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  1. Alpha power and coherence primarily reflect neural activity related to stages of motor response during a continuous monitoring task.

    PubMed

    Moore, Roger A; Gale, Anthony; Morris, Paul H; Forrester, Dave

    2008-08-01

    Previously, EEG theta (4-6 Hz) was related to goal conflict resolution [Moore, R.A., Gale, A., Morris, P.H., Forrester, D., 2006. Theta phase locking across the neocortex reflects cortico-hippocampal recursive communication during goal conflict resolution. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 60, 260-273] in the context of theory linked with animal hippocampal theta [Gray, J.A., McNaughton, N., 2000. The Neuropsychology of Anxiety: An Enquiry into the Functions of the Septo-Hippocampal system, 2nd ed, Oxford University Press, Oxford]. Here, the hypothesis that human EEG alpha (8-12 Hz) may also be a natural analogue to animal hippocampal theta is tested. Participants engaged in a monitoring task where the object was to press a response key immediately after presentation of 4 individual, non-repeating, single integer odd digits. These were presented amongst a continuous stream of single integer digits and Xs. EEG recorded in the earlier study were reanalysed; this time extracting alpha power and coherence from the same 34 participants. Alpha had a different profile to theta and was not primarily related to goal conflict. Low alpha (8-10 Hz) coherence consistently increased at electrodes close to primary sensorimotor cortex; particularly during response execution and response inhibition. The coherence analysis revealed that high alpha (10-12 Hz) related to response execution. Supplementary analyses demonstrated widespread high alpha coherence increase during response execution, inhibition and preparation. These data were discussed within the context of motor driven 'classic alpha' and Rolandic mu. A coherence profile which differentiated response execution and response inhibition was proposed to reflect a working memory network which was activated during response execution. Also, alpha power (8-12 Hz) reduced at several central electrodes during response execution. This reflected classic Rolandic mu response. Participants displaying a predicted low alpha power trend had the

  2. Cobalt Alloy Implant Debris Induces Inflammation and Bone Loss Primarily through Danger Signaling, Not TLR4 Activation: Implications for DAMP-ening Implant Related Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Samelko, Lauryn; Landgraeber, Stefan; McAllister, Kyron; Jacobs, Joshua; Hallab, Nadim James

    2016-01-01

    Cobalt alloy debris has been implicated as causative in the early failure of some designs of current total joint implants. The ability of implant debris to cause excessive inflammation via danger signaling (NLRP3 inflammasome) vs. pathogen associated pattern recognition receptors (e.g. Toll-like receptors; TLRs) remains controversial. Recently, specific non-conserved histidines on human TLR4 have been shown activated by cobalt and nickel ions in solution. However, whether this TLR activation is directly or indirectly an effect of metals or secondary endogenous alarmins (danger-associated molecular patterns, DAMPs) elicited by danger signaling, remains unknown and contentious. Our study indicates that in both a human macrophage cell line (THP-1) and primary human macrophages, as well as an in vivo murine model of inflammatory osteolysis, that Cobalt-alloy particle induced NLRP3 inflammasome danger signaling inflammatory responses were highly dominant relative to TLR4 activation, as measured respectively by IL-1β or TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, tissue histology and quantitative bone loss measurement. Despite the lack of metal binding histidines H456 and H458 in murine TLR4, murine calvaria challenge with Cobalt alloy particles induced significant macrophage driven in vivo inflammation and bone loss inflammatory osteolysis, whereas LPS calvaria challenge alone did not. Additionally, no significant increase (p<0.05) in inflammation and inflammatory bone loss by LPS co-challenge with Cobalt vs. Cobalt alone was evident, even at high levels of LPS (i.e. levels commiserate with hematogenous levels in fatal sepsis, >500pg/mL). Therefore, not only do the results of this investigation support Cobalt alloy danger signaling induced inflammation, but under normal homeostasis low levels of hematogenous PAMPs (<2pg/mL) from Gram-negative bacteria, seem to have negligible contribution to the danger signaling responses elicited by Cobalt alloy metal implant debris. This suggests the

  3. Cobalt Alloy Implant Debris Induces Inflammation and Bone Loss Primarily through Danger Signaling, Not TLR4 Activation: Implications for DAMP-ening Implant Related Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Samelko, Lauryn; Landgraeber, Stefan; McAllister, Kyron; Jacobs, Joshua; Hallab, Nadim James

    2016-01-01

    Cobalt alloy debris has been implicated as causative in the early failure of some designs of current total joint implants. The ability of implant debris to cause excessive inflammation via danger signaling (NLRP3 inflammasome) vs. pathogen associated pattern recognition receptors (e.g. Toll-like receptors; TLRs) remains controversial. Recently, specific non-conserved histidines on human TLR4 have been shown activated by cobalt and nickel ions in solution. However, whether this TLR activation is directly or indirectly an effect of metals or secondary endogenous alarmins (danger-associated molecular patterns, DAMPs) elicited by danger signaling, remains unknown and contentious. Our study indicates that in both a human macrophage cell line (THP-1) and primary human macrophages, as well as an in vivo murine model of inflammatory osteolysis, that Cobalt-alloy particle induced NLRP3 inflammasome danger signaling inflammatory responses were highly dominant relative to TLR4 activation, as measured respectively by IL-1β or TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, tissue histology and quantitative bone loss measurement. Despite the lack of metal binding histidines H456 and H458 in murine TLR4, murine calvaria challenge with Cobalt alloy particles induced significant macrophage driven in vivo inflammation and bone loss inflammatory osteolysis, whereas LPS calvaria challenge alone did not. Additionally, no significant increase (p<0.05) in inflammation and inflammatory bone loss by LPS co-challenge with Cobalt vs. Cobalt alone was evident, even at high levels of LPS (i.e. levels commiserate with hematogenous levels in fatal sepsis, >500pg/mL). Therefore, not only do the results of this investigation support Cobalt alloy danger signaling induced inflammation, but under normal homeostasis low levels of hematogenous PAMPs (<2pg/mL) from Gram-negative bacteria, seem to have negligible contribution to the danger signaling responses elicited by Cobalt alloy metal implant debris. This suggests the

  4. Cobalt Alloy Implant Debris Induces Inflammation and Bone Loss Primarily through Danger Signaling, Not TLR4 Activation: Implications for DAMP-ening Implant Related Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Samelko, Lauryn; Landgraeber, Stefan; McAllister, Kyron; Jacobs, Joshua; Hallab, Nadim James

    2016-01-01

    Cobalt alloy debris has been implicated as causative in the early failure of some designs of current total joint implants. The ability of implant debris to cause excessive inflammation via danger signaling (NLRP3 inflammasome) vs. pathogen associated pattern recognition receptors (e.g. Toll-like receptors; TLRs) remains controversial. Recently, specific non-conserved histidines on human TLR4 have been shown activated by cobalt and nickel ions in solution. However, whether this TLR activation is directly or indirectly an effect of metals or secondary endogenous alarmins (danger-associated molecular patterns, DAMPs) elicited by danger signaling, remains unknown and contentious. Our study indicates that in both a human macrophage cell line (THP-1) and primary human macrophages, as well as an in vivo murine model of inflammatory osteolysis, that Cobalt-alloy particle induced NLRP3 inflammasome danger signaling inflammatory responses were highly dominant relative to TLR4 activation, as measured respectively by IL-1β or TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, tissue histology and quantitative bone loss measurement. Despite the lack of metal binding histidines H456 and H458 in murine TLR4, murine calvaria challenge with Cobalt alloy particles induced significant macrophage driven in vivo inflammation and bone loss inflammatory osteolysis, whereas LPS calvaria challenge alone did not. Additionally, no significant increase (p<0.05) in inflammation and inflammatory bone loss by LPS co-challenge with Cobalt vs. Cobalt alone was evident, even at high levels of LPS (i.e. levels commiserate with hematogenous levels in fatal sepsis, >500pg/mL). Therefore, not only do the results of this investigation support Cobalt alloy danger signaling induced inflammation, but under normal homeostasis low levels of hematogenous PAMPs (<2pg/mL) from Gram-negative bacteria, seem to have negligible contribution to the danger signaling responses elicited by Cobalt alloy metal implant debris. This suggests the

  5. Tribolium castaneum defensins are primarily active against Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tonk, Miray; Knorr, Eileen; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Valdés, James J; Kollewe, Christian; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is a destructive insect pest of stored food and feed products, and a model organism for development, evolutionary biology and immunity. The insect innate immune system includes antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with a wide spectrum of targets including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. Defensins are an evolutionarily-conserved class of AMPs and a potential new source of antimicrobial agents. In this context, we report the antimicrobial activity, phylogenetic and structural properties of three T. castaneum defensins (Def1, Def2 and Def3) and their relevance in the immunity of T. castaneum against bacterial pathogens. All three recombinant defensins showed bactericidal activity against Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus thuringiensis serovar tolworthi, but only Def1 and Def2 showed a bacteriostatic effect against Staphylococcus epidermidis. None of the defensins showed activity against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas entomophila or against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. All three defensins were transcriptionally upregulated following a bacterial challenge, suggesting a key role in the immunity of T. castaneum against bacterial pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis showed that defensins from T. castaneum, mealworms, Udo longhorn beetle and houseflies cluster within a well-defined clade of insect defensins. We conclude that T. castaneum defensins are primarily active against Gram-positive bacteria and that other AMPs may play a more prominent role against Gram-negative species. PMID:26522790

  6. Young children's hand contact activities: an observational study via videotaping in primarily outdoor residential settings.

