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Sample records for activities reading activities

  1. Student-Centered Reading Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, James; Wagner, Betty Jane

    1991-01-01

    Offers student-centered reading activities designed to bring students to reading maturity and involvement in literature. Discusses partner reading, dramatizing and performing texts, transforming texts, journal writing, discussion, and writing. (PRA)

  2. Inquiry Science and Active Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandifer, Cody

    2011-01-01

    Pairing an inquiry lesson with a traditional reading activity creates a jarring philosophical mismatch between the interaction, deep thinking, and scientific reasoning that drives meaningful inquiry instruction and the "scan the text, copy the answers" response often obtained from elementary nonfiction readers. Realizing that there must be a…

  3. Writing Composition Activities to Enhance Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Janet T.

    A program of written composition based on reading comprehension can help students gain greater in-depth understanding of reading materials. Once the reading comprehension skill has been clearly defined for the class, the writing activity can provide clarification by allowing for analysis of the definition through written manipulation of language.…

  4. Acquisition Activities in Intensive Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhenghua, Xu

    1998-01-01

    Discusses four possible ways to conduct language-acquisition activities in the foreign-language classroom: (1) vivid linking; (2) story retelling; (3) self-directed statement; and (4) role playing. (Author/VWL)

  5. Active Reading Experience Questionnaire: Development and Validation of an Instrument for Studying Active Reading Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palilonis, Jennifer; Butler, Darrell

    2015-01-01

    The increasing adoption of mobile platforms and digital textbooks in university classrooms continues to have a profound impact on higher education. Advocates believe that providing students digital textbooks with built-in annotation features and interactive study tools will improve learning by facilitating active reading, a task essential to…

  6. Creative Reading Activities for the Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quackenbush, Sylva

    The purpose of creative activities in the classroom and the part creativity should have in the reading program are discussed. Both the gifted and not-so-gifted child can be motivated, challenged, and provided with enriching experiences through creative activities planned and encouraged by a resourceful teacher. Suggestions given include the…

  7. Reading Aloud Activity in L2 and Cerebral Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Osamu; Ikeda, Maiko; Mizumoto, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the cerebral mechanism of reading aloud activities in L2 learners. These activities have been widely used in L2 learning and teaching, and its effect has been reported in various Asian L2 learning contexts. However, the reasons for its effectiveness have not been examined. In order to fill in this gap, two studies using a…

  8. Adults' Reading Practices and Activities: Age, Educational and Occupational Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Cecil; Stahl, Norman A.

    Interest in adults' everyday reading practices has a lengthy history in the study of the psychology of reading. Several studies have examined the extent of, and variability in, adults' reading activities. Different social contexts have been shown to influence the type of reading performed. The present study examined the reading patterns and…

  9. Enhancing the Lives of Nursing Home Patients through Reading Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovelace, Terry

    This study investigated the use of reading activities in the enhancement of the lives of nursing-home patients. A special reading group was led by a reading specialist in weekly sessions. Patients voluntarily attended the one-hour sessions and read short selections supplied by the reading specialist. Patients ranged in age from 54 to 91. The…

  10. Active Reading Behaviors in Tablet-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palilonis, Jennifer; Bolchini, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Active reading is fundamental to learning. However, there is little understanding about whether traditional active reading frameworks sufficiently characterize how learners study multimedia tablet textbooks. This paper explores the nature of active reading in the tablet environment through a qualitative study that engaged 30 students in an active…

  11. Reading cinnamon activates olfactory brain regions.

    PubMed

    González, Julio; Barros-Loscertales, Alfonso; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Meseguer, Vanessa; Sanjuán, Ana; Belloch, Vicente; Avila, César

    2006-08-15

    Some words immediately and automatically remind us of odours, smells and scents, whereas other language items do not evoke such associations. This study investigated, for the first time, the abstract linking of linguistic and odour information using modern neuroimaging techniques (functional MRI). Subjects passively read odour-related words ('garlic', 'cinnamon', 'jasmine') and neutral language items. The odour-related terms elicited activation in the primary olfactory cortex, which include the piriform cortex and the amygdala. Our results suggest the activation of widely distributed cortical cell assemblies in the processing of olfactory words. These distributed neuron populations extend into language areas but also reach some parts of the olfactory system. These distributed neural systems may be the basis of the processing of language elements, their related conceptual and semantic information and the associated sensory information.

  12. Active Reading Procedures for Moderating the Effects of Poor Highlighting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gier, Vicki S.; Herring, Daniel; Hudnell, Jason; Montoya, Jodi; Kreiner, David S.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated two active reading techniques intended to eliminate the negative effect on reading comprehension of preexisting, inappropriate highlighting. College students read passages in three highlighting conditions: no highlighting, appropriate highlighting, and inappropriate highlighting. In Experiment 1, 30 students read the passages while…

  13. Independent Activities for Accelerated Students: Individualized Reading Instruction for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapides Parish School Board, Alexandria, LAa.

    The teaching guide for use with accelerated elementary school students contains suggestions for independent reading activities, a list of independent reading books for beginning readers, and suggestions for creative activities. Stressed is the value of sharing enthusiasm about books to spur independent reading. Suggestions are given for talking…

  14. Semantic and Phonological Activation in First and Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hui-Wen

    2012-01-01

    No consensus has been reached on whether phonological information is activated in reading Chinese. Further, semantic activation has not been well-studied in the context of orthographic depth. To contribute to these issues, this dissertation investigated semantic and phonological activation in reading Chinese and English. This dissertation also…

  15. Read*Write*Now!: Actividades para Divertirse Leyendo y Escribiendo (Activities for Reading and Writing Fun).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venezky, Dick, Ed.; And Others

    Developed by national reading experts for "reading partners" to use with children, ages birth to grade 6, this Spanish-language booklet presents activities that help very young children to get ready for reading and writing, and guide older children to expand their reading and writing interests and skills. The booklet has three sections,…

  16. The Relationship between Students' Reading Orientations and Their Strategic Activity during a Collaborative Reading Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dennis S.; Neitzel, Carin

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the connection between middle school students' beliefs about reading and their use of comprehension strategies during a collaborative reading activity. Seventy-one fifth- and sixth-grade students were videotaped while they worked in small groups to read and discuss short texts describing the reading habits and abilities of four…

  17. Sports Splash: A Handbook of Reading Activities for Use with Children. A Fun with Reading Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Carol H.

    Intended for individuals involved in teaching children to read--parents, teachers, librarians, and reading specialists--this handbook provides activities and resources to supplement programs designed to encourage children's enjoyment of books. The reading activities presented in this handbook have been developed around a sports theme. The…

  18. The Relevant Factors in Promoting Reading Activities in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Han-Chen; Tsai, Yao-Hsu; Huang, Shih-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    In order to help students absorb knowledge, schools often conduct reading activities. Thorough planning and strategies, however, are needed to insure the effect of reading promotions, and make them a deeply-rooted part of life. This study adopted the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to discuss the relevant factors in promoting reading activities…

  19. SPECIAL MOTIVATIONAL ACTIVITIES FOR PROMOTING CERTAIN PROBLEM AREAS IN READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DAWSON, MARVIN; SPENCER, GARY D.

    A CURRICULUM GUIDE PRODUCED AT AN INSERVICE TRAINING COURSE ON "PROBLEMS IN TEACHING READING" BY TEACHERS FROM CARROLL COUNTY SCHOOLS, GEORGIA, IN THE SPRING OF 1966 IS PRESENTED. IT OFFERS GENERAL MOTIVATIONAL READING ACTIVITIES WHICH PROMOTE GROWTH IN CERTAIN PROBLEM AREAS IN READING. RECOGNIZING THAT THERE CAN BE NO EFFECTIVE LEARNING…

  20. Do You Read Me? Business and Office: Reading Development Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Elizabeth L.; Chenoweth, Roberta

    This activity guide is one of four supplements to be used with "Do You Read Me? Prevocational-Vocational Reading Development Activities" (ED 210 454). Each supplement deals with a different occupational category. Games, puzzles, and other activities are offered to aid in developing the word recognition, vocabulary, and comprehension…

  1. Activating Background Knowledge in Reading Comprehension Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Deborah Wells; Rayford, Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that a broad age range of students can use some purpose questions as cues to activate background knowledge. Suggest topic familiarity, amount of information presented, and the presence of genre clues as text features affecting schema activation. (NKA)

  2. Reading under the Skin: Physiological Activation during Reading in Children with Dyslexia and Typical Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobia, Valentina; Bonifacci, Paola; Ottaviani, Cristina; Borsato, Thomas; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate physiological activation during reading and control tasks in children with dyslexia and typical readers. Skin conductance response (SCR) recorded during four tasks involving reading aloud, reading silently, and describing illustrated stories aloud and silently was compared for children with dyslexia (n =…

  3. The Effects of Pre-Reading Activities on Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Nahid Nemati; Mahmoudi, Asgar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three types of pre-reading activities (movie-watching, vocabulary presentation, and pre-reading summarization) on the reading comprehension of 76 elementary-level EFL Iranian learners. The participants were randomly assigned to one control and three experimental conditions and then a pretest was given to…

  4. Understanding Children's Reading Activities: Reading Motivation, Skill and Child Characteristics as Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Osborne, Cara; Warhurst, Amy; Norgate, Roger; Duncan, Lynne G.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a range of child characteristics (sex, age, socioeconomic status, reading skill and intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation) predicted engagement (i.e., time spent) in different reading activities (fiction books, factual books, school textbooks, comics, magazines and digital texts). In total, 791 children…

  5. Active Reading Documents (ARDs): A Tool to Facilitate Meaningful Learning through Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubas, Justin M.; Toledo, Santiago A.

    2015-01-01

    Presented here is a practical tool called the Active Reading Document (ARD) that can give students the necessary incentive to engage with the text/readings. By designing the tool to incrementally develop student understanding of the material through reading using Marzano's Taxonomy as a framework, the ARD offers support through scaffolding as they…

  6. Mothers' Reading-Related Activities at Home and Learning to Read during Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Parrila, Rauno; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Niemi, Pekka; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates how the reading-related activities of mothers at home relate to the development of reading skills among their kindergarten children. A total of 1,529 children (5-to-6-year-olds) were tested on word reading twice, once at the beginning and once at the end of a kindergarten year. The mothers of the children (n =…

  7. Quasars and Active Galaxies: A Reading List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1988-01-01

    Contains the annotated bibliographies of introductory books and sections of books, recent introductory articles, more advanced articles, and more advanced books dealing with quasars and active galaxies. (CW)

  8. The Use of Multiple Slate Devices to Support Active Reading Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Nicholas Yen-Cherng

    2012-01-01

    Reading activities in the classroom and workplace occur predominantly on paper. Since existing electronic devices do not support these reading activities as well as paper, users have difficulty taking full advantage of the affordances of electronic documents. This dissertation makes three main contributions toward supporting active reading…

  9. Open the Door for Reading (Motivational Activities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Roxy

    Designed to help elementary teachers motivate students to read, this illustrated booklet presents a store of classroom ideas that promote and enrich reading. Materials presented include (1) instructions for making a "bookworm" bookmark for each student; (2) various animated bulletin board games intended to accompany the reading process and to help…

  10. Translating Frank Smith's Reading Theory into Practice: A Reading Activity for an Exam-Driven Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keh, Claudia L.

    1988-01-01

    Smith's approach to reading comprehension is used as the basis of an activity related to the Use of English Exam in Hong Kong. The eight-step activity is described and shown to combine sound reading theory with an academic, test-oriented syllabus. (3 references) (LB)

  11. Relationships between Reading Activities and Language Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Van Dongen, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Noting that the ways children encounter and use print in the classroom can be examined as surface and organizing content of curriculum, this article provides descriptions of innovative uses of print in the kindergarten and elementary school classroom. Curriculum "surface content" includes activities, use of classroom space, display, and…

  12. Specific cerebellar activation during Braille reading in blind subjects.

    PubMed

    Gizewski, Elke R; Timmann, Dagmar; Forsting, Michael

    2004-07-01

    The traditional view that the cerebellum is involved only in the control of movements has been changed recently. It has been suggested that the human cerebellum is involved in cognition and language. Likewise, besides cortical activity in sensorimotor and visual areas, an increased global activation of the cerebellum has been revealed during Braille reading in blind subjects. Our purpose was to investigate whether there is cerebellar activation during Braille reading by blind subjects other than sensorimotor activation related to finger movements. Early blind and normal sighted subjects were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during Braille reading, tactile discrimination of nonsense dots, dots forming symbols, and finger tapping. The experiments were done in block design. Echo planar imaging sequences were carried out on a 1.5-T MR scanner. All blind individuals reading Braille showed robust activation of the posterior and lateral aspects of cerebellar hemispheral lobules Crus I bilaterally but more predominately on the right side. Additionally, activation was present in the medial cerebellum within lobules IV, V, and VIIIA, predominantly on the right. Discriminating nonsense dots did not reveal any activation of Crus I, but did reveal activation within the medial part of lobules IV, V, and VIIIA, predominately on the right. Analysis of sighted subjects during reading of printed text revealed activation of the posterolateral cerebellar hemisphere in Crus I bilaterally, predominantly on the right. Tactile analysis of dots representing symbols revealed an activation in lobules IV and VIII and in right Crus II but not in Crus I. In conclusion, parts of cerebellar activation during Braille reading in blind subjects (i.e., within lobules IV, V, and VIII) overlap with the known hand representation within the cerebellum and are likely related to the sensorimotor part of the task. Cerebellar activation during Braille reading within bilateral Crus I

  13. Brain Activity with Reading Sentences and Emoticons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe a person's brain activity when he/she sees an emoticon at the end of a sentence. An emoticon consists of some characters that resemble the human face and expresses a sender's emotion. With the help of a computer network, we use e-mail, messenger, avatars and so on, in order to convey what we wish to, to a receiver. Moreover, we send an emotional expression by using an emoticon at the end of a sentence. In this research, we investigate the effect of an emoticon as nonverbal information, using an fMRI study. The experimental results show that the right and left inferior frontal gyrus were activated and we detect a sentence with an emoticon as the verbal and nonverval information.

  14. Automobile Maintenance. Reading and Language Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessman, William A.

    Designed primarily for special needs students in a vocational program in automobile maintenance, this book was written to refine the basic skills of following directions, reading comprehension, vocabulary building, spelling, word usage, and word recognition, while relating these skills to some of the tasks a beginning student in the program must…

  15. RIF Book of Ideas: Activities to Motivate Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Reading is Fun-damental Program.

    Readily adaptable to classrooms, youth service organizations, and other groups that serve young people, the motivation activities in this book were set up for Reading is Fundamental projects and field tested by the organization's volunteers. Following an introduction to the characteristics of a good motivational activity and some guidelines for…

  16. Teaching students to read the primary literature using POGIL activities.

    PubMed

    Murray, Tracey Arnold

    2014-01-01

    The ability to read, interpret, and evaluate articles in the primary literature are important skills that science majors will use in graduate school and professional life. Because of this, it is important that students are not only exposed to the primary literature in undergraduate education, but also taught how to read and interpret these articles. To achieve this objective, POGIL activities were designed to use the primary literature in a majors biochemistry sequence. Data show that students were able to learn content from the literature without separate activities or lecture. Students also reported an increase in comfort and confidence in approaching the literature as a result of the activities.

  17. The Use of Pre-Reading Activities in Reading Skills Achievement in Preschool Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, Aboagye Michael; Liang, Qing Jing; Natalia, Ihnatushchenko; Stephen, Mensah Abrampah

    2016-01-01

    Although wealth of empirical researches have covered the impact of crucial, indispensable role reading skills play in the development of individuals' mental faculties through the acquisition of knowledge in a particular language, scientific works on the assessment of the relationship(s) between pre-reading activities (consisting of games, puzzle…

  18. Activity and Imagined Activity Can Enhance Young Children's Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenberg, Arthur M.; Gutierrez, Tiana; Levin, Joel R.; Japuntich, Sandra; Kaschak, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    The Indexical Hypothesis suggests a new method for enhancing children's reading comprehension. Young readers may not consistently "index," or map, words to the objects the words represent. Consequently, these readers fail to derive much meaning from the text. The instructional method involves manipulating toy objects referred to in the…

  19. Influence of mono-axis random vibration on reading activity.

    PubMed

    Bhiwapurkar, M K; Saran, V H; Harsha, S P; Goel, V K; Berg, Mats

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies on train passengers' activities found that many passengers were engaged in some form of work, e.g., reading and writing, while traveling by train. A majority of the passengers reported that their activities were disturbed by vibrations or motions during traveling. A laboratory study was therefore set up to study how low-frequency random vibrations influence the difficulty to read. The study involved 18 healthy male subjects of 23 to 32 yr of age group. Random vibrations were applied in the frequency range (1-10 Hz) at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m/s(2) rms amplitude along three directions (longitudinal, lateral and vertical). The effect of vibration on reading activity was investigated by giving a word chain in two different font types (Times New Roman and Arial) and three different sizes (10, 12 and 14 points) of font for each type. Subjects performed reading tasks under two sitting positions (with backrest support and leaning over a table). The judgments of perceived difficulty to read were rated using 7-point discomfort judging scale. The result shows that reading difficulty increases with increasing vibration magnitudes and found to be maximum in longitudinal direction, but with leaning over a table position. In comparison with Times New Roman type and sizes of font, subjects perceived less difficulty with Arial type for all font sizes under all vibration magnitude.

  20. Quantity, Quality, and Variety of Pupil Responses during an Open-Communication Structured Group Directed Reading-Thinking Activity and a Closed Communication Structured Group Directed Reading Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petre, Richard M.

    The quality, quantity, and variety of pupil responses while using two different group directed reading activities, the Directed Reading Activity (DRA), and the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DRTA) were investigated in this study. The subjects, all fourth graders in two nearby communities, were grouped into above-grade-level, at-grade-level,…

  1. A Judicious Lesson: A Whole-Learning Reading Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Describes a unique language learning activity using the whole language approach in a tertiary level lower advanced reading and speaking course. Following a semester long theme on crime and punishment, students were introduced to an authentic, idiomatic text dealing with a famous murder case in U.S. history. (Author/VWL)

  2. Using Document Reading Activity Packets (DRAP) in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adomanis, James F.; Schulz, Constance

    1987-01-01

    Reviews a Document Reading Activity Packet (DRAP) revolving around the "Fort Washington Incident" of the War of 1812 and the resulting court martial of Captain Samuel T. Dyson. Explains this exercise is designed to stimulate students' interest in their own state histories as well as stimulate their curiosity for further research. (BSR)

  3. Learning Activities: The America's Cup Challenge. Meter Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronk, Rob; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes two learning activities: (1) high school students design and construct a wind powered monohull vessel to travel a predetermined distance in the least amount of time; and (2) sixth graders learn about energy by doing gas and electric meter reading. (Author/JOW)

  4. Predicting reading and mathematics from neural activity for feedback learning.

    PubMed

    Peters, Sabine; Van der Meulen, Mara; Zanolie, Kiki; Crone, Eveline A

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies use feedback learning paradigms to study the process of learning in laboratory settings, little is known about their relevance for real-world learning settings such as school. In a large developmental sample (N = 228, 8-25 years), we investigated whether performance and neural activity during a feedback learning task predicted reading and mathematics performance 2 years later. The results indicated that feedback learning performance predicted both reading and mathematics performance. Activity during feedback learning in left superior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) predicted reading performance, whereas activity in presupplementary motor area/anterior cingulate cortex (pre-SMA/ACC) predicted mathematical performance. Moreover, left superior DLPFC and pre-SMA/ACC activity predicted unique variance in reading and mathematics ability over behavioral testing of feedback learning performance alone. These results provide valuable insights into the relationship between laboratory-based learning tasks and learning in school settings, and the value of neural assessments for prediction of school performance over behavioral testing alone. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Masked Primes Activate Feature Representations in Reading Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mousikou, Petroula; Roon, Kevin D.; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Theories of reading aloud are silent about the role of subphonemic/subsegmental representations in translating print to sound. However, there is empirical evidence suggesting that feature representations are activated in speech production and visual word recognition. In the present study, we sought to determine whether masked primes activate…

  6. Children's Caravan: A Reading Activities Idea Book for Use with Children. A Fun with Reading Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Judith A.

    Intended for elementary school teachers and librarians, this book was designed to help in the development of reading programs for young children. Five sections are included: (1) planning ahead, which includes getting organized, making decorations, collecting "junque" (craft materials and other items needed for craft activities); (2) conducting…

  7. Promoting Active Participation in Book Reading for Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleury, Veronica P.; Miramontez, Shane Herriott; Hudson, Roxanne F.; Schwartz, Ilene S.

    2014-01-01

    A common literacy practice in early childhood classrooms is reading aloud to children. Little is known, however, about the quality of engagement in shared reading activities for young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Dialogic reading is one method of shared reading in which adults encourage children to actively participate in the…

  8. Ready--Set--Read (For Families): Early Childhood Language Activities for Children from Birth through Age Five. America Reads Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corporation for National Service.

    This Ready--Set--Read Kit includes an activity guide for families, a 1997-98 early childhood activity calendar, and an early childhood growth wallchart. The activity guide part of the kit presents activities and ideas that families (adults who have nurturing relationships with a child--a mother, father, grandparent, other relative, or close…

  9. The Value of Picture-Book Reading-Based Collaborative Output Activities for Vocabulary Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Chia-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three instructional modes: picture-book reading-only (PRO), picture-book reading plus vocabulary instruction (PRVI), and picture-book reading plus reading-based collaborative output activity (PRCOA) on young adult EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' vocabulary acquisition and retention. Eighty…

  10. The Effect of a Timed Reading Activity on EFL Learners: Speed, Comprehension, and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Anna C-S

    2010-01-01

    To develop reading fluency, a 13-week timed reading activity was integrated into a normal curriculum with the aim of improving students' reading rates. Participants were 84 college students divided into an experimental and a control group. The test instruments involved pretests and posttests on reading speed and comprehension. Students'…

  11. Can Reading Questions Foster Active Learning? A Study of Six College Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koontz, T. M.; Plank, K. M.

    2011-01-01

    Many instructors strive to encourage student reading outside of class and active learning in class. One pedagogical tool, structured reading questions, can help do both. Using examples from question sets across six courses, the authors illustrate how reading questions can help students achieve the six active-learning principles described by…

  12. Elevating Baseline Activation Does Not Facilitate Reading of Unattended Words

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Kouchi, Scott; Ruthruff, Eric; Lachter, Joel B.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have disagreed the extent to which people extract meaning from words presented outside the focus of spatial attention. The present study, examined a possible explanation for such discrepancies, inspired by attenuation theory: unattended words can be read more automatically when they have a high baseline level of activation (e.g., due to frequent repetition or due to being expected in a given context). We presented a brief prime word in lowercase, followed by a target word in uppercase. Participants indicated whether the target word belonged to a particular category (e.g., "sport"). When we drew attention to the prime word using a visual cue, the prime produced substantial priming effects on target responses (i.e., faster responses when the prime and target words were identical or from the same category than when they belonged to different categories). When prime words were not attended, however, they produced no priming effects. This finding replicated even when there were only 4 words, each repeated 160 times during the experiment. Even with a very high baseline level of activation, it appears that very little word processing is possible without spatial attention.

  13. Read Alouds and Beyond: The Effects of Read Aloud Extension Activities on Vocabulary in Head Start Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Rebecca; Crandell, Jennifer DiBara; Carlis, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted in 26 Head Start classrooms with 264 children to compare the effect of a read aloud plus extension activities intervention over a control group to the effect of a read aloud only intervention over a control group on preschool children's vocabulary. Children were assessed before and after the intervention on target vocabulary…

  14. Principles and Implementation of Reading Activities in Primary School English Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinxiu, Jing; Zhengping, Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Reading is an important skill in learning English. However, reading class is not emphasized in some primary schools in China, and there are various problems with the reading activities, which inadequately just focus on teaching of words, sentences separately from texts. This paper aims to bring out a whole system of principles in designing…

  15. Going Blended with a Triple-Entry Activity: Students' Online Discussions of Assigned Readings Using "Marginalia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanevsky, Lannie; Xin, Cindy; Ram, Ilana

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe and investigate small group discussions of assigned readings in an online version of a "triple-entry activity" in a blended course used an annotation tool, "Marginalia". We wondered if students would interact in this structured, critical, reflective reading activity as effectively online as they had…

  16. The Effect of Project-Based Activities on Intermediate EFL Students' Reading Comprehension Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiraz, Mona Poorverdi; Larsari, Ebrahim Ezati

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between the use of Project-based activities and intermediate EFL students' reading comprehension. The study addresses the questions of whether students' reading comprehension differs after implementing Project-based activities, and whether different projects lead to different degrees of reading…

  17. The Contribution of Early Home Literacy Activities to First Grade Reading and Writing Achievements in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aram, Dorit; Korat, Ofra; Hassunah-Arafat, Safieh

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed the literacy development of native Arabic-speaking children from kindergarten to the end of first grade, focusing on the role of home literacy activities (mother-child shared book reading and joint writing). The contribution of these activities in kindergarten to children's reading and writing at the end of…

  18. Comparing Effects of Different Writing Activities on Reading Comprehension: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Michael; Simpson, Amy; Graham, Steve

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this review were to determine: (1) if different writing activities were more effective than others in improving students' reading comprehension, and (2) if obtained differences among writing activities was related to how reading comprehension was measured? Meta-analysis was used to examine these questions across studies involving…

  19. Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents three activities: (1) investigating succession in a schoolground; (2) investigating oak galls; and (3) making sun prints (photographs made without camera or darkroom). Each activity includes a list of materials needed and procedures used. (JN)

  20. Reading the Rocks. A Fall Activity Packet for Fifth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on various geological…

  1. Note Launchers: Promoting Active Reading of Mathematics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Josh W.; Helms, Kimberly Turner

    2010-01-01

    Note launchers, an instructor-designed reading guide, model how to select, decide, and focus upon what textbook material is important to learn. Reading guides are specially-designed study aids that can steer students through difficult parts of assigned readings (Bean, 1996) while encouraging advance preparation. As an example of a reading guide,…

  2. The Role of Parents in Adolescents' Reading Motivation and Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauda, Susan Lutz

    2009-01-01

    Parent support for reading is one of the many elements that may play a role in the development and sustainment of children's reading motivation; to date, however, research has focused much more on the role that parents play in their preschool and primary-grade children's reading than in their older children's reading. Thus, this paper examines the…

  3. Learning from texts: activation of information from previous texts during reading.

    PubMed

    Beker, Katinka; Jolles, Dietsje; Lorch, Robert F; van den Broek, Paul

    Learning often involves integration of information from multiple texts. The aim of the current study was to determine whether relevant information from previously read texts is spontaneously activated during reading, allowing for integration between texts (experiment 1 and 2), and whether this process is related to the representation of the texts (experiment 2). In both experiments, texts with inconsistent target sentences were preceded by texts that either did or did not contain explanations that resolved the inconsistencies. In experiment 1, the reading times of the target sentences introducing inconsistencies were faster if the preceding text contained an explanation for the inconsistency than if it did not. This result demonstrates that relevant information from a prior text is spontaneously activated when the target sentence is read. In experiment 2 free recall was used to gain insight into the representation after reading. The reading time results for experiment 2 replicated the reading time results for experiment 1. However, the effects on reading times did not translate to measurable differences in text representations after reading. This research extends our knowledge about the processes involved in multiple text comprehension: Prior text information is spontaneously activated during reading, thereby enabling integration between different texts.

  4. Relationship between Computer-Based Reading Activities and Reading Achievements among Hong Kong and U.S. Students: A Comparative Study Using PIRLS 2011 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Dan; Wang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Reading for personal interest and acquiring and using information using various reading processes are important parts of reading literacy that students need to develop in order to progress successfully through their schooling and fully function in the information society. Computer assisted reading instructional activities are assumed useful in…

  5. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bippert, Judy

    1993-01-01

    Presents activities designed to give students an opportunity to solve concrete problems involving spatial relationships and logical thinking utilizing hands-on manipulatives. Provides teacher instructions and four reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  6. Executive Control Modulates Cross-Language Lexical Activation during L2 Reading: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pivneva, Irina; Mercier, Julie; Titone, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Models of bilingual reading such as Bilingual Interactive Activation Plus (Dijkstra & van Heuven, 2002) do not predict a central role for domain-general executive control during bilingual reading, in contrast with bilingual models from other domains, such as production (e.g., the Inhibitory Control Model; Green, 1998). We thus investigated…

  7. Learning from Texts: Activation of Information from Previous Texts during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beker, Katinka; Jolles, Dietsje; Lorch, Robert F., Jr.; van den Broek, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Learning often involves integration of information from multiple texts. The aim of the current study was to determine whether relevant information from previously read texts is spontaneously activated during reading, allowing for integration between texts (experiment 1 and 2), and whether this process is related to the representation of the texts…

  8. The Main Sources of Intersubject Variability in Neuronal Activation for Reading Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kherif, Ferath; Josse, Goulven; Seghier, Mohamed L.; Price, Cathy J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find the most prominent source of intersubject variability in neuronal activation for reading familiar words aloud. To this end, we collected functional imaging data from a large sample of subjects (n = 76) with different demographic characteristics such as handedness, sex, and age, while reading. The…

  9. Preschool Children's Use of Thematic Vocabulary during Dialogic Reading and Activity-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Naomi L.; Coogle, Christan Grygas; Storie, Sloan

    2016-01-01

    An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare the expressive use of thematic vocabulary by three preschool children with developmental delays during Dialogic Reading, a shared book reading intervention, and Activity-Based Intervention, a naturalistic play-based teaching method. The design was replicated across two early childhood…

  10. Building Reading Comprehension Habits in Grades 6?12: A Toolkit of Classroom Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwiers, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Help struggling readers understand content area texts with research-based, innovative classroom tools that foster lifelong reading comprehension habits. This book presents easy-to-use activities organized around six habits of reading comprehension: (1) Organizing text information by sculpting the main idea and summarizing; (2) Connecting to…

  11. Ready, Set, Read! Hundreds of Exciting, Skill-Appropriate Ready-To-Use Reading Readiness Activities. Pre-K-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Jean R.

    Designed to be useful for teachers, students, and parents, this resource book contains skill-appropriate, easy-to-follow activities for emergent readers. Noting that helping children become successful readers by developing reading readiness skills and a love for literature requires careful planning and instruction, the book states that children…

  12. Neuroimaging of Reading Intervention: A Systematic Review and Activation Likelihood Estimate Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barquero, Laura A.; Davis, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie E.

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies examine instructional training and brain activity. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding neuroimaging of reading intervention, with a particular focus on reading difficulties (RD). To locate relevant studies, searches of peer-reviewed literature were conducted using electronic databases to search for studies from the imaging modalities of fMRI and MEG (including MSI) that explored reading intervention. Of the 96 identified studies, 22 met the inclusion criteria for descriptive analysis. A subset of these (8 fMRI experiments with post-intervention data) was subjected to activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis to investigate differences in functional activation following reading intervention. Findings from the literature review suggest differences in functional activation of numerous brain regions associated with reading intervention, including bilateral inferior frontal, superior temporal, middle temporal, middle frontal, superior frontal, and postcentral gyri, as well as bilateral occipital cortex, inferior parietal lobules, thalami, and insulae. Findings from the meta-analysis indicate change in functional activation following reading intervention in the left thalamus, right insula/inferior frontal, left inferior frontal, right posterior cingulate, and left middle occipital gyri. Though these findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of studies and the disparate methodologies used, this paper is an effort to synthesize across studies and to guide future exploration of neuroimaging and reading intervention. PMID:24427278

  13. Neuroimaging of reading intervention: a systematic review and activation likelihood estimate meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Barquero, Laura A; Davis, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie E

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies examine instructional training and brain activity. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding neuroimaging of reading intervention, with a particular focus on reading difficulties (RD). To locate relevant studies, searches of peer-reviewed literature were conducted using electronic databases to search for studies from the imaging modalities of fMRI and MEG (including MSI) that explored reading intervention. Of the 96 identified studies, 22 met the inclusion criteria for descriptive analysis. A subset of these (8 fMRI experiments with post-intervention data) was subjected to activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis to investigate differences in functional activation following reading intervention. Findings from the literature review suggest differences in functional activation of numerous brain regions associated with reading intervention, including bilateral inferior frontal, superior temporal, middle temporal, middle frontal, superior frontal, and postcentral gyri, as well as bilateral occipital cortex, inferior parietal lobules, thalami, and insulae. Findings from the meta-analysis indicate change in functional activation following reading intervention in the left thalamus, right insula/inferior frontal, left inferior frontal, right posterior cingulate, and left middle occipital gyri. Though these findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of studies and the disparate methodologies used, this paper is an effort to synthesize across studies and to guide future exploration of neuroimaging and reading intervention.

  14. Teaching Students to Read the Primary Literature Using POGIL Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Tracey Arnold

    2014-01-01

    The ability to read, interpret, and evaluate articles in the primary literature are important skills that science majors will use in graduate school and professional life. Because of this, it is important that students are not only exposed to the primary literature in undergraduate education, but also taught how to read and interpret these…

  15. Rethinking Middle School Reading Instruction: A Basic Literacy Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, William E.; Wood, Karen D.; Taylor, D. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Research on subject matter instruction across the 20th century (e.g., Stevens, 1912; Bellack, 1966; Hoetker & Ahlbrand; 1969; Gall, 1970; Langer, 1999; Mehan, 1979; Nystrand, 1997;) reveals a preponderance of teacher-directed lecture, recitation, and round-robin reading of text in place of instruction that focuses on reading-to-learn, thinking,…

  16. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Charlene; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students collect and organize data from a real-world simulation of the scientific concept of half life. Students collect data using a marble sifter, analyze the data using a graphing calculator, and determine an appropriate mathematical model. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  17. Reading, Writing, and Revolution: Facilitating Social Activism in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Janelle M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how teachers can develop a sense of social activism in students through critical multiculturalism. Drawing upon data from a nine-month participant observation study of a first-grade public charter school classroom in central California, this article highlights how teachers can integrate critical multiculturalism within an…

  18. Predicting Reading and Mathematics from Neural Activity for Feedback Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Sabine; Van der Meulen, Mara; Zanolie, Kiki; Crone, Eveline A.

