Science.gov

Sample records for activities privatization trade

  1. Private Trade and Technical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    Among the advantages of private trade and technical schools is their market orientation, a sensitivity to employers' current needs. Teachers recruited from industry, accelerated pace, flexible scheduling, and emphasis on job placement are other benefits found in proprietary schools. (SK)

  2. 12 CFR 225.181 - Conformance Period for Banking Entities Engaged in Prohibited Proprietary Trading or Private Fund...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Trading and Relationships With Hedge Funds and Private Equity Funds § 225.181 Conformance Period for... or hedge fund if— (i) The fund is an illiquid fund; and (ii) The acquisition or retention of such... in Prohibited Proprietary Trading or Private Fund Activities. 225.181 Section 225.181 Banks...

  3. 12 CFR 225.181 - Conformance Period for Banking Entities Engaged in Prohibited Proprietary Trading or Private Fund...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Trading and Relationships With Hedge Funds and Private Equity Funds § 225.181 Conformance Period for... or hedge fund if— (i) The fund is an illiquid fund; and (ii) The acquisition or retention of such... in Prohibited Proprietary Trading or Private Fund Activities. 225.181 Section 225.181 Banks...

  4. 12 CFR 225.181 - Conformance Period for Banking Entities Engaged in Prohibited Proprietary Trading or Private Fund...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Relationships With Hedge Funds and Private Equity Funds § 225.181 Conformance Period for Banking Entities... interest in, or otherwise provide additional capital to, a private equity fund or hedge fund if— (i) The... in Prohibited Proprietary Trading or Private Fund Activities. 225.181 Section 225.181 Banks...

  5. 76 FR 8265 - Conformance Period for Entities Engaged in Prohibited Proprietary Trading or Private Equity Fund...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... on proprietary trading and relationships with hedge funds and private equity funds imposed by section..., sponsoring, or having certain relationships with a hedge fund or private equity fund.\\3\\ The new section 13... Prohibitions on Proprietary Trading & Certain Relationships with Hedge Funds & Private Equity Funds (January...

  6. Domains of State-Owned, Privately Held, and Publicly Traded Firms in International Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascarenhas, Briance

    1989-01-01

    Hypotheses relating ownership to domain differences among state-owned, publicly traded, and privately held firms in international competition were examined in a controlled field study of the offshore drilling industry. Ownership explained selected differences in domestic market dominance, international presence, and customer orientation, even…

  7. A tainted trade? Moral ambivalence and legitimation work in the private security industry.

    PubMed

    Thumala, Angélica; Goold, Benjamin; Loader, Ian

    2011-06-01

    The private security industry is often represented - and typically represents itself - as an expanding business, confident of its place in the world and sure of its ability to meet a rising demand for security. But closer inspection of the ways in which industry players talk about its past, present and future suggests that this self-promotion is accompanied by unease about the industry's condition and legitimacy. In this paper, we analyse the self-understandings of those who sell security - as revealed in interviews conducted with key industry players and in a range of trade materials - in order to highlight and dissect the constitutive elements of this ambivalence. This analysis begins by describing the reputational problems that are currently thought to beset the industry and the underlying fears about its status and worth that these difficulties disclose. We then examine how security players seek to legitimate the industry using various narratives of professionalization. Four such narratives are identified - regulation, education, association and borrowing - each of which seeks to justify private security and enhance the industry's social worth. What is striking about these legitimation claims is that they tend not to justify the selling of security in market terms. In conclusion we ask why this is the case and argue that market justifications are 'closed-off' by a moral ambivalence that attaches to an industry trading in products which cannot guarantee to deliver the condition that its consumers crave.

  8. Private Training Providers: Their Characteristics and Training Activities. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Roger; Simons, Michele; McCarthy, Carmel

    2006-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report, "Private Training Providers: Their Characteristics and Training Activities," [ED495181] and is an added resource for further information. That study examined the nature of the training activity of private registered training organisations (RTOs) offered to…

  9. Obstacles to Private Sector Activities in Africa,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Finance Corporation (IFC), a World Bank affiliate, has declared its intention to step up its programs to assist the private sector in Africa. Many...and much of it is financed by I the rue Monsieur [the aid Ministry]. In many ways, therefore, France’s "progressive" approach to North-South relations...and the BCEAO together provide a unique and efficient financial system that offers external financing , French-style banking practices, and guarantees

  10. World Trade Organization activity for health services.

    PubMed

    Gros, Clémence

    2012-01-01

    Since the establishment of a multilateral trading system and the increasing mobility of professionals and consumers of health services, it seems strongly necessary that the World Trade Organization (WTO) undertakes negotiations within the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), and that WTO's members attempt to reach commitments for health-related trade in services. How important is the GATS for health policy and how does the GATS refer to health services? What are the current negotiations and member's commitments?

  11. 78 FR 30269 - Foreign-Trade Zone 129-Bellingham, Washington; Authorization of Production Activity; T.C. Trading...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Activity; T.C. Trading Company, Inc. (Eyeglass Assembly and Kitting), Blaine, WA On January 17, 2013, the... Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of T.C. Trading Company, Inc., within Subzone 129B, in...

  12. Funding long-term care: applications of the trade-off principle in both public and private sectors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Ping

    2003-02-01

    The uncertain need for long-term care services is a risk best protected by insurance. However, the current funding relies heavily on personal payment and public welfare, and only lightly on social and private insurances. This method, akin to sitting on a two-legged stool, is unlikely to be sustainable. To incorporate insurance as a key component of funding and to mobilize public and private resources more effectively, we propose a three-legged-stool funding model under which social insurance would provide a basic protection, to be supplemented by private insurance and personal payment. When these sources do not provide sufficient protection for some individuals, Medicaid as public welfare would serve as a safety net. This article (a) discusses how to implement this funding model by using the trade-off principle in both the public and private sectors when resources for long-term care are scarce, and (b) analyzes several objections to this model from cognitive psychology/behavioral economics

  13. Motivating the Study of International Trade: A Classroom Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a classroom activity for use in introductory economics courses to motivate the study of international trade. The learning activity highlights the importance of international trade in students' everyday lives by having students inventory their on-hand belongings and identify where the items were manufactured.…

  14. Community benefit activities of private, nonprofit hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bazzoli, Gloria J; Clement, Jan P; Hsieh, Hui-Min

    2010-12-01

    The definition of hospital community benefits has been intensely debated for many years. Recently, consensus has developed about one group of activities being central to community benefits because of its focus on care for the poor and on needed community services for which any payments received are low relative to costs. Disagreements continue, however, about the treatment of bad debt expense and Medicare shortfalls. A recent revision of the Internal Revenue Service's Form 990 Schedule H, which is required of all nonprofit hospitals, highlights the agreed-on set of activities but does not dismiss the disputed items. Our study is the first to apply definitions used in the new IRS form to assess how conclusions about the adequacy of nonprofit hospital community benefits could be affected if bad debt expenses and Medicare shortfalls are included or excluded. Specifically, we examine 2005 financial data for California and Florida hospitals. Overall, we find that conclusions about community benefit adequacy are very different depending on which definition of community benefits is used. We provide thoughts on new directions for the current policy debate about the treatment of bad debts and Medicare shortfalls in light of these findings.

  15. Public and private resource trade-offs for a quantum channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, Mark M.; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2012-12-01

    Collins and Popescu realized a powerful analogy between several resources in classical and quantum information theory. The Collins-Popescu analogy states that public classical communication, private classical communication, and secret key interact with one another somewhat similarly to the way that classical communication, quantum communication, and entanglement interact. This paper discusses the information-theoretic treatment of this analogy for the case of noisy quantum channels. We determine a capacity region for a quantum channel interacting with the noiseless resources of public classical communication, private classical communication, and secret key. We then compare this region with the classical-quantum-entanglement region from our prior efforts and explicitly observe the information-theoretic consequences of the strong correlations in entanglement and the lack of a super-dense coding protocol in the public-private-secret-key setting. The region simplifies for several realistic, physically-motivated channels such as entanglement-breaking channels, Hadamard channels, and quantum erasure channels, and we are able to compute and plot the region for several examples of these channels.

  16. 78 FR 7395 - Foreign-Trade Zone 129-Bellingham, WA; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; T.C. Trading...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Activity; T.C. Trading Company, Inc. (Eyeglass Assembly and Kitting); Blaine, WA The Port of Bellingham, grantee of FTZ 129, submitted a notification of proposed production activity on behalf of T.C. Trading Company, Inc. (T.C. Trading), located in Blaine, Washington. The notification conforming to...

  17. Interactions: trade policy and healthcare reform after Chaoulli v. Quebec: is it time for Canada to acknowledge the fragile boundary between health and trade policies and strengthen the separation between private and public health insurance?

    PubMed

    Crawford, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The insulation of Canada's healthcare system from trade treaty obligations is crucial to the legitimacy of Canada's trade policy. Legal analysis has suggested, however, that competitive and for-profit delivery of the kind contemplated by the Kirby Report and some provinces may make healthcare more vulnerable to challenges under NAFTA and GATS. The Government of Canada has tried to counter this interpretation by stressing the importance of public financing as the principal criterion for exemption of healthcare from trade treaties, but now the potential for private financing of essential medical services indicated by the Supreme Court's decision in Chaoulli v. Quebec has made that line of argument look risky as well. It is apparent that Canada failed to anticipate the possible interactions of domestic, international and constitutional law when it made commitments in the area of private health insurance at the WTO in 1997. Accordingly, the time has come to acknowledge the fragility of the boundary between health and trade policies, to take the risks and costs associated with trade treaty obligations fully into account when undertaking healthcare reform and to strengthen the separation between private and public health insurance.

  18. 22 CFR 1203.735-211 - Activities relating to private organizations and politics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Activities relating to private organizations and... Employees § 1203.735-211 Activities relating to private organizations and politics. (a) Definition. For the purpose of this section, the term private organization denotes any group of persons or...

  19. 22 CFR 1203.735-211 - Activities relating to private organizations and politics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Activities relating to private organizations and... Employees § 1203.735-211 Activities relating to private organizations and politics. (a) Definition. For the purpose of this section, the term private organization denotes any group of persons or...

  20. 22 CFR 1203.735-211 - Activities relating to private organizations and politics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Activities relating to private organizations and... Employees § 1203.735-211 Activities relating to private organizations and politics. (a) Definition. For the purpose of this section, the term private organization denotes any group of persons or...

  1. 78 FR 8499 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Private School Universe Survey 2013-16

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... the universe of private elementary and secondary schools in the United States. The PSS is designed to... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Private School Universe Survey 2013-16 AGENCY... in response to this notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Private...

  2. 75 FR 6679 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Andean Trade Preferences

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Andean Trade Preferences AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 30-day notice.... Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of the Department of Homeland Security has submitted the...

  3. 75 FR 68808 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Free Trade Agreements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2010-28214] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Free Trade Agreements AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... existing information collection: 1651-0117. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of...

  4. Detrended cross-correlations between returns, volatility, trading activity, and volume traded for the stock market companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rak, Rafał; Drożdż, Stanisław; Kwapień, Jarosław; Oświȩcimka, Paweł

    2015-11-01

    We consider a few quantities that characterize trading on a stock market in a fixed time interval: logarithmic returns, volatility, trading activity (i.e., the number of transactions), and volume traded. We search for the power-law cross-correlations among these quantities aggregated over different time units from 1 min to 10 min. Our study is based on empirical data from the American stock market consisting of tick-by-tick recordings of 31 stocks listed in Dow Jones Industrial Average during the years 2008-2011. Since all the considered quantities except the returns show strong daily patterns related to the variable trading activity in different parts of a day, which are the most evident in the autocorrelation function, we remove these patterns by detrending before we proceed further with our study. We apply the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis with sign preserving (MFCCA) and show that the strongest power-law cross-correlations exist between trading activity and volume traded, while the weakest ones exist (or even do not exist) between the returns and the remaining quantities. We also show that the strongest cross-correlations are carried by those parts of the signals that are characterized by large and medium variance. Our observation that the most convincing power-law cross-correlations occur between trading activity and volume traded reveals the existence of strong fractal-like coupling between these quantities.

  5. 78 FR 28801 - Foreign-Trade Zone 117-Orange, TX, Authorization of Production Activity, Signal International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 117--Orange, TX, Authorization of Production Activity, Signal International Texas GP, LLC (Shipbuilding), Orange, TX On January 10, 2013, the Foreign Trade Zone of Southeast...-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Signal International Texas GP, LLC, in Orange, Texas....

  6. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-3T - Private activity bond limit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Private activity bond limit (temporary). 1.103(n)-3T Section 1.103(n)-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY....103(n)-3T Private activity bond limit (temporary). Q-1: What is the “State ceiling”? A-1: In...

  7. Trading detection for resolution in active sonar receivers.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nabin S; Buck, John R; Simmons, James A

    2011-09-01

    This paper proposes an active sonar receivers that offers a smooth trade-off between detection and resolution. A matched filter is the optimal detector of known signals in white Gaussian noise but may fail to resolve the targets if the time separation of targets is less than the mainlobe width of the autocorrelation function of the transmitted signal. An inverse filter achieves optimal resolution performance for multiple targets in the absence of noise, but amplifies the noise outside the signal bandwidth in a manner that makes it impractical in many realistic scenarios. The proposed active sonar receiver, the variable resolution and detection receiver (VRDR) combines the matched and inverse filter properties to achieve a smooth trade-off between detection and resolution. Simulated receiver operating characteristics demonstrate that for a range of dipole sonar targets, the performance of the VRDR is superior to the matched and inverse filter, as well as another previously proposed bandlimited inverse filter.

  8. 77 FR 71167 - Foreign-Trade Zone 59-Lincoln, Nebraska, Authorization of Production Activity, Novartis Consumer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 59--Lincoln, Nebraska, Authorization of Production Activity, Novartis Consumer Health, Inc. (Pharmaceutical and Related Preparations Production), Lincoln, Nebraska Novartis Consumer Health, Inc. submitted a notification of proposed production activity for the...

  9. 7 CFR 7.26 - Private business activity and conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private business activity and conflicts of interest. 7.26 Section 7.26 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.26 Private...

  10. 78 FR 55057 - Foreign-Trade Zone 134-Chattanooga, Tennessee; Authorization of Production Activity; Komatsu...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 134--Chattanooga, Tennessee; Authorization of Production Activity; Komatsu America Corporation, (Construction and Forestry Equipment), Chattanooga, Tennessee On...

  11. 77 FR 61381 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7-Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, Authorization of Production Activity, Baxter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 7--Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, Authorization of Production Activity, Baxter Healthcare of Puerto Rico, (Pharmaceutical and Nutritional Intravenous Bags...

  12. 78 FR 36523 - Foreign-Trade Zone 84-Houston, Texas; Authorization of Production Activity; Toshiba International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 84--Houston, Texas; Authorization of Production Activity; Toshiba International Corporation; (Hybrid Electric Vehicle Motors and Generators Production);...

  13. Dietary habits and physical activity levels in Jordanian adolescents attending private versus public schools.

    PubMed

    Tayyem, R F; Al-Hazzaa, H M; Abu-Mweis, S S; Bawadi, H A; Hammad, S S; Musaiger, A O

    2014-07-08

    The present study examined differences in dietary habits and physical activity levels between students attending private and public high schools in Jordan. A total of 386 secondary-school males and 349 females aged 14-18 years were randomly recruited using a multistage, stratified, cluster sampling technique. Dietary habits and physical activity level were self-reported in a validated questionnaire. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among adolescents in private (26.0%) than in public schools (16.7%). The frequency of breakfast intake was significantly higher among adolescents in private schools, whereas French fries and sweets intake was significantly higher in public schools. Television viewing showed a significant interaction with school type by sex. A higher rate of inactivity was found among students attending private schools. Despite a slightly better overall dietary profile for students in private schools, they had a higher rate of overweight and obesity compared with those in public schools.

  14. Allowance trading activity and state regulatory rulings: Evidence from the US Acid Rain Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, E.M.

    1997-12-31

    The US Acid Rain Program is one of the first, and by far the most extensive, applications of a market based approach to pollution control. From the beginning, there has been concern whether utilities would participate in allowance trading, and whether regulatory activity at the state level would further complicate utilities` decision to trade allowances. This paper finds that public utility commission regulation has encouraged allowance trading activity in states with regulatory rulings, but that allowance trading activity has not been limited to states issuing regulations. Until there is evidence suggesting that significant additional cost savings could have been obtained if additional allowance trading activity had occurred in states without regulations or that utilities in states with regulations are still not taking advantage of all cost saving trading opportunities, this analysis suggests that there is little reason to believe that allowance trading activity is impeded by public utility commission regulations.

  15. 26 CFR 1.147-1 - Other requirements applicable to certain private activity bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Overview. Interest on a private activity bond is not excludable from gross income under section 103(a... the rules limiting use of proceeds to acquire land or existing property under sections 147(c) (1)...

  16. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-2T - Private activity bond defined (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...(n)-2T Section 1.103(n)-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY....103(n)-2T Private activity bond defined (temporary). Q-1: What is the definition of the term “private activity bond”? A-1: In general, for purposes of §§ 1.103(n)-1T through 1.103(n)-6T, the term...

  17. Do Private Conservation Activities Match Science-Based Conservation Priorities?

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jonathan R. B.; Dills, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Background Private land conservation is an essential strategy for biodiversity protection in the USA, where half of the federally listed species have at least 80% of their habitat on private lands. We investigated the alignment between private land protection conducted by the world's largest land trust (The Nature Conservancy) and the science driven identification of priority areas for conservation. This represents the first quantitative assessment of the influence of defining priority areas on the land acquisitions of a conservation non-governmental organization (NGO). Methodology/Principal Findings The lands acquired by The Nature Conservancy (TNC) were analyzed using GIS to determine to what extent they were in areas defined as priorities for conservation. The spatial analysis of TNC lands was broken up into land known to be acquired in the last five years, five to ten years ago, prior to ten years ago, and anytime during the last sixty years (including previous sets of data plus acquisitions lacking a date). For the entire history of TNC the proportion of TNC lands within the priority areas was 74%. Prior to 10 years ago it was 80%, 5–10 years ago it was 76%, and in the last five years it was 81%. Conservation easements were found to have lower alignment with priority areas (64%) than outright fee simple acquisitions (86%). Conclusions/Significance Overall the location of lands acquired was found to be well aligned with the priority areas. Since there was comparable alignment in lands acquired before and after formalized conservation planning had been implemented as a standard operating procedure, this analysis did not find evidence that defining priority areas has influenced land acquisition decisions. PMID:23029516

  18. 20 CFR 641.630 - What private sector training activities are allowable under section 502(e)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What private sector training activities are... activities are allowable under section 502(e)? Allowable activities authorized under section 502(e) include... job development; or (9) Combinations of the above-listed activities. (b) Working with employers...

  19. Multiplicative point process as a model of trading activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontis, V.; Kaulakys, B.

    2004-11-01

    Signals consisting of a sequence of pulses show that inherent origin of the 1/ f noise is a Brownian fluctuation of the average interevent time between subsequent pulses of the pulse sequence. In this paper, we generalize the model of interevent time to reproduce a variety of self-affine time series exhibiting power spectral density S( f) scaling as a power of the frequency f. Furthermore, we analyze the relation between the power-law correlations and the origin of the power-law probability distribution of the signal intensity. We introduce a stochastic multiplicative model for the time intervals between point events and analyze the statistical properties of the signal analytically and numerically. Such model system exhibits power-law spectral density S( f)∼1/ fβ for various values of β, including β= {1}/{2}, 1 and {3}/{2}. Explicit expressions for the power spectra in the low-frequency limit and for the distribution density of the interevent time are obtained. The counting statistics of the events is analyzed analytically and numerically, as well. The specific interest of our analysis is related with the financial markets, where long-range correlations of price fluctuations largely depend on the number of transactions. We analyze the spectral density and counting statistics of the number of transactions. The model reproduces spectral properties of the real markets and explains the mechanism of power-law distribution of trading activity. The study provides evidence that the statistical properties of the financial markets are enclosed in the statistics of the time interval between trades. A multiplicative point process serves as a consistent model generating this statistics.

  20. Trade-offs between public and private coverage for low-income children have implications for future policy debates.

    PubMed

    McMorrow, Stacey; Kenney, Genevieve M; Anderson, Nathaniel; Clemans-Cope, Lisa; Dubay, Lisa; Long, Sharon K; Wissoker, Douglas

    2014-08-01

    Much of the discussion around the Affordable Care Act has focused on likely changes in coverage and access to care for adults. However, the law also alters coverage options for many low-income children. We used data from the new Health Reform Monitoring Survey Child Supplement to examine access to care and related outcomes for low-income publicly and privately insured children. We found that over 90 percent of low-income insured children had a usual source of care and had parents who were confident that their children could get the health care they need, regardless of their type of coverage. However, on a variety of cost-related measures, including difficulty paying the child's medical bills, out-of-pocket expenses, and satisfaction with health insurance premiums and copayments, children with Medicaid or the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) fared better than those with employer-sponsored insurance. These results have implications for debates about the future of CHIP and other policies that affect public and private coverage options available to children and families.

  1. What's public? What's private? Policy trade-offs and the debate over mandatory annual influenza vaccination for health care workers.

    PubMed

    Mah, Catherine L

    2008-01-01

    Policy decisions about public health services differ from those for personal health services. Both require trade-offs between such policy goals as liberty, security, efficiency, and equity. In public health, however, decisions about who will approve, pay for, and deliver services are often accompanied by decisions on when and how to compel individual behaviour. Policy becomes complex because different stakeholders interpret evidence differently: stakeholders may assign different weights to policy goals and may even define the same goals differently. In the debate over mandatory annual influenza vaccination for health care workers, for example, proponents as well as opponents of mandatory vaccination may convey arguments in security terms. Those in favour of mandatory vaccination emphasize subclinical infections and duty of care (public security) while those opposed emphasize risk of adverse events (personal security). Proponents assert less worker absenteeism (efficiency) while opponents stress coercion and alternate personal infection control measures (liberty and individual rights/responsibilities). Consequently, stakeholders talk past each other. Determining the place of mandatory influenza vaccination for health care workers thus demands reconciling policy trade-offs and clarifying the underlying disputes hidden in the language of the policy debate.

  2. 22 CFR 1203.735-211 - Activities relating to private organizations and politics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... interference, coercion, restraint, or fear of discrimination or reprisal. (c) Participation in activities of... organization so advocates (5 U.S.C. 7311, 18 U.S.C. 1918). (e) Private organizations concerned with foreign... normal and active participation of an employee in professional organizations such as the...

  3. 22 CFR 1203.735-211 - Activities relating to private organizations and politics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... interference, coercion, restraint, or fear of discrimination or reprisal. (c) Participation in activities of... organization so advocates (5 U.S.C. 7311, 18 U.S.C. 1918). (e) Private organizations concerned with foreign... normal and active participation of an employee in professional organizations such as the...

  4. 77 FR 55182 - Foreign-Trade Zone 45-Portland, OR, Authorization of Production Activity, Shimadzu USA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 45--Portland, OR, Authorization of Production Activity... Production), Canby, OR The Port of Portland, grantee of FTZ 45, submitted a notification of proposed production activity within Subzone 45G, at the facility of Shimadzu USA Manufacturing, Inc....

  5. 78 FR 13857 - Foreign-Trade Zone 84-Houston, TX; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Toshiba...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 84--Houston, TX; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Toshiba International Corporation (Hybrid Electric Vehicle Motors and Generators Production) The Port of Houston Authority, grantee of FTZ 84, submitted a notification of proposed production activity on...

  6. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-1T - Limitation on aggregrate amount of private activity bonds (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... activity bonds (temporary). 1.103(n)-1T Section 1.103(n)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Excluded from Gross Income § 1.103(n)-1T Limitation on aggregrate amount of private activity bonds (temporary). Q-1: What does section 103(n) provide? A-1: Interest on an issue of private activity bonds...

  7. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-1T - Limitation on aggregrate amount of private activity bonds (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... activity bonds (temporary). 1.103(n)-1T Section 1.103(n)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Excluded from Gross Income § 1.103(n)-1T Limitation on aggregrate amount of private activity bonds (temporary). Q-1: What does section 103(n) provide? A-1: Interest on an issue of private activity bonds...

  8. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-1T - Limitation on aggregrate amount of private activity bonds (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... activity bonds (temporary). 1.103(n)-1T Section 1.103(n)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Excluded from Gross Income § 1.103(n)-1T Limitation on aggregrate amount of private activity bonds (temporary). Q-1: What does section 103(n) provide? A-1: Interest on an issue of private activity bonds...

  9. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-1T - Limitation on aggregrate amount of private activity bonds (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... activity bonds (temporary). 1.103(n)-1T Section 1.103(n)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Excluded from Gross Income § 1.103(n)-1T Limitation on aggregrate amount of private activity bonds (temporary). Q-1: What does section 103(n) provide? A-1: Interest on an issue of private activity bonds...

  10. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-1T - Limitation on aggregrate amount of private activity bonds (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... activity bonds (temporary). 1.103(n)-1T Section 1.103(n)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Excluded from Gross Income § 1.103(n)-1T Limitation on aggregrate amount of private activity bonds (temporary). Q-1: What does section 103(n) provide? A-1: Interest on an issue of private activity bonds...

  11. Identification of clusters of investors from their real trading activity in a financial market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumminello, Michele; Lillo, Fabrizio; Piilo, Jyrki; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2012-01-01

    We use statistically validated networks, a recently introduced method of validating links in a bipartite system, to identify clusters of investors trading in a financial market. Specifically, we investigate a special database allowing us to track the trading activity of individual investors of Nokia stock. We find that many statistically detected clusters of investors show a very high degree of synchronization in time when they decide to trade and in the trading action taken. We investigate the composition of these clusters and find that several of them show an over-expression of specific categories of investors.

  12. 76 FR 48882 - Agency Information Collections Activities; Comment Request for Uranium Concentrations in Private...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... U.S. Geological Survey Agency Information Collections Activities; Comment Request for Uranium... Collection 1028-NEW, Uranium concentrations in private wells in south-east New Hampshire, in the subject line... telephone (970) 226-9165; or schusterr@usgs.gov (e-mail). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract...

  13. 31 CFR 515.576 - Activities of private foundations or research or educational institutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities of private foundations or research or educational institutes. 515.576 Section 515.576 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS...

  14. 78 FR 77484 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13; 44 U.S.C. 3507). DATES: Written comments...

  15. 76 FR 76430 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security...-0058. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of the Department of Homeland Security will...

  16. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-3T - Private activity bond limit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... City Q in any prior year made a carryforward election for the pollution control facility, (v) The... containing constitutional home rule cities. Q-2: What is the private activity bond limit for a State agency... create an issuing authority empowered to issue obligations to provide pollution control facilities...

  17. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-3T - Private activity bond limit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... City Q in any prior year made a carryforward election for the pollution control facility, (v) The... containing constitutional home rule cities. Q-2: What is the private activity bond limit for a State agency... create an issuing authority empowered to issue obligations to provide pollution control facilities...

  18. 77 FR 75610 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Abbott...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 22--Chicago, IL, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Abbott Laboratories, Inc., AbbVie, Inc. (Pharmaceutical Production), North Chicago, IL, Area Abbott... authority within Subzones 22F and 22S, at sites located in the North Chicago and Lake County, Illinois,...

  19. 78 FR 23220 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, Illinois, Authorization of Production Activity, Abbott...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 22--Chicago, Illinois, Authorization of Production Activity, Abbott Laboratories, Inc., AbbVie, Inc. (Pharmaceutical Production), North Chicago, Illinois, Area On... production authority within Subzones 22F and 22S, respectively, at sites located in the North Chicago...

  20. 77 FR 70139 - Foreign-Trade Zone 8-Toledo, OH; Authorization of Production Activity; Whirlpool Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 8--Toledo, OH; Authorization of Production Activity; Whirlpool Corporation (Washing Machines); Clyde and Green Springs, OH On July 20, 2012 the...

  1. 77 FR 34037 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Trade Secret...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Trade Secret.... Frequency of response: Trade secret claims are submitted by facilities either annually with reports... 303, 311/312 or 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (EPCRA). Title:...

  2. 78 FR 56859 - Foreign-Trade Zone 75-Phoenix, Arizona, Authorization of Limited Production Activity, Honeywell...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 75--Phoenix, Arizona, Authorization of Limited Production Activity, Honeywell Aerospace, Inc. (Aircraft Engines, Systems and Components), Phoenix and Tempe, Arizona On May 3, 2013, the City of Phoenix, grantee of FTZ 75, submitted a notification of...

  3. 78 FR 66330 - Foreign-Trade Zone 196-Fort Worth, Texas, Authorization of Production Activity, Flextronics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 196--Fort Worth, Texas, Authorization of Production Activity, Flextronics International USA, Inc. (Mobile Phone Assembly and Kitting), Fort Worth, Texas On June 14,...

  4. 78 FR 30862 - Foreign-Trade Zone 41-Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Authorization of Production Activity; CNH America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 41--Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Authorization of Production Activity; CNH America, LLC; Subzone 41I (Tractors and Tractor/Combine Components); Racine, Wisconsin...

