Science.gov

Sample records for activities prepares quarterly

  1. Astronaut William Gregory prepares to exit his sleep quarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut William G. Gregory, STS-67 pilot, ejects a cassette and prepares to bail out of his sleep quarters aboard the Earth orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. The astronaut was about to begin a shift of support to the red team.

  2. 30 CFR 50.30 - Preparation and submission of MSHA Form 7000-2-Quarterly Employment and Coal Production Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Quarterly Employment and Coal Production Report. 50.30 Section 50.30 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND..., AND COAL PRODUCTION IN MINES Quarterly Employment and Coal Production Report § 50.30 Preparation and submission of MSHA Form 7000-2—Quarterly Employment and Coal Production Report. (a) Each operator of a...

  3. Centurion Quarter-scale Prototype Prepared for Taxi Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    As sunlight breaks over Southern California's El Mirage Dry Lake, Crew members prepare a battery-powered quarter-scale prototype of the remotely-piloted Centurion flying wing for a taxi test. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for solar

  4. Aspects of achievable performance for quarter-car active suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türkay, Semiha; Akçay, Hüseyin

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, constraints on the transfer functions from the road disturbance to the vertical acceleration, the suspension travel, and the tire deflection are derived for a quarter-car active suspension system using the vertical acceleration and/or the suspension travel measurements for feedback. The derived constraints complement the similar constraints in the literature. By using the factorization approach to feedback stability, it is shown that tire damping couples the motions of the sprung and unsprung masses; and eliminates a constraint at the wheel-hop frequency. The influence of tire damping on the design of an active suspension system for a quarter-car model by a mixture of the LQG methodology and the interpolation approach is also illustrated.

  5. Mechanism for Clastogenic Activity of Naphthalene. Quarterly Technical Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B. A.

    2016-02-05

    The project has two main goals: 1) Identify the types of adducts naphthalene (NA) forms with DNA and 2) determine whether adduct formation correlates with site selective tumor formation in defined subcompartments of the respiratory tract (respiratory and olfactory nasal epithelium and airways of mice, rats and rhesus monkeys). Five tasks are associated with the completion of the goals. Task 1: Contracting and Animal Use Approvals. IACUC and ACURO approvals are complete. The subcontract with UC Davis (UCD) was executed in December 2014. Task 2: Perform In Vitro Study for Goal 1. Rat and mouse samples exposures completed. Monkey samples need to be exposed in next quarter. Task 3: Perform In Vitro Study for Goal 2. Mouse and rat ex vivo exposures completed. Monkey samples need to be completed in the next quarter. Task 4: Sample Preparation and Analysis. Mouse and Rat Goal 2 samples completed. Monkey samples remain to be done for Goal 2. Rat samples completed for Goal 1. Mouse and Monkey samples for Goal 1 need to be completed. Task 5: Data Interpretation and Reporting. Poster will be presented at 2016 Society of Toxicology Meeting. Outline for paper on adduct formation complete and similar to poster for SOT meeting.

  6. Quarterly Briefing Book on Environmental and Waste Management Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of the Quarterly Briefing Book on Environmental and Waste Management Activities is to provide managers and senior staff at the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and its contractors with timely and concise information on Hanford Site environmental and waste management activities. Each edition updates the information on the topics in the previous edition, deletes those determined not to be of current interest, and adds new topics to keep up to date with changing environmental and waste management requirements and issues. Section A covers current waste management and environmental restoration issues. In Section B are writeups on national or site-wide environmental and waste management topics. Section C has writeups on program- and waste-specific environmental and waste management topics. Section D provides information on waste sites and inventories on the site. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the second quarter of 1997 (April through June).

  8. Vibration control of a nonlinear quarter-car active suspension system by reinforcement learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucak, İ. Ö.; Öz, H. R.

    2012-06-01

    This article presents the investigation of performance of a nonlinear quarter-car active suspension system with a stochastic real-valued reinforcement learning control strategy. As an example, a model of a quarter car with a nonlinear suspension spring subjected to excitation from a road profile is considered. The excitation is realised by the roughness of the road. The quarter-car model to be considered here can be approximately described as a nonlinear two degrees of freedom system. The experimental results indicate that the proposed active suspension system suppresses the vibrations greatly. A simulation of a nonlinear quarter-car active suspension system is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and examine the performance of the learning control algorithm.

  9. Beyond Quarterly Earnings: Preparing the Business Community for Long-term Climate Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, C.; Goldman, G. T.

    2014-12-01

    The business community stands to be highly impacted by climate change. In both short and long-term timescales, climate change presents material and financial risks to companies in diverse economic sectors. How the private sector accounts for long-term risks while making short-term decisions about operations is a complex challenge. Companies are accountable to shareholders and must report performance to them on a quarterly basis. At the same time, company investors are exposed to long-term climate-related risks and face losses if companies fail to prepare for climate impacts. The US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) obligates publicly traded companies to discuss risks that might materially affect their business and since 2010, the agency recommends that companies consider and discuss any significant risks to their business from climate change. Some companies have complied with this guidance and comprehensively analyze potential climate change impacts, yet others fail to consider climate change at all. Such omissions leave companies without plans for addressing future risks and expose investors and the public to potential catastrophic events from climate change impacts. Climate risk projections can inform companies about the vulnerability of their facilities, supply chains, transportation pathways, and other assets. Such projections can help put climate-related risks in terms of material costs for companies and their investors. Focusing on the vulnerability of coastal facilities, we will use climate change impact projections to demonstrate the economic impacts of climate change faced by the private sector. These risks are then compared to company disclosures to the SEC to assess the degree to which companies have considered their vulnerability to climate change. Finally, we will discuss ways that companies can better assess and manage long-term climate risks.

  10. Program of basic research on the preparation and stability of coal/water slurries. Quarterly report, June 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Atlas, H.; Casassa, E.Z.; Parfitt, G.D.; Toor, E.W.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the research proposed here is to relate the surface chemistry (surface charge, wettability and additive adsorption) of a coal to its previous history of oxidation and beneficiation, and to surface analysis of each coal sample. These studies will be used to further develop the model for coal/water slurry behavior which was proposed as a result of previous studies of coal/water slurry surface chemistry carried out between September 1981 and September 1983 under Grant No. DE-FG281PC40285 from DOE/PETC. These studies are expected to lead to a better understanding of the balance among and effects of the different types of materials on the heterogeneous coal surface which will allow more effective utilization of coal/water slurries, regardless of coal source. The current two-year research program was initiated June 1, 1984, and this first quarterly report for the calendar quarter ending June 30, 1984, covers progress during the month of June, as well as some preliminary work carried out earlier in the quarter before initiation of the program. Research accomplishments and plans for the next report period are discussed for the following tasks: (1) standardizing of grinding conditions for coal number 1; (2) characterization of pulverized coal at Carnegie-Mellon University; and (3) characterization of coal/water slurries prepared from aged coals. 2 figures, 7 tables.

  11. Astronaut Scott Carpenter in Hanger S crew quarters during suiting activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 7 flight, is seen in Hanger S crew quarters during a preflight suiting activity at Cape Canaveral, Florida. He is assisted in suiting by technician Al Rochford. In this view, Carpenter is fully suited and is having his gloves adjusted.

  12. Investigating the variability of active galactic nuclei using combined multi-quarter Kepler data

    SciTech Connect

    Revalski, Mitchell; Nowak, Dawid; Wiita, Paul J.; Wehrle, Ann E.; Unwin, Stephen C.

    2014-04-10

    We used photometry from the Kepler satellite to characterize the variability of four radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on timescales from years to minutes. The Kepler satellite produced nearly continuous high precision data sets which provided better temporal coverage than possible with ground based observations. We have now accumulated 11 quarters of data, eight of which were reported in our previous paper. In addition to constructing power spectral densities (PSDs) and characterizing the variability of the last three quarters, we have linked together the individual quarters using a multiplicative scaling process, providing data sets spanning ∼2.8 yr with >98% coverage at a 30 minute sampling rate. We compute PSDs on these connected data sets that yield power law slopes at low frequencies in the approximate range of –1.5 to –2.0, with white noise seen at higher frequencies. These PSDs are similar to those of both the individual quarters and to those of ground-based optical observations of other AGNs. We also have explored a PSD binning method intended to reduce a bias toward shallow slope fits by evenly distributing the points within the PSDs. This tends to steepen the computed PSD slopes, especially when the low frequencies are relatively poorly fit. We detected flares lasting several days in which the brightness increased by ∼15%-20% in one object, as well a smaller flare in another. Two AGNs showed only small, ∼1%-2%, fluctuations in brightness.

  13. Switchable Ultrathin Quarter-wave Plate in Terahertz Using Active Phase-change Metasurface

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dacheng; Zhang, Lingchao; Gu, Yinghong; Mehmood, M. Q.; Gong, Yandong; Srivastava, Amar; Jian, Linke; Venkatesan, T.; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Hong, Minghui

    2015-01-01

    Metamaterials open up various exotic means to control electromagnetic waves and among them polarization manipulations with metamaterials have attracted intense attention. As of today, static responses of resonators in metamaterials lead to a narrow-band and single-function operation. Extension of the working frequency relies on multilayer metamaterials or different unit cells, which hinder the development of ultra-compact optical systems. In this work, we demonstrate a switchable ultrathin terahertz quarter-wave plate by hybridizing a phase change material, vanadium dioxide (VO2), with a metasurface. Before the phase transition, VO2 behaves as a semiconductor and the metasurface operates as a quarter-wave plate at 0.468 THz. After the transition to metal phase, the quarter-wave plate operates at 0.502 THz. At the corresponding operating frequencies, the metasurface converts a linearly polarized light into a circularly polarized light. This work reveals the feasibility to realize tunable/active and extremely low-profile polarization manipulation devices in the terahertz regime through the incorporation of such phase-change metasurfaces, enabling novel applications of ultrathin terahertz meta-devices. PMID:26442614

  14. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 10, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1995-03-01

    The research during this quarter was, directed towards: (1) systematic study of preparation of coal fines by high-pressure roll mill grinding and by high-pressure roll mill/ball mill hybrid grinding, (2) investigation of the rheological behavior of slurries prepared with fines produced by these techniques, and (3) study of the effect of coal cleaning on both short term and long term slurry rheology. Results are discussed.

  15. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, second quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The forecasts in this issue cover the second quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Changes to macroeconomic measures by the Bureau of Economic Analysis have been incorporated into the STIFS model used.

  16. Fluctuations in Activity Demands Across Game Quarters in Professional and Semiprofessional Male Basketball.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Tucker, Patrick S; Dascombe, Ben J; Berkelmans, Daniel M; Hiskens, Matthew I; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2015-11-01

    Examination of activity demands and stoppage durations across game periods provides useful insight concerning fatigue, tactical strategies, and playing pace in team sports such as basketball. Therefore, the aims of this study were to quantify and compare game activity fluctuations across quarters in professional and semiprofessional basketball players. Video-based time-motion analyses were conducted across multiple games. Frequencies, total durations (in seconds), total distances (in meters), and mean velocities (in meters per second) were calculated for low-intensity movement (≤3 m·s), high-intensity movement (>3 m·s), shuffling, and dribbling activity. Frequencies were determined for jumping and upper-body activity; stoppage durations were also calculated. Separate repeated-measures analysis of variance and Cohen's d were used to identify significant differences and quantify the effect sizes between game quarters for all outcome measures, respectively. Pearson correlation analyses were performed to determine the relationship between stoppage duration and all activity measures. The results showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced dribbling (3.09 ± 0.03 m·s vs. 2.81 ± 0.01 m·s) and total (2.22 ± 0.04 m·s vs. 2.09 ± 0.03 m·s) activity velocities during the third compared with the first quarter in professional players. Furthermore, effect size analyses showed greater decreases in high-intensity (professional: d = 1.7-5.4; semiprofessional: d = 0.3-1.7), shuffling (professional: d = 2.3-3.2; semiprofessional: d = 1.4-2.1), and total (professional: d = 1.0-4.9; semiprofessional: d = 0.3-0.8) activity and increases in dribbling (professional: d = 1.4-4.7; semiprofessional: d = 2.5-2.8) with game progression in professional players. In semiprofessional players, stoppage duration was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) related to various low-intensity (R = 0.64-0.72), high-intensity (R = 0.65-0.72), and total (R = 0.63-0.73) activity measures. Although not directly

  17. Say what you mean: rethinking disability language in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly.

    PubMed

    Peers, Danielle; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy; Eales, Lindsay

    2014-07-01

    Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly (APAQ) currently mandates that authors use person-first language in their publications. In this viewpoint article, we argue that although this policy is well intentioned, it betrays a very particular cultural and disciplinary approach to disability: one that is inappropriate given the international and multidisciplinary mandate of the journal. Further, we contend that APAQ's current language policy may serve to delimit the range of high-quality articles submitted and to encourage both theoretical inconsistency and the erasure of the ways in which research participants self-identify. The article begins with narrative accounts of each of our negotiations with disability terminology in adapted physical activity research and practice. We then provide historical and theoretical contexts for person-first language, as well as various other widely circulated alternative English-language disability terminology. We close with four suggested revisions to APAQ's language policy.

  18. Preparation for YMP backfill activities

    SciTech Connect

    Conca, J.

    1998-12-23

    Yucca Mountain activities for FY 1999 are anticipated to require specific information on the chemical and physical properties of the candidate getter materials and other backfill components necessary for defensible modeling of the source term, and possible controlling of the source term. There should be three tasks to this activity: at the end of this report is a draft test plan reflecting the present funding anticipated, the other tasks may be added as funding becomes available. (Task 1) The immobilization capacity of the getter materials for specific radionuclides. This task will primarily include column sorption tests of getter materials with solutions spiked with radionuclides. The getter materials will include Apatite II, MgO (with NaPO{sub 4} plus Ba,SrCO{sub 3} and soluble sulfate, with and without Apatite II), Gibbsite/Boehmite, and Hematite. Radionuclides will include Pu, U, Np, Am, Ra, Tc, and Th. Experiments will be performed under various anticipated repository conditions and with anticipated solution compositions. Occasional batch tests will be used to obtain specific K{sub d}s and other thermodynamic data. Solid and liquid analyses will be needed for characterization of the effluent concentrations from the columns to assess performance and for use in geochemical modeling. (Task 2) Intrinsic stability of the getter materials under repository conditions. The use of any candidate getter material will depend upon its anticipated lifetime in the backfill environment. Literature search for any existing data will be performed and augmented by solubility experiments on the getter materials. This is especially important for the reactive materials such as MgO and the soluble sulfates and phosphates that may be a limited lifetime in the backfill. It is also necessary to decide how much getter material to emplace. (Task 3) Diffusion of radionuclides across a Richards Barrier. The Richards Barrier, if emplaced, will act as a hydraulic diversion barrier for the

  19. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, FY08

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-01-28

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  20. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, Fiscal Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann; Kathmann, Loel E.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2009-02-02

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2008 - December 2008) of Fiscal Year 2009.

  1. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: FY 2008, 3rd Quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-09-16

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  2. Natural gas imports and exports, fourth quarter report 1999

    SciTech Connect

    2000-03-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  3. Natural gas imports and exports, third quarter report 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  4. Natural gas imports and exports, first quarter report 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-06-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent reporting quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  5. 75 FR 27574 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Production Estimate, Quarterly...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ..., Quarterly Construction Sand and Gravel and Crushed and Broken Stone (3 Forms) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey... Construction Sand and Gravel and Crushed and Broken Stone. This collection consists of three forms and this.... Title: Production Estimate, Quarterly Construction Sand and Gravel and Crushed and Broken Stone. Type...

  6. Quarterly Reporting of Government-Funded Activity to the 2015 National VET Provider Collection. Technical Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The topic of more frequent and timely vocational education and training (VET) data has been an issue of interest for a number of years. Since 2015, the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) has collected and reported data on government-funded students and courses on a quarterly basis. These quarterly data submissions are…

  7. Process for preparing active oxide powders

    DOEpatents

    Berard, Michael F.; Hunter, Jr., Orville; Shiers, Loren E.; Dole, Stephen L.; Scheidecker, Ralph W.

    1979-02-20

    An improved process for preparing active oxide powders in which cation hydroxide gels, prepared in the conventional manner are chemically dried by alternately washing the gels with a liquid organic compound having polar characteristics and a liquid organic compound having nonpolar characteristics until the mechanical water is removed from the gel. The water-free cation hydroxide is then contacted with a final liquid organic wash to remove the previous organic wash and speed drying. The dried hydroxide treated in the conventional manner will form a highly sinterable active oxide powder.

  8. Active vibration control on a quarter-car for cancellation of road noise disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belgacem, Walid; Berry, Alain; Masson, Patrice

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a methodology is presented for the cancellation of road noise, from the analysis of vibration transmission paths for an automotive suspension to the design of an active control system using inertial actuators on a suspension to reduce the vibrations transmitted to the chassis. First, experiments were conducted on a Chevrolet Epica LS automobile on a concrete test track to measure accelerations induced on the suspension by the road. These measurements were combined with experimental Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) measured on a quarter-car test bench to reconstruct an equivalent three dimensional force applied on the wheel hub. Second, FRFs measured on the test bench between the three-dimensional driving force and forces at each suspension/chassis linkage were used to characterize the different transmission paths of vibration energy to the chassis. Third, an experimental model of the suspension was constructed to simulate the configuration of the active control system, using the primary (disturbance) FRFs and secondary (control) FRFs also measured on the test bench. This model was used to optimize the configuration of the control actuators and to evaluate the required forces. Finally, a prototype of an active suspension was implemented and measurements were performed in order to assess the performance of the control approach. A 4.6 dB attenuation on transmitted forces was obtained in the 50-250 Hz range.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of preparation Bioaron C.

    PubMed

    Gawron-Gzella, Anne; Michalak, Anna; Kędzia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of sirupus Bioaron C, a preparation, whose main ingredient is an extract from the leaves of Aloe arborescens, was tested against different microorganisms isolated from patients with upper respiratory tract infections. The experiments were performed on 40 strains: 20 strains of anaerobic bacteria, 13 strains of aerobic bacteria and 7 strains of yeast-like fungi from the genus Candida and on 18 reference strains (ATCC). The antimicrobial activity of Bioaron C (MBC and MFC) was determined at undiluted concentration. Bioaron C proved to be very effective against the microorganisms causing infections. At the concentration recommended by the producer, the preparation showed biocidal activity (MBC, MFC) against the strains of the pathogenic microorganisms, which cause respiratory infections most frequently, including, among others, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Parvimonas micra, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus anginosus, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, already after 15 min. The MIC of Bioaron C against most of the tested microorganisms was 5 to 100 times lower than the usually applied concentration. The great antimicrobial activity means that the preparation may be used in the prevention and treatment of infections of the upper respiratory tract. Bioaron C may be an alternative or complement to classical therapy, especially in children.

  10. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent projections with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the second quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates.

  11. Mechanical-Stress Induced Nd:YAG Active Quarter-Wave Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmi, Masato; Akatsuka, Masanori; Ishikawa, Koji; Naito, Kenta; Yonezawa, Yoshiyuki; Yamanaka, Masanobu; Izawa, Yasukazu; Nakai, Sadao

    1994-09-01

    A quarter-wave retardation was obtained by mechanically induced stress in a Nd:YAG laser rod and a laser gain of 1.15 at 1064 nm was obtained by pumping with a quasi-CW 300 W laser-diode array at 808 nm. The laser rod was held in a brass heatsink in which the mechanical stress was induced horizontally by means of screws. The effective quarter-wave area was measured to be 1 mm (vertical)×2 mm (horizontal) in the center of the 4 mm-diameter Nd:YAG rod by means of a newly constructed polarimeter.

  12. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-15

    This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  13. 76 FR 45298 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Quarterly...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... submitting the revised Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled... Officer for the Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Office of Management and Budget... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages data, which are provided to the BLS by...

  14. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on Activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This August 15, 1990, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1990, through June 30, 1990. 3 tabs.

  15. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical progress report number 11, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this research is the development of improved technology for the preparation of coal-water slurries that have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. Detailed investigations of the effect of solids content and chemical additives on the rheology of coal-water slurries, prepared with fines produced by the ball milling of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, were conducted during the first phase of the research program. These experiments were to provide a baseline against which the rheological behavior of slurries prepared with fines produced by high-pressure roll milling or hybrid high-pressure, roll mill/ball mill grinding could be compared. The viscosity of slurries with high solids content is strongly influenced by the packing density of the feed material. The packing density can be significantly altered by mixing distributions of different median sizes, and to an extent by modifying the grinding environment. The research during this quarter was, therefore, directed towards: (1) establishing the relationship between the packing characteristic of fines and the viscosity of slurries prepared with the fines; (2) investigation of the effect of mixing distribution on the rheology; and (3) study of the effect of grinding environment in the ball mill on the rheology of coal-water slurries.

  16. Natural gas imports and exports: Third quarter report, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the third quarter of 1998 (July--September). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent calendar quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  17. Natural gas imports and exports. Fourth quarter report, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the fourth quarter of 1998 (October through December). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  18. Natural gas imports and exports. First quarter report, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the first quarter of 1998 (January through March). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  19. Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepared quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the second quarter of 1998 (April through June). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  20. 18 CFR 35.10b - Electric Quarterly Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electric Quarterly... Application § 35.10b Electric Quarterly Reports. Each public utility shall file an updated Electric Quarterly..., file by January 31. Electric Quarterly Reports must be prepared in conformance with the...

  1. 18 CFR 35.10b - Electric Quarterly Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric Quarterly... Application § 35.10b Electric Quarterly Reports. Each public utility shall file an updated Electric Quarterly..., file by January 31. Electric Quarterly Reports must be prepared in conformance with the...

  2. 18 CFR 35.10b - Electric Quarterly Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electric Quarterly... Application § 35.10b Electric Quarterly Reports. Each public utility shall file an updated Electric Quarterly..., file by January 31. Electric Quarterly Reports must be prepared in conformance with the...

  3. Spanish Quarter Museum Pre-Tour Packet for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanVleet, Susan

    This guide provides teachers with background information and teaching activities to prepare students for a visit to the Spanish Quarter Museum in St. Augustine, Florida. It is designed to familiarize students with some of the concepts and words they will encounter in the open-air living history museum where interpreters in period clothing re-live…

  4. Murine Immunoprotective Activity of Klebsiella pneumoniae Cell Surface Preparations: Comparative Study with Ribosomal Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Jean-Michel; Jolivet-Reynaud, Colette; Riottot, Marie-Madeleine; Jouin, Hélène

    1981-01-01

    Cell surface preparations and ribosomal preparations were extracted from Klebsiella pneumoniae. Agar gel diffusion with antisera to cell surface preparations or ribosomal preparations indicated common antigenic components among the preparations. Lipopolysaccharide and capsular polysaccharide were identified in the cell surface preparations. These results and the previous identification of lipopolysaccharide and capsular polysaccharide in ribosomal preparations suggest that these antigens are responsible for the immunochemical cross-reactivity observed among these two bacterial extracts. Active protection could be induced in mice by these two preparations. On a dry-weight basis, cell surface preparations provided better immunoprotective activity than did ribosomal preparations. However, the 50% protective dose of both preparations is practically the same on the basis of their capsular polysaccharide content. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the immunoprotective moiety of ribosomal preparations is the contaminating cell surface antigens. Furthermore, the low level of nucleotidic components detected in purified cell surface preparations led us to infer that the immunoprotective activity of capsular polysaccharide may not be dependent on the adjuvant activity of ribonucleic acid. The involvement of capsular polysaccharide in the immunoprotective capacity of cell surface preparations is demonstrated either by using a degradation of this antigen by K. pneumoniae bacteriophage K2-associated glycanase or by using a preparation extracted from a noncapsulated mutant of K. pneumoniae. Nevertheless, the low protective ability of purified capsular polysaccharides is in contrast to its greater activity when induced in bacterial cell surface preparations. The protective activity of K. pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide may be dependent on its association with other surface antigenic components present in cell surface preparations or may be dependent on its

  5. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 13, September 1, 1995--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this research is the development of improved technology of the preparation of coal-water slurries that have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. Research accomplishments are summarized for: standardization of experimental procedures; investigation of effect of high-pressure roll mill/ball mill grinding on the energetics of fine grinding and the rheology of coal-water slurries prepared with such fines; study of aging behavior of slurries; and ways of improving rheology of slurries. The rheological behavior of slurries is a manifestation of particle-particle and particle-fluid interactions in the slurry. Improvement in the rheology of slurries could be brought about by suitably altering these interactions. The research directed towards investigation of the influence of co-addition of sodium hexametaphosphate and vacuum oil, with CoalMaster as the primary dispersant, showed that co-addition of the reagents significantly improved the rheology of coal-water slurries. Further research conducted in this quarter indicated that co-addition of reagents also improves the long-term rheological behavior of coal-water slurries.

  6. Gamma-irradiated bacterial preparation having anti-tumor activity

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, A.A.; Tyndall, R.L.; Terzaghi-Howe, P.

    1999-11-16

    This application describes a bacterial preparation from Pseudomonas species isolated {number{underscore}sign}15 ATCC 55638 that has been exposed to gamma radiation exhibits cytotoxicity that is specific for neoplastic carcinoma cells. A method for obtaining a bacterial preparation having antitumor activity consists of suspending a bacterial isolate in media and exposing the suspension to gamma radiation. A bacterial preparation of an aged culture of an amoeba-associated bacteria exhibits anti-reverse transcriptase activity. A method for obtaining a bacterial preparation having anti-reverse transcriptase activity from an amoeba-associated bacterial isolate grown to stationary phase is disclosed.

  7. Gamma-irradiated bacterial preparation having anti-tumor activity

    DOEpatents

    Vass, Arpad A.; Tyndall, Richard L.; Terzaghi-Howe, Peggy

    1999-01-01

    A bacterial preparation from Pseudomonas species isolated #15 ATCC 55638 that has been exposed to gamma radiation exhibits cytotoxicity that is specific for neoplastic carcinoma cells. A method for obtaining a bacterial preparation having antitumor activity consists of suspending a bacterial isolate in media and exposing the suspension to gamma radiation. A bacterial preparation of an aged culture of an amoeba-associated bacteria exhibits anti-reverse transcriptase activity. A method for obtaining a bacterial preparation having anti-reverse transcriptase activity from an amoeba-associated bacterial isolate grown to stationary phase is disclosed.

  8. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of our most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur and a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975, (Public Law 94-163) as amended, to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the first quarter of calendar year 1994, including: (1) inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; (2) fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; (3) average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; (4) current and projected storage capacity; (5) analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; (6) funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and (7) major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  9. Preparation and antimalarial activity of semisynthetic lycorenine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cedrón, Juan C; Gutiérrez, David; Flores, Ninoska; Ravelo, Ángel G; Estévez-Braun, Ana

    2013-05-01

    A set of twenty one lycorenine derivatives has been prepared from the alkaloid hippeastrine (1). The modifications performed on hippeastrine included some functional group transformations, structural simplification and preparation of dimers. All alkaloids were tested as potential antimalarial agents, being the hippeastrine dimers the most active compounds.

  10. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, third quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Values for the second quarter of 1996, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the third quarter 1996 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  11. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections. Second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent projections with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the first quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the second quarter 1995 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  12. Nature Prepares for Winter. A Fall Activity Packet for Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on preparations for winter…

  13. Preparation of activated carbons with mesopores by use of organometallics

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Yoshio; Yoshizawa, Noriko; Furuta, Takeshi

    1996-12-31

    Activated carbons are commercially produced by steam or CO{sub 2} activation of coal, coconut shell and so on. In general the carbons obtained give pores with a broad range of distribution. The objective of this study was to prepare activated carbons from coal by use of various organometallic compounds. The carbons were evaluated for pore size by nitrogen adsorption experiments.

  14. Active vibration reduction of a flexible structure bonded with optimised piezoelectric pairs using half and quarter chromosomes in genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daraji, A. H.; Hale, J. M.

    2012-08-01

    The optimal placement of sensors and actuators in active vibration control is limited by the number of candidates in the search space. The search space of a small structure discretized to one hundred elements for optimising the location of ten actuators gives 1.73 × 1013 possible solutions, one of which is the global optimum. In this work, a new quarter and half chromosome technique based on symmetry is developed, by which the search space for optimisation of sensor/actuator locations in active vibration control of flexible structures may be greatly reduced. The technique is applied to the optimisation for eight and ten actuators located on a 500×500mm square plate, in which the search space is reduced by up to 99.99%. This technique helps for updating genetic algorithm program by updating natural frequencies and mode shapes in each generation to find the global optimal solution in a greatly reduced number of generations. An isotropic plate with piezoelectric sensor/actuator pairs bonded to its surface was investigated using the finite element method and Hamilton's principle based on first order shear deformation theory. The placement and feedback gain of ten and eight sensor/actuator pairs was optimised for a cantilever and clamped-clamped plate to attenuate the first six modes of vibration, using minimization of linear quadratic index as an objective function.

  15. Non-dimensionalised closed-form parametric analysis of semi-active vehicle suspensions using a quarter-car model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Blanchard, Emmanuel

    2011-02-01

    This article provides a non-dimensionalised closed-form analysis of semi-active vehicle suspensions, using a quarter-car model. The derivation of the closed-form solutions for three indices that can be used for ride comfort, vehicle handling, and stability are presented based on non-dimensionalised suspension parameters. The behaviour of semi-active vehicle suspensions is evaluated using skyhook, groundhook, and hybrid control policies, and compared with passive suspensions. The relationship between vibration isolation, suspension deflection, and road holding is studied, using three performance indices based on the mean square of the sprung mass acceleration, rattle space, and tyre deflection, respectively. The results of the study indicate that the hybrid control policy yields significantly better comfort than a passive suspension, without reducing the road-holding quality or increasing the suspension displacement for typical passenger cars. The results also indicate that for typical passenger cars, the hybrid control policy results in a better compromise between comfort, road holding and suspension travel requirements than both the skyhook and groundhook control methods.

  16. Word Processors and Writing Activities for the Elementary Grades. A MicroSIFT Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batey, Anne; Ricketts, Dick

    Intended to help educators choose the most appropriate word processing products for elementary school writing instruction, this report provides information about 12 word processor software products and 13 writing activity products. These products and the writing activities they use are as follows: (1) Bank Street Writer III (Activity Files,…

  17. Short-term energy outlook quarterly projections. First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-07

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short- term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets.

  18. Preparation of Paper Containing Activated Carbon.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    development of charcoal paper. RESUME On a obtenu du papier contenant du charbon actif en dispersant du charbon r~duit en poudre et en versant des agents de...sa capaciti d’adsorption et de ritention du charbon . Ce papier pourrait servir d𔄀crans dans une salle de contr~le de contamination pour le balayage...contenant du charbon . "l-ii:: . ---:.-o * *** * *. .. t C Cd. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 S 2 INTRODUCTION . Activated

  19. Western Gas Sands Project. Quarterly basin activities report, January 1-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report is a summary of drilling and testing activities in the four primary study areas of the WGSP: Greater Green River Basin, Northern Great Plains Province, Uinta Basin, and Piceance Basin. (DLC)

  20. Preparation and antitussive, expectorant, and antiasthmatic activities of verticinone's derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Hui; Ruan, Han-Li; Pi, Hui-Fang; Wu, Ji-Zhou; Sun, Han-Dong; Fujita, Tetsuro

    2008-01-01

    To prepare verticinone derivatives with significant antitussive, expectorant, and antiasthmatic activities, the compounds 3beta-acetylverticinone (1), 3-ketoverticinone (2), 3beta-benzoylverticinone (3), 3beta-propionylverticinone (4), 3beta-butyrylverticinone (5), and 3beta-butoxycarbonylverticinone (6) have been prepared. All of these are new compounds. Among them, 1-6 exhibited potent antitussive and expectorant activities; 1 and 3-6 displayed various antiasthmatic activities. The antitussive activity of 1-6, the expectorant activity of 1-2 and 4-6, and the antiasthmatic activity of 1 are higher than those of verticinone. The results demonstrated that 1 had dominant biological activities, suggesting that it would be a potential antitussive, expectorant, and antiasthmatic agent.

  1. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current storage capacity and ullage available; current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities, major projects and the acquisition of petroleum products; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  2. Preparation of activated carbons from bituminous coal pitches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gañan, J.; González-García, C. M.; González, J. F.; Sabio, E.; Macías-García, A.; Díaz-Díez, M. A.

    2004-11-01

    High-porosity carbons were prepared from bituminous coal pitches by combining chemical and physical activation. The chemical activation process consisted of potassium hydroxide impregnation followed by carbonization in nitrogen atmosphere. The effect of the KOH impregnation ratio on the surface area and pore volumes evolution of the carbons derived from mesophase pitch was studied. The optimum KOH:pitch ratio was fixed to realize a physical activation process in order to increase the textural parameters of the KOH-activated carbons. Physical activation was performed by carbonizing the KOH-activated carbons followed by gasifying with air. The influence of the carbonization temperature and the residence time of the gasification with air were explored to optimize those preparation parameters.

  3. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  4. Quarterly environmental data summary for fourth quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1997 is prepared in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data presented constitute the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), merged into the data base during the fourth quarter of 1997. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the data base and KPA data are not merged into the regular data base. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined ``above normal`` level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) generated data only. Above normal level 2 values are based, in ES and H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in response to such data. Data received and verified during the fourth quarter were within a permissible range of variability except for those which are detailed.

  5. Slice&Dice: Recognizing Food Preparation Activities Using Embedded Accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Cuong; Olivier, Patrick

    Within the context of an endeavor to provide situated support for people with cognitive impairments in the kitchen, we developed and evaluated classifiers for recognizing 11 actions involved in food preparation. Data was collected from 20 lay subjects using four specially designed kitchen utensils incorporating embedded 3-axis accelerometers. Subjects were asked to prepare a mixed salad in our laboratory-based instrumented kitchen environment. Video of each subject's food preparation activities were independently annotated by three different coders. Several classifiers were trained and tested using these features. With an overall accuracy of 82.9% our investigation demonstrated that a broad set of food preparation actions can be reliably recognized using sensors embedded in kitchen utensils.

  6. Preparation of nitrogen-enriched activated carbons from brown coal

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Pietrzak; Helena Wachowska; Piotr Nowicki

    2006-05-15

    Nitrogen-enriched activated carbons were prepared from a Polish brown coal. Nitrogen was introduced from urea at 350{sup o}C in an oxidizing atmosphere both to carbonizates obtained at 500-700{sup o}C and to activated carbons prepared from them. The activation was performed at 800{sup o}C with KOH in argon. It has been observed that the carbonization temperature determines the amount of nitrogen that is incorporated (DC5U, 8.4 wt % N{sup daf}; DC6U, 6.3 wt % N{sup daf}; and DC7U, 5.4 wt % N{sup daf}). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements have shown that nitrogen introduced both at the stage of carbonizates and at the stage of activated carbons occurs mainly as -6, -5, and imine, amine and amide groups. On the other hand, the activation of carbons enriched with nitrogen results in the formation of pyridonic nitrogen and N-Q. The introduction of nitrogen at the activated carbon stage leads to a slight decrease in surface area. It has been proven that the most effective way of preparing microporous activated carbons enriched with nitrogen to a considerable extent and having high surface area ({approximately} 3000 m{sup 2}/g) is the following: carbonization - activation - reaction with urea. 40 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  7. Ready and waiting: Freezing as active action preparation under threat.

    PubMed

    Gladwin, Thomas E; Hashemi, Mahur M; van Ast, Vanessa; Roelofs, Karin

    2016-04-21

    Freezing is a defensive response characterized by rigidity and bradycardia, but it is unclear whether it is a passive versus active preparatory state. We developed a shooting task in which preparation and threat were manipulated independently: Participants were either helpless or able to respond to a possible upcoming attack, and attacks were either associated with an electric shock or not. Essentially, a purely anticipatory preparatory period was used during which no stimuli occurred. Freezing was assessed during this period. In addition to heart rate, body sway was measured, using a stabilometric force platform. The efficacy of the threat manipulation was confirmed via self-report. The ability to prepare led to decreases in heart rate and postural sway, while threat led to decreased heart rate. Further, exploratory analyses suggested that aggressive participants showed reduced initial freezing for threatening opponents, but increased postural freezing when armed. The results suggest that freezing may involve active preparation. Relations to results in passive viewing tasks are discussed.

  8. 41 CFR 114-51.100 - Departmental Quarters Handbook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... governing administration, management and rental rate establishment activities relating to Government furnished quarters (GFQ). Officials responsible for administration and management of quarters shall... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Departmental...

  9. A Typology of Nursing Research Activities According to Educational Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Jacqueline

    1985-01-01

    A typology of research activities (generation of basic, applied, and clinical research; dissemination of findings; and use of findings) considered appropriate to nurses with different levels of educational preparation (ADN, BSN, MSN, DNSc/EdD, and PhD) is presented to assist potential researchers and nurse educators in undertaking realistic and…

  10. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, second quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the first quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the second quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). 34 figs., 19 tabs.

  11. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, first quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Values for the fourth quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the first quarter 1996 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook.

  12. Apprentices & Trainees: September Quarter, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2013

    2013-01-01

    This publication presents estimates of apprentice and trainee activity in Australia for the September quarter 2012. The figures in this publication are derived from the National Apprentice and Trainee Collection no.74 (December 2012 estimates). The most recent figures in this publication are estimated (those for training activity from the March…

  13. Synthesis of acrylates. Quarterly report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    Eastman has completed its experimental work in the generation of propionate derivatives. Over the last quarter, Eastman has primarily devoted its time to completing the documentation and developing the potential extension of the oxidative condensation to dimethyl ether. Eastman has completed internal invention reports covering two patents and is working on the third with RTI which they expect to complete within the month. Becthel has also completed its work on the cost analysis of the propionate synthesis work (Task 1). RTI is continuing to develop active and stable catalysts for the condensation of propionic acid and formaldehyde. A total of 74 acid-base catalysts have been tested so far. Two invention reports have been completed based on RTI and Eastman`s work. A third invention report is currently being prepared for Eastman`s review on a novel methodology of methyl propionate activation. RTI is continuing to synthesize more acid-base catalysts with a goal of developing a catalyst which exhibits stable activity over a 200 h test period. Over the last quarter, RTI has also completed its initial tests on the slurry reactor system.

  14. Preparation, characterization, and dye removal study of activated carbon prepared from palm kernel shell.

    PubMed

    García, Juan Rafael; Sedran, Ulises; Zaini, Muhammad Abbas Ahmad; Zakaria, Zainul Akmar

    2017-04-08

    Palm oil mill wastes (palm kernel shell (PKS)) were used to prepare activated carbons, which were tested in the removal of colorants from water. The adsorbents were prepared by 1-h impregnation of PKS with ZnCl2 as the activating agent (PKS:ZnCl2 mass ratios of 1:1 and 2:1), followed by carbonization in autogenous atmosphere at 500 and 550 °C during 1 h. The characterization of the activated carbons included textural properties (porosity), surface chemistry (functional groups), and surface morphology. The dye removal performance of the different activated carbons was investigated by means of the uptake of methylene blue (MB) in solutions with various initial concentrations (25-400 mg/L of MB) at 30 °C, using a 0.05-g carbon/50-mL solution relationship. The sample prepared with 1:1 PKS:ZnCl2 and carbonized at 550 °C showed the highest MB adsorption capacity (maximum uptake at the equilibrium, q max = 225.3 mg MB / g adsorbent), resulting from its elevated specific surface area (BET, 1058 m(2)/g) and microporosity (micropore surface area, 721 m(2)/g). The kinetic experiments showed that removals over 90% of the equilibrium adsorptions were achieved after 4-h contact time in all the cases. The study showed that palm oil mill waste biomass could be used in the preparation of adsorbents efficient in the removal of colorants in wastewaters.

  15. Instruction-based response activation depends on task preparation.

    PubMed

    Liefooghe, Baptist; De Houwer, Jan; Wenke, Dorit

    2013-06-01

    An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that a response in one task can be activated automatically on the basis merely of instructed stimulus-response (S-R) mappings belonging to another task. Such instruction-based response activations are considered to be evidence for the formation of S-R associations on the basis of the S-R mappings for an upcoming, but not yet executed, task. A crucial but somewhat neglected assumption is that instructed S-R associations are formed only under conditions that impose a sufficient degree of task preparation. Accordingly, in the present study we investigated the relation between task preparation and the instruction-based task-rule congruency effect, which is an index of response activation on the basis of instructions. The results from two experiments demonstrated that merely instructed S-R mappings of a particular task only elicit instruction-based response activations when that task is prepared for to a sufficient degree. Implications are discussed for the representation of instructed S-R mappings in working memory.

  16. Development of vanadium-phosphate catalysts for methanol production by selective oxidation of methane. Quarterly technical progress report 4, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, R.L.; Jha, M.C.; Streuber, R.D.

    1993-12-07

    This document is the fourth quarterly technical progress report under Contract No. DE-AC22-92PC92110, {open_quotes}Development of Vanadium-Phosphate Catalysts for Methanol Production by Selective Oxidation of Methane.{close_quotes} During this quarter, the authors focused primarily on catalyst activity testing in the microreactor. Additional blank runs using methane and methanol were performed. Initial attempts at preparing a silica supported catalyst are described. These results are discussed in detail and plans for the coming quarter are outlined.

  17. Method of preparing high specific activity platinum-195m

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Du, Miting; Beets, Arnold L.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    2004-06-15

    A method of preparing high-specific-activity .sup.195m Pt includes the steps of: exposing .sup.193 Ir to a flux of neutrons sufficient to convert a portion of the .sup.193 Ir to .sup.195m Pt to form an irradiated material; dissolving the irradiated material to form an intermediate solution comprising Ir and Pt; and separating the Pt from the Ir by cation exchange chromatography to produce .sup.195m Pt.

  18. Short-term energy outlook, Quarterly projections. Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-04

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the second quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding.

  19. Quarterly Report for LANL Activities: FY12-Q2 National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP): Industrial Carbon Capture Program

    SciTech Connect

    Pawar, Rajesh J.

    2012-04-17

    This report summarizes progress of LANL activities related to the tasks performed under the LANL FWP FE102-002-FY10, National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP): Industrial Carbon Capture Program. This FWP is funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Overall, the NRAP activities are focused on understanding and evaluating risks associated with large-scale injection and long-term storage of CO{sub 2} in deep geological formations. One of the primary risks during large-scale injection is due to changes in geomechanical stresses to the storage reservoir, to the caprock/seals and to the wellbores. These changes may have the potential to cause CO{sub 2} and brine leakage and geochemical impacts to the groundwater systems. While the importance of these stresses is well recognized, there have been relatively few quantitative studies (laboratory, field or theoretical) of geomechanical processes in sequestration systems. In addition, there are no integrated studies that allow evaluation of risks to groundwater quality in the context of CO{sub 2} injection-induced stresses. The work performed under this project is focused on better understanding these effects. LANL approach will develop laboratory and computational tools to understand the impact of CO{sub 2}-induced mechanical stress by creating a geomechanical test bed using inputs from laboratory experiments, field data, and conceptual approaches. The Geomechanical Test Bed will be used for conducting sensitivity and scenario analyses of the impacts of CO{sub 2} injection. The specific types of questions will relate to fault stimulation and fracture inducing stress on caprock, changes in wellbore leakage due to evolution of stress in the reservoir and caprock, and the potential for induced seismicity. In addition, the Geomechanical Test Bed will be used to investigate the coupling of stress-induced leakage pathways with impacts on groundwater quality. LANL activities are performed under two tasks

  20. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report First Quarter FY-04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Labert, Winifred; Jonathan Case; Short, David

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the First Quarter of Fiscal Year 2004 (October - December 2003). Tasks reviewed are: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast, (2) Mesonet Temperature and Wind Climatology, (3) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid and (4) Anvil Transparency Relationship to Radar Reflectivity

  1. [Peculicidal activity of plant essential oils and their based preparations].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The peculicidal activity of eight plant essential oils in 75% isopropyl alcohol was in vitro investigated. Of them, the substances that were most active against lice were tea tree (Melaleuca), eucalyptus, neem, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oils; KT50 was not more than 3 minutes on average; KT95 was 4 minutes. After evaporating the solvent, only five (tea tree, cassia, clove, anise (Anisum vulgare), and Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) oils) of the eight test botanical substances were active against lice. At the same time, KT50 and KT95 showed 1.5-5-fold increases. Citronella and anise oils had incomplete ovicidal activity. Since the lice were permethrin-resistant, the efficacy of preparations based on essential oils was much higher than permethrin.

  2. [Preparation and optimum process of walnut peel activated carbon by zinc chloride as activating agent].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-hong; Wang, Xing-wei; Zhao, Bo; Lü, Jun-fang; Kang, Ni-na; Zhang, Yao-jun

    2014-12-01

    Walnut peel as raw material, zinc chloride was used as activating agent for preparation walnut peel activated carbon in the muffle furnace in this experiment, using orthogonal design. Yield, the specific surface area and iodine number of walnut peel activated carbon were determined at all designed experimental conditions and the optimum technological condition of preparation was obtained. By analysis of aperture, infrared spectra and the content of acidic group in surface with Boehm, walnut peel activated carbon of prepared at the optimum condition was characterized. The results showed the optimum technological parameters of preparation: activation temperature (600 °C), activation time (1 h), the concentration of zinc chloride (50%), the particle size (60 mesh). The specific surface area of walnut peel activated carbon obtained at optimum condition was mounting to 1258.05 m2 · g(-1), the ratio of medium porous 32.18%. Therefore, walnut peel can be used in the preparation of the high-quality activated carbon of large surface area. Agricultural wastes, as walnut peel, not only were implemented recycle, but also didn't make any pollution. Meanwhile, a cheap adsorbent was provided and it was of great significance to open a new source of activated carbon.

  3. JLTN Quarterly, 1995-1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JLTN Quarterly, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of the "JLTN Quarterly" issued from December 1995 to October 1996. This journal for high school Japanese language teachers contain articles on class activities and classroom teaching techniques. These include: exercises in interpretation of a Toys "R" Us store map and advertising; a weather discussion…

  4. Preparation and bactericide activity of gallic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Álvarez, S. A.; Martínez-Castañón, G. A.; Niño-Martínez, N.; Reyes-Macías, J. F.; Patiño-Marín, N.; Loyola-Rodríguez, J. P.; Ruiz, Facundo

    2010-10-01

    In this work, gold nanoparticles with three different sizes (13.7, 39.4, and 76.7 nm) were prepared using a simple aqueous method with gallic acid as the reducing and stabilizing agent, the different sizes were obtained varying some experimental parameters as the pH of the reaction and the amount of the gallic acid. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Samples were identified as elemental gold and present spherical morphology, a narrow size distribution and good stabilization according to TEM and DLS results. The antibacterial activity of this gallic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles against S. mutans (the etiologic agent of dental caries) was assessed using a microdilution method obtaining a minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.31, 12.31, and 49.25 μg/mL for 13.7, 39.4, and 76.7 nm gold nanoparticles, respectively. The antibacterial assay showed that gold nanoparticles prepared in this work present a bactericide activity by a synergistic action with gallic acid. The MIC found for this nanoparticles are much lower than those reported for mixtures of gold nanoparticles and antibiotics.

  5. Natural gas imports and exports. Third quarter report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This quarterly report, prepared by The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities, summarizes the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Numerical data are presented in four attachments, each of which is comprised of a series of tables. Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent calendar quarters. Volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past year are given in Attachment B. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D lists gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico. Highlights of the report are very briefly summarized.

  6. Natural gas imports and exports. First quarter report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico. 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Quantitative determination of effective nibbling activities contaminating restriction endonuclease preparations.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto-Gotoh, T

    1995-10-10

    A simple and sensitive procedure with which to detect residual exonucleolytic nibbling activities contaminating restriction endonuclease preparations is described. The procedure uses the kyosei-plasmid, pKF4, which confers kanamycin resistance and enforces streptomycin sensitivity encoded by the trp promoter/operator-driven rpsL+amber(PO(trp)-rpsL+4(am)) gene onto Escherichia coli streptomycin-resistant, amber-suppressive, trp repressor-negative strains such as TH5. When TH5 cells transformed by pKF4 were selected on agar medium containing kanamycin plus streptomycin, the efficiency of transformation plating was substantially lower than that on agar containing kanamycin alone. However, when pKF4 DNA was digested by restriction enzymes that cut once per molecule within PO(trp)-rpsL+4(am) and relegated, the plating efficiency increased depending on the degree of contamination of exonucleolytic nibbling activities in the enzyme preparations, due to deletion mutation at the ligand junction. Plating efficiency was converted to "effective nibbling activity" corresponding to Bal31 nuclease-equivalent units. Using this procedure, effective nibbling activities were detected in 17 of 34 commercial samples of restriction enzymes tested. The method is simple and more sensitive than the procedures used by the commercial suppliers and it is applicable to the quality control testing of more than 100 restriction enzymes.

  8. Underground gasification for steeply dipping coal beds: Phase III. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1981. [Rawlins Test 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    Preparations are being made for the August start-up of Rawlins Test 2. Site construction activities began May 4 with the mobilization of the construction subcontractor. The drilling program was completed this quarter with the installation of instrumentation wells. The Experimental Basis Document, PGA Operating Manual, and DAS Operating Manual have also been completed.