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies use feedback learning paradigms to study the process of learning in laboratory settings, little is known about their relevance for real-world learning settings such as school. In a large developmental sample (N = 228, 8-25 years), we investigated whether performance and neural activity during a feedback learning task…

  19. Auditory short-term memory activation during score reading.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Veerle L; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback.

  20. Auditory Short-Term Memory Activation during Score Reading

    PubMed Central

    Simoens, Veerle L.; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback. PMID:23326487

  1. Writing-Reading Relationships: Effectiveness of Writing Activities as Pre-Reading Tasks to Enhance L2 Inferential Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickramaarachchi, Thilina Indrajie

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the interaction between reading and writing processes in general and more specifically the impact of pre-reading tasks incorporating writing tasks (referred to as "prw tasks") in helping the development of inferential reading comprehension. A sample of 70 first year ESL students of the University of Kelaniya were…

  2. The BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Reading Ability and Patterns of Neural Activation in Children.

    PubMed

    Jasińska, Kaja K; Molfese, Peter J; Kornilov, Sergey A; Mencl, W Einar; Frost, Stephen J; Lee, Maria; Pugh, Kenneth R; Grigorenko, Elena L; Landi, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how genes impact the brain's functional activation for learning and cognition during development remains limited. We asked whether a common genetic variant in the BDNF gene (the Val66Met polymorphism) modulates neural activation in the young brain during a critical period for the emergence and maturation of the neural circuitry for reading. In animal models, the bdnf variation has been shown to be associated with the structure and function of the developing brain and in humans it has been associated with multiple aspects of cognition, particularly memory, which are relevant for the development of skilled reading. Yet, little is known about the impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on functional brain activation in development, either in animal models or in humans. Here, we examined whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (dbSNP rs6265) is associated with children's (age 6-10) neural activation patterns during a reading task (n = 81) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), genotyping, and standardized behavioral assessments of cognitive and reading development. Children homozygous for the Val allele at the SNP rs6265 of the BDNF gene outperformed Met allele carriers on reading comprehension and phonological memory, tasks that have a strong memory component. Consistent with these behavioral findings, Met allele carriers showed greater activation in reading-related brain regions including the fusiform gyrus, the left inferior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus as well as greater activation in the hippocampus during a word and pseudoword reading task. Increased engagement of memory and spoken language regions for Met allele carriers relative to Val/Val homozygotes during reading suggests that Met carriers have to exert greater effort required to retrieve phonological codes.

  3. The role of reading activity on the modulation of motor cortical outputs to the reading hand in Braille readers.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Leone, A; Wassermann, E M; Sadato, N; Hallett, M

    1995-12-01

    We studied the cortical motor output maps of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) of both hands and the abductor digiti minimi of the reading hand in 6 blind proficient Braille readers. The maps were generated using transcranial magnetic stimulation. We compared the maps obtained on a day in which they worked as Braille proofreaders (reading Braille for approximately 6 hours) with the maps obtained on a day they took off from work. On the work day, the maps for the FDI of the reading hand were significantly larger after the working shift than in the morning after having been off work for 2 days. These changes were not seen for the same muscle on the day off work or on any of the 2 days in the other two muscles studied. These results illustrate the rapid modulation in motor cortical outputs in relation to preceding activity and emphasize the importance of precise timing in studies of the neurophysiological correlates of skill acquisition.

  4. Decoding and disrupting left midfusiform gyrus activity during word reading

    PubMed Central

    Hirshorn, Elizabeth A.; Ward, Michael J.; Fiez, Julie A.; Ghuman, Avniel Singh

    2016-01-01

    The nature of the visual representation for words has been fiercely debated for over 150 y. We used direct brain stimulation, pre- and postsurgical behavioral measures, and intracranial electroencephalography to provide support for, and elaborate upon, the visual word form hypothesis. This hypothesis states that activity in the left midfusiform gyrus (lmFG) reflects visually organized information about words and word parts. In patients with electrodes placed directly in their lmFG, we found that disrupting lmFG activity through stimulation, and later surgical resection in one of the patients, led to impaired perception of whole words and letters. Furthermore, using machine-learning methods to analyze the electrophysiological data from these electrodes, we found that information contained in early lmFG activity was consistent with an orthographic similarity space. Finally, the lmFG contributed to at least two distinguishable stages of word processing, an early stage that reflects gist-level visual representation sensitive to orthographic statistics, and a later stage that reflects more precise representation sufficient for the individuation of orthographic word forms. These results provide strong support for the visual word form hypothesis and demonstrate that across time the lmFG is involved in multiple stages of orthographic representation. PMID:27325763

  5. The Reading Habits of Church Active Mormon Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleton, Marianne; Cranney, A. Garr

    Data from 149 female members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS) were used to construct a composite of the reading habits and their relation to other characterisitics of this group. The typical respondent was a married woman between 26 and 40 years old who had attended college but remained at home to care for children under…

  6. Parafoveal Lexical Activation Depends on Skilled Reading Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally

    2015-01-01

    The boundary paradigm was used to investigate individual differences in the extraction of lexical information from the parafovea in sentence reading. The preview of a target word was manipulated so that it was identical (e.g., "sped"), a higher frequency orthographic neighbor ("seed"), a nonword neighbor ("sted"), or…

  7. A Study of Student Engagement Activities, Discipline Referrals, and Student Achievement in Reading First Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fransen, Shelly Lynette

    2013-01-01

    High quality student engagement activities are essential if students are to be successful learners. Over the years, many instructional strategies and models have been devised to encourage teachers to develop student engagement activities that result in high achievement. The Reading First Model initiative was introduced as a part of the No Child…

  8. Elementary School Recess: Selected Readings, Games, and Activities for Teachers and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Rhonda L., Ed.

    Based upon the principle that all children have a right to play and to experience the benefits of recess, this book assists elementary school teachers and parents in offering children in preschool through Grade 6 appropriate recess games and activities and provides a variety of readings that support the need for recess activities. The book is…

  9. Effects of Three Forms of Reading-Based Output Activity on L2 Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassaei, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of three forms of output activity on EFL learners' recognition and recall of second language (L2) vocabulary. To this end, three groups of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) were instructed to employ the following three output activities after reading two narrative texts: (1) summarizing the…

  10. Activity Supplement for Puedo Leer: Teacher's Guide and Use of Charts. Program for Initial Reading in Spanish for Bilingual Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Sara

    This activity supplement is intended to accompany the Puedo Leer/I Can Read Teacher's Guide for initial reading in Spanish for bilingual children. The supplement, which consists of a teacher's guide and a set of charts on card stock, provides suggestions for a wide variety of pre-reading activities and approaches, which expand on the activities…

  11. Information and Experience: Audio-Visual Observations of Reading Activities in Swedish Comprehensive School Classrooms 1967-1969

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolatkhah, Mats; Hampson Lundh, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates reading activities in Swedish primary school classrooms during the late 1960s. Sound and video recordings of 223 Swedish lessons held between 1967 and 1969 are used to analyse the activity of reading as taught and performed. The results indicate that the practice of informational reading, often based on finding…

  12. Reading stories activates neural representations of visual and motor experiences.

    PubMed

    Speer, Nicole K; Reynolds, Jeremy R; Swallow, Khena M; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2009-08-01

    To understand and remember stories, readers integrate their knowledge of the world with information in the text. Here we present functional neuroimaging evidence that neural systems track changes in the situation described by a story. Different brain regions track different aspects of a story, such as a character's physical location or current goals. Some of these regions mirror those involved when people perform, imagine, or observe similar real-world activities. These results support the view that readers understand a story by simulating the events in the story world and updating their simulation when features of that world change.

  13. Reading Stories Activates Neural Representations of Visual and Motor Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Speer, Nicole K.; Reynolds, Jeremy R.; Swallow, Khena M.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    To understand and remember stories, readers integrate their knowledge of the world with information in the text. Here we present functional neuroimaging evidence that neural systems track changes in the situation described by a story. Different brain regions track different aspects of a story, such as a character’s physical location or current goals. Some of these regions mirror those involved when people perform, imagine, or observe similar real-world activities. These results support the view that readers understand a story by simulating the events in the story world and updating their simulation when features of that world change. PMID:19572969

  14. The BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Reading Ability and Patterns of Neural Activation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Jasińska, Kaja K.; Molfese, Peter J.; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Mencl, W. Einar; Frost, Stephen J.; Lee, Maria; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Landi, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how genes impact the brain’s functional activation for learning and cognition during development remains limited. We asked whether a common genetic variant in the BDNF gene (the Val66Met polymorphism) modulates neural activation in the young brain during a critical period for the emergence and maturation of the neural circuitry for reading. In animal models, the bdnf variation has been shown to be associated with the structure and function of the developing brain and in humans it has been associated with multiple aspects of cognition, particularly memory, which are relevant for the development of skilled reading. Yet, little is known about the impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on functional brain activation in development, either in animal models or in humans. Here, we examined whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (dbSNP rs6265) is associated with children’s (age 6–10) neural activation patterns during a reading task (n = 81) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), genotyping, and standardized behavioral assessments of cognitive and reading development. Children homozygous for the Val allele at the SNP rs6265 of the BDNF gene outperformed Met allele carriers on reading comprehension and phonological memory, tasks that have a strong memory component. Consistent with these behavioral findings, Met allele carriers showed greater activation in reading–related brain regions including the fusiform gyrus, the left inferior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus as well as greater activation in the hippocampus during a word and pseudoword reading task. Increased engagement of memory and spoken language regions for Met allele carriers relative to Val/Val homozygotes during reading suggests that Met carriers have to exert greater effort required to retrieve phonological codes. PMID:27551971

  15. Brain Activity while Reading Sentences with Kanji Characters Expressing Emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe the brain activity associated with kanji characters expressing emotion, which are places at the end of a sentence. Japanese people use a special kanji character in brackets at the end of sentences in text messages such as those sent through e-mail and messenger tools. Such kanji characters plays a role to expresses the sender's emotion (such as fun, laughter, sadness, tears), like emoticons. It is a very simple and effective way to convey the senders' emotions and his/her thoughts to the receiver. In this research, we investigate the effects of emotional kanji characters by using an fMRI study. The experimental results show that both the right and left inferior frontal gyrus, which have been implicated on verbal and nonverbal information, were activated. We found that we detect a sentence with an emotional kanji character as the verbal and nonverval information, and a sentence with emotional kanji characters enrich communication between the sender and the reciever.

  16. Areas activated during naturalistic reading comprehension overlap topological visual, auditory, and somatotomotor maps

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cortical mapping techniques using fMRI have been instrumental in identifying the boundaries of topological (neighbor‐preserving) maps in early sensory areas. The presence of topological maps beyond early sensory areas raises the possibility that they might play a significant role in other cognitive systems, and that topological mapping might help to delineate areas involved in higher cognitive processes. In this study, we combine surface‐based visual, auditory, and somatomotor mapping methods with a naturalistic reading comprehension task in the same group of subjects to provide a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the cortical overlap between sensory‐motor maps in all major sensory modalities, and reading processing regions. Our results suggest that cortical activation during naturalistic reading comprehension overlaps more extensively with topological sensory‐motor maps than has been heretofore appreciated. Reading activation in regions adjacent to occipital lobe and inferior parietal lobe almost completely overlaps visual maps, whereas a significant portion of frontal activation for reading in dorsolateral and ventral prefrontal cortex overlaps both visual and auditory maps. Even classical language regions in superior temporal cortex are partially overlapped by topological visual and auditory maps. By contrast, the main overlap with somatomotor maps is restricted to a small region on the anterior bank of the central sulcus near the border between the face and hand representations of M‐I. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2784–2810, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27061771

  17. Areas activated during naturalistic reading comprehension overlap topological visual, auditory, and somatotomotor maps.

    PubMed

    Sood, Mariam R; Sereno, Martin I

    2016-08-01

    Cortical mapping techniques using fMRI have been instrumental in identifying the boundaries of topological (neighbor-preserving) maps in early sensory areas. The presence of topological maps beyond early sensory areas raises the possibility that they might play a significant role in other cognitive systems, and that topological mapping might help to delineate areas involved in higher cognitive processes. In this study, we combine surface-based visual, auditory, and somatomotor mapping methods with a naturalistic reading comprehension task in the same group of subjects to provide a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the cortical overlap between sensory-motor maps in all major sensory modalities, and reading processing regions. Our results suggest that cortical activation during naturalistic reading comprehension overlaps more extensively with topological sensory-motor maps than has been heretofore appreciated. Reading activation in regions adjacent to occipital lobe and inferior parietal lobe almost completely overlaps visual maps, whereas a significant portion of frontal activation for reading in dorsolateral and ventral prefrontal cortex overlaps both visual and auditory maps. Even classical language regions in superior temporal cortex are partially overlapped by topological visual and auditory maps. By contrast, the main overlap with somatomotor maps is restricted to a small region on the anterior bank of the central sulcus near the border between the face and hand representations of M-I. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2784-2810, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Automatic activation of phonology in silent reading is parallel: evidence from beginning and skilled readers.

    PubMed

    Alario, F-Xavier; De Cara, Bruno; Ziegler, Johannes C

    2007-07-01

    The picture-word interference paradigm was used to shed new light on the debate concerning slow serial versus fast parallel activation of phonology in silent reading. Prereaders, beginning readers (Grades 1-4), and adults named pictures that had words printed on them. Words and pictures shared phonology either at the beginnings of words (e.g., DOLL-DOG) or at the ends of words (e.g., FOG-DOG). The results showed that phonological overlap between primes and targets facilitated picture naming. This facilitatory effect was present even in beginning readers. More important, from Grade 1 onward, end-related facilitation always was as strong as beginning-related facilitation. This result suggests that, from the beginning of reading, the implicit and automatic activation of phonological codes during silent reading is not serial but rather parallel.

  19. Reading-Related Literacy Activities of American Adults: Time Spent, Task Types, and Cognitive Skills Used

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sheida; Chen, Jing; Forsyth, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This article presents data on the types and duration of reading-related activities reported by a volunteer sample of 400 adults (demographically similar to the U.S. adult population age 20 and older in terms of race, ethnicity, education, and working status) in the 2005 Real-World Tasks Study. This diary study revealed that adults spent, on…

  20. Literature-Based Reading: Children's Books and Activities To Enrich the K-5 Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Mildred Knight; Swisher, Claudia Lisman

    This book helps teachers and media directors to use children's literature to enrich elementary reading programs and to pursue sound educational objectives as they share the books and stories. It provides activities designed to expand and enrich the opportunities for children to become literate. It is a tool which addresses the need for children to…

  1. Automatic Activation of Phonology in Silent Reading Is Parallel: Evidence from Beginning and Skilled Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alario, F.-Xavier; De Cara, Bruno; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2007-01-01

    The picture-word interference paradigm was used to shed new light on the debate concerning slow serial versus fast parallel activation of phonology in silent reading. Prereaders, beginning readers (Grades 1-4), and adults named pictures that had words printed on them. Words and pictures shared phonology either at the beginnings of words (e.g.,…

  2. Independence and Elaboration Day: Activities to Enhance Student Reading in Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulecky, Larry; Smith, Frederick

    1981-01-01

    Describes an activity approach (Independence and Elaboration Day, I & E Day) which is intended to help high school social studies students become independent readers and learners by reading social studies material other than textbooks. Suggested materials include newspapers, minutes of political and legislative meetings, and magazines. (DB)

  3. Reading Actively Online: An Exploratory Investigation of Online Annotation Tools for Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Jingyan; Deng, Liping

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to design and facilitate active reading among secondary school students with an online annotation tool--Diigo. Two classes of different academic performance levels were recruited to examine their annotation behavior and perceptions of Diigo. We wanted to determine whether the two classes differed in how they used Diigo; how they…

  4. Using Multimedia Vocabulary Annotations in L2 Reading and Listening Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jing Xu

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of multimedia vocabulary annotation (MVA) in facilitating second language (L2) reading and listening activities. It examines the multimedia learning and multimedia language learning theories that underlie the MVA research, synthesizes the findings on MVA in the last decade, and identifies three underresearched areas on…

  5. Literature Links: Thematic Units Linking Read-Alouds and Computer Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labbo, Linda D.; Love, Mary Susan; Park Prior, Miri; Hubbard, Betty P.; Ryan, Tammy

    2006-01-01

    This book gives the reader ideas for providing primary-grade students with literacy learning opportunities that integrate conventional literacies, such as phonics and comprehension, with new literacies, such as multimedia composition and hyperlink navigation. The reader will find a variety of linked activities, including reading children's books,…

  6. Toward Semantics in the Wild: Activation to Manipulable Nouns in Naturalistic Reading

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Wonil; Lai, Vicky T.

    2016-01-01

    The neural basis of language processing, in the context of naturalistic reading of connected text, is a crucial but largely unexplored area. Here we combined functional MRI and eye tracking to examine the reading of text presented as whole paragraphs in two experiments with human subjects. We registered high-temporal resolution eye-tracking data to a low-temporal resolution BOLD signal to extract responses to single words during naturalistic reading where two to four words are typically processed per second. As a test case of a lexical variable, we examined the response to noun manipulability. In both experiments, signal in the left anterior inferior parietal lobule and posterior inferior temporal gyrus and sulcus was positively correlated with noun manipulability. These regions are associated with both action performance and action semantics, and their activation is consistent with a number of previous studies involving tool words and physical tool use. The results show that even during rapid reading of connected text, where semantics of words may be activated only partially, the meaning of manipulable nouns is grounded in action performance systems. This supports the grounded cognition view of semantics, which posits a close link between sensory–motor and conceptual systems of the brain. On the methodological front, these results demonstrate that BOLD responses to lexical variables during naturalistic reading can be extracted by simultaneous use of eye tracking. This opens up new avenues for the study of language and reading in the context of connected text. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The study of language and reading has traditionally relied on single word or sentence stimuli. In fMRI, this is necessitated by the fact that time resolution of a BOLD signal much lower than that of cognitive processes that take place during natural reading of connected text. Here, we propose a method that combines eye tracking and fMRI, and can extract word-level information from the

  7. Tuberculosis screening and compliance with return for skin test reading among active drug users.

    PubMed Central

    Malotte, C K; Rhodes, F; Mais, K E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the independent and combined effects of different levels of monetary incentives and a theory-based educational intervention on return for tuberculosis (TB) skin test reading in a sample of active injection drug and crack cocaine users. Prevalence of TB infection in this sample was also determined. METHODS: Active or recent drug users (n = 1004), recruited via street outreach techniques, were skin tested for TB. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 levels of monetary incentive ($5 and $10) provided at return for skin test reading, alone or in combination with a brief motivational education session. RESULTS: More than 90% of those who received $10 returned for skin test reading, in comparison with 85% of those who received $5 and 33% of those who received no monetary incentive. The education session had no impact on return for skin test reading. The prevalence of a positive tuberculin test was 18.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Monetary incentives dramatically increase the return rate for TB skin test reading among drug users who are at high risk of TB infection. PMID:9585747

  8. Shared vs. specific brain activation changes in dyslexia after training of phonology, attention, or reading.

    PubMed

    Heim, Stefan; Pape-Neumann, Julia; van Ermingen-Marbach, Muna; Brinkhaus, Moti; Grande, Marion

    2015-07-01

    Whereas the neurobiological basis of developmental dyslexia has received substantial attention, only little is known about the processes in the brain during remediation. This holds in particular in light of recent findings on cognitive subtypes of dyslexia which suggest interactions between individual profiles, training methods, and also the task in the scanner. Therefore, we trained three groups of German dyslexic primary school children in the domains of phonology, attention, or visual word recognition. We compared neurofunctional changes after 4 weeks of training in these groups to those in untrained normal readers in a reading task and in a task of visual attention. The overall reading improvement in the dyslexic children was comparable over groups. It was accompanied by substantial increase of the activation level in the visual word form area (VWFA) during a reading task inside the scanner. Moreover, there were activation increases that were unique for each training group in the reading task. In contrast, when children performed the visual attention task, shared training effects were found in the left inferior frontal sulcus and gyrus, which varied in amplitude between the groups. Overall, the data reveal that different remediation programmes matched to individual profiles of dyslexia may improve reading ability and commonly affect the VWFA in dyslexia as a shared part of otherwise distinct networks.

  9. Relation between waking sport activities, reading, and dream content in sport students and psychology students.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Erlacher, Daniel

    2008-05-01

    The continuity hypothesis in its general form states that dreams reflect waking life: concerns, thoughts, and experiences (G. W. Domhoff, 1996; M. Schredl, 1999; I. Strauch & B. Meier, 1996). For example, athletes and sport students dream about sports more often than do psychology students, presumably reflecting their engagement in sport activities and sport theory (D. Erlacher & M. Schredl, 2004). In the present study, the authors tested the previously unexamined hypothesis that differences in dream content would directly reflect individuals' differing amounts of waking sport activities. As expected, the amount of time that individuals spent engaged in an activity (sports or reading) was directly related to their percentage of corresponding dreams. Also, individuals reported reading dreams less frequently than they did sport dreams, although reading was more prominent in their waking lives than were sport activities. The findings also indicated that other factors such as emotional involvement and associated worries might be of importance in explaining the relation between waking activities and dream events. Future studies using longitudinal designs would shed more light on this relation and would help derive a more precise formulation of the continuity hypothesis.

  10. Promoting active learning of graduate student by deep reading in biochemistry and microbiology pharmacy curriculum.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ren

    2017-01-06

    To promote graduate students' active learning, deep reading of high quality papers was done by graduate students enrolled in biochemistry and microbiology pharmacy curriculum offered by college of life science, Jiangxi Normal University from 2013 to 2015. The number of graduate students, who participated in the course in 2013, 2014, and 2015 were eleven, thirteen and fifteen, respectively. Through deep reading of papers, presentation, and group discussion in the lecture, these graduate students have improved their academic performances effectively, such as literature search, PPT document production, presentation management, specialty document reading, academic inquiry, and analytical and comprehensive ability. The graduate students also have increased their understanding level of frontier research, scientific research methods, and experimental methods. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2017.

  11. Does reading keep you thin? Leisure activities, cultural tastes, and body weight in comparative perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.

    2011-01-01

    While sedentary leisure-time activities such as reading, going to movies, attending cultural events, attending sporting events, watching TV, listening to music, and socializing with friends would seem to contribute to excess weight, a perspective focusing on SES differences in cultural tastes suggests the opposite, that some sedentary activities are associated with lower rather than higher body weight. This study aims to test theories of cultural distinction by examining relationships between leisure-time activities and body weight. Using 2007 data on 17 nations from the International Social Survey Program, the analysis estimates relationships between the body mass index and varied leisure-time activities while controlling for SES, physical activities, and sociodemographic variables. Net of controls for SES and physical activities, participation time in cultural activities is associated with lower rather than higher body weight, particularly in high-income nations. The results suggest that both cultural activities and body weight reflect forms of distinction that separate SES-based lifestyles. PMID:21707664

  12. Dynamic brain architectures in local brain activity and functional network efficiency associate with efficient reading in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Feng, Gangyi; Chen, Hsuan-Chih; Zhu, Zude; He, Yong; Wang, Suiping

    2015-10-01

    The human brain is organized as a dynamic network, in which both regional brain activity and inter-regional connectivity support high-level cognitive processes, such as reading. However, it is still largely unknown how the functional brain network organizes to enable fast and effortless reading processing in the native language (L1) but not in a non-proficient second language (L2), and whether the mechanisms underlying local activity are associated with connectivity dynamics in large-scale brain networks. In the present study, we combined activation-based and multivariate graph-theory analysis with functional magnetic resonance imaging data to address these questions. Chinese-English unbalanced bilinguals read narratives for comprehension in Chinese (L1) and in English (L2). Compared with L2, reading in L1 evoked greater brain activation and recruited a more globally efficient but less clustered network organization. Regions with both increased network efficiency and enhanced brain activation in L1 reading were mostly located in the fronto-temporal reading-related network (RN), whereas regions with decreased global network efficiency, increased clustering, and more deactivation in L2 reading were identified in the default mode network (DMN). Moreover, functional network efficiency was closely associated with local brain activation, and such associations were also modulated by reading efficiency in the two languages. Our results demonstrate that an economical and integrative brain network topology is associated with efficient reading, and further reveal a dynamic association between network efficiency and local activation for both RN and DMN. These findings underscore the importance of considering interregional connectivity when interpreting local BOLD signal changes in bilingual reading.

  13. Variants in the DYX2 locus are associated with altered brain activation in reading-related brain regions in subjects with reading disability.

    PubMed

    Cope, Natalie; Eicher, John D; Meng, Haiying; Gibson, Christopher J; Hager, Karl; Lacadie, Cheryl; Fulbright, Robert K; Constable, R Todd; Page, Grier P; Gruen, Jeffrey R

    2012-10-15

    Reading disability (RD) is a complex genetic disorder with unknown etiology. Genes on chromosome 6p22, including DCDC2, KIAA0319, and TTRAP, have been identified as RD associated genes. Imaging studies have shown both functional and structural differences between brains of individuals with and without RD. There are limited association studies performed between RD genes, specifically genes on 6p22, and regional brain activation during reading tasks. Using fourteen variants in DCDC2, KIAA0319, and TTRAP and exhaustive reading measures, we first tested for association with reading performance in 82 parent-offspring families (326 individuals). Next, we determined the association of these variants with activation of sixteen brain regions of interest during four functional magnetic resonance imaging-reading tasks. We nominally replicated associations between reading performance and variants of DCDC2 and KIAA0319. Furthermore, we observed a number of associations with brain activation patterns during imaging-reading tasks with all three genes. The strongest association occurred between activation of the left anterior inferior parietal lobe and complex tandem repeat BV677278 in DCDC2 (uncorrected p=0.00003, q=0.0442). Our results show that activation patterns across regions of interest in the brain are influenced by variants in the DYX2 locus. The combination of genetic and functional imaging data show a link between genes and brain functioning during reading tasks in subjects with RD. This study highlights the many advantages of imaging data as an endophenotype for discerning genetic risk factors for RD and other communication disorders and underscores the importance of integrating neurocognitive, imaging, and genetic data in future investigations.

  14. Variants in the DYX2 locus are associated with altered brain activation in reading-related brain regions in subjects with reading disability

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Natalie; Eicher, John D.; Meng, Haiying; Gibson, Christopher J.; Hager, Karl; Lacadie, Cheryl; Fulbright, Robert K.; Constable, R. Todd; Page, Grier P.; Gruen, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Reading disability (RD) is a complex genetic disorder with unknown etiology. Genes on chromosome 6p22, including DCDC2, KIAA0319, and TTRAP, have been identified as RD associated genes. Imaging studies have shown both functional and structural differences between brains of individuals with and without RD. There are limited association studies performed between RD genes, specifically genes on 6p22, and regional brain activation during reading tasks. Using fourteen variants in DCDC2, KIAA0319, and TTRAP and exhaustive reading measures, we first tested for association with reading performance in 82 parent-offspring families (326 individuals). Next, we determined the association of these variants with activation of sixteen brain regions of interest during four functional magnetic resonance imaging-reading tasks. We nominally replicated associations between reading performance and variants of DCDC2 and KIAA0319. Furthermore, we observed a number of associations with brain activation patterns during imaging-reading tasks with all three genes. The strongest association occurred between activation of the left anterior inferior parietal lobe and complex tandem repeat BV677278 in DCDC2 (uncorrected p=0.00003, q=0.0442). Our results show that activation patterns across regions of interest in the brain are influenced by variants in the DYX2 locus. The combination of genetic and functional imaging data show a link between genes and brain functioning during reading tasks in subjects with RD. This study highlights the many advantages of imaging data as an endophenotype for discerning genetic risk factors for RD and other communication disorders and underscores the importance of integrating neurocognitive, imaging, and genetic data in future investigations. PMID:22750057

  15. Print-specific multimodal brain activation in kindergarten improves prediction of reading skills in second grade.

    PubMed

    Bach, Silvia; Richardson, Ulla; Brandeis, Daniel; Martin, Ernst; Brem, Silvia

    2013-11-15

    Children who are poor readers usually experience troublesome school careers and consequently often suffer from secondary emotional and behavioural problems. Early identification and prediction of later reading problems thus are critical in order to start targeted interventions for those children with an elevated risk for emerging reading problems. In this study, behavioural precursors of reading were assessed in nineteen (aged 6.4 ± 0.3 years) non-reading kindergarteners before training letter-speech sound associations with a computerized game (Graphogame) for eight weeks. The training aimed to introduce the basic principles of letter-speech sound correspondences and to initialize the sensitization of specific brain areas to print. Event-related potentials (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were recorded during an explicit word/symbol processing task after the training. Reading skills were assessed two years later in second grade. The focus of this study was on clarifying whether electrophysiological and fMRI data of kindergarten children significantly improve prediction of future reading skills in 2nd grade over behavioural data alone. Based on evidence from previous studies demonstrating the importance of initial print sensitivity in the left occipito-temporal visual word form system (VWFS) for learning to read, the first pronounced difference in processing words compared to symbols in the ERP, an occipito-temporal negativity (N1: 188-281 ms) along with the corresponding functional activation in the left occipito-temporal VWFS were defined as potential predictors. ERP and fMRI data in kindergarteners significantly improved the prediction of reading skills in 2nd grade over behavioural data alone. Together with the behavioural measures they explained up to 88% of the variance. An additional discriminant analysis revealed a remarkably high accuracy in classifying normal (n=11) and poor readers (n=6). Due to the key limitation of the study

  16. Neural activity tied to reading predicts individual differences in extended-text comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Mossbridge, Julia A.; Grabowecky, Marcia; Paller, Ken A.; Suzuki, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension depends on neural processes supporting the access, understanding, and storage of words over time. Examinations of the neural activity correlated with reading have contributed to our understanding of reading comprehension, especially for the comprehension of sentences and short passages. However, the neural activity associated with comprehending an extended text is not well-understood. Here we describe a current-source-density (CSD) index that predicts individual differences in the comprehension of an extended text. The index is the difference in CSD-transformed event-related potentials (ERPs) to a target word between two conditions: a comprehension condition with words from a story presented in their original order, and a scrambled condition with the same words presented in a randomized order. In both conditions participants responded to the target word, and in the comprehension condition they also tried to follow the story in preparation for a comprehension test. We reasoned that the spatiotemporal pattern of difference-CSDs would reflect comprehension-related processes beyond word-level processing. We used a pattern-classification method to identify the component of the difference-CSDs that accurately (88%) discriminated good from poor comprehenders. The critical CSD index was focused at a frontal-midline scalp site, occurred 400–500 ms after target-word onset, and was strongly correlated with comprehension performance. Behavioral data indicated that group differences in effort or motor preparation could not explain these results. Further, our CSD index appears to be distinct from the well-known P300 and N400 components, and CSD transformation seems to be crucial for distinguishing good from poor comprehenders using our experimental paradigm. Once our CSD index is fully characterized, this neural signature of individual differences in extended-text comprehension may aid the diagnosis and remediation of reading comprehension deficits. PMID

  17. A Study of the Effects of Self-Directed Activity Upon Quantity, Quality, and Variety of Responses in a Group Directed Reading-Thinking Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William Warner

    Many behavioral theorists have suggested that self-directed activity is central to the learning process (e.g., Dewey, Piaget, Wertheimer). Accordingly, it was predicted that such activity bears a significant positive relationship to the quantity, quality, and variety of responses in a reading lesson. Moreover, it was expected that selected…

  18. Dynamic Assessment of Reading Difficulties: Predictive and Incremental Validity on Attitude toward Reading and the Use of Dialogue/Participation Strategies in Classroom Activities

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Juan-José; Lara, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic Assessment (DA) has been shown to have more predictive value than conventional tests for academic performance. However, in relation to reading difficulties, further research is needed to determine the predictive validity of DA for specific aspects of the different processes involved in reading and the differential validity of DA for different subgroups of students with an academic disadvantage. This paper analyzes the implementation of a DA device that evaluates processes involved in reading (EDPL) among 60 students with reading comprehension difficulties between 9 and 16 years of age, of whom 20 have intellectual disabilities, 24 have reading-related learning disabilities, and 16 have socio-cultural disadvantages. We specifically analyze the predictive validity of the EDPL device over attitude toward reading, and the use of dialogue/participation strategies in reading activities in the classroom during the implementation stage. We also analyze if the EDPL device provides additional information to that obtained with a conventionally applied personal-social adjustment scale (APSL). Results showed that dynamic scores, obtained from the implementation of the EDPL device, significantly predict the studied variables. Moreover, dynamic scores showed a significant incremental validity in relation to predictions based on an APSL scale. In relation to differential validity, the results indicated the superior predictive validity for DA for students with intellectual disabilities and reading disabilities than for students with socio-cultural disadvantages. Furthermore, the role of metacognition and its relation to the processes of personal-social adjustment in explaining the results is discussed. PMID:28243215

  19. Dynamic Assessment of Reading Difficulties: Predictive and Incremental Validity on Attitude toward Reading and the Use of Dialogue/Participation Strategies in Classroom Activities.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Juan-José; Lara, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic Assessment (DA) has been shown to have more predictive value than conventional tests for academic performance. However, in relation to reading difficulties, further research is needed to determine the predictive validity of DA for specific aspects of the different processes involved in reading and the differential validity of DA for different subgroups of students with an academic disadvantage. This paper analyzes the implementation of a DA device that evaluates processes involved in reading (EDPL) among 60 students with reading comprehension difficulties between 9 and 16 years of age, of whom 20 have intellectual disabilities, 24 have reading-related learning disabilities, and 16 have socio-cultural disadvantages. We specifically analyze the predictive validity of the EDPL device over attitude toward reading, and the use of dialogue/participation strategies in reading activities in the classroom during the implementation stage. We also analyze if the EDPL device provides additional information to that obtained with a conventionally applied personal-social adjustment scale (APSL). Results showed that dynamic scores, obtained from the implementation of the EDPL device, significantly predict the studied variables. Moreover, dynamic scores showed a significant incremental validity in relation to predictions based on an APSL scale. In relation to differential validity, the results indicated the superior predictive validity for DA for students with intellectual disabilities and reading disabilities than for students with socio-cultural disadvantages. Furthermore, the role of metacognition and its relation to the processes of personal-social adjustment in explaining the results is discussed.