    PubMed

    Auyeung, Willa; Canales, Robert A; Beamer, Paloma; Ferguson, Alesia C; Leckie, James O

    2006-09-01

    Microlevel activity time series (MLATS) data were gathered on hand contact activities of 38 children (1-6 years old) by videotaping in primarily outdoor residential environments. The videotape recordings were then translated into text files using a specialized software called VirtualTimingDevicetrade mark. Contact frequency (contacts/h), duration per contact (s/contact), and hourly contact duration (min/h) were summarized for outdoor hand contacts with 15 distinct object/surface categories ("Animal", "Body", "Clothes/Towels", "Fabric", "Floor", "Food", "Footwear", "Metal", "Non-dietary Water", "Paper/Wrapper", "Plastic", "Rock/Brick", "Toys", "Vegetation/Grass", and "Wood") and two aggregate object/surface categories ("Non-dietary objects/surfaces" and "Total objects/surfaces"). For outdoor both hand contacts with "Total objects/surfaces", contact frequencies ranged from 229.9 to 1517.7 contacts/h, median durations/contact ranged from < 1 to 5 s, and hourly contact durations ranged from 42.6 to 102.2 m/h. The data were analyzed for significant differences in hand contact activities as a function of (1) age, (2) location, (3) gender, and (4) hand. Significant differences (P < or = 0.05) were found for all four factors analyzed. Hourly contact durations with "Non-dietary objects/surfaces" and "Total objects/surfaces" increased with age (P = 0.01, rs = 0.42 and P = 0.005, rs = 0.46, respectively), while contact frequencies and hourly contact durations with "Wood" decreased with age (P = 0.02, rs = -0.38 and P = 0.05, rs = -0.32, respectively). Location was found to affect contact frequencies and hourly contact durations with certain objects/surfaces. For example, contact frequencies and hourly contact durations with "Fabric" were higher indoors (P = 0.02 for both), while contact frequencies and hourly contact durations with "Vegetation/Grass" were higher outdoors (P = 0.02 and P = 0.04, respectively). Girls had longer hourly contact durations with "Footwear" (P = 0

  7. The Very High Premature Mortality Rate among Active Professional Wrestlers Is Primarily Due to Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Christopher W.; Conlon, Anna S. C.; Rubenfire, Melvyn; Burghardt, Andrew R.; McGregor, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recently, much media attention has been given to the premature deaths in professional wrestlers. Since no formal studies exist that have statistically examined the probability of premature mortality in professional wrestlers, we determined survival estimates for active wresters over the past quarter century to establish the factors contributing to the premature mortality of these individuals. Methods Data including cause of death was obtained from public records and wrestling publications in wrestlers who were active between January 1, 1985 and December 31, 2011. 557 males were considered consistently active wrestlers during this time period. 2007 published mortality rates from the Center for Disease Control were used to compare the general population to the wrestlers by age, BMI, time period, and cause of death. Survival estimates and Cox hazard regression models were fit to determine incident premature deaths and factors associated with lower survival. Cumulative incidence function (CIF) estimates given years wrestled was obtained using a competing risks model for cause of death. Results The mortality for all wrestlers over the 26-year study period was.007 deaths/total person-years or 708 per 100,000 per year, and 16% of deaths occurred below age 50 years. Among wrestlers, the leading cause of deaths based on CIF was cardiovascular-related (38%). For cardiovascular-related deaths, drug overdose-related deaths and cancer deaths, wrestler mortality rates were respectively 15.1, 122.7 and 6.4 times greater than those of males in the general population. Survival estimates from hazard models indicated that BMI is significantly associated with the hazard of death from total time wrestling (p<0.0001). Conclusion Professional wrestlers are more likely to die prematurely from cardiovascular disease compared to the general population and morbidly obese wrestlers are especially at risk. Results from this study may be useful for professional wrestlers, as well as

  8. Genetic variants primarily associated with type 2 diabetes are related to coronary artery disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Henning; Loley, Christina; Lieb, Wolfgang; Pencina, Michael J; Nelson, Christopher P; Kathiresan, Sekar; Peloso, Gina M; Voight, Benjamin F; Reilly, Muredach P; Assimes, Themistocles L; Boerwinkle, Eric; Hengstenberg, Christian; Laaksonen, Reijo; McPherson, Ruth; Roberts, Robert; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Rawal, Rajesh; Thompson, John R; König, Inke R; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Erdmann, Jeanette; Samani, Nilesh J; Schunkert, Heribert

    2015-01-01

    Background The mechanisms underlying the association between diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD) risk are unclear. We aimed to assess this association by studying genetic variants that have been shown to associate with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). If the association between diabetes and CAD is causal, we expected to observe an association of these variants with CAD as well. Methods and Results We studied all genetic variants currently known to be associated with T2DM at a genome-wide significant level (p<5*10−8) in CARDIoGRAM, a genome-wide data-set of CAD including 22,233 CAD cases and 64,762 controls. Out of the 44 published T2DM SNPs 10 were significantly associated with CAD in CARDIoGRAM (OR>1, p<0.05), more than expected by chance (p=5.0*10−5). Considering all 44 SNPs, the average CAD risk observed per individual T2DM risk allele was 1.0076 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.9973–1.0180). Such average risk increase was significantly lower than the increase expected based on i) the published effects of the SNPs on T2DM risk and ii) the effect of T2DM on CAD risk as observed in the Framingham Heart Study, which suggested a risk of 1.067 per allele (p=7.2*10−10 vs. the observed effect). Studying two risk scores based on risk alleles of the diabetes SNPs, one score using individual level data in 9856 subjects, and the second score on average effects of reported beta-coefficients from the entire CARDIoGRAM data-set, we again observed a significant - yet smaller than expected - association with CAD. Conclusions Our data indicate that an association between type 2 diabetes related SNPs and CAD exists. However, the effects on CAD risk appear to be by far lower than what would be expected based on the effects of risk alleles on T2DM and the effect of T2DM on CAD in the epidemiological setting. PMID:26074316

  9. Bimanual cross-talk during reaching movements is primarily related to response selection, not the specification of motor parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazeltine, Eliot; Diedrichsen, Joern; Kennerley, Steven W.; Ivry, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous reaching movements made with the two hands can show a considerable increase in reaction time (RT) when they differ in terms of direction or extent, compared to when the movements involve the same direction and extent. This cost has been attributed to cross-talk in the specification of the motor parameters for the two hands. However, a recent study [Diedrichsen, Hazeltine, Kennerley, & Ivry, (2001). Psychological Science, 12, 493-498] indicates that when reaching movements are cued by the onset of the target endpoint, no compatibility effects are observed. To determine why directly cued movements are immune from interference, we varied the stimulus onset asynchrony for the two movements and used different combinations of directly cued and symbolically cued movements. In two experiments, compatibility effects were only observed when both movements were symbolically cued. No difference was found between compatible and incompatible movements when both movements were directly cued or when one was directly cued and the other was symbolically cued. These results indicate that interference is not related to the specification of movement parameters but instead emerges from processes associated with response selection. Moreover, the data suggest that cross-talk, when present, primarily shortens the RT of the second movement on compatible trials rather than lengthening this RT on incompatible trials.

  10. Cis-Natural Antisense Transcripts Are Mainly Co-expressed with Their Sense Transcripts and Primarily Related to Energy Metabolic Pathways during Muscle Development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunxia; Hou, Ye; Zhao, Changzhi; Liu, Fei; Luan, Yu; Jing, Lu; Li, Xinyun; Zhu, Mengjin; Zhao, Shuhong

    2016-01-01

    Cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs) are a new class of RNAs identified in various species. However, the biological functions of cis-NATs are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional characteristics and functions of cis-NATs in the muscle tissue of lean Landrace and indigenous fatty Lantang pigs. In total, 3,306 cis-NATs of 2,469 annotated genes were identified in the muscle tissue of pigs. More than 1,300 cis-NATs correlated with their sense genes at the transcriptional level, and approximately 80% of them were co-expressed in the two breeds. Furthermore, over 1,200 differentially expressed cis-NATs were identified during muscle development. Function annotation showed that the cis-NATs participated in muscle development mainly by co-expressing with genes involved in energy metabolic pathways, including citrate cycle (TCA cycle), glycolysis or gluconeogenesis, mitochondrial activation and so on. Moreover, these cis-NATs and their sense genes abruptly increased at the transition from the late fetal stages to the early postnatal stages and then decreased along with muscle development. In conclusion, the cis-NATs in the muscle tissue of pigs were identified and determined to be mainly co-expressed with their sense genes. The co-expressed cis-NATs and their sense gene were primarily related to energy metabolic pathways during muscle development in pigs. Our results offered novel evidence on the roles of cis-NATs during the muscle development of pigs. PMID:27489504

  11. Cis-Natural Antisense Transcripts Are Mainly Co-expressed with Their Sense Transcripts and Primarily Related to Energy Metabolic Pathways during Muscle Development

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yunxia; Hou, Ye; Zhao, Changzhi; Liu, Fei; Luan, Yu; Jing, Lu; Li, Xinyun; Zhu, Mengjin; Zhao, Shuhong

    2016-01-01

    Cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs) are a new class of RNAs identified in various species. However, the biological functions of cis-NATs are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional characteristics and functions of cis-NATs in the muscle tissue of lean Landrace and indigenous fatty Lantang pigs. In total, 3,306 cis-NATs of 2,469 annotated genes were identified in the muscle tissue of pigs. More than 1,300 cis-NATs correlated with their sense genes at the transcriptional level, and approximately 80% of them were co-expressed in the two breeds. Furthermore, over 1,200 differentially expressed cis-NATs were identified during muscle development. Function annotation showed that the cis-NATs participated in muscle development mainly by co-expressing with genes involved in energy metabolic pathways, including citrate cycle (TCA cycle), glycolysis or gluconeogenesis, mitochondrial activation and so on. Moreover, these cis-NATs and their sense genes abruptly increased at the transition from the late fetal stages to the early postnatal stages and then decreased along with muscle development. In conclusion, the cis-NATs in the muscle tissue of pigs were identified and determined to be mainly co-expressed with their sense genes. The co-expressed cis-NATs and their sense gene were primarily related to energy metabolic pathways during muscle development in pigs. Our results offered novel evidence on the roles of cis-NATs during the muscle development of pigs. PMID:27489504

  12. Vanadium compounds modulate PPARγ activity primarily by increasing PPARγ protein levels in mouse insulinoma NIT-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pan; Yang, Xiaoda

    2013-06-01

    Vanadium compounds are promising agents in the therapeutic treatment of diabetes; however, their mechanism of action has not been clearly elucidated. The current study investigated the effects of vanadium compounds, vanadyl acetylacetonate [V(IV)O(acac)2] and sodium metavanadate (NaV(V)O3), on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), especially PPARγ, which are important targets of anti-diabetic drugs. Our experimental results revealed that treatment of NIT-1 β-pancreas cells with vanadium compounds resulted in PPARγ activation and elevation of PPARγ protein levels. Vanadium compounds did not increase PPARγ transcription but ameliorated PPARγ degradation induced by inflammatory stimulators TNF-α/IL-6. Vanadium compounds induced binding of PPARγ to heat shock protein (Hsp60). This PPARγ-Hsp60 interaction might cause inhibition of PPARγ degradation, thus elevating the PPARγ level. In addition, modulation of PPARγ phosphorylation was also observed upon vanadium treatment. The present work demonstrated for the first time that vanadium compounds are novel PPARγ modulators. The results may provide new insights for the mechanism of anti-diabetic action of vanadium compounds.