  9. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1961 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  10. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1960 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  11. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1957 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  12. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1968 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  13. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1969 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  14. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1967 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  15. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1970 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  16. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1971 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  17. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1965 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  18. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1958 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  19. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1966 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  20. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1972 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  1. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1963 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  2. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1959 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  3. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1964 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  4. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1973 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  5. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1962 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  6. Selection and preparation of hand and foot movements: Cz activity as a marker of limb system preparation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jeff

    2012-05-01

    Event-related potentials were used to examine the preparation of hand and foot responses in tasks using both limb systems. As in tasks using only one system, opposite lateralized readiness potentials were observed for hand and foot responses (Experiment 1). Furthermore, movement-related activity at Cz was more positive prior to hand than foot responses, revealing that Cz activity can be used to index selective movement preparation by one limb system. In Experiment 2, two responses were cued prior to stimulus onset. Cue-related activity at Cz was more positive with hand than foot cuing, reinforcing the conclusion that Cz activity is sensitive to selective preparation for one of these limb systems. Overall, the results show that it is possible to carry out motor preparation of two responses within the same limb system and that differential Cz activity is a useful index of this preparation in tasks with hand versus foot movements.

  7. Active yeast ribosome preparation using monolithic anion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Antonio M; Yourik, Paul; Rajagopal, Vaishnavi; Nanda, Jagpreet S; Lorsch, Jon R; Walker, Sarah E

    2017-02-01

    In vitro studies of translation provide critical mechanistic details, yet purification of large amounts of highly active eukaryotic ribosomes remains a challenge for biochemists and structural biologists. Here, we present an optimized method for preparation of highly active yeast ribosomes that could easily be adapted for purification of ribosomes from other species. The use of a nitrogen mill for cell lysis coupled with chromatographic purification of the ribosomes results in 10-fold-increased yield and less variability compared with the traditional approach, which relies on sedimentation through sucrose cushions. We demonstrate that these ribosomes are equivalent to those made using the traditional method in a host of in vitro assays, and that utilization of this new method will consistently produce high yields of active yeast ribosomes.

  8. Active yeast ribosome preparation using monolithic anion exchange chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, Antonio M.; Yourik, Paul; Rajagopal, Vaishnavi; Lorsch, Jon R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In vitro studies of translation provide critical mechanistic details, yet purification of large amounts of highly active eukaryotic ribosomes remains a challenge for biochemists and structural biologists. Here, we present an optimized method for preparation of highly active yeast ribosomes that could easily be adapted for purification of ribosomes from other species. The use of a nitrogen mill for cell lysis coupled with chromatographic purification of the ribosomes results in 10-fold-increased yield and less variability compared with the traditional approach, which relies on sedimentation through sucrose cushions. We demonstrate that these ribosomes are equivalent to those made using the traditional method in a host of in vitro assays, and that utilization of this new method will consistently produce high yields of active yeast ribosomes. PMID:27981882

  9. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-16

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This report combines the fourth quarter 1993 Quarterly Report with the 1993 Annual Report. Key activities described include appropriations; life extension planning; expansion planning; Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil acquisition; the oil stabilization program; and the refined petroleum product reserve test programs. Sections of this report also describe the program mission; the storage facility development program; environmental compliance; budget and finance; and drawdown and distribution.

  10. Neuromuscular activity of Bothrops fonsecai snake venom in vertebrate preparations

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Carla T; Giaretta, Vânia MA; Prudêncio, Luiz S; Toledo, Edvana O; da Silva, Igor RF; Collaço, Rita CO; Barbosa, Ana M; Hyslop, Stephen; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa; Cogo, José C

    2014-01-01

    The neuromuscular activity of venom from Bothrops fonsecai, a lancehead endemic to southeastern Brazil, was investigated. Chick biventer cervicis (CBC) and mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparations were used for myographic recordings and mouse diaphragm muscle was used for membrane resting potential (RP) and miniature end-plate potential (MEPP) recordings. Creatine kinase release and muscle damage were also assessed. In CBC, venom (40, 80 and 160μg/ml) produced concentration- and time-dependent neuromuscular blockade (50% blockade in 85±9 min and 73±8 min with 80 and 160μg/ml, respectively) and attenuated the contractures to 110μM ACh (78–100% inhibition) and 40mM KCl (45–90% inhibition). The venom-induced decrease in twitch-tension in curarized, directly-stimulated preparations was similar to that in indirectly stimulated preparations. Venom (100 and 200μg/ml) also caused blockade in PND preparations (50% blockade in 94±13 min and 49±8 min with 100 and 200μg/ml, respectively) but did not alter the RP or MEPP amplitude. In CBC, venom caused creatine kinase release and myonecrosis. The venom-induced decrease in twitch-tension and in the contractures to ACh and K+ were abolished by preincubating venom with commercial antivenom. These findings indicate that Bothrops fonsecai venom interferes with neuromuscular transmission essentially through postsynaptic muscle damage that affects responses to ACh and KCl. These actions are effectively prevented by commercial antivenom. PMID:25028603

  11. Preparation of plutonium-bearing ceramics via mechanically activated precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizhevskaya, S. V.; Stefanovsky, S. V.

    2000-07-01

    The problem of excess weapons plutonium disposition is suggested to be solved by means of its incorporation in stable ceramics with high chemical durability and radiation resistivity. The most promising host phases for plutonium as well as uranium and neutron poisons (gadolinium, hafnium) are zirconolite, pyrochlore, zircon, zirconia [1,2], and murataite [3]. Their production requires high temperatures and a fine-grained homogeneous precursor to reach final waste form with high quality and low leachability. Currently various routes to homogeneous products preparation such as sol-gel technology, wet-milling, and grinding in a ball or planetary mill are used. The best result demonstrates sol-gel technology but this route is very complicated. An alternative technology for preparation of ceramic precursors is the treatment of the oxide batch with high mechanical energy [4]. Such a treatment produces combination of mechanical (fine milling with formation of various defects, homogenization) and chemical (split bonds with formation of active centers—free radicals, ion-radicals, etc.) effects resulting in higher reactivity of the activated batch.

  12. Quarterly report on the Strontium Heat Source Development Program, Operations and By-Products Utilization Division for April-June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-09-01

    All experimental activities related to the Strontium Heat Source Development Program have been completed. The only remaining activities are preparation and issuance of final reports that summarize program results. This report represents the last of the program quarterly progress reports that will be issued.

  13. Highly porous activated carbons prepared from carbon rich Mongolian anthracite by direct NaOH activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byamba-Ochir, Narandalai; Shim, Wang Geun; Balathanigaimani, M. S.; Moon, Hee

    2016-08-01

    Highly porous activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from Mongolian raw anthracite (MRA) using sodium hydroxide as an activation agent by varying the mass ratio (powdered MRA/NaOH) as well as the mixing method of chemical agent and powdered MRA. The specific BET surface area and total pore volume of the prepared MRA-based activated carbons (MACs) are in the range of 816-2063 m2/g and of 0.55-1.61 cm3/g, respectively. The pore size distribution of MACs show that most of the pores are in the range from large micropores to small mesopores and their distribution can be controlled by the mass ratio and mixing method of the activating agent. As expected from the intrinsic property of the MRA, the highly graphitic surface morphology of prepared carbons was confirmed from Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Furthermore the FTIR and XPS results reveal that the preparation of MACs with hydrophobic in nature is highly possible by controlling the mixing conditions of activating agent and powdered MRA. Based on all the results, it is suggested that the prepared MACs could be used for many specific applications, requiring high surface area, optimal pore size distribution, proper surface hydrophobicity as well as strong physical strength.

  14. Quarterly coal report

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  15. Natural gas imports and exports: First quarter report 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Office of Fuels Programs prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports with the OFP. This quarter`s focus is market penetration of gas imports into New England. Attachments show the following: % takes to maximum firm contract levels and weighted average per unit price for the long-term importers, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters, volumes and prices for gas imported on short-term or spot market basis, and gas exported short-term to Canada and Mexico.

  16. 6. Interior of quarters (executive officer's quarters), living room, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior of quarters (executive officer's quarters), living room, looking west - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  17. 1. North side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. North side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  18. 5. East side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. East side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking west - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  19. 4. South side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. South side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking north - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  20. 2. West side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. West side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking east - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  1. 3. Southwest side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Southwest side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  2. Contextual view of quarters no. 2 quarters no. 1, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of quarters no. 2 quarters no. 1, and water tower, looking southwest. - Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Headquarters Complex, Quarters No. 2, 752 County Road 99W, Willows, Glenn County, CA

  3. Preparation and antioxidant activity of tyrosyl and homovanillyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Madrona, A; Pereira-Caro, G; Bravo, L; Mateos, R; Espartero, J L

    2011-12-01

    Preparation of tyrosyl and homovanillyl lipophilic derivatives was carried out as a response to the food industry's increasing demand for new synthetic lipophilic antioxidants. Tyrosyl and homovanillyl ethers were synthesized in high yields by a three-step procedure starting from tyrosol (Ty) and homovanillic alcohol (HMV). The antioxidant activity of these new series of alkyl tyrosyl and homovanillyl ethers was evaluated by the Rancimat test in a lipophilic food matrix and by the FRAP, ABTS and ORAC assays and compared to free Ty and HMV as well as two antioxidants widely used in the food industry, butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) and α-tocopherol. The results pointed out the higher activity of homovanillyl series in comparison with tyrosyl series with all the assayed methods. However, while both synthetic series were less antioxidant than BHT and α-tocopherol in a lipophilic matrix after their Rancimat test evaluation, homovanillyl alkyl ethers showed the best reducing power and radical scavenging activity of all evaluated compounds. This batch of synthetic lipophilic compounds, derived from biologically active compounds such as Ty and HMV, provide interesting and potentially bioactive compounds.

  4. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from demineralized tyre char

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manocha, S.; Prasad, Guddu R.; Joshi, Parth.; Zala, Ranjitsingh S.; Gokhale, Siddharth S.; Manocha, L. M.

    2013-06-01

    Activated carbon is the most adsorbing material for industrial waste water treatment. For wider applications, the main consideration is to manufacture activated carbon from low cost precursors, which are easily available and cost effective. One such source is scrap tyres. Recently much effort has been devoted to the thermal degradation of tyres into gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons and solid char residue, all of which have the potential to be processed into valuable products. As for solid residue, char can be used either as low-grade reinforcing filler or as activated carbon. The product recovered by a typical pyrolysis of tyres are usually, 33-38 wt% pyrolytic char, 38-55 wt% oil and 10-30 wt% solid fractions. In the present work activated carbon was prepared from pyrolyzed tyre char (PC). Demineralization involves the dissolution of metal into acids i.e. HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4 and in base i.e. NaOH. Different concentration of acid and base were used. Sodium hydroxide showed maximum amount of metal oxide removal. Further the concentration of sodium hydroxide was varied from 1N to 6N. As the concentration of acid are increased demineralization increases. 6N Sodium hydroxide is found to be more effective demineralising agent of tyre char.

  5. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve reduces the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument and an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current and projected storage capacity, analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  6. Preparation and electrocatalytic activity of tungsten carbide and titania nanocomposite

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Sujuan; Shi, Binbin; Yao, Guoxing; Li, Guohua; Ma, Chunan

    2011-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The electrocatalytic activity of tungsten carbide and titania nanocomposite is related to the structure, crystal phase and chemical components of the nanocomposite, and is also affected by the property of electrolyte. A synergistic effect exists between tungsten carbide and titania of the composite. Highlights: {yields} Electrocatalytic activity of tungsten carbide and titania nanocomposite with core-shell structure. {yields} Activity is related to the structure, crystal phase and chemical component of the nanocomposite. {yields} The property of electrolyte affects the electrocatalytic activity. {yields} A synergistic effect exists between tungsten carbide and titania of the composite. -- Abstract: Tungsten carbide and titania nanocomposite was prepared by combining a reduced-carbonized approach with a mechanochemical approach. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope under scanning mode and X-ray energy dispersion spectrum. The results show that the crystal phases of the samples are composed of anatase, rutile, nonstoichiometry titanium oxide, monotungsten carbide, bitungsten carbide and nonstoichiometry tungsten carbide, and they can be controlled by adjusting the parameters of the reduced-carbonized approach; tungsten carbide particles decorate on the surface of titania support, the diameter of tungsten carbide particle is smaller than 20 nm and that of titania is around 100 nm; the chemical components of the samples are Ti, O, W and C. The electrocatalytic activity of the samples was measured by a cyclic voltammetry with three electrodes. The results indicate that the electrocatalytic activities of the samples are related to their crystal phases and the property of electrolyte in aqueous solution. A synergistic effect between titania and tungsten carbide is reported for the first time.

  7. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202). The feature article for this issue is Demand, Supply and Price Outlook for Reformulated Gasoline, 1995.

  8. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, second quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates, are available on the Internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The paper discusses outlook assumptions; US energy prices; world oil supply and the oil production cutback agreement of March 1998; international oil demand and supply; world oil stocks, capacity, and net trade; US oil demand and supply; US natural gas demand and supply; US coal demand and supply; US electricity demand and supply; US renewable energy demand; and US energy demand and supply sensitivities. 29 figs., 19 tabs.

  9. Preparation of chitooligosaccharides from cicada slough and their antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng-Jun; Pan, Sai-Kun; Wang, Hong-Bin; Wu, Jin-Hua

    2013-11-01

    In this study, chitooligosaccharides were prepared from cicada slough of Cryptotympana atrata Fabricius by hydrolysis using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Factors affecting the hydrolysis of chitosan were investigated and the optimum hydrolysis conditions were as follows: time, 4 h; temperature, 65 °C; amount of H2O2, 2% (v/v); and pH, 5. Under these conditions, the average degree of polymerisation decreased to ~4.5. The Fourier transform infrared spectra and product sugar composition indicate that there were no significant chemical changes in the backbones of the chitosan treated with H2O2.The chitooligosaccharides had high antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli at the concentration of 100mg/mL.

  10. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report Fourth Quarter FY-04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Lambert, Winifred; Case, Jonathan; Short, David

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (A MU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2004 (July -Sept 2004). Tasks covered are: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast: Phase I, (2) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid, (3) Hail Index, (4) Shuttle Ascent Camera Cloud Obstruction Forecast, (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Optimization and Training Extension and (5) User Control Interface for ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS) Data Ingest.

  11. Establishing the SECME model in the District of Columbia. Quarterly report, 1 January 1994--31 March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Vikers, R.G.

    1994-05-01

    During this quarter, many program activities were held to help SECME teachers and counselors implement, improve and strengthen SECME school programs in the District of Columbia. Teachers were actively engaged in enhanced instructional techniques, ideas, processes and resources to help them enrich their students` learning experience. Students are busily participating in hands-on instructional activities and preparing for the SECME competition where they are learning to excel in a competitive environment designed to help them make the most of their school experience.

  12. English Leadership Quarterly. 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent the quarterly for 1991. Articles in number 1 deal with whole language and include: "CEL: Shorter and Better" (Myles D. Eley); "Toward a New Philosophy of Language Learning" (Kathleen Strickland); "Whole Language: Implications for Secondary Classrooms"…

  13. CSSEDC Quarterly. 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    These four issues of the CSSEDC Quarterly (Conference for Secondary School English Department Chairpersons) represent the quarterly for 1990. Articles in number 1 deal with student teachers and include: "Student Teaching: Smoothing Out the Rough Spots" (Susan B. Argyle and Fred C. Feitler); "A Partnership for Urban Student…

  14. CSSEDC Quarterly. 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    These four issues of the CSSEDC Quarterly (Conference for Secondary School English Department Chairpersons) represent the quarterly for 1989. Articles in number 1 deal with professional development, and include: "Sharing Expertise within a Department" (Martha R. Dolly); "Empowerment Develops a Computer Writing Center" (Norman…

  15. Preparation of activated carbon from wet sludge by electrochemical-NaClO activation.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chen; Ye, Caihong; Zhu, Tianxing; Lou, Ziyang; Yuan, Haiping; Zhu, Nanwen

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) from sludge is one potential solution for sewage sludge disposal, while the drying sludge is cost and time consuming for preparation. AC preparation from the wet sludge with electrochemical-NaClO activation was studied in this work. Three pretreatment processes, i.e. chemical activation, electrolysis and electrochemical-reagent reaction, were introduced to improve the sludge-derived AC properties, and the optimum dosage of reagent was tested from the 0.1:1 to 1:1 (mass rate, reagent:dried sludge). It was shown that the electrochemical-NaClO preparation is the best method under the test conditions, in which AC has the maximum Brunauer, Emmett and Teller area of 436 m²/g at a mass ratio of 0.7. Extracellular polymeric substances in sludge can be disintegrated by electrochemical-NaClO pretreatment, with a disintegration degree of more than 45%. The percentage of carbon decreased from 34.16 to 8.81 after treated by electrochemical-NaClO activation. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed that a strong C-Cl stretching was formed in electrochemical-NaClO prepared AC. The maximum adsorption capacity of AC reaches 109 mg/g on MB adsorption experiment at pH 10 and can be repeated for three times with high removal efficiency after regeneration.

  16. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 12, June 1, 1995--August 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this research is the development of improved technology for the preparation of coal-water slurries that have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. This should be of major importance to the United States in its efforts to reduce dependence on imported oil and to rely more on its enormous low-cost coal resources. In accordance with this objective, in the first stage of this project, considerable work was conducted to standardize experimental procedures for sample preparation, coal grinding, and Theological measurements to assure reproducibility of the experimental results. Since a Haake RV-12 viscometer with an MV-DIN sensor system was found to give the most reproducible results for measurement of slurry viscosities, it has subsequently been used for all of our Theological measurements. Methods were developed for applying the acoustophoresis technique for studying the electrokinetic behavior of concentrated coal-water suspensions. These measurements were carried out using this technique to identify the potential of chemical additives for functioning as reagents for effective dispersion. Detailed investigations of the effect of solids content and chemical additives on the rheology of coal-water slurries, prepared with fines produced by the ball milling of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, were conducted during the first phase of our research program. These experiments were to provide a baseline against which the rheological behavior of slurries prepared with fines produced by high-pressure roll milling or hybrid high-pressure roll mill/ball mill grinding could be compared.

  17. Antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles prepared by solvothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Tokeer; Wani, Irshad A.; Lone, Irfan H.; Ganguly, Aparna; Manzoor, Nikhat; Ahmad, Aijaz; Ahmed, Jahangeer; Al-Shihri, Ayed S.

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Gold nanoparticles (7 and 15 nm) of very high surface area (329 and 269 m{sup 2}/g) have been successfully synthesized through solvothermal method by using tin chloride and sodium borohydride as reducing agents. As-prepared gold nanoparticles shows very excellent antifungal activity against Candida isolates and activity increases with decrease in the particle size. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Effect of reducing agents on the morphology of gold nanoparticles. ► Highly uniform and monodisperse gold nanoparticles (7 nm). ► Highest surface area of gold nanoparticles (329 m{sup 2/}g). ► Excellent antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles against Candida strains. -- Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by solvothermal method using SnCl{sub 2} and NaBH{sub 4} as reducing agents. X-ray diffraction studies show highly crystalline and monophasic nature of the gold nanoparticles with face centred cubic structure. The transmission electron microscopic studies show the formation of nearly spherical gold nanoparticles of average size of 15 nm using SnCl{sub 2}, however, NaBH{sub 4} produced highly uniform, monodispersed and spherical gold nanoparticles of average grain size of 7 nm. A high surface area of 329 m{sup 2}/g for 7 nm and 269 m{sup 2}/g for 15 nm gold nanoparticles was observed. UV–vis studies assert the excitations over the visible region due to transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon modes. The gold nanoparticles exhibit excellent size dependant antifungal activity and greater biocidal action against Candida isolates for 7 nm sized gold nanoparticles restricting the transmembrane H{sup +} efflux of the Candida species than 15 nm sized gold nanoparticles.

  18. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, September 1--November 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the research is the development of improved technology for the preparation of coal-water slurries, which have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. The fine grinding of coal is a crucial step in the manufacture of coal-water slurries. In this context, currently available grinding mills exhibit poor energy efficiency for size reduction and non-optimum packing characteristics of the ground coal. The first increases the cost of manufacture of coal-water slurries and the second adversely affects their rheological properties. The newly invented choke-fed, high-pressure roll mill is up to 50% more energy efficient and, moreover, there are reasons to believe that it produces a size distribution of ground particles which is closer to the dense packing composition. The high-pressure roll mill (which is perhaps the only really significant innovation in industrial comminution in this century) has lower capital cost, occupies less floor space, shows negligible wear rate, accepts feed with a wide range of moisture contents and, of particular importance, it can be scaled up to grind hundreds of tons of solids per hour. The high-pressure roll mill provides a unique opportunity to develop an improved technology for preparing coal-water slurries. Our research group in the University of California at Berkeley not only has a fully instrumented, laboratory-scale, choke-fed. high-pressure roll mill (the only one of its kind in the United States) but also fully instrumented laboratory ball mills for comparative fine coal preparation purposes. In this research program, our plans are to systematically investigate comminution energy consumption, deagglomeration procedures, and the stability and rheology of coal-water slurry fuel prepared with high-pressure roll mill, and to compare the results with slurry prepared with ball-milled coal.

  19. Characterization of activated carbon prepared from chicken waste and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Zhang; Hong Cui; Riko Ozao; Yan Cao; Bobby I.-T. Chen; Chia-Wei Wang; Wei-Ping Pan

    2007-12-15

    Activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from chicken waste (CW) and coal (E-coal) blended at the ratios of 100:0, 80:20, 50:50, 20:80, and 0:100. The process included carbonization in flowing gaseous nitrogen (300 mL min{sup -1}) at ca. 430{sup o}C for 60 min and successive steam activation (0.1 mL min{sup -1} water injection with a flow of N{sub 2} at 100 mL min{sup -1}) at 650{sup o}C for 30 min. Chicken waste is low in sulfur content but is high in volatile matter (about 55 wt %), and ACs with higher specific surface area were more successfully obtained by mixing with coal. The specific surface area of the CW/Coal blend AC can be estimated by SSA{sub BET} = -65.8x{sup 2} + 158x + 168, where SSA{sub BET} is the specific surface area in m{sup 2} g{sup -1} as determined by the BET method using CO{sub 2} as the adsorbent, where x is the coal fraction by weight in the CW/coal blend ranging from 0.0 to 1.0 (e.g., x = 0.0 signifies the blend contains no coal and x = 1.0 signifies the blend consists of 100% coal). 26 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. [Antimicrobial activity determination of the preparations used in comprehensive treatment of patients with parodontitis].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrov, M T; Prikuls, V F; Bogdanov, V Iu; Vasil'ev, E N

    2009-01-01

    Determination of antimicrobic activity of the preparations of Metrogyl denta, Cholisal and Solcoseryl on the complex culture of microorganisms employing the developed procedure was carried out. Degree of the antimicrobic action manifestation of each preparation was revealed.

  1. 4. Northeast corner of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking onto ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Northeast corner of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking onto Quarter R (commanding officer's quarters), looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Texas State Highway 202, 4.8 miles east of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & U.S. State Highway 181, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  2. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical progress report, September 1, 1994--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1994-12-01

    The objective of this research is the development of improved technology for the preparation of coal-water slurries than have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. This should be of major importance to the United States in its efforts to reduce dependence on imported oil and to rely more on its enormous low-cost coal resources. In accordance with this objective, in the first stage of this project, considerable work has been conducted in the initial stage to standardize experimental procedures for sample preparation, grinding and rheological measurements. For this purpose, Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal was dry ground in a ball mill for preparing coal-water slurries. In order to find a suitable sensor system for the rheological measurements of coal-water slurries, the authors have tested a Haake RV-12 viscometer with MV-II, MV-SP, MV-DIN, and TSV-DIN sensor systems on coal-water slurries containing 60% solids. The results indicated that the Haake RV-12 viscometer with a MV-DIN sensor system gives more reproducible results. The results obtained in investigation of the effect of particle size and solids content on the rheological behavior of the slurries showed that at the same shear rate, both the shear stress and viscosity of the slurries increase as the mean diameter of the particles decreases, and that the viscosity of the slurries increases as the solids content is increased.

  3. High surface area activated carbon prepared from cassava peel by chemical activation.

    PubMed

    Sudaryanto, Y; Hartono, S B; Irawaty, W; Hindarso, H; Ismadji, S

    2006-03-01

    Cassava is one of the most important commodities in Indonesia, an agricultural country. Cassava is one of the primary foods in our country and usually used for traditional food, cake, etc. Cassava peel is an agricultural waste from the food and starch processing industries. In this study, this solid waste was used as the precursor for activated carbon preparation. The preparation process consisted of potassium hydroxide impregnation at different impregnation ratio followed by carbonization at 450-750 degrees C for 1-3 h. The results revealed that activation time gives no significant effect on the pore structure of activated carbon produced, however, the pore characteristic of carbon changes significantly with impregnation ratio and carbonization temperature. The maximum surface area and pore volume were obtained at impregnation ratio 5:2 and carbonization temperature 750 degrees C.

  4. Rosetta Lander - Philae: activities after hibernation and landing preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulamec, Stephan; Biele, Jens; Sierks, Holger; Blazquez, Alejandro; Cozzoni, Barbara; Fantinati, Cinzia; Gaudon, Philippe; Geurts, Koen; Jurado, Eric; Paetz, Brigitte.; Maibaum, Michael

    Rosetta is a Cornerstone Mission of the ESA Horizon 2000 programme. It is going to rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko after a ten year cruise and will study both its nucleus and coma with an orbiting spacecraft as well as with a Lander, Philae. Aboard Philae, a payload consisting of ten scientific instruments will perform in-situ studies of the cometary material. Rosetta and Philae have been in hibernation until January 20, 2014. After the successful wakeup they will undergo a post hibernation commissioning. The orbiter instruments (like e.g. the OSIRIS cameras) are to characterize the target comet to allow landing site selection and the definition of a separation, descent and landing (SDL) strategy for the Lander. By August 2014 our currently very poor knowledge of the characteristics of the nucleus of the comet will have increased dramatically. The paper will report on the latest updates in Separation-Descent-Landing (SDL) planning. Landing is foreseen for November 2014 at a heliocentric distance of 3 AU. Philae will be separated from the mother spacecraft from a dedicated delivery trajectory. It then descends ballistically to the surface of the comet, stabilized with an internal flywheel. At touch-down anchoring harpoons will be fired and a damping mechanism within the landing gear will provide the lander from re-bouncing. The paper will give an overview of the Philae system, the operational activities after hibernation and the latest status on the preparations for landing.

  5. Fiber optical measurements of electrical activity in canine ventricular preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, Amgad; Luther, Gisa E.; Enyeart, Michael; Gilmour, Robert F.; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Luther, Stefan

    2006-03-01

    Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is a cardiac arrhythmia that kills over 300,000 people every year in the US alone, yet efforts at finding a cure have been stymied by our incomplete information about patterns of electrical activity in the whole heart. As an excitable medium, the heart is a pattern forming system; but only a very limited subset of patterns is compatible with life. In particular, spiral waves have been associated with both tachycardia and VF, but their origin and spatial and temporal dynamics is not fully understood. We propose a novel measurement technique that combines optical mapping of the epicardial surface with data from intramural fiber optical probe arrays. The data obtained from the fiber optical probes is sparse in space but dense in time. The data processing is based on sequential data assimilation using an ensemble Kalman filter. The ensemble Kalman filter provides a numerically efficient (sub-) optimum state space estimate based on the available spatial and temporal observations. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated with numerical data and arterially perfused canine heart preparations.

  6. FY 1991 environmental research programs for the DOE Field Office, Nevada: Work plan and quarterly reports, fourth quarter report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-10-01

    This research includes a wide range of research and support activities associated with the Weapons Testing Program conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Ongoing and new environmental research programs to be conducted by DRI over the period of this contract include archaeological studies, site mitigation plans, compliance activities, and historical research; offsite community radiation monitoring support; environmental compliance activities related to state and federal regulations; hydrologic assessment of containment of underground nuclear detonations; hydrology/radionuclide investigations designed to better understand and predict the possible subsurface movement of radionuclides at the NTS; and support of various statistical and data management and design, laboratory, field, and administrative activities. In addition to these, archaeological site characterization, flood hazards for rail transportation, and paleofaunal investigations will be carried out in support of the Yucca Mountain Project. Other areas of the overall program which required DRI support are classified security activities, radiation safety and training, quality assurance and control, computer protection and historical data management, review and classification of DRI documents, and preparation of any special reports, e.g., quarterly reports, not included in the requirements of the individual projects. A new set of programs funded by the Office of Technology Development will be in place by the third quarter of FY 1991. These projects will address environmental restoration and waste management concerns, among other related topics. In accordance with specific contract requirements for each activity, DRI will produce summary, status and final reports and, in some cases, journal articles which will present the results of specific research efforts. This document contains the work plan, including project descriptions, tasks, deliverables and quarterly progress reports on each project for FY 1991.

  7. US energy industry financial developments, 1993 third quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Based on information provided in 1993 third quarter financial disclosures, the average net income for 112 petroleum companies -- including 18 majors -- rose 13 percent between the third quarter of 1992 and the third quarter of 1993. The gain in overall petroleum income was derived from increases in refined product consumption and margins, which improved the profitability of downstream petroleum (refining, marketing and transport) operations. A 17-percent decline in crude oil prices led to reduced income for upstream (oil and gas exploration, development and production) operations. A 16-percent rise in natural gas wellhead prices only partially offset the negative effects of low crude oil prices. Electric utilities also reported improved financial results for the third quarter of 1993 as hotter summer temperatures relative to the year-earlier quarter helped boost air conditioning demand and overall electricity usage. The following points highlight third-quarter energy industry financial developments: (1) Refined product demand and margins lift downstream earnings. Petroleum product consumption rose 2 percent between the third quarter of 1992 and the third quarter of 1993. Although petroleum product prices declined in the most recent reporting period, they did not decline as much as crude oil input prices. As a consequence, refined product margins widened. (2) Lower crude oil prices reduce upstream earnings. Crude oil prices fell 17 percent between the third quarter of 1992 and the third quarter of 1993 leading to a substantial reduction in income for the major petroleum companies` upstream operations. (3) Drilling income rises with increased North American exploratory activity.

  8. Mixed Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, 125 wells monitor groundwater quality in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Savannah River Site. Samples from the wells are analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. During second quarter 1994, chloroethene (vinyl chloride), 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, or tritium exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in approximately half of the downgradient wells at the MWMF. Consistent with historical trends, elevated constituent levels were found primarily in Aquifer Zone. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents during second quarter 1994. Sixty-two of the 125 monitoring wells contained elevated tritium activities. Trichloroethylene concentrations exceeded the final PDWS in 23 wells. Chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, and tetrachloroethylene, elevated in one or more wells during second quarter 1994, also occurred in elevated levels during first quarter 1994. These constituents generally were elevated in the same wells during both quarters. Gross alpha, which was not elevated in any well during first quarter 1994, was elevated in one well during second quarter. Copper, mercury, and nonvolatile beta were elevated during first quarter 1994 but not during second quarter.

  9. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon produced from pomegranate seeds by ZnCl 2 activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uçar, Suat; Erdem, Murat; Tay, Turgay; Karagöz, Selhan

    2009-08-01

    In this study, pomegranate seeds, a by-product of fruit juice industry, were used as precursor for the preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation with ZnCl 2. The influence of process variables such as the carbonization temperature and the impregnation ratio on textural and chemical-surface properties of the activated carbons was studied. When using the 2.0 impregnation ratio at the carbonization temperature of 600 °C, the specific surface area of the resultant carbon is as high as 978.8 m 2 g -1. The results showed that the surface area and total pore volume of the activated carbons at the lowest impregnation ratio and the carbonization temperature were achieved as high as 709.4 m 2 g -1 and 0.329 cm 3 g -1. The surface area was strongly influenced by the impregnation ratio of activation reagent and the subsequent carbonization temperature.

  10. ER Consolidated Quarterly Report October 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John R.

    2014-10-01

    This Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) provides the status of ongoing corrective actions and related Long- Term Stewardship (LTS) activities being implemented by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) ER for the April, May, and June 2014 quarterly reporting period. Section 2.0 provides the status of ER Operations activities including closure activities for the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL), project management and site closure, and hydrogeologic characterizations. Section 3.0 provides the status of LTS activities that relate to the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) and the associated Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU). Section 4.0 provides the references noted in Section I of this report.

  11. FY 1991 environmental research programs for the Nevada Operations Office: Work plan and quarterly reports, first and second quarter reports

    SciTech Connect

    1991-05-01

    The work carried out on behalf of the DOE by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) includes a wide range of research and support activities associated with the Weapons Testing Program conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Ongoing and new environmental research programs to be conducted by DRI over the period of this contract include archaeological studies, site mitigation plans, compliance activities, and historical research; offsite community radiation monitoring support; environmental compliance activities related to stat and federal regulations; hydrologic assessment of containment of underground nuclear detonations; hydrology/radionuclide investigations designed to better understand and predict the possible subsurface movement of radionuclides at the NTS; and support of various statistical and data management and design, laboratory, field, and administrative activities. In addition to these, archaeological site characterization, flood hazards for rail transportation, and paleofaunal investigations will be carried out in support of the Yucca Mountain Project. Other areas of the overall program which require DRI support are classified security activities, radiation safety and training, quality assurance and control, computer protection and historical data management, review and classification of DRI documents, and preparation of any special reports, e.g., quarterly reports, not included in the requirements of the individual projects. A new set of programs funded by the Office of Technology Development will be in place by the third quarter of FY 1991. These projects will address environmental restoration and waste management concerns, among other related topics. This document contains the Work Plan, including project descriptions, tasks, deliverables and quarterly progress reports on each project for FY 1991.

  12. Crew quarters for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, F. E.

    1989-01-01

    The only long-term U.S. manned space mission completed has been Skylab, which has similarities as well as differences to the proposed Space Station. With the exception of Skylab missions, there has been a dearth of experience on which to base the design of the individual Space Station Freedom crew quarters. Shuttle missions commonly do not have sleep compartments, only 'sleeping arrangements'. There are provisions made for each crewmember to have a sleep restraint and a sleep liner, which are attached to a bulkhead or a locker. When the Shuttle flights began to have more than one working shift, crew quarters became necessary due to noise and other disturbances caused by crew task-related activities. Shuttle missions that have planned work shifts have incorporated sleep compartments. To assist in gaining more information and insight for the design of the crew quarters for the Space Station Freedom, a survey was given to current crewmembers with flight experience. The results from this survey were compiled and integrated with information from the literature covering space experience, privacy, and human-factors issues.

  13. Preparation of functionalized and metal-impregnated activated carbon by a single-step activation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dastgheib, Seyed A.; Ren, Jianli; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud; Chang, Ramsay

    2014-01-01

    A rapid method to prepare functionalized and metal-impregnated activated carbon from coal is described in this paper. A mixture of ferric chloride and a sub-bituminous coal was used to demonstrate simultaneous coal activation, chlorine functionalization, and iron/iron oxides impregnation in the resulting porous carbon products. The FeCl3 concentration in the mixture, the method to prepare the FeCl3-coal mixture (solid mixing or liquid impregnation), and activation atmosphere and temperature impacted the surface area and porosity development, Cl functionalization, and iron species impregnation and dispersion in the carbon products. Samples activated in nitrogen or a simulated flue gas at 600 or 1000 °C for 1-2 min had surface areas up to ∼800 m2/g, bulk iron contents up to 18 wt%, and surface chlorine contents up to 27 wt%. Potential catalytic and adsorption application of the carbon materials was explored in catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of phenol and adsorption of ionic mercury from aqueous solutions. Results indicated that impregnated activated carbons outperformed their non-impregnated counterparts in both the CWAO and adsorption tests.

  14. The study of redox-active inorganic substituents of cellulase enzyme. Quarterly report, 25 August--25 November 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Hexaammineruthemium(III) chloride enhances the catalytic activity of Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI) by as much as 45 percent over a 24 hr period. The mechanism involved could be related to the redox activity and reduction of O{sub 2} by RU(II) complexes. Since the addition of ascorbic acid is not required for the enhancement of CBHI activity, we speculate that the cellobiose generated by the enzyme activity may serve as the reducing agent for the formation of RU(II) species.

  15. TEC variations over the Mediterranean during the seismic activity period of the last quarter of 2005 in the area of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, M. E.; Arabelos, D. N.; Asteriadis, G.; Spatalas, S. D.; Pikridas, C.

    2008-11-01

    In this paper the Total Electron Content (TEC) data of eight Global Positioning System (GPS) stations of the EUREF network (AUT1, Thessaloniki, TUC2, Crete in Greece, MATE, Matera, LAMP, Lampedusa in Italy, GAIA, in Portugal, RABT, Rabat, EVPA, Evpatoria in Ukrain and TRAB, Trabson in Turkey) were analysed using wavelet analysis in order to detect any frequency dependence of the correlation between TEC over different stations. In the same time frequency dependence of Dst (Global geomagnetic field disturbances) and TEC variations over each GPS station are searched in order to detect any correlation between them. The main conclusion of this analysis is that the components of TEC variation with periods <3 h are more suitable in searching for earthquake precursors. On the base of this conclusion the analyzed TEC series are searched for possible precursory phenomena on the occasion of the seismic activity of the last quarter of 2005 in the area of Greece. An exalting (i.e. an increase in the amplitude) of variations with periods up to the tidal ones (period of 6 h,8 h,12 h) may be observed a month before and during the seismic activity over the stations TUC2 and AUT1 and may be attributed to this tectonic activity. Statistical properties of the 1.5 h component of the Total Vertical Electron Content (TVEC) over the nearest GPS stations (TUC2 and AUT1) of the areas of the seismic activity indicate that this component present characteristic exalting in the time period of 15 days before the shock.

  16. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1994-03-01

    The effect of the addition of nonionic surfactants on the aggregative stability of coal-water slurries was investigated through determination of sedimentation volumes and floc size distributions. Sedimentation volume measurements for nonionic surfactants show that for Triton X-165, Triton X-305 and Triton X-405, the sedimentation volume decreases slightly with added reagent up to 0.5 wt % addition, decreasing sharply for reagent additions between 0.5 to 0.75 wt %. However, at higher additions, the sedimentation volume levels off for Triton X-165, but increases for both Triton X-305 and Triton X-405. These results are in agreement with the viscosity measurements. Because of its plastic nature, bituminous coal is readily briquetted or agglomerated by the intense localized stresses encountered during comminution in the high-pressure roll mill. The degree of briquetting depends on the nature of the coal and the compressive stresses. We have found that the briquettes can readily be deagglomerated by stirring the comminuted products in a in methanol suspension. Our results show that the amount of minus 200-mesh coal produced depends mainly on the energy invested in the high-pressure roll grinding. The percentage of fines generated increases more or less linearly with the specific grinding energy consumed in the initial stages and tends to level off at the high energy inputs higher than 3 kwh/t. Even at 3.74 kWh/t of energy input, the ground product contained only 30 percent of minus 200-mesh particles, which is much lower than 80 percent of minus 200-mesh particles required in the coalwater slurries for direct combustion in power plants. Therefore, future work will encompass grinding of the high-pressure roll milled product in ball mill or rod mill, using hygrid HP roll mill/ball mill circuit for feed preparation.

  17. Biomass power for rural development. Quarterly report, October 3, 1998--January 1, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.T.

    1999-02-01

    Information and education activities for this quarter include both the monthly progress activities with some copies of materials developed and a copy of the annual report prepared for the Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture. The Leopold Center is a project partner and the primary sponsor of the information and education activities. The Leopold annual report references many prepared documents and assorted presentation materials. The Energy and Geological Resources Division of the Iowa Department of Natural Resources sponsors a meeting four times a year in order to bring members of the Iowa biomass energy community together to share information. In this quarter the Stakeholders meeting was held on October 21, 1998, in Des Moines Iowa. The first phase of the Geographic Information System (GIS) efforts have been completed and a final report with a map presentation of materials will be included in the next Quarterly Report. A meeting with Ed Gray of The Antares Group and project staff/cooperators was held October 23, 1998. The authors discussed the Niagara Project and the efforts to value the biomass material and partner contributions. Niagara has identified a value to the grid support capabilities of the dispersed generation.

  18. Preparation of high surface area activated carbon from coconut shells using microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kunbin; Peng, Jinhui; Srinivasakannan, C; Zhang, Libo; Xia, Hongying; Duan, Xinhui

    2010-08-01

    The present study attempts to utilize coconut shell to prepare activated carbon using agents such as steam, CO(2) and a mixture of steam-CO(2) with microwave heating. Experimental results show that the BET surface area of activated carbons irrespective of the activation agent resulted in surface area in excess of 2000 m(2)/g. The activation time using microwave heating is very much shorter, while the yield of the activated carbon compares well with the conventional heating methods. The activated carbon prepared using CO(2) activation has the largest BET surface area, however the activation time is approximately 2.5 times higher than the activation using steam or mixture of steam-CO(2). The chemical structure of activated carbons examined using Fourier transformed infra-red spectra (FTIR) did not show any variation in the surface functional groups of the activated carbon prepared using different activation agents.

  19. Apprentices and Trainees: March Quarter, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication presents estimates of apprentice and trainee activity in Australia for the March quarter 2010. The figures in this publication are derived from the National Apprentice and Trainee Collection no.64 (June 2010 estimates). The most recent figures in this publication are estimated (those for training activity from the September…

  20. 78 FR 72746 - Activities of the International Telecommunication Advisory Committee and Preparations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Activities of the International Telecommunication Advisory Committee and Preparations for Upcoming International Telecommunications Meetings This notice announces a meeting of the Department of State's International Telecommunication Advisory Committee (ITAC) to review the activities of the committee over...

  1. TEC variations over the Mediterranean during the seismic activity period of the last quarter of 2005 in the area of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, M. E.; Arabelos, D. N.; Asteriadis, G.; Spatalas, S. D.; Pikridas, Ch.

    2008-04-01

    TEC variations over a particular site sustain variations of different causality, global (earth revolution, earth rotation, earth-tides, variations of the geomagnetic field etc.) or local (atmospheric or underground explosions, earthquakes, volcanoes etc. A lot of work has been done by a great number of researchers on the characteristics of ionospheric variations according to their causality (wave - length, attenuation and velocity and way of propagation). In order that TEC variations over a particular site be used as earthquake precursory diagnostic a concrete sense of the interrelation of TEC variations over different sites as well as their respond of the geomagnetic field variations would be of great interest. In this paper the TEC data of eight GPS stations of the EUREF network (AUT1, Thessaloniki and TUC2, Crete in Greece, MAT, Matera and LAMP, Lampedusa in Italy, GAIA in Portugal, RABT in Rabat, EVPA, Evpatoria in Ukrain and TRAB, Trabson in Turkey) were analyzed using wavelet and DFTanalysis in order to detect any frequency dependence of the correlation of TEC over different stations. In the same time, frequency dependence of Dst and TEC variations are searched in order to detect any correlation. The main conclusion of this analysis is that the constituents of TEC variation with periods <3h are more suitable in searching for earthquake precursors. On the base of this conclusion the analyzed TEC series are searched for possible precursory phenomena, during the seismic activity of the last quarter of 2005, in the area of Greece. Variation in TEC constituents with periods <3h over the stations AUT1 and TUC2 occurred ±10days of the seismic activity may be attributed to this tectonic activity.

  2. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report Third Quarter FY-08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Dreher, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the third quarter of Fiscal Year 2008 (April - June 2008). Tasks reported on are: Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), Anvil Forecast Tool in AWIPS Phase II, Completion of the Edward Air Force Base (EAFB) Statistical Guidance Wind Tool, Volume Averaged Height Integ rated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), Impact of Local Sensors, Radar Scan Strategies for the PAFB WSR-74C Replacement, VAHIRR Cost Benefit Analysis, and WRF Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base

  3. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report. First Quarter FY-05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Lambert, Winifred; Case, Jonathan; Short, David

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2005 (October - December 2005). Tasks reviewed include: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast: Phase I, (2) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid, (3) Hail Index, (4) Stable Low Cloud Evaluation, (5) Shuttle Ascent Camera Cloud Obstruction Forecast, (6) Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) and Legacy Wind Sensor Evaluation, (7) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Optimization and Training Extension, and (8) User Control Interface for ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS) Data Ingest

  4. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report - Fourth Quarter FY-09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (July - September 2009). Tasks reports include: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool. Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting. Phase II, (4) Update and Maintain Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS), (5) Verify MesoNAM Performance (6) develop a Graphical User Interface to update selected parameters for the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLlT)

  5. Porous texture of activated carbons prepared by phosphoric acid activation of woods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Díez, M. A.; Gómez-Serrano, V.; Fernández González, C.; Cuerda-Correa, E. M.; Macías-García, A.

    2004-11-01

    Activated carbons (ACs) have been prepared using chestnut, cedar and walnut wood shavings from furniture industries located in the Comunidad Autónoma de Extremadura (SW Spain). Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) at different concentrations (i.e. 36 and 85 wt.%) has been used as activating agent. ACs have been characterized from the results obtained by N2 adsorption at 77 K. Moreover, the fractal dimension (D) has been calculated in order to determine the AC surface roughness degree. Optimal textural properties of ACs have been obtained by chemical activation with H3PO4 36 wt.%. This is corroborated by the slightly lower values of D for samples treated with H3PO4 85 wt.%.

  6. Preparation and evaluation of advanced electro-catalysts for phosphoric acid fuel cells. Eighth quarterly report, October-December 1981. [Platinum

    SciTech Connect

    Stonehart, P.; Baris, J.; Hochmuth, J.; Pagliaro, P.

    1981-12-31

    In the development of new and highly efficient porous electrocatalysts, two cooperative phenomena are required. The first is an increase in the electrocatalytic activity of the catalyst particle, and the second is the availability of that electrocatalyst particle for the electrochemical reaction. These two processes interact with each other in such a way that improvements in the electrochemical activity must be coupled with improvements in the availability of the electrocatalyst for reaction. Since cost effective and highly reactive electrocatalysts have been developed under this program, the utilization of the electrocatalyst particles in the porous electrode structures is addressed. Based on the performance of the electrocatalysts in porous electrode structures, it is shown that a large percentage of the electrocatalyst in anode structures is not utilized. This low utilization translates directly and dramatically into a noble metal cost penalty for the fuel cell. Dramatic improvements in the cost effectiveness of the fuel cell will be achieved by improvements in electrocatalyst catalyzation technology and electrode structure technology.

  7. Natural gas conversion process. Sixth quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

  8. ALTERNATIVE ROUTES FOR CATALYST PREPARATION: USE OF ULTRASOUND AND MICROWAVE IRRADIATION FOR THE PREPARATION OF VANADIUM PHOSPHORUS OXIDE CATALYST AND THEIR ACTIVITY FOR HYDROCARBON OXIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vanadium phosphorus oxide (VPO) has been prepared using ultrasound and microwave irradiation methods and compared with the catalyst prepared by conventional method for both the phase composition and activity for hydrocarbon oxidation. It is found that ultrasound irradiation metho...

  9. Mixed Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    Currently, 125 wells monitor groundwater quality in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Savannah River Site. Samples from the wells are analyzed for selected heavy metals, herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents during third quarter 1994. Sixty-four (51%) of the 125 monitoring wells contained elevated tritium activities. Trichloroethylene concentrations exceeded the final PDWS in 22 (18%) wells. Chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, elevated in one or more wells during third quarter 1994, also occurred in elevated levels during second quarter 1994. These constituents generally were elevated in the same wells during both quarters. Gross alpha, which was elevated in only one well during second quarter 1994, was elevated again during third quarter. Mercury, which was elevated during first quarter 1994, was elevated again in one well. Dichloromethane was elevated in two wells for the first time in several quarters.

  10. Product Descriptions; Word Processors and Writing Activities for the Elementary Grades. A MicroSIFT Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batey, Anne; Ricketts, Dick

    Intended to help educators choose the most appropriate word processing products for elementary school writing instruction, this report provides extensive information on 12 word processor and 13 writing activity software products. A list of components, general descriptions, comments and evaluations are included for each product. The products…

  11. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse by physical activation with CO2 gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachrun, Sutrisno; AyuRizka, Noni; Annisa, SolichaHidayat; Arif, Hidayat

    2016-01-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted to study the effects of different carbonization temperatures (400, 600, and 800oC) on characteristics of porosity in activated carbon derived from carbonized sugarcane bagassechar at activation temperature of 800oC. The results showed that the activated carbon derived from high carbonized temperature of sugarcane bagassechars had higher BET surface area, total volume, micropore volume and yield as compared to the activated carbon derived from low carbonized temperature. The BET surface area, total volume and micropore volume of activated carbon prepared from sugarcane bagassechars obtained at 800oC of carbonized temperature and activation time of 120 min were 661.46m2/g, 0.2455cm3/g and 0.1989cm3/g, respectively. The high carbonization temperature (800oC) generated a highly microporous carbonwith a Type-I nitrogen adsorption isotherm, while the low carbonization temperature (400 and 600oC) generated a mesoporous one with an intermediate between types I and IInitrogen adsorption isotherm.

  12. Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement for the Environmental Restoration Program. Volume 1, Quarterly report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement Quarterly Report for the Environmental Restoration Program was prepared to satisfy requirements for progress reporting on Environmental Restoration Program (ER) activities as specified in the Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) established between the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The reporting period covered in this document is October through December 1995. This work was performed under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.2.3.04 (Activity Data Sheet 8304). Publication of this document meets two FFA milestones. The FFA Quarterly Report meets an FFA milestone defined as 30 days following the end of the applicable reporting period. Appendix A of this report meets the FFA milestone for the Annual Removal Action Report for the period FYs 1991--95. This document provides information about ER Program activities conducted on the Oak Ridge Reservation under the FFA. Specifically, it includes information on milestones scheduled for completion during the reporting period, as well as scheduled for completion during the next reporting period (quarter); accomplishments of the ER Program; concerns related to program work; and scheduled activities for the next quarter. It also provides a listing of the identity and assigned tasks of contractors performing ER Program work under the FFA.

  13. Design of a high activity and selectivity alcohol catalyst. Sixth quarterly report, November 7, 1991--February 7, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, H.C.; Mills, G.A.

