbursement formula have partially eliminated the financial advantages of leasing. The author discusses the effect of these changes on leasing agreements, and why hospitals still lease, and answers some of the common assertions in support of leasing.

  18. Semantics and Quantification in Natural Language Question Answering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    data structures and data base design. The method I developed was essentially an interpretation of Carnap’s notion of truth conditions ( Carnap ...types of inference for answering questions, corresponding roughly to Carnap’s distinction between intension and extension ( Carnap , 1964b). First...and Newman Inc., Cambridge, MA, December. Carnap , R. (1964a). Foundations of Logic and Mathematics. In The Structure of Language; Readings in the

  19. Experiences Running a Parallel Answer Set Solver on Blue Gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneidenbach, Lars; Schnor, Bettina; Gebser, Martin; Kaminski, Roland; Kaufmann, Benjamin; Schaub, Torsten

    This paper presents the concept of parallelisation of a solver for Answer Set Programming (ASP). While there already exist some approaches to parallel ASP solving, there was a lack of a parallel version of the powerful clasp solver. We implemented a parallel version of clasp based on message-passing. Experimental results on Blue Gene P/L indicate the potential of such an approach.

  20. Questions & answers about hospice: a guide for Missouri's physicians.

    PubMed

    Zweig, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Hospice provides multidisciplinary care to dying patients with and without cancer. Most adults would prefer to be cared for in their home or that of a family member. This guide provides answers to the questions most commonly asked of physicians. Its goal is to facilitate a better understanding of what hospice does, who is eligible, physician roles, and how physicians can use hospice to help their patients.

  1. Developing new writers: answering the call for student manuscripts.

    PubMed

    Smith-Stoner, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Critical-care nurses play an important role in the development of nursing students' ideas about clinical and professional issues. During a recent critical-care nursing rotation, baccalaureate nursing students learned about evidence-based practice through identifying a policy that needed revision or creation. By integrating clinical issues into an introduction to research and issues and trends, the students were able to answer a call for student abstracts.

  2. Cross-domain question classification in community question answering via kernel mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Lei; Hu, Zuoliang; Yang, Bin; Li, Yiyang; Chen, Jun

    2015-10-01

    An increasingly popular method for retrieving information is via the community question answering (CQA) systems such as Yahoo! Answers and Baidu Knows. In CQA, question classification plays an important role to find the answers. However, the labeled training examples for statistical question classifier are fairly expensive to obtain, as they require the experienced human efforts. Meanwhile, unlabeled data are readily available. This paper employs the method of domain adaptation via kernel mapping to solve this problem. In detail, the kernel approach is utilized to map the target-domain data and the source-domain data into a common space, where the question classifiers are trained under the closer conditional probabilities. The kernel mapping function is constructed by domain knowledge. Therefore, domain knowledge could be transferred from the labeled examples in the source domain to the unlabeled ones in the targeted domain. The statistical training model can be improved by using a large number of unlabeled data. Meanwhile, the Hadoop Platform is used to construct the mapping mechanism to reduce the time complexity. Map/Reduce enable kernel mapping for domain adaptation in parallel in the Hadoop Platform. Experimental results show that the accuracy of question classification could be improved by the method of kernel mapping. Furthermore, the parallel method in the Hadoop Platform could effective schedule the computing resources to reduce the running time.

  3. Static and Dynamic Modeling of a Solar Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Harry P.; Winebarger, Amy R.

    2007-09-01

    Recent hydrostatic simulations of solar active regions have shown that it is possible to reproduce both the total intensity and the general morphology of the high-temperature emission observed at soft X-ray wavelengths using static heating models. These static models, however, cannot account for the lower temperature emission. In addition, there is ample observational evidence that the solar corona is highly variable, indicating a significant role for dynamical processes in coronal heating. Because they are computationally demanding, full hydrodynamic simulations of solar active regions have not been considered previously. In this paper we make first application of an impulsive heating model to the simulation of an entire active region, AR 8156 observed on 1998 February 16. We model this region by coupling potential field extrapolations to full solutions of the time-dependent hydrodynamic loop equations. To make the problem more tractable we begin with a static heating model that reproduces the emission observed in four different Yohkoh Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) filters and consider impulsive heating scenarios that yield time-averaged SXT intensities that are consistent with the static case. We find that it is possible to reproduce the total observed soft X-ray emission in all of the SXT filters with a dynamical heating model, indicating that nanoflare heating is consistent with the observational properties of the high-temperature solar corona. At EUV wavelengths the simulated emission shows more coronal loops, but the agreement between the simulation and the observation is still not acceptable.