  20. Reading as active sensing: a computational model of gaze planning in word recognition.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Marcello; Ognibene, Dimitri; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Pirrelli, Vito

    2010-01-01

    WE OFFER A COMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF GAZE PLANNING DURING READING THAT CONSISTS OF TWO MAIN COMPONENTS: a lexical representation network, acquiring lexical representations from input texts (a subset of the Italian CHILDES database), and a gaze planner, designed to recognize written words by mapping strings of characters onto lexical representations. The model implements an active sensing strategy that selects which characters of the input string are to be fixated, depending on the predictions dynamically made by the lexical representation network. We analyze the developmental trajectory of the system in performing the word recognition task as a function of both increasing lexical competence, and correspondingly increasing lexical prediction ability. We conclude by discussing how our approach can be scaled up in the context of an active sensing strategy applied to a robotic setting.

  1. Reading as Active Sensing: A Computational Model of Gaze Planning in Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Marcello; Ognibene, Dimitri; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Pirrelli, Vito

    2010-01-01

    We offer a computational model of gaze planning during reading that consists of two main components: a lexical representation network, acquiring lexical representations from input texts (a subset of the Italian CHILDES database), and a gaze planner, designed to recognize written words by mapping strings of characters onto lexical representations. The model implements an active sensing strategy that selects which characters of the input string are to be fixated, depending on the predictions dynamically made by the lexical representation network. We analyze the developmental trajectory of the system in performing the word recognition task as a function of both increasing lexical competence, and correspondingly increasing lexical prediction ability. We conclude by discussing how our approach can be scaled up in the context of an active sensing strategy applied to a robotic setting. PMID:20577589

  2. Identification and characterization of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus open reading frame 11 promotor activation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Lei

    2008-01-01

    Open reading frame 11 (ORF11) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus belongs to a herpesviral homologous protein family shared by some members of the gamma- herpesvirus subfamily. Little is known about this ORF11 homologous protein family. We have characterized an unknown open reading frame, ORF11, located adjacent and in the opposite orientation to a well-characterized viral IL-6 gene. Northern blot analysis reveals that ORF11 is expressed during the KSHV lytic cycle with delayed-early transcription kinetics. We have determined the 5{prime} and 3{prime} untranslated region of the unspliced ORF11 transcript and identified both the transcription start site and the transcription termination site. Core promoter region, representing ORF11 promoter activity, was mapped to a 159nt fragment 5{prime} most proximal to the transcription start site. A functional TATA box was identified in the core promoter region. Interestingly, we found that ORF11 transcriptional activation is not responsive to Rta, the KSHV lytic switch protein. We also discovered that part of the ORF11 promoter region, the 209nt fragment upstream of the transcription start site, was repressed by phorbol esters. Our data help to understand transcription regulation of ORF11 and to elucidate roles of ORF11 in KSHV pathogenesis and life cycle.

  3. Individual Differences in Skilled Adult Readers Reveal Dissociable Patterns of Neural Activity Associated with Component Processes of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welcome, Suzanne E.; Joanisse, Marc F.

    2012-01-01

    We used fMRI to examine patterns of brain activity associated with component processes of visual word recognition and their relationships to individual differences in reading skill. We manipulated both the judgments adults made on written stimuli and the characteristics of the stimuli. Phonological processing led to activation in left inferior…

  4. Reading and Writing to Learn in Secondary Education: Online Processing Activity and Written Products in Summarizing and Synthesizing Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mateos, Mar; Martin, Elena; Villalon, Ruth; Luna, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The research reported here employed a multiple-case study methodology to assess the online cognitive and metacognitive activities of 15-year-old secondary students as they read informational texts and wrote a new text in order to learn, and the relation of these activities to the written products they were asked to generate. To investigate the…

  5. Open Your Cupboards to Learning Center Games: Activities for Reinforcing Math and Reading Skills for Teacher and Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langham, Martha A.; Peterson, Nancy M.

    This book has been developed to furnish teachers and parents with ideas for activities and games which aid children in the transition from oral language to printed language for reading and math. These games are designed to provide children with activities and experiences that increase vocabularies and make them useful in communication, language…

  6. [Spatio-Temporal Bioelectrical Brain Activity Organization during Reading Syntagmatic and Paradigmatic Collocations by Students with Different Foreign Language Proficiency].

    PubMed

    Sokolova, L V; Cherkasova, A S

    2015-01-01

    Texts or words/pseudowords are often used as stimuli for human verbal activity research. Our study pays attention to decoding processes of grammatical constructions consisted of two-three words--collocations. Russian and English collocation sets without any narrative were presented to Russian-speaking students with different English language skill. Stimulus material had two types of collocations: paradigmatic and syntagmatic. 30 students (average age--20.4 ± 0.22) took part in the study, they were divided into two equal groups depending on their English language skill (linguists/nonlinguists). During reading brain bioelectrical activity of cortex has been registered from 12 electrodes in alfa-, beta-, theta-bands. Coherent function reflecting cooperation of different cortical areas during reading collocations has been analyzed. Increase of interhemispheric and diagonal connections while reading collocations in different languages in the group of students with low knowledge of foreign language testifies of importance of functional cooperation between the hemispheres. It has been found out that brain bioelectrical activity of students with good foreign language knowledge during reading of all collocation types in Russian and English is characterized by economization of nervous substrate resources compared to nonlinguists. Selective activation of certain cortical areas has also been observed (depending on the grammatical construction type) in nonlinguists group that is probably related to special decoding system which processes presented stimuli. Reading Russian paradigmatic constructions by nonlinguists entailed increase between left cortical areas, reading of English syntagmatic collocations--between right ones.

  7. Reading a Suspenseful Literary Text Activates Brain Areas Related to Social Cognition and Predictive Inference

    PubMed Central

    Lehne, Moritz; Engel, Philipp; Rohrmeier, Martin; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Stories can elicit powerful emotions. A key emotional response to narrative plots (e.g., novels, movies, etc.) is suspense. Suspense appears to build on basic aspects of human cognition such as processes of expectation, anticipation, and prediction. However, the neural processes underlying emotional experiences of suspense have not been previously investigated. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while participants read a suspenseful literary text (E.T.A. Hoffmann's “The Sandman”) subdivided into short text passages. Individual ratings of experienced suspense obtained after each text passage were found to be related to activation in the medial frontal cortex, bilateral frontal regions (along the inferior frontal sulcus), lateral premotor cortex, as well as posterior temporal and temporo-parietal areas. The results indicate that the emotional experience of suspense depends on brain areas associated with social cognition and predictive inference. PMID:25946306

  8. Using Technology and Creative Reading Activities to Increase Pleasure Reading among High School Students in Resource Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Katherine B.

    This applied dissertation was designed to encourage resource students to read more books for pleasure. Resource students in the writer's high school did not read many books for pleasure. Students had short attention spans and found it difficult to finish school assignments without encouragement. They also found reading difficult and often said…

  9. A trade-off between somatosensory and auditory related brain activity during object naming but not reading.

    PubMed

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Hope, Thomas M H; Prejawa, Susan; Parker Jones, 'Ōiwi; Vitkovitch, Melanie; Price, Cathy J

    2015-03-18

    The parietal operculum, particularly the cytoarchitectonic area OP1 of the secondary somatosensory area (SII), is involved in somatosensory feedback. Using fMRI with 58 human subjects, we investigated task-dependent differences in SII/OP1 activity during three familiar speech production tasks: object naming, reading and repeatedly saying "1-2-3." Bilateral SII/OP1 was significantly suppressed (relative to rest) during object naming, to a lesser extent when repeatedly saying "1-2-3" and not at all during reading. These results cannot be explained by task difficulty but the contrasting difference between naming and reading illustrates how the demands on somatosensory activity change with task, even when motor output (i.e., production of object names) is matched. To investigate what determined SII/OP1 deactivation during object naming, we searched the whole brain for areas where activity increased as that in SII/OP1 decreased. This across subject covariance analysis revealed a region in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) that lies within the auditory cortex, and is activated by auditory feedback during speech production. The tradeoff between activity in SII/OP1 and STS was not observed during reading, which showed significantly more activation than naming in both SII/OP1 and STS bilaterally. These findings suggest that, although object naming is more error prone than reading, subjects can afford to rely more or less on somatosensory or auditory feedback during naming. In contrast, fast and efficient error-free reading places more consistent demands on both types of feedback, perhaps because of the potential for increased competition between lexical and sublexical codes at the articulatory level.

  10. What makes the dorsomedial frontal cortex active during reading the mental states of others?

    PubMed Central

    Isoda, Masaki; Noritake, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    The dorsomedial frontal part of the cerebral cortex is consistently activated when people read the mental states of others, such as their beliefs, desires, and intentions, the ability known as having a theory of mind (ToM) or mentalizing. This ubiquitous finding has led many researchers to conclude that the dorsomedial frontal cortex (DMFC) constitutes a core component in mentalizing networks. Despite this, it remains unclear why the DMFC becomes active during ToM tasks. We argue that key psychological and behavioral aspects in mentalizing are closely associated with DMFC functions. These include executive inhibition, distinction between self and others, prediction under uncertainty, and perception of intentions, all of which are important for predicting others' intention and behavior. We review the literature supporting this claim, ranging in fields from developmental psychology to human neuroimaging and macaque electrophysiology. Because perceiving intentions in others' actions initiates mentalizing and forms the basis of virtually all types of social interaction, the fundamental issue in social neuroscience is to determine the aspects of physical entities that make an observer perceive that they are intentional beings and to clarify the neurobiological underpinnings of the perception of intentionality in others' actions. PMID:24367287

  11. El Reto: A Leer America! A Leer Y Escribir Ya! Como Divertirse Leyendo Y Escribiendo. (America Reads Challenge: Read*Write*Now! Activities for Reading and Writing Fun)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kameenui, Edward J.; Simmons, Deborah C.

    Developed by national reading experts for the "America Reads Challenge: Read*Write*Now!" initiative and translated into Spanish, this booklet provides 45 ideas for families, teachers, librarians, and other learning partners to use with all children--including those with disabilities--to help them read well and independently by the end of…

  12. Parental Involvement in School Activities and Reading Literacy: Findings and Implications from PIRLS 2011 Data. Policy Brief No. 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirazchiyski, Plamen; Klemencic, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief presents evidence demonstrating a positive association between parental involvement in school activities and student performance in the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2011. This association, which was evident in most of the 54 education systems analyzed, indicates that students enrolled in schools with…

  13. Associations among Preschool Children's Classroom Literacy Environment, Interest and Engagement in Literacy Activities, and Early Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroody, Alison E.; Diamond, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relations among the classroom literacy environment, children's interest and engagement in literacy activities, and children's early reading skills in a sample of 167 children aged 4 and 5 years enrolled in 31 Head Start classrooms. Researchers rated the classroom literacy environment. Teachers reported on children's…

  14. Preschoolers' Acquisition of Scientific Vocabulary through Repeated Read-Aloud Events, Retellings, and Hands-on Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia B.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored 3- and 4-year-old children's development of scientific vocabulary from participation in repeated interactive read-aloud events and retellings of three informational picture books about light and color, followed by hands-on science activities. Thirty-two children attending a YWCA preschool were matched by age and general…

  15. The Relationship of Oral Reading, Dramatic Activities, and Theatrical Production to Student Communication Skills, Knowledge, Comprehension, and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Robert S.; Koziol, Stephen M., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Studies the effects and interactions of a planned curriculum and 4 different sequences of oral reading, dramatic activities, and theatrical production on ninth grade students' communication skills, knowledge, comprehension, and attitudes toward self and theater. Reports significant improvement in communication skills and attitudes toward self and…

  16. Examining the delivery modes of metacognitive awareness and active reading lessons in a college nonmajors introductory biology course.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kendra M; Brözel, Volker S; Heiberger, Greg A

    2014-05-01

    Current research supports the role of metacognitive strategies to enhance reading comprehension. This study measured the effectiveness of online versus face-to-face metacognitive and active reading skills lessons introduced by Biology faculty to college students in a nonmajors introductory biology course. These lessons were delivered in two lectures either online (Group 1: N = 154) or face to face (Group 2: N = 152). Previously validated pre- and post- surveys were used to collect and compare data by paired and independent t-test analysis (α = 0.05). Pre- and post- survey data showed a statistically significant improvement in both groups in metacognitive awareness (p = 0.001, p = 0.003, respectively) and reading comprehension (p < 0.001 for both groups). When comparing the delivery mode of these lessons, no difference was detected between the online and face-to-face instruction for metacognitive awareness (pre- p = 0.619, post- p = 0.885). For reading comprehension, no difference in gains was demonstrated between online and face-to-face (p = 0.381); however, differences in pre- and post- test scores were measured (pre- p = 0.005, post- p = 0.038). This study suggests that biology instructors can easily introduce effective metacognitive awareness and active reading lessons into their course, either through online or face-to-face instruction.

  17. Examining the Delivery Modes of Metacognitive Awareness and Active Reading Lessons in a College Nonmajors Introductory Biology Course†

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kendra M.; Brözel, Volker S.; Heiberger, Greg A.

    2014-01-01

    Current research supports the role of metacognitive strategies to enhance reading comprehension. This study measured the effectiveness of online versus face-to-face metacognitive and active reading skills lessons introduced by Biology faculty to college students in a nonmajors introductory biology course. These lessons were delivered in two lectures either online (Group 1: N = 154) or face to face (Group 2: N = 152). Previously validated pre- and post- surveys were used to collect and compare data by paired and independent t-test analysis (α = 0.05). Pre- and post- survey data showed a statistically significant improvement in both groups in metacognitive awareness (p = 0.001, p = 0.003, respectively) and reading comprehension (p < 0.001 for both groups). When comparing the delivery mode of these lessons, no difference was detected between the online and face-to-face instruction for metacognitive awareness (pre- p = 0.619, post- p = 0.885). For reading comprehension, no difference in gains was demonstrated between online and face-to-face (p = 0.381); however, differences in pre- and post- test scores were measured (pre- p = 0.005, post- p = 0.038). This study suggests that biology instructors can easily introduce effective metacognitive awareness and active reading lessons into their course, either through online or face-to-face instruction. PMID:24839509

  18. Small Schools Reading Curriculum, 7-8: Reading, Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies. Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartl, David, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to assist teachers in small schools with the improvement of curriculum and instruction and to help smaller districts which do not have curriculum personnel to comply with Washington's Student Learning Objectives (SLO) Law, this guide contains reading curriculum materials for grades 7 and 8. The objectives listed are correlated to the…

  19. Small Schools Reading Curriculum, K-3: Reading, Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies. Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartl, David, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to assist teachers in small schools with the improvement of curriculum and instruction and to help smaller districts which do not have curriculum personnel to comply with Washington's Student Learning Objectives (SLO) Law, this guide contains reading curriculum materials for grades K-3. The objectives listed are correlated to the Goals…

  20. Small Schools Reading Curriculum, 4-6: Reading, Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies. Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartl, David, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to assist teachers in small schools with the improvement of curriculum and instruction and to help smaller districts which do not have curriculum personnel to comply with Washington's Student Learning Objectives (SLO) Law, this guide contains reading curriculum materials for grades 4-6. The objectives listed are correlated to the Goals…

  1. Augmenting Paper-Based Reading Activity with Direct Access to Digital Materials and Scaffolded Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Nian-Shing; Teng, Daniel Chia-En; Lee, Cheng-Han; Kinshuk

    2011-01-01

    Comprehension is the goal of reading. However, students often encounter reading difficulties due to the lack of background knowledge and proper reading strategy. Unfortunately, print text provides very limited assistance to one's reading comprehension through its static knowledge representations such as symbols, charts, and graphs. Integrating…

  2. Modulation of cortical activity during comprehension of familiar and unfamiliar text topics in speed reading and speed listening

    PubMed Central

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Mason, Robert A.; Meschyan, Gayane; Keller, Timothy A.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2014-01-01

    Brain activation associated with normal and speeded comprehension of expository texts on familiar and unfamiliar topics was investigated in reading and listening. The goal was to determine how brain activation and the comprehension processes it reflects are modulated by comprehension speed and topic familiarity. Passages on more familiar topics differentially activated a set of areas in the anterior temporal lobe and medial frontal gyrus, areas often associated with text-level integration processes, which we interpret to reflect integration of previous knowledge with the passage content. Passages presented at the faster presentation resulted in more activation of a network of frontal areas associated with strategic and working-memory processes (as well as visual or auditory sensory-related regions), which we interpret to reflect maintenance of local coherence among briefly available passage segments. The implications of this research is to demonstrate how the brain system for text comprehension adapts to varying perceptual and knowledge conditions. PMID:25463816

  3. Conformational Changes in the Activation Loop of Mitochondrial Glutaminase C: A Direct Fluorescence Read-Out that Distinguishes the Binding of Allosteric Inhibitors from Activators.

    PubMed

    Stalnecker, Clint A; Erickson, Jon W; Cerione, Richard A

    2017-02-14

    The first step in glutamine catabolism is catalyzed by the mitochondrial enzyme glutaminase, with a specific isoform, glutaminase C (GAC), being highly expressed in cancer cells. GAC activation requires the formation of homo-tetramers, promoted by anionic allosteric activators such as inorganic phosphate. This leads to the proper orientation of a flexible loop proximal to the dimer-dimer interface that is essential for catalysis (i.e. the activation loop). A major class of allosteric inhibitors of GAC, with the prototype being BPTES (bis-2-(5-phenylacetamido-1,2,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)ethyl sulfide), and the related molecule CB-839, binds to the activation loop and induces the formation of an inactive tetramer (2 inhibitors bound per active tetramer). Here, we describe a direct readout for monitoring the dynamics of the activation loop of GAC in response to these allosteric inhibitors, as well as allosteric activators, through the substitution of phenylalanine at position 327 with tryptophan (F327W). The tryptophan fluorescence of the GAC(F327W) mutant undergoes a marked quenching upon the binding of BPTES or CB-839, yielding titration profiles that make it possible to measure the binding affinities of these inhibitors for the enzyme. Allosteric activators like phosphate induce the opposite effect (i.e. a fluorescence enhancement). These results describe direct read-outs for the binding of the BPTES-class of allosteric inhibitors, as well as for inorganic phosphate and related activators of GAC, which should facilitate screening for additional modulators of this important metabolic enzyme.

  4. The Reading of Older Americans Who View Learning as a Lifelong Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngandu, Kathleen M.

    A study examined the reading behavior of 101 older adults enrolled in a summer "elderhostel" program offered by a small eastern college. Each subject responded to a questionnaire concerning reading habits, interests, attitudes, and motivations. Results showed that the older adults had a wide range of reading interests, including mysteries,…

  5. The Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA) and the Traditional Approach Using Tales of Virtue Based on His Majesty the King's Teaching Concepts in Seventh Grade Students' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaemsai, Rungruedee; Rattanavich, Saowalak

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the English reading comprehension and ethical awareness of 7th grade students, when using either a directed reading-thinking activity (DR-TA), or a more traditional approach, involving tales of virtue based on His Majesty the King's teaching concepts. A randomized control group pretest-posttest design was used for the study,…

  6. Enhancing Preschoolers' Executive Functions through Embedding Cognitive Activities in Shared Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, S. J.; Powell, T.; Vasseleu, E.; Johnstone, S.; Melhuish, E.

    2017-01-01

    Given evidence that early executive functioning sets the stage for a broad range of subsequent outcomes, researchers have sought to identify ways to foster these cognitive capacities. The current series of studies sought to design, develop, and provide evidence for the efficacy of embedding cognitive activities in a commonplace activity--shared…

  7. Extensive Reading in the EFL Classroom: Benefits of a Face-to-Face Collaboration Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchhoff, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Extensive reading is an approach to language education that has shown great promise for foreign language learners to acquire language; however, implementation reveals difficulty in maintaining student motivation to read over long periods of time. This study investigates students' experience of face-to-face talk about books in an extensive reading…

  8. Activating Student Background Knowledge in a Take Charge Approach to Foreign Language Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Dolly J.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses the immediate needs of language teachers who want to develop their students' reading skills but have not been provided with the instructional information necessary to do so. It suggests a methodological sequence for using the students' background knowledge and strategy training for foreign language reading using authentic texts. (33…

  9. Activating Student Background Knowledge in a Take Charge Approach to Foreign Language Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Dolly Jesusita

    A guide for teachers of second language reading offers ideas for using authentic texts as instructional materials. The guide focuses on how to teach students to become strategic readers and use their background knowledge to enhance comprehension. Schema theory is proposed as a framework for approaching reading tasks, by providing relevant pre- and…

  10. The Effects of Authentic Reading Activities on the Written Production of Novice College Spanish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capanegra, Ana Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Many scholars have researched reading-to-writing relations, some of which found reading to be an effective enhancer of writing (Al-Jarf, 2004; Asencior, 2006; Lee, 1986a; Lee & Riley, 1990; Perez-Sotelo & Gonzalez-Bueno, 2003; Shang, 2007). Similar beginner college student samples were used previously by Asencior (2006), Perez-Sotelo and…

  11. Cooccurrence of problems in activity level, attention, psychosocial adjustment, reading and writing in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Mei-Hui; Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Chuang, I-Ching; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the cooccurrence of problems in activity level, attention, reading, writing and psychosocial adjustment of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). A parent-report questionnaire, the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire - Chinese version (DCDQ-C), was used to screen first to third graders from 13 mainstream schools in Taipei. Two standardized motor tests were then administered to those who scored below 10% on the DCDQ-C. Tests of activity level, attention, reading, writing and psychosocial adjustment were then administered to this sample. Thirty-eight children identified as DCD, 32 as suspect for DCD and 82 as normal comparison were included in the final sample. Multivariate analysis of variance comparing the three groups (DCD, suspect DCD, and comparison) revealed that both children with DCD and suspect for DCD obtained significantly poorer scores on measures of attention and reading, and were more hyperactive than comparison children. Children with DCD and suspect for DCD were also reported to have more internalizing and social problems than children without motor problems. No significant differences, however, were noted between children with different degree of motor coordination problems (categorized as DCD and suspect for DCD) on any measure. Furthermore, a high percentage of children in both the DCD and suspect groups fell in the clinical range of attention, activity level and psychosocial adjustment problems. The results revealed a high risk for these problems in nonreferred children with motor coordination problems. The high percentage of clinical range behavioral problems warrants attention of clinicians who work with children with motor coordination difficulties to the need to promote early identification and referral.

  12. Phonological and Semantic Activation in Reading Two-Kanji Compound Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morita, Aiko; Matsuda, Fumiko

    2000-01-01

    Examined whether phonological information was activated automatically in processing two kanji compound words. In one experiment, participants judged whether pairs of words were homophones, while others judged whether pairs were synonyms. In the second, participants were asked to make one of the two judgments, as in experiment one. Findings support…

  13. Using a Reading Strategy To Foster Active Learning in Content Area Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that using K-W-L as an active learning strategy in a traditional lecture classroom setting can facilitate interaction between professor, students and subject matter. Considers how this method fosters a sense of community between professor, the discipline, and students even in large classes. Concludes that one of the advantages of active…

  14. A Dual Read-Out Assay to Evaluate the Potency of Compounds Active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Ollinger, Juliane; Bailey, Mai Ann; Moraski, Garrett C.; Casey, Allen; Florio, Stephanie; Alling, Torey; Miller, Marvin J.; Parish, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a serious global health problem caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There is an urgent need for discovery and development of new treatments, but this can only be accomplished through rapid and reproducible M. tuberculosis assays designed to identify potent inhibitors. We developed an automated 96-well assay utilizing a recombinant strain of M. tuberculosis expressing a far-red fluorescent reporter to determine the activity of novel compounds; this allowed us to measure growth by monitoring both optical density and fluorescence. We determined that optical density and fluorescence were correlated with cell number during logarithmic phase growth. Fluorescence was stably maintained without antibiotic selection over 5 days, during which time cells remained actively growing. We optimized parameters for the assay, with the final format being 5 days’ growth in 96-well plates in the presence of 2% w/v DMSO. We confirmed reproducibility using rifampicin and other antibiotics. The dual detection method allows for a reproducible calculation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), at the same time detecting artefacts such as fluorescence quenching or compound precipitation. We used our assay to confirm anti-tubercular activity and establish the structure activity relationship (SAR) around the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-carboxamides, a promising series of M. tuberculosis inhibitors. PMID:23593234

  15. Reading, Writing, and Thinking about Disability Issues: Five Activities for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Tammie M.; Menten, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors share five practical teaching activities for introducing disability into the secondary English curriculum that also address NCTE/IRA objectives for the English language arts. They have used these lessons to help students better analyze the language/rhetoric of disability, understand how disability is represented in…

  16. Impact of Activity-Based Mathematics Instruction on Students with Different Prior Knowledge and Reading Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yüksel, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of activity-based mathematics instruction on mathematics performance and investigate those factors, which contribute to the mathematics performance of a sample of children aged between 10 and 12 years. The study was designed to consider the impact of prior knowledge, self-regulation, prior attitude,…

  17. Teacher Language Scaffolds the Development of Independent Strategic Reading Activities and Metacognitive Awareness in Emergent Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Polly A.; Schmitt, Maribeth Cassidy

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of teacher language related to a specific network of strategies for problem solving, self-monitoring, and self-correcting on (a) the development and use of independent strategic activities and (b) metacognitive awareness variables in emergent readers. Descriptive analyses of 120 individual lessons conducted…

  18. Where, when and why brain activation differs for bilinguals and monolinguals during picture naming and reading aloud.

    PubMed

    Parker Jones, Oiwi; Green, David W; Grogan, Alice; Pliatsikas, Christos; Filippopolitis, Konstantinos; Ali, Nilufa; Lee, Hwee Ling; Ramsden, Sue; Gazarian, Karine; Prejawa, Susan; Seghier, Mohamed L; Price, Cathy J

    2012-04-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that when bilinguals named pictures or read words aloud, in their native or nonnative language, activation was higher relative to monolinguals in 5 left hemisphere regions: dorsal precentral gyrus, pars triangularis, pars opercularis, superior temporal gyrus, and planum temporale. We further demonstrate that these areas are sensitive to increasing demands on speech production in monolinguals. This suggests that the advantage of being bilingual comes at the expense of increased work in brain areas that support monolingual word processing. By comparing the effect of bilingualism across a range of tasks, we argue that activation is higher in bilinguals compared with monolinguals because word retrieval is more demanding; articulation of each word is less rehearsed; and speech output needs careful monitoring to avoid errors when competition for word selection occurs between, as well as within, language.

  19. Active Lip Contour Using Hue Characteristics Energy Model for A Lip Reading System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogoshi, Yasuhiro; Ide, Hisato; Araki, Chikahiro; Kimura, Haruhiko

    Active contour model (SNAKES) is very used as one of the powerful technique in a contour extraction that utilizes principle of energy-minimizing. Performing extraction of lip contour with the lip image that has strong edges or noises on the lips and oral cavity is an important problem. This paper proposes a new energy model of SNAKES based on hue characteristics of lip images.

  20. Small Schools Reading Curriculum, 9-12: Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, JoAnne, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to assist teachers in small schools with the improvement of curriculum and instruction and to help smaller districts which do not have curriculum personnel to comply with Washington's Student Learning Objectives (SLO) Law, this guide contains reading curriculum materials for grades 9-12. The objectives listed are correlated to the Goals…

  1. Chinese Americans Past and Present; A Collection of Chinese American Readings and Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Don; Collier, Irene Dea

    This work consists of twenty reading selections, fiction and non-fiction. It is intended for use in grades 4 through 6 (9-12 year olds), and covers topics dealing with the history of the Chinese in America and contemporary Chinese American experience. These selections emphasize particularly the role the Chinese played in the development of the…

  2. Elementary School EFL Learners' Vocabulary Learning: The Effects of Post-Reading Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atay, Derin; Kurt, Gokce

    2006-01-01

    As language learning involves the acquisition of thousands of words, teachers and learners alike would like to know how vocabulary learning can be fostered, especially in EFL settings where learners frequently acquire impoverished lexicons, despite years of formal study. Research indicates that reading is important but not sufficient for…

  3. The Kids' Book Club: Lively Reading and Activities for Grades 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Desiree; Shropshire, Sandy

    Children learn to love reading by sharing quality books. Intended for children's librarians, media specialists, teachers, day care providers, and parents, this book will make it easy and fun to conduct book club meetings with little preparation time. Everything needed to start a weekly book club at school or at the library is included--detailed…

  4. Effect of Specialized In-Service Professional Development Activities on Elementary School Students' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Christy; Evans, Cay; Dai, Yong; Williams, Debbie; Rogers, Keitha

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether there was a significant increase in the reading achievement during second- and third-grade of the 12 students who attended Midway Elementary Professional Development School (PDS) from kindergarten through fifth grade. Additionally, the study was seeking a possible relationship between the in-service…

  5. Anticipation Guides: Ready-to-Use Guides & Fun Activities to Boost Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Joanne I; Vincent, Pamela J.

    2004-01-01

    Anticipation guides--work sheets that students complete before reading a book--can be invaluable tools for building prediction skills and helping students learn where to focus their attention. In this book, veteran teachers Joanne I. Hines and Pamela J. Vincent offer classroom-tested anticipation guides for a variety of trade books sure to engage…

  6. Invented Spelling Activities in Small Groups and Early Spelling and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Margarida Alves; Salvador, Liliana; Albuquerque, Ana; Silva, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the impact of an invented spelling programme conducted in small groups on children's written language acquisition in Portuguese. We expected the experimental group to have better post-test results than the control group in spelling and reading. Participants were 160 preschool-age children who were randomly divided into an…

  7. Using Web-Based Activities to Promote Reading: An Exploratory Study with Teenagers (Uso de actividades en la red para promover la lectura: un estudio exploratorio con adolescentes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rátiva Velandia, Marlén; Pedreros Torres, Andrés Leonardo; Núñez Alí, Mónica

    2012-01-01

    It is considered valuable to take advantage of web activities to improve and qualify the English teaching and learning processes, especially in the promotion of reading comprehension. In this article we share the process and results of a study that focused on some activities based on web materials that were designed and used with 10th grade…

  8. Scientific Encounters of the Mysterious Sea. Reading Activities That Explore the Mysterious Creatures of the Deep Blue Sea. Grades 4-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embry, Lynn

    This activity book presents reading activities for grades 4-7 exploring the mysterious creatures of the deep sea. The creatures include: angel sharks; argonauts; barberfish; comb jelly; croakers; electric rays; flying fish; giganturid; lantern fish; narwhals; northern basket starfish; ocean sunfish; Portuguese man-of-war; sea cucumbers; sea…

  9. An application of CCD read-out technique to neutron distribution measurement using the self-activation method with a CsI scintillator plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohtomi, Akihiro; Kurihara, Ryosuke; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Honda, Soichiro; Tokunaga, Masaaki; Uno, Heita; Shinsho, Kiyomitsu; Wakabayashi, Genichiro; Koba, Yusuke; Fukunaga, Junichi; Umezu, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Ohga, Saiji

    2016-10-01

    In our previous paper, the self-activation of an NaI scintillator had been successfully utilized for detecting photo-neutrons around a high-energy X-ray radiotherapy machine; individual optical pulses from the self-activated scintillator are read-out by photo sensors such as a photomultiplier tube (PMT). In the present work, preliminary observations have been performed in order to apply a direct CCD read-out technique to the self-activation method with a CsI scintillator plate using a Pu-Be source and a 10-MV linac. In conclusion, it has been revealed that the CCD read-out technique is applicable to neutron measurement around a high-energy X-ray radiotherapy machine with the self-activation of a CsI plate. Such application may provide a possibility of novel method for simple neutron dose-distribution measurement.

  10. Reading Salt Activates Gustatory Brain Regions: fMRI Evidence for Semantic Grounding in a Novel Sensory Modality

    PubMed Central

    González, Julio; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; Costumero, Víctor; Parcet, María Antonia; Ávila, César

    2012-01-01

    Because many words are typically used in the context of their referent objects and actions, distributed cortical circuits for these words may bind information about their form with perceptual and motor aspects of their meaning. Previous work has demonstrated such semantic grounding for sensorimotor, visual, auditory, and olfactory knowledge linked to words, which is manifest in activation of the corresponding areas of the cortex. Here, we explore the brain basis of gustatory semantic links of words whose meaning is primarily related to taste. In a blocked functional magnetic resonance imaging design, Spanish taste words and control words matched for a range of factors (including valence, arousal, imageability, frequency of use, number of letters and syllables) were presented to 59 right-handed participants in a passive reading task. Whereas all the words activated the left inferior frontal (BA44/45) and the posterior middle and superior temporal gyri (BA21/22), taste-related words produced a significantly stronger activation in these same areas and also in the anterior insula, frontal operculum, lateral orbitofrontal gyrus, and thalamus among others. As these areas comprise primary and secondary gustatory cortices, we conclude that the meaning of taste words is grounded in distributed cortical circuits reaching into areas that process taste sensations. PMID:22123940

  11. Optically readout write once read many memory with single active organic layer

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Viet Cuong; Lee, Pooi See

    2016-01-18

    An optically readable write once read many memory (WORM) in Ag/Poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH PPV)/ITO is demonstrated in this work. Utilising characteristics of the organic light emitting diode structure of Ag/MEH PPV/ITO and electrochemical metallization of Ag, a WORM with light emitting capability can be realised. The simple fabrication process and multifunction capability of the device can be useful for future wearable optoelectronics and photomemory applications, where fast and parallel readout can be achieved by photons.

  12. Optically readout write once read many memory with single active organic layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Viet Cuong; Lee, Pooi See

    2016-01-01

    An optically readable write once read many memory (WORM) in Ag/Poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH PPV)/ITO is demonstrated in this work. Utilising characteristics of the organic light emitting diode structure of Ag/MEH PPV/ITO and electrochemical metallization of Ag, a WORM with light emitting capability can be realised. The simple fabrication process and multifunction capability of the device can be useful for future wearable optoelectronics and photomemory applications, where fast and parallel readout can be achieved by photons.