    1992-02-07

    Results of the pyridine adsorption, studies on native and K-doped alumina provide fundamental grounding for the observed methanol dehydration activity of these samples. Both the reactor studies and the pyridine adsorption studies support the conclusion that the K-doped sample had reduced Lewis acidity. Moreover, we were able to measurably alter the acidity of the support surface by our ion exchange treatment. More significantly, when reactor results for transition-metal loaded samples are reconsidered in combination with their surface characteristics suggested by our pyridine adsorption studies, our hypothesis that Rh and Mo have ultimately titrated the support surface seems all the more convincing. Hence, in light of the pyridine adsorption results, the attenuation of a transition-metal based decomposition pathway for methanol on the metal-loaded samples-as seen in the reactor testing-is all the more reasonable.

  14. Characteristics of activated carbon prepared from pistachio-nut shell by zinc chloride activation under nitrogen and vacuum conditions.

    PubMed

    Lua, Aik Chong; Yang, Ting

    2005-10-15

    Activated carbons with well-developed pore structures were prepared from pistachio-nut shells by chemical activation using zinc chloride under both nitrogen atmosphere and vacuum conditions. The effects of preparation parameters on the carbon pore structure were studied in order to optimize these parameters. It was found that under vacuum conditions, the characteristics of the activated carbons produced are better than those under nitrogen atmosphere. The impregnation ratio, the activation temperature, and the activation hold time are the important parameters that influence the characteristics of the activated carbons. The optimum experimental conditions for preparing predominantly microporous activated carbons with high pore surface area and micropore volume are an impregnation ratio of 0.75, an activation temperature of 400 degrees C, and a hold time of 1 h. Under these conditions, the BET surface areas of the carbons activated under nitrogen atmosphere and vacuum conditions were 1635.37 and 1647.16 m2/g, respectively. However, at a ZnCl2 impregnation ratio of 1.5, a furnace temperature of 500 degrees C, and a hold time of 2 h, the predominantly mesoporous activated carbon prepared under vacuum condition had a BET surface area of 2527 m2/g. Fourier transform infrared spectra were used to detect changes in the surface functional groups of the samples during the different preparation stages.

  15. Arundo donax cane as a precursor for activated carbons preparation by phosphoric acid activation.

    PubMed

    Vernersson, T; Bonelli, P R; Cerrella, E G; Cukierman, A L

    2002-06-01

    Canes from Arundo donax, a herbaceous rapid-growing plant, were used as precursor for activated carbon preparation by phosphoric acid activation under a self-generated atmosphere. The influence of the carbonization temperature in the range 400-550 degrees C and of the weight ratio phosphoric acid to precursor (R = 1.5-2.5) on the developed porous structure of the resulting carbons was studied for 1 h of carbonization time. Surface properties of the activated carbons were dependent on a combined effect of the conditions employed. Carbons developed either with R = 1.5 over the range 400-500 degrees C, or with R = 2 at 500 degrees C exhibited surface areas of around 1100 m2/g, the latter conditions promoting a larger pore volume and enhanced mesoporous character. For both ratios, temperature above 500 degrees C led to reduction in porosity development. A similar effect was found for the highest ratio (R = 2.5) and 500 degrees C. The influence of carrying out the carbonization either for times shorter than 1 h or under flowing N2 was also examined at selected conditions (R = 2, 500 degrees C). Shorter times induced increase in the surface area (approximately 1300 m2/g), yielding carbons with smaller mean pore radius. Activated carbons obtained under flowing N2 possessed predominant microporous structures and larger ash contents than the samples derived in the self-generated atmosphere.

  16. Trustee Quarterly, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Sally, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These four issues of "Trustee Quarterly" focus on current topics affecting community college trustees. Issue 1 focuses on the learning revolution and serves as a guide for community college trustees. It offers the following feature articles by Terry O'Banion: "Education Reform: Two Waves,""The Second Wave and the Community…

  17. Trustee Quarterly, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trustee Quarterly, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The four issues of "Trustee Quarterly" combined here focus on topics of current concern to community college trustees. The winter 1994 issues offers these feature articles: "Honoring Retiring Presidents," by Terry O'Banion; "Trustees as Reluctant Leaders: The Board/CEO Relationship," Norma Jean Germond, John Keyser, and Vaughn A. Sherman; and…

  18. English Leadership Quarterly, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent those published during 1993. Articles in number 1 deal with parent involvement and participation, and include: "Opening the Doors to Open House" (Jolene A. Borgese); "Parent/Teacher Conferences: Avoiding the Collision Course" (Robert Perrin); "Expanding Human…

  19. English Leadership Quarterly, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.; Kiernan, Henry, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    These 4 issues of the English Leadership Quarterly comprise volume 16, published during 1994. Articles in number 1 deal with practical advice, and include: "The Law of Privacy and the Writing Teacher" (Ben T. Allen); Beware of Teachers Who Laminate Their Lesson Plans and Other Useful Suggestions about Teaching" (Robert Perrin);…

  20. English Leadership Quarterly, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent those published during 1992. Articles in number 1 deal with testing assessing, and measuring student performance, and include: "Real Evaluation: Portfolios as an Effective Alternative to Standardized Testing" (Kate Kiefer); "No More Objective Tests, Ever" (Carol…

  1. English Leadership Quarterly, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Henry, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    These 4 issues of the English Leadership Quarterly comprise volume 17, published during 1995. Articles in number 1 deal with multicultural and multiethnic literature, and are, as follows: "Guidelines for Selecting European Ethnic Literature for Interdisciplinary Courses" (Sandra Stotsky); "Striving for Kinship within Diverse Communities" (Peter…

  2. Preparation of activated carbons from agricultural residues for pesticide adsorption.

    PubMed

    Ioannidou, Ourania A; Zabaniotou, Anastasia A; Stavropoulos, George G; Islam, Md Azharul; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2010-09-01

    Activated carbons (ACs) can be used not only for liquid but also for vapour phase applications, such as water treatment, deodorisation, gas purification and air treatment. In the present study, activated carbons produced from agricultural residues (olive kernel, corn cobs, rapeseed stalks and soya stalks) via physical steam activation were tested for the removal of Bromopropylate (BP) from water. For the characterization of the activated carbons ICP, SEM, FTIR and XRD analyses were performed. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium isotherms were investigated for all biomass activated carbons in aqueous solutions. Experimental data of BP adsorption have fitted best to the pseudo 2nd-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. The study resulted that corn cobs showed better adsorption capacity than the other biomass ACs. Comparison among ACs from biomass and commercial ones (F400 and Norit GL50) revealed that the first can be equally effective for the removal of BP from water with the latter.

  3. Notable deals in the pharmaceutical industry in the second quarter of 2016.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, P

    2016-08-01

    During the second quarter of 2016, Cortellis Competitive Intelligence had 1,014 new deals added as part of its ongoing coverage of pharmaceutical licensing activity. This was on par with the last quarter (1,011) and a substantial increase on the same quarter for the previous 1 year (659). This article will focus on highlighting a number of the most valuable and notable deals forged during the quarter, as well as a selection of deals from some of the most prolific deal makers. An update on milestone, options and terminated deals of significance will also be presented, along with an early outlook on the next quarter's pharmaceutical licensing activity.

  4. Adsorption studies of methylene blue and phenol onto vetiver roots activated carbon prepared by chemical activation.

    PubMed

    Altenor, Sandro; Carene, Betty; Emmanuel, Evens; Lambert, Jacques; Ehrhardt, Jean-Jacques; Gaspard, Sarra

    2009-06-15

    Vetiver roots have been utilized for the preparation of activated carbon (AC) by chemical activation with different impregnation ratios of phosphoric acid, X(P) (gH(3)PO(4)/g precursor): 0.5:1; 1:1 and 1.5:1. Textural characterization, determined by nitrogen adsorption at 77K shows that mixed microporous and mesoporous structures activated carbons (ACs) with high surface area (>1000 m(2)/g) and high pore volume (up to 1.19 cm(3)/g) can be obtained. The surface chemical properties of these ACs were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Boehm titration. Their textural and chemical characteristics were compared to those of an AC sample obtained by steam activation of vetiver roots. Classical molecules used for characterizing liquid phase adsorption, phenol and methylene blue (MB), were used. Adsorption kinetics of MB and phenol have been studied using commonly used kinetic models, i.e., the pseudo-first-order model, the pseudo-second-order model, the intraparticle diffusion model and as well the fractal, BWS (Brouers, Weron and Sotolongo) kinetic equation. The correlation coefficients (R(2)) and the normalized standard deviation Deltaq (%) were determined showing globally, that the recently derived fractal kinetic equation could best describe the adsorption kinetics for the adsorbates tested here, indicating a complex adsorption mechanism. The experimental adsorption isotherms of these molecules on the activated carbon were as well analysed using four isotherms: the classical Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson equations, but as well the newly published deformed Weibull Brouers-Sotolongo isotherm. The results obtained from the application of the equations show that the best fits were achieved with the Brouers-Sotolongo equation and with the Redlich-Peterson equation. Influence of surface functional groups towards MB adsorption is as well studied using various ACs prepared from vetiver roots and sugar cane bagasse. Opposite effects governing MB

  5. Preparation, characterization and biological activity of C8-substituted cytokinins.

    PubMed

    Zahajská, Lenka; Nisler, Jaroslav; Voller, Jiří; Gucký, Tomáš; Pospíšil, Tomáš; Spíchal, Lukáš; Strnad, Miroslav

    2017-03-01

    Naturally occurring cytokinins are adenine-based plant hormones. Although, the effect of various substituents at positions N1, C2, N3, N(6), N7, or N9 on the biological activity of cytokinins has been studied, the C8-substituted compounds have received little attention. Here, we report the synthesis and in vitro biological testing of thirty-one cytokinin derivatives substituted at the C8 position of the adenine skeleton and twenty-seven compounds which served as their N9-tetrahydropyranyl protected precursors. The cytokinin activity of all the compounds was determined in classical cytokinin biotests (wheat leaf senescence, Amaranthus and tobacco callus assays). With some exceptions, the compounds with a N9-tetrahydropyranyl group were generally less active than their de-protected analogs. The latter were further tested for their ability to activate the Arabidopsis cytokinin receptors AHK3 and CRE1/AHK4 in bacterial receptor activation assays. Using this approach, we identified derivatives bearing short aliphatic chains and retaining high cytokinin activity. Such compounds are suitable candidates for fluorescence labeling or as protein-affinity ligands. We further found that some C8-substituted cytokinins exhibited no or lower cytotoxicity toward tobacco cells when compared to their parent compound. Therefore, we also present and discuss the cytotoxicity of all the compounds against three normal human cell lines.

  6. Preparing students to participate in an active learning environment.

    PubMed

    Modell, H I

    1996-06-01

    Most students have spent the majority of their school career in passive learning environments in which faculty were disseminators of information, and students were required to memorize information or use specified algorithms to "solve problems." In an active learning environment, students are encouraged to engage in the process of building and testing their own mental models from information that they are acquiring. In such a learner-centered environment, faculty become facilitators of learning, and students become active participants, engaging in a dialogue with their colleagues and with the instructor. To create a successful active learning environment, both faculty and students must make adjustments to what has been their respective "traditional" roles in the classroom. For the instructor who is committed to promoting active learning, the challenge lies in helping students understand the necessity of becoming active colleagues in learning. This process can be facilitated if the curriculum includes exercises to direct students' attention to a number of issues that impact their learning. This paper describes four such exercises designed to help students form appropriate course expectations, recognize the need for seeking clarification when communicating, recognize the role of personal experience in building mental models, and become familiar with study aids for building formal models.

  7. Anticancer activity of Arkeshwara Rasa - A herbo-metallic preparation

    PubMed Central

    Nafiujjaman, Md; Nurunnabi, Md; Saha, Samir Kumar; Jahan, Rownak; Lee, Yong-kyu; Rahmatullah, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Though metal based drugs have been prescribed in Ayurveda for centuries to treat various diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer, toxicity of these drugs containing heavy metal is a great drawback for practical application. So, proper scientific validation of herbo-metallic drugs like Arkeshwara Rasa (AR) have become one of the focused research arena of new drugs against cancers. Aim: To investigate the in vitro anticancer effects of AR. Materials and Methods: Anticancer activity of AR was investigated on two human cancer cell lines, which represent two different tissues (pancreas and skin). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay for enzyme activity and trypan blue assay for cell morphology were performed for further confirmation. Results: AR showed potent activity against pancreatic cancer cells (MIA-PaCa-2). LDH activity confirmed that AR was active against pancreatic cancer cells. Finally, it was observed that AR exhibited significant effects on cancer cells due to synergistic effects of different compounds of AR. Conclusion: The study strongly suggests that AR has the potential to be an anticancer drug against pancreatic cancer. PMID:27313425

  8. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase inhibitors, design, preparation, and structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Mette K; Erichsen, Kamille D; Olesen, Uffe H; Tjørnelund, Jette; Fristrup, Peter; Thougaard, Annemette; Nielsen, Søren Jensby; Sehested, Maxwell; Jensen, Peter B; Loza, Einars; Kalvinsh, Ivars; Garten, Antje; Kiess, Wieland; Björkling, Fredrik

    2013-11-27

    Existing pharmacological inhibitors for nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) are promising therapeutics for treating cancer. By using medicinal and computational chemistry methods, the structure-activity relationship for novel classes of NAMPT inhibitors is described, and the compounds are optimized. Compounds are designed inspired by the NAMPT inhibitor APO866 and cyanoguanidine inhibitor scaffolds. In comparison with recently published derivatives, the new analogues exhibit an equally potent antiproliferative activity in vitro and comparable activity in vivo. The best performing compounds from these series showed subnanomolar antiproliferative activity toward a series of cancer cell lines (compound 15: IC50 0.025 and 0.33 nM, in A2780 (ovarian carcinoma) and MCF-7 (breast), respectively) and potent antitumor in vivo activity in well-tolerated doses in a xenograft model. In an A2780 xenograft mouse model with large tumors (500 mm(3)), compound 15 reduced the tumor volume to one-fifth of the starting volume at a dose of 3 mg/kg administered ip, bid, days 1-9. Thus, compounds found in this study compared favorably with compounds already in the clinic and warrant further investigation as promising lead molecules for the inhibition of NAMPT.

  9. Natural gas: Imports and exports third quarter report 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The Office of Fuels Programs prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies with authorizations to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports with the OFP. This report is for the third quarter of 1993 (July--September). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past twelve months (October 1992--September 1993). Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  10. EUMETSAT activities in preparation of the Sentinel-3 Marine Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonekamp, H.; O'Carroll, A.; Kwiatkowska, E.; Montagner, F.; Wilson, H.; Fournier Sicre, V.; Santacesaria, V.; Loddo, C.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the EUMETSAT preparations towards the operational phase of the sentinel-3A mission scheduled for launch in 2013. EUMETSAT is expanding its operational services for applications related to the marine environment and climate monitoring. In its phase E, EUMETSAT will be the Sentinel-3 satellite and Sentinel-3 Marine Centre operator. EUMETSAT has joined up with ESA for the definition of the cal val plans and systems, and to define the set-ups ensuring that the core mission performances and operational products will be state of the art. Specific aspects are the validation and monitoring against in-situ data, and different modes of operations. To support the science discussion in this session with a general familiarisation with the planned operational data streams, the presentation will provide an overview of the set-up of product monitoring and services originating from the EUMETSAT premises. Major recent developments of other marine missions involving EUMETSAT partnerships will also be debriefed.

  11. Preparation of electrochemically active silicon nanotubes in highly ordered arrays.

    PubMed

    Grünzel, Tobias; Lee, Young Joo; Kuepper, Karsten; Bachmann, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Silicon as the negative electrode material of lithium ion batteries has a very large capacity, the exploitation of which is impeded by the volume changes taking place upon electrochemical cycling. A Si electrode displaying a controlled porosity could circumvent the difficulty. In this perspective, we present a preparative method that yields ordered arrays of electrochemically competent silicon nanotubes. The method is based on the atomic layer deposition of silicon dioxide onto the pore walls of an anodic alumina template, followed by a thermal reduction with lithium vapor. This thermal reduction is quantitative, homogeneous over macroscopic samples, and it yields amorphous silicon and lithium oxide, at the exclusion of any lithium silicides. The reaction is characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry for thin silica films, and by nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for nanoporous samples. After removal of the lithium oxide byproduct, the silicon nanotubes can be contacted electrically. In a lithium ion electrolyte, they then display the electrochemical waves also observed for other bulk or nanostructured silicon systems. The method established here paves the way for systematic investigations of how the electrochemical properties (capacity, charge/discharge rates, cyclability) of nanoporous silicon negative lithium ion battery electrode materials depend on the geometry.

  12. Mirror fusion. Quarterly report, April-June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-11

    The information in each Quarterly is presented in the same sequence as in the Field Work Package Proposal and Authorization System (WPAS) submissions prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy; the main sections are Applied Plasma Physics, Confinement Systems, Development and Technology, and Mirror Fusion Test Facility (Planning and Projects). On occasion, we shall include information pertaining to the LLNL role as Lead Laboratory for the Open Systems Mirror Fusion Program. Each of these sections is introduced by an overall statement of the goals and purposes of the groups reporting in it. As appropriate within each section, statements of the goals of individual programs and projects are followed by articles containing summaries of significant recent activity and descriptive text.

  13. Environmental Restoration Operations Consolidated Quarterly Report: July-September 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John R.

    2017-01-01

    This Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) provides the status of ongoing corrective action activities being implemented at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) during the July, August, and September 2016 quarterly reporting period. The Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) identified for corrective action at SNL/NM are listed in Table I-1. Sections I.2.1 and I.2.2 summarize the work completed during this quarter. Section I.2.1 summarizes the quarterly activities at sites undergoing corrective action field activities. Field activities are conducted at the three groundwater AOCs (Burn Site Groundwater [BSG AOC], Technical Area [TA]-V Groundwater [TAVG AOC], and Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater [TAG AOC]). Section I.2.2 summarizes quarterly activities at sites where the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) issued a certificate of completion and the sites are in the corrective action complete (CAC) regulatory process. Currently, SWMUs 8 and 58, 68, 149, 154, and 502 are in the CAC regulatory process. Corrective action activities are deferred at the Long Sled Track (SWMU 83), the Gun Facilities (SWMU 84), and the Short Sled Track (SWMU 240) because these three sites are active mission facilities. These three active sites are located in TA-III.

  14. Absence of in vitro Procoagulant Activity in Immunoglobulin Preparations due to Activated Coagulation Factors

    PubMed Central

    Oviedo, Adriana E.; Bernardi, María E.; Guglielmone, Hugo A.; Vitali, María S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Immunoglobulin (IG) products, including intravenous (IVIG) or subcutaneous (SCIG) immunoglobulins are considered safe and effective for medical therapy; however, a sudden and unexpected increase in thromboembolic events (TE) after administration of certain batches of IVIG products has been attributed to the presence of activated coagulation factors, mainly factor XIa. Our aims were to examine the presence of enduring procoagulant activity during the manufacturing process of IGs, with special focus on monitoring factor XIa, and to evaluate the presence of in vitro procoagulant activity attributed to coagulation factors in different lots of IVIG and SCIG. Methods Samples of different steps of IG purification, 19 lots of IVIG and 9 of SCIG were analyzed and compared with 1 commercial preparation of IVIG and 2 of SCIG, respectively. Factors II, VII, IX, XI and XIa and non-activated partial thromboplastin time (NAPTT) were assayed. Results The levels of factors II, VII, IX, X and XI were non-quantifiable once fraction II had been re-dissolved and in all analyzed lots of IVIG and SCIG. The level of factor XIa at that point was under the detection limits of the assay, and NAPTT yielded values greater than the control during the purification process. In SCIG, we detected higher concentrations of factor XIa in the commercial products, which reached values up to 5 times higher than the average amounts found in the 9 batches produced by UNC-Hemoderivados. Factor XIa in commercial IVIG reached levels slightly higher than those of the 19 batches produced by UNC-Hemoderivados. Conclusion IVIG and SCIG manufactured by UNC-Hemoderivados showed a lack of thrombogenic potential, as demonstrated not only by the laboratory data obtained in this study but also by the absence of any reports of TE registered by the post marketing pharmacovigilance department. PMID:26733772

  15. Removal of nitrate from aqueous solutions by activated carbon prepared from sugar beet bagasse.

    PubMed

    Demiral, Hakan; Gündüzoğlu, Gül

    2010-03-01

    In this study, activated carbons were prepared from sugar beet bagasse by chemical activation and the prepared activated carbons were used to remove nitrate from aqueous solutions. In chemical activation, ZnCl(2) was used as chemical agent. The effects of impregnation ratio and activation temperature were investigated. The produced activated carbons were characterized by measuring their porosities and pore size distributions. The microstructure of the activated carbons was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The maximum specific surface area of the activated carbon was about 1826m(2)/g at 700 degrees C and at an impregnation ratio of 3:1. The resulting activated carbon was used for removal of nitrate from aqueous solution. The effects of pH, temperature and contact time were investigated. Isotherm studies were carried out and the data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin equations. Three simplified kinetic models were tested to investigate the adsorption mechanism.

  16. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - First Quarter 2010

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-22

    The first quarter 2010 edition of the Solar Energy Technologies Program newsletter summarizes the activities for the past three months, funding opportunities, highlights from the national labs, and upcoming events.

  17. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - Fourth Quarter 2009

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2009-12-31

    The Fourth Quarter 2009 edition of the Solar Energy Technologies Program newsletter summarizes the activities for the past three months, funding opportunities, highlights from the national labs, and upcoming events.

  18. Preparation and antimicrobial activity of scleraldehyde from Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Gladstone Christopher; Kanth, Swarna V; Chandrasekaran, B; Raghava Rao, J; Nair, B U

    2010-10-13

    The present study investigates the antimicrobial activity of oxidized schizophyllan (scleraldehyde) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by diffusion and tube dilution analysis. Schizophyllan is a natural polysaccharide produced by fungi of the genus Schizophyllum. Periodate oxidation specifically cleaves the vicinal glycols in scleraldehyde to form their dialdehyde derivatives. The antibacterial activity exhibited by scleraldehyde was defined using various tests such as the disc diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). MIC and MBC values were found to be in the range of 3.0-8.0 mg/mL. Hence, the present studies establish that the scleraldehyde possesses effective antibacterial properties and can be used as a biopreservative for preservation of raw hides and skins.

  19. Preparation and characterization of new biologically active polyurethane foams.

    PubMed

    Savelyev, Yuri; Veselov, Vitali; Markovskaya, Ludmila; Savelyeva, Olga; Akhranovich, Elena; Galatenko, Natalya; Robota, Ludmila; Travinskaya, Tamara

    2014-12-01

    Biologically active polyurethane foams are the fast-developed alternative to many applications of biomedical materials. Due to the polyurethane structure features and foam technology it is possible to incorporate into their structure the biologically active compounds of target purpose via structural-chemical modification of macromolecule. A series of new biologically active polyurethane foams (PUFs) was synthesized with polyethers (MM 2500-5000), polyesters MM (500-2200), 2,4(2,6) toluene diisocyanate, water as a foaming agent, catalysts, foam stabilizers and functional compounds. Different functional compounds: 1,4-di-N-oxy-2,3-bis-(oxymethyl)-quinoxaline (DOMQ), partial sodium salt of poly(acrylic acid) and 2,6-dimethyl-N,N-diethyl aminoacetatanilide hydrochloride were incorporated into the polymer structure/composition due to the chemical and/or physical bonding. Structural peculiarities of PUFs were studied by FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray scattering. Self-adhesion properties of PUFs were estimated by measuring of tensile strength at break of adhesive junction. The optical microscopy method was performed for the PUF morphology studies. Toxicological estimation of the PUFs was carried out in vitro and in vivo. The antibacterial action towards the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATC 25922, E. coli ATC 2150, Klebsiella pneumoniae 6447, Staphylococcus aureus 180, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8180, Proteus mirabilis F 403, P. mirabilis 6054, and Proteus vulgaris 8718) was studied by the disc method on the solid nutrient. Physic-chemical properties of the PUFs (density, tensile strength and elongation at break, water absorption and vapor permeability) showed that all studied PUFs are within the operational requirements for such materials and represent fine-cellular foams. Spectral studies confirmed the incorporation of DOMQ into the PUF's macrochain. PUFs are characterized by microheterogeneous structure. They are antibacterially active, non

  20. Method for preparing high specific activity 177Lu

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Du, Miting; Beets, Arnold L.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    2004-04-06

    A method of separating lutetium from a solution containing Lu and Yb, particularly reactor-produced .sup.177 Lu and .sup.177 Yb, includes the steps of: providing a chromatographic separation apparatus containing LN resin; loading the apparatus with a solution containing Lu and Yb; and eluting the apparatus to chromatographically separate the Lu and the Yb in order to produce high-specific-activity .sup.177 Yb.

  1. Empty Quarter, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    In the northeast end of the Saudi Arabian desert called the Rub-Al-Khali (Empty Quarter) (21.0N, 53.0E) is the great sand dune field known as the Ash Shaiba. Here, the dunes reach great heights and are held at the maximum angle of repose by the wind. Any disturbance of the base will cause a great cascade of sand burying an intruder like a great wave. The dunes are of a classic style known as 'Barcans'.

  2. Close Quarters Combat Shooting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-14

    1994.at the Palm Beach Community College Criminal Justice Institute ofLakeworth, Florida to the more dynamic force-on-force, realistic scenario...Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC...Shooting is the Superior Method for Close Quarters Combat 5b. GRANT NUMBER Shooting" N/A Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR( S ) Sd. PROJECT

  3. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, 2nd quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1994 through the fourth quarter of 1995. Values for the first quarter of 1994, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available. The historical energy data, compiled into the second quarter 1994 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the STIFS. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. The EIA model is available on computer tape from the National Technical Information Service.

  4. Selection and preparation of activated carbon for fuel gas storage

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, James A.; Noh, Joong S.; Agarwal, Rajiv K.

    1990-10-02

    Increasing the surface acidity of active carbons can lead to an increase in capacity for hydrogen adsorption. Increasing the surface basicity can facilitate methane adsorption. The treatment of carbons is most effective when the carbon source material is selected to have a low ash content i.e., below about 3%, and where the ash consists predominantly of alkali metals alkali earth, with only minimal amounts of transition metals and silicon. The carbon is washed in water or acid and then oxidized, e.g. in a stream of oxygen and an inert gas at an elevated temperature.

  5. Preparation and Applications of Active Nanostructures as Biosensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-04

    Mesoporous Silica to Mimic the Catalytic Activity of Catechol Oxidases : Reactivity and Selectivity Study” J. Phys Chem C, submitted 3. Shih-Hsun Cheng...proposed to study biomic of the enzyme tyrosinase, we finally decide to work on catechol oxidase . Both are di-copper complex and both performed the... catechol oxidases (COs). The separations of two Cu(II) centers are 2.9, 3.51 and 3.65 Å for CO, HPC and HBC, respectively. The stability of dinuclear

  6. Research and development for the declassification productivity initiative. Quarterly report, April 1996--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Highlights of the second quarter include a trip by one of the OCR investigators to UNLV to study preparation of test suites and to explore possible collaboration with ISRI. Results and recommendations are presented for Knowledge Representation and Inferencing. Methodological strategies have been identified for the Logical Analysis research component. Preliminary findings on Tipster Technology will be reported in the 3rd quarter.

  7. Neural Activity Propagation in an Unfolded Hippocampal Preparation with a Penetrating Micro-electrode Array

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales-Reyes, Luis E.; Durand, Dominique M.

    2015-01-01

    This protocol describes a method for preparing a new in vitro flat hippocampus preparation combined with a micro-machined array to map neural activity in the hippocampus. The transverse hippocampal slice preparation is the most common tissue preparation to study hippocampus electrophysiology. A longitudinal hippocampal slice was also developed in order to investigate longitudinal connections in the hippocampus. The intact mouse hippocampus can also be maintained in vitro because its thickness allows adequate oxygen diffusion. However, these three preparations do not provide direct access to neural propagation since some of the tissue is either missing or folded. The unfolded intact hippocampus provides both transverse and longitudinal connections in a flat configuration for direct access to the tissue to analyze the full extent of signal propagation in the hippocampus in vitro. In order to effectively monitor the neural activity from the cell layer, a custom made penetrating micro-electrode array (PMEA) was fabricated and applied to the unfolded hippocampus. The PMEA with 64 electrodes of 200 µm in height could record neural activity deep inside the mouse hippocampus. The unique combination of an unfolded hippocampal preparation and the PMEA provides a new in-vitro tool to study the speed and direction of propagation of neural activity in the two-dimensional CA1-CA3 regions of the hippocampus with a high signal to noise ratio. PMID:25868081

  8. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon fiber (ACF) from cotton woven waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jieying Zheng; Zhao, Quanlin; Ye, Zhengfang

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were prepared using cotton woven waste as precursor. The cotton woven waste was first partly dissolved by 80% phosphoric acid and then was pre-soaked in 7.5% diammonium hydrogen phosphate solution. Finally, carbonization and activation were proceeded to get ACF. The optimum preparation conditions, including carbonization temperature, carbonization time, activation temperature and activation time, were chosen by orthogonal design. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption test was conducted to characterize the prepared ACF's pore structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) were employed to characterize its chemical properties and morphology. Adsorption of oilfield wastewater was used to evaluate its adsorption properties. The results show that the prepared ACF is in the form of fiber, with the sectional diameters of 11.7 × 2.6 μm and the surface area of 789 m2/g. XPS results show that carbon concentration of the prepared ACF is higher than that of the commercial ACF. When the prepared ACF dosage is 6 g/L, over 80% of COD and over 70% of chrominance can be removed after 24 h of adsorption at 18 °C.

  9. Preparation and characterizations of activated carbon monolith from rubber wood and its effect on supercapacitor performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taer, E.; Taslim, R.; Deraman, M.

    2016-02-01

    Preparation of activated carbon monolith (ACM) from rubber wood was investigated. Two kind of preparation method were carried out by pre-carbonized of rubber wood saw dust and rubber wood material as it is naturally. The samples were prepared with pelletizing method and small cutting of rubber wood in cross sectional method. Both of samples were characterized by physical and electrochemical technique. The physical properties such as morphology and porosity were investigated. The electrochemical properties of both samples such as equivalent series resistances (ESR) and specific capacitances were also compared. In conclusion, this study showed that both of different preparation method would propose a simple method of ACM electrode preparation technique for supercapacitor applications.

  10. Preparation of sodium dodecyl sulphate-functionalized activated carbon from Gnetum gnemon shell for dye adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatimah, Is; Yahya, Amri; Sasti, Rilis Akista Tria

    2017-03-01

    Preparation of functionalized activated carbon from Gnetum gnemon shell was investigated. This work aimed to prepare highly active adsorbent for dye adsorption process by carbonization of Gnetum gnemon shell followed by functionalization using sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) to form SDS-modified activated carbon (SDS-AC). The study of physicochemical character change was performed by SEM and FTIR analysis while the adsorptivity of the materials was tested in methylene blue adsorption. According to the results, it is found that SDS-AC exhibits the greater adsorptivity compared to AC.

  11. Report: EPA Prepared to Implement Strategic Human Capital Management Activities But Challenges Remain

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2004-P-00024, September 20, 2004. EPA’s headquarters and regional offices are prepared to implement strategic human capital management activities, but an alignment of office-level activities to the Agency’s Strategy for Human Capital is lacking.

  12. 75 FR 3915 - Environmental Documents Prepared in Support of Sand and Gravel Activities on the Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Minerals Management Service Environmental Documents Prepared in Support of Sand and Gravel Activities on... for three sand and gravel activities proposed on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) and described in... noncompetitive basis, the rights to OCS sand, gravel, or shell resources for shore protection, beach or...

  13. Using Problem-Based Pre-Class Activities to Prepare Students for In-Class Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alayont, Feryal

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a problem-based approach that prepares students for future learning in the classroom. In this approach, students complete problem-based activities before coming to class to familiarize themselves with the topics to be covered. After the discussion on how the use of these activities relate to the learning and transfer…

  14. Biomass power for rural development. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.T.

    1998-10-01

    In this quarter a large amount of time was spent doing project planning and budget preparation for the fiscal years 1998 and 1999. Many issues of long-term strategic planning and budgeting depend on the availability of Federal support, including financial, technical and political. It has become increasingly obvious that several significant barriers must be overcome in order to reach the final project goal of commercial replication of the technology. This report describes switchgrass conversion development, production activities, environmental analysis planning, and information and education. Appendices discuss the biomass project, sediment delivery, successful establishment of switchgrass, and legislative support for the biomass project.

  15. Research and development for the declassification productivity initiative. Quarterly report, January 1997--August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Bessonet, C.G. de

    1997-03-05

    The highlight for the first quarter was the presentation of research progress and findings at the DPI Symposium on March 5, 1997. Since that presentation, additional progress was slowed down due to the decreased budget funding for year two, and consequently, the decrease in time-effort of the principal investigators. This report summarizes the progress in each of the topical areas to date. A research article has been prepared for publication for the Optical Character Recognition project; two progress reports are included for the Logical Analysis project; and two progress reports for the Knowledge Representation project. Research activities for the Tipster Technology project will resume this fall.

  16. Iron oxide nanoparticles embedded in activated carbons prepared from hydrothermally treated waste biomass.

    PubMed

    Hao, Wenming; Björkman, Eva; Yun, Yifeng; Lilliestråle, Malte; Hedin, Niklas

    2014-03-01

    Particles of iron oxide (Fe3O4 ; 20–40 nm) were embedded within activated carbons during the activation of hydrothermally carbonized (HTC) biomasses in a flow of CO2. Four different HTC biomass samples (horse manure, grass cuttings, beer production waste, and biosludge) were used as precursors for the activated carbons. Nanoparticles of iron oxide formed from iron catalyst included in the HTC biomasses. After systematic optimization, the activated carbons had specific surface areas of about 800 m2g1. The pore size distributions of the activated carbons depended strongly on the degree of carbonization of the precursors. Activated carbons prepared from highly carbonized precursors had mainly micropores, whereas those prepared from less carbonized precursors contained mainly mesopores. Given the strong magnetism of the activated carbon–nano-Fe3O4 composites, they could be particularly useful for water purification.

  17. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from marine macro-algal biomass.

    PubMed

    Aravindhan, R; Raghava Rao, J; Unni Nair, B

    2009-03-15

    Activated carbons prepared from two macro-algal biomass Sargassum longifolium (SL) and Hypnea valentiae (HV) have been examined for the removal of phenol from aqueous solution. The activated carbon has been prepared by zinc chloride activation. Experiments have been carried out at different activating agent/precursor ratio and carbonization temperature, which had significant effect on the pore structure of carbon. Developed activated carbon has been characterized by BET surface area (S(BET)) analysis and iodine number. The carbons, ZSLC-800 and ZHVC-800, showed surface area around 802 and 783 m(2)g(-1), respectively. The activated carbon developed showed substantial capability to adsorb phenol from aqueous solutions. The kinetic data were fitted to the models of pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. Column studies have also been carried out with ZSLC-800 activated carbon.

  18. Superhydrophilicity-assisted preparation of transparent and visible light activated N-doped titania film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qing Chi; Wellia, Diana V.; Amal, Rose; Liao, Dai Wei; Loo, Say Chye Joachim; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2010-07-01

    A novel and environmental friendly method was developed to prepare transparent, uniform, crack-free and visible light activated nitrogen doped (N-doped) titania thin films without the use of organic Ti precursors and organic solvents. The N-doped titania films were prepared from heating aqueous peroxotitanate thin films deposited uniformly on superhydrophilic uncoated glass substrates. The pure glass substrates were superhydrophilic after being heated at 500 °C for 1 h. Nitrogen concentrations in the titania films were adjusted by changing the amount of ammonia solution. The optimal photocatalytic activity of the N-doped titania films was about 14 times higher than that of a commercial self-cleaning glass under the same visible light illumination. The current reported preparative technique is generally applicable for the preparation of other thin films.

  19. Comparative antioxidant activity appraisal of traditional Sudanese kisra prepared from two sorghum cultivars.

    PubMed

    Zaroug, Marwa; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Senol, Fatma Sezer; Yagi, Sakina

    2014-08-01

    The effect of fermentation and heating on the antioxidant activity of the fermented and fermented baked (kisra) dough prepared from two Sorghum cultivars (Tabat and Wad Ahmed) was evaluated. Kisra prepared from Tabat cultivar showed higher DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) than that of the Wad Ahmed cultivar. Baking improves the DPPH and FRAP of the kisra prepared from two cultivars. Baking caused a variable effect on the total phenol, tannins and flavonoids content across different periods of fermentation where an increase was mainly observed for samples subjected to longer periods of fermentation. A positive high correlation between the total phenol and antioxidant activity, using the DPPH and FRAP assays, was obtained for kisra prepared from both cultivars. The same observation was obtained for tannin content. In conclusion, fermentation and heating improve the antioxidant capacity of the sorghum grains from Tabat and Wad Ahmed cultivars.

  20. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group, Summer 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-06-01

    DOE's Wind Powering America program has initiated a quarterly NAWIG newsletter to present Native American wind information, including projects, interviews with pioneers, issues, WPA activities, and related events.

  1. Preparation of activated carbon monolith by application of phenolic resins as carbon precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajad, Mehran; Kazemzad, Mahmood; Hosseinnia, Azarmidokht

    2014-04-01

    In the current work, activated carbon monoliths have been prepared by application of different phenolic hydrocarbons namely catechol and resorcinol as carbon precursors. For synthesis of carbon monolith, the precursors have been mixed with Genapol PF-10 as template and then polymerized in the presence of lysine as catalyst. Then the polymerized monolith carbonized in inert atmosphere at 700°C and activated by water steam at 550°C. It was found that resorcinol polymerization is easier than catechol and occurred at 90°C while for polymerization of catechol elevated temperature of 120°C at hydrothermal condition is necessary. The prepared activated carbon samples have been characterized by various analysis methods including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface area measurement, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The adsorptions of three different aromatic hydrocarbons by the prepared activated carbon samples have also been investigated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. It was found that carbon monolith prepared by catechol as carbon precursor has higher adsorpability and strength in comparison with the other sample. The higher performance of carbon monolith prepared by catechol can be associated with its higher active sites in comparison with resorcinol.

  2. US energy industry financial developments, 1993 first quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-25

    Net income for 259 energy companies-- including, 20 major US petroleum companies-- rose 38 percent between the first quarter of 1992 and the first quarter of 1993. An increased level of economic activity, along with colder weather, helped lift the demand for natural gas. crude oil, coal, and electricity. The sharp rise in the domestic price of natural gas at the wellhead relative to the year-ago quarter was the most significant development in US energy during the first quarter. As a consequence of higher natural gas prices, the upstream segment of the petroleum industry reported large gains in income, while downstream income rose due to higher refined product demand. Increased economic activity and higher weather-related natural gas demand also led to improvements in income for the rate-regulated energy segment. However, declining domestic oil production continued to restrain upstream petroleum industry earnings growth, despite a moderate rise in crude oil prices.

  3. [Preparation, characterization and adsorption performance of high surface area biomass-based activated carbons].

    PubMed

    Li, Kun-Quan; Li, Ye; Zheng, Zheng; Sang, Da-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    High surface area activated carbons were prepared with Spartina alterniflora and cotton stalk as raw materials and KOH as activating agent. Effects of materials type, impregnation ratio, activation temperature and heat preservation time on the yield, elemental composition and adsorptive capacity of activated carbon were studied. The properties and pore structure of the carbons were characterized with nitrogen adsorption, powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Main pore characteristics of activated carbons were analyzed by BET equation, Horvath-Kawazoe BET method and DFT method. The considerable preparation conditions are obtained as follows: impregnation ratio of 3: 1, an activation temperature of 800 degrees C and an activation time of 1.5 h. The BET surface area of activated carbon prepared from Spartina alterniflora reached 2 825 m2 x g(-1) when its total pore volume, yield, iodine number and methylene blue adsorption were 1.374 cm3 x g(-1), 16.36%, 1797 mg x g(-1) and 495 mg x g(-1) respectively under above conditions. The activated carbon from cotton stalk was prepared with BET surface area of 2 135 m2 x g(-1), total pore volume of 1.038 cm3 x g(-1), yield of 11.22%, methylene blue adsorption of 1 251 mg x g(-1), and iodine number of 478 mg x g(-1), respectively. The methylene blue adsorption and iodine number are much higher than the national first level for activated carbon. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of 2,4-dinitrophenol on the two carbons were 932 mg x g(-1) and 747 mg x g(-1), respectively, which are superior to ordinary activated carbon and activated carbon fiber.

  4. 2nd Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, L.

    2014-07-01

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the second quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014 in Tables 4 and 5. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report do not include minor volumes of non-radioactive materials that were approved for disposal. Volume reports showing cubic feet (ft3) generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to differing rounding conventions.

  5. Preparation of porous bio-char and activated carbon from rice husk by leaching ash and chemical activation.

    PubMed

    Ahiduzzaman, Md; Sadrul Islam, A K M

    2016-01-01

    Preparation porous bio-char and activated carbon from rice husk char study has been conducted in this study. Rice husk char contains high amount silica that retards the porousness of bio-char. Porousness of rice husk char could be enhanced by removing the silica from char and applying heat at high temperature. Furthermore, the char is activated by using chemical activation under high temperature. In this study no inert media is used. The study is conducted at low oxygen environment by applying biomass for consuming oxygen inside reactor and double crucible method (one crucible inside another) is applied to prevent intrusion of oxygen into the char. The study results shows that porous carbon is prepared successfully without using any inert media. The adsorption capacity of material increased due to removal of silica and due to the activation with zinc chloride compared to using raw rice husk char. The surface area of porous carbon and activated carbon are found to be 28, 331 and 645 m(2) g(-1) for raw rice husk char, silica removed rice husk char and zinc chloride activated rice husk char, respectively. It is concluded from this study that porous bio-char and activated carbon could be prepared in normal environmental conditions instead of inert media. This study shows a method and possibility of activated carbon from agro-waste, and it could be scaled up for commercial production.

  6. Activity in the human superior colliculus relating to endogenous saccade preparation and execution

    PubMed Central

    Furlan, Michele; Smith, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years a small number of studies have applied functional imaging techniques to investigate visual responses in the human superior colliculus (SC), but few have investigated its oculomotor functions. Here, in two experiments, we examined activity associated with endogenous saccade preparation. We used 3-T fMRI to record the hemodynamic activity in the SC while participants were either preparing or executing saccadic eye movements. Our results showed that not only executing a saccade (as previously shown) but also preparing a saccade produced an increase in the SC hemodynamic activity. The saccade-related activity was observed in the contralateral and to a lesser extent the ipsilateral SC. A second experiment further examined the contralateral mapping of saccade-related activity with a larger range of saccade amplitudes. Increased activity was again observed in both the contralateral and ipsilateral SC that was evident for large as well as small saccades. This suggests that the ipsilateral component of the increase in BOLD is not due simply to small-amplitude saccades producing bilateral activity in the foveal fixation zone. These studies provide the first evidence of presaccadic preparatory activity in the human SC and reveal that fMRI can detect activity consistent with that of buildup neurons found in the deeper layers of the SC in studies of nonhuman primates. PMID:26041830

  7. Activity in the human superior colliculus relating to endogenous saccade preparation and execution.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Michele; Smith, Andrew T; Walker, Robin

    2015-08-01

    In recent years a small number of studies have applied functional imaging techniques to investigate visual responses in the human superior colliculus (SC), but few have investigated its oculomotor functions. Here, in two experiments, we examined activity associated with endogenous saccade preparation. We used 3-T fMRI to record the hemodynamic activity in the SC while participants were either preparing or executing saccadic eye movements. Our results showed that not only executing a saccade (as previously shown) but also preparing a saccade produced an increase in the SC hemodynamic activity. The saccade-related activity was observed in the contralateral and to a lesser extent the ipsilateral SC. A second experiment further examined the contralateral mapping of saccade-related activity with a larger range of saccade amplitudes. Increased activity was again observed in both the contralateral and ipsilateral SC that was evident for large as well as small saccades. This suggests that the ipsilateral component of the increase in BOLD is not due simply to small-amplitude saccades producing bilateral activity in the foveal fixation zone. These studies provide the first evidence of presaccadic preparatory activity in the human SC and reveal that fMRI can detect activity consistent with that of buildup neurons found in the deeper layers of the SC in studies of nonhuman primates.

  8. Black Hydroxylated Titanium Dioxide Prepared via Ultrasonication with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Chenyao; Chen, Chao; Wang, Jia; Fu, Xinxin; Ren, Zhimin; Qian, Guodong; Wang, Zhiyu

    2015-07-01

    The amorphous TiO2 derived from hydroxylation has become an effective approach for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity of TiO2 since a kind of special black TiO2 was prepared by engineering disordered layers on TiO2 nanocrystals via hydrogenation. In this contribution, we prepared totally amorphous TiO2 with various degrees of blackness by introducing hydroxyls via ultrasonic irradiation, through which can we remarkably enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 with improved light harvesting and narrowed band gap.

  9. Low-Temperature Preparation and Properties of High Activity Anatase TiO2 Aqueous Sols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingju; Na, Wei; Zhu, Zhongqi; Zhang, Jin

    2011-06-01

    Anatase TiO2 aqueous sols were prepared below 70 °C by sol method. The influences of preparing conditions on the crystal structures and stability of the sols were investigated with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Zeta potential. The photocatalytic activities of the anatase TiO2 aqueous sols were characterized by degradation of methyl orange and methylene blue under ultraviolet light, fluorescent light and sunlight. The sols demonstrate higher photocatalytic activity than that of Degussa P25-TiO2.

  10. A QUARTER CENTURY OF NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, S.

    2002-02-25

    This paper is entitled ''A QUARTER CENTURY OF NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN''. Since the first statement on the strategy for radioactive waste management in Japan was made by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in 1976, a quarter century has passed, in which much experience has been accumulated both in technical and social domains. This paper looks back in this 25-year history of radioactive waste management in Japan by highlighting activities related to high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal.

  11. ALTERNATIVE ROUTES FOR CATALYST PREPARATION: USE OF ULTRASOUND AND MICROWAVE IRRADIATION FOR THE PREPARATION OF VANADIUM PHOSPHORUS OXIDE CATALYST AND ITS ACTIVITY FOR HYDROCARBON OXIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vanadium phosphorus oxide (VPO) is a well-known catalyst used for the vapor phase n-butane oxidation to maleic anhydride. It is prepared by a variety of methods, all of which, however, eventually result in the same active phase. The two main methods for the preparation of its pr...

  12. LFCM vitrification technology: Quarterly progress report, July-September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, R.A.; Allen, C.R.; Powell, J.A.; Bates, S.O.; Bray, L.A.; Budden, M.J.; Dierks, R.D.; Elliott, M.L.; Elmore, M.R.; Faletti, D.W.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Holton, L.K. Jr.; Kuhn, W.L.; Mellinger, G.B.; Nakaoka, R.K.; Peterson, M.E.; Piepel, G.F.; Powell, J.A.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Reimus, M.A.H.; Surma, J.E.; Wiemers, K.D.

    1988-09-01

    This report describes the progress in developing, testing, applying and documenting liquid-fed ceramic melter vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the fourth quarter of FY 1987 is discussed: melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, canister filling and handling systems, and process/product modeling and control.

  13. Illinois Association for Counseling and Development (IACD) Quarterly, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illovsky, M., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of the "IACD Quarterly" published in 1991. Articles in the 1991 volume include: (1) "The History, Current Status and Future of Counselor Preparation in Illinois: Background and Overview" (William Gorman); (2) "Counselor Education in Illinois Prior to 1958" (John Storey); (3) "The Golden Book and Counselor…

  14. PFBC HGCU Test Facility. Technical progress report No. 24, Third quarter, CY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This is the twenty-fourth and final Technical Progress Report submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) in connection with the cooperative agreement between the DOE and Ohio Power Company for the Tidd PFBC Hot Gas Clean Up Test Facility. This report covers the work completed during the Third Quarter of CY 1995. All activity this quarter was directed toward the completion of the program final report. A draft copy of the final report was forwarded to DOE during this quarter, and DOE submitted their comments on the report to AEPSC. DOE requested that Westinghouse write an appendix to the report covering the performance of the fail-safe regenerator devices during Tad operation, and Westinghouse subsequently prepared the appendix. Additional DOE comments were incorporated into the report, and it will be issued in camera-ready form by the end of October, 1995, which is the program end date. Appendix 1 presents the results of filter candle posttest examination by Westinghouse performed on selected filter candles following final shutdown of the system.

  15. Deployable Crew Quarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    The deployable crew quarters (DCQ) have been designed for the International Space Station (ISS). Each DCQ would be a relatively inexpensive, deployable boxlike structure that is designed to fit in a rack bay. It is to be occupied by one crewmember to provide privacy and sleeping functions for the crew. A DCQ comprises mostly hard panels, made of a lightweight honeycomb or matrix/fiber material, attached to each other by cloth hinges. Both faces of each panel are covered with a layer of Nomex cloth and noise-suppression material to provide noise isolation from ISS. On Earth, the unit is folded flat and attached to a rigid pallet for transport to the ISS. On the ISS, crewmembers unfold the unit and install it in place, attaching it to ISS structural members by use of soft cords (which also help to isolate noise and vibration). A few hard pieces of equipment (principally, a ventilator and a smoke detector) are shipped separately and installed in the DCQ unit by use of a system of holes, slots, and quarter-turn fasteners. Full-scale tests showed that the time required to install a DCQ unit amounts to tens of minutes. The basic DCQ design could be adapted to terrestrial applications to satisfy requirements for rapid deployable emergency shelters that would be lightweight, portable, and quickly erected. The Temporary Early Sleep Station (TeSS) currently on-orbit is a spin-off of the DCQ.