  5. 77 FR 74170 - Authorization of Production Activity, Foreign-Trade Subzone 107A, Winnebago Industries, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Authorization of Production Activity, Foreign-Trade Subzone 107A, Winnebago Industries, Inc. (Polyurethane Coated Upholstery Fabric), Forest City and Charles City, IA On July 24,...

  6. 77 FR 72816 - Foreign-Trade Zone 20-Suffolk, VA; Authorization of Production Activity; Usui International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 20--Suffolk, VA; Authorization of Production Activity; Usui International Corporation (Diesel Engine Fuel Lines); Chesapeake, VA On June 28, 2012, the Virginia...

  7. 75 FR 6678 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs and Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs and Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... requirement concerning the Customs and Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT). This request for...

  8. 78 FR 30934 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs And Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... requirement concerning the Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT). This request for comment...

  9. 78 FR 41911 - Foreign-Trade Zone 161-Sedgwick County, Kansas; Authorization of Production Activity; Siemens...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 161--Sedgwick County, Kansas; Authorization of Production Activity; Siemens Energy, Inc. (Wind Turbine Nacelles and Hubs); Hutchinson, Kansas On March 7,...

  10. 78 FR 48413 - Foreign-Trade Zone 75-Phoenix, Arizona, Authorization of Production Activity, Orbital Sciences...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 75--Phoenix, Arizona, Authorization of Production Activity, Orbital Sciences Corporation, (Satellites and Spacecraft Launch Vehicles); Gilbert, Arizona On April...

  11. 78 FR 33808 - Foreign-Trade Zone 50-Long Beach, California; Authorization of Production Activity; Panasonic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 108 (Wednesday, June 5, 2013)] [Notices] [Page 33808] [FR Doc No: 2013-13314] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-13-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 50--Long Beach, California; Authorization of Production Activity; Panasonic Corporation of North America (Kitting of Consumer Electronics);...

  12. 78 FR 7394 - Foreign-Trade Zone 121-Albany, NY; Authorization of Production Activity; Albany Molecular...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 121--Albany, NY; Authorization of Production Activity; Albany Molecular Research, Inc.; Subzone 121A (Pharmaceutical Chemicals Production); Rensselaer, NY On September...

  13. 78 FR 68814 - Foreign-Trade Zone 32-Miami, Florida, Authorization of Production Activity, Brightstar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 32--Miami, Florida, Authorization of Production Activity, Brightstar Corporation (Cell Phone Kitting), Miami, Florida On June 26, 2013, The Greater Miami Chamber...

  14. 77 FR 55455 - Foreign-Trade Zone 235-Lakewood, NJ, Authorization of Production Activity, Cosmetic Essence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 235--Lakewood, NJ, Authorization of Production Activity, Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC, (Fragrance Bottling), Holmdel, NJ Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC...

  15. 48 CFR 2131.205-43 - Trade, business, technical and professional activity costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Trade, business, technical... System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Organizations 2131.205-43 Trade, business, technical and professional activity costs. (a) FEGLI...

  16. 48 CFR 1631.205-76 - Trade, business, technical, and professional activity costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Trade, business, technical... System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL....205-76 Trade, business, technical, and professional activity costs. (a) FEHBP participating...

  17. 77 FR 48127 - Foreign-Trade Zone 20-Suffolk, VA; Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Usui...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 20--Suffolk, VA; Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Usui International Corporation, (Diesel Engine Fuel Lines), Chesapeake, VA The Virginia Port Authority, grantee of FTZ 20, submitted a...

  18. 78 FR 28801 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, Illinois; Authorization of Production Activity Panasonic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 22--Chicago, Illinois; Authorization of Production Activity Panasonic Corporation of North America (Kitting of Consumer Electronics) Aurora, Illinois On January...

  19. Statistical properties of trading activity in Chinese stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoqian; Cheng, Xueqi; Shen, Huawei; Wang, Zhaoyang

    2010-08-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of traders' trading behavior using cumulative distribution function(CDF). We analyze exchange data of 52 stocks for one-year period which contains non-manipulated stocks and manipulated stocks published by China Securities Regulatory Commission(CSRC). By analyzing the total number of transactions and the trading volume of each trader over a year, we find the cumulative distributions have power-law tails and the distributions between non-manipulated stocks and manipulated stocks are different. These findings can help us to detect the manipulated stocks.

  20. 17 CFR 255.6 - Other permitted proprietary trading activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sell) a financial instrument from a customer, purchases (or sells) the financial instrument for its own account to offset a contemporaneous sale to (or purchase from) the customer. (d) Permitted trading by a... government obligations. The prohibition contained in § 255.3(a) does not apply to the purchase or sale by...

  1. 17 CFR 75.6 - Other permitted proprietary trading activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... customer, purchases (or sells) the financial instrument for its own account to offset a contemporaneous sale to (or purchase from) the customer. (d) Permitted trading by a regulated insurance company. The... government obligations. The prohibition contained in § 75.3(a) does not apply to the purchase or sale by...

  2. 77 FR 63320 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Petroleum Refineries in Foreign Trade Sub-zones

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Petroleum Refineries... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Petroleum Refineries in Foreign Trade... soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: Petroleum Refineries in...

  3. 78 FR 23220 - Authorization of Production Activity, Foreign-Trade Subzone 26L, Suzuki Mfg. of America Corp...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Authorization of Production Activity, Foreign-Trade Subzone 26L, Suzuki Mfg. of... activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Suzuki Mfg. of America Corp. The...

  4. 77 FR 73415 - Authorization of Export Production Activity, Foreign-Trade Subzone 12A, TST NA Trim, LLC (Fabric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Authorization of Export Production Activity, Foreign-Trade Subzone 12A, TST NA... Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of TST NA Trim, LLC, within Subzone 12A, in Hidalgo, Texas....

  5. 78 FR 25253 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 26-Atlanta, Georgia; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; PBR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 26--Atlanta, Georgia; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; PBR, Inc. d/b/a SKAPS Industries (Polypropylene Geotextiles); Athens, Georgia Georgia Foreign-Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of FTZ...

  6. 78 FR 54234 - Foreign-Trade Zone 26-Atlanta, Georgia, Authorization of Production Activity PBR, Inc. d/b/a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 26--Atlanta, Georgia, Authorization of Production Activity PBR, Inc. d/b/a SKAPS Industries (Polypropylene Geotextiles), Athens, Georgia On April 8, 2013, Georgia Foreign-Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of FTZ 26, submitted a notification of proposed...

  7. 78 FR 65963 - Foreign-Trade Zone 44-Mt. Olive, New Jersey; Authorization of Production Activity; Givaudan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 44--Mt. Olive, New Jersey; Authorization of Production Activity; Givaudan Fragrances Corporation (Fragrance and Flavor Products); Mt. Olive, New Jersey On June 11... Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board for its facility within Site 1 of FTZ 44 in Mt. Olive, New Jersey....

  8. Compilation of Trade Studies for the Constellation Program Extravehicular Activity Spacesuit Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincannon, James

    2009-01-01

    This compilation of trade studies performed from 2005 to 2006 addressed a number of power system design issues for the Constellation Program Extravehicular Activity Spacesuit. Spacesuits were required for spacewalks and in-space activities as well as lunar and Mars surface operations. The trades documented here considered whether solar power was feasible for spacesuits, whether spacesuit power generation should be a distributed or a centralized function, whether self-powered in-space spacesuits were better than umbilically powered ones, and whether the suit power system should be recharged in place or replaced.

  9. 77 FR 63290 - Foreign-Trade Zone 181-Akron/Canton, OH, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Cimbar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... Activity, Cimbar Performance Minerals, (Barium Sulfate Grinding), Wellsville, OH The Northeast Ohio Trade... of Cimbar Performance Minerals (Cimbar), located in Wellsville, Ohio. The notification conforming...

  10. Defying the activity-stability trade-off in enzymes: taking advantage of entropy to enhance activity and thermostability.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Khawar Sohail

    2017-05-01

    The biotechnological applications of enzymes are limited due to the activity-stability trade-off, which implies that an increase in activity is accompanied by a concomitant decrease in protein stability. This premise is based on thermally adapted homologous enzymes where cold-adapted enzymes show high intrinsic activity linked to enhanced thermolability. In contrast, thermophilic enzymes show low activity around ambient temperatures. Nevertheless, genetically and chemically modified enzymes are beginning to show that the activity-stability trade-off can be overcome. In this review, the origin of the activity-stability trade-off, the thermodynamic basis for enhanced activity and stability, and various approaches for escaping the activity-stability trade-off are discussed. The role of entropy in enhancing both the activity and the stability of enzymes is highlighted with a special emphasis placed on the involvement of solvent water molecules. This review is concluded with suggestions for further research, which underscores the implications of these findings in the context of productivity curves, the Daniel-Danson equilibrium model, catalytic antibodies, and life on cold planets.

  11. 78 FR 38068 - Agency Information Collection Activities: United States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: United States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland...: 1651-0083. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) will be submitting the...

  12. 75 FR 15446 - Agency Information Collection Activities: United States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs And Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: United States- Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland.... Customs and Border (CBP) invites the general public and other Federal agencies to comment on...

  13. 78 FR 23280 - Agency Information Collection Activities: United States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: United States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act (CBTPA) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department...: Direct all written comments to U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Attn: Tracey Denning, Regulations...

  14. 78 FR 44961 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities; Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland.... SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) will be submitting the following information...

  15. 78 FR 15031 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Andean Trade Preferences Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Andean Trade Preferences Act AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 60... Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13; 44 U.S.C. 3505(c)(2)). DATES: Written comments should be received...

  16. 77 FR 47429 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Petroleum Refineries in Foreign Trade Sub-zones

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities; Petroleum Refineries... concerning the Petroleum Refineries in Foreign Trade Sub-zones. This request for comment is being made... CBP is soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title:...

  17. Trading off stability against activity in extremophilic aldolases

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Markus; Weiergräber, Oliver H.; Classen, Thomas; Bisterfeld, Carolin; Bramski, Julia; Gohlke, Holger; Pietruszka, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Understanding enzyme stability and activity in extremophilic organisms is of great biotechnological interest, but many questions are still unsolved. Using 2-deoxy-D-ribose-5-phosphate aldolase (DERA) as model enzyme, we have evaluated structural and functional characteristics of different orthologs from psychrophilic, mesophilic and hyperthermophilic organisms. We present the first crystal structures of psychrophilic DERAs, revealing a dimeric organization resembling their mesophilic but not their thermophilic counterparts. Conversion into monomeric proteins showed that the native dimer interface contributes to stability only in the hyperthermophilic enzymes. Nevertheless, introduction of a disulfide bridge in the interface of a psychrophilic DERA did confer increased thermostability, suggesting a strategy for rational design of more durable enzyme variants. Constraint network analysis revealed particularly sparse interactions between the substrate pocket and its surrounding α-helices in psychrophilic DERAs, which indicates that a more flexible active center underlies their high turnover numbers. PMID:26783049

  18. 77 FR 39209 - Foreign-Trade Zone 74-Baltimore, MD, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, J.D. Neuhaus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 74--Baltimore, MD, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, J.D. Neuhaus LP (Overhead Lifting Equipment Production) Sparks, MD The Baltimore Development Corporation, grantee of FTZ 74, submitted a notification of proposed production activity on behalf of...

  19. 77 FR 52680 - Foreign-Trade Zone 242-Boundary County, ID, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, AREVA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 242--Boundary County, ID, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC, (Gas Centrifuge Production Equipment), Bonneville County, ID Boundary County, grantee of FTZ 242, submitted a notification of proposed production activity on behalf...

  20. 77 FR 63290 - Foreign-Trade Zone 74-Baltimore, MD, Authorization of Production Activity, J.D. Neuhaus LP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 74--Baltimore, MD, Authorization of Production Activity, J.D. Neuhaus LP, (Overhead Lifting Equipment Production), Sparks, MD On June 13, 2012, the Baltimore Development Corporation, grantee of FTZ 74, submitted a notification of proposed production activity on...

  1. 20 CFR 641.640 - How do the private sector training activities authorized under section 502(e) differ from other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... required to have a community service project component. However, 502(e) participants must also be co... private sector. (c) The Department is authorized to pay all of the costs of section 502(e) activities (i.e... authorized under section 502(e) differ from other SCSEP activities? 641.640 Section 641.640...

  2. Trade-Offs in Male Display Activity with Lek Size.

    PubMed

    Cestari, César; Loiselle, Bette A; Pizo, Marco Aurélio

    In lek mating systems, males aggregate and defend arenas where they display for females; females select and mate with a male and then solely raise their offspring. Generally, female visits and copulations increase and reproductive variance in male mating success declines with lek size. Here we investigate how male display effort changes across a gradient in lek size. We expect male display effort, an energetically expensive activity, will increase with lek size and male rank due to changes in breeding opportunities and competition among males. We test the interaction of male rank and lek size on display effort using the white-bearded manakin, Manacus manacus (Aves: Pipridae), a well-studied species with a wide geographic distribution in the new world tropics. We used mini-video recorders to simultaneously capture female visits and display behaviors of 41 males distributed over 10 leks. We found that overall display effort increased disproportionately with lek size due to males of both high and low ranks increasing their display effort at larger leks. Our results suggest that increased breeding opportunities and intrasexual competition at larger leks result in males of different ranks investing similarly in increased display effort in order to attract females.

  3. Trade-Offs in Male Display Activity with Lek Size

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, César; Loiselle, Bette A.; Pizo, Marco Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    In lek mating systems, males aggregate and defend arenas where they display for females; females select and mate with a male and then solely raise their offspring. Generally, female visits and copulations increase and reproductive variance in male mating success declines with lek size. Here we investigate how male display effort changes across a gradient in lek size. We expect male display effort, an energetically expensive activity, will increase with lek size and male rank due to changes in breeding opportunities and competition among males. We test the interaction of male rank and lek size on display effort using the white-bearded manakin, Manacus manacus (Aves: Pipridae), a well-studied species with a wide geographic distribution in the new world tropics. We used mini-video recorders to simultaneously capture female visits and display behaviors of 41 males distributed over 10 leks. We found that overall display effort increased disproportionately with lek size due to males of both high and low ranks increasing their display effort at larger leks. Our results suggest that increased breeding opportunities and intrasexual competition at larger leks result in males of different ranks investing similarly in increased display effort in order to attract females. PMID:27680489

  4. 78 FR 45181 - Foreign-Trade Zone 230-Piedmont Triad Area, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Production Activity, Oracle Flexible Packaging, Inc., (Foil-Backed Paperboard), Winston-Salem, North Carolina... proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Oracle Flexible...

  5. 78 FR 60826 - Foreign-Trade Zone 155-Calhoun/Victoria Counties, Texas; Authorization of Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... Production Activity; Caterpillar, Inc. (Excavator and Frame Assembly Production); Victoria, Texas On May 29... proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Caterpillar, Inc.,...

  6. 78 FR 13857 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh-Durham, NC; Authorization of Production Activity; Revlon Consumer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 93--Raleigh-Durham, NC; Authorization of Production Activity; Revlon Consumer Products Corporation (Hair Coloring Products); Oxford, NC On October 10, 2012,...

  7. 78 FR 58995 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 138-Columbus, Ohio; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Rolls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 138--Columbus, Ohio; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Rolls Royce Energy Systems, Inc. (Industrial Gas Turbines, Power Generation Turbines, and Generator Sets); Mount Vernon, Ohio...

  8. 78 FR 16465 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7-Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, Authorization of Production Activity, Pepsi Cola...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 7--Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, Authorization of Production Activity, Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC (Soft Drink and Fruit Drink Beverages), Toa Baja,...

  9. 78 FR 62583 - Foreign-Trade Zone 39-Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Authorization of Production Activity; Lasko...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 39--Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Authorization of Production Activity; Lasko Products, Inc. (Household Electric Fans); Fort Worth, Texas On May 21, 2013, Lasko...

  10. 78 FR 40427 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 183-Austin, Texas; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Samsung...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 183--Austin, Texas; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Samsung Austin Semiconductor, LLC (Semiconductors); Austin, Texas Samsung Austin Semiconductor... the FTZ Board for its facility in Austin, Texas. The notification conforming to the requirements...

  11. 77 FR 56611 - Foreign-Trade Zone 216-Olympia, WA; Authorization of Production Activity; Callisons, Inc. (Mint...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 178 (Thursday, September 13, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 56611] [FR Doc No: 2012-22601] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-38-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 216--Olympia, WA; Authorization of Production Activity; Callisons, Inc. (Mint Products); Lacey...

  12. 78 FR 28190 - Authorization of Production Activity; Foreign-Trade Subzone 29C; GE Appliances (Electric Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Authorization of Production Activity; Foreign-Trade Subzone 29C; GE Appliances (Electric Water Heaters); Louisville, Kentucky On January 7, 2013, GE Appliances, operator of Subzone 29C...

  13. 78 FR 29322 - Foreign-Trade Zone 41-Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Authorization of Production Activity; Subzone 41J...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 41--Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Authorization of Production Activity; Subzone 41J; Generac Power Systems, Inc. (Generators, Pressure Washers, Engines and Other...

  14. 78 FR 55057 - Authorization of Production Activity, Foreign-Trade Subzone 123E, Vestas Nacelles America, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Authorization of Production Activity, Foreign-Trade Subzone 123E, Vestas Nacelles America, Inc., (Wind Turbines), Brighton, Denver, Pueblo, and Windsor, Colorado On May 3,...

  15. 78 FR 43141 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 93--Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity, Southern Lithoplate, Inc. (Aluminum Printing Plates), Youngsville, North Carolina...

  16. 77 FR 63290 - Foreign-Trade Zone 61-San Juan, Puerto Rico; Authorization of Production Activity, Pfizer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 61--San Juan, Puerto Rico; Authorization of Production Activity, Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, LLC (Subzone 61A), (Ibuprofen Pharmaceutical Products), Guayama,...

  17. 78 FR 79390 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 265-Conroe, Texas, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Bauer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 265--Conroe, Texas, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Bauer Manufacturing Inc., (Pile Drivers, Boring Machinery, and Foundation Construction Equipment), Conroe, Texas The City of Conroe,...

  18. 77 FR 71167 - Foreign-Trade Zone 37-Orange County, New York, Authorization of Production Activity, Takasago...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 37--Orange County, New York, Authorization of Production Activity, Takasago International Corporation (Fragrances), Harriman, New York On July 26, 2012,...

  19. 77 FR 75406 - Foreign-Trade Zone 26-Atlanta, GA; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Perkins Shibaura...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 26--Atlanta, GA; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Perkins Shibaura Engines LLC, (Diesel Engines), Griffin, GA Perkins Shibaura Engines LLC (Perkins Shibaura), an operator of FTZ 26, submitted...

  20. Frequency of private spiritual activity and cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Fitchett, George; Hovey, Kathleen M.; Schnall, Eliezer; Thomson, Cynthia; Andrews, Christopher A.; Crawford, Sybil; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Post, Stephen; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Ockene, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Spirituality has been associated with better cardiac autonomic balance, but its association with cardiovascular risk is not well studied. We examined whether more frequent private spiritual activity was associated with reduced cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Methods Frequency of private spiritual activity (prayer, Bible reading, and meditation) was self-reported at year 5 of follow-up. Cardiovascular outcomes were centrally adjudicated, and cardiovascular risk was estimated from proportional hazards models. Results Final models included 43,708 women (mean age, 68.9 ± 7.3 years; median follow-up, 7.0 years) free of cardiac disease through year 5 of follow-up. In age-adjusted models, private spiritual activity was associated with increased cardiovascular risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–1.31 for weekly vs. never; HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.11–1.40 for daily vs. never). In multivariate models adjusted for demographics, lifestyle, risk factors, and psychosocial factors, such association remained significant only in the group with daily activity (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03–1.30). Subgroup analyses indicate this association may be driven by the presence of severe chronic diseases. Conclusions Among aging women, higher frequency of private spiritual activity was associated with increased cardiovascular risk, likely reflecting a mobilization of spiritual resources to cope with aging and illness. PMID:23621989

  1. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-4T - Elective carryforward of unused private activity bond limit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bond limit (temporary). 1.103(n)-4T Section 1.103(n)-4T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Excluded from Gross Income § 1.103(n)-4T Elective carryforward of unused private activity bond limit... carryforward for any one or more projects described in A-5 of this § 1.103(n)-4T (carryforward projects)....

  2. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-4T - Elective carryforward of unused private activity bond limit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... bond limit (temporary). 1.103(n)-4T Section 1.103(n)-4T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Excluded from Gross Income § 1.103(n)-4T Elective carryforward of unused private activity bond limit... carryforward for any one or more projects described in A-5 of this § 1.103(n)-4T (carryforward projects)....

  3. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-4T - Elective carryforward of unused private activity bond limit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bond limit (temporary). 1.103(n)-4T Section 1.103(n)-4T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Excluded from Gross Income § 1.103(n)-4T Elective carryforward of unused private activity bond limit... carryforward for any one or more projects described in A-5 of this § 1.103(n)-4T (carryforward projects)....

  4. 78 FR 11626 - Foreign-Trade Zone 181-Akron/Canton, OH, Authorization of Production Activity, Cimbar Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ..., Cimbar Performance Minerals, (Barium Sulfate Grinding), Wellsville, OH On October 10, 2012, the Northeast... activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Cimbar Performance Minerals, within FTZ...

  5. Private Information and Insurance Rejections

    PubMed Central

    Hendren, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    Across a wide set of non-group insurance markets, applicants are rejected based on observable, often high-risk, characteristics. This paper argues that private information, held by the potential applicant pool, explains rejections. I formulate this argument by developing and testing a model in which agents may have private information about their risk. I first derive a new no-trade result that theoretically explains how private information could cause rejections. I then develop a new empirical methodology to test whether this no-trade condition can explain rejections. The methodology uses subjective probability elicitations as noisy measures of agents beliefs. I apply this approach to three non-group markets: long-term care, disability, and life insurance. Consistent with the predictions of the theory, in all three settings I find significant amounts of private information held by those who would be rejected; I find generally more private information for those who would be rejected relative to those who can purchase insurance; and I show it is enough private information to explain a complete absence of trade for those who would be rejected. The results suggest private information prevents the existence of large segments of these three major insurance markets. PMID:24187381

  6. Private Training Providers in Australia: Their Characteristics and Training Activities. A National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Roger; Simons, Michele; McCarthy, Carmel

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the nature of the training activity of private registered training organisations (RTOs) offered to Australian students in 2003, based on data from a national sample of 330 RTOs. The study also provides estimates of the private sector's overall contribution to the total vocational education and training (VET) effort in Australia…

  7. Privatizing Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrard, Jane; Bolt, Nancy; Strege, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This timely special report from ALA Editions provides a succinct but comprehensive overview of the "privatization" of public libraries. It provides a history of the trend of local and state governments privatizing public services and assets, and then examines the history of public library privatization right up to the California…

  8. Private Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Brian T., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the expanding role of the rehabilitation counselor into private sector rehabilitation in the seven articles of this special issue. Topics cover private rehabilitation in an insurance context including forensics issues, computer applications, recent trends, services in a multiprogram private clinic, and rehabilitation counselor training.…

  9. Prevalence of human cell material: DNA and RNA profiling of public and private objects and after activity scenarios.

    PubMed

    van den Berge, M; Ozcanhan, G; Zijlstra, S; Lindenbergh, A; Sijen, T

    2016-03-01

    Especially when minute evidentiary traces are analysed, background cell material unrelated to the crime may contribute to detectable levels in the genetic analyses. To gain understanding on the composition of human cell material residing on surfaces contributing to background traces, we performed DNA and mRNA profiling on samplings of various items. Samples were selected by considering events contributing to cell material deposits in exemplary activities (e.g. dragging a person by the trouser ankles), and can be grouped as public objects, private samples, transfer-related samples and washing machine experiments. Results show that high DNA yields do not necessarily relate to an increased number of contributors or to the detection of other cell types than skin. Background cellular material may be found on any type of public or private item. When a major contributor can be deduced in DNA profiles from private items, this can be a different person than the owner of the item. Also when a specific activity is performed and the areas of physical contact are analysed, the "perpetrator" does not necessarily represent the major contributor in the STR profile. Washing machine experiments show that transfer and persistence during laundry is limited for DNA and cell type dependent for RNA. Skin conditions such as the presence of sebum or sweat can promote DNA transfer. Results of this study, which encompasses 549 samples, increase our understanding regarding the prevalence of human cell material in background and activity scenarios.

  10. Revisiting the Time Trade-off Hypothesis: Work, Organized Activities, and Academics during College

    PubMed Central

    Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    How adolescents spend their time has long-term implications for their educational, health, and labor market outcomes, yet surprisingly little research has explored the time use of students across days and semesters. The current study used longitudinal daily diary data from a sample of college students attending a large public university in the Northeastern US (n = 726, Mage = 18.4) that was followed for 14 days within each of 7 semesters (for up to 98 diary days per student). The study had two primary aims. The first aim was to explore demographic correlates of employment time, organized activity time, and academic time. The second aim was to provide a rigorous test of the time trade-off hypothesis, which suggests that students will spend less time on academics when they spend more time on employment and extracurricular activities. The results demonstrated that time use varied by gender, parental education, and race/ethnicity. Furthermore, the results from multi-level models provided some support for the time trade-off hypothesis, although associations varied by the activity type and whether the day was a weekend. More time spent on employment was linked to less time spent on academics across days and semesters whereas organized activities were associated with less time on academics at the daily level only. The negative associations between employment and academics were most pronounced on weekdays. These results suggest that students may balance certain activities across days, whereas other activities may be in competition over longer time frames (i.e., semesters). PMID:25381597

  11. Revisiting the Time Trade-Off Hypothesis: Work, Organized Activities, and Academics During College.

    PubMed

    Greene, Kaylin M; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2015-08-01

    How adolescents spend their time has long-term implications for their educational, health, and labor market outcomes, yet surprisingly little research has explored the time use of students across days and semesters. The current study used longitudinal daily diary data from a sample of college students attending a large public university in the Northeastern US (n = 726, M age = 18.4) that was followed for 14 days within each of seven semesters (for up to 98 diary days per student). The study had two primary aims. The first aim was to explore demographic correlates of employment time, organized activity time, and academic time. The second aim was to provide a rigorous test of the time trade-off hypothesis, which suggests that students will spend less time on academics when they spend more time on employment and extracurricular activities. The results demonstrated that time use varied by gender, parental education, and race/ethnicity. Furthermore, the results from multi-level models provided some support for the time trade-off hypothesis, although associations varied by the activity type and whether the day was a weekend. More time spent on employment was linked to less time spent on academics across days and semesters whereas organized activities were associated with less time on academics at the daily level only. The negative associations between employment and academics were most pronounced on weekdays. These results suggest that students may balance certain activities across days, whereas other activities may be in competition over longer time frames (i.e., semesters).

  12. 76 FR 13204 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Automated Commercial Environment Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Environment Trade Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security...: Automated Commercial Environment Trade Survey. ] This request for comment is being made pursuant to the... Commercial Environment Trade Survey. OMB Number: Will be assigned upon approval. Form Number: None....

  13. 76 FR 28801 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Automated Commercial Environment Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... Environment Trade Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION... approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Automated Commercial Environment Trade Survey... forms of information. Title: Automated Commercial Environment Trade Survey. OMB Number: Will be...

  14. 78 FR 22512 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 225-Springfield, Missouri; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 225--Springfield, Missouri; Notification of Proposed... available for public inspection at the Office of the Executive Secretary, Foreign-Trade Zones Board, Room...-free to 5.3%) for the foreign articles noted below. The articles sourced from abroad include:...