  13. Antibacterial activity of lichen secondary metabolite usnic acid is primarily caused by inhibition of RNA and DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Maciąg-Dorszyńska, Monika; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz; Guzow-Krzemińska, Beata

    2014-04-01

    Usnic acid, a compound produced by various lichen species, has been demonstrated previously to inhibit growth of different bacteria and fungi; however, mechanism of its antimicrobial activity remained unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that usnic acid causes rapid and strong inhibition of RNA and DNA synthesis in Gram-positive bacteria, represented by Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, while it does not inhibit production of macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins) in Escherichia coli, which is resistant to even high doses of this compound. However, we also observed slight inhibition of RNA synthesis in a Gram-negative bacterium, Vibrio harveyi. Inhibition of protein synthesis in B. subtilis and S. aureus was delayed, which suggest indirect action (possibly through impairment of transcription) of usnic acid on translation. Interestingly, DNA synthesis was halted rapidly in B. subtilis and S. aureus, suggesting interference of usnic acid with elongation of DNA replication. We propose that inhibition of RNA synthesis may be a general mechanism of antibacterial action of usnic acid, with additional direct mechanisms, such as impairment of DNA replication in B. subtilis and S. aureus.

  14. The elevation of apoB in hypercholesterolemic patients is primarily attributed to the relative increase of apoB/Lp-PLA₂.

    PubMed

    Tellis, Constantinos C; Moutzouri, Eliza; Elisaf, Moses; Wolfert, Robert L; Tselepis, Alexandros D

    2013-12-01

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A₂ (Lp-PLA₂) is a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Plasma Lp-PLA₂ is mainly associated with apolipoprotein (apo)B-containing lipoproteins, primarily with low density lipoproteins (LDLs). Importantly, only a proportion of circulating lipoproteins contain Lp-PLA₂. We determined the plasma levels of Lp-PLA₂-bound apoB (apoB/Lp-PLA₂) in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia. The effect of simvastatin therapy was also addressed. The plasma apoB/Lp-PLA₂ concentration in 50 normolipidemic controls and 53 patients with primary hypercholesterolemia at baseline and at 3 months posttreatment with simvastatin (40 mg/day) was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The concentration of the apoB-containing lipoproteins that do not bind Lp-PLA₂ [apoB/Lp-PLA₂⁻] was calculated by subtracting the apoB/Lp-PLA₂ from total apoB. The apoB/Lp-PLA₂ levels were 3.6-fold higher, while apoB/Lp-PLA₂⁻ were 1.3-fold higher in patients compared with controls. After 3 months of simvastatin treatment apoB/Lp-PLA₂ and apoB/Lp-PLA₂⁻ levels were reduced by 52% and 33%, respectively. The elevation in apoB-containing lipoproteins in hypercholesterolemic patients is mainly attributed to the relative increase in the proatherogenic apoB/Lp-PLA₂, while simvastatin reduces these particles to a higher extent compared with apoB/Lp-PLA₂⁻. Considering that Lp-PLA₂ is proatherogenic, the predominance of apoB/Lp-PLA₂ particles in hypercholesterolemic patients may contribute to their higher atherogenicity and incidence of cardiovascular disease.

  15. Neuroserpin, a brain-associated inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator is localized primarily in neurons. Implications for the regulation of motor learning and neuronal survival.

    PubMed

    Hastings, G A; Coleman, T A; Haudenschild, C C; Stefansson, S; Smith, E P; Barthlow, R; Cherry, S; Sandkvist, M; Lawrence, D A

    1997-12-26

    A cDNA clone for the serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin), neuroserpin, was isolated from a human whole brain cDNA library, and recombinant protein was expressed in insect cells. The purified protein is an efficient inhibitor of tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA), having an apparent second-order rate constant of 6. 2 x 10(5) M-1 s-1 for the two-chain form. However, unlike other known plasminogen activator inhibitors, neuroserpin is a more effective inactivator of tPA than of urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Neuroserpin also effectively inhibited trypsin and nerve growth factor-gamma but reacted only slowly with plasmin and thrombin. Northern blot analysis showed a 1.8 kilobase messenger RNA expressed predominantly in adult human brain and spinal cord, and immunohistochemical studies of normal mouse tissue detected strong staining primarily in neuronal cells with occasionally positive microglial cells. Staining was most prominent in the ependymal cells of the choroid plexus, Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, select neurons of the hypothalamus and hippocampus, and in the myelinated axons of the commissura. Expression of tPA within these regions is reported to be high and has previously been correlated with both motor learning and neuronal survival. Taken together, these data suggest that neuroserpin is likely to be a critical regulator of tPA activity in the central nervous system, and as such may play an important role in neuronal plasticity and/or maintenance.

  16. Map showing spatial and temporal relations of mountain and continental glaciations on the Northern Plains, primarily in northern Montana and northwestern North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fullerton, David S.; Colton, Roger B.; Bush, Charles A.; Straub, Arthur W.

    2004-01-01

    This report is an overview of glacial limits and glacial history on the plains in northern Montana and northeastern North Dakota (long 102?-114?W.) and also in adjacent southern Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada. In the Rocky Mountains and on the plains adjacent to the mountains in Montana, the map also depicts spatial relations of valley glaciers and piedmont ice lobes to continental ice sheets. Glacial limits east of 102?, in the United States and also in adjacent Canada, are depicted on published maps of the U.S. Geological Survey Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States (I-1420) map series. The limits shown here are from data compiled for the Lethbridge, Regina, Yellowstone, and Big Horn Mountains 4? x 6? quadrangles in the Quaternary Geologic Atlas series. This geospatial database has been prepared with a degree of detail appropriate for viewing at a scale of 1:1,000,000. Because of the degree of generalization required, the map is intended for regional analysis, rather than for detailed analysis in specific areas. It depicts the geographic positions of the limits of mountain and continental glaciations and the limits of selected glacial readvances. That information provides a foundation for reconstruction of geologic history and for reconstruction. The base map is simplified. Selected hydrographic features, selected towns and cities, selected physiographic features, and a grid of 1? x 2? topographic quadrangles are included to aid the reader in location of the glacial limits and other features that are depicted here on other maps at different scales. Most of the geologic data were compiled at 1:250,000 scale. The nominal reading scale of the digitized map data is 1:1,000,000. Enlargement will not restore resolution that was lost by simplification or generalization of data. Accompanying illustrations show regional directions of ice movement from Canada into the United States during maximum Illinoian glaciation, during maximum late Wisconsin glaciation

  17. Asteroseismic stellar activity relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanno, A.; Corsaro, E.; Karoff, C.

    2014-11-01

    Context. In asteroseismology an important diagnostic of the evolutionary status of a star is the small frequency separation which is sensitive to the gradient of the mean molecular weight in the stellar interior. It is thus interesting to discuss the classical age-activity relations in terms of this quantity. Moreover, as the photospheric magnetic field tends to suppress the amplitudes of acoustic oscillations, it is important to quantify the importance of this effect by considering various activity indicators. Aims: We propose a new class of age-activity relations that connects the Mt. Wilson S index and the average scatter in the light curve with the small frequency separation and the amplitude of the p-mode oscillations. Methods: We used a Bayesian inference to compute the posterior probability of various empirical laws for a sample of 19 solar-like active stars observed by the Kepler telescope. Results: We demonstrate the presence of a clear correlation between the Mt. Wilson S index and the relative age of the stars as indicated by the small frequency separation, as well as an anti-correlation between the S index and the oscillation amplitudes. We argue that the average activity level of the stars shows a stronger correlation with the small frequency separation than with the absolute age that is often considered in the literature. Conclusions: The phenomenological laws discovered in this paper have the potential to become new important diagnostics to link stellar evolution theory with the dynamics of global magnetic fields. In particular we argue that the relation between the Mt. Wilson S index and the oscillation amplitudes is in good agreement with the findings of direct numerical simulations of magneto-convection.

  18. Prolactin signalling in the mouse hypothalamus is primarily mediated by signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 5b but not 5a.

    PubMed

    Yip, S H; Eguchi, R; Grattan, D R; Bunn, S J

    2012-12-01

    Prolactin acts at multiple targets throughout the body, including the mammary gland, heart, liver, muscle and brain. Upon binding to its receptors, prolactin signals through the phosphorylation and thus activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5). There are two very similar STAT5 isoforms, termed STAT5a and STAT5b, which are selectively activated by prolactin in specific tissues. Various brain regions, including the hypothalamus, are prolactin responsive, although the STAT5 isoform involved in these actions is unknown. Immunohistochemical and western blot analysis were used to determine the expression and activation of STAT5a and STAT5b throughout the hypothalamus in adult wild-type and STAT5b-deficient mice. Both groups were pretreated with bromocriptine to suppress endogenous prolactin levels followed by the administration of ovine prolactin (10 mg/kg) for 45 min. STAT5a and STAT5b were expressed throughout the hypothalamus of wild-type mice. As expected, only STAT5a was detected in STAT5b-deficient mice, although, unexpectedly, there was a marked reduction in its expression compared to wild-type mice. When stimulated with prolactin, phosphorylated STAT5 was observed in the hypothalamus of wild-type but not STAT5b-deficient mice. By contrast, phosphorylated STAT5 was detected in mammary gland epithelial cells and adipocytes of STAT5b-deficient animals. Thus, although STAT5a was still expressed in the STAT5b-deficient mice, it was not phosphorylated in the hypothalamus in response to prolactin. These observations indicate that STAT5b but not STAT5a is the primary mediator of the action of prolactin in the hypothalamus. Despite the similarity between the two STAT5 isoforms, STAT5a was unable to compensate for the absence of STAT5b, suggesting that each isoform exhibits a unique biological activity.

  19. The size effect of titania-supported Pt nanoparticles on the electrocatalytic activity towards methanol oxidation reaction primarily via the bifunctional mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Chao-Cheng; Liu, Chung-Hsuan; Tai, Chun-Yen; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Chao, Chih-Shuan; Pan, Fu-Ming

    2015-04-01

    We prepared Pt nanoparticles of different particle sizes by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) on the native oxide surface layer of Ti thin films, and investigated the Pt particle size effect on the electrocatalytic activity towards methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in acidic media. The average Pt nanoparticles size ranges from 3 nm to 7 nm depending on the number of the PEALD reaction cycles. The electronic interaction between Pt nanoparticles and the TiO2 support is insignificant according to x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses, suggesting that the influence of the Pt particle size on the electrocatalytic activity can be mainly described by the bifunctional mechanism. From cyclic voltammetry measurements, Pt particles of smaller size have a better CO tolerance in MOR. We proposed the reaction steps for the electrooxidation of CO adspecies on Pt nanoparticles on the basis of the bifunctional mechanism. The electrode with Pt nanoparticles of ∼5 nm in size shows the best electrocatalytic performance in terms of CO tolerance and electrochemical stability.