  16. Microporous activated carbons prepared from palm shell by thermal activation and their application to sulfur dioxide adsorption.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jia; Lua, Aik Chong

    2002-07-15

    Textural characterization of activated carbons prepared from palm shell by thermal activation with carbon dioxide (CO(2)) gas is reported in this paper. Palm shell (endocarp) is an abundant agricultural solid waste from palm-oil processing mills in many tropical countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand. The effects of activation temperature on the textural properties of the palm-shell activated carbons, namely specific surface area (BET method), porosity, and microporosity, were investigated. The activated carbons prepared from palm shell possessed well-developed porosity, predominantly microporosity, leading to potential applications in gas-phase adsorption for air pollution control. Static and dynamic adsorption tests for sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), a common gaseous pollutant, were carried out in a thermogravimetric analyzer and a packed column configuration respectively. The effects of adsorption temperature, adsorbate inlet concentration, and adsorbate superficial velocity on the adsorptive performance of the prepared activated carbons were studied. The palm-shell activated carbon was found to have substantial capability for the adsorption of SO(2), comparable to those of some commercial products and an adsorbent derived from another biomass.

  17. [Preparation, characterization and adsorption performance of mesoporous activated carbon with acidic groups].

    PubMed

    Li, Kun-Quan; Li, Ye; Zheng, Zheng; Zhang, Yu-Xuan

    2013-06-01

    Mesoporous activated carbons containing acidic groups were prepared with cotton stalk based fiber as raw materials and H3PO4 as activating agent by one step carbonization method. Effects of impregnation ratio, carbonization temperature and heat preservation time on the yield, elemental composition, oxygen-containing acid functional groups and adsorptive capacity of activated carbon were studied. The adsorption capacity of the prepared activated carbon AC-01 for p-nitroaniline and Pb(II) was studied, and the adsorption mechanism was also suggested according to the equilibrium experimental results. The maximum yield of activated carbons prepared from cotton stalk fiber reached 35.5% when the maximum mesoporous volume and BET surface area were 1.39 cm3 x g(-1) and 1 731 m2 x g(-1), respectively. The activated carbon AC-01 prepared under a H3 PO4/precursor ratio of 3:2 and activated at 900 degrees C for 90 min had a total pore volume of 1.02 cm3 x g(-1), a micoporous ratio of 31%, and a mesoporous ratio of 65%. The pore diameter of the mesoporous activated carbon was mainly distributed in the range of 2-5 nm. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of Pb(II) and p-nitroaniline on cotton stalk fiber activated carbon were 123 mg x g(-1) and 427 mg x g(-1), respectively, which were both higher than those for commercial activated carbon fiber ACF-CK. The equilibrium adsorption experimental data showed that mesopore and oxygen-containing acid functional groups played an important role in the adsorption.

  18. Potential of jackfruit peel as precursor for activated carbon prepared by microwave induced NaOH activation.

    PubMed

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2012-05-01

    The feasibility of preparing activated carbon (JPAC) from jackfruit peel, an industrial residue abundantly available from food manufacturing plants via microwave-assisted NaOH activation was explored. The influences of chemical impregnation ratio, microwave power and radiation time on the properties of activated carbon were investigated. JPAC was examined by pore structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption isotherm, elemental analysis, surface acidity/basicity and zeta potential measurements. The adsorptive behavior of JPAC was quantified using methylene blue as model dye compound. The best conditions resulted in JPAC with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 400.06 mg/g and carbon yield of 80.82%. The adsorption data was best fitted to the pseudo-second-order equation, while the adsorption mechanism was well described by the intraparticle diffusion model. The findings revealed the versatility of jackfruit peels as good precursor for preparation of high quality activated carbon.

  19. Optimization of preparation of activated carbon from cotton stalk by microwave assisted phosphoric acid-chemical activation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hui; Zhang, Genlin; Xu, Xiaolin; Tao, Guanghui; Dai, Jiulei

    2010-10-15

    The preparation of activated carbon (AC) from cotton stalk was investigated in this paper. Orthogonal array experimental design method was used to optimize the preparation of AC using microwave assisted phosphoric acid. Optimized parameters were radiation power of 400 W, radiation time of 8 min, concentration of phosphoric acid of 50% by volume and impregnation time of 20 h, respectively. The surface characteristics of the AC prepared under optimized condition were examined by pore structure analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Pore structure analysis shows that mecropores constitute more of the porosity of the prepared AC. Compared to cotton stalk, different functionalities and morphology on the carbon surfaces were formed in the prepared process. The adsorption capacity of the AC was also investigated by removing methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The equilibrium data of the adsorption was well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity of MB on the prepared AC is 245.70 mg/g. The adsorption process follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  20. Investigation of photocalalytic activity of ZnO prepared by spray pyrolis with various precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourfaa, F.; Lamri Zeggar, M.; A, A.; Aida, M. S.; Attaf, N.

    2016-03-01

    Semiconductor photocatalysts such as ZnO has attracted much attention in recent years due to their various applications for the degradation of organic pollutants in water, air and in dye sensitized photovoltaic solar cell. In the present work, ZnO thin films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis by using different precursors namely: acetate, chloride and zinc nitrate in order to investigate their influence on ZnO photocatalytic activity. The films crystalline structure was studied by mean of X- ray diffraction measurements (XRD) and the films surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The films optical properties were studied by mean of UV-visible spectroscopy. The prepared films were tested for the degradation of the red reactive dye largely used in textile industry. As a result, we found that the zinc nitrate is the best precursor to prepare ZnO thin films suitable for a good photocatalytic activity.

  1. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity in 10-nm filaments and microtubule preparations from bovine brain

    PubMed Central

    Runge, Marschall S.; Hewgley, Paula B.; Puett, David; Williams, Robley C.

    1979-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity (3′:5′-cyclic-AMP 5′-nucleotidohydrolase, EC 3.1.4.17), which is activatable by Ca2+-dependent regulator protein (CDR), has been identified in cycled microtubule preparations from bovine brain. By using various methods to fractionate the microtubule preparation into subfractions (e.g., phosphocellulose chromatography to obtain purified 6S tubulin and soluble microtubule-associated proteins, and gel exclusion chromatography on Bio-Gel A-150m to obtain 10-nm filaments), we found that all the fractions exhibited some enzymic activity, but that most of the phosphodiesterase activity was localized in the 10-nm filament fraction. By using cyclic GMP as substrate, a specific activity of 921 ± 168 pmol/mg of filament protein·min was determined. Also, 10-nm filaments were prepared directly from brain homogenates by differential centrifugation and gel exclusion chromatography. This fraction also contained phosphodiesterase activity but of slightly lower specific activity (752 ± 9 pmol/mg of protein·min). The filament-associated enzymic activity was stable during storage (-70°C) and to several salt extractions at moderate ionic strength (0.5 M); the latter finding indicates that the phosphodiesterase is not adsorbed to the filaments via nonspecific electrostatic interactions. Although a chelating agent was present in the initial homogenization buffer and generally in all buffers used in preparing fractions, an activator of a smooth muscle phosphodiesterase was released upon boiling the 10-nm filaments. This activator obtained in the boiled supernatant was Ca2+-sensitive, trifluoperazine-sensitive, and stimulated smooth muscle phosphodiesterase to nearly the same extent as purified (exogenous) CDR; thus, it probably represents filament-associated CDR. Images PMID:223149

  2. High surface area microporous activated carbons prepared from Fox nut (Euryale ferox) shell by zinc chloride activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mohan Jena, Hara

    2015-11-01

    High surface area microporous activated carbon has been prepared from Fox nutshell (Euryale ferox) by chemical activation with ZnCl2 as an activator. The process has been conducted at different impregnation (ZnCl2/Fox nutshell) ratios (1-2.5) and carbonization temperatures (500-700 °C). The thermal decomposition behavior of Fox nutshell and impregnated Fox nutshell has been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. The pore properties including the BET surface area, micropore surface area, micropore volume, and pore size distribution of the activated carbons have been determined by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms at -196 °C using the BET, t-plot method, DR, and BJH methods. The BET surface area, the microporous surface area, total pore volume, and micropore volume have been obtained as 2869 m2/g, 2124 m2/g, 1.96 cm3/g, and 1.68 cm3/g, respectively, and the microporosity percentage of the prepared activated carbon is 85.71%. The prepared activated carbons have been also characterized with instrumental methods such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM).

  3. Ceruminal diffusion activities and ceruminolytic characteristics of otic preparations – an in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An in-vitro setup was established in order to determine a) the diffusion activities of eight otic preparations (Aurizon®, Eas Otic®, Epi Otic®, Otifree®, Otomax®, Panolog®, Posatex®, Surolan®) through synthetic cerumen, and b) the ceruminolytic capacity and impregnation effects of these products. The main lipid classes of canine cerumen produced with moderate, non-purulent otitis externa were determined by thin layer chromatography and were subsequently used to produce a standardised synthetic cerumen (SCC). SCC was filled into capillary tubes, all of which were loaded with six commercially available multipurpose otic medications and two ear cleaners, each mixed with two markers in two experimental setups. These two marker compounds (Oil red O and marbofloxacin) were chosen, since they exhibit different physicochemical drug characteristics by which it is possible to determine and verify the diffusion activity of different types of liquids (i.e. the otic preparations). A synthetic cerumen described in the literature (JSL) was also used for comparison as its lipid composition was different to SCC. The diffusion activities of the otic preparations through both types of synthetic cerumen were studied over 24 hours. A second in-vitro experiment determined both the ceruminolytic activity and impregnation effect of the otic preparations by comparing the weight loss or weight gain after repeated incubation of JSL. Results Canine cerumen is mainly composed of triglycerides, sterol esters, fatty acid esters and squalene. The diffusion experiments showed a high diffusion efficacy along with a high impregnation effect for one test product. All the other products exhibited a lower diffusion activity with a mild to moderate impregnation effect. A mild ceruminolytic activity was observed for the two ear cleaners but not for any of the otic medications. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that there are significant differences in the diffusion

  4. Preparation of activated carbon by microwave heating of langsat (Lansium domesticum) empty fruit bunch waste.

    PubMed

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2012-07-01

    The feasibility of langsat empty fruit bunch waste for preparation of activated carbon (EFBLAC) by microwave-induced activation was explored. Activation with NaOH at the IR ratio of 1.25, microwave power of 600 W for 6 min produced EFBLAC with a carbon yield of 81.31% and adsorption uptake for MB of 302.48 mg/g. Pore structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated the physical and chemical characteristics of EFBLAC. Equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm, with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 402.06 mg/g, and the adsorption kinetics was well fitted to the pseudo-second-order equation. The findings revealed the potential to prepare high quality activated carbon from langsat empty fruit bunch waste by microwave irradiation.

  5. Designing Photocatalysts for Hydrogen Evolution: Are Complex Preparation Strategies Necessary to Produce Active Catalysts?

    PubMed

    Grewe, Tobias; Tüysüz, Harun

    2015-09-21

    A facile synthetic route for the preparation of highly active photocatalysts was developed. The protocol involves the preparation of a photocatalyst through the direct injection of metal alkoxide precursors into solutions in a photoreactor. As a proof of concept, a tantalum oxide based photocatalyst was chosen as a model system. Tantalum ethoxide [Ta(OEt)5 ] was injected rapidly into a photoreactor filled with a water/methanol mixture, and a TaOx (OH)y composite formed and was able to produce hydrogen under light illumination. Compared to commercial and mesostructured Ta2 O5 and NaTaO3 materials, TaOx (OH)y produced by direct injection shows superior hydrogen production activity. Notably, the samples prepared by direct injection are amorphous; however, their photocatalytic performance is much higher than those of their crystalline equivalents. If Ta(OEt)5 was dispersed in methanol before injection, an amorphous framework with higher surface area and larger pore volume was formed, and the hydrogen production rate increased further. The addition of a sodium precursor during the injection further boosted the photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, this concept has also been applied to a titanium-based photocatalyst, and a much better hydrogen production rate has been obtained in comparison with that of commercial TiO2 (P25-Degussa); therefore, the direct-injection synthesis is a flexible method that opens the door to the facile preparation of highly active nanostructured photocatalysts for hydrogen production.

  6. PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ACTIVITY OF AL2O3-SUPPORTED V2O5 CATALYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of activated alumina supported vanadium oxide catalysts with various V2O5 loadings ranging from 5 to 25 wt% has been prepared by wet impregnation technique. A combination of various physico-chemical techniques such as BET surface areas, oxygen chemisorption, X-ray diffra...

  7. EPA ACTIVITIES TO PREPARE FOR REGULATORY AND RISK ASSESSMENT APPLICATIONS OF GENOMICS INFORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomics will have significant implications for risk assessment and regulatory decision making. Since 2002, the U.S. EPA has undertaken a number of cross-Agency activities to further prepare itself to receive,interpret and apply genomics information for risk assessment and regul...

  8. Preparation, characterization, and activity of a peptide-cellulosic aerogel protease sensor from cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nanocellulosic aerogels (NA) provide a lightweight biocompatible material with structural properties of both high porosity and specific surface area for biosensor design. We report here the preparation, characterization, and activity of a peptide-nanocellulose aerogel (PA) made from unprocessed cot...

  9. TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ACTIVATION FOLLOWING EXPOSURE OF AN INTACT LUNG PREPARATION TO METALLIC PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ACTIVATION FOLLOWING EXPOSURE OF AN INTACT LUNG PREPARATION TO METALLIC PARTICULATE MATTER

    James M. Samet1,2, Robert Silbajoris1, Tony Huang1 and Ilona Jaspers3

    1Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laborato...

  10. 78 FR 6079 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Sediment Dredging Activities at John...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Sediment... (sediment removal and disposal) activities by the State of Kansas at John Redmond Dam and Reservoir, Kansas... removal of excessive accumulated sediment from John Redmond Reservoir for the purpose of at...

  11. Using the Learning Activities Survey to Examine Transformative Learning Experiences in Two Graduate Teacher Preparation Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruana, Vicki; Woodrow, Kelli; Pérez, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The Learning Activities Survey (LAS) detected whether, and to what extent, a perspective transformation occurred during two graduate courses in teacher preparation. The LAS examined the types of learning identified as contributing to their transformative experiences. This study examined pre-service teachers' critical reflection of the course…

  12. Preparation of activated carbon from sorghum pith and its structural and electrochemical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Senthilkumar, S.T.; Senthilkumar, B.; Balaji, S.; Sanjeeviraja, C.; Kalai Selvan, R.

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Sorghum pith as the cost effective raw material for activated carbon preparation. {yields} Physicochemical method/KOH activation for preparation of activated carbon is inexpensive. {yields} Activated carbon having lower surface area surprisingly delivered a higher specific capacitance. {yields} Treated at 500 {sup o}C activated carbon exceeds maximum specific capacitances of 320.6 F/g at 10 mV/s. -- Abstract: The cost effective activated carbon (AC) has been prepared from sorghum pith by NaOH activation at various temperatures, including 300 {sup o}C (AC1), 400 {sup o}C (AC2) and 500 {sup o}C (AC3) for the electrodes in electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) applications. The amorphous nature of the samples has been observed from X-ray diffraction and Raman spectral studies. Subsequently, the surface functional groups, surface morphology, pore diameter and specific surface area have been identified through FT-IR, SEM, histogram and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherm methods. The electrochemical characterization of AC electrodes has been examined using cyclic voltammetry technique in the potential range of -0.1-1.2 V in 1.0 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte at different scan rates (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 100 mV/s). The maximum specific capacitances of 320.6 F/g at 10 mV/s and 222.1 F/g at 100 mV/s have been obtained for AC3 electrode when compared with AC1 and AC2 electrodes. Based on the characterization studies, it has been inferred that the activated carbon prepared from sorghum pith may be one of the innovative carbon electrode materials for EDLC applications.

  13. Modulation of active Cr(III) complexes by bath preparation to adjust Cr(III) electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Ming-yong; Zhang, Yi

    2013-09-01

    The preparation process of the Cr(III) bath was studied based on a perspective of accelerating the formation of active Cr(III) complexes. The results of ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and electrodeposition showed that active Cr(III) complexes in the bath prepared at room temperature in several days were rare for depositing chromium. The increase of heating temperature, time, and pH value during the bath preparation promoted the formation of active Cr(III) complexes. The chromium deposition rate increased with the concentration of active Cr(III) complexes increasing. Increasing the heating temperature from 60 to 96°C, the chromium deposition rate increased from 0.40 to 0.71 μm/min. When the concentration of active Cr(III) complexes increased, the grain size of Cr coatings increased, and the carbon content of the coating decreased. It is deduced that Cr(H2O)4(OH)L2+ (L is an organic ligand, and its valence is omitted) is a primary active Cr(III) complex.

  14. Why do most human liver cytosol preparations lack xanthine oxidase activity?

    PubMed

    Barr, John T; Choughule, Kanika V; Nepal, Sahadev; Wong, Timothy; Chaudhry, Amarjit S; Joswig-Jones, Carolyn A; Zientek, Michael; Strom, Stephen C; Schuetz, Erin G; Thummel, Kenneth E; Jones, Jeffrey P

    2014-04-01

    When investigating the potential for xanthine oxidase (XO)-mediated metabolism of a new chemical entity in vitro, selective chemical inhibition experiments are typically used. Most commonly, these inhibition experiments are performed using the inhibitor allopurinol (AP) and commercially prepared human liver cytosol (HLC) as the enzyme source. For reasons detailed herein, it is also a common practice to perfuse livers with solutions containing AP prior to liver harvest. The exposure to AP in HLC preparations could obviously pose a problem for measuring in vitro XO activity. To investigate this potential problem, an HPLC-MS/MS assay was developed to determine whether AP and its primary metabolite, oxypurinol, are retained within the cytosol for livers that were treated with AP during liver harvest. Differences in enzymatic activity for XO and aldehyde oxidase (AO) in human cytosol that can be ascribed to AP exposure were also evaluated. The results confirmed the presence of residual AP (some) and oxypurinol (all) human liver cytosol preparations that had been perfused with an AP-containing solution. In every case where oxypurinol was detected, XO activity was not observed. In contrast, the presence of AP and oxypurinol did not appear to have an impact on AO activity. Pooled HLC that was purchased from a commercial source also contained residual oxypurinol and did not show any XO activity. In the future, it is recommended that each HLC batch is screened for oxypurinol and/or XO activity prior to testing for XO-mediated metabolism of a new chemical entity.

  15. Characterization of activated carbon prepared from chlorella-based algal residue.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuan-Ming; Tsai, Wen-Tien; Li, Ming-Hsuan

    2015-05-01

    The chlorella-based microalgal residue (AR) was tested as a novel precursor for preparing activated carbons. A combined carbonization-activation process with flowing N2 and CO2 gases was used to prepare the carbon materials at the activation temperatures of 800-1000 °C and the residence times of 0-30 min in this work. The elemental contents, pore properties and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of the resulting activated carbons have been performed. The results showed that activation temperature may be the most important parameter for determining their pore properties. The maximal Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and total pore volume of the resulting activated carbon, which was produced at the activation temperature of 950 °C with the residence time of 30 min, were 840 m(2)/g and 0.46 cm(3)/g, respectively. More interestingly, the resulting activated carbons have significant nitrogen contents of 3.6-9.6 wt%, which make them lower carbon contents (i.e., 54.6-68.4 wt%) than those of commercial activated carbons.

  16. 20 CFR 404.146 - When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter... Coverage § 404.146 When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage. This section applies when we credit you with quarters of coverage (QCs) under § 404.141 for calendar years before 1978 and under §...

  17. 20 CFR 404.146 - When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter... Coverage § 404.146 When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage. This section applies when we credit you with quarters of coverage (QCs) under § 404.141 for calendar years before 1978 and under §...

  18. 20 CFR 404.146 - When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter... Coverage § 404.146 When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage. This section applies when we credit you with quarters of coverage (QCs) under § 404.141 for calendar years before 1978 and under §...

  19. 20 CFR 404.146 - When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter... Coverage § 404.146 When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage. This section applies when we credit you with quarters of coverage (QCs) under § 404.141 for calendar years before 1978 and under §...

  20. 20 CFR 404.146 - When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter... Coverage § 404.146 When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage. This section applies when we credit you with quarters of coverage (QCs) under § 404.141 for calendar years before 1978 and under §...

  1. Biologically active components of a Papua New Guinea analgesic and anti-inflammatory lichen preparation

    PubMed Central

    Bugni, Tim S.; Andjelic, Cynthia D.; Pole, Ann R.; Rai, Prem; Ireland, Chris M.; Barrows, Louis R.

    2009-01-01

    A traditional preparation of Parmotrema saccatilobum (Taylor) Hale (Family: Parmeliaceae) is being considered for inclusion into the PNG national drug formulary by the Ministry of Health Taskforce on Traditional Medicines. The lichen preparation is traditionally used in the Milne Bay province of Papua New Guinea for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. A hexane extract of Parmotrema saccatilobum yielded the principle components atranorin and chloroatranorin. Atranorin and chloroatranorin were tested in a COX-1 and -2 enzyme inhibition assay, which showed that atranorin inhibited COX-1 in a dose dependent manner and suggests partial inhibition by atranorin and chloroatranorin of COX-2 and COX-1, respectively. PMID:19289158

  2. Biologically active components of a Papua New Guinea analgesic and anti-inflammatory lichen preparation.

    PubMed

    Bugni, Tim S; Andjelic, Cynthia D; Pole, Ann R; Rai, Prem; Ireland, Chris M; Barrows, Louis R

    2009-07-01

    A traditional preparation of Parmotrema saccatilobum (Taylor) Hale (Family: Parmeliaceae) is being considered for inclusion into the PNG national drug formulary by the Ministry of Health Taskforce on Traditional Medicines. The lichen preparation is traditionally used in the Milne Bay province of Papua New Guinea for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. A hexane extract of P. saccatilobum yielded the principle components atranorin and chloroatranorin. Atranorin and chloroatranorin were tested in a COX-1 and -2 enzyme inhibition assay, which showed that atranorin inhibited COX-1 in a dose dependent manner and suggests partial inhibition by atranorin and chloroatranorin of COX-2 and COX-1, respectively.

  3. [Effect of natural nootropic and adaptogen preparations on the cortex bioelectrical activity in rats].

    PubMed

    Suslov, N I; Churin, A A; Skurikhin, E G; Provalova, N V; Stal'bovskiĭ, A O; Litvinenko, V I; Dygaĭ, A M

    2002-01-01

    The influence of new nootrope and adaptogen preparations representing dry extracts from Scutellaria baicalensis (Georgi), Bergenia crassifolia (Fritsch), and velvet antlers of Siberian deer (Cervus elaphus sibiricus) on the bioelectric activity (cortex Fourier spectral EEG power) under conflict situation and conditioned reflex development was studied in rats. In both tests, the drugs produced similar changes in the EEG activity: (i) increase in the partial contribution of delta-activity and general spectral power, (ii) depression in the alpha and beta 1-rhythm power, (iii) depression of theta-activity in some cases. The EEG activity changes depended on the initial state and were closely connected with the behavior of the test animals. The drug administration led to normalization of the alpha and beta 1 activity correlated with the improved behavioral characteristics. At the same time, the delta activity was virtually not affected and lost the correlation with behavior.

  4. FY12 Quarter 3 Computing Utilization Report – LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Wampler, Cheryl L.; McClellan, Laura Ann

    2012-07-25

    DSW continues to dominate the capacity workload, with a focus in Q3 on common model baselining runs in preparation for the Annual Assessment Review (AAR) of the weapon systems. There remains unmet demand for higher fidelity simulations, and for increased throughput of simulations. Common model baselining activities would benefit from doubling the resolution of the models and running twice as many simulations. Capacity systems were also utilized during the quarter to prepare for upcoming Level 2 milestones. Other notable DSW activities include validation of new physics models and safety studies. The safety team used the capacity resources extensively for projects involving 3D computer simulations for the Furrow series of experiments at DARHT (a Level 2 milestone), fragment impact, surety theme, PANTEX assessments, and the 120-day study. With the more than tripling of classified capacity computing resources with the addition of the Luna system and the safety team's imminent access to the Cielo system, demand has been met for current needs. The safety team has performed successful scaling studies on Luna up to 16K PE size-jobs with linear scaling, running the large 3D simulations required for the analysis of Furrow. They will be investigating scaling studies on the Cielo system with the Lustre file system in Q4. Overall average capacity utilization was impacted by negative effects of the LANL Voluntary Separation Program (VSP) at the beginning of Q3, in which programmatic staffing was reduced by 6%, with further losses due to management backfills and attrition, resulting in about 10% fewer users. All classified systems were impacted in April by a planned 2 day red network outage. ASC capacity workload continues to focus on code development, regression testing, and verification and validation (V&V) studies. Significant capacity cycles were used in preparation for a JOWOG in May and several upcoming L2 milestones due in Q4. A network transition has been underway on the

  5. Method of preparing porous, active material for use in electrodes of secondary electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Nelson, Paul A.; Kaun, Thomas D.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1977-01-01

    Particles of carbonaceous matrices containing embedded electrode active material are prepared for vibratory loading within a porous electrically conductive substrate. In preparing the particles, active materials such as metal chalcogenides, solid alloys of alkali or alkaline earth metals along with other metals and their oxides in powdered or particulate form are blended with a thermosetting resin and particles of a volatile to form a paste mixture. The paste is heated to a temperature at which the volatile transforms into vapor to impart porosity at about the same time as the resin begins to cure into a rigid, solid structure.The solid structure is then comminuted into porous, carbonaceous particles with the embedded active material.

  6. Activated carbons prepared from wood particleboard wastes: characterisation and phenol adsorption capacities.

    PubMed

    Girods, P; Dufour, A; Fierro, V; Rogaume, Y; Rogaume, C; Zoulalian, A; Celzard, A

    2009-07-15

    The problems of valorisation of particleboard wastes on one hand, and contamination of aqueous effluents by phenolic compounds on the other hand, are simultaneously considered in this work. Preparation of activated carbons from a two steps thermo-chemical process, formerly designed for generating combustible gases, is suggested. The resultant carbonaceous residue is activated with steam at 800 degrees C. Depending on the preparation conditions, surface areas within the range 800-1300 m(2)/g are obtained, close to that of a commercial activated carbon (CAC) specially designed for water treatment and used as a reference material. The present work shows that particleboard waste-derived activated carbons (WAC) are efficient adsorbents for the removal of phenol from aqueous solutions, with maximum measured capacities close to 500 mg/g. However, most of times, the adsorption capacities are slightly lower than that of the commercial material in the same conditions, i.e., at equilibrium phenol concentrations below 300 ppm. Given the extremely low cost of activated carbons prepared from particleboard waste, it should not be a problem to use it in somewhat higher amounts than what is required with a more expensive commercial material. Phenol adsorption isotherms at 298 K were correctly fitted by various equations modelling type I and type II isotherms for CAC and WAC, respectively. Phenol adsorption isotherms of type II were justified by a 3-stages adsorption mechanism.

  7. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report, Third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    During third quarter 1992, samples from 18 groundwater monitoring wells of the AMB series at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Eight parameters exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria during the quarter. This report details the groundwater sampling activities for third quarter 1992.

  8. Physical and chemical properties and adsorption type of activated carbon prepared from plum kernels by NaOH activation.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ru-Ling

    2007-08-25

    Activated carbon was prepared from plum kernels by NaOH activation at six different NaOH/char ratios. The physical properties including the BET surface area, the total pore volume, the micropore ratio, the pore diameter, the burn-off, and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation as well as the chemical properties, namely elemental analysis and temperature programmed desorption (TPD), were measured. The results revealed a two-stage activation process: stage 1 activated carbons were obtained at NaOH/char ratios of 0-1, surface pyrolysis being the main reaction; stage 2 activated carbons were obtained at NaOH/char ratios of 2-4, etching and swelling being the main reactions. The physical properties of stage 2 activated carbons were similar, and specific area was from 1478 to 1887m(2)g(-1). The results of reaction mechanism of NaOH activation revealed that it was apparently because of the loss ratio of elements C, H, and O in the activated carbon, and the variations in the surface functional groups and the physical properties. The adsorption of the above activated carbons on phenol and three kinds of dyes (MB, BB1, and AB74) were used for an isotherm equilibrium adsorption study. The data fitted the Langmuir isotherm equation. Various kinds of adsorbents showed different adsorption types; separation factor (R(L)) was used to determine the level of favorability of the adsorption type. In this work, activated carbons prepared by NaOH activation were evaluated in terms of their physical properties, chemical properties, and adsorption type; and activated carbon PKN2 was found to have most application potential.

  9. Preparation of the sludge activated carbon with domestic sludge mixed agricultural straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Laifu; Wang, Yan; Lian, Jingyan

    2017-01-01

    Urban sewage sludge with complicated composition produce largely each year, pollution problem and resource utilization has increasingly become the focus of attention. Sewage sludge is utilized to prepare adsorbent that is a new type method. Agricultural stalks was added to material (urban sewage sludge) and activator (ZnCl2), calcined under the condition of no inert gas, and obtained domestic sludge activated carbon. The properties were measured by iodine adsorption value and BET, discussed influence factors of sludge activated carbon preparation, including activator concentration, solid-liquid ratio, calcific temperature and calcific time. The best process condition of orthogonal experiment had explored that activated time is 10 minutes, calcific temperature is 350°C, the activator concentration ZnCl2 is 3 mol/L and the mixing ratio of raw materials and activator is approximately 1:5. The iodine adsorption value and the optimal BET of as-obtained domestic sludge activated carbon is 445.06 mg/g, 525.31m2/g, respectively.

  10. High surface area porous carbons prepared from hydrochars by phosphoric acid activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Guo, Yupeng; Zou, Bo; Rong, Chunguang; Ma, Xiaoyu; Qu, Yuning; Li, Ying; Wang, Zichen

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, a new route for preparation of high-performance porous carbons under mild conditions was reported. The high surface area (2700 m2/g) and large pore volume (1.98 cm3/g) porous carbons were prepared from hydrochars by conventional phosphoric acid activation method. The hydrochars described here can be obtained from sulfuric acid hydrolysis of rice husk via dehydration, polymerization and carbonization. A specific capacitance of 130 F g(-1) was achieved by using the porous carbon, indicating that the porous carbon prepared by this route has good electrochemical performance. Furthermore, the localized graphitic nature of the porous carbon was proved by X-ray diffraction pattern.

  11. Preparation of graphene-Ag nanoparticles hybrids and their SERS activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Ning; Gong, Tiancheng; Zhu, Yong; Zhang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on graphene and Ag nanoparticles hybrid structures with low cost, high uniformity were prepared by a standard process of immobilization of silver nanoparticles with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS). Thermal annealing was used for removing residual APTMS and adjusting the morphology of silver nanoparticles, and the effectiveness of this method was verified experimentally. The influence of annealing temperature, dipping duration, and APTMS volume on the distribution of Ag nanoparticles and Raman enhancement was investigated experimentally and analyzed in detail. Our samples were prepared under the preparation conditions of 10% ν/ν APTMS, dipping time of 48 h, annealing temperature of 450 °C, duration of 30 min, and Ar flow rate of 40 sccm. SERS activities with enhancement of 107 and relative standard deviation of <20% were observed using rhodamine 6G (R6G) as probe molecule with a concentration of 10-6 M and 10-7 M.

  12. Copper-containing polyvinyl alcohol composite systems: Preparation, characterization and biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza Hajipour, Abdol; Mohammadsaleh, Fatemeh; Reza Sabzalian, Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    The present investigation reports, the complex formation of Cu(II) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and the synthesis of PVA-stabilized Cu2O particles. This PVA-Cu2O composite has been prepared via chemical reduction method using PVA-Cu(II) complex as precursor. At first, Cu(II) ions were stabilized in PVA matrix via complex formation with OH groups; subsequently, this PVA-Cu(II) macromolecular complex as precursor reacted with ascorbic acid as reducing agent at pH=12 to prepare PVA-Cu2O composite. The products were characterized by FTIR, XRD, FE-SEM, HRTEM, Visible Spectroscopy and atomic absorption. In the following, the antibacterial properties of as-prepared composites were examined against Gram-positive (Bacillus thuringiensis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli), and the results showed excellent antibacterial activity of these materials.

  13. [Studies on cardiac ingredients of plants. X. Preparation of nitrates of tetrahydroproscillaridin and their pharmacological activities].

    PubMed

    Tanase, T; Murakami, N; Nagatsu, A; Nagai, S; Sakakibara, J; Ando, H; Hotta, Y; Takeya, K; Asano, M

    1992-11-01

    To reduce the vascular contracting effect of the hydrogenated cardiac glycosides, 20-(R)- and 20-(S)-tetrahydroproscillaridins (THPs, 1a, 1b), and to extend the concentration-dependent range, mono- and dinitrates of THPs were prepared. The pharmacological activities of the nitrates of THP were evaluated by use of isolated guinea-pig papillary muscle preparations and Na+,K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase preparations from dog kidney. Furthermore, the effect for smooth muscle was examined using the helical strips isolated from 13-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rat. The positive inotropic effects of mononitrates (11a, 11b, 2a, 2b, 8a, and 8b) were more potent than those of THPs. Nitration of the sugar moiety in THPs resulted in a vascular relaxing effect unobserved in the case of THPs.

  14. Sustained release of doxorubicin from zeolite magnetite nanocomposites prepared by mechanical activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arruebo, Manuel; Fernández-Pacheco, Rodrigo; Irusta, Silvia; Arbiol, Jordi; Ibarra, M. Ricardo; Santamaría, Jesús

    2006-08-01

    Nanocomposites consisting of magnetite and FAU zeolite with a high surface area and adsorption capacity have been prepared by mechanical activation using high-energy milling at room temperature. FTIR results, as well as HRTEM, EFTEM, and XPS measurements, show that the resulting magnetic nanoparticles are covered by a thin aluminosilicate coating. A saturation magnetization as high as 16 emu g-1 and 94.2 Oe of coercivity were observed for the obtained composites. The main advantages of this synthesis procedure are (i) simplicity of the preparation procedure, (ii) prevention of agglomeration of the magnetite nanoparticles to a large extent, and (iii) absence of free magnetite outside the zeolitic matrix. In addition, in vitro experiments revealed that the nanoparticles prepared were able to store and release substantial amounts of doxorubicin. In view of these advantages, these magnetic nanoparticles can be considered as potential candidates for drug-delivery applications.

  15. Antiinflammatory activity of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) in rats.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sung Kee; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Se Ra; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae Ran; Jang, Jong Sik; Kim, Sung Ho

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluated a new herbal preparation, HemoHIM, for its antiinflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced edema, the formation of granulation tissues by cotton pellet and experimental colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The HemoHIM was prepared by adding its ethanol-insoluble polysaccharide fraction to the total water extract of Angelica Radix, Cnidii Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. The preparation (4 mg of solids/mL of drinking water, p.o., 50-100 mg/kg of body weight, i.p.) produced a dose-related inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma in rats. In addition, HemoHIM also reduced the degree of TNBS-induced colitis and improved the gross and histological changes such as thickening, dilatation, ulceration, and infiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and multiple erosive lesions. These results demonstrate that the HemoHIM has a potent antiinflammatory effect.

  16. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks. Coke production consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the second quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 72 tabs.

  17. Natural gas imports and exports. First quarter report 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Office of Fuels Programs Prepares quarterly reports Summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports with the OFP. This report is for the first quarter of 1994 (January--March). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past twelve months. Attachment C shows volume and price information for gas imported on a short-term basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term basis to Canada and Mexico. During the first three months of 1994, data indicates that gas imports grew by about 14 percent over the level of the first quarter of 1993 (668 vs. 586 Bcf), with Canadian and Algerian imports increasing by 12 and 53 percent, respectively. During the same time period, exports declined by 15 percent (41 vs. 48 Bcf). Exports to Canada increased by 10 percent from the 1993 level (22 vs. 20 Bcf) and exports to Mexico decreased by 64 percent (5 vs. 14 Bcf).

  18. Adsorption-desorption characteristics of phenol and reactive dyes from aqueous solution on mesoporous activated carbon prepared from waste tires.

    PubMed

    Tanthapanichakoon, W; Ariyadejwanich, P; Japthong, P; Nakagawa, K; Mukai, S R; Tamon, H

    2005-04-01

    Liquid-phase adsorption-desorption characteristics and ethanol regeneration efficiency of an activated carbon prepared from waste tires and a commercial activated carbon were investigated. Water vapor adsorption experiments reveal that both activated carbons showed hydrophobic surface characteristics. Adsorption experiments reveal that the prepared activated carbon possessed comparable phenol adsorption capacity as the commercial one but clearly larger adsorption capacity of two reactive dyes, Black 5 and Red 31. It was ascertained that the prepared activated carbon exhibited less irreversible adsorption of phenol and the two dyes than its commercial counterpart. Moreover, ethanol regeneration efficiency of the prepared AC saturated with either dye was higher than that of the commercial AC. Because of its superior liquid-phase adsorption-desorption characteristics as well as higher ethanol regeneration efficiency, the prepared activated carbon is more suitable for wastewater treatment, especially for adsorbing similarly bulky adsorbates.

  19. [Effect of preparations exhibiting cytokinin-like activity on the specific density of leaf in grasses].

    PubMed

    Cherniad'ev, I I

    2002-01-01

    The effects of synthetic preparations exhibiting cytokinin-like activity (6-benzylaminopurine, Thidiazuron, and kartolin-2) on the specific leaf area (SLA) were studied in plants of the family Gramineae (wheat, Triticum aestivum L.; meadow fescue, Festuca pratensis Huds.; and reed fescue, F. arindinacea Schreb.). At the early stages of ontogeny (until the leaf area reached 50-60% of the maximum value), treatment of plants of the three species with cytokinin-like preparations caused an increase in SLA. The SLA value in these plants was correlated with the rate of photosynthetic assimilation of carbon dioxide and activities of carbon metabolism enzymes: ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (EC 4.1.1.39), NAD-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37), and NADP-glyceraldehydrophosphate dehydrogenase complex, which includes phosphoglycerate kinase (EC 2.7.2.3) and glyceraldehydrophosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.13). However, there was no correlation of SLA with the activity of phospho(enol)pyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31), an anaplerotic carboxylation enzyme of grasses. SLA is suggested to reflect the state and activity of the photosynthetic apparatus and can be recommended as a characteristic of photosynthesis variability (e.g., caused by cytokinin-like preparations).

  20. Optimization on Preparation Conditions of Salidroside Liposome and Its Immunological Activity on PCV-2 in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yibo; Zhao, Xiaojuan; Lv, Fang; Zhang, Jinqiu; Deng, Bihua; Zhao, Yanhong; Hu, Yuanliang; Wang, Deyun; Liu, Jiaguo; Lu, Yu; Bo, Ruonan; Liu, Zhenguang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the preparation conditions of salidroside liposome with high encapsulation efficiency (EE) and to study the immunological enhancement activity of salidroside liposome as porcine circovirus type 2 virus (PCV-2) vaccine adjuvant. Response surface methodology (RSM) was selected to optimize the conditions for the preparation of salidroside liposome using Design-Expert V8.0.6 software. Three kinds of salidroside liposome adjuvants were prepared to study their adjuvant activity. BALB/c mice were immunized with PCV-2 encapsulated in different kinds of salidroside liposome adjuvants. The PCV-2-specific IgG in immunized mice serum was determined with ELISA. The results showed that when the concentration of ammonium sulfate was 0.26 mol·L−1, ethanol volume 6.5 mL, temperature 43°C, ethanol injection rate 3 mL·min−1, and salidroside liposome could be prepared with high encapsulation efficiency of 94.527%. Salidroside liposome as adjuvant could rapidly induce the production of PCV-2-specific IgG and salidroside liposome I adjuvant proved to provide the best effect among the three kinds of salidroside liposome adjuvants. PMID:25878712

  1. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced clean coal technology by-products. Quarterly report, November 1994--February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This second quarterly report describes work during the second three months of the University of Pittsburgh`s (Pitt`s) project on the {open_quotes}Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.{close_quotes} Participating with Pitt on this project are Dravo Lime Company (DLC), Mill Service, Inc. (MSI) and the Center for Hazardous Materials Research (CHMR). The report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focussed upon the acquisition of by-product samples and their initial analysis. Other efforts during the second quarter have been directed toward identifying the first hazardous waste samples and preparing for their treatment and analysis. Relatively little data has yet been collected. Major presentation of technical details and data will appear for the first time in the third quarterly report. The activity on the project during the second quarter of Phase One, as presented in the following sections, has fallen into seven areas: (1) Acquiring by-products, (2) Analyzing by-products, (3) Identifying, analyzing and treating suitable hazardous wastes, (4) Carrying out the quality assurance/quality control program, (5) Developing background, and (6) Initiating public relations

  2. Mesoporous activated carbon prepared from NaOH activation of rattan (Lacosperma secundiflorum) hydrochar for methylene blue removal.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Azharul; Ahmed, M J; Khanday, W A; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2017-04-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization of biomass wastes presents a promising step in the production of cost-effective activated carbon. In the present work, mesoporous activated carbon (HAC) was prepared by the hydrothermal carbonization of rattan furniture wastes followed by NaOH activation. The textural and morphological characteristics, along with adsorption performance of prepared HAC toward methylene blue (MB) dye, were evaluated. The effects of common adsorption variables on performance resulted in a removal efficiency of 96% for the MB sample at initial concentration of 25mg/L, solution pH of 7, 30°C, and 8h. The Langmuir equation showed the best isotherm data correlation, with a maximum uptake of 359mg/g. The adsorbed amount versus time data was well fitted by a pseudo-second order kinetic model. The prepared HAC with a high surface area of 1135m(2)/g and an average pore size distribution of 35.5Å could be an efficient adsorbent for treatment of synthetic dyes in wastewaters.

  3. 75 FR 70021 - Environmental Documents Prepared in Support of Oil and Gas Activities on the Alaska Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... of Oil and Gas Activities on the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... (FONSI) prepared for two oil and gas activities proposed on the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS)...

  4. Thermal dependence of neural activity in the hamster hippocampal slice preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Thomas, M. P.; Eckerman, P.

    1987-01-01

    1. Neural activity was recorded in an in vitro hamster hippocampal slice preparation while the temperature of the Ringer's solution bathing in the slice was controlled at selected levels. 2. The amplitude of the population spike (action potentials from a group of pyramidal cells) was measured as bath temperature was lowered from 35 degrees C to temperatures where a response could not be evoked. 3. Plots of population spike amplitude versus temperature have bell-shaped curves. The population spikes increased in amplitude as temperature was lowered from 35 degrees C, reached a peak amplitude between 25 and 20 degrees C, and then decreased until a response could not be evoked when temperature was further lowered. 4. These in vitro results obtained in the slice preparation are related to in vivo hippocampal studies. Results are interpreted as consistent with the proposal reviewed here that neural activity in the hippocampus plays a role at specific stages of entrance into and arousal from hibernation.

  5. Effect of ionizing irradiation on the physiological activity of cyclic adenosine monophosphate on smooth muscle preparations.

    PubMed

    Schachinger, L; Michailov, M; Owusa Daaku, S; Prechter, I; Klöter, H; Schippel, C

    1982-01-01

    The effect of ionizing irradiation on the physiological activity of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in smooth muscle preparations from frog lung was studied. cAMP, given as dibutyryl salt (dib-cAMP) inhibited the radiation induced contractions of the muscle in a manner similar to the action of theophylline. In vitro irradiation of dib-cAMP resulted in an alteration of the chemical structure of this substance, i.e., formation of monobutyryl-cAMP and further derivatives as well as a decomposition of the purine structure. There was also a loss of the relaxing activity of irradiated cAMP on the muscle tone of frog lung preparations. The physiologically measured inactivation of dib-cAMP was far more pronounced than the chemical alteration. An inhibitory effect of the reaction products is postulated.

  6. Radionuclide preparations with high specific activity and gamma-sources on their basis

    SciTech Connect

    Chesanov, V.V.; Demchenko, N.F.; Karasev, V.I.

    1993-12-31

    According to expert`s estimations, the following radionuclides and specific activities will be in great demand in the future: cobalt 60 (400-500Ci/g), iridium 192 (500-800 Ci/g), ytterbium 169 (800-1000 Ci/g), thulium 170 (700-800 Ci/g), selenium 75 (500-800 Ci/g), antimony 124 (30-40 Ci/g), and gadolinium 153 (not less than 50 Ci/g). In addition, the Phosphorus 33 radionuclide preparations with specific activity more than 100,000 Ci/g applied in biochemical investigations are in considerable demand. This paper discusses the investigations and developmental results performed with the preparation and sources of the mentioned radionuclides. The research reactors utilized are also described.

  7. Radioactive preparations with high specific activity and gamma-sources on their base

    SciTech Connect

    Chesanov, V.V.; Demchenko, N.F.; Karasev, V.T.

    1993-12-31

    According to expert`s estimations, the following radionuclides and specific activities will be in great demand in the future: cobalt 60 (400-500Ci/g), iridium 192 (500-800 Ci/g), ytterbium 169 (800-1000 Ci/g), thullium 170 (700-800 Ci/g), selenium 75 (500-800 Ci/g), antimony 124 (30-40 Ci/g), and gadolinium 153 (not less than 50 Ci/g). In addition, the Phosphorus 33 radionuclide preparations with specific activity more than 100,000 Ci/g applied in biochemical investigations are in considerable demand. This paper discusses the investigations and developmental results performed with the preparation and sources of the mentioned radionuclides. Applications are also discussed. All medical and industrial sources are safe and reliable and do not contaminate the environment. Due to ISO 2919-80 classification they are assigned to special form substances.

  8. Stimulation of the activity of microorganisms by humin preparations in oil-polluted soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. A.; Yudina, N. V.; Mal'Tseva, E. V.; Matis, E. Ya.; Svarovskaya, L. I.

    2010-02-01

    The influence of humin preparations obtained from low-moor peat by the mechanochemical method on the changes in the microflora number and hydrocarbon composition in oil-polluted soils was studied. The intense growth of the microorganisms in number especially in the oil-polluted soil was observed upon the application of humin acids (at a concentration of 0.005 wt %) extracted from mechanically processed peat. In this case, the content of the extracted bitumoids decreased down to 40 wt %. The soil microflora stimulated by the humin preparations was shown to have highly destructive oil-oxidizing activity reflected in the indices of the hydrocarbon biodegradation. The mechanochemical activation of peat allows raising the efficiency of extracting the humic acids and can be a reason for increasing the availability of their individual components and parts of molecules, including micro- and macroelements that are used by microbial cells as sources of nutrition and energy.

  9. An Inquiry "Warm-Up" Activity: Preparing Students for an Active Classroom Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seagroves, S.

    2010-12-01

    An active learning community that engages in inquiry activities will employ strategies and structures that students from traditional classrooms may find unfamiliar or uncomfortable. These include group work, voicing questions, shifting from one part of an activity to another (and sometimes shifting groups at the same time), presenting informally to the group, and many others. In addition, the role of the instructor as facilitator rather than teacher may not be familiar to students. As inquiry activities become incorporated into the regular classroom curriculum at Maui Community College (through collaboration with the Professional Development Program as part of the Akamai Workforce Initiative), a need emerged to give students a "warm-up" early in the semester to help them practice these participation structures. This activity was designed to be used on the very first day of class, to be easy and accessible to students, and to give them practice with these features of inquiry activities that they would see again throughout the semester. In addition, the activity introduces the engineering technology concepts of requirements, trade-offs, and limitations. It is important to note that this activity is not in and of itself an inquiry activity; in fact the content and processes featured in the activity are not particularly challenging nor are they the main focus. Instead, this is a "warm-up" for inquiry, so that students gain some comfort with the unconventional features of inquiry activities. The particular activity presented is for 20-30 students in a ˜90 minute lab period, and highlights different imaging technologies of cameras; however, it is easily adaptable to other requirements, to different technology, or other needs.

  10. Novel method for the preparation of polymethacrylates with nonlinear optically active side groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohriegl, Peter; Mueller, Harry; Nuyken, Oskar

    1993-01-01

    Because of their excellent optical properties, a variety of polymethacrylates with pendant NLO-chromophores has been prepared and investigated by different research groups. The method normally used for the synthesis of these polymers is the free radical polymerization of the corresponding methacrylates with NLO-active side groups. However, the NLO- chromophores, usually large conjugated molecules with an electron donor and an electron acceptor substituent, often contain a number of functional groups, e.g., nitro- or azo groups. These may act as retarders or inhibitors in a free radical polymerization. So in many cases the yields are not quantitative and the molecular weights are quite low. We present an alternative method for the preparation of polymethacrylates with pendant NLO-chromophores, the polymeranalogous esterification of poly(methacryloyl chloride). In a first step, reactive prepolymers are prepared by the free radical polymerization of methacryloyl chloride (MAC1) or by copolymerization of MAC1 with methyl methacrylate (MMA). These prepolymers are esterified using NLO-active side groups with a hydroxy-terminated spacer. Well defined, high molecular weight polymethacrylates with high dye contents can be prepared by this method. A copolymer with 19 mole% of azochromophores exhibits an electro-optical coefficient of 9 pm/V at 1300 mm after poling, whereas 19 pm/V (1500 nm) were measured for a polymer with 90 mole% of NLO active azobenzene side groups. In addition, the novel method provides easy access to some novel copolymers with both NLO-active azobenzene units and photocrosslinkable cinnamoyl groups.

  11. Preparation of Metabolically Active Staphylococcus aureus Protoplasts by Use of the Aeromonas hydrophila Lytic Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Coles, N. W.; Gross, R.