  15. Functional Trade-Offs in Promiscuous Enzymes Cannot Be Explained by Intrinsic Mutational Robustness of the Native Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kaltenbach, Miriam; Emond, Stephane; Tokuriki, Nobuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which an emerging new function trades off with the original function is a key characteristic of the dynamics of enzyme evolution. Various cases of laboratory evolution have unveiled a characteristic trend; a large increase in a new, promiscuous activity is often accompanied by only a mild reduction of the native, original activity. A model that associates weak trade-offs with “evolvability” was put forward, which proposed that enzymes possess mutational robustness in the native activity and plasticity in promiscuous activities. This would enable the acquisition of a new function without compromising the original one, reducing the benefit of early gene duplication and therefore the selection pressure thereon. Yet, to date, no experimental study has examined this hypothesis directly. Here, we investigate the causes of weak trade-offs by systematically characterizing adaptive mutations that occurred in two cases of evolutionary transitions in enzyme function: (1) from phosphotriesterase to arylesterase, and (2) from atrazine chlorohydrolase to melamine deaminase. Mutational analyses in various genetic backgrounds revealed that, in contrast to the prevailing model, the native activity is less robust to mutations than the promiscuous activity. For example, in phosphotriesterase, the deleterious effect of individual mutations on the native phosphotriesterase activity is much larger than their positive effect on the promiscuous arylesterase activity. Our observations suggest a revision of the established model: weak trade-offs are not caused by an intrinsic robustness of the native activity and plasticity of the promiscuous activity. We propose that upon strong adaptive pressure for the new activity without selection against the original one, selected mutations will lead to the largest possible increases in the new function, but whether and to what extent they decrease the old function is irrelevant, creating a bias towards initially weak trade-offs and

  16. Trade in health services.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services.

  17. Trade in health services.

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services. PMID:11953795

  18. Trade-offs between commuting time and health-related activities.

    PubMed

    Christian, Thomas J

    2012-10-01

    To further understand documented associations between obesity and urban sprawl, this research describes individuals' trade-offs between health-related activities and commuting time. A cross-section of 24,861 working-age individuals employed full-time and residing in urban counties is constructed from the American Time Use Survey (2003-2010). Data are analyzed using seemingly unrelated regressions to quantify health-related activity decreases in response to additional time spent commuting. Outcomes are total daily minutes spent in physical activity at a moderate or greater intensity, preparing food, eating meals with family, and sleeping. Commuting time is measured as all travel time between home and work and vice versa. The mean commuting time is 62 min daily, the median is 55 min, and 10.1% of workers commute 120 min or more. Spending an additional 60 min daily commuting above average is associated with a 6% decrease in aggregate health-related activities and spending an additional 120 min is associated with a 12% decrease. The greatest percentage of commuting time comes from sleeping time reductions (28-35%). Additionally, larger proportions of commuting time are taken from physical activity and food preparation relative to the mean commuting length: of 60 min spent commuting, 16.1% is taken from physical activity and 4.1% is taken from food preparation; of 120 min commuting, 20.3% is taken from physical activity and 5.6% is taken from food preparation. The results indicate that longer commutes are associated with behavioral patterns which over time may contribute to obesity and other poor health outcomes. These findings will assist both urban planners and researchers wishing to understand time constraints' impacts on health.

  19. Managing dynamic epidemiological risks through trade

    PubMed Central

    Horan, Richard D.; Fenichel, Eli P.; Finnoff, David; Wolf, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern that trade, by connecting geographically isolated regions, unintentionally facilitates the spread of invasive pathogens and pests – forms of biological pollution that pose significant risks to ecosystem and human health. We use a bioeconomic framework to examine whether trade always increases private risks, focusing specifically on pathogen risks from live animal trade. When the pathogens have already established and traders bear some private risk, we find two results that run counter to the conventional wisdom on trade. First, uncertainty about the disease status of individual animals held in inventory may increase the incentives to trade relative to the disease-free case. Second, trade may facilitate reduced long-run disease prevalence among buyers. These results arise because disease risks are endogenous due to dynamic feedback processes involving valuable inventories, and markets facilitate the management of private risks that producers face with or without trade. PMID:25914431

  20. 75 FR 78726 - Agency Information Collection Activities: North American Free Trade Agreement Duty Deferral

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... requirement concerning the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Duty Deferral. This request for comment... soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: NAFTA Duty Deferral. OMB Number: 1651-0071. Abstract: The provisions of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) were adopted by...

  1. 78 FR 73824 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 20-Suffolk, Virginia; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 20--Suffolk, Virginia; Notification of Proposed... that apply to toner cartridges, bottles and cartridge parts (duty free) for the foreign-status inputs... are: duty-free, 10 cents/barrel or 6.5%). Public comment is invited from interested...

  2. 78 FR 30270 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 61-San Juan, Puerto Rico, Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Production Activity, Janssen Ortho LLC (Pharmaceutical Products Production), Gurabo, Puerto Rico The Puerto Rico Trade and Export Company, grantee of FTZ 61, submitted a notification of proposed production... production of various prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceutical products. Pursuant to 15 CFR...

  3. 75 FR 19654 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs-Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2010-8632] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) AGENCY: U.S. Customs...; extension of an existing information collection: 1651-0077. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection...

  4. 77 FR 28569 - Foreign-Trade Zone 92-Gulfport, MS Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Gulf Ship, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ...; Gulf Ship, LLC, (Shipbuilding), Gulfport, MS The Mississippi Coast Foreign-Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of FTZ 92, submitted a notification of proposed production activity on behalf of Gulf Ship, LLC (Gulf Ship), located in Gulfport, Mississippi. The Gulf Ship facility is located within Site 3 of FTZ 92....

  5. A Launch Requirements Trade Study for Active Space Radiation Shielding for Long Duration Human Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Bollweg, Ken; Martin, Trent; Westover, Shayne; Battiston, Roberto; Burger, William J.; Meinke, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    A trade study for an active shielding concept based on magnetic fields in a solenoid configuration versus mass based shielding was developed. Monte Carlo simulations were used to estimate the radiation exposure for two values of the magnetic field strength and the mass of the magnetic shield configuration. For each field strength, results were reported for the magnetic region shielding (end caps ignored) and total region shielding (end caps included but no magnetic field protection) configurations. A value of 15 cSv was chosen to be the maximum exposure for an astronaut. The radiation dose estimate over the total shield region configuration cannot be used at this time without a better understanding of the material and mass present in the end cap regions through a detailed vehicle design. The magnetic shield region configuration, assuming the end cap regions contribute zero exposure, can be launched on a single Space Launch System rocket and up to a two year mission can be supported. The magnetic shield region configuration results in two versus nine launches for a comparable mass based shielding configuration. The active shielding approach is clearly more mass efficient because of the reduced number of launches than the mass based shielding for long duration missions.

  6. Cost-benefit trade-offs of bird activity in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Peisley, Rebecca K; Saunders, Manu E; Luck, Gary W

    2016-01-01

    Birds active in apple orchards in south-eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests) or negatively (e.g., crop damage) to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south-eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella) larvae (a major pest in apple crops). We found that: (1) excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2) bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples); and (3) when trading off the potential benefits (biological control) with costs (bird damage to apples), birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems.

  7. Cost-benefit trade-offs of bird activity in apple orchards

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Manu E.; Luck, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    Birds active in apple orchards in south–eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests) or negatively (e.g., crop damage) to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south–eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella) larvae (a major pest in apple crops). We found that: (1) excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2) bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples); and (3) when trading off the potential benefits (biological control) with costs (bird damage to apples), birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems. PMID:27413639

  8. Greenhouse gas trading starts up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    While nations decide on whether to sign on to the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, some countries and private companies are moving forward with greenhouse gas emissions trading.A 19 March report, "The Emerging International Greenhouse Gas Market," by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, reports that about 65 greenhouse gas emissions trades for quantities above 1,000 metric tons of carbon dioxideequivalent already have occurred worldwide since 1996. Many of these trades have taken place under a voluntary, ad hoc framework, though the United Kingdom and Denmark have established their own domestic emissions trading programs.

  9. 78 FR 20091 - Foreign-Trade Zone 26-Atlanta, Georgia, Authorization of Production Activity, Perkins Shibaura...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ..., Perkins Shibaura Engines, LLC (Diesel Engines), Griffin, Georgia On November 29, 2012, Georgia Foreign... Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Perkins Shibaura Engines, LLC, submitted a notification...

  10. Credit Trading and Wind Power: Issues and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Rackstraw, John Palmisano

    2001-01-15

    OAK-B135 This paper focuses on credits that are derived from wind energy technology, but the same concepts apply to other renewable energy technologies as well. Credit trading can be applied to a wide variety of policies, programs and private market activities and represents a means of tapping into revenue streams that heretofore have largely excluded wind and other renewables. In addition, credit trading can help to ''create'' new revenue streams for wind and other renewables by helping to grow new markets.

  11. Innovation under cap-and-trade programs

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Margaret R.

    2012-01-01

    Policies incentivizing the private sector to reach its innovative potential in “clean” technologies are likely to play a key role in achieving climate stabilization. This article explores the relationship between innovation and cap-and-trade programs (CTPs)—the world's most prominent climate policy instrument—through empirical evidence drawn from successful CTPs for sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide control. The article shows that before trading began for these CTPs, analysts overestimated the value of allowances in a pattern suggestive of the frequent a priori overestimation of the compliance costs of regulation. When lower-than-expected allowance prices were observed, in part because of the unexpected range of abatement approaches used in the lead-up to trading, emissions sources chose to bank allowances in significant numbers and reassess abatement approaches going forward. In addition, commercially oriented inventive activity declined for emissions-reducing technologies with a wide range of costs and technical characteristics, dropping from peaks before the establishment of CTPs to nadirs a few years into trading. This finding is consistent with innovators deciding during trading that their research and development investments should be reduced, based on assessments of future market conditions under the relevant CTPs. The article concludes with a discussion of the results and their implications for innovation and climate policy. PMID:22411797

  12. Trade-off between frequency and precision during stepping movements: Kinematic and BOLD brain activation patterns.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Martin; Valencia, Miguel; Vidorreta, Marta; Luis, Elkin O; Castellanos, Gabriel; Villagra, Federico; Fernández-Seara, Maria A; Pastor, Maria A

    2016-05-01

    The central nervous system has the ability to adapt our locomotor pattern to produce a wide range of gait modalities and velocities. In reacting to external pacing stimuli, deviations from an individual preferred cadence provoke a concurrent decrease in accuracy that suggests the existence of a trade-off between frequency and precision; a compromise that could result from the specialization within the control centers of locomotion to ensure a stable transition and optimal adaptation to changing environment. Here, we explore the neural correlates of such adaptive mechanisms by visually guiding a group of healthy subjects to follow three comfortable stepping frequencies while simultaneously recording their BOLD responses and lower limb kinematics with the use of a custom-built treadmill device. In following the visual stimuli, subjects adopt a common pattern of symmetric and anti-phase movements across pace conditions. However, when increasing the stimulus frequency, an improvement in motor performance (precision and stability) was found, which suggests a change in the control mode from reactive to predictive schemes. Brain activity patterns showed similar BOLD responses across pace conditions though significant differences were observed in parietal and cerebellar regions. Neural correlates of stepping precision were found in the insula, cerebellum, dorsolateral pons and inferior olivary nucleus, whereas neural correlates of stepping stability were found in a distributed network, suggesting a transition in the control strategy across the stimulated range of frequencies: from unstable/reactive at lower paces (i.e., stepping stability managed by subcortical regions) to stable/predictive at higher paces (i.e., stability managed by cortical regions). Hum Brain Mapp 37:1722-1737, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A ‘snapshot’ of physical activity and food habits among private school children in India

    PubMed Central

    Staab, Erin M; Cunningham, Solveig A; Thorpe, Sara; Patil, Shailaja S

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing obesity in poorer parts of the world, including India, have often been premised in terms of global shifts in activity levels and caloric consumption. Lifestyle changes have been documented in large cities, but we do not know whether these changes are reaching young people in less urban locations. This study used photo journals to explore children’s perceptions of their food and activity habits in a remote Indian city. Children expressed interest in active pastimes, learning, and health, and indicated traditional, modern, local, and global influences in their lives. Findings offer context for research and interventions. PMID:28018050

  14. A 'snapshot' of physical activity and food habits among private school children in India.

    PubMed

    Staab, Erin M; Cunningham, Solveig A; Thorpe, Sara; Patil, Shailaja S

    2016-11-01

    Concerns about increasing obesity in poorer parts of the world, including India, have often been premised in terms of global shifts in activity levels and caloric consumption. Lifestyle changes have been documented in large cities, but we do not know whether these changes are reaching young people in less urban locations. This study used photo journals to explore children's perceptions of their food and activity habits in a remote Indian city. Children expressed interest in active pastimes, learning, and health, and indicated traditional, modern, local, and global influences in their lives. Findings offer context for research and interventions.

  15. Assessing the Impact of Privatization Policy on Telecommunications Sector Effectiveness and Economic Activity in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngwa, Oneurine B.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, privatization has been a growing phenomenon in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is viewed as an instrument used by the public sector to reduce the role of the state in the economies while enhancing the scope of private ownership and participation of goods and services (Akram et al, 2011). Researchers have noted that the telecommunication…

  16. University Efficiency: Complementariness versus Trade-Off between Teaching, Research and Administrative Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers-Rubio, Ricardo; Mas-Ruiz, Francisco J.; Casado-Diaz, Ana B.

    2010-01-01

    University managers should be aware of the importance that efficiency has for their own universities, orientating their actions towards research and teaching excellence. This study estimates teaching and research efficiency of the different departments of a university and tests the complementariness versus trade-off between them. The results…

  17. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-2T - Private activity bond defined (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... activity bond” means any industrial development bond or student loan bond the interest on which is exempt... definition of the term “industrial development bond.” See A-17 of this § 1.103(n)-2T for the definition of..., Governmental Unit M issues industrial development bonds to provide an airport, as described in section...

  18. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-2T - Private activity bond defined (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... activity bond” means any industrial development bond or student loan bond the interest on which is exempt... definition of the term “industrial development bond.” See A-17 of this § 1.103(n)-2T for the definition of..., Governmental Unit M issues industrial development bonds to provide an airport, as described in section...

  19. 77 FR 48960 - Foreign-Trade Zone 12-McAllen, TX Notification of Proposed Export Production Activity TST NA Trim...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... Activity TST NA Trim, LLC (Fabric/Leather Lamination and Cutting) Hidalgo, TX The McAllen Foreign Trade... TST NA Trim, LLC (TST), located in Hidalgo, Texas. The notification conforming to the requirements...

  20. Nuclear privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffs, E.

    1995-11-01

    The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country`s two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain`s nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the government believed the financial community would be unwilling to accept the open-ended liability of decommissioning the original nine stations based on the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. Six years later, the government has found a way around this by retaining these power stations in state ownership, leaving the new nuclear company with the eight Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) stations and the recently completed Sizewell B PWR stations. The operating Magnox stations are to be transferred to BNFL, which operates two Magnox stations of their own at Calder Hall and Chapelcross.

  1. 78 FR 7394 - Foreign-Trade Zone 41-Milwaukee, WI; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; CNH America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 41--Milwaukee, WI; Notification of Proposed Production... conforming to the requirements of the regulations of the Foreign Trade-Zones Board (the Board) (15 CFR 400.22..., Foreign-Trade Zones Board, Room 21013, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1401 Constitution Avenue...

  2. International trade law, plain packaging and tobacco industry political activity: the Trans-Pacific Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco companies are increasingly turning to trade and investment agreements to challenge measures aimed at reducing tobacco use. This study examines their efforts to influence the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a major trade and investment agreement which may eventually cover 40% of the world's population; focusing on how these efforts might enhance the industry's power to challenge the introduction of plain packaging. Specifically, the paper discusses the implications for public health regulation of Philip Morris International's interest in using the TPP to: shape the bureaucratic structures and decision-making processes of business regulation at the national level; introduce a higher standard of protection for trademarks than is currently provided under the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights; and expand the coverage of Investor-State Dispute Settlement which empowers corporations to litigate directly against governments where they are deemed to be in breach of investment agreements. The large number of countries involved in the TPP underlines its risk to the development of tobacco regulation globally. PMID:23788606

  3. International trade law, plain packaging and tobacco industry political activity: the Trans-Pacific Partnership.

    PubMed

    Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco companies are increasingly turning to trade and investment agreements to challenge measures aimed at reducing tobacco use. This study examines their efforts to influence the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a major trade and investment agreement which may eventually cover 40% of the world's population; focusing on how these efforts might enhance the industry's power to challenge the introduction of plain packaging. Specifically, the paper discusses the implications for public health regulation of Philip Morris International's interest in using the TPP to: shape the bureaucratic structures and decision-making processes of business regulation at the national level; introduce a higher standard of protection for trademarks than is currently provided under the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights; and expand the coverage of Investor-State Dispute Settlement which empowers corporations to litigate directly against governments where they are deemed to be in breach of investment agreements. The large number of countries involved in the TPP underlines its risk to the development of tobacco regulation globally.

  4. The Law and Private Police.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is one of a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the private police industry in the United States, its problems, its present regulation, and how the law impinges on it. A general discussion of the sources of legal limitations upon private police activities and personnel and sources of legal powers is…

  5. Peru privatizes

    SciTech Connect

    Suttil, K.R.

    1993-02-01

    Peru has been undergoing a revolution since the election of Alberto Fujimori as president in 1990. A revolution that is reversing many of the policies of the past 25 years and one which aims to bring Peru back into the mainstream of the world economy. All the enterprises nationalized in the heady days of the early 1970s are set up for privatization. The most important are the three mining companies: Hierro-Peru, Centromin, and Mineroo-Peru. It will not be easy to attract foreign investment after such a long period of political and economic instability but the rewards are there for the intrepid.

  6. Network interdependency between social media and stock trading activities: Evidence from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shen; Ren, Da; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yongjie; Shen, Dehua

    2016-06-01

    The emergence of social media accelerates the research on information dissemination and its corresponding influence on trading tendency. Based on empirical study of the dynamic relationship between the ratio of re-post microblog and original microblog (RRO) and average volume per transaction (VPT), we find the following results: (1) In microblog network, stocks with high RRO are often accompanied with low statistical VPT; (2) When the discussion about one stock is quite lively in microblog network (such as the blog postings reach a summit), it does not statistically cause the fluctuations of VPT of the stock; (3) Overall speaking, RRO plays a significant role in inverting u-shaped relationship with VPT.

  7. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  8. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deceptive trade or business names. 254.2... PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is deceptive for an industry member to use any trade or business name, label, insignia, or designation...

  9. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deceptive trade or business names. 254.2... PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is deceptive for an industry member to use any trade or business name, label, insignia, or designation...

  10. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deceptive trade or business names. 254.2... PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is deceptive for an industry member to use any trade or business name, label, insignia, or designation...

  11. Environment, Trade, and Investment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environment, trade, and investment are fundamentally linked as the environment provides many basic inputs of economic activity – forests, fisheries, metals, minerals – as well as the energy used to process those materials.

  12. Towards adaptive management of the natural capital: Disentangling trade-offs among marine activities and seagrass meadows.

    PubMed

    Bas Ventín, Leticia; de Souza Troncoso, Jesús; Villasante, Sebastián

    2015-12-15

    This paper investigates the ecological, social and institutional dimensions of the synergies and trade-offs between seagrasses and human activities operating in the Natura 2000 protected site of San Simón Bay (Galicia, NW Spain). By means of a multidisciplinary approach that brings together the development of a biological inventory combined with participatory mapping processes we get key spatial and contextual understanding regarding how, where and why marine users interact with seagrasses and how seagrasses are considered in policy making. The results highlight the fisheries' reliance on seagrass meadows and the controversial links with shellfisheries. The study also reveals unresolved conflicts among those management plans that promote the protection of natural values and those responsible for the exploitation of marine resources. We conclude that the adoption of pre-planning bottom-up participatory processes is crucial for the design of realistic strategies where both seagrasses and human activities were considered as a couple system.

  13. Pulsed activation analyses of the ITER blanket design options considered in the blanket trade-off study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; Henderson, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project began a new design phase called the Engineering Design Activity (EDA) which started in July 1992. A variety of blanket designs options were analyzed as a part of the U.S. ITER home team blanket option trade-off study (BOTS) which began in May 1993. The options considered were a self-cooled Li/V blanket, a helium cooled Li/V blanket and a water cooled 316 SS nonbreeding shield option. Detailed activation, dose rate and waste disposal rating calculations have been performed for these different ITER blanket design options based on a fluence of 3.0 MWa/m{sup 2} and an average neutron wall loading of 2.0 MW/m{sup 2}. A continuous operation assumption was utilized in the analysis. The results of this work are presented in this conference.

  14. 18 CFR 707.6 - Early involvement in private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Water Resources Council Implementing Procedures § 707.6 Early involvement in private... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Early involvement...

  15. 18 CFR 707.6 - Early involvement in private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Water Resources Council Implementing Procedures § 707.6 Early involvement in private... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Early involvement...

  16. 18 CFR 707.6 - Early involvement in private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Water Resources Council Implementing Procedures § 707.6 Early involvement in private... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Early involvement...

  17. 18 CFR 707.6 - Early involvement in private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Water Resources Council Implementing Procedures § 707.6 Early involvement in private... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Early involvement...

  18. 78 FR 31582 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Statutory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ...- Trading of Securities,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval for... Securities. OMB Control Number: 1210-0130. Affected Public: Private Sector--businesses or other for-profits... Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Statutory Exemption for Cross-Trading of...

  19. Evolution of an Antibiotic Resistance Enzyme Constrained by Stability and Activity Trade-offs

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaojun; Minasov, George; Shoichet, Brian K.

    2010-03-08

    Pressured by antibiotic use, resistance enzymes have been evolving new activities. Does such evolution have a cost? To investigate this question at the molecular level, clinically isolated mutants of the {beta}-lactamase TEM-1 were studied. When purified, mutant enzymes had increased activity against cephalosporin antibiotics but lost both thermodynamic stability and kinetic activity against their ancestral targets, penicillins. The X-ray crystallographic structures of three mutant enzymes were determined. These structures suggest that activity gain and stability loss is related to an enlarged active site cavity in the mutant enzymes. In several clinically isolated mutant enzymes, a secondary substitution is observed far from the active site (Met182 {yields} Thr). This substitution had little effect on enzyme activity but restored stability lost by substitutions near the active site. This regained stability conferred an advantage in vivo. This pattern of stability loss and restoration may be common in the evolution of new enzyme activity.

  20. Statistical properties of short-selling and margin-trading activities and their impacts on returns in the Chinese stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yan; Gao, Yao

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the collective behaviors of short-selling and margin-trading between Chinese stocks and their impacts on the co-movements of stock returns by cross-correlation and partial correlation analyses. We find that the collective behaviors of margin-trading are largely attributed to the index cohesive force, while those of short-selling are mainly due to some direct interactions between stocks. Interestingly, the dominant role the finance industry plays in the collective behaviors of short-selling could make it more important in affecting the co-movement structure of stock returns by strengthening its relationship with the market index. By detecting the volume-return and volume-volatility relationships, we find that the investors of the two leverage activities are positively triggered by individual stock volatility first, and next, at the return level, margin-buyers show trend-following properties, while short-sellers are probably informative traders who trade on the information impulse of specific firms. However, the return predictability of the two leverage trading activities and their impacts on stock volatility are not significant. Moreover, both tails of the cumulative distributions of the two leverage trading activities are found following the stretched exponential law better than the power-law.

  1. Applications of physics to finance and economics: returns, trading activity and income

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. Christian

    2005-07-01

    This dissertation reports work where physics methods are applied to financial and economical problems. The first part studies stock market data (chapter 1 to 5). The second part is devoted to personal income in the USA (chapter 6). We first study the probability distribution of stock returns at mesoscopic time lags (return horizons) ranging from about an hour to about a month. For mesoscopic times the bulk of the distribution (more than 99% of the probability) follows an exponential law. At longer times, the exponential law continuously evolves into Gaussian distribution. After characterizing the stock returns at mesoscopic time lags, we study the subordination hypothesis. The integrated volatility V_t constructed from the number of trades process can be used as a subordinator for a Brownian motion. This subordination is able to describe approximatly 85% of the stock returns for time lags that start at 1 hour but are shorter than one day. Finally, we show that the CIR process describes well enough the empirical V_t process, such that the corresponding Heston model is able to describe the log-returns x_t process, with approximately the maximum quality that the subordination allows. Finally, we study the time evolution of the personal income distribution. We find that the personal income distribution in the USA has a well-defined two-income-class structure. The majority of population (97-99%) belongs to the lower income class characterized by the exponential Boltzmann-Gibb(``thermal'') distribution, whereas the higher income class (1-3% of population) has a Pareto power-law (``superthermal'') distribution. We show that the ``thermal'' part is stationary in time.

  2. 78 FR 48647 - Foreign-Trade Zone 225-Springfield, Missouri; Authorization of Production Activity; General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... Activity; General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems Munitions Services (Demilitarization of Munitions... Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems Munitions Services, within Site 3 of FTZ 225, in Carthage,...

  3. 78 FR 22843 - Foreign-Trade Zone 33-Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Authorization of Export Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... Production Activity, Tsudis Chocolate Company (Chocolate Confectionery Bars), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania On December 4, 2012, Tsudis Chocolate Company, submitted a notification of proposed export production activity... liquid chocolate admitted to FTZ 33 must be re-exported. Dated: April 11, 2013. Andrew...

  4. 78 FR 79391 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 22-Chicago, Illinois, Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... Production Activity, Electrolux Home Care Products Inc., (Kitting of Home Care Products), Minooka, Illinois... production activity to the FTZ Board on behalf of Electrolux Home Care Products Inc. (Electrolux), located in... FTZ 22. The facility is used for the distribution and kitting of floor care and other small...

  5. 78 FR 39707 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 32-Miami, Florida; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Activity; Brightstar Corporation; (Cell Phone Kitting); Miami, Florida The Greater Miami Chamber of... cell phones and cell phone accessories. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b), FTZ activity would be limited to... during customs entry procedures that apply to cell phones (duty rate 0%) for the foreign status...

  6. Applications of physics to finance and economics: Returns, trading activity and income

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Antonio Christian

    This dissertation reports work where physics methods are applied to financial and economical problems. Some material in this thesis is based on 3 published papers [1, 2, 3] which divide this study into two parts. The first part studies stock market data (chapter 1 to 5). The second part is devoted to personal income in the USA (chapter 6). We first study the probability distribution of stock returns at mesoscopic time lags (return horizons) ranging from about an hour to about a month. While at shorter microscopic time lags the distribution has power-law tails, for mesoscopic times the bulk of the distribution (more than 99% of the probability) follows an exponential law. The slope of the exponential function is determined by the variance of returns, which increases proportionally to the time lag. At longer times, the exponential law continuously evolves into Gaussian distribution. The exponential-to-Gaussian crossover is well described by the analytical solution of the Heston model with stochastic volatility. After characterizing the stock returns at mesoscopic time lags, we study the subordination hypothesis with one year of intraday data. We verify that the integrated volatility Vt constructed from the number of trades process can be used as a subordinator for a driftless Brownian motion. This subordination will be able to describe ≈85% of the stock returns for intraday time lags that start at ≈1 hour but are shorter than one day (upper time limit is restricted by the short data span of one year). We also show that the Heston model can be constructed by subordinating a Brownian motion with the CIR process. Finally, we show that the CIR process describes well enough the empirical Vt process, such that the corresponding Heston model is able to describe the log-returns xt process, with approximately the maximum quality that the subordination allows (80%--85%). Finally, we study the time evolution of the personal income distribution. We find that the personal

  7. Achievement of the POSITIVE (Participation-Oriented Safety Improvement by Trade Union InitiatiVE) activities in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Tachi, Norihide; Itani, Toru; Takeyama, Hidemaro; Yoshikawa, Toru; Suzuki, Koji; Castro, Ariel B

    2006-01-01

    The POSITIVE (Participation-oriented safety improvement by trade union initiative) programme was introduced into the Philippines in 1995. The monitoring of activities was carried out in 2004 among core trainers who had been trained before. The results of the questionnaire survey showed that the core trainers evaluated their activities satisfactory in general, and particularly the training activities were considered excellent. Also, the union workers who had been trained by the POSITIVE programme implemented improvements at the rate of around 5 examples a year on average. It was of note that the installation ratio (the number of installations/that of plans) was higher in small- and medium-sized enterprises than in larger companies, although the numbers of plans and installations of improvements were greater in large enterprises. Together with the previous findings, the present results suggest that the POSITIVE-style participatory training program is effective and efficient for workers to take actions for the OSH in not only larger enterprises but also small enterprises.

  8. 78 FR 72861 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 20-Suffolk, Virginia, Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... applications. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b), FTZ activity would be limited to the specific foreign-status...; tower masts; shaped springs; shaped pipes; brackets; mufflers; stabilizer legs; locks; top covers;...

  9. 78 FR 68026 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 99-Wilmington, Delaware, Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Production Activity, Noramco, Inc., (Pharmaceutical Intermediate), Wilmington, Delaware The Delaware Economic... Section 400.38 of the FTZ Board's regulations. The facility is used for the production of a...

  10. Privatization and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Neena

    2009-01-01

    This paper highlights emerging trends, programmes and policies in privatization of education in Western countries. These trends are educational vouchers, choice of private schools, private school liberalization, private contracting of specific services, tuition tax credits and deductions for parents ,subsidies and assistance grants to private…

  11. 76 FR 62100 - Approval of Filing Fees for Exempt Reporting Advisers and Private Fund Advisers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Trading Commission released a joint proposal that would require hedge fund advisers and other private fund... more in hedge fund assets, combined liquidity fund and registered money market fund assets or private... COMMISSION Approval of Filing Fees for Exempt Reporting Advisers and Private Fund Advisers AGENCY:...