  20. In vitro activities of fleroxacin, cefetamet, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid against rare members of the family Enterobacteriaceae primarily of human (clinical) origin.

    PubMed Central

    Hohl, P; Lüthy-Hottenstein, J; Zollinger-Iten, J; Altwegg, M

    1990-01-01

    Fleroxacin and cefetamet were evaluated in vitro against 38 infrequently encountered species (250 strains) of the family Enterobacteriaceae and compared with four established compounds. For all the strains tested, the fleroxacin MIC was less than or equal to 0.5 mg/liter, and for 98% of strains the cefetamet MIC was less than or equal to 8 mg/liter; even though the two new compounds did not quite reach the activities (on a weight-by-weight basis) of ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone, respectively, they nonetheless clearly surpassed trimethoprim-sulfamethaxazole and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. The very potent new oral compounds tested in this study appear to be promising for the treatment of clinically relevant infections due to uncommon species of Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:2121095

  1. Water-Related Teaching Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, Herbert L.; Price, Charles L.

    This publication is designed to provide interested teachers with teaching activities for all grade levels and subject areas that can be used to help students learn about water resources. For each activity, the purpose, level, subject, and concept are given. Activities are organized by grade level. Most of these water related learning activities…

  2. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  3. Beaches. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrett, Andrea

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  4. Whales. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Claire

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  5. Tides. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrett, Andrea

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  6. 45 CFR 650.6 - Awards not primarily for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Awards not primarily for research. 650.6 Section 650.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION...: Intellectual Property Rights The National Science Foundation claims no rights to any inventions or...

  7. 45 CFR 650.6 - Awards not primarily for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Awards not primarily for research. 650.6 Section 650.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION...: Intellectual Property Rights The National Science Foundation claims no rights to any inventions or...

  8. 45 CFR 650.6 - Awards not primarily for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: Intellectual Property Rights The National Science Foundation claims no rights to any inventions or writings... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Awards not primarily for research. 650.6 Section 650.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE...

  9. Review of the United States universal varicella vaccination program: Herpes zoster incidence rates, cost-effectiveness, and vaccine efficacy based primarily on the Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project data

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, G.S.; King, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    In a cooperative agreement starting January 1995, prior to the FDA's licensure of the varicella vaccine on March 17, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded the Los Angeles Department of Health Services’ Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project (AV-VASP). Since only varicella case reports were gathered, baseline incidence data for herpes zoster (HZ) or shingles was lacking. Varicella case reports decreased 72%, from 2834 in 1995 to 836 in 2000 at which time approximately 50% of children under 10 years of age had been vaccinated. Starting in 2000, HZ surveillance was added to the project. By 2002, notable increases in HZ incidence rates were reported among both children and adults with a prior history of natural varicella. However, CDC authorities still claimed that no increase in HZ had occurred in any US surveillance site. The basic assumptions inherent to the varicella cost–benefit analysis ignored the significance of exogenous boosting caused by those shedding wild-type VZV. Also ignored was the morbidity associated with even rare serious events following varicella vaccination as well as the morbidity from increasing cases of HZ among adults. Vaccine efficacy declined below 80% in 2001. By 2006, because 20% of vaccinees were experiencing breakthrough varicella and vaccine-induced protection was waning, the CDC recommended a booster dose for children and, in 2007, a shingles vaccination was approved for adults aged 60 years and older. In the prelicensure era, 95% of adults experienced natural chickenpox (usually as children)—these cases were usually benign and resulted in long-term immunity. Varicella vaccination is less effective than the natural immunity that existed in prevaccine communities. Universal varicella vaccination has not proven to be cost-effective as increased HZ morbidity has disproportionately offset cost savings associated with reductions in varicella disease. Universal varicella vaccination has failed to

  10. Review of the United States universal varicella vaccination program: Herpes zoster incidence rates, cost-effectiveness, and vaccine efficacy based primarily on the Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project data.

    PubMed

    Goldman, G S; King, P G

    2013-03-25

    In a cooperative agreement starting January 1995, prior to the FDA's licensure of the varicella vaccine on March 17, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded the Los Angeles Department of Health Services' Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project (AV-VASP). Since only varicella case reports were gathered, baseline incidence data for herpes zoster (HZ) or shingles was lacking. Varicella case reports decreased 72%, from 2834 in 1995 to 836 in 2000 at which time approximately 50% of children under 10 years of age had been vaccinated. Starting in 2000, HZ surveillance was added to the project. By 2002, notable increases in HZ incidence rates were reported among both children and adults with a prior history of natural varicella. However, CDC authorities still claimed that no increase in HZ had occurred in any US surveillance site. The basic assumptions inherent to the varicella cost-benefit analysis ignored the significance of exogenous boosting caused by those shedding wild-type VZV. Also ignored was the morbidity associated with even rare serious events following varicella vaccination as well as the morbidity from increasing cases of HZ among adults. Vaccine efficacy declined below 80% in 2001. By 2006, because 20% of vaccinees were experiencing breakthrough varicella and vaccine-induced protection was waning, the CDC recommended a booster dose for children and, in 2007, a shingles vaccination was approved for adults aged 60 years and older. In the prelicensure era, 95% of adults experienced natural chickenpox (usually as children)-these cases were usually benign and resulted in long-term immunity. Varicella vaccination is less effective than the natural immunity that existed in prevaccine communities. Universal varicella vaccination has not proven to be cost-effective as increased HZ morbidity has disproportionately offset cost savings associated with reductions in varicella disease. Universal varicella vaccination has failed to provide

  11. Is self-sacrificial competitive altruism primarily a male activity?

    PubMed

    McAndrew, Francis T; Perilloux, Carin

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the basis of self-sacrificial prosocial behavior in small groups. Seventy-eight undergraduates (39M, 39F) filled out a thirty-item personality scale and then participated in a "group problem-solving study" in which the monetary success of a three-person group depended upon one of its members volunteering to endure pain (a cold stressor test) and inconvenience (being soaked in a dunk tank). There were 13 groups consisting of two females and one male, and 13 groups consisting of two males and one female. Across groups, the behavior of the altruist was judged to be more costly, challenging, and important and he/she was liked better, rewarded with more money, and preferred as a future experimental partner. Groups containing two males showed more evidence of competition to become altruists than groups containing two females, and personality traits were more effective predictors of altruistic behavior in males than in females. We conclude that competition between males and "showing off" are key factors in triggering self-sacrificial altruistic behavior.

  12. Factors Associated with Evaluating Public Relations Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElreath, Mark P.

    More than 150 public relations practitioners responded to a survey designed to identify and clarify factors associated with evaluative research in public relations. Responses indicated that (1) no more than half the practitioners formally evaluate their public relations activities on a regular basis; (2) the majority of evaluation is done…

  13. Amphotericin primarily kills yeast by simply binding ergosterol

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kaitlyn C.; Palacios, Daniel S.; Dailey, Ian; Endo, Matthew M.; Uno, Brice E.; Wilcock, Brandon C.; Burke, Martin D.

    2012-01-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB) is a prototypical small molecule natural product that can form ion channels in living eukaryotic cells and has remained refractory to microbial resistance despite extensive clinical utilization in the treatment of life-threatening fungal infections for more than half a century. It is now widely accepted that AmB kills yeast primarily via channel-mediated membrane permeabilization. Enabled by the iterative cross-coupling-based synthesis of a functional group deficient derivative of this natural product, we have discovered that channel formation is not required for potent fungicidal activity. Alternatively, AmB primarily kills yeast by simply binding ergosterol, a lipid that is vital for many aspects of yeast cell physiology. Membrane permeabilization via channel formation represents a second complementary mechanism that further increases drug potency and the rate of yeast killing. Collectively, these findings (i) reveal that the binding of a physiologically important microbial lipid is a powerful and clinically validated antimicrobial strategy that may be inherently refractory to resistance, (ii) illuminate a more straightforward path to an improved therapeutic index for this clinically vital but also highly toxic antifungal agent, and (iii) suggest that the capacity for AmB to form protein-like ion channels might be separable from its cytocidal effects. PMID:22308411

  14. Structuring medication related activities for information management.

    PubMed

    Luukkonen, Irmeli; Mykkänen, Juha; Kivekäs, Eija; Saranto, Kaija

    2014-01-01

    Medication treatment and the related information management are central parts of a patient's health care. As a cross-organizational and cooperative process, medication information management is a complex domain for development activities. We studied medication activities and related information management in a regional project in order to produce a shared broad picture of its processes and to understand the main issues and the needs for improvement. In this paper we provide a summary of the findings in a structured form, based on a six-dimensioned framework for design and analysis of activities and processes.

  15. Tools of Oceanography. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Florence

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  16. The AIDS-related activities of religious leaders in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    TRINTAPOLI, J.

    2010-01-01

    The AIDS-related activities of religious leaders in Africa extend far beyond preaching about sexual mortality. This study aims to quantify the involvement of religious leaders in the fight against AIDS and to identify key predictors of the types of prevention strategies they promote. Using data from a random sample of Christian and Muslim leaders in Malawi, I use logistic regression to predict six types of AIDS activities, which correspond to three distinct types: formal messages (i.e., preaching), pragmatic interventions (monitoring the sexual behaviour of members and advising divorce to avoid infection), and the promotion of biomedical prevention strategies (promoting condom use and testing for HIV). Preaching about AIDS is the most common prevention activity, and promoting condom use is the least; sizable proportions of clergy promote testing and engage in pragmatic interventions. Denominational patterns in the type of engagement are weak and inconsistent. However, inquiries into the motivation for leaders' activities show that discussions with members about AIDS is the most consistent predictor, suggesting that religious leaders' engagement with HIV prevention is primarily a demand-driven phenomenon. PMID:20552476

  17. 29 CFR 779.208 - Auxiliary activities which are “related activities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... eating and drinking facilities (note that employees primarily engaged in certain food service activities in retail establishments may be exempt from the overtime provisions under section 13(b)(18) of...