    1973-01-01

    Stable, metabolically active protoplasts of Staphylococcus aureus have been prepared by the use of a staphylolytic enzyme produced by Aeromonas hydrophila. Respiratory and glycolytic rates and synthesis of nucleic acids, protein, and lipid in these protoplasts, stabilized variously in 1.1 M sucrose, 0.37 M sodium succinate, or 0.37 M sodium sulfate, have been shown to be comparable with the same parameters in intact cells under the same conditions. Images PMID:4728270

  12. Methods and apparatuses for preparing a surface to have catalytic activity

    DOEpatents

    Cooks, Robert G.; Peng, Wen-Ping; Ouyang, Zheng; Goodwin, Michael P.

    2011-03-22

    The invention provides methods and apparatuses that utilize mass spectrometry for preparation of a surface to have catalytic activity through molecular soft-landing of mass selected ions. Mass spectrometry is used to generate combinations of atoms in a particular geometrical arrangement, and ion soft-landing selects this molecular entity or combination of entities and gently deposits the entity or combination intact onto a surface.

  13. Physical and electrochemical characterization of activated carbons prepared from firwoods for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feng-Chin; Tseng, Ru-Ling; Hu, Chi-Chang; Wang, Chen-Ching

    Activated carbons prepared from firwoods by means of a steam activation method at 900 °C for 1-7 h are demonstrated as promising materials for supercapacitors. The carbons exhibit high-power, low equivalent series resistance and highly reversible characteristics between -0.1 and 0.9 V in aqueous electrolytes. The pore structure of the carbons is systematically characterized by the t-plot method based on N 2 adsorption isotherms. The adsorption equilibria of tannic acid, methylene blue, 4-chlorophenol and phenol from aqueous solutions on such carbons are perfectly fitted by the Langmuir equation. All the steam-activated carbons prepared at different activation times ( tA) display ideal capacitive performance in aqueous media. This is attributed mainly to the development of mesopores (with an average pore diameter, Dp, between 2.68 and 3.04 nm), which depends strongly on tA. The average specific capacitance of a steam-activated carbon with a tA of 7 h, as estimated from cyclic voltammetic curves measured at 200 mV s -1, reaches 120 F g -1 between -0.1 and 0.9 V in acidic electrolytes. The capacitive characteristics of steam-activated carbons in NaNO 3, H 2SO 4 and HNO 3can be roughly determined by the adsorption data of species with suitable molecular weights. The results indicate that the observed increase in double-layer capacitance arises mainly from the development of mesopores.

  14. Preparation of Bamboo Chars and Bamboo Activated Carbons to Remove Color and COD from Ink Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hata, Motohide; Amano, Yoshimasa; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Machida, Motoi

    2016-01-01

    Bamboo chars and bamboo activated carbons prepared by steam activation were applied for ink wastewater treatment. Bamboo char at 800 °C was the best for the removal of color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from ink wastewater compared to bamboo chars at 300 to 700 °C due to higher surface area and mesopore volume. Bamboo activated carbon at 600 °C (S600) was the best compared to bamboo activated carbon at 800 °C (S800), although S800 had larger surface area (1108 m(2)/g) than S600 (734 m(2)/g). S600 had higher mesopore volume (0.20 cm(3)/g) than S800 (0.16 cm(3)/g) and therefore achieved higher color and COD removal. All bamboo activated carbons showed higher color and COD removal efficiency than commercial activated carbon. In addition, S600 had the superior adsorption capacity for methylene blue (0.89 mmol/g). Therefore, bamboo is a suitable material to prepare adsorbents for removal of organic pollutants.

  15. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from a new raw lignocellulosic material: flamboyant (Delonix regia) pods.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Alexandro M M; Cazetta, André L; Garcia, Clarice A; Moraes, Juliana C G; Nogami, Eurica M; Lenzi, Ervim; Costa, Willian F; Almeida, Vitor C

    2011-01-01

    Activated carbons were prepared from flamboyant pods by NaOH activation at three different NaOH:char ratios: 1:1 (AC-1), 2:1 (AC-2), and 3:1 (AC-3). The properties of these carbons, including BET surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and pore diameter, were characterized from N(2) adsorption isotherms. The activated carbons obtained were essentially microporous and had BET surface area ranging from 303 to 2463 m(2) g(-1).(13)C (CP/MAS and MAS) solid-state NMR shows that the lignocellulosic structures were completely transformed into a polycyclic material after activation process, thermogravimetry shows a high thermal resistance, Boehm titration and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy allowed characterizing the presence of functional groups on the surface of activated carbons. Scanning electron microscopy images showed a high pore development. The experimental results indicated the potential use of flamboyant pods as a precursor material in the preparation of activated carbon.

  16. Characterization of mesoporous activated carbons prepared by pyrolysis of sewage sludge with pyrolusite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Tang, Zhengguang; Chen, Yao; Su, Shijun; Jiang, Wenju

    2010-02-01

    Activated carbons were prepared from sewage sludge by chemical activation. Pyrolusite was added as a catalyst during activation and carbonization. The influence of the mineral addition on the properties of the activated carbons produced was evaluated. The results show that activated carbons from pyrolusite-supplemented sewage sludge had up to a 75% higher BET surface area and up to a 66% increase in mesoporosity over ordinary sludge-based activated carbons. Batch adsorption experiments applying the prepared adsorbents to synthetic dye wastewater treatment yielded adsorption data well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm. The adsorbents from pyrolusite-supplemented sludges performed better in dye removal than those without mineral addition, with the carbon from pyrolusite-augmented sludge T2 presenting a significant increase in maximum adsorption capacity of 50mg/g. The properties of the adsorbents were improved during pyrolusite-catalyzed pyrolysis via enhancement of mesopore production, thus the mesopore channels may provide fast mass transfer for large molecules like dyes.

  17. Preparation of albumin based nanoparticles for delivery of fisetin and evaluation of its cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pooja; Singha Roy, Atanu; Chaudhury, Susmitnarayan; Jana, Saikat Kumar; Chaudhury, Koel; Dasgupta, Swagata

    2016-05-01

    Fisetin is a well known flavonoid that shows several properties such as antioxidant, antiviral and anticancer activities. Its use in the pharmaceutical field is limited due to its poor aqueous solubility which results in poor bioavailability and poor permeability. The aim of our present study is to prepare fisetin loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles to improve its bioavailability. The nanoparticles were prepared by a desolvation method and characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The particles were smooth and spherical in nature with an average size of 220 ± 8 nm. The encapsulation efficiency was found to be 84%. The in vitro release profile showed a biphasic pattern and the release rate increases with increase in ionic strength of solution. We have also confirmed the antioxidant activity of the prepared nanoparticles by a DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Further its anticancer activity was evaluated using MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Our findings suggest that fisetin loaded HSA nanoparticles could be used to transfer fisetin to target areas under specific conditions and thus may find use as a delivery vehicle for the flavonoid.

  18. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of nonmetal Co-doped titanium dioxide photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaogang; Xing, Jun; Qiu, Jingping

    2016-06-01

    A series of boron and sulfur co-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysts were prepared by a sol-gel method using boric acid, thiourea and tetrabutyl titanate [Ti(OC4H9)4] as precursors. The photoabsorbance of as-prepared photocatalysts was measured by UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and its microstructure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements. The prepared photocatalysts consisted of the anatase phase mainly in the form of spherical particles. The photocatalytic performance was studied by photodegradation of methyl blue (MB) in water under UV and visible light irradiation. The calcination temperature and the codoping content influenced the photoactivity. The synergistic effect of boron and sulfur co-doping played an important role in improving the photocatalytic activity. In addition, the possibility of cyclic usage of codoped TiO2 was also confirmed, the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 remained above 91% of that of the fresh sample after being used four times. It was shown that the co-doped TiO2 could be activated by visible light and could thus be potentially applied for the treatment of water contaminated by organic pollutants.

  19. Preparation, characterization and activity evaluation of Ag2Mo4O13 photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Ji, Mingsong; Chen, Shifu

    2011-02-28

    Ag(2)Mo(4)O(13) photocatalyst was prepared by the hydrothermal method using AgNO(3) and (NH(4))(2)MoO(4) as raw materials in one step. The Ag(2)Mo(4)O(13) photocatalyst was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, N(2) adsorption measurements, and terephthalic acid photoluminescence (TA-PL) probing technique. The photocatalytic activity of the photocatalyst was evaluated by photocatalytic oxidation of methyl orange and photocatalytic reduction of nitrobenzene. The results showed that, the optimum catalyst concentration is 3 g/L, and the optimum optical thickness is 49.4. When the reaction solution was illuminated for 60 min and 10 h, and the amount of photocatalyst was 2.0 g/L, the methyl orange conversion and aniline yield were 76.4% and 63.3%, respectively. The effect of different heat treatment conditions on the photocatalytic activity of the photocatalyst was also investigated. The best preparation condition is heat treatment at 500°C for 10 h. Compared with those photocatalysts prepared at any other conditions, the photoabsorption wavelength range of the photocatalyst calcined at 500°C for 10 h extends greatly towards visible light and it also improves the utilization of the total spectrum. The mechanisms of influence on the photocatalytic activity were also discussed.

  20. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon fiber (ACF) from cotton woven waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jieying; Zhao, Quanlin; Ye, Zhengfang

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were prepared using cotton woven waste as precursor. The cotton woven waste was first partly dissolved by 80% phosphoric acid and then was pre-soaked in 7.5% diammonium hydrogen phosphate solution. Finally, carbonization and activation were proceeded to get ACF. The optimum preparation conditions, including carbonization temperature, carbonization time, activation temperature and activation time, were chosen by orthogonal design. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption test was conducted to characterize the prepared ACF's pore structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) were employed to characterize its chemical properties and morphology. Adsorption of oilfield wastewater was used to evaluate its adsorption properties. The results show that the prepared ACF is in the form of fiber, with the sectional diameters of 11.7 × 2.6 μm and the surface area of 789 m2/g. XPS results show that carbon concentration of the prepared ACF is higher than that of the commercial ACF. When the prepared ACF dosage is 6 g/L, over 80% of COD and over 70% of chrominance can be removed after 24 h of adsorption at 18 °C. We demonstrated the catalytic growth of m-axial InxGa1-xN (0.10 ≤ x ≤ 0.17) nanocolumn arrays with high crystallinity on silicon substrates using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition with trimethylindium (TMIn), triethylgallium (TEGa), and ammonia as precursors. The high quality of InGaN nanocolumns (NCs) were believed to be due to the utilization of TEGa that achieved less carbon impurities and offered more comparable vapor pressure with that of TMIn at low temperature. In addition, these NCs were grown in non-polar m-axis, which the internal electric field of the InGaN that often deteriorates the device performances might be able to be eliminated. Furthermore, the bandgap of this InGaN can be modulated from

  1. New aromatic activated dihalides and bisphenol monomers for the preparation of novel poly(arylene ethers)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, James F.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this research program was to synthesize a series of unique monomers of type I to be utilized at NASA-Langley in the preparation of new poly(arylene ether ketones), poly(arylene ether ketosulfones), and poly(arylene ether ketophosphine oxides). These A-A and A-B monomer systems, which possess activated aryl halide and/or phenolic end groups, are accessible via condensation reactions of appropriately substituted aryl acetonitrile carbanions with activated aryl dihalides followed by oxidative decyanation.

  2. Specific activities of poetam preparation (superlow-doses of antibodies to erythropoietin) and recombinant erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Dygai, A M; Zhdanov, V V; Udut, E V; Simanina, E V; Gur'yantseva, L A; Khrichkova, T Yu; Epshtein, O I; Sergeeva, S A

    2006-09-01

    We compared the capacity of superlow-dose of antibodies to erythropoietin (Poetam) and recombinant erythropoietin (Recormon) to stimulate the recovery of adriamycin-suppressed erythropoiesis in mice. Both preparations exhibited high erythron activation capacity and considerably increased the content of erythrocytes and reticulocytes in the peripheral blood and content of erythrokaryocytes and erythroid precursors in the hemopoietic tissue of experimental animals. The effect of Recormon manifested immediately after injection, while the effect of Poetam was somewhat delayed, but more lasting (due to activation of host erythropoietin system).

  3. Adsorption of SO2 on bituminous coal char and activated carbon fiber prepared from phenol formaldehyde

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBarr, Joseph A.; Lizzio, Anthony A.; Daley, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon-based materials are used commercially to remove SO2 from coal combustion flue gases. Historically, these materials have consisted of granular activated carbons prepared from lignite or bituminous coal. Recent studies have reported that activated carbon fibers (ACFs) may have potential in this application due to their relatively high SO2 adsorption capacity. In this paper, a comparison of SO2 adsorption for both coal-based carbons and ACFs is presented, as well as ideas on carbon properties that may influence SO2 adsorption

  4. Safety assessment of discharge chute isolation barrier preparation and installation activities. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Meichle, R.H.

    1994-11-08

    This revision adds a section addressing impacts of dropping surfacing tool and rack cutter on the basin floor, and corrects typographical errors. The safety assessment is made for the activities for the preparation and installation of the discharge chute isolation barriers. The safety assessment includes a hazard assessment and comparisons of potential accidents/events to those addressed by the current safety basis documentation. No significant hazards were identified. An evaluation against the USQ evaluation questions was made and the determination made that the activities do not represent a USQ. Hazard categorization techniques were used to provide a basis for readiness review classifications.

  5. Activated carbons prepared from refuse derived fuel and their gold adsorption characteristics.

    PubMed

    Buah, William K; Williams, Paul T

    2010-02-01

    Activated carbons produced from refuse derived fuel (RDF), which had been prepared from municipal solid waste have been characterized and evaluated for their potential for gold adsorption from gold chloride solution. Pyrolysis of the RDF produced a char, which was then activated via steam gasification to produce activated carbons. Steam gasification of the char at 900 degrees C for 3 h yielded 73 wt% activated carbon. The derived activated carbon had a surface area of 500 m2 g(-1) and a total pore volume of 0.19 cm3 g(-1). The gold adsorption capacity of the activated carbon was 32.1 mg Au g(-1) of carbon when contacted with an acidified gold chloride solution. The gold adsorption capacity was comparable to that of a commercial activated carbon tested under the same conditions and was well in the range of values of activated carbons used in the gold industry. Demineralization of the RDF activated carbon in a 5 M HCl solution resulted in enhancement of its textural properties but a reduction in the gold adsorption rate, indicating that the metal content of the RDF activated carbon influenced its gold adsorption rate.

  6. Preparation of steam activated carbon from rubberwood sawdust (Hevea brasiliensis) and its adsorption kinetics.

    PubMed

    Prakash Kumar, B G; Shivakamy, K; Miranda, Lima Rose; Velan, M

    2006-08-25

    Activated carbon was produced from a biowaste product, rubberwood sawdust (RWSD) using steam in a high temperature fluidized bed reactor. Experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of various process parameters such as activation time, activation temperature, particle size and fluidising velocity on the quality of the activated carbon. The activated carbon was characterized based on its iodine number, methylene blue number, Brauner Emmet Teller (BET) surface area and surface area obtained using the ethylene glycol mono ethyl ether (EGME) retention method. The best quality activated carbon was obtained at an activation time and temperature of 1h and 750 degrees C for an average particle size of 0.46 mm. The adsorption kinetics shows that pseudo-second-order rate fitted the adsorption kinetics better than pseudo-first-order rate equation. The adsorption capacity of carbon produced from RWSD was found to be 1250 mg g(-1) for the Bismark Brown dye. The rate constant and diffusion coefficient for intraparticle transport were determined for steam activated carbon. The characteristic of the prepared activated carbon was found comparable to the commercial activated carbon.

  7. Highly active non-PGM catalysts prepared from metal organic frameworks

    DOE PAGES

    Barkholtz, Heather M.; Chong, Lina; Kaiser, Zachary B.; ...

    2015-06-11

    Finding inexpensive alternatives to platinum group metals (PGMs) is essential for reducing the cost of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Numerous materials have been investigated as potential replacements of Pt, of which the transition metal and nitrogen-doped carbon composites (TM/Nx/C) prepared from iron doped zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are among the most active ones in catalyzing the oxygen reduction reaction based on recent studies. In this report, we demonstrate that the catalytic activity of ZIF-based TM/Nx/C composites can be substantially improved through optimization of synthesis and post-treatment processing conditions. Ultimately, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalytic activity must be demonstratedmore » in membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) of fuel cells. The process of preparing MEAs using ZIF-based non-PGM electrocatalysts involves many additional factors which may influence the overall catalytic activity at the fuel cell level. Evaluation of parameters such as catalyst loading and perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer to catalyst ratio were optimized. Our overall efforts to optimize both the catalyst and MEA construction process have yielded impressive ORR activity when tested in a fuel cell system.« less

  8. Antibacterial action of silver-doped activated carbon prepared by vacuum impregnation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ying; Wang, Zi-qiang; Zhao, Xin; Li, Wei; Liu, Shou-xin

    2013-02-01

    Silver-containing activated carbon (Ag/AC) exhibiting controlled release of silver and antibacterial action was prepared by vacuum impregnation using acetate silver as a precursor. The antibacterial activity toward E. coli and resistance to water erosion were investigated with the view of water purification. N2 adsorption at 77 K, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the surface morphology and crystalline properties of the Ag/AC samples. As the concentration of CH3COOAg increased, the samples change from exhibiting no antibacterial activity to inhibition of bacteria growth and then to antibacterial activity because of the higher silver content and smaller size of the silver particles. The Ag/AC composites showed a lower release rate of silver than that of a composite prepared by a traditional AgNO3 impregnation method, which suggests a strong interaction between the silver particles and carbon. Because the Ag particles block the pores of AC, the BET surface area, total pore volume and average pore diameter of the Ag/AC samples decreased as the concentration of the CH3COOAg solution increased. The higher antibacterial activity and controlled release of silver by Ag/AC containing 1.65 wt % silver means that it shows promise for purification of drinking water.

  9. Negatively charged silver nanoparticles with potent antibacterial activity and reduced toxicity for pharmaceutical preparations

    PubMed Central

    Salvioni, Lucia; Galbiati, Elisabetta; Collico, Veronica; Alessio, Giulia; Avvakumova, Svetlana; Corsi, Fabio; Tortora, Paolo; Prosperi, Davide; Colombo, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Background The discovery of new solutions with antibacterial activity as efficient and safe alternatives to common preservatives (such as parabens) and to combat emerging infections and drug-resistant bacterial pathogens is highly expected in cosmetics and pharmaceutics. Colloidal silver nanoparticles (NPs) are attracting interest as novel effective antimicrobial agents for the prevention of several infectious diseases. Methods Water-soluble, negatively charged silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by reduction with citric and tannic acid and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, differential centrifuge sedimentation, and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy. AgNPs were tested with model Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in comparison to two different kinds of commercially available AgNPs. Results In this work, AgNPs with higher antibacterial activity compared to the commercially available colloidal silver solutions were prepared and investigated. Bacteria were plated and the antibacterial activity was tested at the same concentration of silver ions in all samples. The AgNPs did not show any significant reduction in the antibacterial activity for an acceptable time period. In addition, AgNPs were transferred to organic phase and retained their antibacterial efficacy in both aqueous and nonaqueous media and exhibited no toxicity in eukaryotic cells. Conclusion We developed AgNPs with a 20 nm diameter and negative zeta potential with powerful antibacterial activity and low toxicity compared to currently available colloidal silver, suitable for cosmetic preservatives and pharmaceutical preparations administrable to humans and/or animals as needed.

  10. Preparation of sulfurized powdered activated carbon from waste tires using an innovative compositive impregnation process.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chung-Shin; Lin, Hsun-Yu; Wu, Chun-Hsin; Liu, Ming-Han; Hung, Chung-Hsuang

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an innovative compositive impregnation process for preparing sulfurized powdered activated carbon (PAC) from waste tires. An experimental apparatus, including a pyrolysis and activation system and a sulfur (S) impregnation system, was designed and applied to produce sulfurized PAC with a high specific surface area. Experimental tests involved the pyrolysis, activation, and sulfurization of waste tires. Waste-tire-derived PAC (WPAC) was initially produced in the pyrolysis and activation system. Experimental results indicated that the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of WPAC increased, and the average pore radius of WPAC decreased, as water feed rate and activation time increased. In this study, a conventional direct impregnation process was used to prepare the sulfurized PAC by impregnating WPAC with sodium sulfide (Na2S) solution. Furthermore, an innovative compositive impregnation process was developed and then compared with the conventional direct impregnation process. Experimental results showed that the compositive impregnation process produced the sulfurized WPAC with high BET surface area and a high S content. A maximum BET surface area of 886 m2/g and the S content of 2.61% by mass were obtained at 900 degrees C and at the S feed ratio of 2160 mg Na2S/g C. However, the direct impregnation process led to a BET surface area of sulfurized WPAC that decreased significantly as the S content increased.

  11. Adsorption of Neutral Red onto Mn-impregnated activated carbons prepared from Typha orientalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Shi, Qianqian; Zhang, Chenglu; Xu, Jingtao; Zhai, Bing; Zhang, Bo

    2008-12-01

    Activated carbon was prepared from an inexpensive and renewable carbon source, Typha orientalis, by H(3)PO(4) activation and then impregnated with different Mn salts and tested for its Neutral Red (NR) adsorption capacities. The amount of Mn impregnated in the activated carbon was influenced by the anion species. Impregnation with Mn decreased the surface area, changed the pore size and crystal structure, and introduced more acidic functional groups such as carboxyl, lactone and phenol groups. The optimum adsorption performance for all the activated carbons was obtained at pH 3.7, Mn-Carbon dose of 0.100g/100ml solution and contact time 4.5h. The adsorption isotherms fit the Langmuir isotherm equation. The kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order model. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the processes were spontaneous and endothermic. According to these results, the prepared Mn modified activated carbons are promising adsorbents for the removal of Neutral Red from wastewater.

  12. Electrochemical preparation of activated graphene oxide for the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Murugan; Karikalan, Natarajan; Chen, Shen-Ming; Cheng, Yi-Hui; Karuppiah, Chelladurai

    2017-03-31

    This paper describes the electrochemical preparation of highly electrochemically active and conductive activated graphene oxide (aGO). Afterwards, the electrochemical properties of aGO was studied towards the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CC). This aGO is prepared by the electrochemical activation of GO by various potential treatments. The resultant aGOs are examined by various physical and electrochemical characterizations. The high potential activation (1.4 to -1.5) process results a highly active GO (aGO1), which manifest a good electrochemical behavior towards the determination of HQ and CC. This aGO1 modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was furnished the sensitive detection of HQ and CC with linear concentration range from 1 to 312μM and 1 to 350μM. The aGO1 modified SPCE shows the lowest detection limit of 0.27μM and 0.182μM for the HQ and CC, respectively. The aGO1 modified SPCE reveals an excellent selectivity towards the determination of HQ and CC in the presence of 100 fold of potential interferents. Moreover, the fabricated disposable aGO1/SPCE sensor was demonstrated the determination of HQ and CC in tap water and industrial waste water.

  13. Highly active non-PGM catalysts prepared from metal organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Barkholtz, Heather M.; Chong, Lina; Kaiser, Zachary B.; Xu, Tao; Liu, Di -Jia

    2015-06-11

    Finding inexpensive alternatives to platinum group metals (PGMs) is essential for reducing the cost of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Numerous materials have been investigated as potential replacements of Pt, of which the transition metal and nitrogen-doped carbon composites (TM/Nx/C) prepared from iron doped zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are among the most active ones in catalyzing the oxygen reduction reaction based on recent studies. In this report, we demonstrate that the catalytic activity of ZIF-based TM/Nx/C composites can be substantially improved through optimization of synthesis and post-treatment processing conditions. Ultimately, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalytic activity must be demonstrated in membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) of fuel cells. The process of preparing MEAs using ZIF-based non-PGM electrocatalysts involves many additional factors which may influence the overall catalytic activity at the fuel cell level. Evaluation of parameters such as catalyst loading and perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer to catalyst ratio were optimized. Our overall efforts to optimize both the catalyst and MEA construction process have yielded impressive ORR activity when tested in a fuel cell system.

  14. Preparation and electrochemical characterization of polyaniline/activated carbon composites as an electrode material for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Oh, Misoon; Kim, Seok

    2012-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI)/activated carbon (AC) composites were prepared by a chemical oxidation polymerization. To find an optimum ratio between PANI and AC which shows superior electrochemical properties, the preparation was carried out in changing the amount of added aniline monomers. The morphology of prepared composites was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The structural and thermal properties were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The electrochemical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Composites showed a summation of capacitances that consisted of two origins. One is double-layer capacitance by ACs and the other is faradic capacitance by redox reaction of PANI. Fiber-like PANIs are coated on the surface of ACs and they contribute to the large surface for redox reaction. The vacancy among fibers provided the better diffusion and accessibility of ion. High capacitances of composites were originated from the network structure having vacancy made by PANI fibers. It was found that the composite prepared with 5 ml of aniline monomer and 0.25 g of AC showed the highest capacitance. Capacitance of 771 F/g was obtained at a scan rate of 5 mV/s.

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of liposomes of Asparagus racemosus root extracts prepared by various methods

    PubMed Central

    Plangsombat, Nathsiree; Rungsardthong, Kanin; Kongkaneramit, Lalana; Waranuch, Neti; Sarisuta, Narong

    2016-01-01

    Asparagus racemosus root extracts (AR) have been reported to possess a variety of pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study was to develop liposomes of AR and to assess their physicochemical characteristics and anti-inflammatory activity in the monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. Liposomes containing various ratios of AR to lipid and a phosphatidylcholine to cholesterol molar ratio of 7:3 were prepared by thin-film hydration (TF), reverse-phase evaporation (REV) and polyol dilution (PD). The results showed that AR liposomes prepared by TF had a multilamellar structure and a large size, whereas those prepared by REV and PD were oligolamellar in structure, and of a smaller size. The particle sizes and zeta potentials of the liposomes ranged from 196.5 to 456.6 nm and from −4.34 to −18.94 mV, respectively. The AR to lipid ratio was shown to have no significant influence on particle size, while the zeta potential generally increased with increasing AR to lipid ratio. The highest entrapment efficiency values were detected in liposomes with an AR to lipid ratio of 1:5, and for liposomes prepared by TF, REV and PD methods, the entrapment efficiencies were 55.71±2.04, 56.21±3.59 and 67.68±1.37%, respectively. AR was found to exert no toxicity on THP-1 cells. The maximum anti-inflammatory activities of AR and AR liposomes, evaluated in terms of the percentage inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α in THP-1 cells, were ~52% at a concentration of 1 µg/ml. It can be concluded from the present study that AR liposomes have the potential to be used a formulation for topical and/or transdermal drug delivery to provide anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27698785

  16. Preparation, characterization, and determination of immunological activities of transfer factor specific to human sperm antigen.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianwei; Kong, Cui; Yuan, Zhaohong; Luo, Junmin; Ma, Rui; Yu, Jiang; Cao, Jinghe

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to prepare, characterize, and determine immunological activities of specific transfer factor (STF) specific to human sperm antigen (HSA) for the preparation of antisperm contraceptive vaccine that can be used as an immunocontraceptive. METHODS. HSA-STF was prepared using the spleens of rabbits vaccinated with HSA. The specific immunological activities were examined by lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT), leukocyte adhesion inhibition test (LAIT), and by determining the concentrations of IL-4, γ -IFN, and IL-21. HSA-STF was a helveolous substance, having a pH value of 7.0 ± 0.4 and UV absorption maxima at 258 ± 6 nm. It contained seventeen amino acids; glycine and glutamic acids were the highest in terms of concentrations (38.8 μ g/mL and 36.3 μ g/mL, resp.). RESULTS. The concentration of polypeptide was 2.34 ± 0.31 mg/mL, and ribose was 0.717 ± 0.043 mg/mL. The stimulation index for lymphocyte proliferation test was 1.84, and the leukocyte adhesion inhibition rate was 37.7%. There was a statistically significant difference between the cultural lymphocytes with HSA-STF and non-HSA-STF for γ -IFN and IL-21 (P < 0.05), but there was no statistical significance for IL-4 (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION. HSA-STF was prepared and characterized successfully. It had immunological activity which could transfer the immune response specific to HSA and prove to be a potential candidate for the development of male immunocontraceptive agents.

  17. LLE Review Quarterly Report (January-March 1984). Volume 18

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, L.

    1984-03-01

    This volume of the LLE Review contains articles on the operations of the GDL and OMEGA facilities, energy measurement and beam characterization in the ultraviolet (UV), theoretical calculations of thermal self-focusing in laser plasmas, two aspects of the picosecond optics activities at the LLE, and the NLUF activities during this quarter (January through March 1984).

  18. Quarterly Progress Report, April 1, 1976-June 30, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, Joan Ganz

    Quarterly activities are summarized for each of the following areas: (1) Sesame Street research, (2) Sesame Street production, (3) The Electric Company research, (4) The Electric Company production, (5) community education services, (6) public affairs, and (7) personnel. Activities are outlined within each section, and the public affairs section…

  19. Deposition of Magnetite Nanoparticles in Activated Carbons and Preparation of Magnetic Activated Carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahani, S. A.; Hamadanian, M.; Vandadi, O.

    2007-08-01

    Magnetic activated carbons (MACs) for gold recovery from alkaline cyanide solutions have been developed by mixing a magnetic precursor with a carbon source, and treating the mixture under controlled conditions. As would be expected, these activated carbons have high specific surface areas due to their microporous structure. In addition, the small particle size of the MACs produced allows rapid adsorption of gold in solution, and the magnetic character of these MACs enables recovery from suspension by magnetic separation.

  20. Microscopic and mesoscopic structural features of an activated carbon sample, prepared from sorghum via activation by phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Temleitner, László; Pusztai, László; Rubio-Arroyo, Manuel F.; Aguilar-López, Sergio; Pizio, Orest

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Preparation of a new activated carbon sample from sorghum. ► Characterization by adsorption/desorption methods. ► Determination of the structure by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. ► The sample is amorphous and contains distorted graphene fragments. ► A characteristic nanoscale distance is established from the radial distribution function. -- Abstract: An acidic chemical activation procedure has been used for preparing activated carbon with a surface area exceeding 1000 m{sup 2}/g from sorghum. In order to reveal structural features, synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements have been performed. The structure of the material has been characterized by the total scattering structure factor and the radial distribution function describing short-range arrangement of atoms at distances of the order of a few atomic diameters as well as correlations at a longer scale, of the order of nanometers. The atomic arrangement has been found to be consistent with that of amorphous graphite-like carbon. As far as the mesoscopic structure is concerned, the presence of a characteristic distance is suggested on the basis of the clear nanometer scale oscillations of the radial distribution function, which distance may be assigned as the mesopore size in the material. It is suggested that the approach devized here may later be applied routinely for other activated carbon samples, too, for characterizing atomic and nanoscale order simultaneously.

  1. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes: Quarterly report, January 1-March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Biscardi, J.; Bowden, P.T.; Durante, V.A.; Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Gray, H.B.; Gorbey, R.G.; Hayes, R.C.; Hodge, J.; Hughes, M.; Langdale, W.A.; Lyons, J.E.; Marcus, B.; Messick, D.; Merrill, R.A.; Moore, F.A.; Myers, H.K. Jr.; Seitzer, W.H.; Shaikh, S.N.; Tsao, W.H.; Wagner, R.W.; Warren, R.W.; Wijesekera, T.P.

    1997-05-01

    The first Quarterly Report of 1992 on the Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews the work done between January 1. 1992 and March 31, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products which can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuel. During the past quarter we have continued to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. We continue to investigate three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate: electron-deficient porphryinic macrocycles (PHASE I), polyoxometallates (PHASE II), and regular oxidic lattices including zeolites and related structures as well as other molecular surface structures having metal oxo groups (PHASE III).

  2. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes. Quarterly progress report, April 1--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, J.E.

    1992-06-30

    The second Quarterly Report of 1992 on the Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews the work done between April 1, 1992 and June 31, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products that can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon uwspomdon fuel. During the past quarter we have continued to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. We continue to investigate three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate: electron-deficient macrocycles (PHASE I), polyoxometallates (PHASE II), and regular oxidic lattices including zeolites and related structures as well as other molecular surface structures having metal oxo groups (PHASE I).

  3. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the first quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  4. Emulsification-Induced Homohelicity in Racemic Helical Polymer for Preparing Optically Active Helical Polymer Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Biao; Deng, Jinrui; Deng, Jianping

    2016-04-01

    Optically active nano- and microparticles have constituted a significant category of advanced functional materials. However, constructing optically active particles derived from synthetic helical polymers still remains as a big challenge. In the present study, it is attempted to induce a racemic helical polymer (containing right- and left-handed helices in equal amount) to prefer one predominant helicity in aqueous media by using emulsifier in the presence of chiral additive (emulsification process). Excitingly, the emulsification process promotes the racemic helical polymer to unify the helicity and directly provides optically active nanoparticles constructed by chirally helical polymer. A possible mechanism is proposed to explain the emulsification-induced homohelicity effect. The present study establishes a novel strategy for preparing chirally helical polymer-derived optically active nanoparticles based on racemic helical polymers.

  5. Phenol adsorption onto powdered and granular activated carbon, prepared from Eucalyptus wood.

    PubMed

    Tancredi, Nestor; Medero, Natalia; Möller, Fabiana; Píriz, Javier; Plada, Carina; Cordero, Tomás

    2004-11-15

    Eucalyptus grandis sawdust, a major waste from the growing Uruguayan wood industry, was used in previous work to prepare powdered activated carbon (PAC). In the present work, granular activated carbon (GAC) was prepared by mixing PAC, carboxymethyl cellulose as a binder, and kaolin as reinforcer. Ultimate analysis and surface characterization of GAC and PAC were performed. Phenol adsorption was used as a way to compare the characteristics of different PAC and GAC preparations. Kinetics and isotherms of the different GAC and PAC were performed in a shaking bath at 100 rpm and 298 K. Phenol concentrations were determined by UV spectroscopy. Some kinetics parameters were calculated; from kinetics results, external resistance to mass transfer from the bulk liquid can be neglected as the controlling step. Isotherms were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich models, and corresponding parameters were determined. Maximum phenol uptakes for all carbons were determined and correlated with carbon characteristics. Thermogravimertic analysis (TGA) determinations were performed in order to study adsorption characteristics and conditions for GAC regeneration after its use. The results showed that phenol is preferentially physisorbed on the carbon of the granules, though some chemisorption was detected. No adsorption was detected in the kaolin-carboxymethyl cellulose mixture.

  6. Neural substrates of contextual interference during motor learning support a model of active preparation.

    PubMed

    Cross, Emily S; Schmitt, Paul J; Grafton, Scott T

    2007-11-01

    When individuals acquire new skills, initial performance is typically better and tasks are judged to be easier when the tasks are segregated and practiced by block, compared to when different tasks are randomly intermixed in practice. However, subsequent skill retention is better for a randomly practiced group, an effect known as contextual interference (CI). The present study examined the neural substrates of CI using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Individuals learned a set of three 4-element sequences with the left hand according to a block or random practice schedule. Behavioral retest for skill retention confirmed the presence of a typical CI effect with the random group outperforming the block group. Using a go/no-go fMRI paradigm, sequence preparation during the premovement study period was separated from movement execution. Imaging data for the two groups were compared for the first 1/3 and final 1/3 of training trials. Toward the end of training, behavioral performance between the two groups was similar, although the random group would later display a performance advantage on retention testing. During study time, the random group showed greater activity in sensorimotor and premotor regions compared to the block group. These areas are associated with motor preparation, sequencing, and response selection. This pattern of recruitment is consistent with the hypothesis that CI benefits in a sequencing task are due to improved capacity to actively prepare motor responses.

  7. Stanford Geothermal Program (quarterly technical progress reports, July--September 1990 and October--December 1990)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-18

    For the summer quarter, progress is summarized and data are presented on the following: well test analysis of finite-conductivity fractures, theoretical investigation of adsorption phenomena, and optimization of reinjection strategy. For the fall quarter, activity focused on the adsorption and well testing projects. A new project investigating reinjection at the Geysers was initiated. (MHR)

  8. Hybrid 320 Ton Off Highway Haul Truck: Quarterly Technical Status Report 10

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Richter

    2005-05-05

    This tenth quarterly status report for the Hybrid Off Highway Vehicle (OHV) project, DOE Award DE-FC04-2002AL68080 presents the project status at the end of March 2005, and covers activities in the tenth project quarter, January-March 2005.

  9. IBM, Endicott eleventh quarterly report, April 1, 1997--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    IBM Endicott, Assembly Process Design, has completed the tenth quarter of development activity on work concerned with high performance, low cost interconnections for flip attach. The scope of work this quarter included paste deposition process development and chip bonding process development.

  10. Water Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Abuaf, N.; Levine, M.M.; Saha, P.; van Rooyen, D.

    1980-08-01

    The Water Reactor Safety Research Programs quarterly report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: LWR Thermal Hydraulic Development, Advanced Code Evlauation, TRAC Code Assessment, and Stress Corrosion Cracking of PWR Steam Generator Tubing.

  11. Advanced Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Advanced Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Progress Report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: HTGR safety evaluation, SSC Code Development, LMFBR Safety Experiments, and Fast Reactor Safety Code Validation.

  12. Hybrid 320 Ton Off Highway Haul Truck: Quarterly Technical Status Report 9

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Richter

    2005-03-02

    This ninth quarterly status report for the Hybrid Off Highway Vehicle (OHV) project, DOE Award DEFC04- 2002AL68080 presents the project status at the end of December 2004, and covers activities in the ninth project quarter, October - December 2004.

  13. Advanced Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, A.K.; Cerbone, R.J.; Sastre, C.

    1980-06-01

    The Advanced Reactor Safety Research Programs quarterly progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: HTGR Safety Evaluation, SSC Code Development, LMFBR Safety Experiments, and Fast Reactor Safety Code Validation.

  14. Notable deals in the pharmaceutical industry in the third quarter of 2016.

    PubMed

    Cruces, E

    2016-10-01

    During the third quarter of 2016, Cortellis Competitive Intelligence had 865 new deals added as part of its ongoing coverage of pharmaceutical licensing activity. This figure shows similar deal activity compared with the same quarter of 2015 (934), and 21% less than the previous quarter, although they had similar disclosed financial sizes in comparison with the first half of 2016. This article will focus on a number of the most valuable and notable deals forged during the quarter, as well as a selection of deals from some of the most prolific deal makers. An update on milestones, options and terminated deals of significance will also be presented, along with an early outlook on the last quarter of 2016's pharmaceutical licensing activity.

  15. Development of Beacon technology. Quarterly report, July-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    The BEACON process involves the catalytic deposition of carbon from a gas stream containing carbon monoxide, and subsequent exposure of this carbon to a gas stream containing hydrogen or steam at elevated temperature and pressure to produce methane. The steam gasification route currently is receiving the most attention. Multiple-cycle tests with K1 and K2 catalysts showed sustained activity and stable performance through thirty of the planned forty cycles. The tests will be completed next quarter. Steaming temperature screening tests on K2-based BEACON carbon supported the conclusion based on earlier testing with K1-based BEACON carbon that steam gasification at two temperature levels has significant advantages over steam gasification at a single temperature in terms of gasification rates and methane yields. Multiple-cycle testing of K2-based BEACON carbon was started in the 4-inch bench-scale fluid bed reactor. Catalyst C77 continued to have problems during multiple-cycle testing - loss of catalytic activity, possibly due to overheating, and poor fluidizability. Further modifications of the C77 catalyst preparation technique were tested. Catalyst C77-K2 showed no change in performance, and results with catalyst C77-K1 were generally disappointing. Laboratory experiments continued with catalyst C78. A variable differential pressure concept which does not require gas/solids separtion is now being considered for the transfer of BEACON solids between carbon deposition and carbon gasification reactors.

  16. Quarterly Technical Progress Report June 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, Bruce A.

    2015-06-08

    The project has two main goals: 1) Identify the types of adducts naphthalene (NA) forms with DNA and 2) determine whether adduct formation correlates with site selective tumor formation in defined subcompartments of the respiratory tract (respiratory and olfactory nasal epithelium and airways of mice, rats and rhesus monkeys). Five tasks are associated with the completion of the goals. Task 1: Contracting and Animal Use Approvals. IACUC and ACURO approvals are complete, The subcontract with UC Davis (UCD) was executed in December 2014. Task 2: Perform In Vitro Study for Goal 1. Rat samples exposed and in freezer while adduct standards are being made. Mouse samples need to be exposed in next quarter. Task 3: Perform In Vitro Study for Goal 2. Mouse ex vivo samples completed. Rat and monkey samples need to be completed in the next quarter. Task 4: Sample Preparation and Analysis. Mouse Goal 2 samples completed. Other samples remain to be done. Task 5: Data Interpretation and Reporting. Need rat data to write paper on adduct formation.

  17. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant. Quarterly technical progress report, February 1-April 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Work has been initiated during this first quarter under all four program tasks and by all major participants as described. Task 1.0 activity (establish power plant reference design) concentrated upon definition of user requirements and establishment of power plant subsystem alternatives and characteristics. Task 2.0 work (stack and cell design development and verification) was initiated with a heavy emphasis upon test facilities preparation. A total of 27 laboratory cells were operated during this reporting period and a total of nine cells continued on test at the end of the quarter. Investigation of alternative anode and cathode materials proceeded; a dual-porosity anode was fabricated and tested. Over 10,000 endurance hours on a state-of-the-art cell carried-over from a previous program has been achieved and 1500 hours endurance has been obtained with sheet metal cells. Results presented for electrolyte structure development include comparative data for spray-dried and modified aqueous slurry process powders. Shake-down tests with a rotating disc electrode apparatus for fundamental measurements are described. Concept designs for both prototype and subscale stacks have been identified. Task 3.0 effort (development capability for full-scale stack tests) included preparation of an overall test plan to commercialization for molten carbonate fuel cells and of a functional specification for the tenth-scale stack test facility; drafts of both documents were completed for internal review. Cost-effective manufacturing assessment of available designs and processes was initiated. Task 4.0 work (develop capabilities for operation of stacks on coal-derived gas) included gathering of available contaminants concentration and effects information and preparation of initial projections of contaminant ranges and concentrations. Accomplishments to date and activities planned for the next quarter are described.

  18. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Quarterly report, January 1994--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-04

    The objectives of the EHAP program are to: Develop a holistic, national basis for risk assessment, risk management and risk communication; Develop a pool of talented scientists and experts in cleanup activities, especially in human health aspects, and; Identify needs and develop programs addressing the critical shortage of well-educated, highly-skilled technical and scientific personnel to address the health oriented aspects of environmental restoration and waste management. This report describes activities and reports on progress for the third quarter of year two (January-March, 1994) of the grant. To better accomplish objectives, grant efforts are organized into three major elements: The Crossroads of Humanity Series; Research, Science and Education Programs; and Program Management. The Crossroads of Humanity Series charted a new course, incorporating lessons learned during previous quarters into a series of programs designed to address environmental issues in a real world setting. Reports are included on the various research programs with milestones and deliverables from the third quarter.

  19. Removal of lead from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from Enteromorpha prolifera by zinc chloride activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhui; Du, Qiuju; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Pan; Wang, Dechang; Wang, Zonghua; Xia, Yanzhi

    2010-11-15

    Activated carbon was prepared from Enteromorpha prolifera (EP) by zinc chloride activation. The physico-chemical properties of EP-activated carbon (EPAC) were characterized by thermal stability, zeta potential and Boehm titration methods. The examination showed that EPAC has a porous structure with a high surface area of 1688 m(2)/g. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to study the effect of various parameters such as initial pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature on Pb(II) ions adsorption properties by EPAC. The kinetic studies showed that the adsorption data followed a pseudo second-order kinetic model. The isotherm analysis indicated that the adsorption data can be represented by Freundlich isotherm model. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption reaction was a spontaneous and endothermic process.

  20. Preparation and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of graphitic carbon nitride/bismuth niobate heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengqu; Yang, Yuxin; Guo, Yingna; Guo, Wan; Wang, Mei; Guo, Yihang; Huo, Mingxin

    2013-10-15

    A series of graphitic carbon nitride/bismuth niobate (g-C3N4/Bi5Nb3O15) heterojunctions with g-C3N4 doping level of 10-90 wt% were prepared by a facile milling-heat treatment method. The phase and chemical structures, surface compositions, electronic and optical properties as well as morphologies of the prepared g-C3N4/Bi5Nb3O15 were well-characterized. Subsequently, the photocatalytic activity and stability of g-C3N4/Bi5Nb3O15 were evaluated by the degradation of aqueous methyl orange (MO) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) under the visible-light irradiation. At suitable g-C3N4 doping levels, g-C3N4/Bi5Nb3O15 exhibited enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity compared with pure g-C3N4 or Bi5Nb3O15. This excellent photocatalytic activity was revealed in terms of the extension of visible-light response and efficient separation and transportation of the photogenerated electrons and holes due to coupling of g-C3N4 and Bi5Nb3O15. Additionally, the active species yielded in the pure g-C3N4- and g-C3N4/Bi5Nb3O15-catalyzed 4-CP photodegradation systems were investigated by the free radical and hole scavenging experiments.

  1. Studies on adsorption of mercury from aqueous solution on activated carbons prepared from walnut shell.

    PubMed

    Zabihi, M; Haghighi Asl, A; Ahmadpour, A

    2010-02-15

    The adsorption ability of a powdered activated carbons (PAC) derived from walnut shell was investigated in an attempt to produce more economic and effective sorbents for the control of Hg(II) ion from industrial liquid streams. Carbonaceous sorbents derived from local walnut shell, were prepared by chemical activation methods using ZnCl(2) as activating reagents. Adsorption of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions was carried out under different experimental conditions by varying treatment time, metal ion concentration, pH and solution temperature. It was shown that Hg(II) uptake decreases with increasing pH of the solution. The proper choice of preparation conditions were resulted in microporous activated carbons with different BET surface areas of 780 (Carbon A, 1:0.5 ZnCl(2)) and 803 (Carbon B, 1:1 ZnCl(2))m(2)/g BET surface area. The monolayer adsorption capacity of these particular adsorbents were obtained as 151.5 and 100.9 mg/g for carbons A and B, respectively. It was determined that Hg(II) adsorption follows both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms as well as pseudo-second-order kinetics.

  2. Preparation of manganese dioxide loaded activated carbon adsorbents and their desulfurization performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiaojing; Wang, Guojian; Wang, Wenyi; Song, Hua; Wang, Lu

    2016-12-01

    Manganese dioxide loaded activated carbon adsorbents (MnO2/AC) were prepared and characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, BET method, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Effects of preparation conditions and adsorption conditions on desulfurization performance of the adsorbents were studied in a fixed-bed adsorption apparatus. Experimental results show that the surface area and pore volume of MnO2/AC decreased compared with the unmodified activated carbon, but the adsorption capacity to H2S was improved greatly. A suitable H2S removal activity was obtained with manganese dioxide to activated carbon ratio of 1.1: 1 and the calcination temperature of 250°C. At the adsorption temperature of 40°C and gas flow rate of 20 mL/min, the H2S saturation capacity and H2S removal rate reached up to 713.25 mg/g and 89.9%, respectively.

  3. Preparation of hollow porous Cu2O microspheres and photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cu2O p-type semiconductor hollow porous microspheres have been prepared by using a simple soft-template method at room temperature. The morphology of as-synthesized samples is hollow spherical structures with the diameter ranging from 200 to 500 nm, and the surfaces of the spheres are rough, porous and with lots of channels and folds. The photocatalytic activity of degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation was investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy. The results show that the hollow porous Cu2O particles were uniform in diameters and have an excellent ability in visible light-induced degradation of MO. Meanwhile, the growth mechanism of the prepared Cu2O was also analyzed. We find that sodium dodecyl sulfate acted the role of soft templates in the synthesis process. The hollow porous structure was not only sensitive to the soft template but also to the amount of reagents. PMID:22738162

  4. Preparation of Pt-Ru-Ni ternary nanoparticles by microemulsion and electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xin . E-mail: xzhang@stu.edu.cn; Zhang Feng; Guan Renfeng; Chan, K.-Y.

    2007-02-15

    Ternary platinum-ruthenium-nickel nanoparticles are prepared by water-in-oil reverse microemulsions of water/Triton X-100/propanol-2/cyclohexane. Nanoparticles formed in the microemulsions are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). These resulting materials showed a homogenous alloy structure, the mono-dispersion and an average diameter of 2.6 {+-} 0.3 nm with a narrow particle size distribution. The composition and particle size of ternary Pt-Ru-Ni nanoparticles can be controlled by adjusting the initial metal salt solution and preparation conditions. Pt-Ru-Ni ternary metallic nanoparticles showed an enhanced catalytic activity towards methanol oxidation compared to Pt-Ru bimetallic nanoparticles.

  5. Porosity and sorption properties of activated carbons prepared from anthracite by steam-air activation

    SciTech Connect

    Sych, N.V.; Kartel, N.T.; Tsyba, N.N.; Strelko, V.V.; Nikolaichuk, A.D.; Mironyuk, T.I.

    2006-04-15

    Fundamental aspects of the steam-air activation of anthracite from Donets coal fields were studied. The effect of the flow rate of moistened air on the development of a porous structure and the sorption properties of the adsorbents obtained were examined.

  6. Preparation of activated carbons from macadamia nut shell and coconut shell by air activation

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, M.S.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1999-11-01

    A novel, three-step process for the production of high-quality activated carbons from macadamia nut shell and coconut shell charcoals is described. In this process the charcoal is (1) heated to a high temperature (carbonized), (2) oxidized in air following a stepwise heating program from low (ca. 450 K) to high (ca. 660 K) temperatures (oxygenated), and (3) heated again in an inert environment to a high temperature (activated). By use of this procedure, activated carbons with surface areas greater than 1,000 m{sub 2}/g are manufactured with an overall yield of 15% (based on the dry shell feed). Removal of carbon mass by the development of mesopores and macropores is largely responsible for increases in the surface area of the carbons above 600 m{sub 2}/g. Thus, the surface area per gram of activated carbon can be represented by an inverse function of the yield for burnoffs between 15 and 60%. These findings are supported by mass-transfer calculations and pore-size distribution measurements. A kinetic model for gasification of carbon by oxygen, which provides for an Eley-Rideal type reaction of a surface oxide with oxygen in air, fits the measured gasification rates reasonably well over the temperature range of 550--660 K.