  12. Public-Private Ventures for Morale, Welfare, and Recreation Activities. A Solution to the Loss of Appropriated Funds. Volume 6. Appendices M and N

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    Report NA705R1 DTIC S ~FECTE D AUG 31 1990i S July 1990 Trevor L . Neve Jordan W. Cassell Robert L . Crosslin Robert A. Hutchinson Appzvs * :z: - el...DOCUMENTATION PAGE Fan" oAod ,W Jlomet, omAU, Ve.,v,,O g eh. owi g v 6 . m ,,him,. ei _ e i au. ea Ia w O a qkyi .W l ,,, iqeem. V,,JJe dMv . set U l i e Off...TI.Tfu ANo S TITLE Public-Private Ventures for Morale, L U NUMURS Welfare, and Recreation Activities: A Solution to the Loss of Appropriated Funds

  13. Fur Production as a Specialized Activity in a World System: Indians in the North American Fur Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kardulias, P. Nick

    1990-01-01

    Examines the fur trade as critical fulcrum in Indian-White contact, focusing on craft specialization as the Native response to the international market system. Describes effects on Indian dependence on European trade goods, Native territorial boundaries and population distribution, social and family structures, and animal populations. Contains 73…

  14. Low chitinase activity in Acacia myrmecophytes: a potential trade-off between biotic and chemical defences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, M.; Staehelin, Christian; McKey, D.

    We determined chitinase activity in leaves of four myrmecophytic and four non-myrmecophytic leguminous species at the plants' natural growing sites in Mexico. Myrmecophytic plants (or 'ant plants') have obligate mutualisms with ants protecting them against herbivores and pathogenic fungi. Plant chitinases can be considered a reliable measure of plant resistance to pathogenic fungi. The myrmecophytic Acacia species, which were colonised by mutualistic ants, exhibited at least six-fold lower levels of chitinase activity compared with the non-myrmecophytic Acacia farnesiana and three other non-myrmecophytes. Though belonging to different phylogenetic groups, the myrmecophytic Acacia species formed one distinct group in the data set, which was clearly separated from the non-myrmecophytic species. These findings allowed for comparison between two recent hypotheses that attempt to explain low chitinase activity in ant plants. Most probably, chitinases are reduced in myrmecophytic plant species because these are effectively defended indirectly due to their symbiosis with mutualistic ants.

  15. Standardization and Digital Enclosure: The Privatization of Standards, Knowledge, and Policy in the Age of Global Information Technology. Part of the Advances in IT Standards and Standardization Research (AISSR) Book Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoechle, Timothy, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Recent trends have shown increasing privatization of standardization activities under various corporations, trade associations, and consortia, raising significant public policy issues about how the public interest may be represented. This book establishes a framework of analysis for public policy discussion and debate. Discussing topics such as…

  16. 78 FR 9667 - Foreign-Trade Zone 50-Long Beach, California; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Production Activity; Panasonic Corporation of North America (Kitting of Consumer Electronics); Anaheim, CA... FTZ 50. The facility is used for the kitting of consumer electronics parts into retail packages... camera kits, digital cameras with lenses, digital cameras with memory cards, home theater systems...

  17. 78 FR 49254 - Foreign-Trade Zone 158-Vicksburg/Jackson, Mississippi; Authorization of Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... Production Activity; Extension of Production Authority; Bauhaus USA, Inc. (Upholstered Furniture); Saltillo... Bauhaus USA, Inc., in Saltillo, Mississippi. The notification was processed in accordance with the... foreign status (19 CFR 146.42) is limited to 3.5 million square yards. 2. Bauhaus USA, Inc., must...

  18. Instructional Design, Active Learning, and Student Performance: Using a Trading Room to Teach Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Alice C.; Houghton, Susan M.; Rogers, Patrick R.

    2012-01-01

    This research used a quasi-experimental design with two conditions to test the impact of active learning in the context of integrated instructional design. The control condition was a traditional approach to teaching an undergraduate strategy capstone class. The intervention condition was an undergraduate strategy capstone class that was designed…

  19. 78 FR 16701 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Foreign Trade Zone and/or Status...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for... AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security ACTION: 30-Day Notice.... Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of the Department of Homeland Security will be submitting...

  20. 26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... purpose of the sponsoring organization in conducting the show is the education of its members, or the promotion and stimulation of interest in, and demand for, the products or services of the industry (or... interest in, and demand for such products or services; (ii) Activities designed to educate persons in...

  1. 26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... purpose of the sponsoring organization in conducting the show is the education of its members, or the promotion and stimulation of interest in, and demand for, the products or services of the industry (or... interest in, and demand for such products or services; (ii) Activities designed to educate persons in...

  2. 26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... purpose of the sponsoring organization in conducting the show is the education of its members, or the promotion and stimulation of interest in, and demand for, the products or services of the industry (or... interest in, and demand for such products or services; (ii) Activities designed to educate persons in...

  3. 26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... purpose of the sponsoring organization in conducting the show is the education of its members, or the promotion and stimulation of interest in, and demand for, the products or services of the industry (or... interest in, and demand for such products or services; (ii) Activities designed to educate persons in...

  4. 26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... purpose of the sponsoring organization in conducting the show is the education of its members, or the promotion and stimulation of interest in, and demand for, the products or services of the industry (or... interest in, and demand for such products or services; (ii) Activities designed to educate persons in...

  5. 78 FR 25477 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Trade Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... management information to the Congress and other Federal agencies, and to improve the effectiveness of job... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic... of the Secretary Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment...

  6. Trade-offs between activity and thermoregulation in a small carnivore, the least weasel Mustela nivalis.

    PubMed

    Zub, K; Szafranska, P A; Konarzewski, M; Redman, P; Speakman, J R

    2009-05-22

    We studied factors influencing daily energy expenditures (DEE) of male least weasels (Mustela nivalis) using the doubly labelled water technique. The relationship between ambient temperature and DEE formed a triangular pattern, characterized by invariance of the maximum DEE and an inverse relationship between minimum DEE and temperature. A simple energetic model relating the DEE of male weasels to activity time (AT) and ambient temperature predicted that, across seasons, less than 10 per cent of measurements approach the upper bound of observed DEE. Male weasels were able to maintain a relatively constant maximum energy output across varying temperatures by adjusting their AT to changes in temperature. They achieved maximum energy expenditures in winter due to high thermoregulatory costs, and in spring and summer due to high levels of physical activity. This pattern exemplifies a 'metabolic niche' of a small mammal having extremely high energy expenditures primarily driven by ambient temperature.

  7. Enrollment and Completions at Private Career Schools. A Factual Look at Private Career Institutions in Nebraska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education, Lincoln.

    A survey of 53 private career institutions in Nebraska (56 percent located in the Omaha area) revealed the following statistics for the period July 1, 1990 to June 30, 1991: (1) 9,275 students were enrolled; (2) business programs enrolled the largest percentage (35 percent) of the total student population, with business, trade, and technical…

  8. Did medieval trade activity and a viral etiology control the spatial extent and seasonal distribution of Black Death mortality?

    PubMed

    Bossak, Brian H; Welford, Mark R

    2009-06-01

    Recent research into the world's greatest recorded epidemic, the Medieval Black Death (MBD), has cast doubt on Bubonic Plague as the etiologic agent. Prior research has recently culminated in outstanding advances in our understanding of the spatio-temporal pattern of MBD mortality, and a characterization of the incubation, latent, infectious, and symptomatic periods of the MBD. However, until now, several mysteries remained unexplained, including perhaps the biggest quandary of all: why did the MBD exhibit inverse seasonal peaks in mortality from diseases recorded in modern times, such as seasonal Influenza or the Indian Plague Epidemics of the early 1900 s? Although some have argued that climate changes likely explain the observed differences between modern clinical Bubonic Plague seasonality and MBD mortality accounts, we believe that another factor explains these dissimilarities. Here, we provide a synthetic hypothesis which builds upon previous theories developed in the last ten years or so. Our all-encompassing theory explains the causation, dissemination, and lethality of the MBD. We theorize that the MBD was a human-to-human transmitted virus, originating in East-Central Asia and not Africa (as some recent work has proposed), and that its areal extent during the first great epidemic wave of 1347-1350 was controlled hierarchically by proximity to trade routes. We also propose that the seasonality of medieval trade controlled the warm-weather mortality peaks witnessed during 1347-1350; during the time of greatest market activity, traders, fairgoers, and religious pilgrims served as unintentional vectors of a lethal virus with an incubation period of approximately 32 days, including a largely asymptomatic yet infectious period of roughly three weeks. We include a description of the rigorous research agenda that we have proposed in order to subject our theory to scientific scrutiny and a description of our plans to generate the first publicly available

  9. Trade-secret protection in utility rate cases

    SciTech Connect

    Massella, I.M.

    1982-07-08

    A closed hearing of the Ohio Public Utility Commission put a statute protecting private trade secrets in conflict with protecting the public's right to know. A first step in resolving the controversy over constitutional protections against a forced disclosure of proprietary secrets and the legal problems of balancing public and private interests is identifying those trade secrets that are protectible business information, developing a protective order, and enforcing that order. (DCK)

  10. International trade regulation and publicly funded health care in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ostry, A S

    2001-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) creates new challenges for the Canadian health care system, arguably one of the most "socialized" systems in the world today. In particular, the WTO's enhanced trade dispute resolution powers, enforceable with sanctions, may make Canadian health care vulnerable to corporate penetration, particularly in the pharmaceutical and private health services delivery sectors. The Free Trade Agreement and its extension, the North American Free Trade Agreement, gave multinational pharmaceutical companies greater freedom in Canada at the expense of the Canadian generic drug industry. Recent challenges by the WTO have continued this process, which will limit the health care system's ability to control drug costs. And pressure is growing, through WTO's General Agreement on Trade in Services and moves by the Alberta provincial government to privatize health care delivery, to open up the Canadian system to corporate penetration. New WTO agreements will bring increasing pressure to privatize Canada's public health care system and limit government's ability to control pharmaceutical costs.

  11. 78 FR 68026 - Foreign-Trade Zone 32-Miami, Florida, Authorization of Production Activity, Almod Diamonds, Ltd...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ..., Almod Diamonds, Ltd. (Jewelry and Precious Stones), Miami, Florida On June 21, 2013, the Greater Miami... the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Almod Diamonds, Ltd., within FTZ 32--Site 1, in...

  12. 77 FR 59890 - Foreign-Trade Zone 92-Gulfport, MS; Authorization of Production Activity; Gulf Ship, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Ship, LLC (Shipbuilding); Gulfport, MS On May 10, 2012, the Mississippi Coast Foreign-Trade Zone, Inc... (FTZ) Board on behalf of Gulf Ship, LLC, within FTZ 92--Site 3, in Gulfport, Mississippi....

  13. 77 FR 23 - Prohibitions and Restrictions on Proprietary Trading and Certain Interests in, and Relationships...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... Restrictions on Proprietary Trading and Certain Interests in, and Relationships With, Hedge Funds and Private... the Board to engage in proprietary trading and have certain interests in, or relationships with, a... have certain interests in, or relationships with, a hedge fund or private equity fund. \\2\\ See id....

  14. Building Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudzak, Raymond

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in building trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  15. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  16. Privatization in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfuss, John

    1995-01-01

    Privatization calls for substantially trimming the scope and breadth of government services, replacing them with private or other nongovernmental operators. The attraction of privatization is reduced costs and increased management flexibility. To date, the arrangement has received substantial support from students and parents in situations that…

  17. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deceptive trade or business names. 254.2... PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is deceptive for an Industry Member to misrepresent, directly or indirectly, expressly or by implication,...

  18. Publicly Traded Ed. Companies Are Rare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanigan, Robin L.

    2012-01-01

    K12 Inc., the nation's largest provider of online precollegiate education, was launched in 2000 and went public seven years later after raising about $140 million in revenue. Like other companies, it moved from being privately held to being publicly traded to raise more money quickly, increase brand awareness, and accelerate business goals. The…

  19. Acute Whiplash Injury Study (AWIS): a protocol for a cluster randomised pilot and feasibility trial of an Active Behavioural Physiotherapy Intervention in an insurance private setting

    PubMed Central

    Wiangkham, Taweewat; Duda, Joan; Haque, M Sayeed; Price, Jonathan; Rushton, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) causes substantial social and economic burden internationally. Up to 60% of patients with WAD progress to chronicity. Research therefore needs to focus on effective management in the acute stage to prevent the development of chronicity. Approximately 93% of patients are classified as WADII (neck complaint and musculoskeletal sign(s)), and in the UK, most are managed in the private sector. In our recent systematic review, a combination of active and behavioural physiotherapy was identified as potentially effective in the acute stage. An Active Behavioural Physiotherapy Intervention (ABPI) was developed through combining empirical (modified Delphi study) and theoretical (social cognitive theory focusing on self-efficacy) evidence. This pilot and feasibility trial has been designed to inform the design of an adequately powered definitive randomised controlled trial. Methods and analysis Two parallel phases. (1) An external pilot and feasibility cluster randomised double-blind (assessor and participants), parallel two-arm (ABPI vs standard physiotherapy) clinical trial to evaluate procedures and feasibility. Six UK private physiotherapy clinics will be recruited and cluster randomised by a computer-generated randomisation sequence. Sixty participants (30 each arm) will be assessed at recruitment (baseline) and at 3 months postbaseline. The planned primary outcome measure is the neck disability index. (2) An embedded exploratory qualitative study using semistructured indepth interviews (n=3–4 physiotherapists) and a focus group (n=6–8 patients) and entailing the recruitment of purposive samples will explore perceptions of the ABPI. Quantitative data will be analysed descriptively. Qualitative data will be coded and analysed deductively (identify themes) and inductively (identify additional themes). Ethics and dissemination This trial is approved by the University of Birmingham Ethics Committee (ERN_15-0542). Trial

  20. 77 FR 36997 - Foreign-Trade Zone 61-San Juan, PR; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Pfizer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... (Subzone 61A); (Ibuprofen Pharmaceutical Products); Guayama, PR The Puerto Rico Trade and Export Company... various pharmaceutical products under zone procedures (Board Order 617, 12/11/ 1992, 57 FR 61046, 12/23... pharmaceutical products in bulk mixture or dosage form under FTZ procedures at the Guayama site. Production...

  1. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  2. High contrast imaging with an arbitrary aperture: active correction of aperture discontinuities: fundamental limits and practical trades offs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueyo, Laurent; Norman, Colin Arthur; Soummer, Remi; Perrin, Marshall D.; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Choquet, Elodie

    2015-01-01

    In a recent paper we discussed a new method to achieve high-contrast images using segmented and/or on-axis telescopes. Our approach, named Active Compensation of Aperture Discontinuities (ACAD) relies on two sequential Deformable Mirrors to compensate for the large amplitude excursions in the telescope aperture due to secondary support structures and/or segment gaps. In this configuration the parameter landscape of Deformable Mirror Surfaces that yield high contrast Point Spread Functions is not linear, and non-linear methods are needed to find the true minimum. In particular we showed that broadband high contrast solutions can be achieved using realistic surface deformations that are accessible using existing technologies for a variety of telescope pupil geometries. In this paper we first focus on the fundamental limits and practical trade-offs associated with ACAD. In a first part we will study the fundamental limits and practical tradeoffs associated with ACAD, regardless of the downstream coronagraphic architecture. The mathematical techniques to finding ACAD DM shapes require to solve a complex differential equation. We will first discuss the scaling laws underlying this non-linear solution and their impact of DM placement and geometry wishing the optical design of an instrument. We will then consider the sensitivity to low order aberrations: in principle an ACAD solution that comprises large strokes will be more sensitive to these aberrations than one with smaller strokes. As a consequence, we will quantify this sensitive both using analytical models and numerical simulations. We will present diffractive end to end simulations and quantify the ultimate contrast and bandwidth achievable with ACAD, which can be reached by superposing using a classical linear wavefront control algorithms on top of the Monge Ampere solution. Finally, recent work has shown that coronagraph designs can also accommodate for secondary support structures and/or segments gaps, at a

  3. The Limits of Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Paul

    Transferring public services and public assets to private ownership is not an entirely new idea. Governments at all levels in the United States have for years contracted out many services. However, under the recently coined label "privatization," such policies now come recommended as a more comprehensive approach to the problems of…

  4. Women and Private Pensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Helene A.

    This speech focuses on women and private pension plans, such as private pension coverage and smaller benefit amounts. Pension issues affecting women as employees include participation in plans, vesting, break-in service, benefit accruals, integration with Social Security, sex-based actuarial tables, portability, inflation, and individual…

  5. Private Speech in Ballet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

  6. Laboring through Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushweller, Kevin

    1994-01-01

    Hiring private contractors to manage school support services, such as food, maintenance, and busing, is a growing trend. Companies such as Marriott Corp., ServiceMaster, ARA Services, and Laidlaw Transit report that school business is steadily increasing. Unions staunchly oppose privatization. This article balances advantages and disadvantages,…

  7. Public Values, Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devins, Neal E.

    Controversy surrounding private education involves questions of compulsory education's role in inculcating values, how much alike public and private schools should be, and the duty of educational institutions to conform to constitutional norms. This book examines government regulation and resistance, legislative and judicial approaches, and issues…

  8. Moving toward implementation: the potential for accountable care organizations and private-public partnerships to advance active neighborhood design.

    PubMed

    Zusman, Edie E; Carr, Sara Jensen; Robinson, Judy; Kasirye, Olivia; Zell, Bonnie; Miller, William Jahmal; Duarte, Teri; Engel, Adrian B; Hernandez, Monica; Horton, Mark B; Williams, Frank

    2014-12-01

    The 2010 Affordable Care Act's (ACA) aims of lowering costs and improving quality of care will renew focus on preventive health strategies. This coincides with a trend in medicine to reconsider population health approaches as part of the standard curriculum. This intersection of new policy and educational climates presents a unique opportunity to reconsider traditional healthcare structures. This paper introduces and advances an alignment that few have considered. We propose that accountable care organizations (ACOs), which are expected to proliferate under the ACA, present the best opportunity to establish partnerships between healthcare, public health, and community-based organizations to achieve the legislation's goals. One example is encouraging daily physical activity via built environment interventions and programs, which is recommended by numerous groups. We highlight how nonprofit organizations in Sacramento, California have been able to leverage influence, capital, and policy to encourage design for active living, and how their work is coordinating with public health and healthcare initiatives. In conclusion, we critically examine potential barriers to the success of partnerships between ACOs and community organizations and encourage further exploration and evaluation.

  9. Dialogue on private events

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, David C.; Eshleman, John; Brandon, Paul; Layng, T. V. Joe; McDonough, Christopher; Michael, Jack; Schoneberger, Ted; Stemmer, Nathan; Weitzman, Ray; Normand, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    In the fall of 2003, the authors corresponded on the topic of private events on the listserv of the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group. Extracts from that correspondence raised questions about the role of response amplitude in determining units of analysis, whether private events can be investigated directly, and whether covert behavior differs from other behavior except in amplitude. Most participants took a cautious stance, noting not only conceptual pitfalls and empirical difficulties in the study of private events, but doubting the value of interpretive exercises about them. Others argued that despite such obstacles, in domains where experimental analyses cannot be done, interpretation of private events in the light of laboratory principles is the best that science can offer. One participant suggested that the notion that private events can be behavioral in nature be abandoned entirely; as an alternative, the phenomena should be reinterpreted only as physiological events. PMID:22477293

  10. Data quality objectives for TWRS privatization Phase 1: Confirm tank T is an appropriate feed source for low-activity waste feed batch X

    SciTech Connect

    Certa, P.J.

    1998-03-11

    This document is one of a series of problem-specific data quality objectives prepared to help identify information needs of tank waste disposal in support of the Phase 1 privatization of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS).

  11. International standards in mitigating trade risks.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), as a science-based and democratic standard-setting organisation that provides guidance on preventing the spread of animal diseases, including zoonoses, in international trade. The World Trade Organization is identified as the international institution with the legal power to encourage adherence to international standards and mediate trade disputes. The importance of assuring good governance and the credibility of national Veterinary Services through a process of official certification is identified as an essential component in the safety of trade. Private-public partnerships and the evolution of responsibilities are also identified as essential for the implementation of health guarantees such as compartmentalisation. The rapid emergence of private standards is described as a potential complement to the implementation of sanitary standards, as long as they are applied globally and in support of the OIE standards. Ultimately, the biggest challenge is for the international community to create the incentives and generate the political will for fair trade and for the universal recognition and application of the established international sanitary standards.

  12. 15 CFR 19.15 - How will Commerce entities refer Commerce debts to private collection agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities refer Commerce debts to private collection agencies? 19.15 Section 19.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.15 How...

  13. The net return from animal activity in agro-ecosystems: trading off benefits from ecosystem services against costs from crop damage

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    Animals provide benefits to agriculture through the provision of ecosystem services, but also inflict costs such as damaging crops. These benefits and costs are mostly examined independently, rather than comparing the trade-offs of animal activity in the same system and quantifying the net return from beneficial minus detrimental activities. Here, I examine the net return associated with the activity of seed-eating birds in almond orchards by quantifying the economic costs and benefits of bird consumption of almonds. Pre-harvest, the consumption of harvestable almonds by birds cost growers AUD$57.50 ha -1 when averaged across the entire plantation. Post-harvest, the same bird species provide an ecosystem service by removing mummified nuts from trees that growers otherwise need to remove to reduce threats from fungal infection or insect pest infestations. The value of this ecosystem service ranged from AUD$82.50 ha -1–$332.50 ha -1 based on the replacement costs of mechanical or manual removal of mummified nuts, respectively. Hence, bird consumption of almonds yielded a positive net return of AUD$25–$275 ha -1 averaged across the entire plantation. However, bird activity varied spatially resulting in positive net returns occurring primarily at the edges of crops where activity was higher, compared to negative net returns in crop interiors. Moreover, partial mummy nut removal by birds meant that bird activity may only reduce costs to growers rather than replace these costs completely. Similar cost-benefit trade-offs exist across nature, and quantifying net returns can better inform land management decisions such as when to control pests or promote ecosystem service provision. PMID:25285202

  14. Tapping private industry.

    PubMed

    Weerakoon, B

    1986-12-01

    Many firms throughout Japan and around the world have come to realize that family planning is good for employee morale and company profits. Japanese and Indian efforts prove that family planning programs not only bring welfare benefits to workers, but commercial advantages to businesses. Because workers' family welfare is closely linked to labor welfare and productivity, the trade union movement has started to become active in promoting family planning activities. Factory-based family planning programs have often cut pregnancy rates in half. Godrej Enterprises of India started promoting family planning in 1957; it provides a model of how family planning has been incorporated into a comprehensive employee welfare system in a factory complex on the outskirts of Bombay, where about 1/2 the workers live in high-rise apartments in the company township of Pirojsha Nagar. Similar programs are presented in India, Thailand, Indonesia, Jamaica, Guatemala, Colombia, Korea, and Turkey. Limiting family size enriches workers' lives and improves the quality of the workforce. The International Labor Organization, through its Workers' Education Program on Population, has played an important role in stimulating industrial sector interest in family planning throughout the world.

  15. Latin American privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.; Hennagir, T.; Hernandez, L.A. Jr. )

    1994-01-01

    Fundamental change is reshaping the Latin America power sector as governments explore new and improved privatization schemes. Latin American power markets are second in size only to those found in Asia. As the region grows and capacity needs increase, governments are turning to private power as a way to meet new demands for electric energy. Following the privatization model initiated by Chile, an increasing number of Latin American countries are following suit with an array of private power schemes for their state-owned utilities. The move means great opportunities for developers willing to enter this growing market. The recently established Scudder Latin American Trust for Independent Power is a prime example of new equity players becoming involved in this region. In Chile, the privatization process started more than 12 years ago. Currently, the power sector has been fully restructured to concentrate price and quality regulation on transmission and distribution, leaving generation and sales to a marketplace largely in the hands of the private sector. Furthermore, the Chilean government controls only about 15 percent of the installed generation in the country, so there is free-flow in this segment of the industry or a free market modality.

  16. International Trade and Protectionism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to investigate the reasons for international trade and the issue of trade protectionism by focusing on the case study of the U.S. trade relationship with Taiwan. The unit begins with a simulation that highlights the concepts of global interdependence, the need for international trade, and the distribution of the world's…

  17. 78 FR 20893 - Legal Services Trade Mission to China, September 16-18, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ..., real estate, information technology and e-commerce, labor and employment, private equity, and venture... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Description The...

  18. 77 FR 50987 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee, Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ...: Advisory Committee. The ETTAC shall advise on matters including: trade policy development and negotiations.... exports; strategies to increase private sector awareness and effective use of U.S. Government...

  19. Private Schooling for Low-Income Families: A Census and Comparative Survey in East Delhi, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline

    2007-01-01

    A census and survey of schools in the slums of East Delhi, India, explored the nature and extent of private education serving low-income families, and compared inputs to public and private schooling. Around two-thirds of all schools were private unaided, with more unrecognised private than government schools. Teaching activity was found to be…

  20. 77 FR 75972 - Foreign-Trade Zone 26 - Atlanta, Georgia Notification of Proposed Production Activity Suzuki Mfg...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... Activity Suzuki Mfg. of America Corp. (All-Terrain Vehicles) Rome, Jonesboro and Cartersville, Georgia... activity on behalf of Suzuki Mfg. of America Corp. (SMAC), located in Rome, Jonesboro, and...

  1. State Action: Judicial Perpetuation of the State/Private Distinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antoun, Frederick G., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Various state action theories are examined as they have been applied to activate fourteenth amendment strictures. Two broad categories are analyzed: (1) cases in which the degree of state involvement in private activity has satisfied the state action requirement, and (2) cases in which private actors have assumed a "public function." (LBH)

  2. Private sector joins family planning effort.

    PubMed

    1989-12-01

    Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from

  3. Modeling and Scaling of the Distribution of Trade Avalanches in a STOCK Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo

    We study the trading activity in the Korea Stock Exchange by considering trade avalanches. A series of successive trading with small trade time interval is regarded as a trade avalanche of which the size s is defined as the number of trade in a series of successive trades. We measure the distribution of trade avalanches sizes P(s) and find that it follows the power-law behavior P(s) ~ s-α with the exponent α ≈ 2 for two stocks with the largest number of trades. A simple stochastic model which describes the power-law behavior of the distribution of trade avalanche size is introduced. In the model it is assumed that the some trades induce the accompanying trades, which results in the trade avalanches and we find that the distribution of the trade avalanche size also follows power-law behavior with the exponent α ≈ 2.

  4. 78 FR 8493 - Foreign-Trade Zone 45-Portland, OR; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; SoloPower Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Activity; SoloPower Inc. (Thin Film Photovoltaic Solar Panels); Portland, OR SoloPower Inc. (SoloPower) has... production of thin film photovoltaic solar panels. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b), FTZ activity would be...Power would be able to choose the duty rate during customs entry procedures that applies to the...

  5. 78 FR 25699 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 265-Conroe, Texas; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Bauer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... Activity; Bauer Manufacturing Inc.; (Foundation Casings and Tools/Accessories for Pile Drivers and Boring Machinery); Conroe, Texas The City of Conroe, Texas, grantee of FTZ 265, submitted a notification of proposed production activity to the FTZ Board on behalf of Bauer Manufacturing Inc. (Bauer), located...

  6. Privatization and Educational Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Myron

    This book describes how and why educational choice movements will affect public education. It uses a public-choice approach to argue that both the supporters and opponents of private and school choice have failed to address several critical issues. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 is devoted to the rationale for contracting out…

  7. Emissions Trading Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about emissions trading programs, also known as cap and trade programs, which are market-based policy tools for protecting human health and the environment by controlling emissions from a group of sources.

  8. Trade Unions and the Humanisation of Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tchobanian, R.

    1975-01-01

    After pointing out possible prejudicial consequences of job restructuring both for occupational and economic interests of workers and for the structure and activities of the trade union movement, various trade union reactions and attitudes to work humanization are analyzed. Available from: ILO Publications, International Labour Office, CH-1211,…

  9. Teaching through Trade Books: Teaming Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royce, Christine Anne

    2017-01-01

    This column includes activities inspired by children's literature. This month's trade books teach students about external and internal structures that allow animals and humans to survive. This months trade books are: (1) "Creature Features" (Steve Jenkins and Robin Page); and (2) "Body Actions" (Shelley Rotner and David A.…

  10. 11 CFR 114.8 - Trade associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... administrative personnel of the corporate members of its member associations. (h) Communications other than... Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CORPORATE AND LABOR ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY § 114.8 Trade... authorization specifically allowing a trade association to solicit its corporate member's stockholders,...

  11. The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-24

    8 Sector -Specific Issues and the KORUS FTA................................................................................9...International Trade Commission (USITC). U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Potential Economy-wide and Selected Sectoral Effects. Investigation No. TA...countries view this “voluntary private- sector ” arrangement as a transitional step intended to improve Korean consumer confidence in U.S. beef. (See

  12. 77 FR 65360 - Foreign-Trade Zone 168-Dallas/Ft. Worth, TX; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... Production Activity, Richemont North America, Inc. dba Cartier (Eyewear Assembly/Kitting), Grand Prairie, TX...), located in Grand Prairie, Texas. The notification conforming to the requirements of the regulations of...

  13. 78 FR 11816 - Foreign-Trade Zone 168-Dallas/Ft. Worth, TX, Authorization of Production Activity, Richemont...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Activity, Richemont North America, Inc. dba Cartier (Eyewear Assembly/Kitting), Grand Prairie, TX On... North America, Inc. dba Cartier, within FTZ 168--Site 4, in Grand Prairie, Texas. ] The notification...