  4. Characterizing and Modeling the Dynamics of Activity and Popularity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Menghui; Gao, Liang; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru

    2014-01-01

    Social media, regarded as two-layer networks consisting of users and items, turn out to be the most important channels for access to massive information in the era of Web 2.0. The dynamics of human activity and item popularity is a crucial issue in social media networks. In this paper, by analyzing the growth of user activity and item popularity in four empirical social media networks, i.e., Amazon, Flickr, Delicious and Wikipedia, it is found that cross links between users and items are more likely to be created by active users and to be acquired by popular items, where user activity and item popularity are measured by the number of cross links associated with users and items. This indicates that users generally trace popular items, overall. However, it is found that the inactive users more severely trace popular items than the active users. Inspired by empirical analysis, we propose an evolving model for such networks, in which the evolution is driven only by two-step random walk. Numerical experiments verified that the model can qualitatively reproduce the distributions of user activity and item popularity observed in empirical networks. These results might shed light on the understandings of micro dynamics of activity and popularity in social media networks. PMID:24586586

  5. Inferring brain-computational mechanisms with models of activity measurements

    PubMed Central

    Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution functional imaging is providing increasingly rich measurements of brain activity in animals and humans. A major challenge is to leverage such data to gain insight into the brain's computational mechanisms. The first step is to define candidate brain-computational models (BCMs) that can perform the behavioural task in question. We would then like to infer which of the candidate BCMs best accounts for measured brain-activity data. Here we describe a method that complements each BCM by a measurement model (MM), which simulates the way the brain-activity measurements reflect neuronal activity (e.g. local averaging in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) voxels or sparse sampling in array recordings). The resulting generative model (BCM-MM) produces simulated measurements. To avoid having to fit the MM to predict each individual measurement channel of the brain-activity data, we compare the measured and predicted data at the level of summary statistics. We describe a novel particular implementation of this approach, called probabilistic representational similarity analysis (pRSA) with MMs, which uses representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) as the summary statistics. We validate this method by simulations of fMRI measurements (locally averaging voxels) based on a deep convolutional neural network for visual object recognition. Results indicate that the way the measurements sample the activity patterns strongly affects the apparent representational dissimilarities. However, modelling of the measurement process can account for these effects, and different BCMs remain distinguishable even under substantial noise. The pRSA method enables us to perform Bayesian inference on the set of BCMs and to recognize the data-generating model in each case. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience’. PMID:27574316

  6. Modeling earthquake activity using a memristor-based cellular grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourkas, Ioannis; Sirakoulis, Georgios Ch.

    2013-04-01

    Earthquakes are absolutely among the most devastating natural phenomena because of their immediate and long-term severe consequences. Earthquake activity modeling, especially in areas known to experience frequent large earthquakes, could lead to improvements in infrastructure development that will prevent possible loss of lives and property damage. An earthquake process is inherently a nonlinear complex system and lately scientists have become interested in finding possible analogues of earthquake dynamics. The majority of the models developed so far were based on a mass-spring model of either one or two dimensions. An early approach towards the reordering and the improvement of existing models presenting the capacitor-inductor (LC) analogue, where the LC circuit resembles a mass-spring system and simulates earthquake activity, was also published recently. Electromagnetic oscillation occurs when energy is transferred between the capacitor and the inductor. This energy transformation is similar to the mechanical oscillation that takes place in the mass-spring system. A few years ago memristor-based oscillators were used as learning circuits exposed to a train of voltage pulses that mimic environment changes. The mathematical foundation of the memristor (memory resistor), as the fourth fundamental passive element, has been expounded by Leon Chua and later extended to a more broad class of memristors, known as memristive devices and systems. This class of two-terminal passive circuit elements with memory performs both information processing and storing of computational data on the same physical platform. Importantly, the states of these devices adjust to input signals and provide analog capabilities unavailable in standard circuit elements, resulting in adaptive circuitry and providing analog parallel computation. In this work, a memristor-based cellular grid is used to model earthquake activity. An LC contour along with a memristor is used to model seismic activity

  7. Modeling Radial Holoblastic Cleavage: A Laboratory Activity for Developmental Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Linda K.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a laboratory activity designed for an undergraduate developmental biology course. Uses Play-Doh (plastic modeling clay) to build a multicellular embryo in order to provide a 3-D demonstration of cleavage. Includes notes for the instructor and student directions. (YDS)

  8. Evaluation of active appearance models in varying background conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Marek; Naruniec, Jacek

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we present an evaluation of the chosen versions of Active Appearance Models (AAM) in varying background conditions. Algorithms were tested on a subset of the CMU PIE database and chosen background im- ages. Our experiments prove, that the accuracy of those methods is strictly correlated with the used background, where the differences in the success rate differ even up to 50%.