  13. When deaf signers read English: do written words activate their sign translations?

    PubMed

    Morford, Jill P; Wilkinson, Erin; Villwock, Agnes; Piñar, Pilar; Kroll, Judith F

    2011-02-01

    Deaf bilinguals for whom American Sign Language (ASL) is the first language and English is the second language judged the semantic relatedness of word pairs in English. Critically, a subset of both the semantically related and unrelated word pairs were selected such that the translations of the two English words also had related forms in ASL. Word pairs that were semantically related were judged more quickly when the form of the ASL translation was also similar whereas word pairs that were semantically unrelated were judged more slowly when the form of the ASL translation was similar. A control group of hearing bilinguals without any knowledge of ASL produced an entirely different pattern of results. Taken together, these results constitute the first demonstration that deaf readers activate the ASL translations of written words under conditions in which the translation is neither present perceptually nor required to perform the task.

  14. Open reading frame UL26 of human cytomegalovirus encodes a novel tegument protein that contains a strong transcriptional activation domain.

    PubMed

    Stamminger, Thomas; Gstaiger, Matthias; Weinzierl, Konstanze; Lorz, Kerstin; Winkler, Michael; Schaffner, Walter

    2002-05-01

    A selection strategy, the activator trap, was used in order to identify genes of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) that encode strong transcriptional activation domains in mammalian cells. This approach is based on the isolation of activation domains from a GAL4 fusion library by means of selective plasmid replication, which is mediated in transfected cells by a GAL4-inducible T antigen gene. With this screening strategy, we were able to isolate two types of plasmids encoding transactivating fusion proteins from a library of random HCMV DNA inserts. One plasmid contained the exon 3 of the HCMV IE-1/2 gene region, which has previously been identified as a strong transcriptional activation domain. In the second type of plasmid, the open reading frame (ORF) UL26 of HCMV was fused to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain. By quantitative RNA mapping using S1 nuclease analysis, we were able to classify UL26 as a strong enhancer-type activation domain with no apparent homology to characterized transcriptional activators. Western blot analysis with a specific polyclonal antibody raised against a prokaryotic UL26 fusion protein revealed that two protein isoforms of 21 and 27 kDa are derived from the UL26 ORF in both infected and transfected cells. Both protein isoforms, which arise via alternative usage of two in-frame translational start codons, showed a nuclear localization and could be detected as early as 6 h after infection of primary human fibroblasts. By performing Western blot analysis with purified virions combined with fractionation experiments, we provide evidence that pUL26 is a novel tegument protein of HCMV that is imported during viral infection. Furthermore, we observed transactivation of the HCMV major immediate-early enhancer-promoter by pUL26, whereas several early and late promoters were not affected. Our data suggest that pUL26 is a novel tegument protein of HCMV with a strong transcriptional activation domain that could play an important role during initiation of

  15. Learning to read shapes the activation of neural lexical representations in the speech recognition pathway.

    PubMed

    Schild, Ulrike; Röder, Brigitte; Friedrich, Claudia K

    2011-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that written and spoken language processing are tightly linked. Here we focus on the development of this relationship at the time children start reading and writing. We hypothesize that the newly acquired knowledge about graphemes shapes lexical access in neural spoken word recognition. A group of preliterate children (six years old) and two groups of beginning readers (six and eight years old) were tested in a spoken word identification task. Using word onset priming we compared behavioural and neural facilitation for target words in identical prime-target pairs (e.g., mon-monster) and in prime target pairs that varied in the first speech sound (e.g., non-monster, Variation condition). In both groups of beginning readers priming was less effective in the Variation condition than in the Identity condition. This was indexed by less behavioural facilitation and enhanced P350 amplitudes in the event related potentials (ERPs). In the group of preliterate children, by contrast, both conditions did not differ. Together these results reveal that lexical access in beginning readers is based on more acoustic detail than lexical access in preliterate children. The results are discussed in the light of bidirectional speech and print interactions in readers.

  16. The influence of a semi-reclined seated posture on head and neck kinematics and muscle activity while reading a tablet computer.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Ethan C; Gallagher, Kaitlin M

    2017-04-01

    Increased tablet computer usage calls for a proper understanding of potential injury risks from these devices. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of tablet computer reading postures on head and neck flexion and muscle activity. Nineteen participants completed read a tablet computer in four different postures (standard computer monitor, tablet on a desk, tablet in the lap, semi-reclined with tablet in the lap). Reading the tablet in a semi-reclined trunk posture with the tablet in one's lap increased (p < 0.001) neck flexion angle (71.6%ROM) relative to reading from the standard computer monitor (6.39%ROM). Head flexion in the semi-reclined posture (19.7%ROM) and muscle activity (8.88%MVC) were similar to when reading from a standard computer monitor. Despite potentially reducing the gravitational moment produced by the head, the semi-reclined position could still compromise the force capabilities of the neck extensor musculature and result in increased strain on the passive tissues of the spine. Future work should assess how the semi-reclined position influences cervical intervertebral angles and passive tissue properties of the cervical spine. Overall, more research needs to be conducted on thoracic spine kinematics while reading a tablet computer.

  17. The Development and Evaluation of an Achievement Test for Measuring the Efficacy of Task-Based Writing Activities to Enhance Iranian EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejad, Ferdows Mohsen; Khosravian, Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the reliability of an achievement test to measure the efficacy of task-based writing activities to improve Iranian EFL learners' reading comprehension at the intermediate level in a private language institute in Ilam, Iran, namely Alefba language institute. To achieve the goal, the techniques for evaluating reliability…

  18. Read, Play, and Learn! Storybook Activities for Young Children. The Transdisciplinary Play-Based Curriculum. Collection 2: Modules 9-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Toni W.

    Read, Play, and Learn is a play-based curriculum designed to promote growth across all of the areas of development important to a young child. With a school-year's worth of ready-to-use lessons or modules, the curriculum provides story-related activities centered around themes such as enjoying seasonal festivities, sharing emotions, making…

  19. Understanding the Active Ingredients in an Effective Preschool Vocabulary Intervention: An Exploratory Study of Teacher and Child Talk during Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasik, Barbara A.; Hindman, Annemarie H.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: In order to identify the active ingredients in an effective professional development intervention focused on enhancing preschool vocabulary instruction, this study examines the frequency with which teachers and children discussed theme-related vocabulary words during shared book reading. Head Start teachers received 1 year of…

  20. Read, Play, and Learn! Storybook Activities for Young Children. The Transdisciplinary Play-Based Curriculum. Collection 1: Modules 1-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Toni W.

    Read, Play, and Learn is a play-based curriculum designed to promote growth across all of the areas of development important to a young child. With a school-year's worth of ready-to-use lessons or modules, the curriculum provides story-related activities centered around themes such as enjoying seasonal festivities, sharing emotions, making…

  1. Effects of At-Home Reading Activities and Parental Involvement on Classroom Communication Arts Assessments: Focus on the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, George

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation was written collaboratively by Cynthia Warren, Linetta Carter, and George Edwards with the exception of chapter 4 which is the individual effort of the aforementioned researchers. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of at-home reading activities and parental involvement on classroom communication arts assessments…

  2. The Effects of Reading Only vs. Reading plus Enhancement Activities on Vocabulary Learning and Production of Iranian Pre-University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amiryousefi, Mohammad; Kassaian, Zohreh

    2010-01-01

    The present research was conducted to examine the relative effectiveness of two instructional approaches to second language vocabulary learning: the "Reading Only" (RO) approach and the "Reading Plus" (RP) approach. To carry out this study, sixty EFL students from Shahed Pre-University Center of Isfahan were selected and…

  3. Similarities and differences in brain activation and functional connectivity in first and second language reading: evidence from Chinese learners of English.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fan; Young Kim, Say; Liu, Yanni; Liu, Li

    2014-10-01

    It has been evidenced that both similarities and differences exist in the brain network involved in second language reading in comparison to the first language reading. However, very few studies have been done to compare functional connectivity in L1 and L2 reading. Brain activation and functional connectivity during English pseudoword rhyming judgment in a group of late Chinese-English bilinguals (the CE group) were compared to a Chinese word rhyming judgment task in another group of late Chinese-English bilinguals (the CC group). Brain activation analyses revealed that the two groups engaged a similar network and that the only significant group difference was greater involvement of the right middle occipital gyrus in the CC group than in the CE group, due to greater holistic visuospatial processing of Chinese characters. English pseudowords can be read using the same network as Chinese characters, whereas psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses revealed different connectivity within the reading network between the two groups. Greater functional connectivity was found between three visuo-orthographic seed regions and the right precentral gyrus in the CC group, suggesting that the sensorimotor patterns of Chinese syllables are activated during Chinese word rhyming judgment. In contrast, we found greater connectivity between the three seed regions and the left postcentral gyrus in the CE group. In addition, the connectivity between one of the three seed regions (i.e. the right middle occipital gyrus) and the left postcentral gyrus was positively correlated with English proficiency in the CE group. This suggests that somatosensory feedback plays a key role in processing the foreign phonemes of English pseudowords and those highly proficient bilinguals tend to rely on this information to a greater degree. We also found that within the CE group, the connectivity between the right middle occipital gyrus and the left inferior parietal lobule was positively

  4. En sus marcas--Listos--A leer! Para los cuidadores de ninos pequenos: Actividades de lenguaje para la primera infancia y ninez entre el nacimiento y los 5 anos. El reto: A leer, America! (Ready--Set--Read! For Caregivers: Early Childhood Language Activities for Children from Birth through Age Five. America Reads Challenge).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This Ready--Set--Read Kit includes an activity guide for caregivers, a 1997-98 early childhood activity calendar, and an early childhood growth chart. The activity guide presents activities and ideas that caregivers (family child care providers and the teachers, staff, and volunteers in child development programs) can use to help young children…

  5. En sus marcas--Listos--A leer! Para las familias: Actividades de lenguaje para la primera infancia y ninez entre el nacimiento y los 5 anos. El reto: A leer, America! (Ready--Set--Read! For Families: Early Childhood Language Activities for Children from Birth through Age Five. America Reads Challenge).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This Ready--Set--Read Kit includes an activity guide for families, a 1997-98 early childhood activity calendar, and an early childhood growth wallchart. The activity guide presents activities and ideas that families (adults who have nurturing relationships with a child--a mother, father, grandparent, other relative, or close friend) can use to…

  6. Reading the dyslexic brain: multiple dysfunctional routes revealed by a new meta-analysis of PET and fMRI activation studies

    PubMed Central

    Paulesu, Eraldo; Danelli, Laura; Berlingeri, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia has been the focus of much functional anatomical research. The main trust of this work is that typical developmental dyslexics have a dysfunction of the phonological and orthography to phonology conversion systems, in which the left occipito-temporal cortex has a crucial role. It remains to be seen whether there is a systematic co-occurrence of dysfunctional patterns of different functional systems perhaps converging on the same brain regions associated with the reading deficit. Such evidence would be relevant for theories like, for example, the magnocellular/attentional or the motor/cerebellar ones, which postulate a more basic and anatomically distributed disorder in dyslexia. We addressed this issue with a meta-analysis of all the imaging literature published until September 2013 using a combination of hierarchical clustering and activation likelihood estimation methods. The clustering analysis on 2360 peaks identified 193 clusters, 92 of which proved spatially significant. Following binomial tests on the clusters, we found left hemispheric network specific for normal controls (i.e., of reduced involvement in dyslexics) including the left inferior frontal, premotor, supramarginal cortices and the left infero-temporal and fusiform regions: these were preferentially associated with reading and the visual-to-phonology processes. There was also a more dorsal left fronto-parietal network: these clusters included peaks from tasks involving phonological manipulation, but also motoric or visuo-spatial perception/attention. No cluster was identified in area V5 for no task, nor cerebellar clusters showed a reduced association with dyslexics. We conclude that the examined literature demonstrates a specific lack of activation of the left occipito-temporal cortex in dyslexia particularly for reading and reading-like behaviors and for visuo-phonological tasks. Additional deficits of motor and attentional systems relevant for reading may be associated

  7. Cortical activation during Braille reading is influenced by early visual experience in subjects with severe visual disability: a correlational fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Melzer, P; Morgan, V L; Pickens, D R; Price, R R; Wall, R S; Ebner, F F

    2001-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed on blind adults resting and reading Braille. The strongest activation was found in primary somatic sensory/motor cortex on both cortical hemispheres. Additional foci of activation were situated in the parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes where visual information is processed in sighted persons. The regions were differentiated most in the correlation of their time courses of activation with resting and reading. Differences in magnitude and expanse of activation were substantially less significant. Among the traditionally visual areas, the strength of correlation was greatest in posterior parietal cortex and moderate in occipitotemporal, lateral occipital, and primary visual cortex. It was low in secondary visual cortex as well as in dorsal and ventral inferior temporal cortex and posterior middle temporal cortex. Visual experience increased the strength of correlation in all regions except dorsal inferior temporal and posterior parietal cortex. The greatest statistically significant increase, i.e., approximately 30%, was in ventral inferior temporal and posterior middle temporal cortex. In these regions, words are analyzed semantically, which may be facilitated by visual experience. In contrast, visual experience resulted in a slight, insignificant diminution of the strength of correlation in dorsal inferior temporal cortex where language is analyzed phonetically. These findings affirm that posterior temporal regions are engaged in the processing of written language. Moreover, they suggest that this function is modified by early visual experience. Furthermore, visual experience significantly strengthened the correlation of activation and Braille reading in occipital regions traditionally involved in the processing of visual features and object recognition suggesting a role for visual imagery.

  8. Active-R filter

    DOEpatents

    Soderstrand, Michael A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational amplifier-type active filter in which the only capacitor in the circuit is the compensating capacitance of the operational amplifiers, the various feedback and coupling elements being essentially solely resistive.

  9. The Effect of Individual Differences in the Inner and Outer States of ICT on Engagement in Online Reading Activities and PISA 2009 Reading Literacy: Exploring the Relationship between the Old and New Reading Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yuan-Hsuan; Wu, Jiun-Yu

    2012-01-01

    With the prevalence of ICT, the concept of reading literacy has evolved to encompass both online reading and printed texts. This study clarifies the relationship between reading printed texts and online electronic texts from the perspective of individual differences in the inner and outer phases of ICT in a partial mediation model. We used the…

  10. The RIF Guide to Encouraging Young Readers. A Fun-filled Sourcebook of over 200 Favorite Reading Activities of Kids and Parents from Across the Country, Plus an Annotated List of Books and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Ruth, Ed.

    Based on the notion that reading is both fun and fundamental, this book contains a stimulating array of activities that parents can use to engage their children in reading from the toddler stage through primary school. The first section provides information on how to use the guide, and some tips for encouraging young readers. The second and major…

  11. Active at Any Size

    MedlinePlus

    ... a row. Your muscles need time to recover. Mind and body exercise Your local hospital or fitness, ... can be viewed at www.ClinicalTrials.gov . Additional Reading Tips to Help You Get Active Identifies and ...

  12. The magical activation of left amygdala when reading Harry Potter: an fMRI study on how descriptions of supra-natural events entertain and enchant.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chun-Ting; Jacobs, Arthur M; Altmann, Ulrike; Conrad, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Literature containing supra-natural, or magical events has enchanted generations of readers. When reading narratives describing such events, readers mentally simulate a text world different from the real one. The corresponding violation of world-knowledge during this simulation likely increases cognitive processing demands for ongoing discourse integration, catches readers' attention, and might thus contribute to the pleasure and deep emotional experience associated with ludic immersive reading. In the present study, we presented participants in an MR scanner with passages selected from the Harry Potter book series, half of which described magical events, while the other half served as control condition. Passages in both conditions were closely matched for relevant psycholinguistic variables including, e.g., emotional valence and arousal, passage-wise mean word imageability and frequency, and syntactic complexity. Post-hoc ratings showed that readers considered supra-natural contents more surprising and more strongly associated with reading pleasure than control passages. In the fMRI data, we found stronger neural activation for the supra-natural than the control condition in bilateral inferior frontal gyri, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, left fusiform gyrus, and left amygdala. The increased activation in the amygdala (part of the salience and emotion processing network) appears to be associated with feelings of surprise and the reading pleasure, which supra-natural events, full of novelty and unexpectedness, brought about. The involvement of bilateral inferior frontal gyri likely reflects higher cognitive processing demand due to world knowledge violations, whereas increased attention to supra-natural events is reflected in inferior frontal gyri and inferior parietal lobules that are part of the fronto-parietal attention network.

  13. The Magical Activation of Left Amygdala when Reading Harry Potter: An fMRI Study on How Descriptions of Supra-Natural Events Entertain and Enchant

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chun-Ting; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Altmann, Ulrike; Conrad, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Literature containing supra-natural, or magical events has enchanted generations of readers. When reading narratives describing such events, readers mentally simulate a text world different from the real one. The corresponding violation of world-knowledge during this simulation likely increases cognitive processing demands for ongoing discourse integration, catches readers’ attention, and might thus contribute to the pleasure and deep emotional experience associated with ludic immersive reading. In the present study, we presented participants in an MR scanner with passages selected from the Harry Potter book series, half of which described magical events, while the other half served as control condition. Passages in both conditions were closely matched for relevant psycholinguistic variables including, e.g., emotional valence and arousal, passage-wise mean word imageability and frequency, and syntactic complexity. Post-hoc ratings showed that readers considered supra-natural contents more surprising and more strongly associated with reading pleasure than control passages. In the fMRI data, we found stronger neural activation for the supra-natural than the control condition in bilateral inferior frontal gyri, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, left fusiform gyrus, and left amygdala. The increased activation in the amygdala (part of the salience and emotion processing network) appears to be associated with feelings of surprise and the reading pleasure, which supra-natural events, full of novelty and unexpectedness, brought about. The involvement of bilateral inferior frontal gyri likely reflects higher cognitive processing demand due to world knowledge violations, whereas increased attention to supra-natural events is reflected in inferior frontal gyri and inferior parietal lobules that are part of the fronto-parietal attention network. PMID:25671315

  14. The Effects of Word Walls and Word Wall Activities on the Reading Fluency of First Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasmine, Joanne; Schiesl, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Reading fluency is the ability to read orally with speed and efficiency, including word recognition, decoding, and comprehension (Chard & Pikulski, 2005). Able readers achieve fluency as they recognize words with speed and build upon them to aid in comprehension (Pumfrey & Elliott, 1990). One way to help students achieve fluency is through the use…

  15. What We Know About: Reading at the Middle and High School Levels--Building Active Readers across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Elizabeth A.

    Based on research findings, informed opinions contained in the professional literature, and examples from school personnel of "what works," this report focuses on strategies that educators can use to improve secondary school students' reading skills and enhance interest in reading. Many of the strategies in the report are applicable…

  16. Purified recombinant hypothetical protein coded by open reading frame Rv1885c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis exhibits a monofunctional AroQ class of periplasmic chorismate mutase activity.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Prachee; Aruna, Bandi; Sardesai, Abhijit A; Hasnain, Seyed E

    2005-05-20

    Naturally occurring variants of the enzyme chorismate mutase are known to exist that exhibit diversity in enzyme structure, regulatory properties, and association with other proteins. Chorismate mutase was not annotated in the initial genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) because of low sequence similarity between known chorismate mutases. Recombinant protein coded by open reading frame Rv1885c of Mtb exhibited chorismate mutase activity in vitro. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of the recombinant protein suggests its resemblance to the AroQ class of chorismate mutases, prototype examples of which include the Escherichia coli and yeast chorismate mutases. We also demonstrate that unlike the corresponding proteins of E. coli, Mtb chorismate mutase does not have any associated prephenate dehydratase or dehydrogenase activity, indicating its monofunctional nature. The Rv1885c-encoded chorismate mutase showed allosteric regulation by pathway-specific as well as cross-pathway-specific ligands, as evident from proteolytic cleavage protection and enzyme assays. The predicted N-terminal signal sequence of Mtb chorismate mutase was capable of functioning as one in E. coli, suggesting that Mtb chorismate mutase belongs to the AroQ class of chorismate mutases. It was evident that Rv1885c may not be the only enzyme with chorismate mutase enzyme function within Mtb, based on our observation of the presence of chorismate mutase activity displayed by another hypothetical protein coded by open reading frame Rv0948c, a novel instance of the existence of two monofunctional chorismate mutases ever reported in any pathogenic bacterium.

  17. Get Active

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basics: Health Benefits What are the benefits of physical activity? Physical activity increases your chances of living longer. ... pain Help you feel better about yourself Is physical activity for everyone? Yes! Physical activity is good for ...

  18. Spatio-Temporal Progression of Cortical Activity Related to Continuous Overt and Covert Speech Production in a Reading Task

    PubMed Central

    Brumberg, Jonathan S.; Krusienski, Dean J.; Chakrabarti, Shreya; Gunduz, Aysegul; Brunner, Peter; Ritaccio, Anthony L.; Schalk, Gerwin

    2016-01-01

    How the human brain plans, executes, and monitors continuous and fluent speech has remained largely elusive. For example, previous research has defined the cortical locations most important for different aspects of speech function, but has not yet yielded a definition of the temporal progression of involvement of those locations as speech progresses either overtly or covertly. In this paper, we uncovered the spatio-temporal evolution of neuronal population-level activity related to continuous overt speech, and identified those locations that shared activity characteristics across overt and covert speech. Specifically, we asked subjects to repeat continuous sentences aloud or silently while we recorded electrical signals directly from the surface of the brain (electrocorticography (ECoG)). We then determined the relationship between cortical activity and speech output across different areas of cortex and at sub-second timescales. The results highlight a spatio-temporal progression of cortical involvement in the continuous speech process that initiates utterances in frontal-motor areas and ends with the monitoring of auditory feedback in superior temporal gyrus. Direct comparison of cortical activity related to overt versus covert conditions revealed a common network of brain regions involved in speech that may implement orthographic and phonological processing. Our results provide one of the first characterizations of the spatiotemporal electrophysiological representations of the continuous speech process, and also highlight the common neural substrate of overt and covert speech. These results thereby contribute to a refined understanding of speech functions in the human brain. PMID:27875590

  19. Small Schools Science Curriculum, K-3: Reading, Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies. Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartl, David, Ed.; And Others

    Learning objectives and suggested activities, monitoring procedures and resources for the Washington K-3 Small Schools Science Curriculum are based on the rationale that "young children need the opportunity to observe, classify, predict, test ideas again and again in a variety of contexts, ask questions, explain, discuss ideas, fail, and succeed.…

  20. Creating Readers: Over 1000 Games, Activities, Tongue Twisters, Fingerplays, Songs, and Stories To Get Children Excited about Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Pam

    Combining the language experience approach and phonics instruction, this guide provides parents and early childhood teachers a comprehensive resource for developing a strong foundation for pre-readers. The guide offers over 1,000 activities, games, fingerplays, songs, tongue-twisters, poems, and stories for the letters of the alphabet to develop a…

  1. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF) in Developmental Dyslexia: Activation during Reading in a Surface and Deep Dyslexic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynd, George W.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The exploratory study examined patterns of regional cerebral blood flow in a surface and a deep dyslexic during reading. Significant differences in gray matter blood flow were found between subjects and normal controls. Also differences existed between the surface and deep dyslexic in the distribution of cortical perfusion. (Author/DB)

  2. From Professional Teacher to Activities Manager: The Changing Role of the Teacher in Reading Teachers' Guides, 1920-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Arthur

    A study examined the changing role and status of the elementary school teacher as projected in the teachers' guides that accompany reading textbooks. Twelve fifth-grade teachers' guides for each decade since 1920 were analyzed by scrutinizing every sixth chapter, story, or lesson for (1) physical characteristics, (2) testing components, (3) number…

  3. Stop codon read-through with PTC124 induces palmitoyl-protein thioesterase-1 activity, reduces thioester load and suppresses apoptosis in cultured cells from INCL patients

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Chinmoy; Zhang, Zhongjian; Mukherjee, Anil B.

    2011-01-01

    Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL), a lethal hereditary neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder, affects mostly children. It is caused by inactivating mutations in the palmitoyl-protein thioesterase-1 (PPT1) gene. Nonsense mutations in a gene generate premature termination codons producing truncated, nonfunctional or deleterious proteins. PPT1 nonsense-mutations account for approximately 31% of INCL patients in the US. Currently, there is no effective treatment for this disease. While aminoglycosides such as gentamycin suppress nonsense mutations, inherent toxicity of aminoglycosides prohibits chronic use in patients. PTC124 is a non-toxic compound that induces ribosomal read-through of premature termination codons. We sought to determine whether PTC124-treatment of cultured cells from INCL patients carrying nonsense mutations in the PPT1 gene would correct PPT1 enzyme-deficiency with beneficial effects. Our results showed that PTC124-treatment of cultured cells from INCL patients carrying PPT1 nonsense-mutations induced PPT1 enzymatic activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This low level of PPT1 enzyme activity induced by PTC124 is virtually identical to that induced by gentamycin-treatment. Even though only a modest increase in PPT1 activity was achieved by PTC124-treatment of INCL cells, this treatment reduced the levels of thioester (constituent of ceroid) load. Our results suggest that PTC124-treatment induces PPT1 enzymatic activity in cultured cells from INCL patients carrying PPT1 nonsense-mutations, and this modest enzymatic activity has demonstrable beneficial effects on these cells. The clinical relevance of these effects may be tested in animal models of INCL carrying nonsense mutations in the PPT1 gene. PMID:21704547

  4. Replication of CNTNAP2 association with nonword repetition and support for FOXP2 association with timed reading and motor activities in a dyslexia family sample.

    PubMed

    Peter, Beate; Raskind, Wendy H; Matsushita, Mark; Lisowski, Mark; Vu, Tiffany; Berninger, Virginia W; Wijsman, Ellen M; Brkanac, Zoran

    2011-03-01

    Two functionally related genes, FOXP2 and CNTNAP2, influence language abilities in families with rare syndromic and common nonsyndromic forms of impaired language, respectively. We investigated whether these genes are associated with component phenotypes of dyslexia and measures of sequential motor ability. Quantitative transmission disequilibrium testing (QTDT) and linear association modeling were used to evaluate associations with measures of phonological memory (nonword repetition, NWR), expressive language (sentence repetition), reading (real word reading efficiency, RWRE; word attack, WATT), and timed sequential motor activities (rapid alternating place of articulation, RAPA; finger succession in the dominant hand, FS-D) in 188 family trios with a child with dyslexia. Consistent with a prior study of language impairment, QTDT in dyslexia showed evidence of CNTNAP2 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association with NWR. For FOXP2, we provide the first evidence for SNP association with component phenotypes of dyslexia, specifically NWR and RWRE but not WATT. In addition, FOXP2 SNP associations with both RAPA and FS-D were observed. Our results confirm the role of CNTNAP2 in NWR in a dyslexia sample and motivate new questions about the effects of FOXP2 in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  5. Activation detector

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Zane William [Oak Ridge, TN; Boatner, Lynn Allen [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-12-08

    A method of detecting an activator, the method including impinging with an activator a receptor material lacking a photoluminescent material and generating a by-product of a radioactive decay due to the activator impinging the reeptor material. The method further including, generating light from the by-product via the Cherenkov effect and identifying a characteristic of the activator based on the light.

  6. Reading Faster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing…

  7. Nothing in Evolution Makes Sense Except in the Light of Genomics: Read-Write Genome Evolution as an Active Biological Process.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, James A

    2016-06-08

    The 21st century genomics-based analysis of evolutionary variation reveals a number of novel features impossible to predict when Dobzhansky and other evolutionary biologists formulated the neo-Darwinian Modern Synthesis in the middle of the last century. These include three distinct realms of cell evolution; symbiogenetic fusions forming eukaryotic cells with multiple genome compartments; horizontal organelle, virus and DNA transfers; functional organization of proteins as systems of interacting domains subject to rapid evolution by exon shuffling and exonization; distributed genome networks integrated by mobile repetitive regulatory signals; and regulation of multicellular development by non-coding lncRNAs containing repetitive sequence components. Rather than single gene traits, all phenotypes involve coordinated activity by multiple interacting cell molecules. Genomes contain abundant and functional repetitive components in addition to the unique coding sequences envisaged in the early days of molecular biology. Combinatorial coding, plus the biochemical abilities cells possess to rearrange DNA molecules, constitute a powerful toolbox for adaptive genome rewriting. That is, cells possess "Read-Write Genomes" they alter by numerous biochemical processes capable of rapidly restructuring cellular DNA molecules. Rather than viewing genome evolution as a series of accidental modifications, we can now study it as a complex biological process of active self-modification.

  8. Shark Tagging Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current: The Journal of Marine Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    In this group activity, children learn about the purpose of tagging and how scientists tag a shark. Using a cut-out of a shark, students identify, measure, record data, read coordinates, and tag a shark. Includes introductory information about the purpose of tagging and the procedure, a data sheet showing original tagging data from Tampa Bay, and…

  9. A Comparison of Word Learning in 3-Year-Old Children At-Risk for Language and Literacy Difficulties in Two Conditions: Dialogic Reading and Activity-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Naomi L.

    2013-01-01

    Existing research suggests a need for an intervention that can accelerate vocabulary acquisition for young children at-risk due to poverty. An adapted alternating treatments design was used to examine the effects of Dialogic Reading and Activity-Based Intervention (ABI) on participants' production of target words. Participants were three…

  10. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Open Reading Frame 50/Rta Protein Activates the Entire Viral Lytic Cycle in the HH-B2 Primary Effusion Lymphoma Cell Line†

    PubMed Central

    Gradoville, Lyndle; Gerlach, Jennifer; Grogan, Elizabeth; Shedd, Duane; Nikiforow, Sarah; Metroka, Craig; Miller, George

    2000-01-01

    Rta, the gene product of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encoded mainly in open reading frame 50 (ORF50), is capable of activating expression of viral lytic cycle genes. What was not demonstrated in previous studies was whether KSHV Rta was competent to initiate the entire viral lytic life cycle including lytic viral DNA replication, late-gene expression with appropriate kinetics, and virus release. In HH-B2, a newly established primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cell line, KSHV ORF50 behaved as an immediate-early gene and autostimulated its own expression. Expression of late genes, ORF65, and K8.1 induced by KSHV Rta was eliminated by phosphonoacetic acid, an inhibitor of viral DNA polymerase. Transfection of KSHV Rta increased the production of encapsidated DNase-resistant viral DNA from HH-B2 cells. Thus, introduction of an ORF50 expression plasmid is sufficient to drive the lytic cycle to completion in cultured PEL cells. PMID:10846108

  11. Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP): use of a small group reading activity run by persons with dementia in adult day health care and long-term care settings.

    PubMed

    Skrajner, Michael J; Camp, Cameron J

    2007-01-01

    Six persons in the early to middle stages of dementia ("leaders") were trained in Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP) to lead a reading activity for 22 persons with more advanced dementia ("participants") in an adult day health center (ADHC) and a special care unit (SCU) in a skilled nursing facility. Researchers assessed the leaders' abilities to learn and follow the procedures of leading a group, as well as their satisfaction with their roles. In addition, participants' engagement and affect were measured, both during standard activities programming and during client-led activities. Results of this study suggest that persons with dementia can indeed successfully lead small group activities, if several important prerequisites are met. Furthermore, the engagement and affect of participants was more positive in client-led activities than in standard activities programming.

  12. Catalyst activator

    DOEpatents

    McAdon, Mark H.; Nickias, Peter N.; Marks, Tobin J.; Schwartz, David J.

    2001-01-01

    A catalyst activator particularly adapted for use in the activation of metal complexes of metals of Group 3-10 for polymerization of ethylenically unsaturated polymerizable monomers, especially olefins, comprising two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms and a ligand structure including at least one bridging group connecting ligands on the two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms.

  13. Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    Twenty-four activities suitable for outdoor use by elementary school children are outlined. Activities designed to make children aware of their environment include soil painting, burr collecting, insect and pond water collecting, studies of insect galls and field mice, succession studies, and a model of natural selection using dyed toothpicks. A…

  14. Physical activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... activity -- which includes an active lifestyle and routine exercise -- plus eating well, is the best way to stay healthy. ... goal. Your goal might be to: Manage a health condition Reduce stress ... other benefits, such as: Better control of your weight and ...

  15. Astronomy Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstone, Sid

    This document consists of activities and references for teaching astronomy. The activities (which include objectives, list of materials needed, and procedures) focus on: observing the Big Dipper and locating the North Star; examining the Big Dipper's stars; making and using an astrolabe; examining retograde motion of Mars; measuring the Sun's…

  16. Varicella-zoster virus open reading frame 4 encodes a transcriptional activator that is functionally distinct from that of herpes simplex virus homology ICP27.

    PubMed Central

    Perera, L P; Kaushal, S; Kinchington, P R; Mosca, J D; Hayward, G S; Straus, S E

    1994-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus is the etiological agent of chickenpox and zoster in humans and belongs to the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily within the family Herpesviridae. Much of the current understanding of gene regulation in alphaherpesviruses has been derived from studies of the prototype herpes simplex virus (HSV). In HSV, two virus-encoded, trans-regulatory proteins, ICP4 and ICP27, are essential for the replicative cycle of the virus. ICP4 is important in modulating HSV genes of all three kinetic classes, whereas the trans-regulatory effects of ICP27 are primarily associated with the expression of late genes. Recent evidence indicates that the trans-regulatory effects of ICP27 involve posttranscriptional processing of target gene transcripts (R. M. Sandri-Golding and G. E. Mendoza, Genes Dev. 6:848-863, 1992). The ICP27 homolog in varicella-zoster virus is a 452-amino-acid polypeptide encoded by the open reading frame 4 (ORF4) gene. Contrary to what is found with ICP27, we show that the ORF4 polypeptide is a transcriptional activator of diverse target promoters and has a critical requirement for the presence of upstream elements within these promoters to mediate its transcriptional effects. Evidence is also presented to implicate a critical role for the cysteine-rich, C-terminal region of the ORF4 polypeptide in its trans-regulatory functions. Specifically, by oligonucleotide-directed site-specific mutagenesis, we demonstrate that of 10 cysteine residues in the ORF4 polypeptide, only C-421 and C-426 are essential for transactivator function and suggest that these cysteine residues may participate in critical protein-protein interactions rather than protein-nucleic acid interactions to mediate ORF4 inducibility. Images PMID:8139031

  17. Partial Restoration of Antibacterial Activity of the Protein Encoded by a Cryptic Open Reading Frame (cyt1Ca) from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis by Site-Directed Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Itsko, Mark; Manasherob, Robert; Zaritsky, Arieh

    2005-01-01

    Insecticidal crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis belong to two unrelated toxin families: receptor-specific Cry toxins against insects and Cyt toxins that lyse a broad range of cells, including bacteria, via direct binding to phospholipids. A new cyt-like open reading frame (cyt1Ca) encoding a 60-kDa protein, has recently been discovered (C. Berry et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:5082-5095, 2002). Cyt1Ca displays the structure of a two-domain fusion protein: the N-terminal moiety resembles the full-length Cyt toxins, and the C-terminal moiety is similar to the receptor-binding domains of several ricin-like toxins, such as Mtx1. Neither the larvicidal activity of cyt1Ca expressed in Escherichia coli nor the hemolytic effect of His-tagged purified Cyt1Ca has been observed (R. Manasherob et al., unpublished). This was attributed to five amino acid differences between the sequences of its N-terminal moiety and Cyt1Aa. The 3′ end of cyt1Ca was truncated (removing the ricin-binding domain of Cyt1Ca), and six single bases were appropriately changed by site-directed mutagenesis, sequentially replacing the noncharged amino acids by charged ones, according to Cyt1Aa, to form several versions. Expression of these mutated cyt1Ca versions caused loss of the colony-forming ability of the corresponding E. coli cells to different extents compared with the original gene. In some mutants this antibacterial effect was associated by significant distortion of cell morphology and in others by generation of multiple inclusion bodies spread along the cell envelope. The described deleterious effects of mutated cyt1Ca versions against E. coli may reflect an evolutionary relationship between Cyt1Aa and Cyt1Ca. PMID:16159771

  18. Activated Charcoal

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat poisonings, reduce intestinal gas (flatulence), lower cholesterol levels, prevent hangover, and treat bile ... lower cholesterol levels in the blood. Decreasing gas (flatulence). Some studies show that activated charcoal is effective ...