  14. 78 FR 75331 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 100-Dayton, Ohio; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; THOR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... Activity; THOR Industries, Inc. (Commercial Bus Manufacturing); Jackson Center, Ohio The Greater Dayton... able to choose the duty rates during customs entry procedures that apply to commercial buses (duty...

  15. 78 FR 40427 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 32-Miami, Florida; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Almod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... Activity; Almod Diamonds, Ltd. (Jewelry and Precious Stones); Miami, Florida The Greater Miami Foreign... Board on behalf of Almod Diamonds, Ltd. (ADL), located in Miami, Florida. The notification conforming...

  16. 77 FR 63290 - Foreign-Trade Zone 121-Albany, NY; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Albany Molecular...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ...; Albany Molecular Research, Inc., Subzone 121A, (Pharmaceutical Chemicals Production), Rensselaer, NY... originally approved by the Board in 1994 for the production of bulk pharmaceutical chemicals and... an active pharmaceutical ingredient, dexpramipexole dihydrochloride monohydrate, under...

  17. Private Stimuli, Covert Responses, and Private Events: Conceptual Remarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tourinho, E. Z.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the concepts of "private stimuli," "covert responses," and "private events," emphasizing three aspects: the conditions under which private stimuli may acquire discriminative functions to verbal responses, the conditions of unobservability of covert responses, and the complexity of events or phenomena described as…

  18. Metal Trades Technology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a metal trades technology course of study at the high school level. Its stated purpose is to help students acquire the trade knowledge necessary to function effectively in the shipfitting, welding, and piping trades. Contents include: a course description, a list of general objectives; lists of…

  19. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is... misleads or deceives prospective students as to the nature of the school, its accreditation, programs of... school. (c) If an industry member conducts its instruction by correspondence, or other form of...

  20. International trade agreements: hazards to health?

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Brenner, Joseph E

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1980s, neoliberal policies have prescribed reducing the role of governments, relying on market forces to organize and provide health care and other vital human services. In this context, international trade agreements increasingly serve as mechanisms to enforce the privatization, deregulation, and decentralization of health care and other services, with important implications for democracy as well as for health. Critics contend that social austerity and "free" trade agreements contribute to the rise in global poverty and economic inequality and instability, and therefore to increased preventable illness and death. Under new agreements through the World Trade Organization that cover vital human services such as health care, water, education, and energy, unaccountable, secret trade tribunals could overrule decisions by democratically elected officials on public financing for national health care systems, licensing and training standards for health professionals, patient safety and quality regulations, occupational safety and health, control of hazardous substances such as tobacco and alcohol, the environment, and affordable access to safe water and sanitation. International negotiations in 2003 in Cancun and in Miami suggested that countervailing views are developing momentum. A concerned health care community has begun to call for a moratorium on trade negotiations on health care and water, and to reinvigorate an alternative vision of universal access to vital services.

  1. A trade-off between somatosensory and auditory related brain activity during object naming but not reading.

    PubMed

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Hope, Thomas M H; Prejawa, Susan; Parker Jones, 'Ōiwi; Vitkovitch, Melanie; Price, Cathy J

    2015-03-18

    The parietal operculum, particularly the cytoarchitectonic area OP1 of the secondary somatosensory area (SII), is involved in somatosensory feedback. Using fMRI with 58 human subjects, we investigated task-dependent differences in SII/OP1 activity during three familiar speech production tasks: object naming, reading and repeatedly saying "1-2-3." Bilateral SII/OP1 was significantly suppressed (relative to rest) during object naming, to a lesser extent when repeatedly saying "1-2-3" and not at all during reading. These results cannot be explained by task difficulty but the contrasting difference between naming and reading illustrates how the demands on somatosensory activity change with task, even when motor output (i.e., production of object names) is matched. To investigate what determined SII/OP1 deactivation during object naming, we searched the whole brain for areas where activity increased as that in SII/OP1 decreased. This across subject covariance analysis revealed a region in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) that lies within the auditory cortex, and is activated by auditory feedback during speech production. The tradeoff between activity in SII/OP1 and STS was not observed during reading, which showed significantly more activation than naming in both SII/OP1 and STS bilaterally. These findings suggest that, although object naming is more error prone than reading, subjects can afford to rely more or less on somatosensory or auditory feedback during naming. In contrast, fast and efficient error-free reading places more consistent demands on both types of feedback, perhaps because of the potential for increased competition between lexical and sublexical codes at the articulatory level.

  2. 78 FR 54623 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 7-Mayaguez, Puerto Rico; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Production Activity; Puma Energy Caribe, LLC (Biodiesel Blending); Bayamon, Puerto Rico Puma Energy Caribe... Subzone 7F. The current request would add the blending of biodiesel to the scope of authority. Pursuant to... the specification of biodiesel (B100) (duty rate--4.6%). Public comment is invited from...

  3. 78 FR 37785 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 196-Fort Worth, Texas; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... Production Activity; Flextronics International USA, Inc. (Mobile Phone Assembly and Kitting); Fort Worth..., testing, packaging, warehousing and distribution of mobile phones. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b), FTZ... choose the duty rates during customs entry procedures that apply to cell phones or mobile handsets...

  4. 78 FR 56655 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 203-Moses Lake, Washington; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Production Activity; AREVA Inc. (Fuel Rod Assemblies); Richland, Washington The Moses Lake Public Corporation... is located within Site 4 of FTZ 203. The facility is used for the processing of components into fuel... that applies to fuel rod assemblies (duty rate--3.3%) for the foreign status inputs noted...

  5. 78 FR 58273 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 7-Mayaguez, Puerto Rico: Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... Production Activity; Patheon Puerto Rico, Inc. (Pharmaceutical Products); Caguas and Manat , Puerto Rico The... Pharmaceutical Corporation), located in Caguas and Manat , Puerto Rico. The notification conforming to the... already has authority to produce pharmaceutical products at both sites, located at Site 1--Parcel 2...

  6. Film Images of Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines public debate over private education in the context of the Hollywood dramatic feature film. Analyses four recent films that all portray private schools negatively. Film representation of public schools is more optimistic. Asserts that the films ignore or misrepresent three strengths of private education: effective leadership, small school…

  7. Stimuli, Reinforcers, and Private Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Radical behaviorism considers private events to be a part of ongoing observable behavior and to share the properties of public events. Although private events cannot be measured directly, their roles in overt action can be inferred from mathematical models that relate private responses to external stimuli and reinforcers according to the same…

  8. Proteomic Characterization of the World Trade Center dust-activated mdig and c-myc signaling circuit linked to multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kai; Li, Lingzhi; Thakur, Chitra; Lu, Yongju; Zhang, Xiangmin; Yi, Zhengping; Chen, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies suggested an increased incidence rate of multiple myeloma (MM) among first responders and other individuals who exposed to World Trade Center (WTC) dust. In this report, we provided evidence showing that WTC dust is potent in inducing mdig protein and/or mRNA in bronchial epithelial cells, B cells and MM cell lines. An increased mdig expression in MM bone marrow was observed, which is associated with the disease progression and prognosis of the MM patients. Through integrative genomics and proteomics approaches, we further demonstrated that mdig directly interacts with c-myc and JAK1 in MM cell lines, which contributes to hyperactivation of the IL-6-JAK-STAT3 signaling important for the pathogenesis of MM. Genetic silencing of mdig reduced activity of the major downstream effectors in the IL-6-JAK-STAT3 pathway. Taken together, these data suggest that WTC dust may be one of the key etiological factors for those who had been exposed for the development of MM by activating mdig and c-myc signaling circuit linked to the IL-6-JAK-STAT3 pathway essential for the tumorigenesis of the malignant plasma cells. PMID:27833099

  9. Trade-off between carbon emission and effluent quality of activated sludge processes under seasonal variations of wastewater temperature and mean cell retention time.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingbo; Fu, Xin; Andrés Baquero, G; Sobhani, Reza; Nolasco, Daniel A; Rosso, Diego

    2016-03-15

    Over the seasonal cycles, the mean cell retention time (MCRT) of the activated sludge process is varied to compensate the wastewater temperature variations. The effects of these variations on the carbon footprint (CFP) and effluent quality index (EQI) of a conventional activated sludge (CAS) process and a nitrification/denitrification (NDN) process were quantified. The carbon emission included both biogenic and non-biogenic carbon. Carbon emissions of wasted biosolids management were also addressed. Our results confirmed that the effluent quality indicated by EQI was not necessarily improved by increasing MCRT. Higher MCRT increased the carbon emission and reduced excess sludge production, which decreased the potential for biogas energy recovery. The NDN process was preferable to the CAS process from the perspective of effluent quality. This consideration extended to the whole plant CFP if the N2O emitted during NDN was limited ([N2O]<1% [NH4(+)]removed) as the carbon emission per unit effluent quality achieved by NDN process is less than that of the CAS process. By putting forward carbon emission intensity (γ) derived from CFP and EQI, our work provides a quantitative tool for decision makers evaluating process alternatives when there is a trade-off between carbon emission and effluent quality.

  10. Gender differences in French GPs' activity: the contribution of quantile regressions.

    PubMed

    Dumontet, Magali; Franc, Carine

    2015-05-01

    In any fee-for-service system, doctors may be encouraged to increase the number of services (private activity) they provide to receive a higher income. Studying private activity determinants helps to predict doctors' provision of care. In the context of strong feminization and heterogeneity in general practitioners' (GP) behavior, we first aim to measure the effects of the determinants of private activity. Second, we study the evolution of these effects along the private activity distribution. Third, we examine the differences between male and female GPs. From an exhaustive database of French GPs working in private practice in 2008, we performed an ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and quantile regressions (QR) on the GPs' private activity. Among other determinants, we examined the trade-offs within the GPs' household considering his/her marital status, spousal income, and children. While the OLS results showed that female GPs had less private activity than male GPs (-13%), the QR results emphasized a private activity gender gap that increased significantly in the upper tail of the distribution. We also find gender differences in the private activity determinants, including family structure, practice characteristics, and case-mix variables. For instance, having a youngest child under 12 years old had a positive effect on the level of private activity for male GPs and a negative effect for female GPs. The results allow us to understand to what extent the supply of care differs between male and female GPs. In the context of strong feminization, this is essential to consider for organizing and forecasting the GPs' supply of care.

  11. Parentally Placed Private School Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sopko, Kimberly M.

    2013-01-01

    This document focuses on state education agency (SEA) support for child find, consultation and provision of equitable service provisions for parentally placed private school students with disabilities. Project Forum at the National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE) completed this activity as part of its cooperative…

  12. Private Cultural Promotion in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fohrbeck, Karla; Wiesand, Andreas Johannes

    Private cultural promotion has become a major topic of interest in cultural policy in recent years. Ranging from personal patronage, to salons, to lifestyle promotion, this document is concerned with presenting the great variety of possible fields of activity in private cultural promotion. Divided into eight chapters the topics covered include:…

  13. On financial markets trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matassini, Lorenzo; Franci, Fabio

    2001-01-01

    Starting from the observation of the real trading activity, we propose a model of a stockmarket simulating all the typical phases taking place in a stock exchange. We show that there is no need of several classes of agents once one has introduced realistic constraints in order to confine money, time, gain and loss within an appropriate range. The main ingredients are local and global coupling, randomness, Zipf distribution of resources and price formation when inserting an order. The simulation starts with the initial public offer and comprises the broadcasting of news/advertisements and the building of the book, where all the selling and buying orders are stored. The model is able to reproduce fat tails and clustered volatility, the two most significant characteristics of a real stockmarket, being driven by very intuitive parameters.

  14. 25 CFR 140.14 - Trade limited to specified premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade limited to specified premises. 140.14 Section 140.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.14 Trade limited to specified premises. No trade with Indians is permitted at any...

  15. What Can Trade Unions Do To Combat Child Labour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrstad, Geir

    1999-01-01

    Examines mainly practical activities of trade unions to fight child labor. Argues that trade unions can give the most significant contribution to the struggle against child labor by focusing on methods that are typical for, or even exclusive to, the trade union movement, in particular negotiations and collective bargaining. (Author)

  16. Stem girdling evidences a trade-off between cambial activity and sprouting and dramatically reduces plant transpiration due to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis and hormone signaling

    PubMed Central

    López, Rosana; Brossa, Ricard; Gil, Luis; Pita, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The photosynthesis source–sink relationship in young Pinus canariensis seedlings was modified by stem girdling to investigate sprouting and cambial activity, feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, and stem and root hydraulic capacity. Removal of bark tissue showed a trade-off between sprouting and diameter growth. Above the girdle, growth was accelerated but the number of sprouts was almost negligible, whereas below the girdle the response was reversed. Girdling resulted in a sharp decrease in whole plant transpiration and root hydraulic conductance. The reduction of leaf area after girdling was strengthened by the high levels of abscisic acid found in buds which pointed to stronger bud dormancy, preventing a new needle flush. Accumulation of sugars in leaves led to a coordinated reduction in net photosynthesis (AN) and stomatal conductance (gS) in the short term, but later (gS below 0.07 mol m-2 s-1) AN decreased faster. The decrease in maximal efficiency of photosystem II (FV/FM) and the operating quantum efficiency of photosystem II (ΦPSII) in girdled plants could suggest photoprotection of leaves, as shown by the vigorous recovery of AN and ΦPSII after reconnection of the phloem. Stem girdling did not affect xylem embolism but increased stem hydraulic conductance above the girdle. This study shows that stem girdling affects not only the carbon balance, but also the water status of the plant. PMID:25972884

  17. Options on Roles, Organization, and Programs of the Private Industry Council. Private Industry Council Training Series: 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook, developed by the National Alliance of Business, is designed as a tool for Private Industry Councils (PICs) in promoting permanent partnerships between public and private interests in training and employing the disadvantaged. Basic information on roles, organizational issues, and program activities of the PIC are considered in four…

  18. Harnessing the market: The opportunities and challenges of privatization

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The decision to privatize comes from a policy determination that the Government no longer needs particular assets or no longer needs to be in control of all the means by which products or services are obtained or delivered. Most broadly defined, privatization substitutes, in whole or in part, private market mechanisms for the traditional Government role as employer, financier, owner, operator, and/or regulator of a product or service. This definition admits a wide variety of actions, from innovative contractual arrangements to outright divestiture of activities or assets. But all of these actions share common objectives: to remove the agency from those activities that are not inherently governmental functions or core business lines; to improve the management of remaining activities; to reduce the costs of doing business; and to shift greater performance and financial risk to the private sector. This report by the Privatization Working Group provides an indepth analysis of the major issues that surround privatization within the Department of Energy (DOE). The report divides privatization initiatives at the DOE into three major types: divestiture of functions, contracting out, and asset transfers. It includes the results of a survey of the entire DOE system that identifies more than 200 potential privatization opportunities. The report also includes 13 case studies that explore actual DOE privatization efforts over the past 2 years. Additionally, it summarizes the key legal authorities that govern each of the three types of privatization opportunities in the DOE. The report makes a series of recommendations and outlines accompanying actions that will help the DOE seize the opportunities presented by privatization and confront its challenges.

  19. Meeting Summary, Credit Trading Work Group

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Bryan

    2000-12-07

    OAK-B135 Credit Trading Work Group Meeting Summary. The purpose of the meeting is to: (1) Provide an opportunity for NWCC Work Group Members, NWCC Members, and invited expert participants to hear an overview of the draft NWCC Credit Trading Report and to critically review and discuss the report's recommendations and principles. (2) Hear presentations from several perspectives of other experts on credit trading which provide: (a) a brief summary of credit trading activities they are involved in, and (b) critical responses to the NWCC draft report. (3) Identify how the report can be improved at the big picture level. Attempt to resolve issues or concerns if necessary. (4) Discuss the recommendations and credit trading principles in detail and attempt to reach consensus on these sections for presentation to the NWCC. (5) Discuss if any of the outreach and communication recommendations in the report should be conducted by the NWCC.

  20. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  1. Robust Quantum Private Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tian-Yin; Wang, Shu-Yu; Ma, Jian-Feng

    2016-07-01

    We propose a new quantum private query protocol with the technique of decoherence-free states, which is a theoretical study of how decoherence-free states can be used for the protection of quantum information in such a protocol. This protocol can solve the noise problem that will make the user obtain a wrong answer and hence give rise to a bad influence on the reputation of the database provider. Furthermore, this protocol is also flexible, loss-resistant and easily generalized to a large database similar to the previous works.

  2. Wastewater privatization: A beneficial alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeman, R.F.; Drewry, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    Municipalities with wastewater operations face increasing requirements to maximize efficiency, implement capital improvements, and ensure environmental compliance. Privatization is a relatively unused alternative offering benefits in the areas of cost-effective operations, flexible financing, technology access, and compliance assurance. Recent executive direction and tax code changes have opened new doors for mutually beneficial public-private partnerships. Wastewater privatization has historically consisted of short-term contract agreements for treatment operations, but looming infrastructure recapitalization and development requirements have catalyzed an exploration of non-traditional alternatives that include private sector financing, development, and operation of entire wastewater systems, The purpose of this paper is to show why privatization must be considered, evaluate the different levels available, and generate an analytical aid for communities taking their first look at privatization opportunities.

  3. Biological trade and markets.

    PubMed

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-05

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  4. Biological trade and markets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other ‘commodities’. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten ‘terms of contract’ that ‘self-stabilize’ trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models—often called ‘Walrasian’ markets—are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying ‘principal–agent’ problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists

  5. Nutrition labelling is a trade policy issue: lessons from an analysis of specific trade concerns at the World Trade Organization.

    PubMed

    Thow, Anne Marie; Jones, Alexandra; Hawkes, Corinna; Ali, Iqra; Labonté, Ronald

    2017-01-12

    Interpretive nutrition labels provide simplified nutrient-specific text and/or symbols on the front of pre-packaged foods, to encourage and enable consumers to make healthier choices. This type of labelling has been proposed as part of a comprehensive policy response to the global epidemic of non-communicable diseases. However, regulation of nutrition labelling falls under the remit of not just the health sector but also trade. Specific Trade Concerns have been raised at the World Trade Organization's Technical Barriers to Trade Committee regarding interpretive nutrition labelling initiatives in Thailand, Chile, Indonesia, Peru and Ecuador. This paper presents an analysis of the discussions of these concerns. Although nutrition labelling was identified as a legitimate policy objective, queries were raised regarding the justification of the specific labelling measures proposed, and the scientific evidence for effectiveness of such measures. Concerns were also raised regarding the consistency of the measures with international standards. Drawing on policy learning theory, we identified four lessons for public health policy makers, including: strategic framing of nutrition labelling policy objectives; pro-active policy engagement between trade and health to identify potential trade issues; identifying ways to minimize potential 'practical' trade concerns; and engagement with the Codex Alimentarius Commission to develop international guidance on interpretative labelling. This analysis indicates that while there is potential for trade sector concerns to stifle innovation in nutrition labelling policy, care in how interpretive nutrition labelling measures are crafted in light of trade commitments can minimize such a risk and help ensure that trade policy is coherent with nutrition action.

  6. Roles of MAPK pathway activation during cytokine induction in BEAS-2B cells exposed to fine World Trade Center (WTC) dust.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shang; Prophete, Colette; Soukup, Joleen M; Chen, Lung-Chi; Costa, Max; Ghio, Andrew; Qu, Qingshan; Cohen, Mitchell D; Chen, Haobin

    2010-01-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) collapse on September 11, 2001 released copious amounts of particulate matter (PM) into the atmosphere of New York City. Follow-up studies on persons exposed to the dusts have revealed a severely increased rate for asthma and other respiratory illnesses. There have only been a few studies that have sought to discern the possible mechanisms underlying these untoward pathologies. In one study, an increased cytokine release was detected in cells exposed to WTC fine dusts (PM₂.₅ fraction or WTC₂.₅). However, the mechanism(s) for these increases has yet to be fully defined. Because activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways is known to cause cytokine induction, the current study was undertaken to analyze the possible involvement of these pathways in any increased cytokine formation by lung epithelial cells (as BEAS-2B cells) exposed to WTC₂.₅. Our results showed that exposure to WTC₂.₅ for 5 hr increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expression in BEAS-2B cells, as well as its protein levels in the culture media, in a dose-dependent manner. Besides IL-6, cytokine multiplex analyses revealed that formation of IL-8 and -10 was also elevated by the exposure. Both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38, but not c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase, signaling pathways were found to be activated in cells exposed to WTC₂.₅. Inactivation of ERK signaling pathways by PD98059 effectively blocked IL-6, -8, and -10 induction by WTC₂.₅; the p38 kinase inhibitor SB203580 significantly decreased induction of IL-8 and -10. Together, our data demonstrated activation of MAPK signaling pathway(s) likely played an important role in the WTC₂.₅-induced formation of several inflammatory (and, subsequently, anti-inflammatory) cytokines. The results are important in that they help to define one mechanism via which the WTC dusts may have acted to cause the documented increases in asthma and other

  7. Free Trade: A Misnomer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Robert R.

    1983-01-01

    Billions of dollars are lost each year in our balance of payments because U.S. multinationals have not entered foreign markets due to trade restrictions and restrictions on the remittance of profits and royalties. Formal and informal government obstructions to free trade are examined. (RM)

  8. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intercom, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focusing mainly on United States-Japan relations, this issue provides 11 lesson plans and student handouts dealing with international trade topics such as protective tariffs, currency exchange rates, unofficial trade barriers, causes of unemployment, the balance of payments and the internationalization of the automobile industry. (JDH)

  9. Prospect Theory for Online Financial Trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang-Yu; Nacher, Jose C.; Ochiai, Tomoshiro; Martino, Mauro; Altshuler, Yaniv

    2014-03-01

    Prospect theory is widely viewed as the best available descriptive model of how people evaluate risk in experimental settings. According to prospect theory, people make decisions based on the potential value of losses and gains rather than the final outcome. People are risk-averse with respect to gains and risk-seeking with respect to losses, a phenomenon called ``loss aversion''. Despite of the fact that prospect theory has been well studied in behavioral economics at the theoretical level, there exist very few empirical research and most of them has been undertaken with micro-panel data. Here we analyze the trading activities of over 1.5 million members of an online financial trading community over 28 months, aiming to explore the large-scale empirical aspect of prospect theory. By analyzing and comparing the behaviour of ``winners'' and ``losers'', i.e., traders with positive or negative final net profit, we find clear evidence of the loss aversion phenomenon, an essence in prospect theory. This work demonstrates an unprecedented large-scale empirical evidence of prospect theory. It has immediate implication in financial trading, e.g., developing new trading strategies by minimizing the effect of loss aversion. It also provides opportunity to augment online social trading, where users are allowed to watch and follow the trading activity of others, by predicting potential winners based on their historical trading behaviour.

  10. Private Stimuli, Covert Responses, and Private Events: Conceptual Remarks

    PubMed Central

    Tourinho, Emmanuel Zagury

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the concepts of private stimuli, covert responses, and private events, emphasizing three aspects: the conditions under which private stimuli may acquire discriminative functions to verbal responses, the conditions of unobservability of covert responses, and the complexity of events or phenomena described as private. I argue that the role of private stimuli in the control of self-descriptive verbal responses is dependent on a relation (correlation or equivalence relation) with public stimuli, and that responses vary along a continuum of observability. These remarks on private stimuli and covert responses are introductory to an examination of the varying complexity of phenomena described as private. I argue that private events is a verbal response emitted under the control of phenomena of different degrees of complexity, and I interpret these phenomena, based on the principle of selection by consequences. I introduce the notion of inclusiveness to suggest that some phenomena related to privacy are less or more complex as they include relations of a phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and cultural origin. PMID:22478451

  11. Differentially private distributed logistic regression using private and public data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Privacy protecting is an important issue in medical informatics and differential privacy is a state-of-the-art framework for data privacy research. Differential privacy offers provable privacy against attackers who have auxiliary information, and can be applied to data mining models (for example, logistic regression). However, differentially private methods sometimes introduce too much noise and make outputs less useful. Given available public data in medical research (e.g. from patients who sign open-consent agreements), we can design algorithms that use both public and private data sets to decrease the amount of noise that is introduced. Methodology In this paper, we modify the update step in Newton-Raphson method to propose a differentially private distributed logistic regression model based on both public and private data. Experiments and results We try our algorithm on three different data sets, and show its advantage over: (1) a logistic regression model based solely on public data, and (2) a differentially private distributed logistic regression model based on private data under various scenarios. Conclusion Logistic regression models built with our new algorithm based on both private and public datasets demonstrate better utility than models that trained on private or public datasets alone without sacrificing the rigorous privacy guarantee. PMID:25079786

  12. Peru action simmering despite privatization delays

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-07

    After months of delays, the sale of Petroleos del Peru SA (Petroperu) was postponed earlier this year until after the elections, which saw Peru`s incumbent President Alberto Fujimori reelected. In June, Fujimori appointed Amado Yataco Minister of Energy and Mines. Yataco, also serving as president of the privatization commission Copri, said a decision on the sale of Petroperu would be made quickly, perhaps by July 28, ahead of this report`s presstime. The uncertain status of Petroperu has not, however, slowed activity in Peru`s petroleum sector. The paper first discusses privatization plans and Petroperu`s budget, then describes exploration and development activities in the supergiant Camisea gas/condensate fields in the central southern jungle. Activities in several smaller fields are briefly described.

  13. SO{sub 2} and NOx trading markets: providing flexibility and results

    SciTech Connect

    Sam Napolitano; Melanie LaCount; Daniel Chartier

    2007-06-15

    Experience with the Acid Rain and NOx Budget Trading Programs demonstrates that cap-and-trade programs are an effective means of achieving broad improvements in air quality. Results demonstrate that the combination of mandatory emissions caps, a viable allowance trading market, rigorous emissions monitoring and reporting protocols, and automatic enforcement provide accountability and ensure results in a cost-effective manner. The market developments discussed in this article demonstrate a successful environmental partnership. With a government focused on results and a private sector motivated to innovate, cap-and trade systems deliver environmental results as efficiently and effectively as possible. 3 refs., 4 figs,

  14. Roles of MAPK Pathway Activation During Cytokine Induction in BEAS-2B Cells Exposed to Fine World Trade Center (WTC) Dust

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shang; Prophete, Colette; Soukup, Joleen M.; Chen, Lung-chi; Costa, Max; Ghio, Andrew; Qu, Qingshan; Chen, Haobin

    2014-01-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) collapse on September 11, 2001 released copious amounts of particulate matter into the atmosphere of New York City. Follow-up studies on persons exposed to the dusts have revealed a severely increased rate for asthma and other respiratory illnesses. There have only been a few studies that have sought to discern the possible mechanisms underlying these untoward pathologies. In one study, an increased cytokine release was detected in cells exposed to WTC fine dusts (PM2.5 fraction or WTC2.5). However, the mechanism(s) for these increases has yet to be fully defined. Because activation of the MAPK signaling pathways is known to cause cytokine induction, the current study was undertaken to analyze the possible involvement of these pathways in any increased cytokine formation by lung epithelial cells (as BEAS-2B cells) exposed to WTC2.5. Our results showed that exposure to WTC2.5 for 5 hr increased IL-6 mRNA expression in BEAS-2B cells, as well as its protein levels in the culture media, in a dose-dependent manner. Besides IL-6, Cytokine Multiplex analyses revealed that formation of IL-8 and -10 was also elevated by the exposure. Both ERK and p38, but not JNK, signaling pathways were found to be activated in cells exposed to WTC2.5. Inactivation of ERK signaling pathways by PD98059 effectively blocked IL-6, -8, and -10 induction by WTC2.5; the p38 kinase inhibitor SB203580 significantly decreased induction of IL-8 and -10. Together, our data demonstrated activation of MAPK signaling pathway(s) likely played an important role in the WTC2.5-induced formation of several inflammatory (and, subsequently, anti-inflammatory) cytokines. The results are important in that they help to define one mechanism via which the WTC dusts may have acted to cause the documented increases in asthma and other inflammation-associated respiratory dysfunctions in the individuals exposed to the dusts released from the WTC collapse. PMID:20731619

  15. Achieving the Trade-Off between Selectivity and Activity in Semihydrogenation of Alkynes by Fabrication of (Asymmetrical Pd@Ag Core)@(CeO2 Shell) Nanocatalysts via Autoredox Reaction.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuyan; Li, Kai; Pan, Jing; Wang, Fan; Li, Junqi; Feng, Jing; Yao, Shuang; Ge, Xin; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Hongjie

    2017-02-01

    (Asymmetrical Pd@Ag core)@(CeO2 shell) nanostructures are successfully fabricated via a clean and facile modified autoredox reaction by the preaddition of Pd seeds in the growth solution. In a subsequent catalytic test, it is found that the as-obtained bimetallic core@shell nanoparticles exhibit excellent catalytic performance in semihydrogenation of alkynes. The trade-off between selectivity and activity is well realized.

  16. TWRS privatization bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. The documents referenced herein have been identified as representative of those potentially helpful to Offerors. This list of documents does not represent the full extent of available and potentially helpful information, nor should it be taken as a representation of documents determined to be of greater importance than other documents not referenced herein. There are numerous documents available to the public that are NOT cited in this bibliography; the Offeror is encouraged to perform searches for alternate sources of information.