  18. 29 CFR 779.208 - Auxiliary activities which are “related activities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... eating and drinking facilities (note that employees primarily engaged in certain food service activities in retail establishments may be exempt from the overtime provisions under section 13(b)(18) of...

  19. 29 CFR 779.208 - Auxiliary activities which are “related activities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... eating and drinking facilities (note that employees primarily engaged in certain food service activities in retail establishments may be exempt from the overtime provisions under section 13(b)(18) of...

  20. 29 CFR 779.208 - Auxiliary activities which are “related activities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... eating and drinking facilities (note that employees primarily engaged in certain food service activities in retail establishments may be exempt from the overtime provisions under section 13(b)(18) of...

  1. Pathogenic Leptospira interrogans exoproteins are primarily involved in heterotrophic processes.

    PubMed

    Eshghi, Azad; Pappalardo, Elisa; Hester, Svenja; Thomas, Benjamin; Pretre, Gabriela; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2015-08-01

    Leptospirosis is a life-threatening and emerging zoonotic disease with a worldwide annual occurrence of more than 1 million cases. Leptospirosis is caused by spirochetes belonging to the genus Leptospira. The mechanisms of disease manifestation in the host remain elusive, and the roles of leptospiral exoproteins in these processes have yet to be determined. Our aim in this study was to assess the composition and quantity of exoproteins of pathogenic Leptospira interrogans and to construe how these proteins contribute to disease pathogenesis. Label-free quantitative mass spectrometry of proteins obtained from Leptospira spirochetes cultured in vitro under conditions mimicking infection identified 325 exoproteins. The majority of these proteins are conserved in the nonpathogenic species Leptospira biflexa, and proteins involved in metabolism and energy-generating functions were overrepresented and displayed the highest relative abundance in culture supernatants. Conversely, proteins of unknown function, which represent the majority of pathogen-specific proteins (presumably involved in virulence mechanisms), were underrepresented. Characterization of various L. interrogans exoprotein mutants in the animal infection model revealed host mortality rates similar to those of hosts infected with wild-type L. interrogans. Collectively, these results indicate that pathogenic Leptospira exoproteins primarily function in heterotrophic processes (the processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as nutrient sources) to maintain the saprophytic lifestyle rather than the virulence of the bacteria. The underrepresentation of proteins homologous to known virulence factors, such as toxins and effectors in the exoproteome, also suggests that disease manifesting from Leptospira infection is likely caused by a combination of the primary and potentially moonlight functioning of exoproteins.

  2. Pathogenic Leptospira interrogans Exoproteins Are Primarily Involved in Heterotrophic Processes

    PubMed Central

    Eshghi, Azad; Pappalardo, Elisa; Hester, Svenja; Thomas, Benjamin; Pretre, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a life-threatening and emerging zoonotic disease with a worldwide annual occurrence of more than 1 million cases. Leptospirosis is caused by spirochetes belonging to the genus Leptospira. The mechanisms of disease manifestation in the host remain elusive, and the roles of leptospiral exoproteins in these processes have yet to be determined. Our aim in this study was to assess the composition and quantity of exoproteins of pathogenic Leptospira interrogans and to construe how these proteins contribute to disease pathogenesis. Label-free quantitative mass spectrometry of proteins obtained from Leptospira spirochetes cultured in vitro under conditions mimicking infection identified 325 exoproteins. The majority of these proteins are conserved in the nonpathogenic species Leptospira biflexa, and proteins involved in metabolism and energy-generating functions were overrepresented and displayed the highest relative abundance in culture supernatants. Conversely, proteins of unknown function, which represent the majority of pathogen-specific proteins (presumably involved in virulence mechanisms), were underrepresented. Characterization of various L. interrogans exoprotein mutants in the animal infection model revealed host mortality rates similar to those of hosts infected with wild-type L. interrogans. Collectively, these results indicate that pathogenic Leptospira exoproteins primarily function in heterotrophic processes (the processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as nutrient sources) to maintain the saprophytic lifestyle rather than the virulence of the bacteria. The underrepresentation of proteins homologous to known virulence factors, such as toxins and effectors in the exoproteome, also suggests that disease manifesting from Leptospira infection is likely caused by a combination of the primary and potentially moonlight functioning of exoproteins. PMID:25987703

  3. Making primarily professional terms more comprehensible to the lay audience.

    PubMed

    Goryachev, Sergey; Zeng-Treitler, Qing; Smith, Catherine Arnott; Browne, Allen C; Divita, Guy; Keselman, Alla; Leroy, Gondy; Figueroa, Rosa

    2008-11-06

    Certain texts, such as clinical reports and clinical trial records, are written by professionals for professionals while being increasingly accessed by lay people. To improve the comprehensibility of such documents to the lay audience, we conducted a pilot study to analyze terms used primarily by health professionals, and explore ways to make them more comprehensible to lay people.

  4. Careers in virology: teaching at a primarily undergraduate institution.

    PubMed

    Kushner, David B

    2014-10-01

    A faculty position at a primarily undergraduate institution requires working with undergraduates in both the classroom and the research lab. Graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who are interested in such a career should understand that faculty at these institutions need to teach broadly and devise research questions that can be addressed safely and with limited resources compared to a research I university. Aspects of, and ways to prepare for, this career will be reviewed herein.

  5. Relating practitioner needs to research activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, M. S.; Menzies, T.; Connelly, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    We present an approach to matching needs (practioner requirements) to solutions (researcher activities). A taxonomical classification scheme acts as intermediary between needs and activities. Expert practitioners exprss their needs in terms of this taxonomy. Researchers express their activities in the same terms. A decision support tool is used to assist in the combination and study of their expressions of needs and activities.

  6. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780.607 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF...

  7. Tsunami related to solar and geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele; Straser, Valentino

    2016-04-01

    The authors of this study wanted to verify the existence of a correlation between earthquakes of high intensity capable of generating tsunami and variations of solar and Earth's geomagnetic activity. To confirming or not the presence of this kind of correlation, the authors analyzed the conditions of Spaceweather "near Earth" and the characteristics of the Earth's geomagnetic field in the hours that preceded the four earthquakes of high intensity that have generated tsunamis: 1) Japan M9 earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011 at 05:46 UTC; 2) Japan M7.1 earthquake occurred on October 25, 2013 at 17:10 UTC; 3) Chile M8.2 earthquake occurred on April 1, 2014 at 23:46 UTC; 4) Chile M8.3 earthquake occurred on September 16, 2015 at 22:54 UTC. The data relating to the four earthquakes were provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The data on ion density used to realize the correlation study are represented by: solar wind ion density variation detected by ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) Satellite, in orbit near the L1 Lagrange point, at 1.5 million of km from Earth, in direction of the Sun. The instrument used to perform the measurement of the solar wind ion density is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument, equipped on the ACE Satellite. To conduct the study, the authors have taken in consideration the variation of the solar wind protons density of three different energy fractions: differential proton flux 1060-1900 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 761-1220 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 310-580 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV). Geomagnetic activity data were provided by Tromsø Geomagnetic Observatory (TGO), Norway; by Scoresbysund Geomagnetic Observatory (SCO), Greenland, Denmark and by Space Weather Prediction Center of Pushkov Institute of terrestrial magnetism, ionosphere and radio wave propagation (IZMIRAN), Troitsk, Moscow Region. The results of the study, in agreement with what already

  8. Broad Considerations Concerning Electrochemical Electrodes in Primarily Fluid Environments

    PubMed Central

    Jesudason, Christopher G.

    2009-01-01

    This review is variously a presentation, reflection, synthesis and report with reference to more recent developments of an article – in a journal which has ceased publication – entitled “Some Electrode Theorems with Experimental Corroboration, Inclusive of the Ag/AgCl System” Internet Journal of Chemistry, (http://www.ijc.com), Special Issues: Vol. 2 Article 24 (1999). The results from new lemmas relating charge densities and capacitance in a metallic electrode in equilibrium with an ionic solution are used to explain the data and observed effects due to Esin, Markov, Grahame, Lang and Kohn. Size effects that vary the measured e.m.f. of electrodes due to changes in the electronic chemical potential are demonstrated in experiment and theory implying the need for standardization of electrodes with respect to geometry and size. The widely used Stern modification of the Gouy-Chapman theory is shown to be mostly inapplicable for many of the problems where it is employed. Practical consequences of the current development include the possibility of determining the elusive single-ion activity coefficients of solution ions directly from the expression given by a simplified capacitance theorem, the potential of zero charge and the determination of single ion concentrations of active species in the electrode reactions from cell e.m.f. measurements. PMID:19564949

  9. 29 CFR 779.207 - Related activities in retail operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Related activities in retail operations. 779.207 Section... Coverage Related Activities § 779.207 Related activities in retail operations. In the case of an enterprise which has one or more retail or service establishments, all of the activities which are performed...

  10. Age-related shifts in brain activity dynamics during task switching.

    PubMed

    Jimura, Koji; Braver, Todd S

    2010-06-01

    Cognitive aging studies have suggested that older adults show declines in both sustained and transient cognitive control processes. However, previous neuroimaging studies have primarily focused on age-related change in the magnitude, but not temporal dynamics, of brain activity. The present study compared brain activity dynamics in healthy old and young adults during task switching. A mixed blocked/event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging design enabled separation of transient and sustained neural activity associated with cognitive control. Relative to young adults, older adults exhibited not only decreased sustained activity in the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) during task-switching blocks but also increased transient activity on task-switch trials. Another pattern of age-related shift in dynamics was present in the lateral PFC (lPFC) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC), with younger adults showing a cue-related response during task-switch trials in lPFC and PPC, whereas older adults exhibited switch-related activation during the cue period in PPC only. In all 3 regions, these qualitatively distinct patterns of brain activity predicted qualitatively distinct patterns of behavioral performance across the 2 age groups. Together, these results suggest that older adults may shift from a proactive to reactive cognitive control strategy as a means of retaining relatively preserved behavioral performance in the face of age-related neurocognitive changes. PMID:19805420

  11. Classroom Activities for Introducing Equivalence Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Equivalence relations and partitions are two interconnected ideas that play important roles in advanced mathematics. While students encounter the informal notion of equivalence in many courses, the formal definition of an equivalence relation is typically introduced in a junior level transition-to-proof course. This paper reports the results of a…

  12. Arts-Related Activities in Prisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Nicky

    1993-01-01

    Arts activities in prisons, such as the work of Britain's Geese Theatre Company, have a therapeutic effect but are often hampered by lack of funds, materials, and space and difficulties with the attitudes of prison administrators and staff. (SK)

  13. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  14. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  15. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  16. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  17. Helium-3 emission related to volcanic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Wakita, H.; Urabe, A.; Tominaga, T.