  9. A dynamical model of muscle activation, fatigue, and recovery.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing Z; Brown, Robert W; Yue, Guang H

    2002-01-01

    A dynamical model is presented as a framework for muscle activation, fatigue, and recovery. By describing the effects of muscle fatigue and recovery in terms of two phenomenological parameters (F, R), we develop a set of dynamical equations to describe the behavior of muscles as a group of motor units activated by voluntary effort. This model provides a macroscopic view for understanding biophysical mechanisms of voluntary drive, fatigue effect, and recovery in stimulating, limiting, and modulating the force output from muscles. The model is investigated under the condition in which brain effort is assumed to be constant. Experimental validation of the model is performed by fitting force data measured from healthy human subjects during a 3-min sustained maximal voluntary handgrip contraction. The experimental results confirm a theoretical inference from the model regarding the possibility of maximal muscle force production, and suggest that only 97% of the true maximal force can be reached under maximal voluntary effort, assuming that all motor units can be recruited voluntarily. The effects of different motor unit types, time-dependent brain effort, sources of artifacts, and other factors that could affect the model are discussed. The applications of the model are also discussed. PMID:11964225

  10. Diffusion in different models of active Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, B.; Nicola, E. M.

    2008-04-01

    Active Brownian particles (ABP) have served as phenomenological models of self-propelled motion in biology. We study the effective diffusion coefficient of two one-dimensional ABP models (simplified depot model and Rayleigh-Helmholtz model) differing in their nonlinear friction functions. Depending on the choice of the friction function the diffusion coefficient does or does not attain a minimum as a function of noise intensity. We furthermore discuss the case of an additional bias breaking the left-right symmetry of the system. We show that this bias induces a drift and that it generally reduces the diffusion coefficient. For a finite range of values of the bias, both models can exhibit a maximum in the diffusion coefficient vs. noise intensity.

  11. Extended risk-analysis model for activities of the project.

    PubMed

    Kušar, Janez; Rihar, Lidija; Zargi, Urban; Starbek, Marko

    2013-12-01

    Project management of product/service orders has become a mode of operation in many companies. Although these are mostly cyclically recurring projects, risk management is very important for them. An extended risk-analysis model for new product/service projects is presented in this paper. Emphasis is on a solution developed in the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The usual project activities risk analysis is based on evaluation of the probability that risk events occur and on evaluation of their consequences. A third parameter has been added in our model: an estimate of the incidence of risk events. On the basis of the calculated activity risk level, a project team prepares preventive and corrective measures that should be taken according to the status indicators. An important advantage of the proposed solution is that the project manager and his team members are timely warned of risk events and they can thus activate the envisaged preventive and corrective measures as necessary.

  12. Modeling of active transmembrane transport in a mixture theory framework.

    PubMed

    Ateshian, Gerard A; Morrison, Barclay; Hung, Clark T

    2010-05-01

    This study formulates governing equations for active transport across semi-permeable membranes within the framework of the theory of mixtures. In mixture theory, which models the interactions of any number of fluid and solid constituents, a supply term appears in the conservation of linear momentum to describe momentum exchanges among the constituents. In past applications, this momentum supply was used to model frictional interactions only, thereby describing passive transport processes. In this study, it is shown that active transport processes, which impart momentum to solutes or solvent, may also be incorporated in this term. By projecting the equation of conservation of linear momentum along the normal to the membrane, a jump condition is formulated for the mechano-electrochemical potential of fluid constituents which is generally applicable to nonequilibrium processes involving active transport. The resulting relations are simple and easy to use, and address an important need in the membrane transport literature.

  13. Modeling a Transient Pressurization with Active Cooling Sizing Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzik, Monica C.; Plachta, David W.; Elchert, Justin P.