  19. Activity Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koschmann, Timothy; Roschelle, Jeremy; Nardi, Bonnie A.

    1998-01-01

    Includes three articles that discuss activity theory, based on "Context and Consciousness." Topics include human-computer interaction; computer interfaces; hierarchical structuring; mediation; contradictions and development; failure analysis; and designing educational technology. (LRW)

  20. Fun with the Funnies: 50 Motivating Activities for Language Arts, Writing, and Social Studies, Grades 4-6. Good Year Book in Language Arts and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, John

    Noting that the newspaper is a relevant, comprehensible, up-to-date, inexpensive, and motivating classroom resource, this book contains 50 comic strip activity sheets, specifically for students with low motivation. Each activity has a clearly defined objective stated in question form. When possible, the activities are sequenced by level of…

  1. People, Parties and Politics. 35 Jumbo Activity Cards for Teaching Reading/Writing Skills in Social Studies. Designed for Elementary and Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandra Schurr Publications, Bloomfield Hills, MI.

    The document presents 35 supplementary activities on American politics. The activities are designed to be used by social studies classroom teachers in elementary and junior high schools. Topics include voting, elections, presidential qualifications, presidential activities, congressional duties, political participation, term of office, political…

  2. Activation of Lexical and Semantic Representations without Intention along GPC-Sublexical and Orthographic-Lexical Reading Pathways in a Stroop Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Kathryn F.; Gould, Layla; Borowsky, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Dual route models of reading suggest there are 2 pathways for reading words: an orthographic-lexical pathway, used to read familiar regular words and exception words, and a grapheme-to-phoneme-conversion-(GPC)-sublexical pathway, used to read unfamiliar regular words, pseudohomophones (PHs), and nonwords. It is unclear, however, whether PHs…

  3. Plant metacaspase activation and activity.

    PubMed

    Minina, Elena A; Stael, Simon; Van Breusegem, Frank; Bozhkov, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    Metacaspases are essential for cell death regulation in plants. Further understanding of biochemistry of metacaspases and their molecular function in plant biology requires a set of robust methods for detection of metacaspase activation and quantitative analysis of corresponding proteolytic activity. Here we describe methods for purification of recombinant metacaspases, measurement of enzymatic activity of recombinant and endogenous metacaspases in vitro and in cell lysates, respectively, and finally detection of metacaspase activation in vivo. Additionally, an in vitro metacaspase protein substrate cleavage assay based on the cell-free production of substrate protein followed by proteolysis with recombinant metacaspase is presented. These methods have been originally developed for type II metacaspases from Arabidopsis and Norway spruce (Picea abies), but they can be used as templates for type I metacaspases, as well as for type II metacaspases from other species.

  4. Active colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranson, Igor S.

    2013-01-01

    A colloidal suspension is a heterogeneous fluid containing solid microscopic particles. Colloids play an important role in our everyday life, from food and pharmaceutical industries to medicine and nanotechnology. It is useful to distinguish two major classes of colloidal suspensions: equilibrium and active, i.e., maintained out of thermodynamic equilibrium by external electric or magnetic fields, light, chemical reactions, or hydrodynamic shear flow. While the properties of equilibrium colloidal suspensions are fairly well understood, active colloids pose a formidable challenge, and the research is in its early exploratory stage. One of the most remarkable properties of active colloids is the possibility of dynamic self-assembly, a natural tendency of simple building blocks to organize into complex functional architectures. Examples range from tunable, self-healing colloidal crystals and membranes to self-assembled microswimmers and robots. Active colloidal suspensions may exhibit material properties not present in their equilibrium counterparts, e.g., reduced viscosity and enhanced self-diffusivity, etc. This study surveys the most recent developments in the physics of active colloids, both in synthetic and living systems, with the aim of elucidation of the fundamental physical mechanisms governing self-assembly and collective behavior.

  5. Active microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D.; Vidal-Madjar, D.

    1994-01-01

    Research on the use of active microwaves in remote sensing, presented during plenary and poster sessions, is summarized. The main highlights are: calibration techniques are well understood; innovative modeling approaches have been developed which increase active microwave applications (segmentation prior to model inversion, use of ERS-1 scatterometer, simulations); polarization angle and frequency diversity improves characterization of ice sheets, vegetation, and determination of soil moisture (X band sensor study); SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) interferometry potential is emerging; use of multiple sensors/extended spectral signatures is important (increase emphasis).

  6. Activated Sludge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, F. Michael

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) activated sludge process; (2) process control; (3) oxygen uptake and transfer; (4) phosphorus removal; (5) nitrification; (6) industrial wastewater; and (7) aerobic digestion. A list of 136 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Activities: Spirolaterals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannan, Richard; McFadden, Scott

    1981-01-01

    A set of activities designed to help students discover properties about order-3 spirolaterals on square grid paper is presented. The materials are prepared on worksheets designed for easy duplication. The lessons can lead to investigations involving spirolaterals of many other orders and shapes. (MP)

  8. Leaf Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    Leaf activities can provide a means of using basic concepts of outdoor education to learn in elementary level subject areas. Equipment needed includes leaves, a clipboard with paper, and a pencil. A bag of leaves may be brought into the classroom if weather conditions or time do not permit going outdoors. Each student should pick a leaf, examine…

  9. Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Tom, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a flow chart for naming inorganic compounds. Although it is not necessary for students to memorize rules, preliminary skills needed before using the chart are outlined. Also presents an activity in which the mass of an imaginary atom is determined using lead shot, Petri dishes, and a platform balance. (JN)

  10. Activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S W

    2008-08-11

    This report is aimed to show the author's activities to support the LDRD. The title is 'Investigation of the Double-C Behavior in the Pu-Ga Time-Temperature-Transformation Diagram' The sections are: (1) Sample Holder Test; (2) Calculation of x-ray diffraction patterns; (3) Literature search and preparing publications; (4) Tasks Required for APS Experiments; and (5) Communications.

  11. Antimicrobial Activity.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Natural products of higher plants may possess a new source of antimicrobial agents with possibly novel mechanisms of action. They are effective in the treatment of infectious diseases while simultaneously mitigating many of the side effects that are often associated with conventional antimicrobials. A method using scanning electron microscope (SEM) to study the morphology of the bacterial and fungal microbes and thus determining antimicrobial activity is presented in the chapter.

  12. Promoting a Reading Culture in School Community: How to Engage Reading Activities Cross Curricula, Directors, Teachers, Students, Parents, Administrative Services, Local Authorities, Public Libraries and Other Partners--Relating a Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Ana Bela; Marques, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to present how an intensive collaboration between the National Portuguese Reading Plan and the School Libraries Network Programme plays an important role in the promotion of reading literacy as a baseline to develop all kinds of other literacy abilities and empower the role of school libraries and the…

  13. Children Can Love Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zibart, Rosemary

    1980-01-01

    Describes the Reading Is Fundamental Program (RIF), whose reading motivation concept is simple: young people who get the opportunity to freely choose and to own books may begin to experience reading as a pleasurable activity. (Author/LLS)

  14. Analgesic Activity.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Analgesics are agents which selectively relieve pain by acting in the CNS and peripheral pain mediators without changing consciousness. Analgesics may be narcotic or non-narcotic. The study of pain in animals raises ethical, philosophical, and technical problems. Both peripheral and central pain models are included to make the test more evident for the analgesic property of the plant. This chapter highlights methods such as hot plate and formalin and acetic acid-induced pain models to check the analgesic activity of medicinal plants.

  15. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-02

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time.

  16. Active tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This study is part of a series of Studies in Geophysics that have been undertaken for the Geophysics Research Forum by the Geophysics Study Committee. One purpose of each study is to provide assessments from the scientific community to aid policymakers in decisions on societal problems that involve geophysics. An important part of such assessments is an evaluation of the adequacy of current geophysical knowledge and the appropriateness of current research programs as a source of information required for those decisions. The study addresses our current scientific understanding of active tectonics --- particularly the patterns and rates of ongoing tectonic processes. Many of these processes cannot be described reasonably using the limited instrumental or historical records; however, most can be described adequately for practical purposes using the geologic record of the past 500,000 years. A program of fundamental research focusing especially on Quaternary tectonic geology and geomorphology, paleoseismology, neotectonics, and geodesy is recommended to better understand ongoing, active tectonic processes. This volume contains 16 papers. Individual papers are indexed separately on the Energy Database.

  17. Exploring Students' Learning Effectiveness and Attitude in Group Scribbles-Supported Collaborative Reading Activities: A Study in the Primary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, C.-P.; Chen, W.; Yang, S.-J.; Xie, W.; Lin, C.-C.

    2014-01-01

    Improving students' reading comprehension is of significance. In this study, collaborative learning supported by Group Scribbles (GS), a networked technology, was integrated into a primary reading class. Forty-seven 10-year-old students from two 4th grade classes participated in the study. Experimental and control groups were established to…

  18. Bilingual Education: Bilingual/Cross-Cultural Emphasis. Indian Legends and Felt Board Cut-Out Characters. Readings and Activities for Pre-School and Early Elementary School Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Ruth; And Others

    Designed for use in preschool and early elementary school classrooms, this collection of eight American Indian legends provides patterns for making feltboard cutouts of their characters and props to be used in story telling activities. Seven of the legends originate with the Hupa, Karuk, or Yurok Indians of northwestern California and one is from…

  19. A Study of the Relationship between the Theoretical and Empirical Research of the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity and the Specific Comprehension Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, Debra Yuhas

    Theoreticians and empiricists have stressed the importance of organization in the learning process and, therefore, the importance of instructional strategies that help develop a child's ability to organize information. Theoreticians have also stressed the importance of the student's active participation in the learning process. The Directed…

  20. IASS Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojaev, Alisher S.; Ibragimova, Elvira M.

    2015-08-01

    It’s well known, astronomy in Uzbekistan has ancient roots and traditions (e.g., Mirzo Ulugh Beg, Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Abū ‘Abdallāh al-Khwārizmī) and astronomical heritage carefully preserved. Nowadays uzbek astronomers play a key role in scientific research but also in OAD and Decadal Plan activity in the Central Asia region. International Aerospace School (IASS) is an amazing and wonderful event held annually about 30 years. IASS is unique project in the region, and at the beginning we spent the Summer and Winter Schools. At present in the summer camp we gather about 50 teenage and undergraduate students over the country and abroad (France, Malaysia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Russia, etc.). They are selected on the basis of tests of astronomy and space issues. During two weeks of IASS camp the invited scientists, cosmonauts and astronauts as well as other specialists give lectures and engage in practical exercises with IASS students in astronomy, including daily observations of the Sun and night sky observations with meniscus telescope, space research and exploration, aerospace modelling, preparation and presentation of original projects. This is important that IASS gives not theoretical grounds only but also practically train the students and the hands-on training is the major aims of IASS. Lectures and practice in the field of astronomy carried out with the direct involvement and generous assistance of Uranoscope Association (Paris, France). The current 26-th IASS is planned to held in July 2015.

  1. Be Active Your Way: A Guide for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Guide for Adults Based on the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Be Active, Healthy, and Happy! ... is for you. Read how you can fit physical activity into your life—your way. Decide the number ...

  2. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve my ... recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), call ...

  3. Activation Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  4. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... How much physical activity should I do each week? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend ... 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity a week, along with muscle-strengthening activities on 2 days ...

  5. Energy Conservation Activities, Grades 1-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Colorado Educational Board of Cooperative Services, Boulder.

    This publication is a collection of energy education activities for grades 1-6. The activities were written or selected to be used with daily lesson plans and the existing school curriculum. Activities are classified by: (1) content area (fine arts, mathematics, physical education, reading and language arts, science, and social studies; and (2)…

  6. Using Video Self-Modelling to Increase Active Learning Responses during Small-Group Reading Instruction for Primary School Pupils with Social Emotional and Mental Health Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Pelton, Cheryl A.; Bushman, Samantha L.

    2015-01-01

    Effectiveness of a video self-modelling (VSM) intervention was examined with primary schoolchildren who attended a full-time special education programme for pupils with social emotional and behavioural difficulties and who exhibited inappropriate behaviour during small-group reading instruction. A randomised multiple-probe baseline design was used…

  7. Increasing Reading/Literacy Performance of At-Risk Elementary Students through Increased Access to Fiction/Non-Fiction Resources and Incorporating Readers Theater Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas, Gayla L.

    2008-01-01

    This action research project was developed in order to increase student literacy, particularly in the area of reading, for students who were considered at-risk. The targeted student population was 2nd grade students who were served within a primary cross-categorical special education program. The classroom was housed in an elementary (K-2) school,…

  8. Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulford, Jeremy, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    A collection of articles reflecting the underlying concern of British contributors with continuity--conceiving reading and learning as a whole throughout the school years--comprises this special issue of "English in Education." Specific topics treated are: "What Children Learn in Learning to Read" by R. Morris; "Reading without Primers" by W.…

  9. CDPK Activation in PRR Signaling.

    PubMed

    Seybold, Heike; Boudsocq, Marie; Romeis, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases undergo a rapid biochemical activation in response to an intracellular Ca increase induced by the PRR-dependent perception of a pathogen-related stimulus. Based on SDS gel resolution, the in-gel kinase assay allows the analysis of multiple in vivo protein samples in parallel, combining the advantage of protein separation according to molecular mass with the activity read-out of a protein kinase assay. It thus enables to follow the transient CDPK activation and inactivation in response to in vivo elicitation with a time-wise resolution. In addition, changes of CDPK phosphorylation activity often correlate with slight shifts in the enzyme's apparent molecular mass, indicating posttranslational modifications and a conformational change of the active enzyme compared to its inactive resting form. These band shifts can be detected by a simple immunoblotting to monitor CDPK activation.

  10. AN ACTIVE INTRODUCTION TO NEWSPAPER SWAHILI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreign Service (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Foreign Service Inst.

    EACH OF THE 25 SHORT LESSONS IN THIS BOOKLET IS BUILT AROUND A STORY FROM AN EAST AFRICAN NEWSPAPER. THE STUDENT IS EXPECTED TO LISTEN TO AND REPEAT BASIC SENTENCES, LISTEN TO AND READ THE TEXT, AND COMPLETE THE ACCOMPANYING EXERCISES. THUS, HE NOT ONLY LEARNS TO READ NEWSPAPER ARTICLES BUT ALSO ACTIVELY DEMONSTRATES HOW MUCH HE HAS COMPREHENDED…

  11. Feasibility and Efficacy of a Computer-Based Intervention Aimed at Preventing Reading Decoding Deficits Among Children Undergoing Active Treatment for Medulloblastoma: Results of a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Laurie; Ellison, Susan C.; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Wu, Shengjie; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Wright, Karen; Wetmore, Cynthia; Broniscer, Alberto; Gajjar, Amar

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of a computer-based reading intervention completed by patients diagnosed with a brain tumor. Methods Patients were randomized to the intervention (n = 43) or standard of care group (n = 38). The intervention consisted of 30 sessions using Fast ForWord® exercises in a game-like format. Change in reading decoding scores over time since diagnosis was examined. Gender, race, parent education, parent marital status, and age at diagnosis were examined as covariates. Results 17 patients (39.5%) were able to complete the target goal of 30 intervention sessions. Females had significantly greater training time than males (p = .022). Age at diagnosis was associated with average training time/session for females (r = .485, p = .041). No significant differences were found in reading scores between the randomized groups. Conclusions The study was well accepted by families and adherence by patients undergoing radiation therapy for medulloblastoma was moderate. Suggestions for improved methodology are discussed. PMID:24369366

  12. Reading the mind in the infant eyes: paradoxical effects of oxytocin on neural activity and emotion recognition in watching pictures of infant faces.

    PubMed

    Voorthuis, Alexandra; Riem, Madelon M E; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2014-09-11

    The neuropeptide oxytocin facilitates parental caregiving and is involved in the processing of infant vocal cues. In this randomized-controlled trial with functional magnetic resonance imaging we examined the influence of intranasally administered oxytocin on neural activity during emotion recognition in infant faces. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses during emotion recognition were measured in 50 women who were administered 16 IU of oxytocin or a placebo. Participants performed an adapted version of the Infant Facial Expressions of Emotions from Looking at Pictures (IFEEL pictures), a task that has been developed to assess the perception and interpretation of infants' facial expressions. Experimentally induced oxytocin levels increased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and the superior temporal gyrus (STG). However, oxytocin decreased performance on the IFEEL picture task. Our findings suggest that oxytocin enhances processing of facial cues of the emotional state of infants on a neural level, but at the same time it may decrease the correct interpretation of infants' facial expressions on a behavior level. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin and Social Behav.

  13. Reap around the State: "Best of Reap" Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Learning Resources Unit.

    This booklet presents selected activities from elementary, middle, junior high, and senior high schools In Indiana, intended to encourage students to read. It offers ideas for 11 community activities (including guest readers, nursing home reading, and a young author celebration), 14 continuous activities (such as the great book graffiti wall and…

  14. Idea Sharing: The Use of Read-Share-Act to Promote Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charumanee, Nisakorn

    2014-01-01

    Nisakorn Charumanee believes that a reading teacher has an active role in cultivating reading culture or reading habit and in activating students to "want" to read. One way to do this is to integrate extensive reading into the classroom (Day and Bamford, 1998; Bamford and Day, 2004) where extensive reading can be enhanced if the teacher…

  15. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (RT) originates from the pro and pol open reading frames and requires the presence of RT-RNase H (RH) and RT-RH-integrase proteins for its activity.

    PubMed

    Trentin, B; Rebeyrotte, N; Mamoun, R Z

    1998-08-01

    The first description of an active form of a recombinant human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) and subsequent predictions of its amino acid sequence and quaternary structure are reported here. By using amino acid alignment methods, the NH2 and COOH termini of the RT, RNase H (RH), and integrase (IN) domains of the Pol polyprotein were determined. The HTLV-1 RT seems to be unique since its NH2 terminus is probably encoded by the pro open reading frame (ORF) fused downstream, via a transframe peptide, to the polypeptide encoded by the pol ORF. The HTLV-1 Pol amino acid sequence was revealed to be highly similar to that of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), particularly at the RT-RH hinge region. These two domains remain linked for RSV; this may also be the case for HTLV-1. In light of these results, RT, RT-RH, and RT-RH-IN genes were constructed and introduced into His-tagged protein expression vectors. The corresponding proteins were synthesized in vitro, and the DNA polymerase activities of different protein combinations were tested. Solely the RT-RH-RT-RH-IN combination was found to have a significant activity level. Velocity sedimentation analysis suggested that the HTLV-1 RT-RH and RT-RH-IN monomers are likely associated in an oligomeric structure, probably of the alpha3/beta type.

  16. A cis-acting element present within the Gag open reading frame negatively impacts on the activity of the HIV-1 IRES.

    PubMed

    Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando; Vallejos, Maricarmen; Monette, Anne; Pino, Karla; Letelier, Alejandro; Huidobro-Toro, J Pablo; Mouland, Andrew J; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Translation initiation from the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) mRNA can occur through a cap or an IRES dependent mechanism. Cap-dependent translation initiation of the HIV-1 mRNA can be inhibited by the instability element (INS)-1, a cis-acting regulatory element present within the gag open reading frame (ORF). In this study we evaluated the impact of the INS-1 on HIV-1 IRES-mediated translation initiation. Using heterologous bicistronic mRNAs, we show that the INS-1 negatively impact on HIV-1 IRES-driven translation in in vitro and in cell-based experiments. Additionally, our results show that the inhibitory effect of the INS-1 is not general to all IRESes since it does not hinder translation driven by the HCV IRES. The inhibition by the INS-1 was partially rescued in cells by the overexpression of the viral Rev protein or hnRNPA1.

  17. A cis-Acting Element Present within the gag Open Reading Frame Negatively Impacts on the Activity of the HIV-1 IRES

    PubMed Central

    Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando; Vallejos, Maricarmen; Monette, Anne; Pino, Karla; Letelier, Alejandro; Huidobro-Toro, J. Pablo; Mouland, Andrew J.; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Translation initiation from the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) mRNA can occur through a cap or an IRES dependent mechanism. Cap-dependent translation initiation of the HIV-1 mRNA can be inhibited by the instability element (INS)-1, a cis-acting regulatory element present within the gag open reading frame (ORF). In this study we evaluated the impact of the INS-1 on HIV-1 IRES-mediated translation initiation. Using heterologous bicistronic mRNAs, we show that the INS-1 negatively impact on HIV-1 IRES-driven translation in in vitro and in cell-based experiments. Additionally, our results show that the inhibitory effect of the INS-1 is not general to all IRESes since it does not hinder translation driven by the HCV IRES. The inhibition by the INS-1 was partially rescued in cells by the overexpression of the viral Rev protein or hnRNPA1. PMID:23451120

  18. Introducing point mutations into the ATGs of the putative open reading frames of the HSV-1 gene encoding the latency associated transcript (LAT) reduces its anti-apoptosis activity.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Dale; Henderson, Gail; Hsiang, Chinhui; Osorio, Nelson; BenMohamed, Lbachir; Jones, Clinton; Wechsler, Steven L

    2008-02-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency associated transcript (LAT) gene has anti-apoptosis activity that directly or indirectly enhances the virus's reactivation phenotype in small animal models. The first 1.5 kb of the primary 8.3 kb LAT is sufficient and some or all of it is necessary for LAT's anti-apoptosis in transient transfection assays and for LAT's ability to enhance the reactivation phenotype. Based on LAT's genomic sequence, the first 1.5 kb contains eight potential open reading frames (ORFs) defined as an ATG followed by an in frame termination codon. In this study, point mutations were introduced into the ATGs of ORFs present in the 1.5 kb fragment of LAT. Mutagenesis of all eight ATGs in LAT ORFs consistently reduced the anti-apoptotic activity of LAT in transiently transfected mouse neuroblastoma cells regardless of whether apoptosis was induced by caspase 8 or caspase 9. Mutation of the six ATGs located in the stable intron sequences within the 1.5 kb LAT had a dramatic effect on caspase 9, but not caspase 8, induced apoptosis. For both caspase 8 and caspase 9 induced apoptosis, mutating the two ATGs in the exon of the LAT 1.5 kb fragment reduced, but did not eliminate the anti-apoptotic activity of LAT. These studies suggest that altering the fine structure of regulatory RNA or expression of a putative LAT ORF regulates the anti-apoptosis activity of LAT. These studies also indicate that more than one function is present in the 1.5 kb LAT fragment.

  19. Conserved Chloroplast Open-reading Frame ycf54 Is Required for Activity of the Magnesium Protoporphyrin Monomethylester Oxidative Cyclase in Synechocystis PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Hollingshead, Sarah; Kopečná, Jana; Jackson, Philip J.; Canniffe, Daniel P.; Davison, Paul A.; Dickman, Mark J.; Sobotka, Roman; Hunter, C. Neil

    2012-01-01

    The cyclase step in chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis has not been characterized biochemically, although there are some plausible candidates for cyclase subunits. Two of these, Sll1214 and Sll1874 from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803, were FLAG-tagged in vivo and used as bait in separate pulldown experiments. Mass spectrometry identified Ycf54 as an interaction partner in each case, and this interaction was confirmed by a reciprocal pulldown using FLAG-tagged Ycf54 as bait. Inactivation of the ycf54 gene (slr1780) in Synechocystis 6803 resulted in a strain that exhibited significantly reduced Chl levels. A detailed analysis of Chl precursors in the ycf54 mutant revealed accumulation of very high levels of Mg-protoporphyrin IX methyl ester and only traces of protochlorophyllide, the product of the cyclase, were detected. Western blotting demonstrated that levels of the cyclase component Sll1214 and the Chl biosynthesis enzymes Mg-protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase and protochlorophyllide reductase are significantly impaired in the ycf54 mutant. Ycf54 is, therefore, essential for the activity and stability of the oxidative cyclase. We discuss a possible role of Ycf54 as an auxiliary factor essential for the assembly of a cyclase complex or even a large multienzyme catalytic center. PMID:22711541

  20. Roads to Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staiger, Ralph C.

    This book is a collection of ideas that have been used in many countries for the encouragement of reading. Its purposes are to provide information about reading and the reading habit; to put forward examples of local, national, and international reading promotion activities selected as useful, representative of different approaches, and adaptable…

  1. Classroom Writing Activities to Support the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Judy

    1990-01-01

    Offers writing activities related to the reading of E. B. White's "Charlotte's Web," including showing the movie, using HyperCard, showing a video about a webspinning spider as a prewriting activity, and using computer graphics and video cameras to create related visual projects. (SR)

  2. Maya Art: Classroom and Museum Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuerst, Ann H.

    Illustrated with reproductions of Mayan art and architecture, this activity book contains readings and activities about the Maya, including bilingual lesson sheets. The materials link middle school classroom studies of Mayan culture with history, social studies, and community resources. Eight lesson units explore the central aspects of Mayan art.…

  3. Learning Activities for the Growth Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Linda, Ed.

    This poster, illustrated with a graphic of a caterpillar changing to a cocoon and emerging as a butterfly, presents learning activities for 7 weeks based on the seven stages of growth in the President's "Call to Action." Each week includes 5 days of activities based on seven themes: (1) "Reading on Your Own"; (2) "Getting…

  4. Teaching Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Mary

    1980-01-01

    Described are five approaches to teaching reading: Language Experience, Modified Alphabet, Linguistic, Programmed, and Basal. It is suggested that a good teacher, well trained, certified in his or her profession, an active participant in professional organizations, can teach reading successfully using almost any approach. (KC)

  5. How to Help Kids Enjoy Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    Because reading for pleasure faces such stiff competition from other activities, one Minnesota elementary principal instituted rewarding and enjoyable reading activities: DEAR (Drop Everything and Read) Time, principal's book club, "I love to read" month, RIOT (Reading Instead of Television) Time, celebrity readers, T-shirt logos, and…

  6. Adolescent sexual activity.

    PubMed

    Braverman, P K; Strasburger, V C

    1993-11-01

    Adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages. One half of the adolescents in the United States are sexually active. This article reviews adolescent sexual activity, including rates of sexual activity, sexual practices, gay and lesbian youth, and factors affecting the initiation of sexual activity. In addition, adolescent pregnancy, with possible outcomes and effects on teen parents and their offspring, is discussed.

  7. Canada's Physical Activity Guide: examining print-based material for motivating physical activity in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Todosijczuk, Ivan; Johnson, Steven T; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a secondary analysis on 202 adults from the Physical Activity Workplace Study. The aim of this analysis was to examine demographic characteristics associated with reading Canada's Physical Activity Guide (CPAG), being motivated by the guide, and whether participants in the Physical Activity Workplace Study who read the CPAG increased their physical activity levels over 1 year. Results revealed that less than 50% of participants read the full version of CPAG, and less than 10% were motivated by it. The CPAG also appears to be more appealing to and effective for women than for men. Although the CPAG had some influence in increasing mild physical activity levels in a workplace sample, there was also a decrease in physical activity levels among some members of the group. Overall, the effectiveness of CPAG was not substantial, and the findings of this analysis could help guide future targeted intervention materials and programs.

  8. Cortical commands in active touch.

    PubMed

    Brecht, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The neocortex is an enormous network of extensively interconnected neurons. It has become clear that the computations performed by individual cortical neurons will critically depend on the quantitative composition of cortical activity. Here we discuss quantitative aspects of cortical activity and modes of cortical processing in the context of rodent active touch. Through in vivo whole-cell recordings one observes widespread subthreshold and very sparse evoked action potential (AP) activity in the somatosensory cortex both for passive whisker deflection in anaesthetized animals and during active whisker movements in awake animals. Neurons of the somatosensory cortex become either suppressed during whisking or activated by an efference copy of whisker movement signal that depolarize cells at certain phases of the whisking cycle. To probe the read out of cortical motor commands we applied intracellular stimulation in rat whisker motor cortex. We find that APs in individual cortical neurons can evoke long sequences of small whisker movements. The capacity of an individual neuron to evoke movements is most astonishing given the large number of neurons in whisker motor cortex. Thus, few cortical APs may suffice to control motor behaviour and such APs can be translated into action with the utmost precision. We conclude that there is very widespread subthreshold cortical activity and very sparse, highly specific cortical AP activity.

  9. Guide to Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...

  10. Physical Activity Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  11. Addressing the Gender Gap in Boys' Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welldon, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Research shows that boys have a tougher time that girls learning to read, and they score lower in reading achievement tests. The school literacy initiative was to help reduce the gender gap in reading and get boys in grades 4-6 excited about reading. To achieve this goal, the Cool Guys Reading Club, promoting reading as a cool activity, was born.…

  12. Reading with Children: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = La lectura con los ninos: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  13. Constructing Complexity: Using Reading Levels to Differentiate Reading Comprehension Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FitzPatrick, Declan

    2008-01-01

    The author remembers a class when he asked his students to discuss in small groups how Edgar Allan Poe suggests a judgment of the main character in "The Cask of Amontillado". During their discussion it became clear to the author that the students couldn't come to consensus because they had no grasp of the narrator's explanations of his motivations…

  14. Crew Activity Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, James; Kirillov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The crew activity analyzer (CAA) is a system of electronic hardware and software for automatically identifying patterns of group activity among crew members working together in an office, cockpit, workshop, laboratory, or other enclosed space. The CAA synchronously records multiple streams of data from digital video cameras, wireless microphones, and position sensors, then plays back and processes the data to identify activity patterns specified by human analysts. The processing greatly reduces the amount of time that the analysts must spend in examining large amounts of data, enabling the analysts to concentrate on subsets of data that represent activities of interest. The CAA has potential for use in a variety of governmental and commercial applications, including planning for crews for future long space flights, designing facilities wherein humans must work in proximity for long times, improving crew training and measuring crew performance in military settings, human-factors and safety assessment, development of team procedures, and behavioral and ethnographic research. The data-acquisition hardware of the CAA (see figure) includes two video cameras: an overhead one aimed upward at a paraboloidal mirror on the ceiling and one mounted on a wall aimed in a downward slant toward the crew area. As many as four wireless microphones can be worn by crew members. The audio signals received from the microphones are digitized, then compressed in preparation for storage. Approximate locations of as many as four crew members are measured by use of a Cricket indoor location system. [The Cricket indoor location system includes ultrasonic/radio beacon and listener units. A Cricket beacon (in this case, worn by a crew member) simultaneously transmits a pulse of ultrasound and a radio signal that contains identifying information. Each Cricket listener unit measures the difference between the times of reception of the ultrasound and radio signals from an identified beacon

  15. Sry is a transcriptional activator.

    PubMed

    Dubin, R A; Ostrer, H

    1994-09-01

    The SRY gene functions as a genetic switch in gonadal ridge initiating testis determination. The mouse Sry and human SRY open reading frames (ORFs) share a conserved DNA-binding domain (the HMG-box) yet exhibit no additional homology outside this region. As judged by the accumulation of lacZ-SRY hybrid proteins in the nucleus, both the human and mouse SRY ORFs contain a nuclear localization signal. The mouse Sry HMG-box domain selectively binds the sequence NACAAT in vitro when challenged with a random pool of oligonucleotides and binds AACAAT with the highest affinity. When put under the control of a heterologous promotor, the mouse Sry gene activated transcription of a reporter gene containing multiple copies of the AACAAT binding site. Activation was likewise observed for a GAL4-responsive reporter gene, when the mouse Sry gene was linked to the DNA-binding domain of GAL4. Using this system, the activation function was mapped to a glutamine/histidine-rich domain. In addition, LexA-mouse Sry fusion genes activated a LexA-responsive reporter gene in yeast. In contrast, a GAL4-human SRY fusion gene did not cause transcriptional activation. These studies suggest that both the human and the mouse SRY ORFs encode nuclear, DNA-binding proteins and that the mouse Sry ORF can function as a transcriptional activator with separable DNA-binding and activator domains.