    1984-04-13

    The helium-3/helium-4 ratio in bubbling gases from ten hot springs located around Mount Ontake, an active volcano in central Japan, ranges from 1.71 R/sub atm/ (1.71 times the atmospheric ratio of 1.40 x 10/sup -6/) to 6.15 R/sub atm/. The value of the ratio decreases with distance from the central cone of the volcano. Such a tendency may be a characteristic of helium-3 emission in volcanic areas and suggests more primitive helium-3 is carried with fluid flowing through a conduit during volcanic activity. 6 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  18. State and Local Bar Associations Law-Related Education Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

    This document is a listing of the law-related education activities of state and local bar associations grouped by state. Under each state, the state association and often one or more local association are listed. Information on each association includes committees relating to law related education, a listing of law related education activities,…

  19. Citizenship Related Activities in World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulos, Pete

    1984-01-01

    A world history course is molded around broad instructional goals in which citizenship education can and should be included. Learning activities dealing with ancient Greece illustrate teaching strategies which can be used in high school world history courses to foster citizenship knowledge, skills, and attitudes. (RM)

  20. Primarily nonlinear effects observed in a driven asymmetrical vibrating wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Roger J.; Macomber, H. Kent; Morrison, Andrew C.; Boucher, Matthew A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the work reported here is to further experimentally explore the wide variety of behaviors exhibited by driven vibrating wires, primarily in the nonlinear regime. When the wire is driven near a resonant frequency, it is found that most such behaviors are significantly affected by the splitting of the resonant frequency and by the existence of a ``characteristic'' axis associated with each split frequency. It is shown that frequency splitting decreases with increasing wire tension and can be altered by twisting. Two methods are described for determining the orientation of characteristic axes. Evidence is provided, with a possible explanation, that each axis has the same orientation everywhere along the wire. Frequency response data exhibiting nonlinear generation of transverse motion perpendicular to the driving direction, hysteresis, linear generation of perpendicular motion (sometimes tubular), and generation of motion at harmonics of the driving frequency are exhibited and discussed. Also reported under seemingly unchanging conditions are abrupt large changes in the harmonic content of the motion that sometimes involve large subharmonics and harmonics thereof. Slow transitions from one stable state of vibration to another and quasiperiodic motions are also exhibited. Possible musical significance is discussed. .

  1. Geopolymers and Related Alkali-Activated Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provis, John L.; Bernal, Susan A.

    2014-07-01

    The development of new, sustainable, low-CO2 construction materials is essential if the global construction industry is to reduce the environmental footprint of its activities, which is incurred particularly through the production of Portland cement. One type of non-Portland cement that is attracting particular attention is based on alkali-aluminosilicate chemistry, including the class of binders that have become known as geopolymers. These materials offer technical properties comparable to those of Portland cement, but with a much lower CO2 footprint and with the potential for performance advantages over traditional cements in certain niche applications. This review discusses the synthesis of alkali-activated binders from blast furnace slag, calcined clay (metakaolin), and fly ash, including analysis of the chemical reaction mechanisms and binder phase assemblages that control the early-age and hardened properties of these materials, in particular initial setting and long-term durability. Perspectives for future research developments are also explored.

  2. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  3. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  4. 12 CFR 225.129 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.129 Section 225.129 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.129 Activities closely related to banking. Courier activities....

  5. 12 CFR 225.129 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.129 Section 225.129 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.129 Activities closely related to banking. Courier activities....

  6. 12 CFR 225.129 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.129 Section 225.129 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.129 Activities closely related to banking. Courier activities....

  7. Bird activity levels related to weather

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Ralph, C. John; Scott, J. Michael

    1981-01-01

    The Breeding Bird Survey data bank serves as a primary source for studying effects of sky cover, wind speed, and temperature on bird census results. Other standardized methods, such as spot-mapping (Breeding Bird Census), point counts, banding, and the Winter Bird Survey, provide additional, but limited, means of assessing effects of weather. Numbers of songbirds detected are generally inversely correlated with wind speed, but hawks often are seen in larger numbers on windy days. Rain greatly reduces the numbers of birds detected. Cloud cover has relatively little influence on early morning bird counts during the peak of the breeding season. Fog selectively favors auditory detections of some species. Counts of many species are correlated with temperature, but effects are minor unless temperatures are extreme. Under marginal weather conditions, total species observed may be nearly normal, whereas number of individuals observed is reduced, as is the opportunity to record simultaneous registrations

  8. Geomechanical Simulations Related to UCG Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobiev, O; Morris, J; Antoun, T; Friedmann, S J

    2008-07-11

    This paper presents results from a recent investigation into a range of geomechanical processes induced by UCG activities. The mechanical response of the coal and host rock mass plays a role in every stage of UCG operations. For example, cavity collapse during the burn has significant effect upon the rate of the burn itself. In the vicinity of the cavity, collapse and fracturing may result in enhanced hydraulic conductivity of the rock matrix above the burn chamber. Even far from the cavity, stresses due to subsidence may be sufficient to induce new fractures linking previously isolated aquifers. These mechanical processes are very important in understanding the risk of unacceptable subsidence and the potential for groundwater contamination. The mechanical processes are inherently non-linear, involving significant inelastic response, especially in the region closest to the cavity. in addition, the response of the rock mass involves both continuum and discrete mechanical behavior. To better understand these effects, they have applied a suite of highly non-linear computational tools in both two and three dimensions to a series of UCG scenarios. The calculations include combinations of continuum and discrete mechanical responses by employing fully coupled finite element and discrete element capabilities.

  9. Damage to temporo-parietal cortex decreases incidental activation of thematic relations during spoken word comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Mirman, Daniel; Graziano, Kristen M.

    2012-01-01

    Both taxonomic and thematic semantic relations have been studied extensively in behavioral studies and there is an emerging consensus that the anterior temporal lobe plays a particularly important role in the representation and processing of taxonomic relations, but the neural basis of thematic semantics is less clear. We used eye tracking to examine incidental activation of taxonomic and thematic relations during spoken word comprehension in participants with aphasia. Three groups of participants were tested: neurologically intact control participants (N=14), individuals with aphasia resulting from lesions in left hemisphere BA 39 and surrounding temporo-parietal cortex regions (N=7), and individuals with the same degree of aphasia severity and semantic impairment and anterior left hemisphere lesions (primarily inferior frontal gyrus and anterior temporal lobe) that spared BA 39 (N=6). The posterior lesion group showed reduced and delayed activation of thematic relations, but not taxonomic relations. In contrast, the anterior lesion group exhibited longer-lasting activation of taxonomic relations and did not differ from control participants in terms of activation of thematic relations. These results suggest that taxonomic and thematic semantic knowledge are functionally and neuroanatomically distinct, with the temporo-parietal cortex playing a particularly important role in thematic semantics. PMID:22571932

  10. Primarily Plants, A Plant Study for K-3. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Evalyn; Mercier, Sheryl

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9. Field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS indicates that this interpretation produces the following beneficial results: (1) mathematics becomes more meaningful, hence more useful; (2) science is…

  11. NASA's UAS [Unmanned Aircraft Systems] Related Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    NASA continues to operate all sizes of UAS in all classes of airspace both domestically and internationally. Missions range from highly complex operations in coordination with piloted aircraft, ground, and space systems in support of science objectives to single aircraft operations in support of aeronautics research. One such example is a scaled commercial transport aircraft being used to study recovery techniques due to large upsets. NASA's efforts to support routine UAS operations continued on several fronts last year. At the national level in the United States (U.S.), NASA continued its support of the UAS Executive Committee (ExCom) comprised of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Defense (DoD), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and NASA. The committee was formed in recognition of the need of UAS operated by these agencies to access to the National Airspace System (NAS) to support operational, training, development and research requirements. Recommendations were received on how to operate both manned and unmanned aircraft in class D airspace and plans are being developed to validate and implement those recommendations. In addition the UAS ExCom has begun developing recommendations for how to achieve routine operations in remote areas as well as for small UAS operations in class G airspace. As well as supporting the UAS ExCom, NASA is a participant in the recently formed Aviation Rule Making Committee for UAS. This committee, established by the FAA, is intended to propose regulatory guidance which would enable routine civil UAS operations. As that effort matures NASA stands ready to supply the necessary technical expertise to help that committee achieve its objectives. By supporting both the UAS ExCom and UAS ARC, NASA is positioned to provide its technical expertise across the full spectrum of UAS airspace access related topic areas. The UAS NAS Access Project got underway this past year under the leadership of NASA s Aeronautics

  12. 45 CFR 650.6 - Awards not primarily for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: Intellectual Property Rights The National Science Foundation claims no rights to any inventions or writings... 650.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... States Code, the Foundation claims no rights to inventions made by fellows or trainees. The...

  13. 45 CFR 650.6 - Awards not primarily for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: Intellectual Property Rights The National Science Foundation claims no rights to any inventions or writings... 650.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... States Code, the Foundation claims no rights to inventions made by fellows or trainees. The...

  14. The role of public relations activities in hospital choice.

    PubMed

    Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Yesiltas, Mehmet; Kisa, Adnan; Dziegielewski, Sophia F

    2007-01-01

    Public relations activities for all organizations can have an important effect on consumer decision-making when buying goods or services. This study examines the effect that public relations activities can have regarding consumer decisions and choice. To explore exemplify this relationship a questionnaire was given to 971 patients within public, university and private hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Study results show that public relations activities were a crucial factor in determining consumer hospital choice. The majority of respondents reported that the behaviors and attitude of personnel as public relations activities that support the hospital's reputation within the public were the primary variables in hospital choice. Health care managers can use these findings to further understand how patients make informed choices related to usage of a health care facility and to develop and/or improve public relations activities.