  7. Effect of Activating Agent on the Preparation of Bamboo-Based High Surface Area Activated Carbon by Microwave Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hongying; Wu, Jian; Srinivasakannan, Chandrasekar; Peng, Jinhui; Zhang, Libo

    2016-06-01

    The present work attempts to convert bamboo into a high surface area activated carbon via microwave heating. Different chemical activating agents such as KOH, NaOH, K2CO3 and Na2CO3 were utilized to identify a most suitable activating agent. Among the activating agents tested KOH was found to generate carbon with the highest porosity and surface area. The effect of KOH/C ratio on the porous nature of the activated carbon has been assessed. An optimal KOH/C ratio of 4 was identified, beyond which the surface area as well as the pore volume were found to decrease. At the optimized KOH/C ratio the surface area and the pore volume were estimated to be 3,441 m2/g and 2.093 ml/g, respectively, with the significant proportion of which being microporous (62.3%). Activated carbon prepared under the optimum conditions was further characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Activated carbons with so high surface area and pore volume are very rarely reported, which could be owed to the nature of the precursor and the optimal conditions of mixture ratio adopted in the present work.

  8. Adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solutions on sulfurized activated carbon prepared from nut shells.

    PubMed

    Fouladi Tajar, Amir; Kaghazchi, Tahereh; Soleimani, Mansooreh

    2009-06-15

    Low-cost activated carbon, derived from nut shells, and its modified sample have been used as replacements for the current expensive methods of removing cadmium from aqueous solutions and waste waters. Adsorption of cadmium onto four kinds of activated carbons has been studied; prepared activated carbon (PAC), commercial activated carbon (CAC), and the sulfurized ones (SPAC & SCAC). The activated carbon has been derived, characterized, treated with sulfur and then utilized for the removal of Cd(2+). Sulfurizing agent (SO(2) gas) was successfully used in adsorbents' modification process at the ambient temperature. Samples were then characterized and tested as adsorbents of cadmium. Effect of some parameters such as contact time, initial concentration and pH were examined. With increasing pH, the adsorption of cadmium ions was increased and maximum removal, 92.4% for SPAC, was observed in pH>8.0 (C(0)=100mg/L). The H-type adsorption isotherms, obtained for the adsorbents, indicated a favorable process. Adsorption data on both prepared and commercial activated carbon, before and after sulfurization, followed both the Frendlich and Langmuir models. They were better fitted by Frendlich isotherm as compared to Langmuir. The maximum adsorption capacities were 90.09, 104.17, 126.58 and 142.86 mg/g for CAC, PAC, SCAC and SPAC, respectively. Accordingly, surface modification of activated carbons using SO(2) greatly enhanced cadmium removal. The reversibility of the process has been studied in a qualitative manner and it shows that the spent SPAC can be effectively regenerated for further use easily.

  9. Role of nitrogen in pore development in activated carbon prepared by potassium carbonate activation of lignin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubouchi, Naoto; Nishio, Megumi; Mochizuki, Yuuki

    2016-05-01

    The present work focuses on the role of nitrogen in the development of pores in activated carbon produced from lignin by K2CO3 activation, employing a fixed bed reactor under a high-purity He stream at temperatures of 500-900 °C. The specific surface area and pore volume obtained by activation of lignin alone are 230 m2/g and 0.13 cm3/g at 800 °C, and 540 m2/g and 0.31 cm3/g at 900 °C, respectively. Activation of a mixture of lignin and urea provides a significant increase in the surface area and volume, respectively reaching 3300-3400 m2/g and 2.0-2.3 cm3/g after holding at 800-900 °C for 1 h. Heating a lignin/urea/K2CO3 mixture leads to a significant decrease in the yield of released N-containing gases compared to the results for urea alone and a lignin/urea mixture, and most of the nitrogen in the urea is retained in the solid phase. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses clearly show that part of the remaining nitrogen is present in heterocyclic structures (for example, pyridinic and pyrrolic nitrogen), and the rest is contained as KOCN at ≤600 °C and as KCN at ≥700 °C, such that the latter two compounds can be almost completely removed by water washing. The fate of nitrogen during heating of lignin/urea/K2CO3 and role of nitrogen in pore development in activated carbon are discussed on the basis of the results mentioned above.

  10. Adsorption characteristics of SO2 on activated carbon prepared from coconut shell with potassium hydroxide activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Whan; Park, Jin-Won; Choung, Jae-Hoon; Choi, Dae-Ki

    2002-03-01

    The adsorption characteristics of SO2 were studied with KOH-impregnated granular activated carbon (K-IAC). To confirm selective SO2 adsorptivity of K-IAC using a fixed bed adsorption column, experiments were conducted on the effects of KOH and of linear velocity, temperature, and concentration. In addition, changes in features before and after adsorption were observed by utilizing FTIR, XRD, ToF-SIMS, and AES/SAM, examining the surface chemistry. K-IAC adsorbed 13.2 times more SO2 than did general activated carbon (GAC). The amount of SO2 adsorbed increased as linear velocity and concentration increased and as temperature decreased. At lower temperature, the dominant reaction between KOH and SO2 produces K2-SO3 and H2O. Any H2O remaining on the surface is converted into H2SO4 as SO2 and O2 are introduced. Then, the KOH and SO2 reaction produces K2SO4 and H2O. The surface characterization results proved that adsorption occurred through chemical reaction between KOH and SO2. The SO2 adsorbed K-IAC exists in the form of stable oxide crystal, K2SO3 and K2SO4, due to potassium. The basic feature given to the surface of activated carbon by KOH impregnation was confirmed to be acting as the main factor in enhancing SO2 adsorptivity.

  11. Pore size distribution analysis of activated carbons prepared from coconut shell using methane adsorption data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadpour, A.; Okhovat, A.; Darabi Mahboub, M. J.

    2013-06-01

    The application of Stoeckli theory to determine pore size distribution (PSD) of activated carbons using high pressure methane adsorption data is explored. Coconut shell was used as a raw material for the preparation of 16 different activated carbon samples. Four samples with higher methane adsorption were selected and nitrogen adsorption on these adsorbents was also investigated. Some differences are found between the PSD obtained from the analysis of nitrogen adsorption isotherms and their PSD resulting from the same analysis using methane adsorption data. It is suggested that these differences may arise from the specific interactions between nitrogen molecules and activated carbon surfaces; therefore caution is required in the interpretation of PSD obtained from the nitrogen isotherm data.

  12. Preparation and antibacterial activity studies of degraded polysaccharide selenide from Enteromorpha prolifera.

    PubMed

    Lü, Haitao; Gao, Yujie; Shan, Hu; Lin, Yingting

    2014-07-17

    Polysaccharide extracted from Enteromorpha prolifera possessed excellent biological activities, but its molecular weight was greatly high which influenced the activity. Organic Se had higher biological activities and was safer than inorganic Se species. In the present study, degraded polysaccharide selenide (Se-LEP) was synthesized from sodium selenite and degraded polysaccharide (LEP) with the catalysis of nitric acid. The preparation conditions of LEP and Se-LEP were optimized by orthogonal experiments. The selenite ester group was formed, and the selenium content was 1335.27 µg/g. The thermal stability of Se-LEP decreased. LEP had less inhibitory effects on bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi. Se-LEP had stronger inhibitory effect on Eschetichia coli, and weaker inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus than polysaccharide selenide (Se-EP). Se-LEP also had better inhibitory effects on plant pathogenic fungi.

  13. Antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities of extracts from some antidiarrhoeal traditional preparations used in Kinshasa, Congo.

    PubMed

    Tona, L; Kambu, K; Ngimbi, N; Mesia, K; Penge, O; Lusakibanza, M; Cimanga, K; De Bruyne, T; Apers, S; Totte, J; Pieters, L; Vlietinck, A J

    2000-03-01

    Three major extracts from some traditional preparations, based on medicinal plants, used as antidiarrhoeal agents were investigated for their putative antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities in vitro. Results indicated that both biological activities are concentrated in the polyphenolic fraction, and not in the saponin or alkaloid containing fractions. The most active polyphenolic extracts were those from Euphorbia hirta whole plant, leaves of Alchornea cordifolia, Crossopteryx febrifuga, Nauclea latifolia, Psidium guajava, Tithonia diversifolia, stem bark of Harungana madagascariensis, Mangifera indica, Maprounea africana and Psidium guajava, inhibiting Entamoeba histolytica growth with MAC < 10 micrograms/ml. The same extracts, at a concentration of 80 micrograms/ml in an organ bath, also exhibited more than 70% inhibition of acetylcholine and/or KCl solution-induced contractions on isolated guinea-pig ileum.

  14. Study on the preparation of straw activated carbon and its phenol adsorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liping

    2017-01-01

    Using sunflower straw as raw materials to manufacture straw activated carbon-modified by phosphoric acidand adsorption isotherm of phenol on straw activated carbon was studied in a batch reactor. The physical properties of the prepared straw activated carbons were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The effect of various parameters, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature, were studied on optimum conditions. The results have shown that the absorbent was efficient, the removal ratio of phenol up to 99.36% with an adsorbent dosage of 16 g·L-1, a pH of 6.0-8.0, at 25 °C. The experimental adsorption data fitted reasonably well to the Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity was 109.89 mg/g. The process of adsorption is a exothermic process.

  15. Preparation and Antibacterial Activity of Inclusion Complex Sulfonatocalix[4]arene-Xanthone against Escherichia Coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumaningsih, T.; Firdaus, M.; Suparjo, H. F.

    2017-02-01

    The preparation of inclusion complex sulfonatocalix[4]arene (SC[4]A) with xanthone and measurement of antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli have been performed. Analysis of the structure of inclusion complex between SC[4]A and xanthone was investigated by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H-NMR). The solubility of the product in water was examined. Surface area and porous determination were analyzed by Surface Area Analyzer (SAA). Antibacterial activity test was performed for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 hours. The results showed that antibacterial activity of the complex of xanthone SC[4]An against Escherichia coli was higher than that of xanthone it self.

  16. Multicomponent Petasis-borono Mannich Preparation of Alkylaminophenols and Antimicrobial Activity Studies.

    PubMed

    Neto, Íris; Andrade, Joana; Fernandes, A S; Pinto Reis, Catarina; Salunke, Jagadish K; Priimagi, Arri; Candeias, Nuno R; Rijo, Patrícia

    2016-09-20

    In this work we report the antibacterial activity of alkylaminophenols. A series of such compounds was prepared by a multicomponent Petasis-borono Mannich reaction starting from salicylaldehyde and its derivatives. The obtained compounds were tested against a large panel of microorganisms, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and a yeast. Among the several tertiary amine derivatives tested, indoline-derived aminophenols containing a nitro group at the para-phenol position showed considerable activity against bacteria tested with minimal inhibitory concentrations as low as 1.36 μm against Staphyloccocus aureus and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Cytotoxicity of the new para-nitrophenol derivatives was observed only at concentrations much higher than those required for antibacterial activity.

  17. Preparation of gold/silver/titania trilayered nanorods and their photocatalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Yoshimasa; Kanda, Takashi; Torigoe, Kanjiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2014-01-28

    Gold/silver/titania trilayered nanorods have been prepared by the successive deposition of silver and titania layers on gold nanorod cores, and their photocatalytic activities were investigated under visible-light illumination (λ > 420 nm). The photocatalytic activity of the trilayered nanorods in the oxidation of 2-propanol depends on both the Au/Ag composition and the thickness of the TiO2 shell. It increases with increasing Ag content up to [Au]/[Ag] = 1:5 (molar ratio) and then decreases with further increasing Ag content. The photocatalytic activity also increases with increasing TiO2 shell thickness up to 10 nm and then decreases with further increases in the shell thickness. These effects were explained by electron-transfer and energy-transfer mechanisms.

  18. Preparation of gold nanoparticles using Salicornia brachiata plant extract and evaluation of catalytic and antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayaz Ahmed, Khan Behlol; Subramanian, Swetha; Sivasubramanian, Aravind; Veerappan, Ganapathy; Veerappan, Anbazhagan

    2014-09-01

    The current study deals with the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using Salicornia brachiata (Sb) and evaluation of their antibacterial and catalytic activity. The SbAuNPs showed purple color with a characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak at 532 nm. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed polydispersed AuNPs with the size range from 22 to 35 nm. Energy dispersive X-ray and thin layer X-ray diffraction analysis clearly shows that SbAuNPs was pure and crystalline in nature. As prepared gold nanoparticles was used as a catalyst for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitro phenol to 4-amino phenol and methylene blue to leucomethylene blue. The green synthesized nanoparticles exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the pathogenic bacteria, as evidenced by their zone of inhibition. In addition, we showed that the SbAuNPs in combination with the regular antibiotic, ofloxacin, exhibit superior antibacterial activity than the individual.

  19. Facile Preparation of Ag/NiO Composite Nanosheets and Their Antibacterial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Cui-E.; Pan, Lu; Wang, Cheng-Run; He, Yi; Wu, Yong-Feng; Xue, Sai-Sai

    2016-01-01

    Sheet-like precursors of NiO and Ag/NiO with different Ag contents were synthesized by a facile and easily controlled hydrothermal method. The NiO and Ag/NiO composite nanosheets were prepared by calcination of the corresponding precursors at 400°C for 3 h. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The antibacterial activity of NiO and Ag/NiO composites to several gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was examined. Results showed that NiO nanosheets hardly exhibited antibacterial activity; however, Ag/NiO composites displayed higher activity even with low Ag content.

  20. Optically active substituted polyacetylene@carbon nanotube hybrids: Preparation, characterization and infrared emissivity property study

    SciTech Connect

    Bu, Xiaohai; Zhou, Yuming Zhang, Tao; Wang, Yongjuan; Zhang, Zewu; He, Man

    2014-08-15

    Optically active substituted polyacetylene@multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SPA@MWCNTs) nanohybrids were fabricated by wrapping helical SPA copolymers onto the surface of modified nanotubes through ester bonding linkage. SPA copolymer based on chiral phenylalanine and serine was pre-polymerized by a rhodium zwitterion catalyst in THF, and evidently proved to possess strong optical activity and adopt a predominately one-handed helical conformation. Various characterizations including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that the SPA had been covalently grafted onto the nanotubes without destroying their original graphite structure. The wrapped SPA was found to exhibit an enhancement in thermal stability and still maintained considerable optical activity after grafting. The infrared emissivity property of the nanohybrids at 8–14 μm was investigated in addition. The results indicated that the SPA@MWCNTs hybrid matrix could possess a much lower infrared emissivity value (ε=0.707) than raw MWCNTs, which might be due to synergistic effect of the unique helical conformation of optically active SPA and strengthened interfacial interaction between the organic polymers and inorganic nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: Optically active SPA@MWCNTs nanohybrids with low infrared emissivity. - Highlights: • Synthesis of optically active SPA copolymer derived from serine and phenylalanine. • Preparation and characterization of optically active SPA@MWCNTs nanohybrids. • Application study of the SPA@MWCNTs nanohybrids (ε=0.707) in lowering the infrared emissivity.

  1. Adsorption of direct dye onto activated carbon prepared from areca nut pod--an agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Gopalswami, P; Sivakumar, N; Ponnuswamy, S; Venkateswaren, V; Kavitha, G

    2010-10-01

    Activated carbons are made from various agricultural wastes by physical and chemical activation. The preparation of activated carbon from agricultural waste could increase economic return and also provides an excellent method for the solid waste disposal thereby reduce pollution. Areca nut pod, which is an agricultural waste, has been used as a raw material to produce activated carbon (AAC) by four different methods. The adsorption of Direct blue dye used in textile industry on the porous areca nut pod activated carbon was investigated. The activated carbon AAC has an average surface area of 502 m2/g. CAC, the commercial reference was mainly micro porous with a surface area of 1026 m2/g .The study investigated the removal of direct dye from simulated water. The effects of adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were studied. The results showed that as the amount of the adsorbent was increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly. The results indicate that AAC could be employed as low-cost alternative to commercial activated carbon in wastewater treatment for the removal of acid dyes.

  2. Study on preparation of Luffa activated carbon and its adsorption of metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Kuilu; Li, Zichao; Li, Qun

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, loofah was used as raw material and alkali and hydrogen peroxide were used to pre-oxidize. The activated carbon was activated by zinc chloride, and the activated carbon was used to desorb the heavy metal ions nickel and copper. The removal efficiency of heavy metal ions was studied under different conditions. The effects of retinervus Luffae Fructus active carbon adsorption of metal ions on process conditions, including metal ion concentration, reaction temperature, loofah activated carbon types and activated carbon dosage. In the present study, in different strain rate on the loofah sponge material compression tests in a wide range of density from 24 to 64 kg cubic meters. Luffa fibers and followed by carbonization to prepare MCAC KOH activation. MCAC has dense in parallel channels 10 mm in diameter and 4 - 0.3 - 1 mm wall thickness, which is inherited from the native structure of Luffa. Micro and middle holes are formed on the inner surface of the channel wall to form a hierarchical porous structure.

  3. LFCM vitrification technology. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, H.C.; Jarrett, J.H.; Minor, J.E.

    1986-09-01

    This report is compiled by the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to document progress on liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the first quarter of FY 1986 is discussed: melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, canister filling and handling systems, off-gas systems, process/product modeling and control, and supporting studies.

  4. LFCM vitrification technology. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, H.C.; Jarrett, J.H.; Minor, J.E.

    1986-05-01

    This report is compiled by the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to document progress on liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the fourth quarter of FY 1985 is discussed: melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, canister filling and handling systems, off-gas systems, process/product modeling and control, and supporting studies.

  5. A method for preparing ferric activated carbon composites adsorbents to remove arsenic from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiao Li; Lin, Y C; Chen, X; Gao, Nai Yun

    2007-09-30

    Iron oxide/activated carbon (FeO/AC) composite adsorbent material, which was used to modify the coal-based activated carbon (AC) 12 x 40, was prepared by the special ferric oxide microcrystal in this study. This composite can be used as the adsorbent to remove arsenic from drinking water, and Langmuir isotherm adsorption equation well describes the experimental adsorption isotherms. Then, the arsenic desorption can subsequently be separated from the medium by using a 1% aqueous NaOH solution. The apparent characters and physical chemistry performances of FeO/AC composite were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Batch and column adsorption experiments were carried out to investigate and compare the arsenic removal capability of the prepared FeO/AC composite material and virgin activated carbon. It can be concluded that: (1) the main phase present in this composite are magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)), maghemite (gamma-Fe(2)O(3)), hematite (alpha-Fe(2)O(3)) and goethite (alpha-FeO(OH)); (2) the presence of iron oxides did not significantly affect the surface area or the pore structure of the activated carbon; (3) the comparisons between the adsorption isotherms of arsenic from aqueous solution onto the composite and virgin activated carbon showed that the FeO/AC composite behave an excellent capacity of adsorption arsenic than the virgin activated carbon; (4) column adsorption experiments with FeO/AC composite adsorbent showed that the arsenic could be removed to below 0.01 mg/L within 1250 mL empty bed volume when influent concentration was 0.5mg/L.

  6. Preparation and characterization of high surface area activated carbon from Fox nut (Euryale ferox) shell by chemical activation with H3PO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arvind; Jena, Hara Mohan

    Activated carbons were prepared from Fox nutshell by chemical activation with H3PO4 in N2 atmosphere and their characteristics were studied. The effects of activation temperature and impregnation ratio were examined. N2 adsorption isotherms characterized the surface area, total pore volume, micropore volume and pore size distribution of activated carbons. Activated carbon was produced at 700 °C with a 1.5 impregnation ratio and one hour of activation time has found 2636 m2/g and 1.53 cm3/g of highest BET surface area and total pore volume, respectively. The result of Fourier-infrared spectroscopy analysis of the prepared activated carbon confirmed that the carbon has abundant functional groups on the surface. Field emission scanning electron micrographs of the prepared activated carbon showed that a porous structure formed during activation.

  7. AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program. Quarterly progress report for the period ending December 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The ORNL Fossil Energy Materials Program Office compiles and issues this combined quarterly progress report from camera-ready copies submitted by each of the participating subcontractor organizations. This report of activities on the program is organized in accordance with a work breakdown structure defined in the AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program Plan for FY 1982-1986 in which projects are organized according to fossil energy technologies. This report is divided into parts and chapters with each part describing projects related to a particular fossil energy technology. Chapters within a part provide details of the various projects associated with that technology. We hope this series of AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program quarterly progress reports will aid in the dissemination of information developed on the program. Plans for the program will be issued annually. A draft of the program plan for FY 1982 to 1986 has been prepared and is in the review process. The implementation of these plans will be reflected by these quarterly progress reports, and this dissemination of information will bw augmented by topical or final reports as appropriate.

  8. Combustion of pulverized coal in vortex structures. Quarterly progress report No. 8, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Gollahalli, S.R.

    1995-10-01

    This eighth quarterly report describes the activities and accomplishments of the research team at the University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, related to the project entitled {open_quotes}Combustion of Pulverized Coal in Vortex Structures{close_quotes} during the period July 1, 1995 to September 30, 1995. The work performed in this quarter consisted of the following four tasks: (i) Completion of the schlieren flow visualization experiments, (ii) Conducting experiments with particulate laden shear layers in cold flow to measure mean velocity and turbulence intensity field, (iii) Conducting experiments with particulate laden shear layers in heated flow where the initial temperature was above the pyrolysis temperature of the coal, (iii) Conducting experiments with particulate laden shear layers in heated flow where the initial temperature was above the ignition temperature of the coal, and (iv) Revising and preparing the final version of a paper for the Energy Conference to be held in Houston in 1996. A 90-day no-cost extension of the project was obtained. In the final quarter, we plan to complete this work by conducting the final task of measuring concentration fields.

  9. Examination of methods for the preparation of biologically active radiolabeled melanotropins

    SciTech Connect

    Heward, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    The present studies were initiated to develop a radioactive melanotropin with full, or nearly full, biological activity. This labeled melanotropin must be of sufficient specific radioactivity to be suitable as a tracer in a radioreceptor assay and ultimately as a marker for in vivo tumor localization. The studies described herein provide information concerning: chloramine T induced iodination, lactoperoxidase catelyzed iodination, and iodogen induced iodination of ..cap alpha..-MSH and certain structural analogues. Radio-labeled derivatives of various melanotropins were prepared using a variety of iodination techniques. Under conditions commonly used for the iodination of other peptides a substantial loss of biological activity of the native hormone (..cap alpha..-MSH) was observed. Under similar iodination conditions using 4-norleucine-alpha-melanotropin ((NIe/sup 4/)-..cap alpha..-MSH), satisfactory incorporation of label into the peptide was accomplished without significant loss of biological activity. Data are presented suggesting that this peptide is far superior to ..cap alpha..-MSH for use in the preparation of a radioactive melanotropin. Although some success was achieved using (NIe/sup 4/)-..cap alpha..-MSH with all three iodination methods, the simplest and most consistent method involved the use of iodogen followed by purification of the labeled product using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  10. Adsorption of leather dye onto activated carbon prepared from bottle gourd: equilibrium, kinetic and mechanism studies.

    PubMed

    Foletto, Edson Luiz; Weber, Caroline Trevisan; Paz, Diego Silva; Mazutti, Marcio Antonio; Meili, Lucas; Bassaco, Mariana Moro; Collazzo, Gabriela Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Activated carbon prepared from bottle gourd has been used as adsorbent for removal of leather dye (Direct Black 38) from aqueous solution. The activated carbon obtained showed a mesoporous texture, with surface area of 556.16 m(2) g(-1), and a surface free of organic functional groups. The initial dye concentration, contact time and pH significantly influenced the adsorption capacity. In the acid region (pH 2.5) the adsorption of dye was more favorable. The adsorption equilibrium was attained after 60 min. Equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Temkin isotherm models. The equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm, with maximum adsorption capacity of 94.9 mg g(-1). Adsorption kinetic data were fitted using the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion models. The adsorption kinetic was best described by the second-order kinetic equation. The adsorption process was controlled by both external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion. Activated carbon prepared from bottle gourd was shown to be a promising material for adsorption of Direct Black 38 from aqueous solution.

  11. Novel combustion method to prepare octahedral NiO nanoparticles and its photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Jegatha Christy, A.; Umadevi, M.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • NiO nanoparticles were synthesized by solution combustion method. • Prepared NiO nanoparticles are fcc structure. • Synthesized NiO nanoparticles are octahedral shape. • Shows good photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO NPs) were synthesized by solution combustion method using glycine and citric acid as fuels. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) result confirms the face centered cubic (fcc) structure of NiO. The octahedral shape of NiO NPs was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). It is possible to suggest that the organic fuel (citric acid/glycine) is responsible for the formation of the octahedral shape due to the easier complex formation. Photocatalytic activity of NiO NPs also evaluated and found that the prepared NiO NPs have high photocatalytic degradation. In the present study, the crystalline nature and shape of the NiO nanoparticles plays a vital role in determining the photocatalytic activity.

  12. The use of piassava fibers (Attalea funifera) in the preparation of activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Avelar, Fabiana Ferreira; Bianchi, Maria Lúcia; Gonçalves, Maraisa; da Mota, Estella Gaspar

    2010-06-01

    The piassava fiber, residue of the broom industry, was used as precursor for the preparation of activated carbons (AC). AC were prepared by chemical activation with zinc chloride (AC ZnCl(2)) or phosphoric acid (AC H(3)PO(4)) and by physical activation with carbon dioxide (AC CO(2)) or water vapor (AC H(2)O). These materials were characterized by adsorption/desorption of N(2) to determine the BET areas, elemental analysis (CHN), thermogravimetric analysis (TG, DTA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The carbons were tested with respect to their adsorption capacity of methylene blue, reactive red, phenol and metallic ions (Cr(+6), Cu(+2) and Zn(+2)). AC ZnCl(2) presented the highest surface area (1190 m(2)g(-1)) and AC H(3)PO(4), the largest pore volume (0.543 cm(3)g(-1)). AC ZnCl(2) was more efficient in the adsorption of methylene blue, Cr(+6) and Cu(+2) ions. AC H(2)O was the better adsorbent for phenol, while AC CO(2) was better for Zn(+2) ions.

  13. Quarterly report on the Ferrocyanide Safety Program for the period ending, March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Cash, R.J.; Meacham, J.E.; Dukelow, G.T.

    1995-04-01

    This quarterly report provides a status of the activities underway on the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue at the Hanford Site, including actions in response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 90-7 (FR 1990). In March 1991, a DNFSB implementation plan (Cash 1991) responding to the six parts of Recommendation 90-7 was prepared and sent to the DNFSB. A Ferrocyanide Safety Program Plan addressing the total Ferrocyanide Safety Program, including the six parts of DNFSB Recommendation 90-7, was released in October 1994 (DOE 1994b). Activities in the program plan are underway or have been completed, and the status of each is described in Sections 2.0 and 3.0 of this report.

  14. Characterization and supply of coal based fuels. Quarterly report, May 1, 1987--July 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    Contract objectives are as follows: Develop fuel specifications to serve combustor requirements. Select coals having appropriate compositional and quality characteristics as well as an economically attractive reserve base. Provide quality assurance for both the parent coals and the fuel forms. Deliver premium coal-based fuels to combustor developers as needed for their contract work. During the third quarter of this contract (May 1 through July 31, 1987) the primary activities were involved with: Completion and submission for approval by the DOE of the topical report describing the market survey, the coal selection and the fuel specification methodologies used in carrying out Task 1. The determination of the washability of the first five coals selected in Task 1. Upgrading and improvement of the pilot wash circuit to improve both the product quality and yield. Initiation of a data base survey to select an appropriate coal for the Vortec contract; and continuation of the coal procurement, cleaning, fuel preparation and delivery activities.

  15. Quarterly report on the ferrocyanide safety program for the period ending June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Dukelow, G.T., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    This quarterly report provides a status of activities underway on the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue at the Hanford Site, including actions in response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 90-7 (FR 1990). In March 1991, a DNFSB implementation plan (Cash 1991) responding to the six parts of Recommendation 90-7 was prepared and sent to the DNFSB. A ferrocyanide safety program plan addressing the total Ferrocyanide Safety Program, including the six parts of DNFSB Recommendation 90-7, was released in October 1994 (DOE 1994b). Activities in the program plan are underway or are completed, and the status of each is described in Sections 2.0 and 3. 0 of this report.

  16. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the second quarter of 1998. 58 tabs.

  17. Biomass power for rural development. Quarterly report, April 3--July 1, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.T.

    1998-10-01

    In this quarter a large amount of time was spent doing project planning and budget preparation for the fiscal years 1998 and 1999. Many issues of long-term strategic planning and budgeting depend on the availability of Federal support, including financial, technical and political. It has become increasingly obvious that several significant barriers must be overcome in order to reach the final goal of commercial replication of the technology. Technical barriers include the designing of a cost effective harvest, storage, transport, process and conversion system. While farmers in this region have many decades of experience in harvest, storage and transport of grass, switchgrass presents new challenges due to the harvest requirements and the switchgrass yield potential. The author has identified two locations in the United States that have similar material handling situations, one site in Minnesota the other in Oregon. He has visited the Minnesota site in order to learn from their experience and they may visit the Oregon site in the future. The processing technology remains in a stage of development. As he grows closer to the time for a test co-fire he is beginning to include additional test objectives which individually seem minor, but when taken together provide drivers which impact overall machinery requirement decisions. The next quarter will provide additional levels of detail. This report describes progress in switchgrass conversion development, production activities, environmental analysis planning, and information and education activities.

  18. Crystallographic dependence of photocatalytic activity of WO3 thin films prepared by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqiang; Varga, Tamas; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Zhiguo; Wang, Chongmin; Chambers, Scott A; Du, Yingge

    2015-06-21

    We investigated the impact of crystallographic orientation on the photocatalytic activity of single crystalline WO3 thin films prepared by molecular beam epitaxy on the photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB). A clear effect is observed, with (111) being the most reactive surface, followed by (110) and (001). Photoreactivity is directly correlated with the surface free energy determined by density functional theory calculations. The RhB photodegradation mechanism is found to involve hydroxyl radicals in solution formed from photo-generated holes and differs from previous studies performed on nanoparticles and composites.

  19. Preparation, characterization, and catalytic activity of zirconocene bridged on surface of silica gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Majdoub, Lotfia; Shi, Yasai; Yuan, Yuan; Zhou, Annan; Abutartour, Abubaker; Xu, Qinghong

    2015-10-01

    Zirconocene catalyst supported on silica gel was prepared for olefin polymerization by surface modification of calcined silica with SiCl4, and the reaction between the modified silica and cyclopentadienyl sodium and ZrCl4. The catalyst was characterized by using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer, thermogravimetric (TG), and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analytic spectrometer. It was found that the metallocene structure could be formed and connected on silica surface by chemical bond. Initial catalytic tests showed that the supported metallocene was catalytically active (methylaluminoxane as a cocatalyst), producing polymer with higher molecular weight than the metallocene just immobilized on the surface of silica gel.

  20. Luminescence characteristics of impurities-activated ZnS nanocrystals prepared in microemulsion with hydrothermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S. J.; Chua, S. J.; Liu, B.; Gan, L. M.; Chew, C. H.; Xu, G. Q.

    1998-07-01

    Cu-, Eu-, or Mn-doped ZnS nanocrystalline phosphors were prepared at room temperature using a chemical synthesis method. Transmission electron microscopy observation shows that the size of the ZnS clusters is in the 3-18 nm range. New luminescence characteristics such as strong and stable visible-light emissions with different colors were observed from the doped ZnS nanocrystals at room temperature. These results strongly suggest that impurities, especially transition metals and rare-earth metals-activated ZnS nanoclusters form a new class of luminescent materials.

  1. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, first quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1998 through the fourth quarter of 1999. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the first quarter 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  2. Notable deals in the pharmaceutical industry in the first quarter of 2016.

    PubMed

    Cruces, E

    2016-08-01

    During the first quarter of 2016, Cortellis Competitive Intelligence had 1,011 new deals added as part of its ongoing coverage of pharmaceutical licensing activity. This was a slight decrease on the last quarter (Q4 2015: 1,075) but a significant increase on the same quarter for the previous year (Q1 2015: 826). This article will focus on highlighting a number of the most valuable and notable deals forged during the quarter, as well as a selection of deals from some of the most prolific deal makers. An update on milestone, options and terminated deals of significance will also be presented, along with an early outlook on the next quarter's pharmaceutical licensing activity.

  3. AFRRI Reports, Third Quarter 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    demonstrated that glucan , a beta -1,3- exerted its antibacterial activity either directly against or- polysaccharide immunomodulator, is capable of...h. Isolates were identified by standard criteria (16, La.). This glucan preparation was a soluble (1-3)- beta -D- 33). glucan isolated from the inner...particulate glucan . Int. J. pharmacol. IL407-425. Cancer 24-.773-779. 25. Patches, Mi. I, T. J. MacVklde, and W. E. Jackas". 1989. 5. Easas.., C. S. F

  4. Preparation of activated carbon from waste plastics polyethylene terephthalate as adsorbent in natural gas storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuliusman; Nasruddin; Sanal, A.; Bernama, A.; Haris, F.; Ramadhan, I. T.

    2017-02-01

    The main problem is the process of natural gas storage and distribution, because in normal conditions of natural gas in the gas phase causes the storage capacity be small and efficient to use. The technology is commonly used Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). The weakness of this technology safety level is low because the requirement for high-pressure CNG (250 bar) and LNG requires a low temperature (-161°C). It takes innovation in the storage of natural gas using the technology ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas) with activated carbon as an adsorbent, causing natural gas can be stored in a low pressure of about 34.5. In this research, preparation of activated carbon using waste plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET). PET plastic waste is a good raw material for making activated carbon because of its availability and the price is a lot cheaper. Besides plastic PET has the appropriate characteristics as activated carbon raw material required for the storage of natural gas because the material is hard and has a high carbon content of about 62.5% wt. The process of making activated carbon done is carbonized at a temperature of 400 ° C and physical activation using CO2 gas at a temperature of 975 ° C. The parameters varied in the activation process is the flow rate of carbon dioxide and activation time. The results obtained in the carbonization process yield of 21.47%, while the yield on the activation process by 62%. At the optimum process conditions, the CO2 flow rate of 200 ml/min and the activation time of 240 minutes, the value % burn off amounted to 86.69% and a surface area of 1591.72 m2/g.

  5. Quarterly oil report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This report contains information on petroleum fuels market activity in California. Included is information on price trends, refinery activities, production, and petroleum company financial statements. 10 fig., 6 tabs. (CBS)

  6. Characterization and ciprofloxacin adsorption properties of activated carbons prepared from biomass wastes by H3PO4 activation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Li, Hong; Li, Guangci; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Xuebing

    2016-10-01

    As biomass wastes, Arundo donax Linn and pomelo peel were used as precursors for activated carbons (ALAC and PPAC) preparation by phosphoric acid activation. The pore structure and surface acidic functional groups of both carbons were characterized by nitrogen adsorption/desorption experiment, NH3-temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A batch of experiments was carried out to investigate the adsorption performances of ciprofloxacin under different conditions. Results showed that PPAC exhibited larger surface area (1252m(2)/g) and larger portion of mesoporous, while ALAC was typical of microporous materials. Results from NH3-TPD suggested that ALAC was characteristic of more acidic functional group than PPAC. The maximum monolayer adsorption capability was 244mg/g for ALAC and 400mg/L for PPAC. Kinetics studies showed intra-particle diffusion was not the unique rate-controlling step. Boundary layer resistance existed between adsorbent and adsorbate.

  7. Preparation of activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse by microwave assisted activation for the remediation of semi-aerobic landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Foo, K Y; Lee, L K; Hameed, B H

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluates the sugarcane bagasse derived activated carbon (SBAC) prepared by microwave heating for the adsorptive removal of ammonical nitrogen and orthophosphate from the semi-aerobic landfill leachate. The physical and chemical properties of SBAC were examined by pore structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The effects of adsorbent dosage, contact time and solution pH on the adsorption performance were investigated in a batch mode study at 30°C. Equilibrium data were favorably described by the Langmuir isotherm model, with a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity for ammonical nitrogen and orthophosphate of 138.46 and 12.81 mg/g, respectively, while the adsorption kinetic was best fitted to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The results illustrated the potential of sugarcane bagasse derived activated carbon for the adsorptive treatment of semi-aerobic landfill leachate.

  8. Preparation, characterization, and insecticidal activity evaluation of three different formulations of Beauveria bassiana against Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree

    2013-10-01

    Three formulations; bait, encapsulation, and emulsion of Beauveria bassiana were prepared and evaluated for their insecticidal activity in simulated field settings. Tea waste-based bait formulation of B. bassiana showed 100% mortality (within 72 h) in lab assay against adult houseflies. In field assay using traps, 65% relative entrapment and 100 % mortality (within 60 h) of entrapped flies was observed. Although the bait formulation was low cost and easy to prepare and transport, its storage ability was limited. Hence, more advanced formulations in form of encapsulation and emulsion was attempted. Encapsulated B. bassiana conidia (using skimmed milk powder, polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-90 and glucose as additives) showed 100% conidial germination and retained 78% conidial viability, even after storage for 12 months at 30 °C. Encapsulated product showed 54.8% (freshly prepared) and 30.6 % (after 12-months storage) mortality of housefly larvae in a simulated field condition. Emulsion formulation was prepared by using Tween 20 as surfactant with seven vegetable oils: soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, olive, castor, til, and linseed. Emulsion with linseed oil showing maximum conidial germination (94%) was evaluated for shelf life and pathogenecity against housefly larvae. Shelf life analysis of emulsion revealed 28% conidial germination and 19.9% housefly larval mortality after 12 months of storage as opposed to 94% conidial germination and 51.7% of larval mortality with fresh product. Significant increase in shelf × targeted application of formulation is expected to increase its mass applicability for housefly control. Also, the variability among products presents diverse opportunities for commercialization.

  9. Support chemistry, surface area, and preparation effects on sulfided NiMo catalyst activity

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, T.J.; McLaughlin, L.I.; Sandoval, R.S.

    1996-06-01

    Hydrous Metal Oxides (HMOs) are chemically synthesized materials which contain a homogeneous distribution of ion exchangeable alkali cations that provide charge compensation to the metal-oxygen framework. In terms of the major types of inorganic ion exchangers defined by Clearfield, these amorphous HMO materials are similar to both hydrous oxides and layered oxide ion exchangers (e.g., alkali metal titanates). For catalyst applications, the HMO material serves as an ion exchangeable support which facilitates the uniform incorporation of catalyst precursor species. Following catalyst precursor incorporation, an activation step is required to convert the catalyst precursor to the desired active phase. Considerable process development activities at Sandia National Laboratories related to HMO materials have resulted in bulk hydrous titanium oxide (HTO)- and silica-doped hydrous titanium oxide (HTO:Si)-supported NiMo catalysts that are more active in model reactions which simulate direct coal liquefaction (e.g., pyrene hydrogenation) than commercial {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported NiMo catalysts. However, a fundamental explanation does not exist for the enhanced activity of these novel catalyst materials; possible reasons include fundamental differences in support chemistry relative to commercial oxides, high surface area, or catalyst preparation effects (ion exchange vs. incipient wetness impregnation techniques). The goals of this paper are to identify the key factors which control sulfided NiMo catalyst activity, including those characteristics of HTO- and HTO:Si-supported NiMo catalysts which uniquely set them apart from conventional oxide supports.

  10. Physicochemical properties of carbons prepared from pecan shell by phosphoric acid activation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanping; Rockstraw, David A

    2007-05-01

    Activated carbons were prepared from pecan shell by phosphoric acid activation. The pore structure and acidic surface groups of these carbons were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, Boehm titration and transmittance Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The characterization results demonstrated that the development of pore structure was apparent at temperatures 250 degrees C, and reached 1130m(2)/g and 0.34cm(3)/g, respectively, at 500 degrees C. Impregnation ratio and soaking time at activation temperature also affected the pore development and pore size distribution of final carbon products. At an impregnation ratio of 1.5, activated carbon with BET surface area and micropore volume as high as 861m(2)/g and 0.289cm(3)/g was obtained at 400 degrees C. Microporous activated carbons were obtained in this study. Low impregnation ratio (less than 1.5) and activation temperature (less than 300 degrees C) are favorable to the formation of acidic surface functional groups, which consist of temperature-sensitive (unstable at high temperature) and temperature-insensitive (stable at high temperature) two parts. The disappearance of temperature-sensitive groups was significant at temperature 300 degrees C; while the temperature-insensitive groups are stable even at 500 degrees C. FTIR results showed that the temperature-insensitive part was mostly phosphorus-containing groups as well as some carbonyl-containing groups, while carbonyl-containing groups were the main contributor of temperature-sensitive part.

  11. Quarterly Report - May through July 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Laniece E.

    2012-08-09

    The first quarter of my postgraduate internship has been an extremely varied one, and one which I have tackled several different aspects of the project. Because this is the beginning of a new investigation for the Research Library, I think it is appropriate that I explore data management at LANL from multiple perspectives. I have spent a considerable amount of time doing a literature search and taking notes on what I've been reading in preparation for potential writing activities later. The Research Library is not the only research library exploring the possibility of providing services to their user base. The Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) and the Digital Curation Centre (DCC) in the UK are actively pursuing possibilities to preserve the scientific record. DataOne is a U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) initiative aimed at helping to curate bioscience data. This is just a tiny sample of the organizations actively looking into the issues surrounding data management on an organizational, cultural, or technical level. I have included a partial bibliography of some papers I have read. Based on what I read, various discussions, and previous library training, I have begun to document the services I feel I could provide researchers in the context of my internship. This is still very much a work in progress as I learn more about the landscape in libraries and at the Laboratory. I have detailed this process and my thoughts on the issue below. As data management is such a complex and interconnected activity, it is impossible to investigate the organizational and cultural needs of the researchers without familiarizing myself with technologies that could facilitate the local cataloging and preservation of data sets. I have spent some time investigating the repository software DSpace. The library has long maintained the digital object repository aDORe, but the differences in features and lack of a user interface compared to DSpace have made DSpace a good test

  12. Natural gas imports and exports; Fourth quarterly report, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The Office of Fuels Programs prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports with the OFP. This report is for the fourth quarter of 1993 (October--December). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information for gas imported on a short-term basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term basis to Canada and Mexico. During 1993, data indicates gas imports grew by about 10 percent over the 1992 level (2328 vs. 2122 Bcf), with Canadian and Algerian imports increasing by 8 and 82 percent, respectively. During the same time period, exports declined by 41 percent (144 vs. 243 Bcf). Exports to Canada decreased 47 percent from the 1992 level (50 vs. 95 Bcf) and exports to Mexico decreased by 60 percent (38 vs. 95 Bcf).

  13. Preparation and biological activity of quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan conjugated with collagen peptide.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoming; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Yi, Jiayan; Tong, Jun; Wu, Huan; Fan, Lihong

    2014-09-01

    Tissue repair is a spontaneous process which initiated on wounding. If this complex mechanism is disturbed or impaired, the use of biomaterials might increase the chance of successful healing. In this view, a water-soluble chitosan derivative, quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan (QCMC) was prepared and collagen peptides (COPs) were grafted to the backbone by carbodiimide method. The reaction conditions affecting the degree of substitution (DS) were studied including the mass ratio of collagen peptide to QCMC, reaction temperature and reaction time. The hydrogen peroxide-scavenging activity could be different by changing the DS, concentration and molecular weight. MTT assay was used to investigate the cell viability of the derivative. The results indicated that the introduction of collagen peptide into the QCMC improved its hydrogen peroxide-scavenging activity and cell viability with the DS and concentration increased. Therefore, QCMC conjugated with collagen peptides may prove beneficial to the process of the wound-healing.

  14. Preparation and application of abietic acid-derived optically active helical polymers and their chiral hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fei; Zhang, Dongyue; Zhang, Chaohong; Yang, Wantai; Deng, Jianping

    2013-02-01

    A novel chiral monomer N-propargyl abietamide, M1, was synthesized from abietic acid and catalytically polymerized with (nbd)Rh+B-(C6H5)4 (nbd=norbornadiene), providing polymer [poly(1)] with a molecular weight of 13,000-36,000 at a yield of 59-84%. Poly(1) did not form stable helices in tetrahydrofuran at room temperature whereas copolymerization of M1 and the achiral N-propargylamide monomer, M2, led to the formation of helical optically active copolymers as indicated by circular dichroism studies, UV-vis spectroscopy, and specific optical rotation measurements. Hydrogels were prepared based on an optically active helical copolymer, poly(M1(0.32)-co-M2(0.68)) that exhibited enantioselective recognition toward l-alanine. The novel chiral polymers derived from abietic acid are expected to find applications in such areas as chiral recognition, chiral resolution, and chiral catalysis.

  15. Photocatalytic activity and reusability study of nanocrystalline TiO2 films prepared by sputtering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrocas, B.; Monteiro, O. C.; Jorge, M. E. Melo; Sério, S.

    2013-01-01

    The photocatalytic activity of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) films deposited on unheated glass substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering at different oxygen partial pressures was tested on the decolorization of Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) aqueous solutions. The dye photodecolorization process was studied considering the influence of the crystallinity and preferred orientation of growth of the prepared films. It was found that the higher photocatalytic activity was achieved by the film with preferred orientation of growth along the (1 0 1) crystal direction and showing a vestigial rutile phase in a mainly anatase phase. The recycling catalytic ability of the TiO2 films was also evaluated and a promising photocatalytic performance has been revealed with a very low variation of the decay rate after five consecutive usages. Structural and morphological characterization revealed high photochemical stability of the films after successive photodegradations assays.

  16. Education Statistics Quarterly, Fall 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillow, Sally, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    The "Education Statistics Quarterly" gives a comprehensive overview of work done across all parts of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). Each issue contains short publications, summaries, and descriptions that cover all NCES publications and data products released during a 3-month period. Each message also contains a…

  17. Gifted Education Press Quarterly, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Maurice D., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of the newsletter "Gifted Education Press Quarterly" published during 1995. This newsletter addresses issues in the education of gifted children and youth. The major articles are: (1) "Using Today's Technology: Parents Can Help Challenge Gifted Children" (Adrienne O'Neill); (2)…

  18. Gifted Education Press Quarterly, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Maurice D., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Four issues of this quarterly publications on gifted education include the following articles: "Unrecognized Giftedness: The Frustrating Case of the Gifted Adult" (Marylou Kelly Streznewski); "Shakespeare in the Classroom: The Bard is Back!" (Rosanna DiMillo Sandell); "What Teachers, Parents, and Administrators Need To…

  19. Writing: The Quarterly as Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Lawrence F.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to examine how writing has shaped the nature of the Quarterly over 75 years. Here the author explores how stylistic elements have changed over time, how form has interacted with function and content, and how well the resulting text has served the several communities within physical education. He makes the following…

  20. Trustee Quarterly, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trustee Quarterly, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This document contains 4 issues of the Trustee Quarterly: fall 2000, spring 2001, summer 2001, and fall 2001. The fall 2000 issue contains seven features and six departments. Among the features are: "The New Economy: Who Will Lead the Education Movement," by Rucker; "Community Colleges Tackle IT Staffing Challenges," by Matina; and "Looking at…

  1. Gifted Education Press Quarterly, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Maurice D., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    These four issues of a quarterly publication for gifted educators and parents of gifted children span winter 2002 through fall 2002. Featured articles include: (1) "Cultivating Courage, Creativity, and Caring" (James T. Webb), which discusses the need to encourage the development of courage and caring, as well as creativity in gifted students; (2)…

  2. Gifted Education Press Quarterly, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Maurice D., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document consists of the four 1999 issues of a quarterly newsletter publication on gifted education. Issues regularly include major articles, book reviews, announcements, and letters. The major articles in these issues are: "The Mathematically Gifted: Bridging the Gender Gap" (Lynn H. Fox and Janet F. Soller); "Parenting for Education:…

  3. Gifted Education Press Quarterly, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Maurice D., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    These four issues of this quarterly publication on the education of gifted students contain the following featured articles: (1) "Reflections on China: Implications for Gifted Education" (Andrea I. Prejean and Lynn H. Fox); (2) "Differentiating Instruction for Gifted Middle School Students in Heterogeneous Science Classes"…

  4. Reduced Motor Cortex Activity during Movement Preparation following a Period of Motor Skill Practice

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David J.; Holmes, Paul; Di Russo, Francesco; Loporto, Michela; Smith, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Experts in a skill produce movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) of smaller amplitude and later onset than novices. This may indicate that, following long-term training, experts require less effort to plan motor skill performance. However, no longitudinal evidence exists to support this claim. To address this, EEG was used to study the effect of motor skill training on cortical activity related to motor planning. Ten non-musicians took part in a 5-week training study learning to play guitar. At week 1, the MRCP was recorded from motor areas whilst participants played the G Major scale. Following a period of practice of the scale, the MRCP was recorded again at week 5. Results showed that the amplitude of the later pre-movement components were smaller at week 5 compared to week 1. This may indicate that, following training, less activity at motor cortex sites is involved in motor skill preparation. This supports claims for a more efficient motor preparation following motor skill training. PMID:23251647

  5. Preparation of linear maltodextrins using a hyperthermophilic amylopullulanase with cyclodextrin- and starch-hydrolysing activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolei; Li, Dan

    2015-03-30

    A novel method for the preparation of linear maltodextrins from cyclodextrins and starch was proposed. To accomplish this process, an amylopullulanase from hyperthermophilic archaeon Caldivirga maquilingensis (CMApu) was characterized and used. CMApu with an estimated molecular mass of 62.7 kDa by SDS-PAGE had a maximal pullulan-hydrolysing activity at 100°C and pH 5.0. It could also hydrolyse amylopectin (AP), starch, β-CD and amylose (AM), in a decreasing order of relative activities from 88.96% to 57.17%. TLC and HPAEC analysis revealed that CMApu catalyzed the debranching and degrading reactions to produce linear malto-oligosaccharides (≤ G8-G1) from G8-β-CD and/or normal CDs, amylodextrins (DP6-96) from AM, and amylodextrins (DP1-76) from AP and potato starch. Our results showed that CMApu had a great potential for the industrial preparation of linear maltodextrins from normal starch instead of waxy starch, malto-oligosaccharides or sucrose. And the high optimal temperature of CMApu facilitated the simultaneous gelatinization and hydrolysis of cereal starch.