  16. Small Active Radiation Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.

    2004-01-01

    A device, named small active radiation monitor, allows on-orbit evaluations during periods of increased radiation, after extravehicular activities, or at predesignated times for crews on such long-duration space missions as on the International Space Station. It also permits direct evaluation of biological doses, a task now performed using a combination of measurements and potentially inaccurate simulations. Indeed the new monitor can measure a full array of radiation levels, from soft x-rays to hard galactic cosmic-ray particles. With refinement, it will benefit commercial (nuclear power-plant workers, airline pilots, medical technicians, physicians/dentists, and others) and military personnel as well as the astronauts for whom thermoluminescent dosimeters are inadequate. Civilian and military personnel have long since graduated from film badges to thermoluminescent dosimeters. Once used, most dosimeters must be returned to a central facility for processing, a step that can take days or even weeks. While this suffices for radiation workers for whom exposure levels are typically very low and of brief duration, it does not work for astronauts. Even in emergencies and using express mail, the results can often be delayed by as much as 24 hours. Electronic dosimeters, which are the size of electronic oral thermometers, and tattlers, small electronic dosimeters that sound an alarm when the dose/dose rate exceeds preset values, are also used but suffer disadvantages similar to those of thermoluminescent dosimeters. None of these devices fully answers the need of rapid monitoring during the space missions. Instead, radiation is monitored by passive detectors, which are read out after the missions. Unfortunately, these detectors measure only the absorbed dose and not the biologically relevant dose equivalent. The new monitor provides a real-time readout, a time history of radiation exposures (both absorbed dose and biologically relevant dose equivalent), and a count of the

  17. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10). Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2%) from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%), providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental sustainability, transport and urban

  18. Speed Reading Courses and Their Effect on Reading Authentic Texts: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macalister, John

    2010-01-01

    Fluent reading is essential for successful comprehension. One dimension of reading fluency is reading rate, or reading speed. Because of the importance of reading fluency, fluency development activities should be incorporated into classroom practice. One activity that meets the fluency development conditions proposed by Nation (2007) is speed…

  19. A population study of 5 to 15 year olds: full time maternal employment not associated with high BMI. The importance of screen-based activity, reading for pleasure and sleep duration in children's BMI.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Anne W; Winefield, Helen; Kettler, Lisa; Roberts, Rachel; Gill, Tiffany K

    2012-04-01

    To describe the relationship between maternal full time employment and health-related and demographic variables associated with children aged 5-15 years, and the factors associated with child overweight/obesity. Data from a chronic disease and risk factor surveillance system were limited to children aged 5-15 years whose mothers responded on their behalf (n = 641). Univariate/multivariate analyses described the differences between mothers who did and did not work full time. The same data were analysed comparing children who are overweight/obese against those with a normal BMI. The children of mothers who worked full time are more likely to be older, live in a household with a higher household income, be an only child or have one sibling or other child in the household, have a sole mother family structure and not spend any time reading for pleasure. No relationship was found between maternal employment and BMI. Compared with children of normal weight, those who were overweight/obese were more likely to spend no time studying, spend more than 2 h per day in screen-based activity and sleep less than 10 h per night. Child BMI status was not related to maternal employment. Although this analysis included eight diet related variables none proved to be significant in the final models.This study has shown that mothers' working status is not related to children's BMI. The relationship between overweight/obesity of children and high levels of screen-based activity, low levels of studying, and short sleep duration suggests a need for better knowledge and understanding of sedentary behaviours of children.

  20. Home Activities for Fours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    These home learning activity guides have been developed for parents to use with their 4-year-old children. Most of the activities require only household items that are often thrown away and can be recycled for learning activities. Some require no materials at all. The guides frequently begin with a discussion of home activities; progress through…

  1. Active commuting to school

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declines in physical activity levels have coincided with increasing rates of obesity in children. This is problematic because physical activity has been shown to attenuate weight gain in children. Active commuting to school is one way of increasing children's physical activity. However, given the hi...

  2. Civil Law: 12 Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresbach, Debra

    These learning activities on civil law are intended to supplement the secondary level Scholastic materials "Living Law." Case studies, simulations, and role-play activities are included. Information provided for each activity includes a brief overview, background information, teacher instructions and a description of each activity.…

  3. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  4. Finite Element Learning Modules as Active Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ashland O.; Jensen, Daniel; Rencis, Joseph; Wood, Kristin; Wood, John; White, Christina; Raaberg, Kristen Kaufman; Coffman, Josh

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of active learning is to solicit participation by students beyond the passive mode of traditional classroom lectures. Reading, writing, participating in discussions, hands-on activities, engaging in active problem solving, and collaborative learning can all be involved. The skills acquired during active learning tend to go above and…

  5. Synthesis in Escherichia coli of two smaller enzymically active analogues of Coxiella burnetii macrophage infectivity potentiator (CbMip) protein utilizing a single open reading frame from the cbmip gene.

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Y Y; Seshu, J; Wang, D; Mallavia, L P

    1998-01-01

    FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) have been identified in a variety of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Macrophage infectivity potentiator (CbMip, 23.5 kDa) protein of the obligate intracellular bacterium, Coxiella burnetii, was shown previously to belong to the family of FKBPs based on sequence homology and peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. Further characterization of the cbmip gene has identified two additional proteins with molecular masses of 15.5 and 15.0 kDa that are synthesized, in addition to the 23.5 kDa CbMip, when expressed in Escherichia coli. Amino acid sequencing at the N-terminus combined with transcription and translation fusion expression revealed that the two proteins were synthesized from the same open reading frame of the cbmip gene, but starting at different internal translation start codons, probably by translational reinitiation. When the internal methionines serving as start sites were replaced with lysine by site-directed mutagenesis, the synthesis of 15.5 and 15.0 kDa proteins was abolished even though the synthesis of 23.5 kDa CbMip was intact. This confirmed that the 15.5 and 15.0 kDa proteins are indeed generated by translational reinitiation and are not degradation products of the 23.5 kDa protein. Like other FKBPs, both 15.5 and 15.0 kDa proteins exhibit PPIase activity. Because they share significant sequence homology with FKBPs and have a similar PPIase activity, 15.5 and 15. 0 kDa proteins are designated as C. burnetii FKBP (Cb-FKBP) analogues I and II, respectively. TnphoA mutagenesis demonstrated that whereas the large protein (CbMip) is secreted, Cb-FKBP analogues I and II are cytoplasmic, indicating that structural variations could allow for different subcellular compartmentalization of similar proteins. Western-blot analysis of lysates of purified C. burnetii using a CbMip-specific monoclonal antibody revealed the presence of a protein migrating at approximately 15 kDa, indicating the presence of smaller

  6. Commercial Product Activation Using RFID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedrey, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) would be used for commercial product activation, according to a proposal. What is new here is the concept of combining RFID with activation - more specifically, using RFID for activating commercial products (principally, electronic ones) and for performing such ancillary functions as tracking individual product units on production lines, tracking shipments, and updating inventories. According to the proposal, an RFID chip would be embedded in each product. The information encoded in the chip would include a unique number for identifying the product. An RFID reader at the point of sale would record the number of the product and would write digital information to the RFID chip for either immediate activation of the product or for later interrogation and processing. To be practical, an RFID product-activation system should satisfy a number of key requirements: the system should be designed to be integrable into the inventory-tracking and the data-processing and -communication infrastructures of businesses along the entire supply chain from manufacture to retail; the system should be resistant to sophisticated hacking; activation codes should be made sufficiently complexity to minimize the probability of activating stolen products; RFID activation equipment at points of sale must be capable to two-way RF communication for the purposes of reading information from, and writing information to, embedded RFID chips; the equipment at points of sale should be easily operable by sales clerks with little or no training; the point-of-sale equipment should verify activation and provide visible and/or audible signals indicating verification or lack thereof; and, the system should be able to handle millions of products per year with minimal human intervention, among other requirements.

  7. Cultural Activation of Consumers.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Carole E; Reid-Rose, Lenora; Joseph, Adriana M; Hernandez, Jennifer C; Haugland, Gary

    2016-02-01

    This column discusses "cultural activation," defined as a consumer's recognition of the importance of providing cultural information to providers about cultural affiliations, challenges, views about, and attitudes toward behavioral health and general medical health care, as well as the consumer's confidence in his or her ability to provide this information. An aid to activation, "Cultural Activation Prompts," and a scale that measures a consumer's level of activation, the Cultural Activation Measurement Scale, are described. Suggestions are made about ways to introduce cultural activation as a component of usual care.

  8. Smoking, physical activity, and active life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, L; Izmirlian, G; Leveille, S; Phillips, C L; Corti, M C; Brock, D B; Guralnik, J M

    1999-04-01

    The effect of smoking and physical activity on active and disabled life expectancy was estimated using data from the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE). Population-based samples of persons aged > or = 65 years from the East Boston, Massachusetts, New Haven, Connecticut, and Iowa sites of the EPESE were assessed at baseline between 1981 and 1983 and followed for mortality and disability over six annual follow-ups. A total of 8,604 persons without disability at baseline were classified as "ever" or "never" smokers and doing "low," "moderate," or "high" level physical activity. Active and disabled life expectancies were estimated using a Markov chain model. Compared with smokers, men and women nonsmokers survived 1.6-3.9 and 1.6-3.6 years longer, respectively, depending on level of physical activity. When smokers were disabled and close to death, most nonsmokers were still nondisabled. Physical activity, from low to moderate to high, was significantly associated with more years of life expectancy in both smokers (9.5, 10.5, 12.9 years in men and 11.1, 12.6, 15.3 years in women at age 65) and nonsmokers (11.0, 14.4, 16.2 years in men and 12.7, 16.2, 18.4 years in women at age 65). Higher physical activity was associated with fewer years of disability prior to death. These findings provide strong and explicit evidence that refraining from smoking and doing regular physical activity predict a long and healthy life.

  9. Population Education. Awareness Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouse, Deborah E.

    1990-01-01

    Described are awareness activities that deal with human population growth, resources, and the environment. Activities include simulations, mathematical exercises, and discussions of the topic. Specific examples of what individuals can do to help are listed. (KR)

  10. Major operations and activities

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  11. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  12. Active magnetic regenerator

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, John A.; Steyert, William A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an active magnetic regenerator apparatus and method. Brayton, Stirling, Ericsson, and Carnot cycles and the like may be utilized in an active magnetic regenerator to provide efficient refrigeration over relatively large temperature ranges.

  13. ACS Community Activities Contests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgener, Marisa

    2007-08-01

    The Committee on Community Activities and the Office of Community Activities announce the winners of the Illustrated Haiku Contest, Earth Day 2007 and the Poster Contest, National Chemistry Week 2006.

  14. Teachers' Role in Fostering Reading Skill: Effective and Successful Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, G. Rexlin; Raja, B. William Dharma

    2011-01-01

    Reading bestows enjoyment and enlightenment. It unlocks the unknown. It is a complex cognitive activity that is indispensable for the kind of knowledge society. So the students of today's world must know how to learn from reading and to enter the present literate society. One who reads can lead others to light. People who read can be free because…

  15. Activity Theory and Ontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peim, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to re-examine Yrio Engestrom's activity theory as a technology of knowledge designed to enable positive transformations of specific practices. The paper focuses on a key paper where Engestrom defines the nature and present state of activity theory. Beginning with a brief account of the relations between activity theory and…

  16. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  17. Horticultural Practices. Activity Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bania, Kent; Cummings, John, Ed.

    The 88 activity guides in this document are intended to supplement the initial or organized instruction of the agricultural teacher at the secondary educational level. Some of the activities require one student to complete, others may need two or more students working in a team. Some activities also require followup checking within a few days to…

  18. Highlights of 1981 activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The highlights of NASA's 1981 activities are presented, including the results of the two flights of the space shuttle Columbia and the Voyager 2 encounter with Saturn. Accomplishments in the areas of space transportation operations; space science; aeronautical, energy, and space research and development; as well as space tracking, international activities, and 1981 launch activities are discussed.

  19. Bonus Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Provides on-task activities to fill in unexpected extra moments in elementary classes. The activities require little preparation and take 5-15 minutes to complete. There are activities for math, language arts, social science, science, critical thinking, and computer. An outer space board game is also included. (SM)

  20. Activity Sheets. Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke Power Company, Educational Services Dept., Charlotte, NC.

    This document consists of energy vocabulary activities, three games, worksheets, laboratory activities/exercises, and an introductory classroom exercise designed to introduce energy concepts to students. Vocabulary activities focus on coal and energy consumption. The three games (with instructions) focus on various aspects of energy and energy…

  1. Technology Learning Activities I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Technology Education Association, Reston, VA.

    This guide contains 30 technology learning activities. Activities may contain all or some of the following: an introduction, objectives, materials and equipment, challenges, limitations, notes and investigations, resources and references used, and evaluation ideas. Activity titles are: (1) Occupations in Construction Technology; (2) Designing a…

  2. Technology Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brame, Ray; And Others

    This guide contains 43 modules of laboratory activities for technology education courses. Each module includes an instructor's resource sheet and the student laboratory activity. Instructor's resource sheets include some or all of the following elements: module number, course title, activity topic, estimated time, essential elements, objectives,…

  3. Computers + Student Activities Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masie, Elliott; Stein, Michele

    Designed to provide schools with the tools to start utilizing computers for student activity programs without additional expenditures, this handbook provides beginning computer users with suggestions and ideas for using computers in such activities as drama clubs, yearbooks, newspapers, activity calendars, accounting programs, room utilization,…

  4. Climate Change: An Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Garry

    1995-01-01

    Presents a segment of the Geoscience Education booklet, Climate Change, that contains information and activities that enable students to gain a better appreciation of the possible effects human activity has on the Earth's climate. Describes the Terrace Temperatures activity that leads students through an investigation using foraminifera data to…

  5. Reading and Writing Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Jana M., Ed.

    This collection of papers, from a conference on reading and writing connections held at the University of Illinois in October 1986, reflects the value of demonstrating connections between reading instruction and writing. The book shows practitioners how writing can be blended with reading instruction and how writing activities can be used not just…

  6. Free Reading Is UTOPIA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeCrone, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    In high school students get tied up in extracurricular activities and have little time for pleasure reading. It is true that with rigorous academic schedules they have little time for pleasure reading. Thus began a conversation with a sophomore English teacher at the author's high school. As they were discussing the plight of free reading he was…

  7. Reading to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Phillip; Wardrip, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Science teachers expect high school students to know how to read, understand, and learn from texts at the core of the curriculum. But though students learn to read in grade school, many do not know how to "read to learn" science. And science teachers are often too busy teaching science to actively help students increase their science reading…

  8. Vestibular activation of sympathetic nerve activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. A.; Carter, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The vestibulosympathetic reflex refers to sympathetic nerve activation by the vestibular system. Animal studies indicate that the vestibular system assists in blood pressure regulation during orthostasis. Although human studies clearly demonstrate activation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during engagement of the otolith organs, the role of the vestibulosympathetic reflex in maintaining blood pressure during orthostasis is not well-established. Examination of the vestibulosympathetic reflex with other cardiovascular reflexes indicates that it is a powerful and independent reflex. Ageing, which is associated with an increased risk for orthostatic hypotension, attenuates the vestibulosympathetic reflex. The attenuated reflex is associated with a reduction in arterial pressure. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the vestibulosympathetic reflex assists in blood pressure regulation in humans, but future studies examining this reflex in other orthostatically intolerant populations are necessary to address this hypothesis.

  9. Metabolism Supports Macrophage Activation

    PubMed Central

    Langston, P. Kent; Shibata, Munehiko; Horng, Tiffany

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages are found in most tissues of the body, where they have tissue- and context-dependent roles in maintaining homeostasis as well as coordinating adaptive responses to various stresses. Their capacity for specialized functions is controlled by polarizing signals, which activate macrophages by upregulating transcriptional programs that encode distinct effector functions. An important conceptual advance in the field of macrophage biology, emerging from recent studies, is that macrophage activation is critically supported by metabolic shifts. Metabolic shifts fuel multiple aspects of macrophage activation, and preventing these shifts impairs appropriate activation. These findings raise the exciting possibility that macrophage functions in various contexts could be regulated by manipulating their metabolism. Here, we review the rapidly evolving field of macrophage metabolism, discussing how polarizing signals trigger metabolic shifts and how these shifts enable appropriate activation and sustain effector activities. We also discuss recent studies indicating that the mitochondria are central hubs in inflammatory macrophage activation. PMID:28197151

  10. Home for the Holidays... Reading Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of the Secretary.

    Noting that reading well is at the heart of all learning, this guide suggests reading activities that will prevent a decline in children's reading skills over winter vacation, and the guide encourages parents to spend time with their children through these activities. The guide provides links to the following suggested reading lists: the American…

  11. Music Activities for "Little Wolf's Song"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2015-01-01

    Drawn from Britta Techentrup's children's book "Little Wolf's Song", the author shares music activities appropriate for preschool and children in primary grades. Children will enjoy Technentrup's tender family story, while exploring vocal and instrumental timbres, as well as reading, writing, and creating with melodic contour.

  12. Children's Engagement in Different Classroom Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstrom Kjellin, Margareta; Granlund, Mats

    2006-01-01

    A multiple case study is reported aiming at identifying the degree of taking part and of being engaged in classroom activities for children with and without reading and writing difficulties/dyslexia. The aim was also to investigate the accordance between "effective literacy teaching" and children's expressed interest and observed taking…

  13. Discussing Active Learning from the Practitioner's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamba, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of how active learning took place in a class containing specific readings,cooperative and collaborative group work, and a writing assignment for college students at a Northern Virginia Community College campus (NVCC). Requisite knowledge, skills, learner characteristics, brain-based learning, and…

  14. Energy Activities for the Primary Classroom. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Blue, Comp.

    An energy education program at the primary level should help students to understand the nature and importance of energy, consider different energy sources, learn about energy conservation, prepare for energy related careers, and become energy conscious in other career fields. The activities charts, readings, and experiments provided in this…

  15. Remote Sensing Simulation Activities for Earthlings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krockover, Gerald H.; Odden, Thomas D.

    1977-01-01

    Suggested are activities using a Polaroid camera to illustrate the capabilities of remote sensing. Reading materials from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are suggested. Methods for (1) finding a camera's focal length, (2) calculating ground dimension photograph simulation, and (3) limiting size using film resolution are…

  16. Developmental Book Activities and Needs in Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Stanley A.; And Others

    This report is the fourth in a series of six studies of developmental book activity in East Asia. The scope of work in the Republic of Indonesia included assessment of books and materials in the educational process; books used by individuals for the improvement of reading skills and for learning enrichment; books for technical and professional…

  17. Family Reading Night: A How to Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehmer, Julie

    2007-01-01

    A family reading night is the ideal way to introduce the library media center and actively involve parents in their child's reading success. This event is an opportunity to explain how a reading program works and provide parents with strategies to encourage further reading at home. Parents can sit down with their children and read in the library,…

  18. Teaching Reading and the At Risk Pupil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    At risk students need to experience a reading curriculum which offers success in learning to read; appropriate sequence of reading activities; feedback regarding what has been accomplished in reading; rewards for doing well when comparing past with present achievement records; intrinsic motivation in wanting to read; help and guidance to achieve…

  19. Does early reading failure decrease children's reading motivation?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Paul L; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L; Cordray, David S; Fuchs, Lynn S

    2008-01-01

    The authors used a pretest-posttest control group design with random assignment to evaluate whether early reading failure decreases children's motivation to practice reading. First, they investigated whether 60 first-grade children would report substantially different levels of interest in reading as a function of their relative success or failure in learning to read. Second, they evaluated whether increasing the word reading ability of 15 at-risk children would lead to gains in their motivation to read. Multivariate analyses of variance suggest marked differences in both motivation and reading practice between skilled and unskilled readers. However, bolstering at-risk children's word reading ability did not yield evidence of a causal relationship between early reading failure and decreased motivation to engage in reading activities. Instead, hierarchical regression analyses indicate a covarying relationship among early reading failure, poor motivation, and avoidance of reading.

  20. Activated carbon from biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manocha, S.; Manocha, L. M.; Joshi, Parth; Patel, Bhavesh; Dangi, Gaurav; Verma, Narendra

    2013-06-01

    Activated carbon are unique and versatile adsorbents having extended surface area, micro porous structure, universal adsorption effect, high adsorption capacity and high degree of surface reactivity. Activated carbons are synthesized from variety of materials. Most commonly used on a commercial scale are cellulosic based precursors such as peat, coal, lignite wood and coconut shell. Variation occurs in precursors in terms of structure and carbon content. Coir having very low bulk density and porous structure is found to be one of the valuable raw materials for the production of highly porous activated carbon and other important factor is its high carbon content. Exploration of good low cost and non conventional adsorbent may contribute to the sustainability of the environment and offer promising benefits for the commercial purpose in future. Carbonization of biomass was carried out in a horizontal muffle furnace. Both carbonization and activation were performed in inert nitrogen atmosphere in one step to enhance the surface area and to develop interconnecting porosity. The types of biomass as well as the activation conditions determine the properties and the yield of activated carbon. Activated carbon produced from biomass is cost effective as it is easily available as a waste biomass. Activated carbon produced by combination of chemical and physical activation has higher surface area of 2442 m2/gm compared to that produced by physical activation (1365 m2/gm).

  1. Factor XII Contact Activation.

    PubMed

    Naudin, Clément; Burillo, Elena; Blankenberg, Stefan; Butler, Lynn; Renné, Thomas

    2017-03-27

    Contact activation is the surface-induced conversion of factor XII (FXII) zymogen to the serine protease FXIIa. Blood-circulating FXII binds to negatively charged surfaces and this contact to surfaces triggers a conformational change in the zymogen inducing autoactivation. Several surfaces that have the capacity for initiating FXII contact activation have been identified, including misfolded protein aggregates, collagen, nucleic acids, and platelet and microbial polyphosphate. Activated FXII initiates the proinflammatory kallikrein-kinin system and the intrinsic coagulation pathway, leading to formation of bradykinin and thrombin, respectively. FXII contact activation is well characterized in vitro and provides the mechanistic basis for the diagnostic clotting assay, activated partial thromboplastin time. However, only in the past decade has the critical role of FXII contact activation in pathological thrombosis been appreciated. While defective FXII contact activation provides thromboprotection, excess activation underlies the swelling disorder hereditary angioedema type III. This review provides an overview of the molecular basis of FXII contact activation and FXII contact activation-associated disease states.

  2. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  3. 77 FR 71405 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for Review and Approval; Comment Request; Early Reading First: Grant Performance Report AGENCY: Department of... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Early Reading First: Grant...

  4. A Read-Aloud for Science (Read It Aloud).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Judy S.; Breen, Margaret

    1996-01-01

    Recommends a young adult read-aloud selection for science classes on endangered species. Describes listening, writing, discussing, investigating, and debating activities capitalizing on this read-aloud. (SR)

  5. Innovative Hands-on Activities for Middle School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Dana M.

    This paper contains some hands-on activities that relate science to art and language arts. The focus is placed on middle schools and activities engage students in the discovery that chemicals are used to draw and color. Students also read and write poetry and literature that employ science-related topics. A number of spin-off activities are…

  6. Patterns in Active Nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeomans, Julia M.

    Active systems, from bacterial suspensions to cellular monolayers, are continuously driven out of equilibrium by local injection of energy from their constituent elements and exhibit turbulent-like, chaotic patterns. We describe how active systems can be stabilised by tuning a physical feature of the system, friction. We demonstrate how the crossover between wet active systems, whose behaviour is dominated by hydrodynamics, and dry active matter where any flow is screened, can be achieved by using friction as a control parameter and demonstrate vortex ordering at the wet-dry crossover. We show that the self organisation of vortices into lattices is accompanied by the spatial ordering of topological defects leading to active crystal-like structures. The emergence of vortex lattices which leads to the positional ordering of topological defects may be a useful step towards the design and control of active materials.

  7. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  8. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  9. Activity in distant comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luu, Jane X.

    1992-01-01

    Activity in distant comets remains a mystery in the sense that we still have no complete theory to explain the various types of activity exhibited by different comets at large distances. This paper explores the factors that should play a role in determining activity in a distant comet, especially in the cases of comet P/Tempel 2, comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, and 2060 Chiron.

  10. Thermally Activated Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, William H.; Murray, Robert C.; Walsh, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    Space-qualified, precise, large-force, thermally activated driver (TAD) developed for use in space on astro-physics experiment to measure abundance of rare actinide-group elements in cosmic rays. Actinide cosmic rays detected using thermally activated driver as heart of event-thermometer (ET) system. Thermal expansion and contraction of silicone oil activates driver. Potential applications in fluid-control systems where precise valve controls are needed.

  11. [Biomedical activity of biosurfactants].

    PubMed

    Krasowska, Anna

    2010-07-23

    Biosurfactants, amphiphilic compounds, synthesized by microorganisms have surface, antimicrobial and antitumor properties. Biosurfactants prevent adhesion and biofilms formation by bacteria and fungi on various surfaces. For many years microbial surfactants are used as antibiotics with board spectrum of activity against microorganisms. Biosurfactants act as antiviral compounds and their antitumor activities are mediated through induction of apoptosis. This work presents the current state of knowledge related to biomedical activity of biosurfactants.

  12. NASA metrication activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlannes, P. N.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's organization and policy for metrification, history from 1964, NASA participation in Federal agency activities, interaction with nongovernmental metrication organizations, and the proposed metrication assessment study are reviewed.

  13. "Capture Silk": Reading Aloud Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Patricia

    1993-01-01

    Considers the benefits and impact that come from reading texts aloud with other persons. Provides a plan by which partners can read books together aloud. Claims that this is a vital and habit-forming activity. (HB)

  14. Cross-Language Activation of Phonology in Young Bilingual Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether children who were learning to read simultaneously in English and French activate phonological representations from only the language in which they are reading or from both of their languages. Children in French Immersion programs in Grade 3 were asked to name aloud cognates, interlingual homographs, interlingual homophones,…

  15. Your Library--Greatest Show of All! Activity Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Mary, Ed.

    Intended as a companion volume for librarians planning a children's summer reading program, this activity manual provides ideas for games, puzzles, puppet shows, story reading, and more, all based on the theme of "Circus Summer." The manual suggests ways to promote the program, such as visits to schools, and provides directions for…

  16. Active Flow Control Activities at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, Scott G.; Sellers, William L., III; Washburn, Anthony E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Langley continues to aggressively investigate the potential advantages of active flow control over more traditional aerodynamic techniques. This paper provides an update to a previous paper and describes both the progress in the various research areas and the significant changes in the NASA research programs. The goals of the topics presented are focused on advancing the state of knowledge and understanding of controllable fundamental mechanisms in fluids as well as to address engineering challenges. An organizational view of current research activities at NASA Langley in active flow control as supported by several projects is presented. On-center research as well as NASA Langley funded contracts and grants are discussed at a relatively high level. The products of this research are to be demonstrated either in bench-top experiments, wind-tunnel investigations, or in flight as part of the fundamental NASA R&D program and then transferred to more applied research programs within NASA, DOD, and U.S. industry.

  17. Active Students in Webinars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolås, Line; Nordseth, Hugo; Yri, Jørgen Sørlie

    2015-01-01

    To ensure student activity in webinars we have defined 10 learning tasks focusing on production and communication e.g. collaborative writing, discussion and polling, and investigated how the technology supports the learning activities. The three project partners in the VisPed-project use different video-conferencing systems, and we analyzed how it…

  18. [Field Learning Activities].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolde Forest Environmental Education Center, Reading, PA.

    Seventy field activities, pertinent to outdoor, environmental studies, are described in this compilation. Designed for elementary and junior high school students, the activities cover many discipline areas--science, social studies, language arts, health, history, mathematics, and art--and many are multidisciplinary in use. Topics range from soil…

  19. Warm-Up Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingguang, Yang

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how warm-up activities can help to make the English-as-a-foreign-language classroom a lively and interesting place. Warm-up activities are games carried out at the beginning of each class to motivate students to make good use of class time. (Author/VWL)

  20. Nutrition Activities Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Special Education.

    The resource guide suggests activities to help special education students make appropriate choices about their nutritional habits. It is explained that the activities can be infused into other curriculum areas. The guide consists of five themes and includes performance objectives for each: foods eaten at school (planning a school lunch, keeping a…

  1. Science World Activities Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, Madison.

    This document consists of three sections. Section I contains 19 activities developed by master teachers for the Science World '84 summer science program. These activities focus on studies involving airplane controls, trash bag kites, computers, meteorology, compass orienteering, soils, aquatic ecosystems, bogs, and others. Objectives, materials…

  2. The Journal Synthesizing Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Zev

    The journal synthesizing activity is intended to combine aspects of the formal essay with that of a diary. Activities associated with lecture topics are written up as short journal entries of approximately five typewritten pages and are turned in during the weekly class session at which the related topic is being discussed. The journal project…

  3. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

    1986-08-19

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  4. Activating Event Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or…

  5. Coordinating Shared Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    Shared Activity Coordination (ShAC) is a computer program for planning and scheduling the activities of an autonomous team of interacting spacecraft and exploratory robots. ShAC could also be adapted to such terrestrial uses as helping multiple factory managers work toward competing goals while sharing such common resources as floor space, raw materials, and transports. ShAC iteratively invokes the Continuous Activity Scheduling Planning Execution and Replanning (CASPER) program to replan and propagate changes to other planning programs in an effort to resolve conflicts. A domain-expert specifies which activities and parameters thereof are shared and reports the expected conditions and effects of these activities on the environment. By specifying these conditions and effects differently for each planning program, the domain-expert subprogram defines roles that each spacecraft plays in a coordinated activity. The domain-expert subprogram also specifies which planning program has scheduling control over each shared activity. ShAC enables sharing of information, consensus over the scheduling of collaborative activities, and distributed conflict resolution. As the other planning programs incorporate new goals and alter their schedules in the changing environment, ShAC continually coordinates to respond to unexpected events.

  6. Activities: More Calculator Capers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalz, Rosemary

    1983-01-01

    Provided is an activity designed to give grades 7-12 students opportunities to discover numerical patterns and to derive general conclusions from observing data. The activity focuses attention on patterns in products such as 33x34, 333x334, and 3333x3334. Three worksheets and answers are included. (JN)

  7. Choreography of AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Langendorf, Christopher G; Kemp, Bruce E

    2015-01-01

    A recent study published in Cell Research by Li and colleagues reports a detailed biophysical and structural study of AMPK's intra-molecular interactions during activation. By employing subunit tagging and proximity analysis with the aid of AlphaScreen instrumentation, Li et al. add to our understanding of the choreography of activation of AMPK by both nucleotides and phosphorylation.

  8. Rainy Day Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Experienced caregivers plan ahead for rainy days. This article describes specific rainy day activities for young children, such as books and crafts to learn about rain (rain in a jar, making a rainbow), simple cooking activities (taffy pull, cinnamon candy tea), and games (mummy wrap, hunt the thimble, rain lotto). (EV)

  9. Laboratory Activities in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Barnea, Nitza

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory activities have long had a distinctive and central role in the science curriculum, and science educators have suggested that many benefits accrue from engaging students in science laboratory activities. Many research studies have been conducted to investigate the educational effectiveness of laboratory work in science education in…

  10. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Cancer.gov

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  11. Curriculum Activities on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmall, Vicki L.; Benge, Nancy

    This paper contains learning activities on aging for use with elementary, high school, and university students in health, family relationships, social studies, and art courses. The activities are intended to help youth develop a more realistic understanding of the aging process and to become aware of both the problems and benefits associated with…

  12. Students Active in Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brutcher, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Describes SAIL (Students Active in Leadership) as a school-based, youth-directed group. States that the program helps teenagers learn leadership skills by developing and implementing community service activities. SAIL finds partners with whom to collaborate among local businesses, government, and health associations, and these partners provide the…

  13. Ten Minute Writing Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markus, Sharyn

    Designed with junior high school students in mind, the activities in this booklet are offered as ways to stimulate interest in writing using as little as ten minutes of class time. The activities are arranged in six sections: (1) developing observation skills and paying attention to details; (2) word play, descriptive words, and word collections…

  14. Nature's engines: active matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeomans, Julia M.

    2017-03-01

    Active materials, bacteria, molecular motors, and self-propelled colloids, continuously transform chemical energy from the environment to mechanical work. Dense active matter, from layers of cells to flocks of birds, self-assembles into intricate patterns. Nature's engines are complex and efficient, and we would like to exploit her ideas to fabricate nano-machines.

  15. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, David R.; Velenyi, Louis J.; Pepera, Marc A.; Dolhyj, Serge R.

    1986-01-01

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  16. Activity Book: Ocean Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a collection of activities to help elementary students study ocean ecology. The activities have students investigate ocean inhabitants, analyze animal adaptations, examine how temperature and saltiness affect ocean creatures, and learn about safeguarding the sea. Student pages offer reproducible learning sheets. (SM)

  17. [Biosignals of dermal activity].

    PubMed

    Rathkolb, O; Gallei, L

    1993-01-01

    Electrodermal activity (EDA) summarizes different electrophysiological dimensions of human skin. EDA is based on the activity of sweat glands and their innervation by the autonomic nervous system. EDA is used as indicator in the additional diagnostic assessment of patients in the fields of neurology and psychosomatic medicine.

  18. Active galactic nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, Andrew C.

    1999-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei are the most powerful, long-lived objects in the Universe. Recent data confirm the theoretical idea that the power source is accretion into a massive black hole. The common occurrence of obscuration and outflows probably means that the contribution of active galactic nuclei to the power density of the Universe has been generally underestimated. PMID:10220363

  19. Reflections on Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhurst, David

    2009-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that activity theory represents the most important legacy of Soviet philosophy and psychology. But what exactly "is" activity theory? The canonical account in the West is given by Engestrom, who identifies three stages in the theory's development: from Vygotsky's insights, through Leontiev's articulation of the…

  20. Student Activities. Managing Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Barbara; And Others

    This monograph suggests ways that college or university administrations can undertake a systematic and careful review of the risks posed by students' activities. Its purpose is to provide guidance in integrating the risk management process into a school's existing approaches to managing student organizations and activities. It is noted that no…

  1. The Activity of Trypsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Salvatore F.; Holzman, Tom

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment that illustrates the following points concerning the experimental determination of trypsin activity: (1) there is a difference in basing enzyme concentration on weight, absorbance, or active sites; and (2) the method of expressing enzyme concentration determines the value of specific, molecular, and catalytic center…

  2. Metastasis and AKT activation.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Meng; Sheng, Shijie; Pardee, Arthur B

    2008-10-01

    Metastasis is responsible for 90% of cancer patient deaths. More information is needed about the molecular basis for its potential detection and treatment. The activated AKT kinase is necessary for many events of the metastatic pathway including escape of cells from the tumor's environment, into and then out of the circulation, activation of proliferation, blockage of apoptosis, and activation of angiogenesis. A series of steps leading to metastatic properties can be initiated upon activation of AKT by phosphorylation on Ser-473. These findings lead to the question of how this activation is connected to metastasis. Activated AKT phosphorylates GSK-3beta causing its proteolytic removal. This increases stability of the negative transcription factor SNAIL, thereby decreasing transcription of the transmembrane protein E-cadherin that forms adhesions between adjacent cells, thereby permitting their detachment. How is AKT hyperactivated in metastatic cells? Increased PI3K or TORC2 kinase activity- or decreased PHLPP phosphatase could be responsible. Furthermore, a positive feedback mechanism is that the decrease of E-cadherin lowers PTEN and thereby increases PIP3, further activating AKT and metastasis.