  15. The role of public relations activities in hospital choice.

    PubMed

    Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Yesiltas, Mehmet; Kisa, Adnan; Dziegielewski, Sophia F

    2007-01-01

    Public relations activities for all organizations can have an important effect on consumer decision-making when buying goods or services. This study examines the effect that public relations activities can have regarding consumer decisions and choice. To explore exemplify this relationship a questionnaire was given to 971 patients within public, university and private hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Study results show that public relations activities were a crucial factor in determining consumer hospital choice. The majority of respondents reported that the behaviors and attitude of personnel as public relations activities that support the hospital's reputation within the public were the primary variables in hospital choice. Health care managers can use these findings to further understand how patients make informed choices related to usage of a health care facility and to develop and/or improve public relations activities. PMID:19042526

  16. Brainstem structures are primarily affected in an experimental model of severe scorpion envenomation.

    PubMed

    Guidine, Patrícia Alves Maia; Cash, Diana; Drumond, Luciana Estefani; de Souza E Rezende, Gustavo Henrique; Massensini, André Ricardo; Williams, Steve Charles Rees; Moraes-Santos, Tasso; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra; Mesquita, Michel Bernanos Soares

    2014-01-01

    Severe scorpion envenoming (SSE) is more frequent in children and is characterized by systemic dysfunctions with a mortality rate of up to 9%. Recent evidence shows that the central nervous system (CNS) plays a key role in triggering the cascade of symptoms present in SSE. The age-dependent role of the CNS in SSE lethality may be summarized in 3 hypotheses: (1) the shown increased blood brain barrier permeability of infants to the toxins would especially and primarily compromise neurovegetative control areas, (2) the neurons within these areas have high affinity to the toxins, and (3) the neurovascular interaction is such that SSE metabolically compromises proper function of toxin-targeted areas. A pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was used to evaluate localized hemodynamic changes in relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) for 30 min after the injection of TsTX, the most lethal toxin from the venom of the Tityus serrulatus scorpion. The brainstem showed significant rCBV reduction 1 min after TsTX administration, whereas rostral brain areas had delayed increase in rCBV (confirmed by laser Doppler measurements of cortical cerebral blood flow). Moreover, metabolic activity by 14C-2-deoxyglucose autoradiography showed the highest relative increase at the brainstem. To test whether TsTX has high affinity to brainstem neurons, the lateral ventricle was injected with Alexa Fluor 568 TsTX. Although some neurons showed intense fluorescence, the labeling pattern suggests that specific neurons were targeted. Altogether, these results suggest that brainstem areas involved in neurovegetative control are most likely within the primary structures triggering the cascade of symptoms present in SSE.

  17. Brainstem structures are primarily affected in an experimental model of severe scorpion envenomation.

    PubMed

    Guidine, Patrícia Alves Maia; Cash, Diana; Drumond, Luciana Estefani; de Souza E Rezende, Gustavo Henrique; Massensini, André Ricardo; Williams, Steve Charles Rees; Moraes-Santos, Tasso; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra; Mesquita, Michel Bernanos Soares

    2014-01-01

    Severe scorpion envenoming (SSE) is more frequent in children and is characterized by systemic dysfunctions with a mortality rate of up to 9%. Recent evidence shows that the central nervous system (CNS) plays a key role in triggering the cascade of symptoms present in SSE. The age-dependent role of the CNS in SSE lethality may be summarized in 3 hypotheses: (1) the shown increased blood brain barrier permeability of infants to the toxins would especially and primarily compromise neurovegetative control areas, (2) the neurons within these areas have high affinity to the toxins, and (3) the neurovascular interaction is such that SSE metabolically compromises proper function of toxin-targeted areas. A pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was used to evaluate localized hemodynamic changes in relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) for 30 min after the injection of TsTX, the most lethal toxin from the venom of the Tityus serrulatus scorpion. The brainstem showed significant rCBV reduction 1 min after TsTX administration, whereas rostral brain areas had delayed increase in rCBV (confirmed by laser Doppler measurements of cortical cerebral blood flow). Moreover, metabolic activity by 14C-2-deoxyglucose autoradiography showed the highest relative increase at the brainstem. To test whether TsTX has high affinity to brainstem neurons, the lateral ventricle was injected with Alexa Fluor 568 TsTX. Although some neurons showed intense fluorescence, the labeling pattern suggests that specific neurons were targeted. Altogether, these results suggest that brainstem areas involved in neurovegetative control are most likely within the primary structures triggering the cascade of symptoms present in SSE. PMID:24105889

  18. The relative roles of climate variations and human activities in vegetation change in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanling; Yang, Yanli; Zhang, Li; Wang, Zhongliang

    Using SPOT-VEGETATION Normal Difference Vegetation Index (SPOT/NDVI) data from 1998 to 2011 and climate data obtained from 223 weather stations in or near North China, vegetation variation characteristics within North China were analyzed. Vegetation variation characteristics under the influence of climate variations and human activities were distinguished through a residual analysis. Based on the results of that analysis, the relative roles of climate variations and human activities in vegetation variation were calculated. The results showed that NDVI observed by remote sensing (SPOT/NDVI) increased from 1998 to 2011. The relative roles of climate variations and human activities in vegetation increase were 30.82% and 69.18%, respectively, indicating that human activities played a major role. And observed NDVI showed an increasing trend for different land cover types overall. While NDVI increase in shrub was mainly caused by climate variations, NDVI increases in forest, grassland, farmland, deserts and urban were all primarily caused by human activities. For areas with increasing vegetation, as identified by remote sensing observations in North China, the relative roles of climate variations and human activities in vegetation change were calculated at 14.85% and 85.15% respectively, again indicating that human activities played an important role in vegetation increase. For areas of decreasing vegetation, as identified by remote sensing observations in North China, the relative roles of climate variations and human activities in vegetation change were calculated at 87.72% and 12.28% respectively, indicating that climate variations had large negative effects on vegetation condition. In addition, the relative roles of climate variations and human activities on vegetation variation have obvious spatial differences in North China. Human activities played a positive role in vegetation growth in North China. However, we cannot ignore the function of human destruction on

  19. Neuroprotective effect of piperine on primarily cultured hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Fu, Min; Sun, Zhao-Hui; Zuo, Huan-Cong

    2010-01-01

    It was previously reported that piperine (PIP) significantly blocks convulsions induced by intracerebroventricular injection of threshold doses of kainate, but had no or only slight effects on convulsions induced by L-glutamate, N-methyl-D-aspartate and guanidinosuccinate. In traditional Chinese medicine, black pepper has been used for epileptic treatment; however, the exact mechanism is still unclear. We reported here in that appropriate concentration of PIP effectively inhibites the synchronized oscillation of intracellular calcium in rat hippocampal neuronal networks and represses spontaneous synaptic activities in terms of spontaneous synaptic currents (SSC) and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSC). Moreover, pretreatment with PIP expects protective effect on glutamate-induced decrease of cell viability and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. These data suggest that the neuroprotective effects of PIP might be associated with suppression of synchronization of neuronal networks, presynaptic glutamic acid release, and Ca(2+) overloading.

  20. Animal Related Activities as Determinants of Species Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randler, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has established a relationship between knowledge and environmental concern. Different factors may contribute to this knowledge and animal-related leisure activities may also contribute to this knowledge. 390 participants in Leipzig, Germany were interviewed to assess their animal-related leisure activities, their demographic status…

  1. 12 CFR 225.123 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.123 Section 225.123 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.123 Activities closely related to banking. (a) Effective June...

  2. 12 CFR 225.123 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.123 Section 225.123 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.123 Activities closely related to banking. (a) Effective June...

  3. 12 CFR 225.131 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.131 Section 225.131 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.131 Activities closely related to banking. (a) Bank...

  4. 12 CFR 225.131 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.131 Section 225.131 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.131 Activities closely related to banking. (a) Bank...

  5. 12 CFR 225.131 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.131 Section 225.131 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.131 Activities closely related to banking. (a)...

  6. 12 CFR 225.123 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.123 Section 225.123 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.123 Activities closely related to banking. (a)...

  7. 12 CFR 225.123 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.123 Section 225.123 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.123 Activities closely related to banking. (a) Effective June...

  8. 12 CFR 225.131 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.131 Section 225.131 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.131 Activities closely related to banking. (a)...

  9. 12 CFR 225.129 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.129 Section 225.129 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.129 Activities closely related to banking....

  10. 12 CFR 225.131 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.131 Section 225.131 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.131 Activities closely related to banking. (a) Bank...

  11. 12 CFR 225.123 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.123 Section 225.123 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.123 Activities closely related to banking. (a)...

  12. 12 CFR 225.129 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.129 Section 225.129 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.129 Activities closely related to banking....

  13. Relation Between Higher Physical Activity and Public Transit Use

    PubMed Central

    Vernez Moudon, Anne; Kang, Bumjoon; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We isolated physical activity attributable to transit use to examine issues of substitution between types of physical activity and potential confounding of transit-related walking with other walking. Methods. Physical activity and transit use data were collected in 2008 to 2009 from 693 Travel Assessment and Community study participants from King County, Washington, equipped with an accelerometer, a portable Global Positioning System, and a 7-day travel log. Physical activity was classified into transit- and non–transit-related walking and nonwalking time. Analyses compared physical activity by type between transit users and nonusers, between less and more frequent transit users, and between transit and nontransit days for transit users. Results. Transit users had more daily overall physical activity and more total walking than did nontransit users but did not differ on either non–transit-related walking or nonwalking physical activity. Most frequent transit users had more walking time than least frequent transit users. Higher physical activity levels for transit users were observed only on transit days, with 14.6 minutes (12.4 minutes when adjusted for demographics) of daily physical activity directly linked with transit use. Conclusions. Because transit use was directly related to higher physical activity, future research should examine whether substantive increases in transit access and use lead to more physical activity and related health improvements. PMID:24625142

  14. Identification of specific activities associated with fall-related injuries, active component, U.S. Army, 2011.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, Veronique D; Schuh, Anna; Taylor, Bonnie J; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Jones, Bruce H

    2016-06-01

    Although falls continue to be a leading mechanism of serious injuries among military populations, interventions must target activities or hazards that can be controlled or managed. This project aimed to identify activities most frequently associated with Army soldier fall-related injuries to prioritize prevention strategies for this substantial health burden. Narrative data from Army safety, medical evacuation, and casualty reporting systems were reviewed to select incidents meeting inclusion criteria and assign established codes. Nondeployed (n=988) and deployed (n=254) injury rates were not statistically different (2.20 per 1,000 non-deployed person-years [p-yrs], 2.21 per 1,000 deployed p-yrs, respectively). More than 75% of injuries were temporarily disabling fractures, sprains, and strains, primarily to lower extremities. The most frequent activities associated with non-deployed fall injuries were sports (e.g., snowboarding and basketball; 22%), parachuting (20%), walking/marching (19%), and climbing (15%). Ice and snow were the leading hazard (43%). The most common associated activities among deployed soldiers were occupational tasks (53%), walking/patrolling (24%), climbing (23%), and sports (17%). Specific interventions that target the activities and hazards identified in this investigation are suggested as priorities to reduce Army fall-related injuries. PMID:27362343

  15. Identification of specific activities associated with fall-related injuries, active component, U.S. Army, 2011.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, Veronique D; Schuh, Anna; Taylor, Bonnie J; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Jones, Bruce H

    2016-06-01

    Although falls continue to be a leading mechanism of serious injuries among military populations, interventions must target activities or hazards that can be controlled or managed. This project aimed to identify activities most frequently associated with Army soldier fall-related injuries to prioritize prevention strategies for this substantial health burden. Narrative data from Army safety, medical evacuation, and casualty reporting systems were reviewed to select incidents meeting inclusion criteria and assign established codes. Nondeployed (n=988) and deployed (n=254) injury rates were not statistically different (2.20 per 1,000 non-deployed person-years [p-yrs], 2.21 per 1,000 deployed p-yrs, respectively). More than 75% of injuries were temporarily disabling fractures, sprains, and strains, primarily to lower extremities. The most frequent activities associated with non-deployed fall injuries were sports (e.g., snowboarding and basketball; 22%), parachuting (20%), walking/marching (19%), and climbing (15%). Ice and snow were the leading hazard (43%). The most common associated activities among deployed soldiers were occupational tasks (53%), walking/patrolling (24%), climbing (23%), and sports (17%). Specific interventions that target the activities and hazards identified in this investigation are suggested as priorities to reduce Army fall-related injuries.