  6. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program: Quarterly report, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report describes activities and reports on progress for the second quarter (October 93 - December 93) of the second year of the grant to support the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP). It reports progress against grant objectives and the Program Implementation Plan published at the end of the first year of the grant.

  7. A 20-Year Retrospective of the Career Development Quarterly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duboltz, Walter C., Jr.; Savickas, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews volumes 23-42 of "Career Development Quarterly," classifying 791 articles into 14 substantive areas of career research and practice devised by Fitzgerald and Rounds. Life-span perspectives on career development and career development interventions were noted as principle areas of research activity and publication. (Author/CRR)

  8. Review of a Proposed Quarterly Coal Publication

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This Review of a Proposed Quartery Coal Publication contains findings and recommendations regarding the content of a new summary Energy Information Administration (EIA) coal and coke publication entitled The Quarterly Coal Review (QCR). It is divided into five sections: results of interviews with selected EIA data users; identification of major functions of the coal and coke industries; analysis of coal and coke data collection activities; evaluation of issues conerning data presentation including recommendations for the content of the proposed QCR; and comparison of the proposed QCR with other EIA publications. Major findings and recommendations are as follows: (1) User interviews indicate a definite need for a compehensive publication that would support analyses and examine economic, supply and demand trends in the coal industry; (2) the organization of the publication should reflect the natural order of activities of the coal and coke industries. Based on an analysis of the industries, these functions are: production, stocks, imports, exports, distribution, and consumption; (3) current EIA coal and coke surveys collect sufficient data to provide a summary of the coal and coke industries on a quarterly basis; (4) coal and coke data should be presented separately. Coke data could be presented as an appendix; (5) three geographic aggregations are recommended in the QCR. These are: US total, coal producing districts, and state; (6) coal consumption data should be consolidated into four major consumer categories: electric utilities, coke plants, other industrial, and residential commercial; (7) several EIA publications could be eliminated by the proposed QCR.

  9. Ethosomes for the delivery of anti-HSV-1 molecules: preparation, characterization and in vitro activity.

    PubMed

    Cortesi, R; Ravani, L; Zaid, A N; Menegatti, E; Romagnoli, R; Drechsler, M; Esposito, E

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the production, characterization and in vitro activity of ethosomes containing two molecules with antiviral activity, such as acyclovir (ACY) and N1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-pyrazole [3,4d]pyridazin-7(6p-chlorine-phenyl)-one nucleoside (N1CP). Ethosomes were prepared and morphologically characterized by Cryo-TEM. The encapsulation efficiency was 92.3 +/- 2.5% for ACY and 94.2 +/- 2.8% for N1CP. The release of the drug from vesicles, determined by a Franz cell method, indicated that both drugs were released in a controlled manner. In order to possibly guarantee the stability during long-term storage ethosome suspensions was freeze-dried. It was found that the freeze-dried ethosomes' cakes were compact, glassy characterized by low density and quick re-hydration. However, the storage time slightly influences the percentage of drug encapsulation within ethosomes showing a drug leakage after re-hydration around 10%. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 of both drugs was tested by plaque reduction assay in monolayer cultures of Vero cells. Data showed that ethosomes allowed a reduction of the ED50 of N1CP evidencing an increase of its antiviral activity. However, ACY remains more active than N1CP. No differences are appreciable between drug-containing ethosomes before and after freeze-drying. Taken together these results, ethosomal formulation could be possibly proposed as mean for topical administration of anti-herpetic molecules.

  10. [Preparation and antitussive, expectorant and antiasthmatic activities of verticinone-bile acids salts].

    PubMed

    Xu, Fang-Zhou; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Ruan, Han-Li; Pi, Hui-Fang; Chen, Chang; Wu, Ji-Zhou

    2007-03-01

    To search for potential drugs with potent antitussive, expectorant, antiasthmatic activities and low toxicity, a series of verticinone-bile acids salts were prepared based on the clearly elucidated antitussive, expectorant and antiasthmatic activities of verticinone in bulbs of Fritillaria and different bile acids in Snake Bile. The antitussive, expectorant and antiasthmatic activities of these verticinone-bile acid salts were then screened with different animal models. Ver-CA (verticinone-cholic acid salt) and Ver-CDCA (verticinone-chenodeoxycholic acid salt) showed much more potent activities than other compounds. The bioactivities of Ver-CA and Ver-CDCA are worthy to be intensively studied, and it is also deserved to pay much attention to their much more potent antitussive effects than codeine phosphate. In order to elucidate whether they have synergistic effect and attenuated toxicity, their activities will be continuously compared with single verticinone, cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid at the same doses on different animal models. The application of "combination principles" in traditional Chinese medicinal formulations may be a novel way in triditional Chinese medicine research and discovery.

  11. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the third quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  12. Quarterly coal report, April--June, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the first quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  13. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.

    1998-08-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information has been integrated in this report. 58 tabs.

  14. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the third quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  15. Preparation of binderless activated carbon monolith from pre-carbonization rubber wood sawdust by controlling of carbonization and activation condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taer, E.; Deraman, M.; Taslim, R.; Iwantono

    2013-09-01

    Binderless activated carbon monolith (ACM) was prepared from pre-carbonized rubber wood sawdust (RWSD). The effect of the carbonization temperature (400, 500, 600, 700, 800 dan 900 °C) on porosity characteristic of the ACM have been studied. The optimum carbonization temperature for obtaining ACM with high surface area of 600 °C with CO2 activation at 800 °C for one hour. At this condition, the surface area as high as 733 m2 g-1 could be successfully obtained. By improved the activation temperature at 900 °C for 2.5 h, it was found that the surface area of 860 m2 g-1. For this condition, the ACM exhibit the specific capacitance of 90 F g-1. In addition the termogravimertic (TG)-differential termografimertic (DTG) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) measurement were also performed on the ACMs and the result has been studied. Finally, it was conclude that the high surface area of ACM from RWSD could be produced by proper selections of carbonization and activation condition.

  16. Catechol-modified activated carbon prepared by the diazonium chemistry for application as active electrode material in electrochemical capacitor.

    PubMed

    Pognon, Grégory; Cougnon, Charles; Mayilukila, Dilungane; Bélanger, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    Activated carbon (Black Pearls 2000) modified with electroactive catechol groups was evaluated for charge storage application as active composite electrode material in an aqueous electrochemical capacitor. High surface area Black Pearls 2000 carbon was functionalized by introduction of catechol groups by spontaneous reduction of catechol diazonium ions in situ prepared in aqueous solution from the corresponding amine. Change in the specific surface area and pore texture of the carbon following grafting was monitored by nitrogen gas adsorption measurements. The electrochemical properties and the chemical composition of the catechol-modified carbon electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Such carbon-modified electrode combines well the faradaic capacitance, originating from the redox activity of the surface immobilized catechol groups, to the electrochemical double layer capacitance of the high surface area Black Pearls carbon. Due to the faradaic contribution, the catechol-modified electrode exhibits a higher specific capacitance (250 F/g) than pristine carbon (150 F/g) over a potential range of -0.4 to 0.75 V in 1 M H(2)SO(4). The stability of the modified electrode evaluated by long-time charge/discharge cycling revealed a low decrease of the capacitance of the catechol-modified carbon due to the loss of the catechol redox activity. Nonetheless, it was demonstrated that the benefit of redox groups persists for 10, 000 constant current charge/discharge cycles.

  17. Catalytic reduction of SO{sub 2} with methane over molybdenum catalyst. Quarterly technical report, September 1, 1994--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltowski, T.

    1995-03-01

    One of the primary concerns in coal utilization is the emission of sulfur compounds, especially SO{sub 2}. This project deals with catalytic reduction of SO{sub 2} with methane using molybdenum sulfide catalyst supported on different activated carbons: Darco TRS, Norit ROZ-3, and an activated carbon prepared from Illinois coal IBC-110. The work conducted during this quarter has concentrated on catalyst preparation and characterization along with synthesis of activated carbon from IBC-110 coal, as well as, construction of the apparatus for catalytic tests of SO{sub 2} reduction with methane. It was found that Darco TRS supported catalysts have larger surface area than the pure activated carbon, whereas the impregnation of Norit ROZ-3 did not significantly change the BET surface area. Also, the synthesis of activated carbon support from IBC-110 is in progress.

  18. Movement preparation and execution: differential functional activation patterns after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Gooijers, Jolien; Beets, Iseult A M; Albouy, Genevieve; Beeckmans, Kurt; Michiels, Karla; Sunaert, Stefan; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2016-09-01

    Years following the insult, patients with traumatic brain injury often experience persistent motor control problems, including bimanual coordination deficits. Previous studies revealed that such deficits are related to brain structural white and grey matter abnormalities. Here, we assessed, for the first time, cerebral functional activation patterns during bimanual movement preparation and performance in patients with traumatic brain injury, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Eighteen patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (10 females; aged 26.3 years, standard deviation = 5.2; age range: 18.4-34.6 years) and 26 healthy young adults (15 females; aged 23.6 years, standard deviation = 3.8; age range: 19.5-33 years) performed a complex bimanual tracking task, divided into a preparation (2 s) and execution (9 s) phase, and executed either in the presence or absence of augmented visual feedback. Performance on the bimanual tracking task, expressed as the average target error, was impaired for patients as compared to controls (P < 0.001) and for trials in the absence as compared to the presence of augmented visual feedback (P < 0.001). At the cerebral level, movement preparation was characterized by reduced neural activation in the patient group relative to the control group in frontal (bilateral superior frontal gyrus, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), parietal (left inferior parietal lobe) and occipital (right striate and extrastriate visual cortex) areas (P's < 0.05). During the execution phase, however, the opposite pattern emerged, i.e. traumatic brain injury patients showed enhanced activations compared with controls in frontal (left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left lateral anterior prefrontal cortex, and left orbitofrontal cortex), parietal (bilateral inferior parietal lobe, bilateral superior parietal lobe, right precuneus, right primary somatosensory cortex), occipital (right striate and extrastriate visual cortices), and

  19. Polymeric Nanoparticles of Brazilian Red Propolis Extract: Preparation, Characterization, Antioxidant and Leishmanicidal Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Nascimento, Ticiano Gomes; da Silva, Priscilla Fonseca; Azevedo, Lais Farias; da Rocha, Louisianny Guerra; de Moraes Porto, Isabel Cristina Celerino; Lima e Moura, Túlio Flávio Accioly; Basílio-Júnior, Irinaldo Diniz; Grillo, Luciano Aparecido Meireles; Dornelas, Camila Braga; Fonseca, Eduardo Jorge da Silva; de Jesus Oliveira, Eduardo; Zhang, Alex Tong; Watson, David G.

    2016-06-01

    The ever-increasing demand for natural products and biotechnology derived from bees and ultra-modernization of various analytical devices has facilitated the rational and planned development of biotechnology products with a focus on human health to treat chronic and neglected diseases. The aim of the present study was to prepare and characterize polymeric nanoparticles loaded with Brazilian red propolis extract and evaluate the cytotoxic activity of "multiple-constituent extract in co-delivery system" for antileishmanial therapies. The polymeric nanoparticles loaded with red propolis extract were prepared with a combination of poly-ɛ-caprolactone and pluronic using nanoprecipitation method and characterized by different analytical techniques, antioxidant and leishmanicidal assay. The red propolis nanoparticles in aqueous medium presented particle size (200-280 nm) in nanometric scale and zeta analysis (-20 to -26 mV) revealed stability of the nanoparticles without aggregation phenomenon during 1 month. After freeze-drying method using cryoprotectant (sodium starch glycolate), it was possible to observe particles with smooth and spherical shape and apparent size of 200 to 400 nm. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermal analysis revealed the encapsulation of the flavonoids from the red propolis extract into the polymeric matrix. Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD) identified the flavonoids liquiritigenin, pinobanksin, isoliquiritigenin, formononetin and biochanin A in ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) and nanoparticles of red propolis extract (NRPE). The efficiency of encapsulation was determinate, and median values (75.0 %) were calculated using UPLC-DAD. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl method showed antioxidant activity to EEP and red propolis nanoparticles. Compared to negative control, EEP and NRPE exhibited leishmanicidal activity with an IC50 value of ≅38.0

  20. Dynamical changes and temporal precision of synchronized spiking activity in monkey motor cortex during movement preparation.

    PubMed

    Riehle, A; Grammont, F; Diesmann, M; Grün, S

    2000-01-01

    Movement preparation is considered to be based on central processes which are responsible for improving motor performance. For instance, it has been shown that motor cortical neurones change their activity selectively in relation to prior information about movement parameters. However, it is not clear how groups of neurones dynamically organize their activity to cope with computational demands. The aim of the study was to compare the firing rate of multiple simultaneously recorded neurones with the interaction between them by describing not only the frequency of occurrence of epochs of significant synchronization, but also its modulation in time and its changes in temporal precision during an instructed delay. Multiple single-neurone activity was thus recorded in monkey motor cortex during the performance of two different delayed multi-directional pointing tasks. In order to detect conspicuous spike coincidences in simultaneously recorded spike trains by tolerating temporal jitter ranging from 0 to 20 ms and to calculate their statistical significance, a modified method of the 'Unitary Events' analysis was used. Two main results were obtained. First, simultaneously recorded neurones synchronize their spiking activity in a highly dynamic way. Synchronization becomes significant only during short periods (about 100 to 200 ms). Several such periods occurred during a behavioural trial more or less regularly. Second, in many pairs of neurones, the temporal precision of synchronous activity was highest at the end of the preparatory period. As a matter of fact, at the beginning of this period, after the presentation of the preparatory signal, neurones significantly synchronize their spiking activity, but with low temporal precision. As time advances, significant synchronization becomes more precise. Data indicate that not only the discharge rate is involved in preparatory processes, but also temporal aspects of neuronal activity as expressed in the precise synchronization

  1. Preparation and activity evaluation of p-n junction photocatalyst NiO/TiO2.

    PubMed

    Shifu, Chen; Sujuan, Zhang; Wei, Liu; Wei, Zhao

    2008-06-30

    p-n Junction photocatalyst NiO/TiO2 was prepared by sol-gel method using Ni(NO3)2.6H2O and tetrabutyl titanate [Ti(OC4H9)4] as the raw materials. The p-n junction photocatalyst NiO/TiO2 was characterized by UV-vis diffuse reflection spectrum, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic activity of the photocatalyst was evaluated by photocatalytic reduction of Cr2O7(2-) and photocatalytic oxidation of rhodamine B. The results show that, for photocatalytic reduction of Cr2O7(2-), the optimum percentage of doped-NiO is 0.5% (mole ratio of Ni/Ti). The photocatalytic activity of the p-n junction NiO/TiO2 is much higher than that of TiO2 on the photocatalytic reduction of Cr2O7(2-). However, the photocatalytic activity of the p-n junction photocatalyst NiO/TiO2 is much lower than that of TiO2 on the photocatalytic oxidation of rhodamine B. Namely, the p-n junction photocatalyst NiO/TiO2 has higher photocatalytic reduction activity, but lower photocatalytic oxidation activity. Effects of heat treatment on the photocatalytic activity of p-n junction photocatalyst NiO/TiO2 were investigated. The mechanisms of influence on the photocatalytic activity were also discussed by the p-n junction principle.

  2. Search for Antiprotozoal Activity in Herbal Medicinal Preparations; New Natural Leads against Neglected Tropical Diseases.

    PubMed

    Llurba Montesino, Núria; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2015-08-04

    Sleeping sickness, Chagas disease, Leishmaniasis, and Malaria are infectious diseases caused by unicellular eukaryotic parasites ("protozoans"). The three first mentioned are classified as Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) by the World Health Organization and together threaten more than one billion lives worldwide. Due to the lack of research interest and the high increase of resistance against the existing treatments, the search for effective and safe new therapies is urgently required. In view of the large tradition of natural products as sources against infectious diseases [1,2], the aim of the present study is to investigate the potential of legally approved and marketed herbal medicinal products (HMPs) as antiprotozoal agents. Fifty-eight extracts from 53 HMPs on the German market were tested by a Multiple-Target-Screening (MTS) against parasites of the genera Leishmania, Trypanosoma, and Plasmodium. Sixteen HMPs showed in vitro activity against at least one of the pathogens (IC50 < 10 µg/mL). Six extracts from preparations of Salvia, Valeriana, Hypericum, Silybum, Arnica, and Curcuma exhibited high activity (IC50 < 2.5 µg/mL). They were analytically characterized by UHPLC/ESI-QqTOF-MSMS and the activity-guided fractionation of the extracts with the aim to isolate and identify the active compounds is in progress.

  3. Sorption of lanthanum and erbium from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from rice husk.

    PubMed

    Awwad, N S; Gad, H M H; Ahmad, M I; Aly, H F

    2010-12-01

    A biomass agricultural waste material, rice husk (RH) was used for preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation using phosphoric acid. The effect of various factors, e.g. time, pH, initial concentration and temperature of carbon on the adsorption capacity of lanthanum and erbium was quantitatively determined. It was found that the monolayer capacity is 175.4 mg g(-1) for La(III) and 250 mg g(-1) for Er(III). The calculated activation energy of La(III) adsorption on the activated carbon derived from rice husk was equal to 5.84 kJ/mol while it was 3.6 kJ/mol for Er(III), which confirm that the reaction is mainly particle-diffusion-controlled. The kinetics of sorption was described by a model of a pseudo-second-order. External diffusion and intra-particular diffusion were examined. The experimental data show that the external diffusion and intra-particular diffusion are significant in the determination of the sorption rate. Therefore, the developed sorbent is considered as a better replacement technology for removal of La(III) and Er(III) ions from aqueous solution due to its low-cost and good efficiency, fast kinetics, as well as easy to handle and thus no or small amount of secondary sludge is obtained in this application.

  4. Memory enhancing activity of Anwala churna (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.): an Ayurvedic preparation.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Mani; Parle, Milind

    2007-05-16

    Ayurveda means "the science of life". Ayur means "life" and Veda means "knowledge or science". It is the oldest medical system in the world. Its origins can be traced as far back as 4500 BC, to four ancient books of knowledge, (the "Vedas") and it is still officially recognized by the government of India. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of Anwala churna (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), an Ayurvedic preparation on memory, total serum cholesterol levels and brain cholinesterase activity in mice. Anwala churna was administered orally in three doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) for fifteen days to different groups of young and aged mice. Elevated plus maze and passive avoidance apparatus served as the exteroceptive behavioral models for testing memory. Diazepam-, scopolamine- and ageing-induced amnesia served as the interoceptive behavioral models. Total serum cholesterol levels and brain cholinesterase activity also estimated. Anwala churna (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a dose-dependent improvement in memory scores of young and aged mice. Furthermore, it reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Interestingly, brain cholinesterase activity and total cholesterol levels were reduced by Anwala churna administered orally for 15 days. Anwala churna may prove to be a useful remedy for the management of Alzheimer's disease on account of its multifarious beneficial effects such as, memory improving property, cholesterol lowering property and anticholinesterase activity.

  5. Preparation of low molecular weight fucoidan by gamma-irradiation and its anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2013-09-12

    Fucoidan is a marine sulfated polysaccharide with a wide variety of biological activities. Recently, it has been reported that low molecular weight fucoidan has the enhanced antioxidant and anticoagulative activities. However, degradation techniques such as enzymolysis and acid hydrolysis for obtaining low molecular weight fucoidan, have the disadvantages such as narrow substrate specificity and unfavorable hydrolysis of side groups, respectively. In this study, low molecular weight fucoidan was prepared by gamma-irradiation. When fucoidan was gamma-irradiated, the molecular weight rapidly dropped to 38 kDa when the sample was irradiated at 10 kGy, then gradually dropped to 7 kDa without the significant elimination of the sulfate groups. Low molecular weight fucoidan had higher cytotoxicity than native fucoidan in cancer cells, such as AGS, MCF-7, and HepG-2. In addition, low molecular weight fucoidan showed higher inhibitory activity of cell transformation, which resulted in higher anticarcinogenicity. This result suggests that low molecular weight fucoidan with enhanced biological activities can be produced by a simple irradiation method without changing the functional groups.

  6. Preparation of activated carbon from corn cob and its adsorption behavior on Cr(VI) removal.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shuxiong; Chen, Yao; Xie, Ruzhen; Jiang, Wenju; Jiang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Operation experiments were conducted to optimize the preparation of activated carbons from corn cob. The Cr(VI) adsorption capacity of the produced activated carbons was also evaluated. The impact of the adsorbent dosage, contact time, initial solution pH and temperature was studied. The results showed that the produced corn cob activated carbon had a good Cr(VI) adsorptive capacity; the theoretical maximum adsorption was 34.48 mg g(-1) at 298 K. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller and iodine adsorption value of the produced activated carbon could be 924.9 m(2) g(-1) and 1,188 mg g(-1), respectively. Under the initial Cr(VI) concentration of 10 mg L(-1) and the original solution pH of 5.8, an adsorption equilibrium was reached after 4 h, and Cr(VI) removal rate was from 78.9 to 100% with an adsorbent's dosage increased from 0.5 to 0.7 g L(-1). The kinetics and equilibrium data agreed well with the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and the Langmuir isotherm model. The equilibrium adsorption capacity improved with the increment of the temperature.

  7. [Active carbon from Thalia dealbata residues: its preparation and adsorption performance to crystal violet].

    PubMed

    Chu, Shu-Yi; Yang, Min; Xiao, Ji-Bo; Zhang, Jun; Zhu, Yan-Ping; Yan, Xiang-Jun; Tian, Guang-Ming

    2013-06-01

    By using phosphoric acid as activation agent, active carbon was prepared from Thalia dealbata residues. The BET specific surface area of the active carbon was 1174.13 m2 x g(-1), micropore area was 426.99 m2 x g(-1), and average pore diameter was 3.23 nm. An investigation was made on the adsorption performances of the active carbon for crystal violet from aqueous solution under various conditions of pH, initial concentration of crystal violet, contact time, and contact temperature. It was shown that the adsorbed amount of crystal violet was less affected by solution pH, and the adsorption process could be divided into two stages, i. e., fast adsorption and slow adsorption, which followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. At the temperature 293, 303, and 313 K, the adsorption process was more accordance with Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 409.83, 425.53, and 438.59 mg x g(-1), respectively. In addition, the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic, and the randomness of crystal violet molecules increased.

  8. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 54, 3rd Quarter 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    undergone over 40 surgeries and perseveres through an arduous regimen of therapy H ndupress .ndu.edu issue 54, 3 d quarter 2009 / JFQ 9 MULLEN...which there has never been an accounting. In addition to the extreme repression of its citizenry—no kites, no music , no female education, execu...that verdict as premature , yet it is interest- ing to note that the turnaround in Iraq involved the emergence of an admittedly unusual external

  9. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 66, 3rd Quarter 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    core combat systems are interactive with one another, creating a synergistic outcome and capability rather than providing an additive- segmented tool ...J o i n t F o r c e Q u a r t e r l y issue 66, 3rd Quarter 2012 Achieving Force Resilience Offensive Cyber Joint System Assessments Report...cross-pollination” of students on a large scale. At a joint-minded level, we need to rethink our Service personnel systems , which could enhance the

  10. Remediation of anionic dye from aqueous system using bio-adsorbent prepared by microwave activation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arush; Sharma, Gaurav; Naushad, Mu; Ghfar, Ayman A; Pathania, Deepak

    2017-04-07

    The present study was attempted to ascertain the possible application of activated carbon as cost effective and eco-friendly adsorbent prepared via microwave (MW) assisted chemical activation. The activated carbon was characterized using different techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The various adsorption parameters have been optimized to examine the viability of activated carbon as a plausible sorbent for the remediation of Congo red (CR) dye from aquatic system. The adsorption equilibrium was interpreted using Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isotherms. The equilibrium data adequately fitted to Langmuir isotherm with stronger R(2) (0.994). The maximum adsorption capacity (qm) of activated carbon was recorded to be 68.96 mg/g. Additionally, sorptional kinetic data were examined by reaction based and diffusion based models such as pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich model and intra-particle diffusion, Dumwald-Wagner models, respectively. The experimental results indicated that pseudo-second-order equation and Elovich model better discuss the adsorption kinetics. The computed values of thermodynamic parameters such as free energy change (ΔG(0)), enthalpy change (ΔH(0)) and entropy change (ΔS(0)) were recorded as -3.63 kJ/mol, 42.47 kJ/mol, 152.07 J/mol K, respectively at 30°C, which accounted for favorable, spontaneous and endothermic process. The regeneration study emphasized that percentage uptake declined from 90.35 to 83.45% after 6cycles of testing. So, our findings implied that activated carbon produced from biomass must be cost-effectively used as an adsorbent for detoxifying the CR dye from industrial effluents.

  11. Enzyme encapsulation in silica gel prepared by polylysine and its catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawachi, Yuki; Kugimiya, Shin-ichi; Nakamura, Hitomi; Kato, Katsuya

    2014-09-01

    Enzymes used in industrial applications are often immobilized onto different types of supports because they are sensitive to pH, temperature, and various other environmental conditions. However, many of the current immobilization approaches face problems such as the requirement of tedious multi-step procedures, loss of enzyme activity during immobilization, and poor reusability. In this study, we chose poly-L-lysine (Ki) as a catalyst for silica mineralization and attempted a one-step “leave to stand” synthesis method under mild conditions, so as to simultaneously maintain both high enzymatic activity and reusability. To examine the effect of Kx on the enzymatic reaction of lipase, we performed hydrolysis of 2-octylacetate without adding a silica precursor. Results indicate that Kx hardly exerts adverse influence on the enzymatic activity of lipase. The lipase encapsulated in the silica gel prepared by leave to stand (Gelstand) retained 70% of the activity compared to the free solution, which is two times higher than that obtained by mixing (Gelmix). However, the Km value was found to be similar to that of free enzymes. These results suggest that the leave to stand is a suitable procedure for immobilization, without any decrease in the mass transfer of substrate. The Gel-stand sample retained 100% activity even after the 5th cycle, and retained above 95% of its activity after 4 h of heat treatment at 65 °C. Using phenyltriethoxysilane as a silica precursor, tertiary structural stability of enzyme was obtained, and its Kcat value was improved when compared to a free solution.

  12. Preparation, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of chitin nanofibrils reinforced carrageenan nanocomposite films.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Shiv; Reddy, Jeevan Prasad; Rhim, Jong-Whan; Kim, Hee-Yun

    2015-03-06

    Present study illustrates the preparation of chitin nanofibrils (CNF) reinforced carrageenan nanocomposite films by the solution-casting technique. CNF was prepared by acid hydrolysis of chitin, followed by high speed homogenization and sonication. FTIR result demonstrated that the chemical structure of chitin had not changed after acid hydrolysis. However, the crystalinity of CNF was found to be higher than chitin. The crystallite size of chitin and CNF was 4.73 and 6.27 nm, respectively. The char content at 600 °C of chitin (19.2%) was lower than the CNF (25%). The carrageenan/CNF composite films were smooth and flexible and the CNF was dispersed uniformly in the carrageenan polymer matrix. The tensile strength and modulus of carrageenan film were increased significantly (p<0.05) after CNF reinforcement with up to 5 wt%, however, elongation at break, water vapor permeability, and transparency decreased slightly. Carrageenan/CNF nanocomposite films showed strong antibacterial activity against a Gram-positive food-borne pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes.

  13. Preparation and use of carbonyl-decorated carbenes in the activation of white phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Torres, Antonio J; Dorsey, Christopher L; Hudnall, Todd W

    2014-10-03

    Here we present a protocol for the synthesis of two distinct carbonyl-decorated carbenes. Both carbenes can be prepared using nearly identical procedures in multi-gram scale quantities. The goal of this manuscript is to clearly detail how to handle and prepare these unique carbenes such that a synthetic chemist of any skill level can work with them. The two carbenes described are a diamidocarbene (DAC, carbene 1) and a monoamidoaminocarbene (MAAC 2). These carbenes are highly electron-deficient and as such display reactivity profiles that are atypical of more traditional N-heterocyclic carbenes. Additionally, these two carbenes only differ in their electrophilic character and not their steric parameters, making them ideal for studying how carbene electronics influence reactivity. To demonstrate this phenomenon, we are also describing the activation of white phosphorus (P4) using these carbenes. Depending on the carbene used, two very different phosphorus-containing compounds can be isolated. When the DAC 1 is used, a tris(phosphaalkenyl)phosphane can be isolated as the exclusive product. Remarkably however, when MAAC 2 is added to P4 under identical reaction conditions, an unexpected carbene-supported P8 allotrope of phosphorus is isolated exclusively. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that this carbene-supported P8allotrope forms via a [2+2] cycloaddition dimerization of a transient diphosphene which has been trapped by treatment with 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene.

  14. Activated carbon fibers/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid composite scaffolds: preparation and characterizations.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yanni; Han, Hao; Quan, Haiyu; Zang, Yongju; Wang, Ning; Ren, Guizhi; Xing, Melcolm; Wu, Qilin

    2014-10-01

    The present work is a first trial to introduce activated carbon fibers (ACF) with high adsorption capacity into poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA), resulting in a novel kind of scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. ACF, prepared via high-temperature processing of carbon fibers, are considered to possess bioactivity and biocompatibility. The ACF/PLGA composite scaffolds are prepared by solvent casting/particulate leaching method. Increments in both pore quantity and quality over the surface of ACF as well as a robust combination between ACF and PLGA matrix are observed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The high adsorption capacity of ACF is confirmed by methylene blue solution absorbency test. The surfaces of ACF are affiliated with many hydrophilic groups and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, the SEM images show that cells possess a favorable spreading morphology on the ACF/PLGA scaffolds. Besides, vivo experiments are also carried out to evaluate the histocompatibility of the composite scaffolds. The results show that ACF have the potential to become one of the most promising materials in biological fields.

  15. Impact of active ingredients on the swelling properties of orally disintegrating tablets prepared by microwave treatment.

    PubMed

    Sano, Syusuke; Iwao, Yasunori; Kimura, Susumu; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2014-07-01

    The impact of different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) loading on the properties of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) prepared according to our previously reported microwave (MW) treatment process was evaluated using famotidine (FAM), acetaminophen (AAP), and ibuprofen (IBU). None of the APIs interrupted the tablet swelling during the MW treatment and the tablet hardness were improved by more than 20 N. MW treatment, however, led to a significant increase in the disintegration time of the ODTs containing IBU, but it had no impact on that of the ODTs containing FAM or AAP. This increased disintegration time of the ODTs containing IBU was attributed to the relatively low melting point of IBU (Tm=76 °C), with the IBU particles melting during the MW treatment to form agglomerates, which interrupted the penetration of water into the tablets and delayed their disintegration. The effects of the MW treatment on the chemical stability and dissolution properties of ODTs were also evaluated. The results revealed that MW treatment did not promote the degradations of FAM and AAP or delay their release from the ODTs, while dissolution of the ODTs containing IBU delayed by MW treatment. Based on these results, the MW method would be applicable to the preparation of ODTs containing APIs with melting points higher than 110 °C.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of thin solid films of silver doped hydroxyapatite prepared by sol-gel method.

    PubMed

    Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Chapon, Patrick; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Predoi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were reported and their antimicrobial activity was characterized. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp) thin films coatings substrate was prepared on commercially pure Si disks by sol-gel method. The silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were characterized by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy Dispersive X-ray attachment (X-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). These techniques have permitted the structural and chemical characterisation of the silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp thin films on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then investigated. This is the first study on the antimicrobial effect of Ag:HAp thin films obtained by sol-gel method. The results of this study have shown that the Ag:HAp thin films with x(Ag) = 0.5 are effective against E. coli and S. aureus after 24 h.

  17. The preparation, characterization and actuation behavior of polyaniline and cellulose blended electro-active paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Amalraj; Mahadeva, Suresha K.; Kim, Jaehwan

    2010-04-01

    This paper reports polyaniline and cellulose blended electro-active paper (EAPap) that can produce large bending displacement at ambient humidity conditions with long lifetime durability. A novel solution processable polyaniline-p-toluene sulfonate (PANI-PTSA) salt was prepared by an inverted emulsion polymerization technique using benzoyl peroxide and p-toluene sulfonic acid. Cellulose solution prepared by dissolving cotton with lithium chloride/N, N-dimethylacetamide was mixed with the PANI emaraldine salt solution and a cellulose-PANI blended film was obtained. The obtained cellulose-PANI film was characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible), x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and tensile test methods. A cellulose-PANI EAPap actuator was made by depositing very thin gold electrodes on both sides of the cellulose-PANI film. When the actuator performance of the cellulose-PANI EAPap was evaluated in terms of bending displacement with respect to the actuation frequencies, voltages and relative humidity levels, a large bending displacement was shown at ambient humidity conditions with long lifetime durability.

  18. Preparation of active layers in polymer solar cells by aerosol jet printing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunhe; Zhou, Erjun; Miyanishi, Shoji; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Tajima, Keisuke

    2011-10-01

    Active layers of polymer solar cells were prepared by aerosol jet printing of organic inks. Various solvents and additives with high boiling points were screened for the preparation of high-quality polymer films. The effects on device performance of treating the films by thermal and solvent vapor annealing were also investigated. The components of the solvent were important for controlling the drying rate of the liquid films, reducing the number of particle-like protrusions on the film surface, and realizing high molecular ordering in the polymer phases. The optimized solar cell device with poly(3-hexylthiophene) and a C(60) derivative showed a high fill factor of 67% and power conversion efficiency of 2.53% without thermal annealing. The combination of poly[N-9-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-3,6-bis(thiophen-5-yl)-2,5-diethylhexyl-2,5-dihydropyrrolo-[3,4-]pyrrole-1,4-dione] and a C(70) derivative led to power conversion efficiency of 3.92 and 3.14% for device areas of 0.03 and 1 cm(2), respectively.

  19. Preparation of thermosensitive magnetic liposome encapsulated recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for targeted thrombolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hao-Lung; Chen, Jyh-Ping

    2017-04-01

    Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) was encapsulated in thermosensitive magnetic liposome (TML) prepared from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, distearolyphosphatidyl ethanolamine-N-poly(ethylene glycol) 2000, cholesterol and Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles by solvent evaporation/sonication and freeze-thaw cycles method. Response surface methodology was proved to be a powerful tool to predict the drug encapsulation efficiency and temperature-sensitive drug release. Validation experiments verified the accuracy of the model that provides a simple and effective method for fabricating TML with controllable encapsulation efficiency and predictable temperature-sensitive drug release behavior. The prepared samples were characterized for physico-chemical properties by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Temperature-sensitive release of rtPA could be confirmed from in vitro thrombolysis experiments. A thrombolytic drug delivery system using TML could be proposed for magnetic targeted delivery of rtPA to the site of thrombus followed by temperature-triggered controlled drug release in an alternating magnetic field.

  20. (Shippingport Atomic Power Station). Quarterly operating report, first quarter 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    At the beginning of the first quarter of 1982, the Shippingport Atomic Power Station remained shutdown for the planned 1981 to 1982 Winter Shutdown, initiated December 11, 1981. The station was in a cooldown condition at approximately 150/sup 0/F and 280 psig with a steam bubble maintained in the pressurizer and the reactor coolant pumps in slow speed. The reactor plant cooldown heat exchanger was in service to maintain coolant temperature. The 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D reactor coolant loops and the 1AC and 18D purification loops remained in service. The 1A, 1B, and 1C 991 psig self-actuated steam relief valves remained gagged during the quarter to prevent leakage through the valve seats. The 1D steam relief valve was removed during the Spring 1980 Shutdown for repairs and a blind flange was installed in its place. Gagging and/or removing of redundant relief valves is permitted by ASME Code and approved operating procedures. During the first quarter of 1982, a total of 1028 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste was shipped out of state for burial. The shipments contained 0.032 curies of radioactivity.

  1. Vasorelaxing activity of stable powder preparations of dinitrosyl iron complexes with cysteine or glutathione ligands.

    PubMed

    Vanin, Anatoly F; Mokh, Vladimir P; Serezhenkov, Vladimir A; Chazov, Evgeny I

    2007-05-01

    Vasorelaxant activity of new stable powder preparations of dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC) with thiol-containing ligands was investigated on rat abdominal aorta rings. The preparations preserve their physicochemical characteristics (EPR and optical absorption) if stored for a long time in dry air (at least half-year). Three preparations of DNIC were tested: diamagnetic dimeric DNIC with glutathione (DNIC-GS 1:2) or cysteine (DNIC-cys 1:2) and paramagnetic monomeric DNIC with cysteine (DNIC-cys 1:20). Being dissolved in physiological solution the preparations induced relaxation of vessel similarly to that by earlier described non-stable DNICs which should be stored in liquid nitrogen. The amplitudes and kinetic characteristics of the relaxation were dependent on the incorporated thiolate ligands. Rapid transient relaxation followed by significant tone recovery to stationary level (plateau) was observed for DNIC-cys 1:2. DNIC-cys 1:20 also induced initial rapid relaxation followed by incomplete tone recovery. DNIC-GS 1:2 induced slow developing and long lasting relaxation. NO scavenger, hydroxocobalamin (2x10(-5)M) eliminated the rapid transitory relaxation induced by DNIC-cys 1:20 and did not influence significantly on the plateau level. SOD increased duration of the DNIC-cys 1:2 and DNIC-cys 1:20 induced relaxation. The addition of 5x10(-5)M DNIC-cys 1:2 or DNIC-cys 1:20 induced long lasting vasorelaxation within 20min and more. However the EPR measurements demonstrated full rapid disappearance (within 1-2min) of both type of DNIC-cys in Krebs medium bubbled with carbogen gas. This was not the case for DNIC-GS 1:2. We suggested that the long lasting vasorelaxation observed during the addition of DNICs-cys was induced by S-nitrosocysteine derived from DNICs-cys and stabilized by EDTA in Krebs medium. The suggestion is in line with the fact that strong ferrous chelator bathophenantroline disulfonate (BPDS) which is capable of rapid degradation of DNICs did not

  2. Removal of dyes from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from rice husk residue.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaxin; Zhang, Xian; Yang, Ruiguang; Li, Guiying; Hu, Changwei

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of dye wastewater by activated carbon (AC) prepared from rice husk residue wastes was studied. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to investigate the effects of contact time, initial concentration (50-450 mg/L), pH (3-11) and temperature (30-70 °C) on the removal of methylene blue (MB), neutral red, and methyl orange. Kinetic investigation revealed that the adsorption of dyes followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The results suggested that AC was effective to remove dyes, especially MB, from aqueous solutions. Desorption studies found that chemisorption by the adsorbent might be the major mode of dye removal. Fourier transform infrared results suggested that dye molecules were likely to combine with the O-H and P=OOH groups of AC.

  3. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of manganese doped TiO(2) immobilized on silica gel.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuehua; Lei, Bo; Guo, Laiqiu; Zhou, Wuyi; Liu, Youqin

    2008-12-15

    A series of Mn-TiO(2)/SiO(2) (silica gel loaded with manganese doped TiO(2)) photocatalysts have been prepared by sol-gel method, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Photocatalytic activities were enhanced in photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange over Mn-TiO(2)/SiO(2). XPS analysis shows that a Ti-O-Si or Ti-O-Mn bond is formed on the surface of photocatalyst. Mn is doped as a mixture of Mn(2+) and Mn(3+) on the surface of 1.0mol% Mn-TiO(2)/SiO(2). Mn(3+) appears to trap electrons and prohibit the electron-hole recombination. The electrons trapped in Mn(3+) site are subsequently transferred to the adsorbed O(2). As a result, the combination of the electron-hole pair was reduced.

  4. Preparation of graphite-like carbon nitride nanoflake film with strong fluorescent and electrochemiluminescent activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lichan; Huang, Danjun; Ren, Shuyan; Dong, Tongqing; Chi, Yuwu; Chen, Guonan

    2012-12-01

    The preparation, characterization, fluorescence (FL) and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of graphite-like carbon nitride nanoflake particles (g-C3N4 NFPs) and nanoflake films (g-C3N4 NFFs) have been reported. Highly water-dispersible g-C3N4 NFPs with a height of ~5 to 35 nm and a lateral dimension of ~40 to 220 nm have been extracted from bulk g-C3N4 materials by chemical oxidation. New, stable and defined g-C3N4 NFFs can be easily obtained by drying NFPs on certain hydrophilic substrates such as glass or electrode surfaces. Both g-C3N4 NFPs and g-C3N4 NFFs have good FL activities, i.e. they can give strong blue light (435 nm) emission under UV light (365 nm) excitation. The as-prepared g-C3N4 NFFs on a glassy carbon electrode exhibit strong non-surface state ECL activity in the presence of reductive-oxidative coreactants, including dissolved oxygen (O2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and peroxydisulfate (S2O82-) and give rise to blue light emission (435 nm), which is the same as the wavelength of FL. The non-surface state ECL mechanisms of the g-C3N4 NFF-coreactant systems have been studied and discussed in detail.The preparation, characterization, fluorescence (FL) and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of graphite-like carbon nitride nanoflake particles (g-C3N4 NFPs) and nanoflake films (g-C3N4 NFFs) have been reported. Highly water-dispersible g-C3N4 NFPs with a height of ~5 to 35 nm and a lateral dimension of ~40 to 220 nm have been extracted from bulk g-C3N4 materials by chemical oxidation. New, stable and defined g-C3N4 NFFs can be easily obtained by drying NFPs on certain hydrophilic substrates such as glass or electrode surfaces. Both g-C3N4 NFPs and g-C3N4 NFFs have good FL activities, i.e. they can give strong blue light (435 nm) emission under UV light (365 nm) excitation. The as-prepared g-C3N4 NFFs on a glassy carbon electrode exhibit strong non-surface state ECL activity in the presence of reductive-oxidative coreactants, including dissolved oxygen (O2

  5. Preparation and antibacterial activity of the oligosaccharides derived from Rhizoma Phragmites.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhi-Gang; Jiang, Long-Fa

    2014-10-13

    In this study, we prepared Rhizoma Phragmites derived oligosaccharides (ROs) by hydrolysis with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The ROs yield was affected by reaction time, temperature, and H2O2 concentration. Too long reaction time and too high temperature decreased the ROs yield. Maximum ROs yield (11.26%) was obtained at reaction time 4h, temperature 75 °C, and H2O2 concentration 3.5% (v/v). The oligosaccharides sample contained 93.16% sugar, of which the average degree was approximately 11, was water-soluble, and showed white. The ROs had the highest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, followed by Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli at the concentration of 100 μg/mL.

  6. Preparation of a novel silk microfiber covered by AgCl nanoparticles with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qifan; Xu, Zongpu; Hu, Binhui; He, Xiuling; Zhu, Liangjun

    2017-03-01

    We prepared silk fibroin microfibers in which silver chloride (AgCl) nanoparticles were dispersed, by sequential dipping of microfibers obtained using alkaline hydrolysis in alternating solutions of silver nitrate and potassium chloride. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed an increase in nanoparticle size and quantity with increase in dipping cycles and solution concentration, but ultrasound irradiation did not affect nanoparticle formation. The presence of cubic AgCl crystals was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the nanoparticles do not affect the microfiber properties. The growth of Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria was inhibited by microfiber covered with AgCl nanoparticles. This antimicrobial activity allows to use microfiber as a reinforced or surface additive biomaterial. Microsc. Res. Tech. 80:272-279, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Novel Cu@SiO2/bacterial cellulose nanofibers: Preparation and excellent performance in antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bo; Huang, Yang; Zhu, Chunlin; Chen, Chuntao; Chen, Xiao; Fan, Mengmeng; Sun, Dongping

    2016-05-01

    The antibacterial composite based on bacterial cellulose (BC) was successfully prepared by in-situ synthesis of SiO2 coated Cu nanoparticles (Cu@SiO2/BC) and its properties were characterized. Its chemical structures and morphologies were evaluated by Fourier transformation infrared spectrum (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results demonstrated that the SiO2 coated Cu particles were well homogeneously precipitated on the surface of BC. The Cu@SiO2/BC was more resistant to oxidation than the Cu nanoparticles impregnated into BC (Cu/BC) and then Cu@SiO2/BC could prolong the antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli).

  8. Preparation of silver nanoparticles loaded graphene oxide nanosheets for antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    T, T. T., Vi; Lue, S. J.

    2016-11-01

    A simple, facile method to fabricate successfully silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) decorated on graphene oxide (GO) layers via grafted thiol groups. Samples were prepared with different concentrations of AgNO3. Resulting AgNPs were quasi-spherical in shape and attached on the layers of GO. Physical properties were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential, dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Antimicrobial test was effectively showed using MRSA (Staphylococcus areus). The GO-Ag NPs with appropriate Ag NPs content of 0.2 M AgNO3 exhibited the strongest antibacterial activity at 48.77% inhibition after 4 hours incubation.

  9. Preparation of magnetic porous carbon from waste hydrochar by simultaneous activation and magnetization for tetracycline removal.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiangdong; Liu, Yuchen; Qian, Feng; Zhou, Chao; Zhang, Shicheng; Chen, Jianmin

    2014-02-01

    In the present work, a novel magnetic porous carbon (MPC) with maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) particles is facilely prepared from hydrochar (a solid residue of hydrothermal carbonization of biomass) in one step through simultaneous activation and magnetization. The resultant MPC is characterized and utilized as an adsorbent for tetracycline (TC) removal from aqueous solutions. The BET surface area and micropore volume of the MPC are found to be 349 m(2)g(-1) and 0.16 cm(3)g(-1), respectively. The adsorption kinetics data could be well described by the pseudo-second-order model, and the TC adsorption onto MPC is an endothermic and spontaneous process. The enhanced surface area of the MPC, as well as its graphite-like structure, may contribute to the adsorption capacity of TC. After adsorption, MPC could be effectively separated by applying a magnetic field.

  10. [Preparation and evaluation of antibacterial activity of partial fractions of Vallesia antillana Wood].

    PubMed

    Rojas Hernández, N M; Cuellar Cuellar, A

    1978-01-01

    A study on the antibacterial properties of alkaloidal fractions of Vallesia antillana Wood, a Cuban plant belonging to the Apocynaceae family, is performed for the first time. Four partial fractions from bark of stems were prepared according to a classical extraction of total alkaloids and a partial fractionation of these, with the use of tartaric acid and ethyl ether and by a pH gradient with values of 2.5, 5.0, 7.0 and alkaline one. Data from thin layer chromatography on the alkaloidal content of different fractions are added and an assessment of antibacterial activity was made; for this, a method of sections in agar medium with bacterial species of human clinical interest was used; inhibitory halos found within 24 hours of incubation at 37 degrees C are reported in millimeters.

  11. Evaluation of sample preparation methods for water activity determination in jerky and kippered beef: a research note.

    PubMed

    Harper, N M; Getty, K J K; Boyle, E A E

    2010-10-01

    Commercially available packaged whole muscle beef jerky, chopped and formed beef jerky, and kippered beef steak were obtained from retail stores to determine the effect of two sample preparation methods on water activity (a(w)). Intact samples were prepared by cutting product into a hexagonal shape with a 3.2 cm diameter. Diced samples were prepared by cutting the product into 0.4 x 0.4 cm squares. Whole muscle jerky a(w) was higher (0.016 units; P<0.001) using the intact method compared to the diced method. There was no difference (P>0.05) in a(w) levels between the two preparation methods for chopped and formed jerky or kippered beef steak. An intact sample preparation method is recommended for a(w) determination of whole muscle jerky to obtain a more conservative value, especially if a(w) is near the margin of safety.