    2011-01-01

    As interest in the area of in-space zero boil-off cryogenic propellant storage develops, the need to visualize and quantify cryogen behavior during ventless tank self-pressurization and subsequent cool-down with active thermal control has become apparent. During the course of a mission, such as the launch ascent phase, there are periods that power to the active cooling system will be unavailable. In addition, because it is not feasible to install vacuum jackets on large propellant tanks, as is typically done for in-space cryogenic applications for science payloads, instances like the launch ascent heating phase are important to study. Numerous efforts have been made to characterize cryogenic tank pressurization during ventless cryogen storage without active cooling, but few tools exist to model this behavior in a user-friendly environment for general use, and none exist that quantify the marginal active cooling system size needed for power down periods to manage tank pressure response once active cooling is resumed. This paper describes the Transient pressurization with Active Cooling Tool (TACT), which is based on a ventless three-lump homogeneous thermodynamic self-pressurization model1 coupled with an active cooling system estimator. TACT has been designed to estimate the pressurization of a heated but unvented cryogenic tank, assuming an unavailable power period followed by a given cryocooler heat removal rate. By receiving input data on the tank material and geometry, propellant initial conditions, and passive and transient heating rates, a pressurization and recovery profile can be found, which establishes the time needed to return to a designated pressure. This provides the ability to understand the effect that launch ascent and unpowered mission segments have on the size of an active cooling system. A sample of the trends found show that an active cooling system sized for twice the steady state heating rate would results in a reasonable time for tank

  14. The Benchmark Active Controls Technology Model Aerodynamic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Robert C.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Wieseman, Carol D.; Durham, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    The Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) model is a part of the Benchmark Models Program (BMP). The BMP is a NASA Langley Research Center program that includes a series of models which were used to study different aeroelastic phenomena and to validate computational fluid dynamics codes. The primary objective of BACT testing was to obtain steady and unsteady loads, accelerations, and aerodynamic pressures due to control surface activity in order to calibrate unsteady CFD codes and active control design tools. Three wind-tunnel tests in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) have been completed. The first and parts of the second and third tests focused on collecting open-loop data to define the model's aeroservoelastic characteristics, including the flutter boundary across the Mach range. It is this data that is being presented in this paper. An extensive database of over 3000 data sets was obtained. This database includes steady and unsteady control surface effectiveness data, including pressure distributions, control surface hinge moments, and overall model loads due to deflections of a trailing edge control surface and upper and lower surface

  15. Spatio-temporal modeling of Active Layer Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touyz, J.; Apanasovich, T. V.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Shiklomanov, N. I.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic Regions are experiencing an unprecedented rate of environmental and climate change. The active layer (the uppermost layer of soil between the atmosphere and permafrost that freezes in winter and thaws in summer) is sensitive to both climate and environmental changes and plays an important role in the functioning of Arctic ecosystems, planning, and economic activities. Knowledge about spatio-temporal variability of ALT is crucial for environmental and engineering applications. The objective of this study is to provide the methodology to model and estimate spatio-temporal variation in the active layer thickness (ALT) at several sites located in the Circumpolar region spanning the Alaska North Slope, and to demonstrate its use in spatio-temporal interpolation as well as time-forward prediction. In our data analysis we estimate a parametric trend and examine residuals for the presence of spatial and temporal dependence. We propose models that provide a description of residual space-time variability in ALT. Formulations that take into account interaction among spatial and temporal components are also developed. Moreover, we compare our models to naive models in which residual spatio-temporal and temporal correlations are not considered. The predicted root mean squared and absolute errors are significantly reduced when our approach is employed. While the methodology is developed in the context of ALT, it can also be applied to model and predict other environmental variables which use similar spatio-temporal sampling designs.

  16. Active shape models incorporating isolated landmarks for medical image annotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norajitra, Tobias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Stieltjes, Bram; Maier-Hein, Klaus H.

    2014-03-01

    Apart from their robustness in anatomic surface segmentation, purely surface based 3D Active Shape Models lack the ability to automatically detect and annotate non-surface key points of interest. However, annotation of anatomic landmarks is desirable, as it yields additional anatomic and functional information. Moreover, landmark detection might help to further improve accuracy during ASM segmentation. We present an extension of surface-based 3D Active Shape Models incorporating isolated non-surface landmarks. Positions of isolated and surface landmarks are modeled conjoint within a point distribution model (PDM). Isolated landmark appearance is described by a set of haar-like features, supporting local landmark detection on the PDM estimates using a kNN-Classi er. Landmark detection was evaluated in a leave-one-out cross validation on a reference dataset comprising 45 CT volumes of the human liver after shape space projection. Depending on the anatomical landmark to be detected, our experiments have shown in about 1/4 up to more than 1/2 of all test cases a signi cant improvement in detection accuracy compared to the position estimates delivered by the PDM. Our results encourage further research with regard to the combination of shape priors and machine learning for landmark detection within the Active Shape Model Framework.