  17. TWRS privatization bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. The organization of this bibliography is by subject area. Some of the documents overlap subject areas, and may be presented in more than one. Additionally, assignment of a document to one subject area does not necessarily preclude that document from containing information relevant to other subject areas not identified. The subject areas include, in order of presentation:. Waste Characterization; Pre-treatment; High-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Melter Test Program; Performance Assessment; and General Safety.

  18. 24 CFR 1006.335 - Use of nonprofit organizations and public-private partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... public-private partnerships. 1006.335 Section 1006.335 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... Requirements § 1006.335 Use of nonprofit organizations and public-private partnerships. (a) Nonprofit... housing activities with NHHBG funds. (b) Public-private partnerships. The DHHL must make all...

  19. 24 CFR 1006.335 - Use of nonprofit organizations and public-private partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... public-private partnerships. 1006.335 Section 1006.335 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING... Requirements § 1006.335 Use of nonprofit organizations and public-private partnerships. (a) Nonprofit... housing activities with NHHBG funds. (b) Public-private partnerships. The DHHL must make all...

  20. Depot Sales of Goods and Services to Private Parties: Pricing in Partnering Agreements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    Public - private partnerships are agreements among organic depot maintenance activities and private industries or other entities to perform work or...shared risk than less collaborative business arrangements. Because the effort to build strong public - private partnerships within the Department of Defense

  1. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, James M.; Anderson, Dustin D.

    2010-01-01

    Privatization of support services has been a method that Michigan school districts have used for several years to lower costs. More than ever before, Michigan school districts are privatizing the three main support services they offer--food, custodial and transportation. The annual survey finds that 48.8 percent of Michigan school districts are…

  2. Public/Private Partnership Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC.

    This document presents the Public/Private Partnership Programs, a school-community project developed in 1981 by the District of Columbia public schools and the private sector community to provide career-focused high school programs. The project was designed to motivate and support young people to stay in school, graduate from high school, and…

  3. Private Faith and Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trigg, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Must faith be privatized? Taken at face value, this could seem a curious question, since no one is in a position to "sell off" any religion to private interests, in the way that, for example, British Rail was dismembered. Yet the question is an important one in a contemporary society, characterized as it is by a significant divergence of views…

  4. The Future of Private Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Norward J.

    While the elite private colleges may survive the enrollment declines of the 1980's and 1990's, the less elite, so-called invisible private colleges may have more difficulty. Finance, enrollment, and competition are the three major elements seen to threaten these institutions' futures. They face an uncertain financial future since historically they…

  5. Signed Soliloquy: Visible Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; Brugger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Talking to oneself can be silent (inner speech) or vocalized for others to hear (private speech, or soliloquy). We investigated these two types of self-communication in 28 deaf signers and 28 hearing adults. With a questionnaire specifically developed for this study, we established the visible analog of vocalized private speech in deaf signers.…

  6. Private Loans: Facts and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for College Access & Success, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Private loans are one of the riskiest ways to finance a college education. Like credit cards, they typically have variable interest rates. Both variable and fixed rates are higher for those who can least afford them--as high as 13% in June 2014. Private loans are not eligible for the important deferment, income-based repayment, or loan forgiveness…

  7. National Conference for Trade and Industrial Education Professional Personnel. Theme: Issues with Implications for Professional Development Activities (Dallas, Texas, January 13-15, 1976). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Center for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    The two major goals of the conference were to identify, prioritize, and address critical problem areas and needs in trade and industrial (T & I) education with major emphasis upon implications for personnel development, and to encourage participants to develop at least a rudimentary communications network. Participants gathered preconference data…

  8. Virginia's Private Career Schools. An Overlooked Resource for Job Training and Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Richard W.

    A study gathered objective data to inform policymakers and the public about the role of the private career school in providing postsecondary vocational training. The universe of the study was made up of state-approved for-profit business, trade, and technical schools and nationally accredited cosmetology schools. A mailed questionnaire gathered…

  9. TWRS privatization phase 1 electrical power system

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, G.

    1997-05-30

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for a new 11 km (7 miles) 230 kV transmission line and a new 40 MVA substation (A6) which will be located east of Grout Facility in 200E Area tank farm. This substation will provide electrical power up to 20 MW each for two private contractor facilities for immobilization and disposal of low activity waste (LAW).

  10. Library - Book Trade Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Helen Welch

    1970-01-01

    The trend in relations between the library and the book trade has been in the direction of increased communication and cooperation. Organizational links between librarians, publishers, and booksellers are discussed. (Author/JS)

  11. A Good Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiers, Naomi

    1996-01-01

    Describes education and training needs, numbers employed, and salary scales for the following skilled trades: glaziers, painters/paperhangers, sheetmetal workers, insulation workers, bricklayers, stonemasons, carpenters, electricians, plumbers/pipefitters, and welders. (SK)

  12. What Is Emissions Trading?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn the basics about how emissions trading uses a market-based policy tool used to control large amounts of pollution emissions from a group of sources in order to protect human health and the environment.

  13. Training European Trade Unionists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Doug; Stirling, John

    1998-01-01

    A study of trade union education in Germany, Italy, Sweden, and the United Kingdom finds training is being adapted to meet new political and economic conditions. Significant national differences appeared in terms of legislation, funding, training, and accreditation. (SK)

  14. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    EPA Science Inventory

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  15. Prospect theory for online financial trading.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang-Yu; Nacher, Jose C; Ochiai, Tomoshiro; Martino, Mauro; Altshuler, Yaniv

    2014-01-01

    Prospect theory is widely viewed as the best available descriptive model of how people evaluate risk in experimental settings. According to prospect theory, people are typically risk-averse with respect to gains and risk-seeking with respect to losses, known as the "reflection effect". People are much more sensitive to losses than to gains of the same magnitude, a phenomenon called "loss aversion". Despite of the fact that prospect theory has been well developed in behavioral economics at the theoretical level, there exist very few large-scale empirical studies and most of the previous studies have been undertaken with micro-panel data. Here we analyze over 28.5 million trades made by 81.3 thousand traders of an online financial trading community over 28 months, aiming to explore the large-scale empirical aspect of prospect theory. By analyzing and comparing the behavior of winning and losing trades and traders, we find clear evidence of the reflection effect and the loss aversion phenomenon, which are essential in prospect theory. This work hence demonstrates an unprecedented large-scale empirical evidence of prospect theory, which has immediate implication in financial trading, e.g., developing new trading strategies by minimizing the impact of the reflection effect and the loss aversion phenomenon. Moreover, we introduce three novel behavioral metrics to differentiate winning and losing traders based on their historical trading behavior. This offers us potential opportunities to augment online social trading where traders are allowed to watch and follow the trading activities of others, by predicting potential winners based on their historical trading behavior.

  16. 75 FR 49932 - Private Transfer Fee Covenants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... AGENCY Private Transfer Fee Covenants AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Guidance, ``Guidance on Private Transfer Fee Covenants,'' to the Federal National Mortgage Association... mortgages on properties encumbered by private transfer fee covenants. Such covenants appear adverse...

  17. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D; Correa, Carlos; Oh, Cecilia

    2009-02-21

    The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus.

  18. Physicians and Insider Trading.

    PubMed

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Sinha, Michael S; Joffe, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Although insider trading is illegal, recent high-profile cases have involved physicians and scientists who are part of corporate governance or who have access to information about clinical trials of investigational products. Insider trading occurs when a person in possession of information that might affect the share price of a company's stock uses that information to buy or sell securities--or supplies that information to others who buy or sell--when the person is expected to keep such information confidential. The input that physicians and scientists provide to business leaders can serve legitimate social functions, but insider trading threatens to undermine any positive outcomes of these relationships. We review insider-trading rules and consider approaches to securities fraud in the health care field. Given the magnitude of the potential financial rewards, the ease of concealing illegal conduct, and the absence of identifiable victims, the temptation for physicians and scientists to engage in insider trading will always be present. Minimizing the occurrence of insider trading will require robust education, strictly enforced contractual provisions, and selective prohibitions against high-risk conduct, such as participation in expert consulting networks and online physician forums, by those individuals with access to valuable inside information.

  19. Public investment does not crowd out private supply of environmental goods on private land.

    PubMed

    Duncan, David H; Kyle, Garreth; Morris, William K; Smith, F Patrick

    2014-04-01

    In landscapes where private land tenure is prevalent, public funds for ecological landscape restoration are sometimes spent subsidising the revegetation of cleared land, and the protection of remnant vegetation from livestock. However, the total area treated may be unclear because such projects are not always recorded, and landholders may undertake similar activities without subsidisation. In the absence of empirical data, in the state of Victoria, Australia, a reporting assumption has been employed that suggests that wholly privately funded sites match publicly subsidised sites on a hectare for hectare basis (a so-called "x2" assumption). Conversely, the "crowding out" theory of investment in public goods such as environmental benefits suggests that public investment may supplant private motivation. Using aerial photography we mapped the extent of revegetation, native vegetation fencing and restoration on 71 representative landholdings in rural south-eastern Australia. We interviewed each landholder and recorded the age and funding model of each site. Contrary to the local "x2" reporting assumption, about 75% of the total area of the 412 sites was from subsidised sites, and that proportion was far higher for the period after 1997. However, rather than displacing unsubsidised activity, our modelling showed that landholders who had recently been subsidised for a project were more likely to have subsequently completed unsubsidised work. This indicates that, at least in terms of medium-term economic impact, the large increase in public subsidies did not diminish privately funded activity, as might be expected according to the theory of crowding out.

  20. Private actors, global health and learning the lessons of history.

    PubMed

    Youde, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Private business and philanthropic organizations have played a prominent role in the response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the support of global health governance more broadly. While this involvement may appear to be novel or unprecedented, this article argues that this active role for private actors and philanthropies actually mirrors the historical experience of cross-border health governance in the first half of the twentieth century. By examining the experiences, roles and criticisms of the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, it is possible to identify potential opportunities for better cooperation between public and private actors in global health governance.

  1. Public-private partnership: an opportunity for urban communities. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Successful experience with public-private partnerships is the responsibility of civic leaders and organizations. As responsibility shifts back to the local level and the private sector, the potential for cooperation between the public and private sectors should include both the policy and the operational dimensions. There are opportunities for partnership in the local economy, neighborhoods, and key community services. Each of these areas incorporates economic, social, and political factors that are interrelated. If businesses view socio-economic improvements as a self-interest, they will pursue more-active involvement. Local successes, however, will reflect the effectiveness of federal partnerships. 42 references, 2 tables. (DCK)

  2. Relativistic quantum private database queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Si-Jia; Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Ming-Ou

    2015-04-01

    Recently, Jakobi et al. (Phys Rev A 83, 022301, 2011) suggested the first practical private database query protocol (J-protocol) based on the Scarani et al. (Phys Rev Lett 92, 057901, 2004) quantum key distribution protocol. Unfortunately, the J-protocol is just a cheat-sensitive private database query protocol. In this paper, we present an idealized relativistic quantum private database query protocol based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. Also, we prove that the protocol is secure in terms of the user security and the database security.

  3. Stimuli, Reinforcers, and Private Events

    PubMed Central

    Nevin, John A

    2008-01-01

    Radical behaviorism considers private events to be a part of ongoing observable behavior and to share the properties of public events. Although private events cannot be measured directly, their roles in overt action can be inferred from mathematical models that relate private responses to external stimuli and reinforcers according to the same quantitative relations that characterize public operant behavior. This approach is illustrated by a model of attending to stimuli and to anticipated reinforcers in delayed matching to sample, in which the probabilities of attending are related to reinforcer rates by an expression derived from research on behavioral momentum. PMID:22478505

  4. International service trade and its implications for human resources for health: a case study of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Wibulpolprasert, Suwit; Pachanee, Cha-aim; Pitayarangsarit, Siriwan; Hempisut, Pintusorn

    2004-01-01

    This study aims at analysing the impact of international service trade on the health care system, particularly in terms of human resources for health (HRH), using Thailand as a case study. Information was gathered through a literature review and interviews of relevant experts, as well as a brainstorming session. It was found that international service trade has greatly affected the Thai health care system and its HRH. From 1965 to 1975 there was massive emigration of physicians from Thailand in response to increasing demand in the United States of America. The country lost about 1,500 physicians, 20% of its total number, during that period. External migration of health professionals occurred without relation to agreements on trade in services. It was also found that free trade in service sectors other than health could seriously affect the health care system and HRH. Free trade in financial services with free flow of low-interest foreign loans, which started in 1993 in Thailand, resulted in the mushrooming of urban private hospitals between 1994 and 1997. This was followed by intensive internal migration of health professionals from rural public to urban private hospitals. After the economic crisis in 1997, with the resulting downturn of the private health sector, reverse brain drain was evident. At the same time, foreign investors started to invest in the bankrupt private hospitals. Since 2001, the return of economic growth and the influx of foreign patients have started another round of internal brain drain. PMID:15225376

  5. State Regulation of Private Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lines, Patricia M.

    1982-01-01

    Examines state laws and the actions of various courts on home instruction and unauthorized educational programs. Suggests reforming the regulation of private education through legislative action that requires periodic testing as an alternative to compulsory school attendance. (Author/MLF)

  6. What Future for Private Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cath Sch J, 1970

    1970-01-01

    After examining a small private school (Norwood Academy, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia) a group of leading educators give their answers to questions about its future and the future of such schools in general. (Editor)

  7. Intention-Disguised Algorithmic Trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, William; Syverson, Paul; Liu, Zhenming; Thorpe, Christopher

    Large market participants (LMPs) must often execute trades while keeping their intentions secret. Sometimes secrecy is required before trades are completed to prevent other traders from anticipating (and exploiting) the price impact of their trades. This is known as "front-running". In other cases, LMPs with proprietary trading strategies wish to keep their positions secret even after trading because their strategies and positions contain valuable information. LMPs include hedge funds, mutual funds, and other specialized market players.

  8. Alzheimer's disease public-private partnerships: update 2014.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Heather M; Kim, Hye; Bain, Lisa J; Egge, Robert; Carrillo, Maria C

    2014-11-01

    The National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease highlights the need for coordinated public-private partnerships. In recent years, the number of collaborations and consortia have expanded and grown in Alzheimer's research. The Alzheimer's Association compiles this annually updated compendium to centralize this inventory of partnerships in an effort to synergize these activities. This manuscript reflects the 2014 landscape of non-profit organizations who engage in public-private partnerships to promote and support dementia research.

  9. International Trade: Tennessee's Window on the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Miriam; And Others

    The activities and discussion questions in this unit can be used in secondary social studies classes to teach students about world trade and its role in their personal lives. Although designed for Tennessee classrooms, the unit can be easily adapted for use elsewhere. Many of the activities are self-contained. However, some require the use of…

  10. Trade-offs in Our Energy Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen L.

    The purpose of this activity is to make students aware that there is no free energy source for the present or the future and that all technologies are potential threats to the environment. The activity consists of a short reading (discussing basic trade-offs, issues, and decisions related to petroleum, coal, and nuclear energy sources) and student…

  11. Privatization of Military Family Housing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Rev. 2-89) (EG) Proscribed by ANSI S IU . 239,1 PRIVATIZATION OF MILITARY FAMILY HOUSING MAJOR PATRICK W. MOUDY* * Major Patrick W. Moudy, United...amendments for Development of Private Sector Housing, Corpus Christi, Texas.29 Landmark Residential, LLC (Landmark) was the successful offeror for the...office, the JAG office, the Civil Engineering office, the Comptroller office, the environmental experts, and the housing office, as well as the command

  12. Expanding Public/Private Partnerships For Improving Basic Education through School Sponsorship in the Dominican Republic. Final Report. Basic Education and Policy Support Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Patricia; Kane, Michael

    The Basic Education and Policy Support Activity (BEPS), a new five-year initiative sponsored by United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) Center for Human Capacity Development, is designed to improve the quality, effectiveness, and access to formal and nonformal basic education. BEPS operates through both core funds and buy-ins…

  13. Documentation of the status of international geothermal power plants and a list by country of selected geothermally active governmental and private sector entities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This report includes the printouts from the International Geothermal Power Plant Data Base and the Geothermally Active Entity Data Base. Also included are the explanation of the abbreviations used in the power plant data base, maps of geothermal installations by country, and data base questionnaires and mailing lists.

  14. Trade Agreements: Impact on the U.S. Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-15

    International Trade. Cambridge, The MIT Press, 1990; Romer , Paul M. Capital, Labor, and Productivity. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity: Microeconomics...1990. Washington, the Brookings Institution. p. 337-367; Romer , Paul M. Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth. Journal of Political Economy...trade encourages specialization, the production gains from trade also mean that consumers are offered CRS-11 19 Krugman, Paul R. Rethinking

  15. Greenhouse-gas-trading markets.

    PubMed

    Sandor, Richard; Walsh, Michael; Marques, Rafael

    2002-08-15

    This paper summarizes the extension of new market mechanisms for environmental services, explains of the importance of generating price information indicative of the cost of mitigating greenhouse gases (GHGs) and presents the rationale and objectives for pilot GHG-trading markets. It also describes the steps being taken to define and launch pilot carbon markets in North America and Europe and reviews the key issues related to incorporating carbon sequestration into an emissions-trading market. There is an emerging consensus to employ market mechanisms to help address the threat of human-induced climate changes. Carbon-trading markets are now in development around the world. A UK market is set to launch in 2002, and the European Commission has called for a 2005 launch of an European Union (EU)-wide market, and a voluntary carbon market is now in formation in North America. These markets represent an initial step in resolving a fundamental problem in defining and implementing appropriate policy actions to address climate change. Policymakers currently suffer from two major information gaps: the economic value of potential damages arising from climate changes are highly uncertain, and there is a lack of reliable information on the cost of mitigating GHGs. These twin gaps significantly reduce the quality of the climate policy debate. The Chicago Climate Exchange, for which the authors serve as lead designers, is intended to provide an organized carbon-trading market involving energy, industry and carbon sequestration in forests and farms. Trading among these diverse sectors will provide price discovery that will help clarify the cost of combating climate change when a wide range of mitigation options is employed. By closing the information gap on mitigation costs, society and policymakers will be far better prepared to identify and implement optimal policies for managing the risks associated with climate change. Establishment of practical experience in providing

  16. Global Trade and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Ellen R.; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

  17. Global trade and public health.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization's General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date.

  18. The "Decline" of Private Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    No topic in private higher education study has attracted as great attention globally as has growth. This is appropriate as private growth has soared to nearly a third of the world's total higher education enrolment. But while private growth continues to be the dominant trend, important declines in private shares have emerged. These must be…

  19. How To Pick a Perfect Private School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Harlow G.

    This book offers consumer information for parents who are considering enrolling their child in a private school. Beginning with a descriptive overview of private schools, the guide discusses advantages of private schools, how to finance a private school education, and how to determine a child's educational needs. The book offers criteria for…

  20. Public-private partnering gains success stories

    SciTech Connect

    Cogen, J.

    1995-04-01

    Public-private partnerships are fast becoming a preferred way to develop innovative remediation technologies. Many companies are taking part in such programs, which seek to harness both private-sector and public resources to spur development of innovative remediation technologies. In recent years, Clean Sites, a non-profit organization that seeks to improve the process of cleaning hazardous waste sites, has worked under a cooperative agreement with EPA`s Technology Innovation Office to develop these partnerships. One key aim is to gather hard data on performance and costs for full-scale implementation of innovative remediation technologies - many of which have been bench and pilot tested but lack a track record of successful field applications. Partnering with the federal government also increases opportunities for funding a full-scale demonstration. DOD, DOE, and EPA each invest significant resources in the demonstrations. In one case - the McClellan Air Force Base Public-Private Partnership - on-site activities are funded almost exclusively by the US Air Force and EPA.

  1. The social benefits of private infectious disease-risk mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Perrings, Charles; Kinzig, Ann; Levin, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Does society benefit from private measures to mitigate infectious disease risks? Since mitigation reduces both peak prevalence and the number of people who fall ill, the answer might appear to be yes. But mitigation also prolongs epidemics and therefore the time susceptible people engage in activities to avoid infection. These avoidance activities come at a cost—in lost production or consumption, for example. Whether private mitigation yields net social benefits depends on the social weight given to the costs of illness and illness avoidance, now and into the future. We show that, for a large class of infectious diseases, private risk mitigation is socially beneficial. However, in cases where society discounts the future at either very low or very high rates relative to private individuals, or where it places a low weight on the private cost of illness, the social cost of illness under proportionate mixing (doing nothing) may be lower than the social cost of illness under preferential mixing (avoiding infectious individuals). That is, under some circumstances, society would prefer shorter, more intense epidemics without avoidance costs over longer, less intense epidemics with avoidance costs. A sobering (although not surprising) implication of this is that poorer societies should be expected to promote less private disease-risk mitigation than richer societies. PMID:26858777

  2. Carbon Management In the Post-Cap-and-Trade Carbon Economy-Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGroff, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    This is the second installment in our search for a comprehensive economic model to mitigate climate change due to anthropogenic activity. Last year we presented how the unique features of our economic model measure changes in carbon flux due to anthropogenic activity, referred to as carbon quality or CQ, and how the model is used to value such changes in the climate system. This year, our paper focuses on how carbon quality can be implemented to capture the effect of economic activity and international trade on the climate system, thus allowing us to calculate a Return on Climate System (RoCS) for all economic assets and activity. The result is that the RoCS for each public and private economic activity and entity can be calculated by summing up the RoCS for each individual economic asset and activity in which an entity is engaged. Such a macro-level scale is used to rank public and private entities including corporations, governments, and even entire nations, as well as human adaptation and carbon storage activities, providing status and trending insights to evaluate policies on both a micro- and macro-economic level. With international trade, RoCS measures the embodied effects on climate change that will be needed to assess border fees to insure carbon parity on all imports and exports. At the core of our vision is a comprehensive, 'open-source' construct of which our carbon quality metric is the first element. One goal is to recognize each country's endemic resources and infrastructure that affect their ability to manage carbon, while preventing spatial and temporal shifting of carbon emissions that reduce or reverse efforts to mitigate climate change. The standards for calculating the RoCS can be promulgated as part of the Generally Accepted Accounted Principles (GAAP) and the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) to ensure standard and consistent reporting. The value of such insights on the climate system at all levels will be crucial to managing

  3. Private and Public Schooling in Ghana: A Census and Comparative Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Amuah, Isaac

    2007-07-01

    A census and survey of schools in the district of Ga, Ghana, explored the nature and extent of private education, and compared inputs to public and private schooling. Three quarters of all schools found were private, with almost as many unregistered private as government schools. Several important differences between registered and unregistered private schools were noted, including age, fee levels charged, teacher salaries and class size. A range of inputs, such as teacher activity, availability of desks, chairs, libraries, toilets and drinking water, were used to compare inputs to government, unregistered and registered private schools. Some conclusions are explored about the potential role for the private sector in helping meet "education for all" targets.

  4. Construction Trades Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This guide was developed as a supplement to the Alaska Department of Education's Construction Trades Curriculum. The special topics included in it focus on competencies from the curriculum for which materials were not readily available to Alaskan teachers and provide information that is either required by Alaska's environmental conditions or is…

  5. Trading forest carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  6. Learning with Trade Unionists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooton, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Recommends that the study of trade unions be included in the school curriculum. Argues that learning about relationships between unions and management through interviews, observations, and simulations can enhance the overall approach to teaching about controversial topics. Gives examples of some attempts to do this in schools. (TW)

  7. Trade-Secret Dispute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    1994-01-01

    A Michigan court has ruled that a Wayne State University (Michigan) chemistry professor appropriated a trade secret from a Massachusetts chemist for whom he was consulting and incorporated it into his own patent application, violating a written agreement. The university contends its pursuit of the patent was not improper. (MSE)

  8. Recreational Vehicle Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felice, Michael

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in recreational vehicle trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and…

  9. Learn a Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    The author earned a physics degree in college and then failed to find a job in the aerospace industry. He writes of how he fell back on his training as an electrician for sustenance and from that extrapolates how the trades have become confused with work of the hands rather than of the mind. He uses the venerable debate between Booker T.…

  10. Modern Maritime Trade Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-20

    intergovernmental organizations impose both immediate and long term penalties for an enemy. Finally, tools such as cyber attacks and GPS spoofing ...Exclusion Zones to interfere with shipping networks, and GPS jamming or spoofing of merchant vessels are discussed and analyzed for potential...SUBJECT TERMS Maritime Trade Warfare, Commerce Warfare, China, Cyber, GPS , Jamming, Spoofing , Maritime Interdiction, Exclusion Zone. 16. SECURITY

  11. Trade Masonry Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    Designed for a two-year course of study, this syllabus encompasses six areas of the masonry trade: concrete, block, brick, stone, tile, and plaster. For each area, the separate units of instruction contain course content outline, student behavioral objectives, and suggested teaching methods and audiovisuals. The six sections and their units are as…

  12. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  13. Syllabus in Trade Welding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The syllabus outlines material for a course two academic years in length (minimum two and one-half hours daily experience) leading to entry-level occupational ability in several welding trade areas. Fourteen units covering are welding, gas welding, oxyacetylene welding, cutting, nonfusion processes, inert gas shielded-arc welding, welding cast…

  14. Construction Trades Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum is designed to be a handbook for the construction trades. It includes all competencies a student will acquire in the course of building a complete house. Based on a survey of Alaskan construction employers and employees, the handbook stresses both principles and skills. The 23 units are presented in the sequence…

  15. NEEDLE TRADES, MATHEMATICS - I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COLICCHIO, ANTOINETTE J.

    THE NEEDLE TRADES INDUSTRY CONSISTS OF THREE TYPES OF ESTABLISHMENTS -- THE REGULAR MANUFACTURERS, THE APPAREL JOBBERS, AND THE CONTRACTORS. THE FUNCTIONS INCLUDED COVER A WIDE SCOPE FROM BUYING OF RAW MATERIAL TO SELLING OF THE FINISHED APPAREL. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY GUIDE IS TO FURNISH BASIC KNOWLEDGE IN MATHEMATICS AND DEVELOP SKILL IN…

  16. Trade Union Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Heribert; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Excerpts addresses from an international symposium regarding workers' education, human rights, labor standards and law, socioeconomic factors, trade unions, workers' rights, professionalism, and globalization. Includes a background paper, "Participation of Workers and Their Organizations in the Field of International Labour Standards and the…

  17. Maintenance Trades Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidner, Theodore J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, APPA published "Maintenance Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities," the first building maintenance trades staffing guideline designed to assist educational facilities professionals with their staffing needs. addresses how facilities professionals can determine the appropriate size and mix of their organization. Contents…

  18. Management of optical virtual private networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jing; Savoie, Michel; Campbell, Scott; Zhang, Hanzi; Figuerola, Sergi

    2007-11-01

    The Layer 1 Virtual Private Network (L1VPN) technology supports multiple user networks over a common carrier transport network. We present an L1VPN management architecture where network providers manage physical network infrastructures, service providers manage L1VPN services by composing individual network resources into L1VPNs, end users invoke L1VPN management services to configure operational L1VPNs. Using a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Web Services (WS), we implemented an L1VPN management tool, called User Controlled Light Paths (UCLP). Network providers use the tool to partition resources at the L1VPN level by assigning resources, together with the WS based management services for the resources, to service providers. Service providers use the tool to receive resource partitions from multiple network providers and partner service providers. Further resource partitioning or re-grouping can be conducted on the received resources, and leasing or trading resources with partner service providers is supported. After the service providers compose the use scenarios of resources, and make the use scenarios available to the L1VPN end users as WS, the end users reconfigure the L1VPN without intervention of either network or service providers.

  19. Machine Trades Curriculum Guide. Michigan Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide is intended to help secondary teachers provide relevant training for an entry-level job in machine trades. Introductory materials include background information on trade and industrial education and program goals and safety information. Descriptions follow of the construction trades program, vocational cooperative…

  20. 77 FR 66797 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... documents containing references to partisan political activities (including political contributions) will be... mail, broadcast fax, notices by industry trade associations and other multiplier groups, and publicity... permit. Frank Spector, Senior International Trade Specialist. BILLING CODE 3510-FP-P...

  1. 78 FR 55241 - Foreign-Trade Zone 79-Tampa, Florida, Foreign-Trade Subzone 79C-Cutrale Citrus Juices USA, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 79--Tampa, Florida, Foreign-Trade Subzone 79C--Cutrale Citrus... to the existing activation limit of FTZ 79, on behalf of Cutrale Citrus Juices USA, Inc....

  2. Trading Network Predicts Stock Price

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices. PMID:24429767

  3. Trading Network Predicts Stock Price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  4. [Private practice nursing, reacting in emergency situations. Private practice nursing, reacting in emergency situations].

    PubMed

    Royère, Cécile; Allonneau, Alexandre; Genotelle, Nicolas; Lefort, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    Private practice professionals providing care in patients' homes are often isolated. The care is controlled by a multidisciplinary care network. In the event of a life-threatening emergency, the Aide Médicale Urgente control centre activates if necessary the rapid intervention of emergency services. An accurate assessment, the anticipation of an emergency transfer to hospital and knowledge of the regulatory framework ensure the patient is handled efficiently and respectfully.