  12. Preparation, Characterization and Activity of a Peptide-Cellulosic Aerogel Protease Sensor from Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, J. Vincent; Fontenot, Krystal R.; Prevost, Nicolette T.; Pircher, Nicole; Liebner, Falk; Condon, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    Nanocellulosic aerogels (NA) provide a lightweight biocompatible material with structural properties, like interconnected high porosity and specific surface area, suitable for biosensor design. We report here the preparation, characterization and activity of peptide-nanocellulose aerogels (PepNA) made from unprocessed cotton and designed with protease detection activity. Low-density cellulosic aerogels were prepared from greige cotton by employing calcium thiocyanate octahydrate/lithium chloride as a direct cellulose dissolving medium. Subsequent casting, coagulation, solvent exchange and supercritical carbon dioxide drying afforded homogeneous cellulose II aerogels of fibrous morphology. The cotton-based aerogel had a porosity of 99% largely dominated by mesopores (2–50 nm) and an internal surface of 163 m2·g−1. A fluorescent tripeptide-substrate (succinyl-alanine-proline-alanine-4-amino-7-methyl-coumarin) was tethered to NA by (1) esterification of cellulose C6 surface hydroxyl groups with glycidyl-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (FMOC), (2) deprotection and (3) coupling of the immobilized glycine with the tripeptide. Characterization of the NA and PepNA included techniques, such as elemental analysis, mass spectral analysis, attenuated total reflectance infrared imaging, nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy and bioactivity studies. The degree of substitution of the peptide analog attached to the anhydroglucose units of PepNA was 0.015. The findings from mass spectral analysis and attenuated total reflectance infrared imaging indicated that the peptide substrate was immobilized on to the surface of the NA. Nitrogen adsorption revealed a high specific surface area and a highly porous system, which supports the open porous structure observed from scanning electron microscopy images. Bioactivity studies of PepNA revealed a detection sensitivity of 0.13 units/milliliter for human neutrophil elastase, a diagnostic biomarker for inflammatory diseases. The

  13. Fiber Tract Stimulation Can Reduce Epileptiform Activity in an in-vitro Bilateral Hippocampal Slice Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Toprani, Sheela; Durand, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is a common medically refractory neurological disease that has been treated with electrical stimulation of gray matter with limited success. However, stimulation of a white matter tract connecting the hippocampi could maximize treatment efficacy and extent. We tested low-frequency stimulation (LFS) of a novel target that enables simultaneous targeting of bilateral hippocampi: the ventral hippocampal commissure (VHC) with a novel in-vitro slice preparation containing bilateral hippocampi connected by the VHC. The goal of this study is to understand the role of hippocampal interplay in seizure propagation and reduction by commissural fiber tract stimulation. LFS is applied to the VHC as extracellular and intracellular recording techniques are combined with signal processing to estimate several metrics of epilepsy including: (1) total time occupied by seizure activity (%); (2) seizure duration (s); (3) seizures per minute (#); and (4) power in the ictal (V2Hz−1); as well as (5) interictal spectra (V2Hz−1). Bilateral epileptiform activity in this preparation is highly correlated between hippocampi. Application of LFS to the VHC reduces all metrics of epilepsy during treatment in an amplitude and frequency dependent manner. This study lends several insights into the mechanisms of bilateral seizure reduction by LFS of the VHC, including that depolarization blocking, LTD/LTP and GABAA are not involved. Importantly, enhanced post-stimulation 1-Hz spiking correlates with long-lasting seizure reduction and both are heightened by targeting bilateral hippocampi via the VHC. Therefore, stimulating bilateral hippocampi via a single electrode in the VHC may provide an effective MTLE treatment. PMID:23123405

  14. Calcium phosphate/porous silicon biocomposites prepared by cyclic deposition methods: spin coating vs electrochemical activation.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Montelongo, J; Gallach, D; Naveas, N; Torres-Costa, V; Climent-Font, A; García-Ruiz, J P; Manso-Silvan, M

    2014-01-01

    Porous silicon (PSi) provides an excellent platform for bioengineering applications due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioresorbability. However, to promote its application as bone engineering scaffold, deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics in its hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase is in progress. In that sense, this work focuses on the synthesis of CaP/PSi composites by means of two different techniques for CaP deposition on PSi: Cyclic Spin Coating (CSC) and Cyclic Electrochemical Activation (CEA). Both techniques CSC and CEA consisted on alternate Ca and P deposition steps on PSi. Each technique produced specific morphologies and CaP phases using the same independent Ca and P stem-solutions at neutral pH and at room temperature. The brushite (BRU) phase was favored with the CSC technique and the hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase was better synthesized using the CEA technique. Analyses by elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS) on CaP/PSi structures synthesized by CEA supported that, by controlling the CEA parameters, an HAP coating with the required Ca/P atomic ratio of 1.67 can be promoted. Biocompatibility was evaluated by bone-derived progenitor cells, which grew onto CaP/PSi prepared by CSC technique with a long-shaped actin cytoskeleton. The density of adhered cells was higher on CaP/PSi prepared by CEA, where cells presented a normal morphological appearance and active mitosis. These results can be used for the design and optimization of CaP/PSi composites with enhanced biocompatibility for bone-tissue engineering.

  15. Preparation, Characterization and Activity of a Peptide-Cellulosic Aerogel Protease Sensor from Cotton.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J Vincent; Fontenot, Krystal R; Prevost, Nicolette T; Pircher, Nicole; Liebner, Falk; Condon, Brian D

    2016-10-26

    Nanocellulosic aerogels (NA) provide a lightweight biocompatible material with structural properties, like interconnected high porosity and specific surface area, suitable for biosensor design. We report here the preparation, characterization and activity of peptide-nanocellulose aerogels (PepNA) made from unprocessed cotton and designed with protease detection activity. Low-density cellulosic aerogels were prepared from greige cotton by employing calcium thiocyanate octahydrate/lithium chloride as a direct cellulose dissolving medium. Subsequent casting, coagulation, solvent exchange and supercritical carbon dioxide drying afforded homogeneous cellulose II aerogels of fibrous morphology. The cotton-based aerogel had a porosity of 99% largely dominated by mesopores (2-50 nm) and an internal surface of 163 m²·g(-1). A fluorescent tripeptide-substrate (succinyl-alanine-proline-alanine-4-amino-7-methyl-coumarin) was tethered to NA by (1) esterification of cellulose C6 surface hydroxyl groups with glycidyl-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (FMOC), (2) deprotection and (3) coupling of the immobilized glycine with the tripeptide. Characterization of the NA and PepNA included techniques, such as elemental analysis, mass spectral analysis, attenuated total reflectance infrared imaging, nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy and bioactivity studies. The degree of substitution of the peptide analog attached to the anhydroglucose units of PepNA was 0.015. The findings from mass spectral analysis and attenuated total reflectance infrared imaging indicated that the peptide substrate was immobilized on to the surface of the NA. Nitrogen adsorption revealed a high specific surface area and a highly porous system, which supports the open porous structure observed from scanning electron microscopy images. Bioactivity studies of PepNA revealed a detection sensitivity of 0.13 units/milliliter for human neutrophil elastase, a diagnostic biomarker for inflammatory diseases. The

  16. Preparation and characterization of kasuga-silica-conjugated nanospheres for sustained antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Guanglong; Li, Deguang; Liu, Yao; Guo, Mingcheng; Duan, Yongheng; Li, Jianqiang; Cao, Yongsong

    2014-11-01

    Controlled release formulation of pesticides is highly desirable for attaining the most effective utilization of the pesticide as well as reducing environmental pollution. Nano-sized controlled release formulations can provide better penetration through cuticle and deliver the active ingredients efficiently to the targeted tissue. In this study, a novel strategy for the preparation of a nanoconjugate derived from kasugamycin with amino-modified silica was developed. The kasugamycin was connected with amino-modified silica matrix by an amide bond, which could avoid the initial burst release effectively and prolong the duration remarkably. The results showed the kasuga-silica can protect kasugamycin against photo-degradation effectively and the release rate of the active ingredient of nanoconjugate was related to the temperature, pH value, and the particle size (52.5-315.4 nm). With reduced particle size as well as increased temperature and acidity, the release of the active ingredient was faster. This amide linkage of kasuga-silica could be degraded by amidase effectively. This nanoconjugate displayed a better and a sustained bactericidal efficacy against E. coli than kasugamycin technical, which makes it a potential candidate as a controlled release conjugate for kasugamycin in the future.

  17. Facile preparation of surface N-halamine chitin nanofiber to endow antibacterial and antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Dutta, A K; Egusa, M; Kaminaka, H; Izawa, H; Morimoto, M; Saimoto, H; Ifuku, S

    2015-01-22

    N-halamine chitin nanofiber (NF) film was prepared by the reaction of chitin NF film with sodium hypochlorite solution to endow the film with antibacterial and antifungal activities. The amount of active chlorine content loaded on the chitin NF film depended on the sodium hypochlorite concentration and reaction time. FT-IR, UV-vis, XRD, and TG analyses showed that the N-H bond was substituted to the N-Cl bond and that the reaction took place at the chitin NF surface. After chlorination, the characteristic nanochitin morphology was maintained. Although the active chlorine content of the film gradually decreased by disassociation of the N-Cl bond, chlorine was rechargeable into chitin NF by another sodium hypochlorite solution treatment. The chlorinated chitin NF film showed strong efficacies against Gram-negative and -positive bacteria of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Moreover, the films showed 100% and 80% inhibition of spore germination when faced against Alternaria alternata and Penicillium digitatum fungi, respectively.

  18. Kinetics of adsorption of dyes from aqueous solution using activated carbon prepared from waste apricot.

    PubMed

    Onal, Yunus

    2006-10-11

    Adsorbent (WA11Zn5) has been prepared from waste apricot by chemical activation with ZnCl(2). Pore properties of the activated carbon such as BET surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and pore diameter were characterized by N(2) adsorption and DFT plus software. Adsorption of three dyes, namely, Methylene Blue (MB), Malachite Green (MG), Crystal Violet (CV), onto activated carbon in aqueous solution was studied in a batch system with respect to contact time, temperature. The kinetics of adsorption of MB, MG and CV have been discussed using six kinetic models, i.e., the pseudo-first-order model, the pseudo-second-order model, the Elovich equation, the intraparticle diffusion model, the Bangham equation, the modified Freundlich equation. Kinetic parameters and correlation coefficients were determined. It was shown that the second-order kinetic equation could describe the adsorption kinetics for three dyes. The dyes uptake process was found to be controlled by external mass transfer at earlier stages (before 5 min) and by intraparticle diffusion at later stages (after 5 min). Thermodynamic parameters, such as DeltaG, DeltaH and DeltaS, have been calculated by using the thermodynamic equilibrium coefficient obtained at different temperatures and concentrations. The thermodynamics of dyes-WA11Zn5 system indicates endothermic process.

  19. Catalase-only nanoparticles prepared by shear alone: Characteristics, activity and stability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Nan; Du, Xin-Ying; Xing, Jin-Feng; Ge, Zhi-Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Catalase is a promising therapeutic enzyme; however, it carries risks of inactivation and rapid degradation when it is used in practical bioprocess, such as delivery in vivo. To overcome the issue, we made catalase-only nanoparticles using shear stress alone at a moderate shear rate of 217s(-1) in a coaxial cylinder flow cell. Properties of nanoparticles, including particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential, were characterized. The conformational changes of pre- and post-sheared catalase were determined using spectroscopy techniques. The results indicated that the conformational changes of catalase and reduction in α-helical content caused by shear alone were less significant than that by desolvation method. Catalase-only nanoparticles prepared by single shear retained over 90% of its initial activity when compared with the native catalase. Catalase nanoparticles lost only 20% of the activity when stored in phosphate buffer solution for 72h at 4°C, whereas native catalase lost 53% under the same condition. Especially, the activity of nanogranulated catalase was decreased only slightly in the simulated intestinal fluid containing α-chymotrypsin during 4h incubation at 37°C, implying that the catalase nanoparticle was more resistant to the degradation of proteases than native catalase molecules. Overall, catalase-only nanoparticles offered a great potential to stabilize enzymes for various pharmaceutical applications.

  20. Preparation, composition analysis and antioxidant activities of konjac oligo-glucomannan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianhua; Xu, Qiuhong; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhou, Xuxia; Lyu, Fei; Zhao, Peicheng; Ding, Yuting

    2015-10-05

    Konjac oligo-glucomannan (KOG) was prepared by degradation of konjac glucomannan (KG) using β-mannanase. The hydrolysis process was monitored by the viscosity of the enzymatic hydrolysates. Factors affecting the enzymatic hydrolysis of KG were investigated, and the optimum hydrolysis conditions were as follows: time 2h; temperature 50°C; pH 6.0; and enzymatic concentration 150 U/g. Under these optimized conditions, minimum viscosity (31.9 mPa·s) of the hydrolasate was obtained. The average degree of polymerization (DP) of the resulting KOG was approximately equal to 5.2. The results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of KG and KOG indicated that KG was successfully degraded. In addition, their antioxidant activities were evaluated by determination of hydroxyl radical (•OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhrazyl radical (•DPPH) scavenging activity, and determination of reducing power. The results showed that KOG exhibited significant antioxidant activities. Taken together, this study suggested that KOG could potentially be used as a natural antioxidant.

  1. Multiplex Detection of Protease Activity with Quantum Dot Nanosensors Prepared by Intein-Mediated Specific Bioconjugation

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Zuyong; Xing, Yun; So, Min-Kyung; Koh, Ai Leen; Sinclair, Robert; Rao, Jianghong

    2009-01-01

    We report here a protease sensing nanoplatform based on semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (QD-BRET) to detect the protease activity in complex biological samples. These nanosensors consist of bioluminescent proteins as the BRET donor, quantum dots as the BRET acceptor, and protease substrates sandwiched between the two as a sensing group. An intein-mediated conjugation strategy was developed for site-specific conjugation of proteins to QDs in preparing these QD nanosensors. In this traceless ligation, the intein itself is spliced out and excluded from the final conjugation product. With this method, we have synthesized a series of QD nanosensors for highly sensitive detection of an important class of protease matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. We demonstrated that these nanosensors can detect the MMP activity in buffers and in mouse serum with the sensitivity to a few ng/ml, and secreted proteases by tumor cells. The suitability of these nanosensors for a multiplex protease assay has also been shown. PMID:18922019

  2. Amine-functionalized, silver-exchanged zeolite NaY: Preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanim, Siti Aishah Mohd; Malek, Nik Ahmad Nizam Nik; Ibrahim, Zaharah

    2016-01-01

    Amine-functionalized, silver-exchanged zeolite NaY (ZSA) were prepared with three different concentrations of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) (0.01, 0.20 and 0.40 M) and four different concentrations of silver ions (25%, 50%, 100% and 200% from zeolite cation exchange capacity (CEC)). The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), surface area analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and zeta potential (ZP) analysis. The FTIR results indicated that the zeolite was functionalized by APTES and that the intensity of the peaks corresponding to APTES increased as the concentration of APTES used was increased. The antibacterial activities of the silver-exchanged zeolite NaY (ZS) and ZSA were studied against Escherichia coli ATCC11229 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538 using the disc diffusion technique (DDT) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The antibacterial activity of ZSA increased with the increase in APTES on ZS, and E. coli was more susceptible towards the sample compared to S. aureus. The FESEM micrographs of the bacteria after contact with the ZSA suggested different mechanisms of bacterial death for these two bacteria due to exposure to the studied sample. The functionalization of ZS with APTES improved the antibacterial activity of the silver-zeolite, depending on the concentration of silver ions and APTES used during modification.

  3. Synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activity of type 2 crystalline titanates prepared with supercritical drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Adwani, Hamad A. H.

    Supercritically dried silico-alumino-titanate (Si-Al-Ti) mixed oxides (T2CT) were successfully synthesized by a sol-gel method with hydrothermal synthesis temperatures less than 200°C and autogenic pressure. High-surface-area T2CT aerogels with meso- to macroporosity were obtained. All solid products, after calcination at 450°C, are semicrystalline. In addition, successful scale-up of T2CT synthesis in a one-gallon reactor yielding 500 g was achieved. Surface areas, pore volumes, and average pore diameters are greatly influenced by the drying method. Supercritical drying had no effect on the crystalline or molecular structure of the materials. The synthesized materials were characterized by means of nitrogen physisorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis, and diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopy. The addition of different amounts of phosphorous and antimony affected neither the textural nor the structural aspects of T2CT. However, a decrease in surface area occurred. The catalytic activity of these materials was evaluated after being loaded with nickel and molybdenum by the incipient wetness method. Cyclohexene hydrogenation and thiophene hydrodesulfurization reactions are used in the catalytic activity study. The activities of some of the catalyst prepared in this study are in the same range as the commercial catalyst, Shell 324, but with lower metal loadings than the commercial catalysts. Thus, more efficient use of Mo and Ni was observed.

  4. Electrochemically prepared surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active silver substrates with improved stabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kuang-Hsuan; Liu, Yu-Chuan; Yu, Chung-Chin; Chen, Bo-Chuen

    2011-01-01

    In this work, SiO 2 nanoparticles-modified surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active silver substrates were prepared by electrochemical oxidation-reduction cycles (ORC) methods in 0.1 N HCl aqueous solutions containing 1 mM SiO 2 nanoparticles to improve their thermal stabilities and anti-aging abilities in SERS performances. Then these SERS-active substrates were further modified with different contents of SiO 2 nanoparticles to improve their corresponding SERS performances. Experimental results indicate that the operation temperature can be significantly raised from 125 to 175 °C based on this modified SERS-active Ag substrate. Also, the aging in SERS intensity is also depressed on this modified Ag substrate due to the contribution of SiO 2 nanoparticles. Moreover, the SERS enhancement capability on this modified Ag substrate is gradually raised from 25 °C to a maximum at 55 °C and monotonically decreased from 55 to 60 °C. This is a 10 °C delay as compared with the similar phenomenon observed on the unmodified Ag substrate.

  5. Ultrathin Palladium Membranes Prepared by a Novel Electric Field Assisted Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Samhun; Ko, Joon Ho; Oyama, S. Ted

    2011-03-01

    Ultra-thin Pd composite membranes with a thickness of 1 μm were prepared by a novel electric-field assisted activation technique followed by electroless deposition of Pd on a hollow-fiber α-alumina support. The novel activation method places Pd precursors and a reducing agent on opposite sides of a porous substrate and uses an electric field to cause migration of Pd ions to the outer surface where they are reduced to form seeds in high density in a narrow spatial region. The resulting membranes showed a high hydrogen permeance in the range of 4.0–5.0 × 10{sup −6} mol m{sup −2} s{sup −1} Pa{sup −1} and stable H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity of 3000–9000 during stability tests for 150 h at 733 K with H{sub 2} flow. The formation of the thin, defect-less and robust Pd layer can be ascribed to the evenly distributed Pd seeds on the support layer and the enhanced bonding between the Pd layer and the support layer resulting from the strong anchoring of the Pd seeds onto the support in the new activation step.

  6. Preparation of Egg White Liquid Hydrolysate (ELH) and Its Radical-Scavenging Activity

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Dong Ouk; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, an optimum protease was selected to hydrolyze the egg white liquid protein for the antioxidant peptides. Alcalase treatment yielded the highest amount of α-amino groups (15.27 mg/mL), while the control (no enzymatic hydrolysis) showed the lowest amount of α-amino groups (1.53 mg/mL). Alcalase also gave the highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) value (43.2%) and was more efficient for egg white liquid hydrolysis than the other enzymes. The Alcalase hydrolysate had the highest radical-scavenging activity (82.5%) at a concentration of 5.0 mg/mL. The conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of egg white liquid with Alcalase were selected as substrate : water ratio of 2:1. Five percent Alacalse treatment did not show significant (P>0.05) increases of DH and α-amino nitrogen content after 24 h-hydrolysis. Thirty two hour-hydrolysis with 5% Alcalase is sufficient to make antioxidative egg white liquid hydrolysate from egg white liquid. DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activities were significantly (P<0.05) higher after enzymatic digestion. These results suggest that active peptides released from egg-white protein are effective radical-scavengers. Thus, this approach may be useful for the preparation of potent antioxidant products. PMID:26451355

  7. Elimination of textile dyes using activated carbons prepared from vegetable residues and their characterization.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Cid, Alejandra-Alicia; Herrera-González, Ana-María; Salazar-Villanueva, Martín; Bautista-Hernández, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    In this study, three mesoporous activated carbons prepared from vegetable residues were used to remove acid, basic, and direct dyes from aqueous solutions, and reactive and vat dyes from textile wastewater. Granular carbons obtained by chemical activation at 673 K with phosphoric acid from prickly pear peels (CarTunaQ), broccoli stems (CarBrocQ), and white sapote seeds (CarZapQ) were highly efficient for the removal of dyes. Adsorption equilibrium studies were carried out in batch systems and treated with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacities calculated from the Langmuir isotherms ranged between 131.6 and 312.5 mg/g for acid dyes, and between 277.8 and 500.0 mg/g for basic dyes at 303 K. Our objective in this paper was to show that vegetable wastes can serve as precursors for activated carbons that can be used for the adsorption of dyes. Specifically CarBrocQ was the best carbon produced for the removal of textile dyes. The color removal of dyes present in textile wastewaters was compared with that of a commercial powdered carbon, and it was found that the carbons produced using waste material reached similar efficiency levels. Carbon samples were characterized by bulk density, point of zero charge, thermogravimetric analysis, elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, methylene blue adsorption isotherms at 303 K, and nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K (SBET). The results show that the activated carbons possess a large specific surface area (1025-1177 m(2)/g) and high total pore volume (1.06-2.16 cm(3)/g) with average pore size diameters between 4.1 and 8.4 nm. Desorption and regeneration tests were made to test the viability of reusing the activated carbons.

  8. Preparation of activated carbon from dried pods of Prosopis cineraria with zinc chloride activation for the removal of phenol.

    PubMed

    Nath, Kaushik; Panchani, Suresh; Bhakhar, M S; Chatrola, Sandip

    2013-06-01

    Utilization of agrowaste materials for the production of activated carbon, as an excellent adsorbent with large surface area, is well established industrially, for dephenolation of wastewater. In the present work, dried pods of Prosopis cineraria-a novel and low-cost agrowaste material-were used to prepare activated carbons by zinc chloride activation. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to study the effects of various physicochemical parameters such as initial phenol concentration, adsorbent dose, initial solution pH, and temperature. Pseudo-first-order second-order and diffusion kinetic models were used to identify the possible mechanisms of such adsorption process. The Langmuir and Freundlich equations were used to analyze the adsorption equilibrium. Maximum removal efficiency of 86 % was obtained with 25 mg L(-1) of initial phenol concentration. The favorable pH for maximum phenol adsorption was 4.0. Freundlich equation represented the adsorption equilibrium data more ideally than the Langmuir. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained was 78.32 mg g(-1) at a temperature of 30 °C and 25 mg L(-1) initial phenol concentration. The adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. The pseudo-second-order model, an indication of chemisorption mechanism, fitted the experimental data better than the pseudo-first-order Lagergren model. Regeneration of spent activated carbon was carried out using Pseudomonas putida MTCC 2252 as the phenol-degrading microorganism. Maximum regeneration up to 57.5 % was recorded, when loaded phenol concentration was 25 mg L(-1). The data obtained in this study would be useful in designing and fabricating an efficient treatment plant for phenol-rich effluents.

  9. Preparation and characterization of high-specific-surface-area activated carbons from K2CO3-treated waste polyurethane.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, J; Yamamoto, N; Horikawa, T; Muroyama, K; Gomes, V G

    2005-01-15

    An activated carbon with high specific surface area was prepared from polyurethane foam by chemical activation with K2CO3 and the influences of carbonization temperature and impregnation ratio on the pore structure of the prepared activated carbon were investigated. It was found that the specific surface area of the activated carbon was at a maximum value (about 2800 m(2)/g) at a carbonization temperature of 1073 K and at an impregnation ratio of 1.0. It was concluded that the polyurethane foam structure was modified during impregnation by K2CO3, K2CO3 promoted charring during carbonization, and then the weight loss behavior was changed below 700 and above 1000 K, carbon in the char was consumed by K2CO3 reduction, and this led to the high specific surface area. The prepared activated carbon had a very sharp micropore size distribution, compared with the commercial activated carbon having high specific surface area. The amounts of three organic vapors (benzene, acetone, and octane) adsorbed on the prepared activated carbons was much larger than those on the traditional coconut shell AC and the same as those on the commercial activated carbon except for octane. We surmised that the high specific surface area was due to the modification of the carbonization behavior of polyurethane foam by K2CO3.

  10. Best Practices in Career Development. Activities for First Grade. A Supplement to the Blueprint for Career Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains 16 lesson plans that can be used for career awareness activities in first grade. The lessons were developed by teachers and submitted as part of the Florida Blueprint for Career Preparation. The lesson plans include a topic, materials and information needed, and directions for activities. Lesson plans are designated by…

  11. Best Practices in Career Development. Activities for Third Grade. A Supplement to the Blueprint for Career Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains 19 lesson plans that can be used for career awareness activities in third grade. The lessons were developed by teachers and submitted as part of the Florida Blueprint for Career Preparation. The lesson plans include a topic, materials and information needed, and directions for activities. Lesson plans are designated by…

  12. Preparation of activated carbon hollow fibers from ramie at low temperature for electric double-layer capacitor applications.

    PubMed

    Du, Xuan; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Yi; Wang, Chengyang; Chen, Mingming; Qi, Tao; Hua, Chao; Ma, Mingguo

    2013-12-01

    Activated carbon hollow fibers (ACHFs) with high surface area were prepared from inexpensive, renewable ramie fibers (RFs) by a single-step activation method under lower temperature than that of other reports. The effects of activation conditions on the pore structure and turbostratic structure of ACHFs were investigated systematically. The results show that ACHFs surface area decreased but micropore volume and conductivity increased as the increase of activation temperature and activation time. The electrochemical measurements of supercapacitors fabricated from these ACHFs electrodes reveal that the electrochemical properties improved with the enhancing of activation degree. However, too high activation temperature can make the ion diffusion resistance increase. It suggests that pore structure and conductivity are as important as surface area to decide the electrochemical performances of ACHFs electrode materials. A maximum capacity of 287 F g(-1) at 50 mA g(-1) was obtained for the ACHFs electrode prepared under suitable conditions.

  13. Environmental Biosciences Program Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2009-01-30

    Current research projects have focused Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP) talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene, low-dose ionizing radiation (gamma and neutron) and alpha radiation from plutonium. Trichloroethylene research has been conducted as a joint collaborative effort with the University of Georgia. Work on the trichloroethylene research projects has been slowed as a result of funding uncertainties. The impact of these funding uncertainties has been discussed with the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Laboratory work has been completed on several trichloroethylene risk assessment projects, and these projects have been brought to a close. Plans for restructuring the performance schedule of the remaining trichloroethylene projects have been submitted to the department. A comprehensive manuscript on the scientific basis of trichloroethylene risk assessment is in preparation. Work on the low-dose radiation risk assessment projects is also progressing at a slowed rate as a result of funding uncertainties. It has been necessary to restructure the proponency and performance schedule of these projects, with the project on Low-Dose Radiation: Epidemiology Risk Models transferred to DOE Office of Science proponency under a separate funding instrument. Research on this project will continue under the provisions of the DOE Office of Science funding instrument, with progress reported in accordance with the requirements of that funding instrument. Progress on that project will no longer be reported in quarterly reports for DE-FC09-02CH11109. Following a meeting at the Savannah River Site on May 8, 2008, a plan was submitted for development of an epidemiological cohort study and prospective medical surveillance system for the assessment of disease rates among workers at the Savannah River

  14. Optimization of activated carbon fiber preparation from Kenaf using K2HPO4 as chemical activator for adsorption of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Aber, Soheil; Khataee, Alireza; Sheydaei, Mohsen

    2009-12-01

    The present work reports the preparation of activated carbon fiber (ACF) from Kenaf natural fibers. Taguchi experimental design method was used to optimize the preparation of ACF using K(2)HPO(4). Optimized conditions were: carbonization at 300 degrees C, impregnation with 30%w/v K(2)HPO(4) solution and activation at 700 degrees C for 2h with the rate of achieving the activation temperature equal to 2 degrees C min(-1). The surface characteristics of the ACF prepared at optimized conditions were also studied using pore structure analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Pore structure analysis shows that micropores constitute the most of the porosity of the prepared ACF. The ability of the ACF prepared at optimized conditions to adsorb phenol and p-nitrophenol from aqueous solution was also investigated. The equilibrium data of phenol and p-nitrophenol adsorption on the prepared ACF were well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacities of phenol and p-nitrophenol on the prepared ACF are 140.84 and 136.99 mg g(-1), respectively. The adsorption process follows the pseudo-first-order kinetic model.

  15. Federal Assistance Program Quarterly Project Progress Report. Geothermal Energy Program: Information Dissemination, Public Outreach, and Technical Analysis Activities. Reporting Period: January 1 - March 31, 2001 [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, John W.

    2002-03-22

    The final report of the accomplishments of the geothermal energy program: information dissemination, public outreach and technical analysis activities by the project team consisting of the Geo-Heat Center, Geothermal Resources Council, Geothermal Education Office, Geothermal Energy Association and the Washington State University Energy Program.

  16. Evaluation of the state of active ingredients in pharmaceutical preparations using fourier transform-Raman difference spectra.

    PubMed

    Mifune, Masaki; Iwasaki, Toshinobu; Kozaki, Yukari; Tsukamoto, Ikuko; Saito, Madoka; Kitamura, Youji; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Saito, Yutaka

    2006-12-01

    To examine the pharmaceutical application of Fourier transform (FT)-Raman spectroscopy, the state of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in a preparation of several forms was evaluated by investigating the Raman difference spectra between the preparation and excipient. The difference spectra indicated that APIs in alacepril tablets, caffeine sustained-release granules, and quinidine sulfate granules remained unchanged after the manufacturing process. However, the state of sparfloxacin in nanoparticles changed, although it remained unchanged in tablets or powders. These results show that the FT-Raman difference spectrum is expected to be utilized in the field of quality control of crystalline pharmaceutical preparations.

  17. Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene. Quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.

    1993-04-17

    The objectives of this project are to develop a new catalyst, the kinetics for this catalyst, reactor models for trickle bed, slurry and fixed bed reactors, and simulate the performance of fixed bed trickle flow reactors, slurry flow reactors, and fixed bed gas phase reactors for conversion of a hydrogen lean synthesis gas to isobutylene. The six main accomplishments for the quarter are the following: (1) activity testing with the 7% (wt) Ce-ZrO{sub 2}, (2) activity testing the same catalyst with CO from an aluminum cylinder, (3) preparation of ZrO{sub 2} by heating zirconyl nitrate, (4) preparation of an active zirconia prepared by a modified sol gel procedure and evaluation of the catalytic activity of a commercial zirconia and the catalysts prepared by the sol gel procedure, (5) determining the effect of separator temperatures and oil flow rate on the performance of a trickle bed reactor, and (6) calculation of the equilibrium composition of the C{sub 2} to C{sub 5} olefins, and initiation of the development of a macrokinetic model. The details of each of these accomplishments are discussed.

  18. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report Second Quarter, Fiscal Year 2010 (January 1, 2010 through March 31, 2010)

    SciTech Connect

    West, Staci A.; Showalter, Mary Ann; Manke, Kristin L.; Carper, Ross R.; Wiley, Julie G.; Beckman, Mary T.

    2010-04-20

    The Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national scientific user facility located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington. EMSL is operated by PNNL for the DOE-Office of Biological and Environmental Research. At one location, EMSL offers a comprehensive array of leading-edge resources and expertise. Access to the instrumentation and expertise is obtained on a peer-reviewed proposal basis. Staff members work with researchers to expedite access to these capabilities. The "EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report" documents current research and activities of EMSL staff and users.

  19. Alkali metal vapor removal from pressurized fluidized-bed combustor flue gas: activated bauxite sorbent regeneration. Quarterly report, October-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, I.; Lee, S.H.D.

    1981-05-01

    This work supports the program to develop methods for the cleanup of combustion gases from pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustors so that the cleaned gases can be used to power downstream gas turbines. Presented here are the results of studies to develop granular sorbents for removing gaseous alkali metal compounds from these combustion gases in a granular-bed filter. Activated bauxite bed material can be reused after the alkali compound is removed by a water-leaching process. In experiments to study the kinetics of leaching, the effects of adsorbed NaCl loading, leaching temperature, and the leaching water to sorbent ratio on the rate of leaching are reported. Also reported are water retention in bauxite after leaching and the effect of volatile alkalis in makeup activated bauxite on the alkali level in flue gas expanded in the gas turbine.

  20. Active sites in char gasification. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 January 1984-31 March 1984. [Polymers of phenol-formaldehyde family; chars produced from model compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Calo, J.M.; Suubers, E.M.; Wojtowicz, M.; Lilly, W.

    1984-05-01

    This project is concerned with the study of the nature and behavior of active sites in gasification of chars produced from synthesized model compounds, primarily of the phenol-formaldehyde family of resins. The current technical progress report presents further developments on resin synthesis and characterization and the design of a pyro-gasifier reactor for transient kinetic studies of the chars produced from the model compounds. 7 references, 12 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Effect of preparation conditions of oil palm fronds activated carbon on adsorption of bentazon from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Salman, J M; Hameed, B H

    2010-03-15

    Oil palm fronds (OPF) were used to prepare activated carbon (PFAC) using physiochemical activation method, which consisted of potassium hydroxide (KOH) treatment and carbon dioxide gasification. The effects of the preparation variables, which were activation temperature, activation time and chemical impregnation ratios (KOH: char by weight), on the carbon yield and bentazon removal were investigated. Based on the central composite design (CCD), two factor interaction (2FI) and quadratic models were, respectively, employed to correlate the PFAC preparation variables to the bentazon removal and carbon yield. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the most influential factor on each experimental design response was identified. The optimum conditions for preparing activated carbon from OPF were found as follows: activation temperature of 850 degrees C, activation time of 1h and KOH:char ratio of 3.75:1. The predicted and experimental results for removal of bentazon and yield of PFAC were 99.85%, 20.5 and 98.1%, 21.6%, respectively.

  2. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-23

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the third quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  3. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-24

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  4. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience,including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  5. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities. This report presents detailed quarterly data for october through December 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the third quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  6. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-24

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the fourth quarter of 1993. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  7. Preparation, Characterization and Methylene Blue Dye Adsorption Ability of Acid Activated-Natural Zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saputra, O. A.; Prameswari, M. D.; Kinanti, V. T. D.; Mayasari, O. D.; Sutarni, Y. D.; Apriany, K.; Lestari, W. W.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this research was to prepare an acid-activated natural zeolite (Ac-Zeo) as a low-cost adsorbent material and to investigate their ability on methylene blue dye removal in aqueous solution. The natural zeolite was activated using hydrochloric acid and the final product was characterized using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption process was carried out using the batch method. Some parameters like pH condition, contact time and varied dye initial concentration were studied to determine the adsorption ability of Ac-Zeo. In this study, kinetic adsorption was evaluated using pseudo-second order model approach and found that the kinetic adsorption rate constanta (k) and adsorption capacity at equilibrium are 0.1872 mg.g-1.min-1 and 14.94 mg.g-1, respectively. Moreover, Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin–Kaganer–Radushkevich isotherm adsorption models as well as sorption mechanism were studied in this research.

  8. Preparation of silver nanoparticle containing silica micro beads and investigation of their antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quang, Dang Viet; Sarawade, Pradip B.; Hilonga, Askwar; Kim, Jong-Kil; Chai, Young Gyu; Kim, Sang Hoon; Ryu, Jae-Yong; Kim, Hee Taik

    2011-05-01

    Silver nanoparticle containing silica micro beads (Ag-NPBs) were successfully prepared by using sodium silicate, a cheap precursor, involving chemical reductive method. First, silica gel was synthesized and crushed into micro beads which have sizes ranging from 0.5 to 1 mm. Silica micro beads were then modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to graft amino functional groups onto their surface. Silver ions were loaded onto the surface of the modified silica and reduced to silver crystal by adding NaBH 4. The presence of silver nanoparticles as well as structure of materials was characterized with FT-IR, XRD, BET, FE-SEM, TEM, UV-vis spectrophotometer, and optical microscope. Silver nanoparticles with an average size about 5 nm were found in the pore and on the surface of amino functionalized silica beads. Ag-NPBs samples were tested for their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ( E. coli). The antibacterial activity was examined by both zone inhibition and test tube test method. Biological results indicated that the synthesized materials have an excellent antibacterial performance against E. coli which was completely inhibited after 5 min contact with Ag-NPBs.

  9. Preparation of diethylene glycol monomethyl ether monolaurate catalyzed by active carbon supported KF/CaO.

    PubMed

    Lou, Shengfeng; Jia, Lihua; Guo, Xiangfeng; Wu, Ping; Gao, Lianbing; Wang, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Diethylene glycol monomethyl ether monolaurate (DGMEML) was synthesized via the reaction of diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (DGME) with methyl laurate (ML) by a new solid base catalyst of KF/CaO/AC, which was prepared by impregnation method using active carbon as carrier. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen physisorption-desorption and Hammett indicator methods; the effect of the mole ratio of KF to CaO, DGME to ML molar ratio, amount of catalyst, reaction time and temperature on the yield of DGMEML were studied; and the relationship between the structure of the catalyst and the yield of DGMEML was investigated. The formed KCaF3 and K2O were acting as the main active components in the catalytic transesterification; the highest yield of 96.3 % was obtained as KF-to-CaO molar ratio of 2.0, DGME to ML molar ratio of 4.0, catalyst amount of 5 wt%, and reaction time of 30 min at 75 °C; and the catalyst displayed good stability in the transesterification.

  10. Preparation, characterization and in vitro antimicrobial activity of liposomal ceftazidime and cefepime against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Ieda Maria Sapateiro; Bento, Etiene Barbosa; Almeida, Larissa da Cunha; de Sá, Luisa Zaiden Carvalho Martins; Lima, Eliana Martins

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic microorganism with the ability to respond to a wide variety of environmental changes, exhibiting a high intrinsic resistance to a number of antimicrobial agents. This low susceptibility to antimicrobial substances is primarily due to the low permeability of its outer membrane, efflux mechanisms and the synthesis of enzymes that promote the degradation of these drugs. Cephalosporins, particularty ceftazidime and cefepime are effective against P. aeruginosa, however, its increasing resistance has limited the usage of these antibiotics. Encapsulating antimicrobial drugs into unilamellar liposomes is an approach that has been investigated in order to overcome microorganism resistance. In this study, antimicrobial activity of liposomal ceftazidime and cefepime against P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and P. aeruginosa SPM-1 was compared to that of the free drugs. Liposomal characterization included diameter, encapsulation efficiency and stability. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined for free and liposomal forms of both drugs. Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) was determined at concentrations 1, 2 and 4 times MIC. Average diameter of liposomes was 131.88 nm and encapsulation efficiency for cefepime and ceftazidime were 2.29% end 5.77%, respectively. Improved stability was obtained when liposome formulations were prepared with a 50% molar ratio for cholesterol in relation to the phospholipid. MIC for liposomal antibiotics for both drugs were 50% lower than that of the free drug, demonstrating that liposomal drug delivery systems may contribute to increase the antibacterial activity of these drugs. PMID:24031917

  11. Adsorption of p-nitroaniline from aqueous solutions onto activated carbon fiber prepared from cotton stalk.

    PubMed

    Li, Kunquan; Zheng, Zheng; Feng, Jingwei; Zhang, Jibiao; Luo, Xingzhang; Zhao, Guohua; Huang, Xingfa

    2009-07-30

    Activated carbon fiber prepared from cotton stalk was used as an adsorbent for the removal of p-nitroaniline (PNA) from aqueous solutions. Liquid phase adsorption experiments were conducted and the maximum adsorptive capacity was determined. The effect of experimental parameters such as pH, salinity and temperature on the adsorption was studied. The obtained experimental data were then fitted with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson models to describe the equilibrium isotherms. The kinetics rates were modeled by using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equations. The results indicated that cotton stalk activated carbon fiber (CS-ACF) is an effective adsorbent for the removal of PNA from aqueous solutions. The maximum adsorption capacity of 406 mg g(-1) was achieved at the initial PNA concentration of 200 mg L(-1). The optimum pH for the removal of PNA was found to be 7.6. The presence of ammonium chloride proved to be favorable for the process of adsorption. The adsorption amount decreased with increasing temperature. The Redlich-Peterson model was found to best represent the equilibrium data. The kinetic data followed closely the pseudo-second-order equation. Thermodynamic study showed the adsorption was a spontaneous exothermic physical process.

  12. Preparation of aluminum-containing mesoporous silica with hierarchical macroporous architecture and its enhanced catalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Kamegawa, Takashi; Tanaka, Shota; Seto, Hiroki; Zhou, Dayang; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2013-08-28

    Aluminum-containing mesoporous silica with hierarchical macroporous architecture (Al-MMS) was successfully prepared using a solvent evaporation method through the combination of precursor solution for synthesis of Al-containing mesoporous silica (Al-MS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) colloidal crystals as a hard template. The porous structure and the state of aluminum were investigated using various characterization techniques. The construction of combined structure of Al-MMS, i.e., hierarchical macroporous architecture consisting of thin mesoporous silica frameworks, led to the formation of many mesopore entrances and the shortening of the mesoporous channels. In the tetrahydropyranylation of linear alcohols with dihydropyran (DHP), Al-MMS exhibited higher catalytic activities for the formation of corresponding tetrahydropyranyl ethers as compared to Al-MS. The advantageous structure of Al-MMS enables the efficient transport of reactants to the catalytically active sites, which realizes the significant enhancement of catalytic performances in the reaction of DHP with alcohols having longer alkyl chains.

  13. Preparation and visible light photocatalytic activity of N-doped titania.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yulong; Liu, Hongfang; Chen, Weiran; Chen, Debin; Yin, Jiwei; Guo, Xingpeng

    2010-03-01

    N-doped titania powders were prepared with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as the titanium source and urea as the nitrogen source by the sol-gel method. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD and TEM results indicated that urea played an important role in controlling the size and aggregation process of titania nanoparticles. As an appropriate amount of urea was added into the titania sol, the size of the particles decreased. However, the excess urea reduced the dispersion of the particles and resulted in the aggregation. At the same time, the size of particle increased, and the size distribution broadened. The XPS and DRS results showed that the nitrogen was incorporated into titania lattice successfully, which brought about the redshift of the absorption edge and induced the photocatalytic activity in the visible light region. The photocatalytic experiments showed that the N-doped titania nanoparticles could effectively photodegrade methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity increased with the increase of the nitrogen doping level in the titania lattice, but decreased with the increase of the particle size and the organic surface residues caused by excess urea.

  14. Characterizing o- and p-nitrophenols adsorption onto innovative activated carbon prepared from date pits.

    PubMed

    Altaher, Hossam; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2014-01-01

    The production and performance of activated carbon prepared from date pits was investigated. Date pits are an abundant local waste product in many countries; converting them to a commercial product would increase the sustainability of this fruit crop. The date pit activated carbon was shown to have similar characteristics of pore size and surface functional groups as other commercial carbons. Batch experiments were conducted with o- and p-nitrophenol to evaluate the performance of this carbon. Results were analyzed according to Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacity of o-nitrophenol was 142.9 mg/g while that of p-nitrophenol was 108.7 mg/g. The adsorption process was physical in nature. The position of the -NO(2) group in the benzene ring has a considerable effect on the adsorption capacity and rate of uptake. The kinetic results showed that a pseudo second-order model appropriately describes the experimental data. The analysis of kinetic data revealed that the mechanism of adsorption is complex with both liquid film diffusion and intraparticle diffusion contributing to adsorption of both adsorbates.

  15. Preparation and electrocatalytic activity of nanocrystalline Ni-Mo-Co alloy electrode for hydrogen evolution.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijian; Du, Jingjing; Chen, Baizhen

    2013-03-01

    Ni-Mo-Co alloy electrodes were prepared by electrodeposition technique with citric acid as a complexing agent. The influence of the main technical parameters such as the concentration of CoSO4 7H2O, the current density and the bath temperature on the component content in the Ni-Mo-Co alloy electrode were investigated by electron dispersive spectrometer (EDS), the microstructure and surface morphology of Ni-Mo-Co alloy electrodes were characterized by employing X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the electrocatalytic activity of Ni-Mo-Co alloy electrode for hydrogen evolution was investigated by the method of the cathode polarization curves. The results showed that the excellent Ni-Mo-Co alloy electrode with 41.39 wt% Ni, 53.82 wt% Mo and 4.79 wt% Co was obtained when the concentration of CoSO4 x 7H2O was 8 g/L, the current density was 12 A/dm2 and the bath temperature was 25 degrees C. The mircostructure of the Ni-Mo-Co alloy was nanocrystalline and the average grain size was about 25 nm by calculating using Scherrer Equation. The electrocatalytic activity of Ni-Mo-Co alloy electrode for hydrogen evolution was better than that of Ni-Mo alloy electrode.

  16. Single-step process to prepare CeO2 nanotubes with improved catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    González-Rovira, Leandro; Sánchez-Amaya, José M; López-Haro, Miguel; del Rio, Eloy; Hungría, Ana B; Midgley, Paul; Calvino, José J; Bernal, Serafín; Botana, F Javier

    2009-04-01

    CeO(2) nanotubes have been grown electrochemically using a porous alumina membrane as a template. The resulting material has been characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy tomography, high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM), and electron energy loss spectroscopy. According to SEM, the outer diameter of the nanotubes corresponds to the pore size (200 nm) of the alumina membrane, and their length ranges between 30 and 40 microm. HREM images have revealed that the width of the nanotube walls is about 6 nm. The catalytic activity of these novel materials for the CO oxidation reaction is compared to that of a polycrystalline powder CeO(2) sample prepared by a conventional route. The activity of the CeO(2) nanotubes is shown to be in the order of 400 times higher per gram of oxide at 200 degrees C (77.2 x 10(-2) cm(3) CO(2) (STP)/(gxs) for the nanotube-shaped CeO(2) and 0.16 x 10(-2) cm(3) CO(2) (STP)/(gxs) for the powder CeO(2)).

  17. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activities of holmium-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jian-Wen; Zheng, Jing-Tang; Wu, Peng

    2009-01-15

    Holmium-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with high photocatalytic activities were prepared by sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and surface area measurement by nitrogen adsorption in this study. Experimental results indicated holmium doping could increase the surface area of TiO2 nanoparticles, and inhibit the growth of crystalline size and the anatase-to-rutile phase transformation. The results of photodegrading methyl orange showed holmium doping improved the photocatalytic activity of TiO2, and the reasons could be attributed to the synergetic effects of large surface areas, small crystallite size, lattice distortion and more charge imbalance of holmium-doped TiO2. In our experiment, the optimal doped amount was 0.3mol.% for the maximum photocatalytic degradation ratio when holmium-doped TiO2 was calcined at 500 degrees C, and the optimal calcined temperature was 600 degrees C when the doped amount was 0.5mol.%.

  18. Preparation and photocatalytic activities of 3D flower-like CuO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingfei, Fan; Qi, Lan; Meili, Zhang; Ximei, Fan; Zuowan, Zhou; Chaoliang, Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Hierarchical 3D flower-like CuO nanostructures on the Cu substrates were synthesized by a wet chemical method and subsequent heat treatment. The synthesis, structure and morphologies of obtained samples under different concentrations of Na2S2O3 were investigated in detail and the possible growth mechanisms of the 3D flower-like CuO nanostructures were discussed. Na2S2O3 plays a key role in the generation of the 3D flower-like CuO nanostructures. When the concentration of Na2S2O3 is more than 0.4 mol/L, the 3D flower-like CuO nanostructures can be prepared on the Cu foils. The photocatalytic performances were studied by analyzing the degradation of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solution in the presence of hydroxide water (H2O2). The 3D flower-like CuO nanostructures exhibit higher photocatalytic activity (96.2% degradation rate) than commercial CuO particles (36.3% degradation rate). The origin of the higher photocatalytic activity of the 3D flower-like CuO nanostructures was also discussed. Project supported by the High-Tech Research and Development Program of China (No. 2009AA03Z427).

  19. Preparation of a specific bamboo based activated carbon and its application for ciprofloxacin removal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y X; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S

    2015-11-15

    The studied bamboo based activated carbon (BbAC) with high specific surface area (SSA) and high micro pore volume was prepared from bamboo scraps by the combined activation of H3PO4 and K2CO3. The BbAC was characterized based on the N2 adsorption isotherm at 77K. The results showed that the SSA and pore volume of BbAC increased with increasing impregnation ratio and reached maxima at the impregnation ratio of 3:1 at 750°C. Under these optimal conditions, the BbAC obtained could have a maximum SSA of 2237 m(2)/g and a maximum total pore volume of 1.23 cm(3)/g with the micro pore ratio of more than 90%. The adsorption performance of ciprofloxacin (CIP) on the BbAC was determined at 298 K. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were employed to describe the adsorption equilibrium and the kinetic data were fitted by pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order kinetic models. The results showed that the Langmuir model and the pseudo second-order kinetic model presented better fittings for the adsorption equilibrium and kinetics data, respectively. The maximum adsorption amount of CIP (613 mg/g) on the BbAC was much higher than the report in the literature. Conclusively, the BbAC could be a promising adsorption material for CIP removal from water.

  20. Platelet-rich preparations to improve healing. Part II: platelet activation and enrichment, leukocyte inclusion, and other selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Davis, Vicki L; Abukabda, Alaeddin B; Radio, Nicholas M; Witt-Enderby, Paula A; Clafshenkel, William P; Cairone, J Vito; Rutkowski, James L

    2014-08-01

    Multiple platelet-rich preparations have been reported to improve wound and bone healing, such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet rich fibrin (PRF). The different methods employed during their preparation are important, as they influence the quality of the product applied to a wound or surgical site. Besides the general protocol for preparing the platelet-rich product (discussed in Part 1 of this review), multiple choices need to be considered during its preparation. For example, activation of the platelets is required for the release and enmeshment of growth factors, but the method of activation may influence the resulting matrix, growth factor availability, and healing. Additionally, some methods enrich leukocytes as well as platelets, but others are designed to be leukocyte-poor. Leukocytes have many important roles in healing and their inclusion in PRP results in increased platelet concentrations. Platelet and growth factor enrichment reported for the different types of platelet-rich preparations are also compared. Generally, TGF-β1 and PDGF levels were higher in preparations that contain leukocytes compared to leukocyte-poor PRP. However, platelet concentration may be the most reliable criterion for comparing different preparations. These and other criteria are described to help guide dental and medical professionals, in large and small practices, in selecting the best procedures for their patients. The healing benefits of platelet-rich preparations along with the low risk and availability of simple preparation procedures should encourage more clinicians to incorporate platelet-rich products in their practice to accelerate healing, reduce adverse events, and improve patient outcomes.