  3. Aging and Semantic Activation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Darlene V.

    Three studies tested the theory that long term memory consists of a semantically organized network of concept nodes interconnected by leveled associations or relations, and that when a stimulus is processed, the corresponding concept node is assumed to be temporarily activated and this activation spreads to nearby semantically related nodes. In…

  4. Activities of the ILO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Seven articles on International Labour Organization (ILO) activities cover study groups at ILO headquarters, a Philippine rural workers seminar, women's participation in Central American union activities, worksite courses in India, and seminars and symposia in Cape Verde, Mauritius, and Sierra Leone. (SK)

  5. Learning Activities for Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Suggests activities to help toddlers develop skills in the four important areas of self-help, creativity, world mastery, and coordination. Activities include hand washing, button practice, painting, movement and music, bubble making, creation of a nature mural, and a shoe print trail. (TJQ)

  6. Active and Healthy Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  7. ZOOMsci Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Meredith

    This activity guide is based on the Public Broadcasting System's (PBS) program "ZOOM." It is designed for educators with activities that are categorized into three themes: (1) Things That Go, which includes "Air" which explores air pressure, "Rubber Bands" which discovers the potential energy of rubber bands,…

  8. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-01-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of…

  9. Reading Attitude as a Mediator between Contextual Factors and Reading Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Hyo Jin; Bong, Mimi; Woo, Yeon-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Background: Among the factors known to influence reading development and performance, attitude toward reading is shown to be particularly critical for developing learners. Reading attitude (McKenna, 1994; McKenna et al., 1995) enhances independent reading, levels of engagement in classroom reading activities, and the amount and variety of topics…

  10. The Relationship between Reading Proficiency and Reading Strategy Use: A Study of Adult ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between reading strategy use and reading proficiency among 121 adult ESL learners. Reading strategy use was measured by the SORS, and reading proficiency was determined by the CASAS Reading Test and BEST Literacy Test. Findings of the study reveal that (a) adult ESL learners are active strategies users; (b)…

  11. Motor Activity Improves Temporal Expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813

  12. Helping Children with Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgington, Ruth; And Others

    Intended for parents helping their children with reading disabilities, the book describes specific activities in eight areas. The eight areas include general suggestions for the study period, hand and eye coordination activities, phonics training, ear training, reading, relaxation activities, muscle memory, writing, and spelling. Thirteen…

  13. Active optical zoom system

    DOEpatents

    Wick, David V.

    2005-12-20

    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  14. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-08-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of each lesson were analysed to identify individual student's emotions. Results from two representative students are presented as case studies. Using a theoretical perspective drawn from theories of emotions founded in sociology, two assertions emerged. First, during the demonstration activity, students experienced the emotions of wonder and surprise; second, during a laboratory activity, students experienced the intense positive emotions of happiness/joy. Characteristics of these activities that contributed to students' positive experiences are highlighted. The study found that choosing activities that evoked strong positive emotional experiences, focused students' attention on the phenomenon they were learning, and the activities were recalled positively. Furthermore, such positive experiences may contribute to students' interest and engagement in science and longer term memorability. Finally, implications for science teachers and pre-service teacher education are suggested.

  15. UAVSAR Active Electronically Scanned Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowy, Gregory, A.; Chamberlain, Neil F.; Zawadzki, Mark S.; Brown, Kyle M.; Fisher, Charles D.; Figueroa, Harry S.; Hamilton, Gary A.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Vorperian, Vatche; Grando, Maurio B.

    2011-01-01

    The Uninhabited Airborne Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is a pod-based, L-band (1.26 GHz), repeatpass, interferometric, synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) used for Earth science applications. Repeat-pass interferometric radar measurements from an airborne platform require an antenna that can be steered to maintain the same angle with respect to the flight track over a wide range of aircraft yaw angles. In order to be able to collect repeat-pass InSAR data over a wide range of wind conditions, UAVSAR employs an active electronically scanned array (AESA). During data collection, the UAVSAR flight software continuously reads the aircraft attitude state measured by the Embedded GPS/INS system (EGI) and electronically steers the beam so that it remains perpendicular to the flight track throughout the data collection

  16. List 9 - Active CERCLIS Sites:

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The List 9 displays the sequence of activities undertaken at active CERCLIS sites. An active site is one at which site assessment, removal, remedial, enforcement, cost recovery, or oversight activities are being planned or conducted.

  17. THE ACTIVE CENTAURS

    SciTech Connect

    Jewitt, David

    2009-05-15

    The Centaurs are recent escapees from the Kuiper Belt that are destined either to meet fiery oblivion in the hot inner regions of the solar system or to be ejected to the interstellar medium by gravitational scattering from the giant planets. Dynamically evolved Centaurs, when captured by Jupiter and close enough to the Sun for near-surface water ice to sublimate, are conventionally labeled as 'short-period' (specifically, Jupiter-family) comets. Remarkably, some Centaurs show comet-like activity even when far beyond the orbit of Jupiter, suggesting mass loss driven by a process other than the sublimation of water ice. We observed a sample of 23 Centaurs and found nine to be active, with mass-loss rates measured from several kg s{sup -1} to several tonnes s{sup -1}. Considered as a group, we find that the 'active Centaurs' in our sample have perihelia smaller than the inactive Centaurs (median 5.9 AU versus 8.7 AU), and smaller than the median perihelion distance computed for all known Centaurs (12.4 AU). This suggests that their activity is thermally driven. We consider several possibilities for the origin of the mass loss from the active Centaurs. Most are too cold for activity at the observed levels to originate via the sublimation of crystalline water ice. Solid carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide have the opposite problem: they are so volatile that they should drive activity in Centaurs at much larger distances than observed. We consider the possibility that activity in the Centaurs is triggered by the conversion of amorphous ice into the crystalline form accompanied by the release of trapped gases, including carbon monoxide. By imposing the condition that crystallization should occur when the crystallization time is shorter than the orbital period we find a qualitative match to the perihelion distribution of the active Centaurs and conclude that the data are consistent with the hypothesis that the Centaurs contain amorphous ice.

  18. Physics of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  19. Algorithm-development activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, Kendall L.

    1994-01-01

    The task of algorithm-development activities at USF continues. The algorithm for determining chlorophyll alpha concentration, (Chl alpha) and gelbstoff absorption coefficient for SeaWiFS and MODIS-N radiance data is our current priority.

  20. MARIHUANA ACTIVITY OF CANNABINOL.

    PubMed

    Loewe, S

    1945-12-14

    Cannabinol, generally believed to be an inert component of hemp oil, is shown to have marihuana activity. The significance of this observation with regard to the relationship between structure and mamactivity in the class of cannabinols is discussed.

  1. Balance Food and Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... eNewsletters Calendar Balance Food and Activity What is Energy Balance? Energy is another word for "calories." Your ... adults, fewer calories are needed at older ages. Energy Balance in Real Life Think of it as ...

  2. Activities in Teaching Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonn, Martin

    1977-01-01

    Presented is a unit composed of activities for teaching weather. Topics include cloud types and formation, simple weather instruments, and the weather station. Illustrations include a weather chart and instruments. A bibliography is given. (MA)

  3. Extravehicular activity technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webbon, Bruce W.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on extravehicular activity technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: extravehicular mobility unit; airlock and EMU support equipment; tools, mobility aids, and workstations; and telerobotic work aids interfaces.

  4. French space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanc, R.

    1982-01-01

    The four main points of research and development of space programs by France are explained. The National Center of Space Studies is discussed, listing the missions of the Center and describing the activities of the staff.

  5. Active Fire Mapping Program

    MedlinePlus

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  6. ERLN Activities Details

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environmental Response Laboratory Network activities include the All Hazard Receipt Facility and Screening Protocol, standardizing chemical methods, Chemical Warfare Agent Fixed Laboratory Pilot Project, microbial efforts, and WLA response plan.

  7. The Activity Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Mathematics Teacher, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Presents four examples on arithmetic mean and harmonic mean. Provides solution of each of the examples and instructional activities related to the examples. Lists eight references on mathematical problem solving. (YP)

  8. Exercise and activity - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... and most other organized sports (such as soccer, swimming, and dancing) Younger children cannot stick with the ... your child's preferences and abilities. Individual activities include swimming, running, skiing, or biking. Group sports are another ...

  9. Active terahertz metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hou-tong

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate planar terahertz metamaterial devices enabling actively controllable transmission amplitude, phase, or frequency at room temperature via carrier depletion or photoexcitation in the semiconductor substrate or in semiconductor materials incorporated into the metamaterial structure.

  10. Enrichment Activities for Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiskin, Zalman

    1983-01-01

    Enrichment activities that teach about geometry as they instruct in geometry are given for some significant topics. The facets of geometry included are tessellations, round robin tournaments, geometric theorems on triangles, and connections between geometry and complex numbers. (MNS)

  11. Interactive Design Activism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulev, Petar; Farrer, Joan

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Computers and Human Well-being * To Fuzzy or Yes (No)! * Interactive Design Activism * Sensing the Sun * Personalised Public Health Advice * Modifying Human Behaviour * Transdisciplinarity, Knowledge Transfer and Multi-domain

  12. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  13. Active Limiters For Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Joseph; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1990-01-01

    Active or "smart" electro-optical shutters proposed for protection of photodetectors, imaging devices, and other sensitive optical or optoelectronic elements. Responds rapidly and automatically to increase in illumination above prescribed level.

  14. Math Lab Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumbaugh, Douglas K.; Hynes, Michael C.

    1974-01-01

    The goals, objects, materials and grade levels are specified in this description of a laboratory activity involving analytic geometry concepts. Students mark out bicycle gymkhana courses in which directions to participants are given by Cartesian coordinates. (JP)

  15. Is there a shift to "active nanostructures"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Vrishali; Youtie, Jan; Porter, Alan L.; Shapira, Philip

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that an important transition in the long-run trajectory of nanotechnology development is a shift from passive to active nanostructures. Such a shift could present different or increased societal impacts and require new approaches for risk assessment. An active nanostructure "changes or evolves its state during its operation," according to the National Science Foundation's (2006) Active Nanostructures and Nanosystems grant solicitation. Active nanostructure examples include nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), nanomachines, self-healing materials, targeted drugs and chemicals, energy storage devices, and sensors. This article considers two questions: (a) Is there a "shift" to active nanostructures? (b) How can we characterize the prototypical areas into which active nanostructures may emerge? We build upon the NSF definition of active nanostructures to develop a research publication search strategy, with a particular intent to distinguish between passive and active nanotechnologies. We perform bibliometric analyses and describe the main publication trends from 1995 to 2008. We then describe the prototypes of research that emerge based on reading the abstracts and review papers encountered in our search. Preliminary results suggest that there is a sharp rise in active nanostructures publications in 2006, and this rise is maintained in 2007 and through to early 2008. We present a typology that can be used to describe the kind of active nanostructures that may be commercialized and regulated in the future.

  16. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, David S.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Powell, Roger W.

    1986-01-01

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  17. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, D.S.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Powell, R.W.

    1985-02-07

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  18. RAVEN Quality Assurance Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cogliati, Joshua Joseph

    2015-09-01

    This report discusses the quality assurance activities needed to raise the Quality Level of Risk Analysis in a Virtual Environment (RAVEN) from Quality Level 3 to Quality Level 2. This report also describes the general RAVEN quality assurance activities. For improving the quality, reviews of code changes have been instituted, more parts of testing have been automated, and improved packaging has been created. For upgrading the quality level, requirements have been created and the workflow has been improved.

  19. Activated partial thromboplastin time.

    PubMed

    Ignjatovic, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is a commonly used coagulation assay that is easy to perform, is affordable, and is therefore performed in most coagulation laboratories, both clinical and research, worldwide. The APTT is based on the principle that in citrated plasma, the addition of a platelet substitute, factor XII activator, and CaCl2 allows for formation of a stable clot. The time required for the formation of a stable clot is recorded in seconds and represents the actual APTT result.

  20. Active aperture phased arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoy, R. P.

    1989-04-01

    Developments towards the realization of active aperture phased arrays are reviewed. The technology and cost aspects of the power amplifier and phase shifter subsystems are discussed. Consideration is given to research concerning T/R modules, MESFETs, side lobe control, beam steering, optical control techniques, and printed circuit antennas. Methods for configuring the array are examined, focusing on the tile and brick configurations. It is found that there is no technological impediment for introducing active aperture phased arrays.

  1. Intercreativity: Mapping Online Activism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meikle, Graham

    How do activists use the Internet? This article maps a wide range of activist practice and research by applying and developing Tim Berners-Lee's concept of ‘intercreativity' (1999). It identifies four dimensions of Net activism: intercreative texts, tactics, strategies and networks. It develops these through examples of manifestations of Net activism around one cluster of issues: support campaigns for refugees and asylum seekers.

  2. ABB: active bandwidth broker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Kason; Law, Eddie

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, we shall discuss a novel design on the policy-based management for the Internet. This design deploys the concept of active networking. As opposed to the traditional network design, active network empowers network node with the ability to manipulate data and program code in packets, and configure the network properties according to the needs of different applications. The policy-based management can control network routers in order to realize end-to-end Quality of Service (QoS), such as differentiated and integrated services, across the Internet. For the moment, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has defined the framework of the policy-based management. It employs a simple client/server model that uses Common Open Policy Service (COPS) protocol to facilitate policy management and control. Our design of Active Bandwidth Broker (ABB) belongs to an active application. Our goals are to distribute centralized workload of the policy-based management over multiple active nodes in the active networks, introduce mobility of the bandwidth brokers, and allows load sharing to the policy-based management. This results a network-wide intelligent, highly available, and consistent QoS control that allows performance protection for voice, video and Internet business application while reducing costs for growing networks.

  3. Rheology of Active Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Active networks drive a diverse range of critical processes ranging from motility to division in living cells, yet a full picture of their rheological capabilities in non-cellular contexts is still emerging, e.g., How does the rheological response of a network capable of remodeling under internally-generated stresses differ from that of a passive biopolymer network? In order to address this and other basic questions, we have engineered an active gel composed of microtubules, bidirectional kinesin motors, and molecular depletant that self-organizes into a highly dynamic network of active bundles. The network continually remodels itself under ATP-tunable cycles of extension, buckling, fracturing, and self-healing. Using confocal rheometry we have simultaneously characterized the network's linear and non-linear rheological responses to shear deformation along with its dynamic morphology. We find several surprising and unique material properties for these active gels; most notably, rheological cloaking, the ability of the active gel to drive large-scale fluid mixing over several orders of flow magnitude while maintaining an invariant, solid-like rheological profile and spontaneous flow under confinement, the ability to exert micro-Newton forces to drive persistent directed motion of the rheometer tool. Taken together, these results and others to be discussed highlight the rich stress-structure-dynamics relationships in this class of biologically-derived active gels.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Cushnie, T P Tim; Lamb, Andrew J

    2005-11-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous in photosynthesising cells and are commonly found in fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds, stems, flowers, tea, wine, propolis and honey. For centuries, preparations containing these compounds as the principal physiologically active constituents have been used to treat human diseases. Increasingly, this class of natural products is becoming the subject of anti-infective research, and many groups have isolated and identified the structures of flavonoids possessing antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial activity. Moreover, several groups have demonstrated synergy between active flavonoids as well as between flavonoids and existing chemotherapeutics. Reports of activity in the field of antibacterial flavonoid research are widely conflicting, probably owing to inter- and intra-assay variation in susceptibility testing. However, several high-quality investigations have examined the relationship between flavonoid structure and antibacterial activity and these are in close agreement. In addition, numerous research groups have sought to elucidate the antibacterial mechanisms of action of selected flavonoids. The activity of quercetin, for example, has been at least partially attributed to inhibition of DNA gyrase. It has also been proposed that sophoraflavone G and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inhibit cytoplasmic membrane function, and that licochalcones A and C inhibit energy metabolism. Other flavonoids whose mechanisms of action have been investigated include robinetin, myricetin, apigenin, rutin, galangin, 2,4,2'-trihydroxy-5'-methylchalcone and lonchocarpol A. These compounds represent novel leads, and future studies may allow the development of a pharmacologically acceptable antimicrobial agent or class of agents.

  5. Phytase activity in lichens.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Niall F; Crittenden, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Phytase activity was investigated in 13 lichen species using a novel assay method. The work tested the hypothesis that phytase is a component of the suite of surface-bound lichen enzymes that hydrolyse simple organic forms of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) deposited onto the thallus surface. Hydrolysis of inositol hexaphosphate (InsP6 , the substrate for phytase) and appearance of lower-order inositol phosphates (InsP5 -InsP1 ), the hydrolysis products, were measured by ion chromatography. Phytase activity in Evernia prunastri was compared among locations with contrasting rates of N deposition. Phytase activity was readily measurable in epiphytic lichens (e.g. 11.3 μmol InsP6 hydrolysed g(-1)  h(-1) in Bryoria fuscescens) but low in two terricolous species tested (Cladonia portentosa and Peltigera membranacea). Phytase and phosphomonoesterase activities were positively correlated amongst species. In E. prunastri both enzyme activities were promoted by N enrichment and phytase activity was readily released into thallus washings. InsP6 was not detected in tree canopy throughfall but was present in pollen leachate. Capacity to hydrolyse InsP6 appears widespread amongst lichens potentially promoting P capture from atmospheric deposits and plant leachates, and P cycling in forest canopies. The enzyme assay used here might find wider application in studies on plant root-fungal-soil systems.

  6. Professional Learning Communities Participant's Activities for the What Works Clearinghouse Practice Guide: Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten through 3rd Grade. REL 2016-277a

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosanovich, Marcia; Foorman, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Southeast developed a Professional Learning Community (PLC) Facilitators Guide to support educators in the implementation of recommendations from the What Works Clearinghouse's. The practice guide focuses on the foundational reading skills that enable students to read words, relate those words to their…

  7. T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Smith-Garvin, Jennifer E; Koretzky, Gary A; Jordan, Martha S

    2009-01-01

    This year marks the 25th anniversary of the first Annual Review of Immunology article to describe features of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR). In celebration of this anniversary, we begin with a brief introduction outlining the chronology of the earliest studies that established the basic paradigm for how the engaged TCR transduces its signals. This review continues with a description of the current state of our understanding of TCR signaling, as well as a summary of recent findings examining other key aspects of T cell activation, including cross talk between the TCR and integrins, the role of costimulatory molecules, and how signals may negatively regulate T cell function.Acronyms and DefinitionsAdapter protein: cellular protein that functions to bridge molecular interactions via characteristic domains able to mediate protein/protein or protein/lipid interactions Costimulation: signals delivered to T cells by cell surface receptors other than the TCR itself that potentiate T cell activation cSMAC: central supramolecular activation cluster Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM): a short peptide sequence in the cytoplasmic tails of key surface receptors on hematopoietic cells that is characterized by tyrosine residues that are phosphorylated by Src family PTKs, enabling the ITAM to recruit activated Syk family kinases Inside-out signaling: signals initiated by engagement of immunoreceptors that lead to conformational changes and clustering of integrins, thereby increasing the affinity and avidity of the integrins for their ligands NFAT: nuclear factor of activated T cells PI3K: phosphoinositide 3-kinase PKC: protein kinase C PLC: phospholipase C pMHC: peptide major histocompatibility complex (MHC) complex pSMAC: peripheral supramolecular activation cluster PTK: protein tyrosine kinase Signal transduction: biochemical events linking surface receptor engagement to cellular responses TCR: T cell antigen receptor

  8. Sirtuin activators and inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, José M.; Alcaín, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Sirtuins 1-7 (SIRT1-7) belong to the third class of deacetylase enzymes, which are dependent on NAD+ for activity. Sirtuins activity is linked to gene repression, metabolic control, apoptosis and cell survival, DNA repair, development, inflammation, neuroprotection and healthy aging. Because sirtuins modulation could have beneficial effects on human diseases there is a growing interest in the discovery of small molecules modifying their activity. We review here those compounds known to activate or inhibit sirtuins, discussing the data that support the use of sirtuin-based therapies. Almost all sirtuin activators have been described only for SIRT1. Resveratrol is a natural compound which activates SIRT1, and may help in the treatment or prevention of obesity, and in preventing tumorigenesis and the aging-related decline in heart function and neuronal loss. Due to its poor bioavailability, reformulated versions of resveratrol with improved bioavailability have been developed (resVida, Longevinex®, SRT501). Molecules that are structurally unrelated to resveratrol (SRT1720, SRT2104, SRT2379, among others) have been also developed to stimulate sirtuin activities more potently than resveratrol. Sirtuin inhibitors with a wide range of core structures have been identified for SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3 and SIRT5 (splitomicin, sirtinol, AGK2, cambinol, suramin, tenovin, salermide, among others). SIRT1 inhibition has been proposed in the treatment of cancer, immunodeficiency virus infections, Fragile X mental retardation syndrome and for preventing or treating parasitic diseases, whereas SIRT2 inhibitors might be useful for the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22730114

  9. Antimutagenic activity of spearmint.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tian-Wei; Xu, Meirong; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2004-01-01

    The antimutagenic activity of spearmint (Mentha spicata), a popular food flavoring agent, was studied in the Salmonella assay. Spearmint leaves were brewed in hot water for 5 min at concentrations up to 5% (w/v), and the water extracts were tested against the direct-acting mutagens 4-nitro-1,2-phenylenediamine (NPD) and 2-hydroxyamino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (N-OH-IQ) using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98. Nontoxic concentrations of spearmint extract inhibited the mutagenic activity of N-OH-IQ in a concentration-dependent fashion, but had no effect against NPD. These experiments by design focused on the water extract consumed commonly as an herbal tea, but chloroform and methanol extracts of spearmint also possessed antimutagenic activity against N-OH-IQ. Water extract of spearmint inhibited the mutagenic activity of the parent compound, 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), in the presence of rat liver S9; however, the concentration for 50% inhibition (IC50) against IQ was approximately 10-fold higher than in assays with N-OH-IQ minus S9. At concentrations similar to those used in the Salmonella assays, spearmint extract inhibited two of the major enzymes that play a role in the metabolic activation of IQ, namely, cytochromes P4501A1 and 1A2, based on ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase assays in vitro. In vivo, rats were given spearmint water extract (2%; w/v) as the sole source of drinking fluid before, during, and after 2-week treatment with IQ; colonic aberrant crypt foci were inhibited significantly at 8 weeks (P < 0.05, compared with rats given IQ alone). Collectively, these findings suggest that spearmint tea protects against IQ and possibly other heterocyclic amines through inhibition of carcinogen activation and via direct effects on the activated metabolite(s).

  10. [Inflammasome: activation mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Suárez, Raibel; Buelvas, Neudo

    2015-03-01

    Inflammation is a rapid biologic response of the immune system in vascular tissues, directed to eliminate stimuli capable of causing damage and begin the process of repair. The macromolecular complexes known as "inflammasomes" are formed by a receptor, either NOD (NLR) or ALR, the receptor absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2). In addition, the inflammasome is formed by the speck-like protein associated to apoptosis (ASC) and procaspase-1, that may be activated by variations in the ionic and intracellular and extracellular ATP concentrations; and the loss of stabilization of the fagolisosomme by internalization of insoluble crystals and redox mechanisms. As a result, there is activation of the molecular platform and the processing of inflammatory prointerleukins to their active forms. There are two modalities of activation of the inflammasome: canonical and non-canonical, both capable of generating effector responses. Recent data associate NLRP 3, IL-1β and IL-18 in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases, including atherosclerosis, type II diabetes, hyperhomocysteinemia, gout, malaria and hypertension. The inflammasome cascade is emerging as a new chemotherapeutic target in these diseases. In this review we shall discuss the mechanisms of activation and regulation of the inflammasome that stimulate, modulate and resolve inflammation.

  11. Chromatin as active matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Ankit; Ganai, Nirmalendu; Sengupta, Surajit; Menon, Gautam I.

    2017-01-01

    Active matter models describe a number of biophysical phenomena at the cell and tissue scale. Such models explore the macroscopic consequences of driving specific soft condensed matter systems of biological relevance out of equilibrium through ‘active’ processes. Here, we describe how active matter models can be used to study the large-scale properties of chromosomes contained within the nuclei of human cells in interphase. We show that polymer models for chromosomes that incorporate inhomogeneous activity reproduce many general, yet little understood, features of large-scale nuclear architecture. These include: (i) the spatial separation of gene-rich, low-density euchromatin, predominantly found towards the centre of the nucleus, vis a vis. gene-poor, denser heterochromatin, typically enriched in proximity to the nuclear periphery, (ii) the differential positioning of individual gene-rich and gene-poor chromosomes, (iii) the formation of chromosome territories, as well as (iv), the weak size-dependence of the positions of individual chromosome centres-of-mass relative to the nuclear centre that is seen in some cell types. Such structuring is induced purely by the combination of activity and confinement and is absent in thermal equilibrium. We systematically explore active matter models for chromosomes, discussing how our model can be generalized to study variations in chromosome positioning across different cell types. The approach and model we outline here represent a preliminary attempt towards a quantitative, first-principles description of the large-scale architecture of the cell nucleus.

  12. Active flows on trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrow, Aden; Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn

    2016-11-01

    Coherent, large scale dynamics in many nonequilibrium physical, biological, or information transport networks are driven by small-scale local energy input. We introduce and explore a generic model for compressible active flows on tree networks. In contrast to thermally-driven systems, active friction selects discrete states with only a small number of oscillation modes activated at distinct fixed amplitudes. This state selection can interact with graph topology to produce different localized dynamical time scales in separate regions of large networks. Using perturbation theory, we systematically predict the stationary states of noisy networks. Our analytical predictions agree well with a Bayesian state estimation based on a hidden Markov model applied to simulated time series data on binary trees. While the number of stable states per tree scales exponentially with the number of edges, the mean number of activated modes in each state averages 1 / 4 the number of edges. More broadly, these results suggest that the macroscopic response of active networks, from actin-myosin networks in cells to flow networks in Physarum polycephalum, can be dominated by a few select modes.

  13. Interpreting EEG alpha activity.

    PubMed

    Bazanova, O M; Vernon, D

    2014-07-01

    Exploring EEG alpha oscillations has generated considerable interest, in particular with regards to the role they play in cognitive, psychomotor, psycho-emotional and physiological aspects of human life. However, there is no clearly agreed upon definition of what constitutes 'alpha activity' or which of the many indices should be used to characterize it. To address these issues this review attempts to delineate EEG alpha-activity, its physical, molecular and morphological nature, and examine the following indices: (1) the individual alpha peak frequency; (2) activation magnitude, as measured by alpha amplitude suppression across the individual alpha bandwidth in response to eyes opening, and (3) alpha "auto-rhythmicity" indices: which include intra-spindle amplitude variability, spindle length and steepness. Throughout, the article offers a number of suggestions regarding the mechanism(s) of alpha activity related to inter and intra-individual variability. In addition, it provides some insights into the various psychophysiological indices of alpha activity and highlights their role in optimal functioning and behavior.

  14. Sexual activity and sleep in humans.

    PubMed

    Brissette, S; Montplaisir, J; Godbout, R; Lavoisier, P

    1985-07-01

    Polysomnographic recordings were obtained in 10 subjects (5 men and 5 women) for three conditions: following masturbation with orgasm, following masturbation without orgasm, and after reading neutral material. The analysis of several sleep parameters did not reveal any effect of masturbation on sleep. These results suggest that physiological changes that occur during masturbation, with or without orgasm, have no major effect on sleep organization. Other factors associated with sexual activity and potentially responsible for sleepiness after orgasm are discussed, and further strategies to study the interrelationship of sexual activity and sleep are proposed.

  15. Active thermal cloak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Dang Minh; Xu, Hongyi; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile

    2015-09-01

    Thermal cloaking, as an ultimate thermal "illusion" phenomenon, is the result of advanced heat manipulation with thermal metamaterials—heat can be guided around a hidden object smoothly without disturbing the ambient thermal environment. However, all previous thermal metamaterial cloaks were passive devices, lacking the functionality of switching on/off and the flexibility of changing geometries. In this letter, we report an active thermal cloaking device that is controllable. Different from previous thermal cloaking approaches, this thermal cloak adopts active thermoelectric components to "pump" heat from one side to the other side of the hidden object, in a process controlled by input electric voltages. Our work not only incorporates active components in thermal cloaking but also provides controllable functionality in thermal metamaterials that can be used to construct more flexible thermal devices.

  16. Activity Cycles in Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Starspots and stellar activity can be detected in other stars using high precision photometric and spectrometric measurements. These observations have provided some surprises (starspots at the poles - sunspots are rarely seen poleward of 40 degrees) but more importantly they reveal behaviors that constrain our models of solar-stellar magnetic dynamos. The observations reveal variations in cycle characteristics that depend upon the stellar structure, convection zone dynamics, and rotation rate. In general, the more rapidly rotating stars are more active. However, for stars like the Sun, some are found to be inactive while nearly identical stars are found to be very active indicating that periods like the Sun's Maunder Minimum (an inactive period from 1645 to 1715) are characteristic of Sun-like stars.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of spices.

    PubMed

    Arora, D S; Kaur, J

    1999-08-01

    Spices have been shown to possess medicinal value, in particular, antimicrobial activity. This study compares the sensitivity of some human pathogenic bacteria and yeasts to various spice extracts and commonly employed chemotherapeutic substances. Of the different spices tested only garlic and clove were found to possess antimicrobial activity. The bactericidal effect of garlic extract was apparent within 1 h of incubation and 93% killing of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Salmonella typhi was achieved within 3 h. Yeasts were totally killed in 1 h by garlic extract but in 5 h with clove. Some bacteria showing resistance to certain antibiotics were sensitive to extracts of both garlic and clove. Greater anti-candidal activity was shown by garlic than by nystatin. Spices might have a great potential to be used as antimicrobial agents.

  18. Monsters, Bananas and Seaweed: Active Participation and Young Children's Understanding of False Belief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szarkowicz, Diane Louise

    This study investigated the effect of active participation in a story reading on children's understanding of false belief. Children, ages 38-63 months, were assigned to a participation or non-participation group. Participating children engaged in a book-reading process using puppets to respond to the story. Non-participating children were read the…

  19. Tutoring Reading--Valued Youth as Reading Helpers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Juanita C.

    2004-01-01

    The teacher wondered how her group of middle school tutors would react to reading predictable children's books to their elementary "tutees." Would they enjoy the books or would they think they were too mature to do the activities in the lesson? She wondered if the tutors would enjoy being read to as she modeled the dramatic reading of a children's…

  20. Read-Alouds: Do They Enhance Students' Ability To Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terblanche, Leezill

    Teachers can greatly extend a child's literacy development through the use of interactive read-alouds. When a story is read aloud to children a number of opportunities arise for extended activities that are related to the story and further literacy support. Children are able to learn about literacy through an adult modeling good reading behavior.…

  1. Reading, Risk, and Reality: College Students and Reading for Pleasure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Julie; Fister, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    News reports and well-publicized government studies have led to a popular perception that reading is an endangered activity, particularly among youth. In this study we surveyed college students, librarians, and college writing instructors about students' attitudes toward reading for pleasure, examine barriers to voluntary reading among college…

  2. Iowa City Reads! The Reading Event Worth Shouting About.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donham van Deusen, Jean; Langhorne, Mary Jo

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Community Reading Month (CRM) initiative in Iowa City, Iowa; its goals are to promote the value of reading and to build a sense of community. Topics include the development of CRM, increased reading scores of Iowa City's elementary school students, activities for people of all ages, and planning and evaluation. (AEF)

  3. PRODUCTS OF ACTIVATED LYMPHOCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Sorg, Clemens; Bloom, Barry R.

    1973-01-01

    General methods were developed and applied to the biosynthesis and purification of products of activated lymphocytes available in minute quantities. The activity studied here was the migration inhibitory factor (MIF) produced by purified protein derivative (PPD)- or concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated lymphocytes obtained from one guinea pig or less. The methods selected yielded results in terms of two chemical parameters characteristic of the molecules involved, namely Kd on Sephadex G-75 and isoionic point, pI, on isoelectric focusing. When supernatants were fractionated on G-75 columns, there were several areas even in control supernatants which produced migration inhibition relative to medium controls. However, in PPD- and Con A-stimulated supernatants, at least one peak of MIF activity was found solely in the stimulated cultures, with a Kd of 0.15. A double-labeling technique was used to characterize the proteins of this peak. Control, unstimulated cultures were labeled with [14C]leucine and stimulated cultures were labeled with [3H]leucine. After mixing the supernatants and G-75 filtration, a major "ratiolabeled" broad peak. i.e. one with increased 3H/14C ratio, was found. When a narrow portion of this peak about Kd 0.15, containing most of the MIF activity, was subjected to analytical isoelectric focusing, all of the label was associated with proteins of lower net charge than albumin. A unique ratiolabeled peak was found in PPD- and Con A-stimulated fractions with a pI of approx. 5.3. A micropreparative isoelectric focusing technique was developed and yielded MIF activity in the same region as the major ratiolabeled peak. Further study will be required to ascertain whether the ratiolabeled protein is MIF. By following the Kd, pI, and 3H/14C labeling ratio, at least 14 products of activated lymphocytes, synthesized either de novo or in increased amounts, could be distinguished. PMID:4688317

  4. Why Should I Read?--A Cross-Cultural Investigation into Adolescents' Reading Socialisation and Reading Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broeder, Peter; Stokmans, Mia

    2013-01-01

    While reading behaviour of adolescents is a frequent object of research, most studies in this field are restricted to a single country. This study investigates reading as a leisure-time activity across social groups from three regions differing in reading tradition as well as in the facilities available for reading. The authors analyse the reading…

  5. Active cleaning technique device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a laboratory demonstration model of an active cleaning technique (ACT) device. The principle of this device is based primarily on the technique for removing contaminants from optical surfaces. This active cleaning technique involves exposing contaminated surfaces to a plasma containing atomic oxygen or combinations of other reactive gases. The ACT device laboratory demonstration model incorporates, in addition to plasma cleaning, the means to operate the device as an ion source for sputtering experiments. The overall ACT device includes a plasma generation tube, an ion accelerator, a gas supply system, a RF power supply and a high voltage dc power supply.