  5. 17 CFR 5.18 - Trading and operational standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trading and operational standards. 5.18 Section 5.18 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFF... information regarding customer orders and account activity, and to provide such information to customers...

  6. 25 CFR 141.26 - Trade in antiquities prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade in antiquities prohibited. 141.26 Section 141.26 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.26 Trade in...

  7. 25 CFR 141.14 - Trade in livestock restricted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade in livestock restricted. 141.14 Section 141.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Licensing Requirements and Procedures § 141.14 Trade...

  8. 25 CFR 140.25 - Trade in antiquities prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade in antiquities prohibited. 140.25 Section 140.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.25 Trade in antiquities prohibited. Traders shall not deal in objects of antiquity removed...

  9. 78 FR 34395 - Announcement of Foreign-Trade Zones Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Announcement of Foreign-Trade Zones Test AGENCY: U.S. Customs... announces U.S. Customs and Border Protection's (``CBP's'') plan to conduct a voluntary general test regarding certain foreign-trade zone (``FTZ'' or ``zone'') activities. Pursuant to the FTZ test,...

  10. Private expenditure and the role of private health insurance in Greece: status quo and future trends.

    PubMed

    Siskou, Olga; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Economou, Charalampos; Kostagiolas, Peter; Liaropoulos, Lycourgos

    2009-10-01

    The health care system in Greece is financed in almost equal proportions by public and private sources. Private expenditure, consists mostly of out-of-pocket and under-the-table payments. Such payments strongly suggest dissatisfaction with the public system, due to under financing during the last 25 years. This gap has been filled rapidly by the private sector. From this point of view, one might suggest that the flourishing development of private provision may lead in turn to a corresponding growth in private health insurance (PHI). This paper aims to examine the role of PHI in Greece, to identify the factors influencing its development, and to make some suggestions about future policies and trends. In the decade of 1985-1995 PHI show increasing activity, reflecting the intention of some citizens to seek health insurance solutions in the form of supplementary cover in order to ensure faster access, better quality of services, and increased consumer choice. The benefits include programs covering hospital expenses, cash benefits, outpatient care expenses, disability income insurance, as well as limited managed care programs. However, despite recent interest, PHI coverage remains low in Greece compared to other EU countries. Economic, social and cultural factors such as low average household income, high unemployment, obligatory and full coverage by social insurance, lead to reluctance to pay for second-tier insurance. Instead, there is a preference to pay a doctor or hospital directly even in the form of under-the-table payments (which are remarkably high in Greece), when the need arises. There are also factors endogenous to the PHI industry, related to market policies, low organisational capacity, cream skimming, and the absence of insurance products meeting consumer requirements, which explain the relatively low state of development of PHI in Greece.

  11. South Carolina Trade Examinations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Shirley J.

    The South Carolina Trade Examinations for Trade and Industrial Education teachers are administered semi-annually by the South Carolina State Department of Education, Office of Vocational Education, Vocational Teacher Education Programs Unit. This handbook is designed to provide prospective trade and industrial education teachers, vocational…

  12. Biomarker qualification via public-private partnerships.

    PubMed

    Eck, S L; Paul, S M

    2010-01-01

    Biomarkers linked to patient outcomes (safety and efficacy) have an increasingly important role in drug development. Consequently, validation and qualification of such biomarkers are essential, often requiring large data sets from well-controlled randomized clinical trials. In the December 2009 issue of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, investigators utilizing data from four pharmaceutical companies and working under the auspices of the Biomarkers Consortium described the utility of adiponectin as an early predictor of glycemic control in diabetic patients taking peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists. This work illustrates the advantages of large public-private partnerships for biomarker qualification.

  13. Commodities Trading: An Essential Economic Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue focuses on commodities trading as an essential economic tool. Activities include critical thinking about marketing decisions and discussion on how futures markets and options are used as important economic tools. Discussion questions and a special student project are included. (EH)

  14. Standardized Curriculum for General Industrial Maintenance Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: general industrial maintenance trades I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) orientation and leadership activities; (2) safety; (3) blueprint reading; (4) oxyacetylene cutting; (5) preventative maintenance; (6)…

  15. 15 CFR 400.47 - Retail trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Operation of Zones and...-free goods may be conducted within an activated area of a zone under a permit issued by the zone...-paid or duty-free food and non-alcoholic beverage products sold within the zone or subzone...

  16. 15 CFR 400.47 - Retail trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Operation of Zones and...-free goods may be conducted within an activated area of a zone under a permit issued by the zone...-paid or duty-free food and non-alcoholic beverage products sold within the zone or subzone...

  17. Integrating an Interprofessional Education Model at a Private University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Ramona Ann; Gottlieb, Helmut; Dominguez, Daniel G.; Sanchez-Diaz, Patricia C.; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, a private University in South Texas sought to prepare eight cohorts of 25 nursing, optometry, pharmacy, physical therapy, and health care administration students with an interprofessional education activity as a model for collaborative learning. The two semester interprofessional activity used a blended model (Blackboard Learn®,…

  18. State Action: Judicial Perpetuation of the State/Private Distinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antoun, Frederick G., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The "state action" concept broadens the Fourteenth Amendment to restrict certain objectionable private activity. In an effort to clarify the requirement of state action as it has been interpreted and applied by the Supreme Court, the author examines the various state action theories as they have been applied to activate Fourteenth Amendment…

  19. Know the Risks: Transporting Students in Private Vehicles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Scheduling off-campus extracurricular activities is not the issue, but how to get students there can present a problem. The transportation of students by staff in their private cars for extracurricular activities is common and occurs chiefly as a matter of convenience or cost saving. But it is not without risks. In general, the best solution for…

  20. The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-20

    Objectives in an FTA ..............................................................................8 Sector -Specific Issues and the KORUS FTA...USITC). U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Potential Economy-wide and Selected Sectoral Effects. Investigation No. TA-2104-24. USITC Publication 3949...transmit mad cow disease during the processing of cattle less than 30 months old when slaughtered. Both countries view this “voluntary private- sector

  1. Managing Regional Collaboration in Higher Education: The Case of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespo, Manuel

    2000-01-01

    Describes accomplishments in increasing collaboration in higher education within the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Analyzes procedures for determining equivalencies of courses and degrees and for improving transnational mobility of students and professors. Also discusses the role of the private sector in research, education and…

  2. A Student's Dilemma: Is There a Trade-Off between a Higher Salary or Higher GPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diette, Timothy M.; Raghav, Manu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore whether there is a relationship between average grades earned in a course and the national average salaries of graduates of the major associated with the course. Using student-level data from a selective private liberal arts college, we find an inverse relationship. The result suggests that students face a trade-off…

  3. 75 FR 15687 - Safety and Security Equipment and Services Trade Mission to Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... provide access to key government officials and potential business partners for U.S. security firms... partners. Follow-on business meetings in other cities in the region can be set up before or after the trade... (e.g., public security authorities and officials) and private business (e.g., local security...

  4. 78 FR 13752 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SPIRIT; Invitation for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SPIRIT... of the vessel SPIRIT is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Private charter--up to 12...

  5. A neurocognitive approach to the study of private speech.

    PubMed

    Girbau, Dolors

    2007-05-01

    The paper presents the current state of the art of research identifying the neurophysiological and neuroanatomical substrates of private speech, both in typical and clinical (or atypical) populations. First, it briefly describes the evolution of private speech research, which goes from classic traditions as the naturalistic and referential paradigms to the neurocognitive approach. An overview of the neurophysiological (e.g., event-related potentials or ERPs) and neuroimaging techniques (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging or fMRI) is also presented. The next three sections review empirical works about the neurocognitive basis of private speech, across three groups of techniques: ERPs; fMRI/MRI; and other neuroimaging techniques (positron emission tomography [PET], magnetoencephalogram [MEG], and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation [rTMS]). Such neurocognitive research analyzes the neural activity of individuals during a variety of task settings, including spontaneous and instructed overt and inner private speech use, subvocal verbalizations, and silent and overt reading. The fifth section focuses on electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies of private speech in atypical populations, for example: schizophrenia, pure alexia, hearing impairment, blindness, social phobia, alexithymia, Parkinson, and multiple sclerosis. The neurocognitive study of the various forms of private speech appears to be very promising in the understanding of these pathologies. Lastly, the advances and new challenges in the field are discussed.

  6. Privatization of solid waste collection services: Lessons from Gaborone.

    PubMed

    Bolaane, Benjamin; Isaac, Emmanuel

    2015-06-01

    Formal privatization of solid waste collection activities has often been flagged as a suitable intervention for some of the challenges of solid waste management experienced by developing countries. Proponents of outsourcing collection to the private sector argue that in contrast to the public sector, it is more effective and efficient in delivering services. This essay is a comparative case study of efficiency and effectiveness attributes between the public and the formal private sector, in relation to the collection of commercial waste in Gaborone. The paper is based on analysis of secondary data and key informant interviews. It was found that while, the private sector performed comparatively well in most of the chosen indicators of efficiency and effectiveness, the public sector also had areas where it had a competitive advantage. For instance, the private sector used the collection crew more efficiently, while the public sector was found to have a more reliable workforce. The study recommends that, while formal private sector participation in waste collection has some positive effects in terms of quality of service rendered, in most developing countries, it has to be enhanced by building sufficient capacity within the public sector on information about services contracted out and evaluation of performance criteria within the contracting process.

  7. Privatization of solid waste collection services: Lessons from Gaborone

    SciTech Connect

    Bolaane, Benjamin Isaac, Emmanuel

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We compared efficiency and effectiveness of waste collection by the public and private sector. • Public sector performs better than private sector in some areas and vice versa. • Outsourcing waste collection in developing countries is hindered by limited capacity on contractual issues. • Outsourcing collection in developing countries is hampered by inadequate waste information. • There is need to build capacity in the public sector of developing countries to support outsourcing. - Abstract: Formal privatization of solid waste collection activities has often been flagged as a suitable intervention for some of the challenges of solid waste management experienced by developing countries. Proponents of outsourcing collection to the private sector argue that in contrast to the public sector, it is more effective and efficient in delivering services. This essay is a comparative case study of efficiency and effectiveness attributes between the public and the formal private sector, in relation to the collection of commercial waste in Gaborone. The paper is based on analysis of secondary data and key informant interviews. It was found that while, the private sector performed comparatively well in most of the chosen indicators of efficiency and effectiveness, the public sector also had areas where it had a competitive advantage. For instance, the private sector used the collection crew more efficiently, while the public sector was found to have a more reliable workforce. The study recommends that, while formal private sector participation in waste collection has some positive effects in terms of quality of service rendered, in most developing countries, it has to be enhanced by building sufficient capacity within the public sector on information about services contracted out and evaluation of performance criteria within the contracting process.

  8. International Science Olympiad participants' experiences and perceptions on private education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyeong jin; Ryu, Chun-Ryol; Choi, Jinsu

    2016-04-01

    The International Science Olympiad is an international intellectual olympic in which students, aging under 20 and who have not entered university, compete using their creative problem solving skills in the field of science. Many nations participate in the Olympiad with great interest, for this competition is a global youth science contest which is also used to measure national basic science levels. However in Korea, benefits for Olympiad participants were reduced because issues were risen that the Olympiad could intensify private education. This resulted in a continuous decrease in the number of applicants, bringing national competitiveness deterioration to concern. Therefore in this study, we identified the problems by analyzing the actual conditions of Olympiad participants' private education, and sought support plans to activate Olympiad participation. For this use, we conducted a survey of 367 summer school and winter school acceptees in 9 branches. 68.9% of the students were preparing for the Olympiad by private education, and the highest percentage answered that their private education expenses were an average of 3~5 million won. Olympiad preparation took up 30~50% of all private education, showing that private education greatly influences the preparing processes for the Olympiad. Meanwhile the participants perceived that in order to reduce Olympiad-related private education, the following should be implemented priority: supply of free high-quality on-line education materials, and easy access to Olympiad related information. It was also suggested that the most effective and needed education methods were school olympiad preparation classes, on-line education expansion, and special lectures and mentoring from olympiad-experienced senior representatives. Additionally, as methods to activate Olympiad participation, it was thought that award records should be allowed to be used in college applications by enabling award records into student records and special

  9. 19 CFR 351.412 - Levels of trade; adjustment for difference in level of trade; constructed export price offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... difference in level of trade; constructed export price offset. (a) Introduction. In comparing United States... different levels of trade if they are made at different marketing stages (or their equivalent). Substantial... a difference in the stage of marketing. Some overlap in selling activities will not preclude...

  10. Sustainable development: a trade union perspective.

    PubMed

    Gereluk, Winston; Royer, Lucien

    2003-01-01

    Sustainable development has become an important issue for trade unions around the world, but progress on sustainable development has been slow. Agenda 21, which came out of the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, called on workers and trade unions to assume an active role. The International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) and the Trade Union Advisory Committee (TUAC) to the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) became influential players who represent more than 155 million members in 148 countries and territories. The implementation of Agenda 21 has been hampered by bureaucratic gridlock--a situation that trade unions propose to overcome through innovative strategies on workplaces and workers. They realize that sustainable development cannot take place without radical changes in production and consumption. Globalization is creating opulence on the one hand and grinding poverty on the other. ICFTU and TUAC propose a new "world order" that includes democratic decision-making, popular accountability, transparency, and local control. They have proposed priorities, outlined in this article, for an international approach to sustainable development.

  11. [Globalization, international trade, and health equity].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Cesar

    2002-01-01

    Globalization and international trade are having an increasingly evident impact on the day-to-day duties of the health sector, and the phenomenon has aroused a great deal of interest among governments, nongovernmental organizations, international organizations, and the mass media. Up to this point the heated and polemical debate on the subject has seriously hindered objective discourse on the health implications of globalization and international trade. This piece examines the possible impact of the two processes on health in the Region of the Americas, in order to foster policies for equity that are adopted within the framework of public health in the Americas. The piece considers the relationships among globalization, trade, and health in general and then focuses on the special case of trade in health goods and services. The piece looks at the possible impact on health equity of the agreements for integration and free trade that are being negotiated in the Americas. The piece concludes with a summary of the activities that the Pan American Health Organization has been carrying out in this area.

  12. Quantum trade-off coding for bosonic communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, Mark M.; Hayden, Patrick; Guha, Saikat

    2012-12-01

    The trade-off capacity region of a quantum channel characterizes the optimal net rates at which a sender can communicate classical, quantum, and entangled bits to a receiver by exploiting many independent uses of the channel, along with the help of the same resources. Similarly, one can consider a trade-off capacity region when the noiseless resources are public, private, and secret-key bits. We identified [see Wilde, Hayden, and Guha, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.108.140501 108, 140501 (2012)] these trade-off rate regions for the pure-loss bosonic channel and proved that they are optimal provided that a long-standing minimum-output entropy conjecture is true. Additionally, we showed that the performance gains of a trade-off coding strategy when compared to a time-sharing strategy can be quite significant. In this paper, we provide detailed derivations of the results announced there, and we extend the application of these ideas to thermal-noise and amplifying bosonic channels. We also derive a “rule of thumb” for trade-off coding, which determines how to allocate photons in a coding strategy if a large mean photon number is available at the channel input. Our results on the amplifying bosonic channel also apply to the “Unruh channel” considered in the context of relativistic quantum information theory.

  13. Information trade-offs for optical quantum communication.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Mark M; Hayden, Patrick; Guha, Saikat

    2012-04-06

    Recent work has precisely characterized the achievable trade-offs between three key information processing tasks-classical communication (generation or consumption), quantum communication (generation or consumption), and shared entanglement (distribution or consumption), measured in bits, qubits, and ebits per channel use, respectively. Slices and corner points of this three-dimensional region reduce to well-known protocols for quantum channels. A trade-off coding technique can attain any point in the region and can outperform time sharing between the best-known protocols for accomplishing each information processing task by itself. Previously, the benefits of trade-off coding that had been found were too small to be of practical value (viz., for the dephasing and the universal cloning machine channels). In this Letter, we demonstrate that the associated performance gains are in fact remarkably high for several physically relevant bosonic channels that model free-space or fiber-optic links, thermal-noise channels, and amplifiers. We show that significant performance gains from trade-off coding also apply when trading photon-number resources between transmitting public and private classical information simultaneously over secret-key-assisted bosonic channels.

  14. Information Trade-Offs for Optical Quantum Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, Mark M.; Hayden, Patrick; Guha, Saikat

    2012-04-01

    Recent work has precisely characterized the achievable trade-offs between three key information processing tasks—classical communication (generation or consumption), quantum communication (generation or consumption), and shared entanglement (distribution or consumption), measured in bits, qubits, and ebits per channel use, respectively. Slices and corner points of this three-dimensional region reduce to well-known protocols for quantum channels. A trade-off coding technique can attain any point in the region and can outperform time sharing between the best-known protocols for accomplishing each information processing task by itself. Previously, the benefits of trade-off coding that had been found were too small to be of practical value (viz., for the dephasing and the universal cloning machine channels). In this Letter, we demonstrate that the associated performance gains are in fact remarkably high for several physically relevant bosonic channels that model free-space or fiber-optic links, thermal-noise channels, and amplifiers. We show that significant performance gains from trade-off coding also apply when trading photon-number resources between transmitting public and private classical information simultaneously over secret-key-assisted bosonic channels.

  15. Health services under the General Agreement on Trade in Services.

    PubMed Central

    Adlung, R.; Carzaniga, A.

    2001-01-01

    The potential for trade in health services has expanded rapidly in recent decades. More efficient communication systems have helped to reduce distance-related barriers to trade; rising incomes and enhanced information have increased the mobility of patients; and internal cost pressures have led various governments to consider possibilities for increased private participation. As yet, however, health services have played only a modest role in the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). It is possible that Members of the World Trade Organization have been discouraged from undertaking access commitments by the novelty of the Agreement, coordination problems between relevant agencies, widespread inexperience in concepts of services trade, a traditionally strong degree of government involvement in the health sector, and concerns about basic quality and social objectives. However, more than five years have passed since GATS entered into force, allowing hesitant administrations to familiarize themselves with its main elements and its operation in practice. The present paper is intended to contribute to this process. It provides an overview of the basic structure of GATS and of the patterns of current commitments in health services and of limitations frequently used in this context. The concluding section discusses possibilities of pursuing basic policy objectives in a more open environment and indicates issues that may have to be dealt with in current negotiations on services. PMID:11357215

  16. Financing of Private Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A survey of financial institutions was undertaken by the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation to evaluate the demand and availability of private credit for enterprises that provide outdoor recreation. The survey provided basic information for (1) evaluating legislative proposals for loan guarantee programs, (2) nationwide planning, and (3) assessing the…

  17. Education Private Practice. Fastback 451.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuelke, Dennis C.

    This fastback document examines small education businesses that provide direct and personal instructional service to clients. Although education private-practice enterprises have not received the attention that high-profile companies have commanded, there are thousands of such one- and two-person enterprises. These practices work with and support…

  18. Private Tutoring and Social Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    Mastering the public school curriculum is so important to a child's occupational future that in many regions of the world "shadow" education outside of the public system has now become the norm. In one way, this is excellent news because private investment in human capital is a strong contributor to economic and social development.…

  19. Privatization and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    After two centuries of public higher education in the United States, the covenant between public colleges and universities and the public that created and funded them is under strain. In a time of scarce resources and changing policy in many corners of the country and around the globe, privatization has emerged as a possible replacement for the…

  20. Differentially Private Frequent Subgraph Mining

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shengzhi; Xiong, Li; Cheng, Xiang; Xiao, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Mining frequent subgraphs from a collection of input graphs is an important topic in data mining research. However, if the input graphs contain sensitive information, releasing frequent subgraphs may pose considerable threats to individual's privacy. In this paper, we study the problem of frequent subgraph mining (FGM) under the rigorous differential privacy model. We introduce a novel differentially private FGM algorithm, which is referred to as DFG. In this algorithm, we first privately identify frequent subgraphs from input graphs, and then compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph. In particular, to privately identify frequent subgraphs, we present a frequent subgraph identification approach which can improve the utility of frequent subgraph identifications through candidates pruning. Moreover, to compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph, we devise a lattice-based noisy support derivation approach, where a series of methods has been proposed to improve the accuracy of the noisy supports. Through formal privacy analysis, we prove that our DFG algorithm satisfies ε-differential privacy. Extensive experimental results on real datasets show that the DFG algorithm can privately find frequent subgraphs with high data utility. PMID:27616876

  1. Public vs. Private (and beyond)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliniak, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Different types of schools make for different experiences. Pros and cons abound, whether one teaches at a public, private, magnet, or charter school. Although it's certainly true that some individual schools may offer better environments for music education than others, no type of school is categorically the "best." Still, it can be instructive to…

  2. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daniel J.; LaFaive, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    From April 25 through June 30, 2007, the Mackinac Center for Public Policy conducted its fifth survey of the privatization of bus, food and janitorial services among Michigan's 552 conventional public school districts. All Michigan school districts responded. In 2007, the Mackinac Center also conducted a nationwide survey of state education…

  3. Financing a Private School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    A recent National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) survey of more than 1,200 individuals who filed financial aid forms underscores the central role financial aid plays in their ability to pursue a private education for their children. This article highlights the survey findings, demonstrating why school leaders need to thoroughly analyze…

  4. Behaviorism, Private Events, and the Molar View of Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M

    2011-01-01

    Viewing the science of behavior (behavior analysis) to be a natural science, radical behaviorism rejects any form of dualism, including subjective–objective or inner–outer dualism. Yet radical behaviorists often claim that treating private events as covert behavior and internal stimuli is necessary and important to behavior analysis. To the contrary, this paper argues that, compared with the rejection of dualism, private events constitute a trivial idea and are irrelevant to accounts of behavior. Viewed in the framework of evolutionary theory or for any practical purpose, behavior is commerce with the environment. By its very nature, behavior is extended in time. The temptation to posit private events arises when an activity is viewed in too small a time frame, obscuring what the activity does. When activities are viewed in an appropriately extended time frame, private events become irrelevant to the account. This insight provides the answer to many philosophical questions about thinking, sensing, and feeling. Confusion about private events arises in large part from failure to appreciate fully the radical implications of replacing mentalistic ideas about language with the concept of verbal behavior. Like other operant behavior, verbal behavior involves no agent and no hidden causes; like all natural events, it is caused by other natural events. In a science of behavior grounded in evolutionary theory, the same set of principles applies to verbal and nonverbal behavior and to human and nonhuman organisms. PMID:22532740

  5. Behaviorism, private events, and the molar view of behavior.

    PubMed

    Baum, William M

    2011-01-01

    Viewing the science of behavior (behavior analysis) to be a natural science, radical behaviorism rejects any form of dualism, including subjective-objective or inner-outer dualism. Yet radical behaviorists often claim that treating private events as covert behavior and internal stimuli is necessary and important to behavior analysis. To the contrary, this paper argues that, compared with the rejection of dualism, private events constitute a trivial idea and are irrelevant to accounts of behavior. Viewed in the framework of evolutionary theory or for any practical purpose, behavior is commerce with the environment. By its very nature, behavior is extended in time. The temptation to posit private events arises when an activity is viewed in too small a time frame, obscuring what the activity does. When activities are viewed in an appropriately extended time frame, private events become irrelevant to the account. This insight provides the answer to many philosophical questions about thinking, sensing, and feeling. Confusion about private events arises in large part from failure to appreciate fully the radical implications of replacing mentalistic ideas about language with the concept of verbal behavior. Like other operant behavior, verbal behavior involves no agent and no hidden causes; like all natural events, it is caused by other natural events. In a science of behavior grounded in evolutionary theory, the same set of principles applies to verbal and nonverbal behavior and to human and nonhuman organisms.

  6. 26 CFR 1.367(a)-2T - Exception for transfers of property for use in the active conduct of a trade or business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for the purpose of combining the research activities of X and Y. Z contracts all of its operational and research activities to Y for an arm's-length fee. Z's activities do not constitute the active... business activities, future plant replacement, or future business contingencies. (c) Property...

  7. Emergency China Trade Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Sherman, Brad [D-CA-27

    2011-09-13

    09/19/2011 Referred for a period ending not later than September 19, 2011, (or for a later time if the Chairman so designates) to the Subcommittee on Trade, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the subcommittee concerned. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-30

    Developing nations, such as India and South Africa , had begun using trade remedy actions more frequently, whereas they were tools used almost exclusively...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...group of products are minerals and metals (such as brass sheet and strip; gray portland cement and clinker ; magnesium). The fourth largest group

  9. LDCM Preliminary Thermal Trades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Pagnutti, Mary; Blonski, Slawomir; Spruce, Joe

    2001-01-01

    The expected cost of adding thermal bands to the next generation Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) could be significant. This viewgraph presentation investigates both traditional cooled cross-track scanners and new architectures (cooled and uncooled) which could enable a low cost thermal capability. The presentation includes surveys of applications of Landsat thermal data and the architecture of thermal instruments. It also covers new thermal architecture sensor trades, ALI Architecture with Uncooled TIR Detectors, and simulated thermal imagery.

  10. Modeling financial markets by the multiplicative sequence of trades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontis, V.; Kaulakys, B.

    2004-12-01

    We introduce the stochastic multiplicative point process modeling trading activity of financial markets. Such a model system exhibits power-law spectral density S(f)∝1/fβ, scaled as power of frequency for various values of β between 0.5 and 2. Furthermore, we analyze the relation between the power-law autocorrelations and the origin of the power-law probability distribution of the trading activity. The model reproduces the spectral properties of trading activity and explains the mechanism of power-law distribution in real markets.

  11. Does trade affect child health?

    PubMed

    Levine, David I; Rothman, Dov

    2006-05-01

    Frankel and Romer [Frankel, J., Romer, D., 1999. Does trade cause growth? American Economic Review 89 (3), 379-399] documented positive effects of geographically determined trade openness on economic growth. At the same time, critics fear that openness can lead to a "race to the bottom" that increases pollution and reduces government resources for investments in health and education. We use Frankel and Romer's gravity model of trade to examine how openness to trade affects children. Overall, we find little harm from trade, and potential benefits largely through slightly faster GDP growth.

  12. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  13. Inter-Industry Trade and Intra-Industry Trade: Some Recent Developments in International Trade Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenaway, David

    1978-01-01

    Contends that the analysis of intra-industry trade supplements the subject of trade theory in undergraduate economics courses. Intra-industry trade is the situation in which a country both exports and imports the products of a particular industry, e.g. automobiles. Questions for discussion are included. (KC)

  14. Public, private and personal: Qualitative research on policymakers' opinions on smokefree interventions to protect children in 'private' spaces

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Governments use law to constrain aspects of private activities for purposes of protecting health and social wellbeing. Policymakers have a range of perceptions and beliefs about what is public or private. An understanding of the possible drivers of policymaker decisions about where government can or should intervene for health is important, as one way to better guide appropriate policy formation. Our aim was to identify obstacles to, and opportunities for, government smokefree regulation of private and public spaces to protect children. In particular, to seek policymaker opinions on the regulation of smoking in homes, cars and public parks and playgrounds in a country with incomplete smokefree laws (New Zealand). Methods Case study, using structured interviews to ask policymakers (62 politicians and senior officials) about their opinions on new smokefree legislation for public and private places. Supplementary data was obtained from the Factiva media database, on the views of New Zealand local authority councillors about policies for smokefree outdoor public places. Results Overall, interviewees thought that government regulation of smoking in private places was impractical and unwise. However, there were some differences on what was defined as 'private', particularly for cars. Even in public parks, smoking was seen by some as a 'personal' decision, and unlikely to be amenable to regulation. Most participants believed that educative, supportive and community-based measures were better and more practical means of reducing smoking in private places, compared to regulation. Conclusions The constrained view of the role of regulation of smoking in public and private domains may be in keeping with current political discourse in New Zealand and similar Anglo-American countries. Policy and advocacy options to promote additional smokefree measures include providing a better voice for childrens' views, increasing information to policymakers about the harms to

  15. Cycle 0(CY1991) NLS trade studies and analyses report. Book 1: Structures and core vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This report (SR-1: Structures, Trades, and Analysis), documents the Core Tankage Trades and analyses performed in support of the National Launch System (NLS) Cycle 0 preliminary design activities. The report covers trades that were conducted on the Vehicle Assembly, Fwd Skirt, LO2 Tank, Intertank, LH2 Tank, and Aft Skirt of the NLS Core Tankage. For each trade study, a two page executive summary and the detail trade study are provided. The trade studies contain study results, recommended changes to the Cycle 0 Baselines, and suggested follow on tasks to be performed during Cycle 1.

  16. Reproduction-Immunity Trade-Offs in Insects.

    PubMed

    Schwenke, Robin A; Lazzaro, Brian P; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2016-01-01

    Immune defense and reproduction are physiologically and energetically demanding processes and have been observed to trade off in a diversity of female insects. Increased reproductive effort results in reduced immunity, and reciprocally, infection and activation of the immune system reduce reproductive output. This trade-off can manifest at the physiological level (within an individual) and at the evolutionary level (genetic distinction among individuals in a population). The resource allocation model posits that the trade-off arises because of competition for one or more limiting resources, and we hypothesize that pleiotropic signaling mechanisms regulate allocation of that resource between reproductive and immune processes. We examine the role of juvenile hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone, and insulin/insulin-like growth factor-like signaling in regulating both oogenesis and immune system activity, and propose a signaling network that may mechanistically regulate the trade-off. Finally, we discuss implications of the trade-off in an ecological and evolutionary context.