  17. Active shape models with optimised texture features for radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, K.; Montgomery, D.; Yang, F.; McLaren, D. B.; McLaughlin, S.; Nailon, W. H.

    2014-03-01

    There is now considerable interest in radiation oncology on the use of shape models of anatomy to improve target delineation and assess anatomical disparity at time of radiotherapy. In this paper a texture based active shape model (ASM) is presented for automatic delineation of the gross tumor volume (GTV), containing the prostate, on computed tomography (CT) images of prostate cancer patients. The model was trained on two-dimensional (2D) contours identified by a radiation oncologist on sequential CT image slices. A three-dimensional (3D) GTV shape was constructed from these and iteratively aligned using Procrustes analysis. To train the model the shape deformation variance was learnt using the Active Shape Model (ASM) approach. In a novel development to this approach a profile feature was selected from pre-computed texture features by minimizing the Mahalanobis distance to obtain the most distinct feature for each landmark. The interior of the GTV was modelled using quantile histograms to initialize the shape model on new cases. From the archive of 42 cases of contoured CT scans, 32 cases were randomly selected for training the model and 10 cases for evaluating performance. The gold standard was defined by the radiation oncologist. The shape model achieved an overall Dice coefficient of 0.81 for all test cases. Performance was found to increase, mean Dice coefficient of 0.87, when the volume size of the new case was similar to the mean shape of the model. With further work the approach has the potential to be used in real-time delineation of target volumes and improve segmentation accuracy.

  18. In Silico 3D Modeling of Binding Activities.

    PubMed

    Moro, Stefano; Sturlese, Mattia; Ciancetta, Antonella; Floris, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    In silico three-dimensional (3D) molecular modeling tools based upon the receptor/enzyme-ligand docking simulation in protein crystal structures and/or homology modeling of receptors have been reliably used in pharmacological research and development for decades. Molecular docking methodologies are helpful for revealing facets of activation and inactivation, thus improving mechanistic understanding and predicting molecular ligand binding activity, and they can have a high level of accuracy, and have also been explored and applied in chemical risk assessment. This computational approach is, however, only applicable for chemical hazard identification situations where the specific target receptor for a given chemical is known and the crystal structure/homology model of the receptor is available.

  19. Model predictions of myoelectrical activity of the small bowel.

    PubMed

    Miftakhov, R N; Abdusheva, G R; Wingate, D L

    1996-02-01

    A mathematical model for the periodic electrical activity of a functional unit of the small intestine is developed. Based on real morphological and electrophysiological data, the model assumes that: the functional unit is an electromyogenic syncytium; the kinetics of L, T-type Ca2+, mixed Ca(2+)-dependent K+, potential sensitive K+ and Cl- channels determines electrical activity of the functional unit; the basic neural circuit, represented by a single cholinergic neurone, provides an excitatory input to the functional unit via receptor-linked L-type Ca2+ channels. Numerical simulation of the model has shown that it is capable of displaying the slow waves and that slight modifications of some of the parameters result in different electrical responses. The effects of the variations of the main parameters have been analyzed for their ability to reproduce various electrical patterns. The results are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with results of experiments conducted on the small intestine.

  20. Activity-Dependent Neuronal Model on Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    de Arcangelis, Lucilla; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal avalanches are a novel mode of activity in neuronal networks, experimentally found in vitro and in vivo, and exhibit a robust critical behavior: these avalanches are characterized by a power law distribution for the size and duration, features found in other problems in the context of the physics of complex systems. We present a recent model inspired in self-organized criticality, which consists of an electrical network with threshold firing, refractory period, and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. The model reproduces the critical behavior of the distribution of avalanche sizes and durations measured experimentally. Moreover, the power spectra of the electrical signal reproduce very robustly the power law behavior found in human electroencephalogram (EEG) spectra. We implement this model on a variety of complex networks, i.e., regular, small-world, and scale-free and verify the robustness of the critical behavior. PMID:22470347