  6. Actively coupled optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeeva, N. V.; Barashenkov, I. V.; Rayanov, K.; Flach, S.

    2014-01-01

    We consider light propagation through a pair of nonlinear optical waveguides with absorption, placed in a medium with power gain. The active medium boosts the in-phase component of the overlapping evanescent fields of the guides, while the nonlinearity of the guides couples it to the damped out-of-phase component creating a feedback loop. As a result, the structure exhibits stable stationary and oscillatory regimes in a wide range of gain-loss ratios. We show that the pair of actively coupled (AC) waveguides can act as a stationary or integrate-and-fire comparator sensitive to tiny differences in their input powers.

  7. MCO Monitoring activity description

    SciTech Connect

    SEXTON, R.A.

    1998-11-09

    Spent Nuclear Fuel remaining from Hanford's N-Reactor operations in the 1970s has been stored under water in the K-Reactor Basins. This fuel will be repackaged, dried and stored in a new facility in the 200E Area. The safety basis for this process of retrieval, drying, and interim storage of the spent fuel has been established. The monitoring of MCOS in dry storage is a currently identified issue in the SNF Project. This plan outlines the key elements of the proposed monitoring activity. Other fuel stored in the K-Reactor Basins, including SPR fuel, will have other monitoring considerations and is not addressed by this activity description.

  8. Inflammasomes and Their Activation

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Sonal; Luc, Nancy; Dorfleutner, Andrea; Stehlik, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The innate immune system relies on the recognition of pathogens by pattern recognition receptors as a first line of defense and to initiate the adaptive immune response. Substantial progress has been made in defining the role of Nod (nucleotide-binding oligimerization domain)-like receptors and AIM2 (absent in melanoma 2) as pattern recognition receptors that activate inflammasomes in macrophages. Inflammasomes are protein platforms essential for the activation of inflammatory caspases and subsequent maturation of their pro-inflammatory cytokine substrates and induction of pyroptosis. This paper summarizes recent developments regarding the function of Nod-like receptors in immunity and disease. PMID:21083527

  9. Activated carbon material

    DOEpatents

    Evans, A. Gary

    1978-01-01

    Activated carbon particles for use as iodine trapping material are impregnated with a mixture of selected iodine and potassium compounds to improve the iodine retention properties of the carbon. The I/K ratio is maintained at less than about 1 and the pH is maintained at above about 8.0. The iodine retention of activated carbon previously treated with or coimpregnated with triethylenediamine can also be improved by this technique. Suitable flame retardants can be added to raise the ignition temperature of the carbon to acceptable standards.

  10. Antibacterial activity of grepafloxacin.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, B; Heisig, P

    1997-12-01

    Grepafloxacin has an extremely broad spectrum of activity. Its activity against Gram-positive bacteria exceeds that of currently available quinolones. Grepafloxacin-resistant mutants seem to occur less frequently than ciprofloxacin- or ofloxacin-resistant mutants, and the increase in MIC against the former mutants is less than that of the latter. This applies only to the relative differences (in dilution steps); the absolute values are similar. Grepafloxacin kills Gram-positive bacteria at concentrations little above the MIC. Its pharmacodynamic profile against pneumococci is promising, favouring use of this drug for respiratory tract infections.

  11. Active seismic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, R. L.; Watkins, J. S.; Talwani, P.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 active seismic experiment (ASE) was designed to generate and monitor seismic waves for the study of the lunar near-surface structure. Several seismic energy sources are used: an astronaut-activated thumper device, a mortar package that contains rocket-launched grenades, and the impulse produced by the lunar module ascent. Analysis of some seismic signals recorded by the ASE has provided data concerning the near-surface structure at the Descartes landing site. Two compressional seismic velocities have so far been recognized in the seismic data. The deployment of the ASE is described, and the significant results obtained are discussed.

  12. Space construction activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Center for Space Construction at the University of Colorado at Boulder was established in 1988 as a University Space Engineering Research Center. The mission of the Center is to conduct interdisciplinary engineering research which is critical to the construction of future space structures and systems and to educate students who will have the vision and technical skills to successfully lead future space construction activities. The research activities are currently organized around two central projects: Orbital Construction and Lunar Construction. Summaries of the research projects are included.

  13. Cosmogenic activation of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaré, J.; Beltrán, B.; Capelli, S.; Capozzi, F.; Carmona, J. M.; Cebrián, S.; Cremonesi, O.; García, E.; Irastorza, I. G.; Gómez, H.; Luzón, G.; Martínez, M.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Pavan, M.; Pobes, C.; Puimedón, J.; Rodríguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Torres, L.; Villar, J. A.

    2005-09-01

    The problem of cosmogenic activation produced at sea level in materials typically used in underground experiments looking for rare events is being studied. Several nuclear data libraries have been screened looking for relevant isotope production cross-sections and different codes which can be applied to activation studies have been reviewed. The excitation functions for some problems of interest like production of 60Co and 68Ge in germanium and production of 60Co in tellurium have been obtained taking into account both measurements and calculations and a preliminary estimate of the corresponding rates of production at sea level has been performed.

  14. Project ACE Activity Sets. Book II: Grades 6 and 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eden City Schools, NC.

    The document contains eight activity sets suitable for grades 6 and 7. Topics focus on governmental, social, and educational systems in foreign countries. Each activity set contains background reading materials, resources, concepts, general objectives, and instructional objectives. Grade 6 sets are "Soviet Youth Organizations,""How…

  15. Introduction to Vocations Comprehensive Middle School Program: Mathematics Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Karen; And Others

    Junior high or middle school student activities in mathematics are provided for three entry level occupations in each of fifteen career clusters. The fifteen cluster titles including one of the three occupations for each cluster with an example of a student activity follow: (1) Agri-business and Natural Resources (cropdusting pilot, reading an…

  16. An Inquiry Activity for Genetics Using Chromosome Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, William H.; Snodgrass, George

    1982-01-01

    Concepts to be developed, objectives, and student instructions are provided for an activity useful as an introduction to or review of Mendelian genetics and sex determination. Universal codes (read by optical scanners at supermarket checkout stands) from soup can labels are used as chromosome maps during the activity. (JN)

  17. How Young Children Spend Their Time: Television and Other Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huston, Aletha C.; Wright, John C.; Marquis, Janet; Green, Samuel B.

    1999-01-01

    Examined television viewing over three years among two cohorts of 2- and 4-year olds. Found that viewing declined with age. With age, time in reading and educational activities increased on weekdays but declined on weekends, and sex differences in time-use patterns increased. Increased time in educational activities, social interaction, and video…

  18. Plastics in Our Environment: A Jigsaw Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Elaine; Wallace, Mary Ann; Lee, Wen-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this lesson, a ready-to-teach cooperative reading activity, students learn about the effects of plastics in our environment, specifically that certain petrochemicals act as artificial estrogens and impact hormonal activities. Much of the content in this lesson was synthesized from recent medical research about the impact of xenoestrogens and…

  19. Learning Activity Package, Chemistry I, (LAP) Study 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Naomi

    Presented is a Learning Activity Package (LAP) study concerned with carbon and its compounds. This LAP in chemistry includes a rationale for studying the chemical element of carbon, a list of student objectives (stated in behavioral terms), of activities (reading, laboratory experiments, model construction, etc.), a two-page worksheet, a…

  20. Coaching Reading Buddies for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theurer, Joan Leikam; Schmidt, Kathy Burson

    2008-01-01

    Reading buddies have been used by teachers for many years. The practice and benefits of having older students reading with younger students on a regular basis has been well documented. This article provides suggestions for teachers as they begin a reading buddy program and includes ideas for meaningful follow-up activities that will help keep…

  1. How to Read in "English"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jack

    1978-01-01

    Teachers of the Newark, Delaware, school district developed Project C.A.R.E. (Content Area Reading Enrichment) to make reading a part of math, science, social studies, English and survival instruction. Project C.A.R.E. English activities are designed to make certain that reading is truly a part of all language arts by reinforcing five reading…

  2. Exploring Poetry: The Reading and Writing Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Connecting reading and writing has become an important trend in teaching the language arts. Poetry, as a salient facet of the reading curriculum, integrates well with different purposes in writing. Poetry read aloud to students can assist learners to enjoy reading activities and develop the feeling and aesthetic dimension of learning, among other…

  3. Hypertext Fiction Reading: Haptics and Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangen, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Reading is a multi-sensory activity, entailing perceptual, cognitive and motor interactions with whatever is being read. With digital technology, reading manifests itself as being extensively multi-sensory--both in more explicit and more complex ways than ever before. In different ways from traditional reading technologies such as the codex,…

  4. Arizona Reading Journal, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Karen, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    The two issues of the 1999-2000 "Arizona Reading Journal" provides information about reading in general and about the activities of the Arizona Reading Association. The Fall 1999 issue includes the following articles: "IRA Resolution on Class Size"; "Teaching Reading in Social Studies" (Marlow Ediger); "Examining the Role of Student-Written Texts…

  5. [Problem Solving Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Center for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    The teacher directed problem solving activities package contains 17 units: Future Community Design, Let's Build an Elevator, Let's Construct a Catapult, Let's Design a Recreational Game, Let's Make a Hand Fishing Reel, Let's Make a Wall Hanging, Let's Make a Yo-Yo, Marooned in the Past, Metrication, Mousetrap Vehicles, The Multi System…

  6. [Biological activity of Spirulina].

    PubMed

    Blinkova, L P; Gorobets, O B; Baturo, A P

    2001-01-01

    In this review information of Spirulina platensis (SP), a blue-green alga (photosynthesizing cyanobacterium) having diverse biological activity is presented. Due to high content of highly valuable proteins, indispensable amino acids, vitamins, beta-carotene and other pigments, mineral substances, indispensable fatty acids and polysaccharides, PS has been found suitable for use as bioactive additive. SP produces an immunostimulating effect by enhancing the resistance of humans, mammals, chickens and fish to infections, the capacity of influencing hemopoiesis, stimulating the production of antibodies and cytokines. Under the influence of SP macrophages, T and B cells are activated. SP sulfolipids have proved to be effective against HIV. Preparations obtained from SP biomass have also been found active against herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus, etc. SP extracts are capable in inhibiting cancerogenesis. SP preparations are regarded as functional products contributing to the preservation of the resident intestinal microflora, especially lactic acid bacilli and bifidobacteria, and to a decrease in the level of Candida albicans. The biological activity of SP with respect to microorganisms holds good promise for using these microalgae as components of culture media.

  7. Active Authentication: Beyond Passwords

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-18

    semantic analysis (how you construct sentences); Forensic authorship Keystroke pattern; Mouse movement Fingerprint ; Iris pattern; Vein...Solutions Physiological Biometrics Sensors tracking the physical attributes of you • DNA • Ear Geometry • Facial Geometry • Fingerprint • Iris...Preview Fingerprint Forensic authorship2 Mouse tracking1 How you behave Physical aspects of you The context you exist in • The Active Authentication

  8. An Active Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Joseph C.; Buzzelli, Cary

    1992-01-01

    Describes a unit on magnetism that utilizes hands-on activities in which students make hypotheses for discrepant behavior, discover whether a magnet attracts one object through another, measure the strength of magnets, explore levitating paper clips, and play a game dependent on magnetic attraction. (MDH)

  9. Active control system trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yore, E. E.; Gunderson, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    The active control concepts which achieve the benefit of improved mission performance and lower cost and generate system trends towards improved dynamic performance, more integration, and digital fly by wire mechanization are described. Analytical issues and implementation requirements and tools and approaches developed to address the analytical and implementation issues are briefly discussed.

  10. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Eddy L.

    1981-01-01

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5 Mev neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  11. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, E.L.

    1980-01-28

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5-MeV neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  12. Earthfest. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weilbacher, Mike

    1991-01-01

    An activity book to help elementary teachers and students explore the environment offers information and questions about spaceships; an ecology primer and poster with questions; information on animal adaptation with poster and questions; ecological and dramatic arts projects; a script for performance; and suggestions to make Earth Day celebrations…

  13. Regional Activities Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on library network activities in Canada, the Third World, Japan, Malaysia, Brazil, and Sweden which were presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Canada: A Voluntary and Flexible Network," a review by Guy Sylvestre of the political, social, and economic structures…

  14. Learning Activity Package, Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Diane

    A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…

  15. Educating for Political Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitty, Clyde

    2010-01-01

    The term "political activity" can be interpreted in a myriad of different ways, but in this paper, it is taken to mean involvement in a variety of campaigns around issues affecting the way we live and the sort of society we want to live in. At a time when support for the main political parties has never been weaker, it is essential that…

  16. Active microwave water equivalence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyne, H. S.; Ellerbruch, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of water equivalence using an active FM-CW microwave system were conducted over the past three years at various sites in Colorado, Wyoming, and California. The measurement method is described. Measurements of water equivalence and stratigraphy are compared with ground truth. A comparison of microwave, federal sampler, and snow pillow measurements at three sites in Colorado is described.

  17. Active Learning Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    Present generation students are primarily active learners with varied learning experiences and lecture courses may not suit all their learning needs. Effective learning involves providing students with a sense of progress and control over their own learning. This requires creating a situation where learners have a chance to try out or test their…

  18. Bonus Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Elementary level activity book presents suggestions for teaching students about endangered and threatened species worldwide. Students learn about what is causing the rapid extinction rate and what needs to be done. They also discover the value of rainforests and why conservationists are fighting to save them. (SM)

  19. Macrophage activation and polarization.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Fernando Oneissi; Sica, Antonio; Mantovani, Alberto; Locati, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    Macrophages are widely distributed immune system cells that play an indispensable role in homeostasis and defense. They can be phenotypically polarized by the microenvironment to mount specific functional programs. Polarized macrophages can be broadly classified in two main groups: classically activated macrophages (or M1), whose prototypical activating stimuli are IFNgamma and LPS, and alternatively activated macrophages (or M2), further subdivided in M2a (after exposure to IL-4 or IL-13), M2b (immune complexes in combination with IL-1beta or LPS) and M2c (IL-10, TGFbeta or glucocorticoids). M1 exhibit potent microbicidal properties and promote strong IL-12-mediated Th1 responses, whilst M2 support Th2-associated effector functions. Beyond infection M2 polarized macrophages play a role in resolution of inflammation through high endocytic clearance capacities and trophic factor synthesis, accompanied by reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Similar functions are also exerted by tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), which also display an alternative-like activation phenotype and play a detrimental pro-tumoral role. Here we review the main functions of polarized macrophages and discuss the perspectives of this field.

  20. Active Ingredient - AZ

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Pesticide Chemical Search allows a user to easily find the pesticide chemical or active ingredient that they are interested in by using an array of simple to advanced search options. Chemical Search provides a single point of reference for easy access to information previously published in a variety of locations, including various EPA web pages and Regulations.gov.

  1. Engineers and Active Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Udo

    2015-08-01

    Knowing that technologies are inherently value-laden and systemically interwoven with society, the question is how individual engineers can take up the challenge of accepting the responsibility for their work? This paper will argue that engineers have no institutional structure at the level of society that allows them to recognize, reflect upon, and actively integrate the value-laden character of their designs. Instead, engineers have to tap on the different institutional realms of market, science, and state, making their work a 'hybrid' activity combining elements from the different institutional realms. To deal with this institutional hybridity, engineers develop routines and heuristics in their professional network, which do not allow societal values to be expressed in a satisfactory manner. To allow forms of 'active' responsibility, there have to be so-called 'accountability forums' that guide moral reflections of individual actors. The paper will subsequently look at the methodologies of value-sensitive design (VSD) and constructive technology assessment (CTA) and explore whether and how these methodologies allow engineers to integrate societal values into the design technological artifacts and systems. As VSD and CTA are methodologies that look at the process of technological design, whereas the focus of this paper is on the designer, they can only be used indirectly, namely as frameworks which help to identify the contours of a framework for active responsibility of engineers.

  2. Activities: Visualization, Estimation, Computation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maletsky, Evan M.

    1982-01-01

    The material is designed to help students build a cone model, visualize how its dimensions change as its shape changes, estimate maximum volume position, and develop problem-solving skills. Worksheets designed for duplication for classroom use are included. Part of the activity involves student analysis of a BASIC program. (MP)

  3. Intermittent Activity in AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janiuk, A.; Czerny, B.; Siemiginowska, A.

    2004-10-01

    There is a growing evidence that the AGN activity could be intermittent. It remains an open question if this behavior is caused by changes in the fuel sup- ply to the supermassive black hole from the large distances, or rather by a processes intrinsic to the active nucleus. We consider the possibility that ac- cretion onto a supermassive black hole is controlled by an accretion disk which is subject to the hydro- gen ionization instability. This drives the observed on-off activity cycle, since periodically the accretion flow becomes inefficient and the disk goes to quies- cence. We consider effects of the MHD turbulence on the viscosity during the evolution of a standard α - disk. We perform a self-consistency check of the α de- scription of the angular momentum transfer. Hav- ing shown that the viscosity parameter is constant throughout the whole instability cycle, as implied by the strength of the MHD turbulence, we calcu- late the time evolution of the disk under the influ- ence of the ionization instability. We demonstrate that if the accretion onto a supermassive black hole proceeds through an outer standard accretion disk and inner, radiatively inefficient and advection dom- inated flow, the modelled amplitudes of disk lumi- nosity variations are sufficiently high to account for the observations. Key words: accretion disks; galaxies: active.

  4. Highlights of 1976 activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    1976-01-01

    Highlights of NASA's 1976 activities are summarized. Sixteen successful launches were made. Two landings of Viking spacecraft on Mars and rollout of the space shuttle orbiter are reviewed. Applications of aerospace science to education, health care, and community services are also discussed.

  5. Activities from Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Notes that the best way to learn about another culture is to know how its habits, traditions, and environments differ from or resemble our own. Provides several activities to help young children understand Asian cultures, including cooking, origami, and games and festivals. (HTH)

  6. Highlights of 1978 activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    General highlights of NASA's activities for 1978 are presented. The highlights are categorized into topics such as space science, space transportation systems, space and terrestrial applications, environment, technology utilization, aeronautics, space research and technology, energy programs, and international. A list of the 1978 launches including: (1) launch date; (2) payload designation; (3) launch vehicle; (4) launch site and (5) mission remarks is also presented.

  7. Multidisciplinary Wildlife Teaching Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernbrode, William R., Ed.

    This guide provides information and activities descriptions designed to allow the teacher to use wildlife concepts in the teaching of various subjects. The author suggests that wildlife and animals are tremendous motivators for children and hold their attention. In the process, concepts of wildlife interaction with man and the environment are…

  8. Active-bridge oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2001-01-01

    An active bridge oscillator is formed from a differential amplifier where positive feedback is a function of the impedance of one of the gain elements and a relatively low value common emitter resistance. This use of the nonlinear transistor parameter h stabilizes the output and eliminates the need for ALC circuits common to other bridge oscillators.

  9. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    MedlinePlus

    ... a certain type of wild animal bites a child. Passive immunizations for hepatitis A (gamma globulin) may be helpful ... A is common. They are typically given before children or adults leave on their ... active vaccination is preferable. Keep in mind that passive immunizations ...

  10. 85 Engaging Movement Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    This book presents activities to keep K-6 students moving in a variety of ways as they learn. The movement experiences are planned around key curriculum concepts in movement and music as well as in academic curriculum areas. The experiences develop students' basic timing, language abilities, vocabulary, concentration, planning skills, and…

  11. Classification of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Paulino, Thiago Marques Luz; Zaharieva, Dessi P.; Yavelberg, Loren; Jamnik, Veronica; Riddell, Michael C.; Cinar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has a wide range of effects on glucose concentrations in type 1 diabetes (T1D) depending on the type (ie, aerobic, anaerobic, mixed) and duration of activity performed. This variability in glucose responses to physical activity makes the development of artificial pancreas (AP) systems challenging. Automatic detection of exercise type and intensity, and its classification as aerobic or anaerobic would provide valuable information to AP control algorithms. This can be achieved by using a multivariable AP approach where biometric variables are measured and reported to the AP at high frequency. We developed a classification system that identifies, in real time, the exercise intensity and its reliance on aerobic or anaerobic metabolism and tested this approach using clinical data collected from 5 persons with T1D and 3 individuals without T1D in a controlled laboratory setting using a variety of common types of physical activity. The classifier had an average sensitivity of 98.7% for physiological data collected over a range of exercise modalities and intensities in these subjects. The classifier will be added as a new module to the integrated multivariable adaptive AP system to enable the detection of aerobic and anaerobic exercise for enhancing the accuracy of insulin infusion strategies during and after exercise. PMID:26443291

  12. Production Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    This production systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, domains and objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 30 modules on the following topics: production…

  13. Dissemination Activities Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Hanna; Batatia, Hudj; Bauters, Merja; Ben Ami, Zvi; Drachman, Raul; Flouris, Giorgos; Jadin, Tanja; Jalonen, Satu; Karlgren, Klas; Karpati, Andrea; Kotzinos, Dimitris; Lakkala, Minna; Lallimo, Jiri; Moen, Anne; Nygard, Kathrine; Paavola, Sami; Padiglia, Sheila; Scapolla, Marina; Sins, Patrick; Vasileva, Tania

    2008-01-01

    In the first 24 months of the project, KP-Lab members were highly dedicated to dissemination and were engaged in various dissemination activities that contributed to the prime objective of the KP-Lab dissemination efforts which is "to make the project widely known to a variety of prospective users and, at a later stage, to promote the…

  14. Designing Metacognitive Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Xiaodong

    2001-01-01

    Proposes a framework for thinking about how metacognition research might apply to design activities. Examines two basic approaches to supporting metacognition: strategy training, and creation of a supportive social environment for metacognition. Identifies two kinds of content that are taught using these two approaches: knowledge about a specific…

  15. Geology: The Active Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Geology: The Active Earth." Contents are organized into the…

  16. Marketing coprovided activities.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Pamela S

    2014-05-01

    Coproviding is a wonderful way for two or more organizations to work together to provide continuing nursing education. To be transparent to the learners, marketing materials identify the parties involved and prominently note the name of the organization accountable for developing the activity and awarding the contact hours.

  17. Communication Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Barbara, Ed.

    This communication systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, a list of objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 32 modules on the following topics: story…

  18. Chaperone activation by unfolding.

    PubMed

    Foit, Linda; George, Jenny S; Zhang, Bin W; Brooks, Charles L; Bardwell, James C A

    2013-04-02

    Conditionally disordered proteins can alternate between highly ordered and less ordered configurations under physiological conditions. Whereas protein function is often associated with the ordered conformation, for some of these conditionally unstructured proteins, the opposite applies: Their activation is associated with their unfolding. An example is the small periplasmic chaperone HdeA, which is critical for the ability of enteric bacterial pathogens like Escherichia coli to survive passage through extremely acidic environments, such as the human stomach. At neutral pH, HdeA is a chaperone-inactive dimer. On a shift to low pH, however, HdeA monomerizes, partially unfolds, and becomes rapidly active in preventing the aggregation of substrate proteins. By mutating two aspartic acid residues predicted to be responsible for the pH-dependent monomerization of HdeA, we have succeeded in isolating an HdeA mutant that is active at neutral pH. We find this HdeA mutant to be substantially destabilized, partially unfolded, and mainly monomeric at near-neutral pH at a concentration at which it prevents aggregation of a substrate protein. These results provide convincing evidence for direct activation of a protein by partial unfolding.

  19. Ocean Drilling Simulation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telese, James A.; Jordan, Kathy

    The Ocean Drilling Project brings together scientists and governments from 20 countries to explore the earth's structure and history as it is revealed beneath the oceans' basins. Scientific expeditions examine rock and sediment cores obtained from the ocean floor to learn about the earth's basic processes. The series of activities in this…

  20. Organizing Preservation Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloonan, Michele

    This resource guide considers issues in the staffing and organization of preservation activities. It provides guidance in implementing a systematic preservation program and evaluates the structures of various types of preservation programs. The following articles complement the discussion of program models and implementation: (1)…

  1. Activities: Some Colorful Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeTemple, Duane W.; Walker, Dean A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes three activities in discrete mathematics that involve coloring geometric objects: counting colored regions of overlapping simple closed curves, counting colored triangulations of polygons, and determining the number of colors required to paint the plane so that no two points one inch apart are the same color. (MKR)

  2. Physical Activities for Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Dorothy C.; And Others

    The underlying premise of the University of Hawaii Physical Activities for Preschool curriculum is that important contributions to a positive self-concept are made by motor independence and a realistic body image. Program objectives include: (1) the development of strength, endurance, and flexibility in skills that involve the muscles,…

  3. Activating silent argonautes.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, Mary Anne; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2013-07-01

    Multiple Argonaute proteins are implicated in gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi), but only one is known to be an endonuclease that can cleave target mRNAs. Chimeric Argonaute proteins now reveal an unexpected mechanism by which mutations distal to the catalytic center can unmask intrinsic catalytic activity, results hinting at structurally mediated regulation.

  4. Commission 10: Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Klimchuk, James A.; Charbonneau, Paul; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Hasan, S. Sirajul; Hudson, Hugh S.; Kusano, Kanya; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Peter, Hardi; Vršnak, Bojan; Yan, Yihua

    2012-04-01

    Commission 10 of the International Astronomical Union has more than 650 members who study a wide range of activity phenomena produced by our nearest star, the Sun. Solar activity is intrinsically related to solar magnetic fields and encompasses events from the smallest energy releases (nano- or even picoflares) to the largest eruptions in the Solar System, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which propagate into the Heliosphere reaching the Earth and beyond. Solar activity is manifested in the appearance of sunspot groups or active regions, which are the principal sources of activity phenomena from the emergence of their magnetic flux through their dispersion and decay. The period 2008-2009 saw an unanticipated extended solar cycle minimum and unprecedentedly weak polar-cap and heliospheric field. Associated with that was the 2009 historical maximum in galactic cosmic rays flux since measurements begun in the middle of the 20th Century. Since then Cycle 24 has re-started solar activity producing some spectacular eruptions observed with a fleet of spacecraft and ground-based facilities. In the last triennium major advances in our knowledge and understanding of solar activity were due to continuing success of space missions as SOHO, Hinode, RHESSI and the twin STEREO spacecraft, further enriched by the breathtaking images of the solar atmosphere produced by the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) launched on 11 February 2010 in the framework of NASA's Living with a Star program. In August 2012, at the time of the IAU General Assembly in Beijing when the mandate of this Commission ends, we will be in the unique position to have for the first time a full 3-D view of the Sun and solar activity phenomena provided by the twin STEREO missions about 120 degrees behind and ahead of Earth and other spacecraft around the Earth and ground-based observatories. These new observational insights are continuously posing new questions, inspiring and advancing theoretical analysis and

  5. 45 CFR 1226.8 - Prohibited activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICE PROHIBITIONS ON ELECTORAL AND LOBBYING ACTIVITIES Volunteer Activities § 1226.8 Prohibited activities. (a) Electoral Activity. Volunteers shall not engage in any activity which may, directly...

  6. Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerantzis, Nikolaos; Mitrouda, Aikaterini; Reizopoulou, Ioanna; Sidiropoulou, Eirini; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios

    2016-04-01

    On November 9th, 2015, three didactical hours were dedicated to Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities (http://wp.me/p6Hte2-1I). Our students and their teachers formed three groups and in rotation, were engaged with the following activities: (a) viewing unique images of the Cosmos in the mobile planetarium STARLAB (http://www.planitario.gr/tholos-starlab-classic-standard.html), (b) watching the following videos: Journey to the end of the universe (https://youtu.be/Ufl_Nwbl8xs), Rosetta update (https://youtu.be/nQ9ivd7wv30), The Solar System (https://youtu.be/d66dsagrTa0), Ambition the film (https://youtu.be/H08tGjXNHO4) in the school's library. Students and teachers were informed about our solar system, the Rosetta mission, the universe, etc. and (c) tactile activities such as Meet our home and Meet our neighbors (http://astroedu.iau.org, http://nuclio.org/astroneighbours/resources) and the creation of planets' 3D models (Geology-Geography A' Class Student's book, pg.15). With the activities above we had the pleasure to join the Cosmic Light Edu Kit / International Year of Light 2015 program. After our Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities, we did a "small" research: our students had to fill an evaluation about their educational gains and the results can be found here http://wp.me/p6Hte2-2q. Moreover, we discussed about Big Ideas of Science (http://wp.me/p3oRiZ-dm) and through the "big" impact of the Rosetta mission & the infinity of our universe, we print posters with relevant topics and place them to the classrooms. We thank Rosa Doran (Nuclio - President of the Executive Council) for her continuous assistance and support on innovative science teaching proposals. She is an inspiration.

  7. Activities. Inductive and Deductive Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Daffer, Phares G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Provided are the activity sheets for students and the teaching guide for this middle school geometry activity. Materials, prerequisites, objectives, and procedures are listed. Extension activities are suggested. An answer key is included. (CW)

  8. SUPPLEMENTARY TEACHING ASSISTANCE IN READING. PROJECT STAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobilization for Youth, Inc., New York, NY.

    THE PROCEEDINGS AT THE SECOND MEETING OF A READING CLINIC FOR PARENTS OF CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH IS DESCRIBED. AT THE READING CLINIC THE PARENTS WERE INTRODUCED TO SEVERAL ACTIVITIES WHICH THEIR CHILDREN MIGHT TRY AT HOME IN CONNECTION WITH NEWSPAPERS, MAGAZINES, THE TV GUIDE, AND OTHER SUCH READING MATERIALS. THE ACTIVITIES INCLUDED…

  9. Do Your Students Think When They Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nessel, Denise

    1989-01-01

    A widely used technique for teaching reading, Directed Reading Activity (DRA), contributes to the development of passive readers rather than thinking readers. This article describes an alternative approach, Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DRTA), contrasts DRTA with DRA, gives an example of DRTA in action, and provides tips for switching to…

  10. The Relationship of Print Reading in Tier I Instruction and Reading Achievement for Kindergarten Students At-Risk for Reading Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kent, Shawn C

    2014-08-01

    For many students at risk for reading difficulties, effective, early reading instruction can improve reading outcomes and set them on a positive reading trajectory. Thus, response-to-intervention models include a focus on a student's Tier I reading instruction as one element for preventing reading difficulties and identifying students with a learning disability. The purpose of this study was to examine the amount of time kindergarten students at risk for reading difficulties actively engaged in reading print during Tier I reading instruction, and the extent to which time in reading print was related to end-of-year reading achievement. Findings revealed the amount of time students were engaged in reading print predicted end-of-year reading achievement, although time engaged in reading print during Tier I was limited overall. Student and teacher level factors and their relationship to the amount of time students engage in reading print is also examined.

  11. Increasing Reading Compliance and Metacognitive Strategies in Border Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culver, Tiffany F.

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to increase reading compliance and active reading strategies, quizzes and reading guides were given to 100 participants in four psychology courses. Each participant was given four weeks of reading quizzes and four weeks of reading guides. Participants consisted of students (freshman through senior level) from two colleges along the…

  12. Oral Reading in Social Studies: Use and Misuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Cecilia H.

    1980-01-01

    Criticizes use of round-robin oral reading and suggests ways in which oral reading can be effective. Some uses of oral reading in the social studies classroom are during class discussion and after silent reading for comprehension, with captioned filmstrips, for vocabulary development activities, and for expressive, audience-oriented reading. (KC)

  13. How Can I Get My Teenager to Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winebrenner, Rosemary

    The main barriers to teenage reading are lack of reading skills, lack of reading materials, and lack of time for reading. The school has often unconsciously contributed to the teenager's not reading by overloading him with homework and providing too many after-school activities. Another important factor that affects the child's attitude toward…

  14. A Kindergartner's Emergent Strategy Use during Wordless Picture Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysaker, Judith; Hopper, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research in emergent reading demonstrate that children don't come to print reading as if it were a completely new activity. Emergent reading practices such as wordless book reading are often seen as precursors to the meaning making that comes later during print reading. Yet often, the specific strategies noted in children's emergent…

  15. Meursault on Trial: Multi-Skills Activities for Teaching "L'Etranger."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polly, Lyle R.; Buscaglia, Michael J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a unit of activities based on a reading of Albert Camus'""L'Etranger." The activities, which can be adapted to various levels and abilities in an intermediate French class, incorporate reading, writing, listening and speaking skills. Sample materials and a bibliography are appended. (AM)

  16. Motivating Interest in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Reading Association. Utah Council.

    This yearbook is a collection of articles on the topic of motivating interest in reading. The articles are: "An Introduction to Recreational Reading in the Classroom" by Floyd Sucher, which discusses objectives, materials, setting, scheduling, and sharing activities; "New Words and New Meaning for Old Words" by Vermont Harward, Dan Bird, and Edith…

  17. Reading Cooperatively or Independently? Study on ELL Student Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Siping; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of cooperative reading teaching activities and independent reading activities for English language learner (ELL) students at 4th grade level. Based on simple linear regression and correlational analyses of data collected from two large data bases, PIRLS and NAEP, the study found that cooperative reading…

  18. "Sponge" Up that Time for Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Linda Mixon

    1989-01-01

    Presents 50 short reading activities designed to occupy students during transition periods between activities or classes. Lists 35 activities which are quiet and individual, and 15 which can be done in small or large groups. (RS)

  19. 101 Environmental Education Activities. Booklet 6--Social Studies Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Helen, Comp.

    Based on the environment and directed at elementary and intermediate level students, 5 field trips are a significant part of the 12 social studies activities in the sixth booklet by the Upper Mississippi River ECO-Center outlining environmental and outdoor education activities. Most of the activities include objectives, activity description,…

  20. Integration of Active Video Games in Extracurricular Activity at Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jung Eun; Huang, Charles; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan

    2015-01-01

    Active video games require players to be physically active. Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) is an interactive dancing game that requires fast-foot movement coordinated with energetic music and visuals. The Wii and Xbox Kinect games have also become good active video games for the promotion of physical activity participation. These games are much more…