  17. Reproduction–Immunity Trade-Offs in Insects

    PubMed Central

    Schwenke, Robin A.; Lazzaro, Brian P.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2017-01-01

    Immune defense and reproduction are physiologically and energetically demanding processes and have been observed to trade off in a diversity of female insects. Increased reproductive effort results in reduced immunity, and reciprocally, infection and activation of the immune system reduce reproductive output. This trade-off can manifest at the physiological level (within an individual) and at the evolutionary level (genetic distinction among individuals in a population). The resource allocation model posits that the trade-off arises because of competition for one or more limiting resources, and we hypothesize that pleiotropic signaling mechanisms regulate allocation of that resource between reproductive and immune processes. We examine the role of juvenile hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone, and insulin/insulin-like growth factor-like signaling in regulating both oogenesis and immune system activity, and propose a signaling network that may mechanistically regulate the trade-off. Finally, we discuss implications of the trade-off in an ecological and evolutionary context. PMID:26667271

  18. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  19. 76 FR 56865 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... electronic commerce) of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL). Working Group IV... and, in so doing, may address related aspects of electronic commerce. The report of the Forty-fourth.... Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on...

  20. 75 FR 22674 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law Study Group Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law Study Group Notice of Meeting on the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Draft Legislative Guide on...

  1. 75 FR 55846 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Public Meeting on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Public Meeting on the Work of the UNCITRAL Working Group on Procurement The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law...

  2. 75 FR 32834 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law Study Group Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law Study Group Notice of Meeting on the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Draft Legislative Guide on...

  3. Private Activity Renewable Energy Bonds Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Feinstein, Dianne [D-CA

    2010-05-11

    05/11/2010 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (text of measure as introduced: CR S3539-3541) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. NASA and Public-Private Partnerships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews ways to build public-private partnerships with NASA, and the many efforts that Ames Research Center is engaged in in building partnerships with private businesses, not profit organizations and universities.

  5. Privatization and the Globalization of Energy Markets

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    Discusses recent efforts at privatization in petroleum, electricity, and coal, as well as the impetus that privatization has provided in fostering the evolution of the multinational and multidimensional energy company.

  6. Education and the Private Finance Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Clive

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the development of Private Finance Initiative schemes in the United Kingdom, and reflects on how profitable opportunities for private financiers and construction companies were created at the expense of the public sector. (Contains 72 notes.)

  7. 75 FR 23223 - Meetings of the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade and the Agricultural Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    .... Topics will include Doha Round negotiations in the World Trade Organization (WTO), WTO accession negotiations, and negotiations in bilateral and regional free trade agreements. DATES: The meetings are... Federal Officers depending on the level of activity in trade agreement negotiations and/or other...

  8. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive)...

  9. Private quantum subsystems and quasiorthogonal operator algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levick, Jeremy; Jochym-O'Connor, Tomas; Kribs, David W.; Laflamme, Raymond; Pereira, Rajesh

    2016-03-01

    We generalize a recently discovered example of a private quantum subsystem to find private subsystems for Abelian subgroups of the n-qubit Pauli group, which exist in the absence of private subspaces. In doing so, we also connect these quantum privacy investigations with the theory of quasiorthogonal operator algebras through the use of tools from group theory and operator theory.

  10. Private vs. Public Higher Education Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamer, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Private higher education institutions are those entities owned and operated by the private sector, while public institutions are those established, supported, and controlled by a governmental agency, most often a state. Key differences exist between private and public institutions that affect budgeting in critical ways. Such differences include…

  11. An Analysis of Private School Mission Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerema, Albert J.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a study of private school mission/vision statements using content analysis. Statements from private schools in British Columbia, Canada, that provided instruction to Grade 12 students were analyzed to explore the diversity that lies within the private school sector. The concepts that emerged from the analysis were grouped into five…

  12. Private and Public Schools: Cooperation or Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denig, Stephen J.

    This papers explores the relationship between private and public schools. It challenges the assumption that competition between the private and public sectors is desirable and argues for a cooperative model in which public and private schools work together to educate children. Each sector has strengths that can help the other. These strengths…

  13. An Alternative Instrument for Private School Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Zada, D.

    2009-01-01

    Empirical studies estimating the effect of private school competition on student outcomes commonly use the share of Catholics in the local population as an instrument for private school competition. I show that this is not a valid instrument since it is endogenous to private school competition and suggest using instead the local share of Catholics…

  14. Policies on Private Education: An Economics Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fengqiao, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Basic principles and analytical methods of economics are used to conduct a preliminary study of state policies for private education in China. It is evident that if public policy is to exert a positive effect on private education, the government must formulate policies at a higher level for private education and give equal attention to choice,…

  15. The Private Presence in American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Howard R.

    The importance of private initiative has long been recognized in tax exemption by federal, state, and local governments. One outcome of this history is the dual system of higher education--a system that is partly private and partly public. Despite the important service rendered by the private sector, it is today facing a bleak financial future.…

  16. Privatization of Higher Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivalingam, G.

    2007-01-01

    The study will trace the external factors influencing the liberalization, deregulation and privatization of higher education in Malaysia from 1970 to the present and to analyze the effects of liberalization, deregulation and privatization on the modes of privatization and the internal restructuring of institutions of higher learning to increase…

  17. 45 CFR 605.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private education. 605.39 Section 605.39 Public..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped...

  18. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the...

  19. 45 CFR 605.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Private education. 605.39 Section 605.39 Public..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped...

  20. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the...

  1. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  2. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  3. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  4. 45 CFR 605.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private education. 605.39 Section 605.39 Public..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped...

  5. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the...

  6. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  7. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  8. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  9. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  10. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  11. 45 CFR 605.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private education. 605.39 Section 605.39 Public..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped...

  12. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  13. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the...

  14. 45 CFR 605.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private education. 605.39 Section 605.39 Public..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped...

  15. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the...

  16. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  17. Mathematic Achievement of Canadian Private School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadigan, Francoise Jane; Wei, Yichun; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2013-01-01

    Very little Canadian research has examined the academic achievement of private school students. Data from The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 were used to examine the achievement of private school students. The study found that private school students outperformed their public school peers. In addition, the students'…

  18. Does Privatization Affect Access to Government Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caponio, Joseph F.; Geffner, Janet

    This paper begins by pointing out that privatization, or relying on the private sector to provide commercial goods and services for government departments and agencies, is a tool that has been used effectively by the federal government for several decades. It then presents the theoretical basis for privatization, describes a number of methods used…

  19. Privatized Space Resource Property Ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, Dennis M.

    2000-01-01

    In the fall of 1980 a vision for the future was born. Privatized ownership of planetary bodies has been debated and yet skirted by most space enthusiasts for the past 15 years or so. This abstract is an attempt to lay all ideas of privatized ownership to rest. The concentration of efforts to place technological events ahead of property rights and ownership have been the calling card of all the space advocacy groups in recent history. For what ever reason the advocates have decided that this is an issue best left to another time. " Maybe we can sneak up on it and it won't feel so bad when we find that we are too late." This seems to be the general consensus from the conventions I have participated in over the last few years.

  20. 17 CFR 37.400 - Core Principle 4-Monitoring of trading and trade processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... trading and trade processing. 37.400 Section 37.400 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SWAP EXECUTION FACILITIES Monitoring of Trading and Trade Processing § 37.400 Core Principle 4—Monitoring of trading and trade processing. The swap execution facility shall: (a) Establish...

  1. Evaluation of 241-AZ tank farm supporting phase 1 privatization waste feed delivery

    SciTech Connect

    CARLSON, A.B.

    1998-11-19

    This evaluation is one in a series of evaluations determining the process needs and assessing the adequacy of existing and planned equipment in meeting those needs at various double-shell tank farms in support of Phase 1 privatization. A number of tank-to-tank transfers and waste preparation activities are needed to process and feed waste to the private contractor in support of Phase 1 privatization. The scope of this evaluation is limited to process needs associated with 241-AZ tank farm during the Phase 1 privatization.

  2. Global trade, public health, and health services: stakeholders' constructions of the key issues.

    PubMed

    Waitzkin, Howard; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca; Landwehr, Angela; Mountain, Carolyn

    2005-09-01

    Focusing mainly on the United States and Latin America, we aimed to identify the constructions of social reality held by the major stakeholders participating in policy debates about global trade, public health, and health services. In a multi-method, qualitative design, we used three sources of data: research and archival literature, 1980-2004; interviews with key informants who represented major organizations participating in these debates, 2002-2004; and organizational reports, 1980-2004. We targeted several types of organizations: government agencies, international financial institutions (IFIs) and trade organizations, international health organizations, multinational corporations, and advocacy groups. Many governments in Latin America define health as a right and health services as a public good. Thus, the government bears responsibility for that right. In contrast, the US government's philosophy of free trade and promoting a market economy assumes that by expanding the private sector, improved economic conditions will improve overall health with a minimum government provision of health care. US government agencies also view promotion of global health as a means to serve US interests. IFIs have emphasized reforms that include reduction and privatization of public sector services. International health organizations have tended to adopt the policy perspectives of IFIs and trade organizations. Advocacy groups have emphasized the deleterious effects of international trade agreements on public health and health services. Organizational stakeholders hold widely divergent constructions of reality regarding trade, public health, and health services. Social constructions concerning trade and health reflect broad ideologies concerning the impacts of market processes. Such constructions manifest features of "creed," regarding the role of the market in advancing human purposes and meeting human needs. Differences in constructions of trade and health constrain policies to

  3. Trade policy and public health.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.

  4. Fair trade international surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Humbyrd, Casey

    2009-12-01

    Since the development of assisted reproductive technologies, infertile individuals have crossed borders to obtain treatments unavailable or unaffordable in their own country. Recent media coverage has focused on the outsourcing of surrogacy to developing countries, where the cost for surrogacy is significantly less than the equivalent cost in a more developed country. This paper discusses the ethical arguments against international surrogacy. The major opposition viewpoints can be broadly divided into arguments about welfare, commodification and exploitation. It is argued that the only valid objection to international surrogacy is that surrogate mothers may be exploited by being given too little compensation. However, the possibility of exploitation is a weak argument for prohibition, as employment alternatives for potential surrogate mothers may be more exploitative or more harmful than surrogacy. It is concluded that international surrogacy must be regulated, and the proposed regulatory mechanism is termed Fair Trade Surrogacy. The guidelines of Fair Trade Surrogacy focus on minimizing potential harms to all parties and ensuring fair compensation for surrogate mothers.

  5. Private space exploration: A new way for starting a spacefaring society?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genta, Giancarlo

    2014-11-01

    Since the beginning space was an exclusive domain of public organizations, the role of privates is becoming more and more important, and not only in commercial activities. However, the main international treaties dealing with this subject are still based on the assumption that space activities are mostly reserved to states. In the last decade the idea that the role of privates could include the management of space infrastructures and launch vehicles gained support and now private launch services are a reality. An even wider role of privates is now advocated and private exploration and exploitation missions are discussed. This requires that space activity in general can generate an attractive return and those business models are identified.

  6. Optimising import risk mitigation: anticipating the unintended consequences and competing risks of informal trade.

    PubMed

    Hueston, W; Travis, D; van Klink, E

    2011-04-01

    The effectiveness of risk mitigation may be compromised by informal trade, including illegal activities, parallel markets and extra-legal activities. While no regulatory system is 100% effective in eliminating the risk of disease transmission through animal and animal product trade, extreme risk aversion in formal import health regulations may increase informal trade, with the unintended consequence of creating additional risks outside regulatory purview. Optimal risk mitigation on a national scale requires scientifically sound yet flexible mitigation strategies that can address the competing risks of formal and informal trade. More robust risk analysis and creative engagement of nontraditional partners provide avenues for addressing informal trade.

  7. Privatization and the globalization of energy markets

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report reviews recent global efforts to privatize energy resources and outlines the opportunities and challenges privatization has presented to U.S. and foreign multinational energy companies. The group of energy companies studied in this report includes the major U.S. petroleum companies and many foreign companies. The foreign companies reviewed include state-run energy enterprises, recently privatized energy enterprises, and foreign multinationals that have been privately held. The privatization of non-petroleum energy industries, such as electricity generation and transmission, natural gas transmission, and coal mining, are also discussed. Overseas investments made by electric companies, natural gas companies, and coal companies are included. The report is organized into six chapters: (1) economics of privatization; (2) petroleum privatization efforts among non-U.S. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development nations; (3) petroleum privatization efforts in Latin America; (4) privatization in socialist and former socialist regimes; (5) privatization efforts in global electric power generation, transmission, and distribution industries; and (6) privatization and globalization of world coal.

  8. Management, Entrepreneurship and Private Service Orientation: A Framework for Undergraduate Veterinary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasidhar, P. V. K.; Van Den Ban, Anne W.

    2006-01-01

    The changing nature of livestock outreach service delivery, manpower requirements and opportunities in the private sector provide both push and pull dynamics for veterinary graduates to engage in managerial, entrepreneurial, public and private service activities. The veterinary schools should support this transition by integrating Managerial,…

  9. Private Sector Initiative Program. Documentation and Assessment of CETA Title VII Implementation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas J.

    The development and performance, through 1981, of Private Industry Councils (PICs) in 16 study sites are described and assessed in this report. (PICs were set up under Title VII of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) to serve as a hub for attracting increased private sector involvement in employment and training activities for the…

  10. Is contracting a form of privatization?

    PubMed Central

    Perrot, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Contracting is often seen as a form of privatization, with contracts functioning as the tool that makes privatization possible. But contracting is also viewed by some as a means for the private sector to expand in a covert way its presence within the health sector. This article discusses the wider meaning of the term privatization in the health sector and the ways in which it is achieved. Privatization is seen here not simply as an action that leads to a new situation but also as one that leads to a change in behaviour. It is proposed that privatization may be assessed by looking at the ownership, management, and mission or objectives of the entity being privatized. Discussed also is the use of contracting by the state as a tool for state interventionism that is not based on authoritarian regulation. PMID:17143466

  11. Trends in Practitioner Training for the Renewable Energy Trades

    SciTech Connect

    Weissman, Jane M.; Laflin, Kirk

    2006-07-01

    As workforce development becomes more of a critical component for an expanding renewable energy economy, new training opportunities are on the increase for practitioners interested in either getting into the renewable energy trades or upgrading their professional skills. This paper will report on the new trends in training and show how the instruction has become more highly developed. In many cases, curricula are now designed to provide teaching that leads to defined workplace knowledge, skills, and abilities. Private and academic training programs are becoming accredited specifically to renewable energy standards. Community colleges and technical schools are responding to local jobs by offering more and more renewable energy trades courses. And classes are expanding from 3 to 5 day workshops to semester-long courses resulting in one-year certificate and two-year associate degree programs at Community Colleges.

  12. Health care privatization in Latin America: comparing divergent privatization approaches in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Arturo Vargas; Méndez, Claudio A

    2014-08-01

    The public-private mix in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico was very similar until the early 1980s when Chile undertook health care privatization as part of comprehensive health care reform. Since then, health care privatization policies have diverged in these countries. In this study we characterize health care privatization in Latin America and identify the main factors that promoted and hindered privatization by comparing the experiences of these countries. We argue that policy elites took advantage of specific policy environments and the diffusion of privatization policies to promote health care privatization while political mobilization against privatization, competing policy priorities, weak market and government institutions, and efforts to reach universal health insurance hindered privatization. The privatization approaches of Chile and Colombia were classified as "big-bang," since these countries implemented health care privatization more rapidly and with a wider scope compared with the case of Mexico, which was classified as gradualist, since the privatization path followed by this country adopted a slower pace and became more limited and focalized over time. We conclude that the emphasis on policy-driven privatization diminished in the 1990s and 2000s because of increased public health care financing and a shift in health care reform priorities. Health care privatization in the region, however, continued as a consequence of demand-driven privatization.

  13. The Politics of Student Housing: Student Activism and Representation in the Determination of the User-Price of a Public-Private Partnership Residence on a Public University Campus in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugume, Taabo; Luescher, Thierry M.

    2015-01-01

    South African universities have been facing a critical shortage in the provision of student housing for several years now, and the establishment of public--private partnerships (PPPs) is seen as part of the solution to address the shortage (Rensburg, 2011). This article investigates the effectiveness of the Students' Representative Council (SRC)…

  14. Beyond Percheron - Launch vehicle systems from the private sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, W. C.; Pavia, T. C.; Schrick, B. L.; Wolf, R. S.; Fruchterman, J. R.; Ross, D. J.

    Private ventures for operation of spacecraft launching services are discussed in terms of alternative strategies for commercialization of space activities. The Percheron was the product of a philosophy of a cost-, rather than a weight-, minimized a lunch vehicle. Although the engine exploded during a static test firing, other private projects continued, including the launch of the Conestoga, an Aries second stage Minuteman I. Consideration is being directed toward commercial production and launch of the Delta rocket, and $1 and a $1.5 billion offers have been tendered for financing a fifth Orbiter for NASA in exchange for marketing rights. Funding for the ventures is contingent upon analyses of the size and projected growth rate of payload markets, a favorable national policy, investor confidence, and agreeable capitalization levels. It is shown that no significant barriers exist against satisfying the criteria, and private space ventures are projected to result in more cost-effective operations due to increased competition.

  15. Plumbing Curriculum Guide. Construction Trades. Michigan Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide is intended to help secondary teachers provide relevant training for an entry-level job in plumbing. Introductory materials include background information on trade and industrial education and program goals and safety information. Descriptions follow of the construction trades program, vocational cooperative…

  16. 26 CFR 1.367(a)-2T - Exception for transfers of property for use in the active conduct of a trade or business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... could constitute) an independent economic enterprise carried on for profit. For example, the activities... officers and employees of the corporation carry out substantial managerial and operational activities. A... determining whether the officers and employees of the corporation carry out substantial managerial...

  17. Oil industry development and trade liberalization in the Western Hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, S.J.

    1993-12-31

    This paper provides an overview of oil industry developments in the Western Hemisphere with particular emphasis on Latin America since the inauguration of the Enterprise for the Americas Initiative by George Bush. The author discusses these developments in the context of the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (concluded in 1989), and the negotiation in 1992 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). This paper is concerned essentially with the oil industry and does not discuss the importance of natural gas for Canadian producers nor the fact that much of Latin American oil production (notably in Mexico) is associated with natural gas. The author examines the shift to trade and investment liberalization and privatization in the 1980s and early 1990s, especially in Latin America--where the most dramatic transformation has occurred. The author suggests that investment patterns in the industry have been only marginally related to trade liberalization, and have derived more from considerations of resource availability, exploration and development costs, market factors, and the general state of the international economy--all of which have contributed in the 1980s to significant restructuring and downsizing among a number of major corporations. The author also notes the important increase in an internal Latin American market, and the role of regional organizations such as ARPEL-the Association of Latin American State Oil Company Producers. 31 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Assessing the extent and nature of wildlife trade on the dark web.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Joseph R; Roberts, David L; Hernandez-Castro, Julio

    2016-08-01

    Use of the internet as a trade platform has resulted in a shift in the illegal wildlife trade. Increased scrutiny of illegal wildlife trade has led to concerns that online trade of wildlife will move onto the dark web. To provide a baseline of illegal wildlife trade on the dark web, we downloaded and archived 9852 items (individual posts) from the dark web, then searched these based on a list of 121 keywords associated with illegal online wildlife trade, including 30 keywords associated with illegally traded elephant ivory on the surface web. Results were compared with items known to be illegally traded on the dark web, specifically cannabis, cocaine, and heroin, to compare the extent of the trade. Of these 121 keywords, 4 resulted in hits, of which only one was potentially linked to illegal wildlife trade. This sole case was the sale and discussion of Echinopsis pachanoi (San Pedro cactus), which has hallucinogenic properties. This negligible level of activity related to the illegal trade of wildlife on the dark web relative to the open and increasing trade on the surface web may indicate a lack of successful enforcement against illegal wildlife trade on the surface web.

  19. 40 CFR 90.206 - Trading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engine manufacturers in trading, subject to the trading restriction specified in § 90.207(c)(2). (b) Credits for trading can be obtained from credits banked in previous model years or credits generated during the model year of the trading transaction. (c) Traded credits can be used for averaging,...

  20. 17 CFR 37.406 - Trade reconstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trade reconstruction. 37.406 Section 37.406 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SWAP EXECUTION FACILITIES Monitoring of Trading and Trade Processing § 37.406 Trade reconstruction. The swap...

  1. TWRS privatization bibliography. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is it intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. This bibliography is organized by subject area. The subjects covered are: waste characterization; pre-treatment; high-level waste immobilization; low-level waste immobilization; low-level waste melter test program; performance assessment; general; and safety.

  2. Private Observatories in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijsdijk, C.

    2016-12-01

    Descriptions of private observatories in South Africa, written by their owners. Positions, equipment descriptions and observing programmes are given. Included are: Klein Karoo Observatory (B. Monard), Cederberg Observatory (various), Centurion Planetary and Lunar Observatory (C. Foster), Le Marischel Observatory (L. Ferreira), Sterkastaaing Observatory (M. Streicher), Henley on Klip (B. Fraser), Archer Observatory (B. Dumas), Overbeek Observatory (A. Overbeek), Overberg Observatory (A. van Staden), St Cyprian's School Observatory, Fisherhaven Small Telescope Observatory (J. Retief), COSPAR 0433 (G. Roberts), COSPAR 0434 (I. Roberts), Weltevreden Karoo Observatory (D. Bullis), Winobs (M. Shafer)

  3. Extension Resources for International Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  4. Climate policy: Reforming emissions trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2014-08-01

    Courageous steps are required to reform the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme. To this end, an independent carbon authority has been proposed -- this is a move in the right direction, but should be part of a much broader discussion about reforming emissions trading.

  5. Machine Trades Lab Management Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This manual was developed to guide machine trades instructors and vocational supervisors in sequencing laboratory instruction and controlling the flow of work for a 2-year machine trades training program. The first part of the guide provides information on program management (program description, safety concerns, academic issues, implementation…

  6. Human Factors in Financial Trading

    PubMed Central

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Background Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors–related issues in operational trading incidents. Method In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Results Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors–related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. Conclusion We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. Application This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. PMID:27142394

  7. Readings in the Automotive Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGise, Joe

    Designed for reluctant readers in vocational high school, this selection of readings emphasizes general information about the automotive trade. Articles have been selected from a variety of auto magazines and trade journals. Each article is followed by an assortment of exercises designed to enable the student to further develop vocabulary and…

  8. The Readability of Trade Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Alison; Wagner, Graham

    A 1982 study assessed the comparative reading comprehension levels and writing ability performance of Trades Certification Board (TCB) apprentices in five trades in New Zealand. Test data were collected for 1,389 apprentices and a comparison group of 361 secondary school students. The cloze procedure format was adopted for assessing apprentices'…

  9. Improving U.S. Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentsen, Lloyd

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the need to formulate a coherent trade policy in response to international economic realities. The author argues against a return to trade protectionism and supports efforts to establish workable reciprocity agreements. Increasing import tariffs on high technology products would control access to American markets. (AM)

  10. Design trade-offs for homing missiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Allen; Moore, William

    1992-05-01

    Major design considerations, trade-offs and technology issues for future hypervelocity, anti-missile interceptors are presented in an overview format. Two classes of interceptors are considered: a low altitude interceptor using an active radar seeker for defense against tactical ballistic missiles (TBMs) and a higher altitude interceptor using a passive infra-red seeker for defense against ICBMs. Considerations are presented in the areas of mission requirements, seeker selection, aerodynamic and aerothermal environments, control systems, and guidance performance.

  11. 34 CFR 200.10 - Applicability of a State's academic assessments to private schools and private school students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... private schools and private school students. 200.10 Section 200.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of... assessments to private schools and private school students. (a) Nothing in § 200.1 or § 200.2 requires a private school, including a private school whose students receive services under subpart A of this...

  12. Coal trade means shipbuilders' goldmine

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgeway, J.

    1980-03-01

    Nowhere is the advent of a new international trade in coal more important than in the shipping industry. Since the middle of the last decade the world shipping industry has been in the doldrums. As the world switches slowly away from oil, the trade in coal probably will increase dramatically. As it does, the structure of the trade will change. Much of the coal will be shipped by water. During the past decade, US influence declined as the energy crisis changed the nature of the trade away from metallurgical coals to thermal coals. Shipping experts predict the dry bulk carriers that are used for coal, grain, and iron ore (a commodity whose trade is expected to increase) will replace the oil tankers as the most-important class of ships on the high seas by the year 2000.

  13. Protecting Trade Secrets in Canada.

    PubMed

    Courage, Noel; Calzavara, Janice

    2015-05-18

    Patents in the life sciences industries are a key form of intellectual property (IP), particularly for products such as brand-name drugs and medical devices. However, trade secrets can also be a useful tool for many types of innovations. In appropriate cases, trade secrets can offer long-term protection of IP for a lower financial cost than patenting. This type of protection must be approached with caution as there is little room for error when protecting a trade secret. Strong agreements and scrupulous security can help to protect the secret. Once a trade secret is disclosed to the public, it cannot be restored as the owner's property; however, if the information is kept from the public domain, the owner can have a property right of unlimited duration in the information. In some situations patents and trade secrets may be used cooperatively to protect innovation, particularly for manufacturing processes.

  14. Hazardous waste and environmental trade: China`s issues

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Jiang

    1996-12-31

    By presenting some case studies, this paper analyzes China`s situation with regard to hazardous waste: its environmental trade, treatment, and management. The paper describes China`s experiences with the environmental trade of hazardous waste in both the internal and international market. Regulations for managing the import of waste are discussed, as are China`s major approaches to the trading of hazardous waste both at home and overseas. The major reasons for setting up the Asian-Pacific Regional Training Center for Technology Transfer and Environmental Sound Management of Wastes in China and the activities involved in this effort are also described. 1 tab.

  15. Big yellow taxi, or, unhealthy terms of trade?

    PubMed

    Broom, Dorothy

    2003-01-01

    International trade agreements, including the General Agreement on Trade in Services, are central elements of globalization. These agreements are likely to have significant implications for population health in rich nations such as Australia as well as in the developing world. But the technical language of the legal agreements and the comparative secrecy of the negotiations and approval procedures make it difficult for most people to be adequately informed about them. Australian public health academics and practitioners must become better informed and more pro-active in their approach to 'free trade' if Australia's public health infrastructure is to be protected from potential legal erosion.

  16. 78 FR 6807 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... partisan political activities (including political contributions) will be removed from an applicant's... multiplier groups, and publicity at industry meetings, symposia, conferences, and trade shows. The...

  17. 77 FR 31393 - Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... of the Secretary Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Notice of... Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy. The Committee will be chartered pursuant to section 135(c... Representative). Purpose: The Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy consults with...

  18. 76 FR 58774 - Trade Mission to Southeast Asia in Conjunction With Trade Winds-Asia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Southeast Asia in Conjunction With Trade Winds-- Asia AGENCY... Winds--Asia business forum (which is also open to U.S. companies not participating in the trade mission) in Singapore next May. U.S. trade mission members will participate in the Trade Winds-- Asia...

  19. [Public and private: insurance companies and medical care in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Tamez, S; Bodek, C; Eibenschutz, C

    1995-01-01

    During the late 70's and early 80's in Mexico, as in the rest of Latin-America, sanitary policies were directed to support the growth of the private sector of health care at the expense of the public sector. This work analyzes the evolution of the health insurance market as a part of the privatization process of health care. The analysis based on economic data, provides the political profile behind the privatization process as well as the changes in the relations between the State and the health sector. The central hypothesis is that the State promotes and supports the growth of the private market of medical care via a series of legal, fiscal and market procedures. It also discusses the State roll in the legal changes related to the national insurance activity. A comparative analysis is made about the evolution of the insurance industry in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico during the period 1986-1992, with a particular enfasis in the last country. One of the principal results is that the Premium/GNP and Premium/per capita, display a general growth in the 4 countries. This growth is faster for Mexico for each one) because the privatization process occurred only during the most recent years. For the 1984-1991 period in Mexico the direct premium as percentage of the GNP raised from 0.86% to 1.32%. If one focussed only in the insurance for health and accidents branches the rice goes form 8.84% in 1984 to 19.08% in 1991. This indicates that the insurance industry is one of the main targets of the privatization process of the health care system in Mexico. This is also shown by the State support to fast expansion of the big medical industrial complex of the country. Considering this situation in the continuity of the neoliberal model of Mexico, this will profound the inequity and inequality.

  20. Trade Unions and the Economics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veale, Sarah

    1987-01-01

    Contends that a realistic approach to teaching economics requires learning about trade unions. Presents a role play of a trade union meeting that helps students think about how trade unions tackle problems. (BSR)