  16. DO QUIESCENT AND ACTIVE GALAXIES HAVE DIFFERENT M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} RELATIONS?

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Jong-Hak; Park, Daeseong; Kang, Wol-Rang; Schulze, Andreas; Kim, Sang Chul; Riechers, Dominik A.

    2013-07-20

    To investigate the validity of the assumption that quiescent galaxies and active galaxies follow the same black hole mass (M{sub BH})-stellar velocity dispersion ({sigma}{sub *}) relation, as required for the calibration of M{sub BH} estimators for broad line active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we determine and compare the M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relations, respectively, for quiescent and active galaxies. For the quiescent galaxy sample, composed of 72 dynamical M{sub BH} measurements, we update {sigma}{sub *} for 28 galaxies using homogeneous H-band measurements that are corrected for galaxy rotation. For active galaxies, we collect 25 reverberation-mapped AGNs and improve {sigma}{sub *} measurement for two objects. Combining the two samples, we determine the virial factor f, first by scaling the active galaxy sample to the M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation of quiescent galaxies, and second by simultaneously fitting the quiescent and active galaxy samples, as f=5.1{sub -1.1}{sup +1.5} and f=5.9{sub -1.5}{sup +2.1}, respectively. The M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation of active galaxies appears to be shallower than that of quiescent galaxies. However, the discrepancy is caused by a difference in the accessible M{sub BH} distribution at given {sigma}{sub *}, primarily due to the difficulty of measuring reliable stellar velocity dispersion for the host galaxies of luminous AGNs. Accounting for the selection effects, we find that active and quiescent galaxies are consistent with following intrinsically the same M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation.

  17. Primarily Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhin, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Describes in detail an art assignment influenced by the book, "Collage Techniques: A Guide for Artists and Illustrators" (Gerald Broomer). Explains that students created mini-collages out of various types of paper, but focused on only three colors. (CMK)

  18. Interactivity and reward-related neural activation during a serious videogame.

    PubMed

    Cole, Steven W; Yoo, Daniel J; Knutson, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether playing a "serious" interactive digital game (IDG)--the Re-Mission videogame for cancer patients--activates mesolimbic neural circuits associated with incentive motivation, and if so, whether such effects stem from the participatory aspects of interactive gameplay, or from the complex sensory/perceptual engagement generated by its dynamic event-stream. Healthy undergraduates were randomized to groups in which they were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) as they either actively played Re-Mission or as they passively observed a gameplay audio-visual stream generated by a yoked active group subject. Onset of interactive game play robustly activated mesolimbic projection regions including the caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens, as well as a subregion of the parahippocampal gyrus. During interactive gameplay, subjects showed extended activation of the thalamus, anterior insula, putamen, and motor-related regions, accompanied by decreased activation in parietal and medial prefrontal cortex. Offset of interactive gameplay activated the anterior insula and anterior cingulate. Between-group comparisons of within-subject contrasts confirmed that mesolimbic activation was significantly more pronounced in the active playgroup than in the passive exposure control group. Individual difference analyses also found the magnitude of parahippocampal activation following gameplay onset to correlate with positive attitudes toward chemotherapy assessed both at the end of the scanning session and at an unannounced one-month follow-up. These findings suggest that IDG-induced activation of reward-related mesolimbic neural circuits stems primarily from participatory engagement in gameplay (interactivity), rather than from the effects of vivid and dynamic sensory stimulation.

  19. Interactivity and Reward-Related Neural Activation during a Serious Videogame

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Steven W.; Yoo, Daniel J.; Knutson, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether playing a “serious” interactive digital game (IDG) – the Re-Mission videogame for cancer patients – activates mesolimbic neural circuits associated with incentive motivation, and if so, whether such effects stem from the participatory aspects of interactive gameplay, or from the complex sensory/perceptual engagement generated by its dynamic event-stream. Healthy undergraduates were randomized to groups in which they were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) as they either actively played Re-Mission or as they passively observed a gameplay audio-visual stream generated by a yoked active group subject. Onset of interactive game play robustly activated mesolimbic projection regions including the caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens, as well as a subregion of the parahippocampal gyrus. During interactive gameplay, subjects showed extended activation of the thalamus, anterior insula, putamen, and motor-related regions, accompanied by decreased activation in parietal and medial prefrontal cortex. Offset of interactive gameplay activated the anterior insula and anterior cingulate. Between-group comparisons of within-subject contrasts confirmed that mesolimbic activation was significantly more pronounced in the active playgroup than in the passive exposure control group. Individual difference analyses also found the magnitude of parahippocampal activation following gameplay onset to correlate with positive attitudes toward chemotherapy assessed both at the end of the scanning session and at an unannounced one-month follow-up. These findings suggest that IDG-induced activation of reward-related mesolimbic neural circuits stems primarily from participatory engagement in gameplay (interactivity), rather than from the effects of vivid and dynamic sensory stimulation. PMID:22442733

  20. Primarily chronic progressive and relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis: two immunogenetically distinct disease entities.

    PubMed Central

    Olerup, O; Hillert, J; Fredrikson, S; Olsson, T; Kam-Hansen, S; Möller, E; Carlsson, B; Wallin, J

    1989-01-01

    HLA class II gene polymorphism was investigated in 100 patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis (MS) by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of Taq I-digested DNA using DRB, DQA, and DQB cDNA probes. Twenty-six patients had primarily chronic progressive MS and 74 had relapsing/remitting MS. The latter group included patients with a secondary progressive evolution of symptoms. Both clinical forms of MS were found to be associated with the DRw15,DQw6 haplotype. In addition, primarily chronic progressive MS was positively associated with the DQB1 restriction fragment pattern seen in DR4,DQw8, DR7,DQw9, and DRw8, DQw4 haplotypes, as well as negatively associated with the Taq I DQB1 allelic pattern corresponding to the serological specificity DQw7. Relapsing/remitting MS was positively associated with the DQB1 allelic pattern observed in the DRw17,DQw2 haplotype. These three DQB1 alleles are in strong negative linkage disequilibria with DRw15. The two susceptibility markers of each clinical form of MS act additively in determining the genetic susceptibility, as the relative risks for individuals carrying both markers roughly equal the sum of respective risks. Different alleles of the DQB1 locus defined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms contribute to susceptibility and resistance to primarily chronic progressive MS as well as to susceptibility to relapsing/remitting MS. The observed immunogenetic heterogeneity between the different clinical forms of MS favors the hypothesis that primarily chronic progressive MS and relapsing/remitting MS are two distinct disease entities. Images PMID:2571150

  1. Jealousy increased by induced relative left frontal cortical activity.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Nicholas J; Eastwick, Paul W; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2015-10-01

    Asymmetric frontal cortical activity may be one key to the process linking social exclusion to jealous feelings. The current research examined the causal role of asymmetric frontal brain activity in modulating jealousy in response to social exclusion. Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) over the frontal cortex to manipulate asymmetric frontal cortical activity was combined with a modified version of the Cyberball paradigm designed to induce jealousy. After receiving 15 min of tDCS, participants were excluded by a desired partner and reported how jealous they felt. Among individuals who were excluded, tDCS to increase relative left frontal cortical activity caused greater levels of self-reported jealousy compared to tDCS to increase relative right frontal cortical activity or sham stimulation. Limitations concerning the specificity of this effect and implications for the role of the asymmetric prefrontal cortical activity in motivated behaviors are discussed. PMID:25844975

  2. Physical Activity among Older People and Related Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Ann; While, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the duration, intensity and type of physical activity undertaken by people aged 60 years and over in relation to their reported levels of participation in social activities and their perceptions of their neighbourhood. Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of older people attending two luncheon and eight social…

  3. The Role of Social Activity in Age-Cognition Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soubelet, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current project was to examine whether engaging in social activity may moderate or mediate the relation between age and cognitive functioning. A large age range sample of adults performed a variety of cognitive tests and completed a social activities questionnaire. Results did not support the moderator hypothesis, as age…

  4. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  5. Behavioral activities of male Cerulean Warblers in relation to habitat characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Petra Bohall; Perkins, Kelly A.

    2012-01-01

    Activities of 29 male Cerulean Warblers (Setophaga cerulea) were quantified on two sites in West Virginia during May–June 2005. Singing and foraging were the most common of 11 observed behavioral activities (81.6%), while maintenance and mating behaviors were uncommonly observed. Male activity differed among vegetative strata (P  =  0.02) with lower- and mid-canopy strata used most often (70% of observations), especially for foraging, perching, and preening. The upper-canopy was used primarily for singing, particularly within core areas of territories and in association with canopy gaps. Foraging occurred more than expected outside of core areas. Males were associated with canopy gaps during 30% of observations, but the distribution of behavioral activities was not significantly related (P  =  0.06) to gap presence. Males used 23 different tree species for a variety of activities with oaks (Quercus spp.) used most often on the xeric site and black cherry (Prunus serotina) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) on the mesic site. Tree species used for singing differed between core and non-core areas (P < 0.0001) but distribution of singing and foraging activity did not differ among tree species (P  =  0.13). Cerulean Warblers appear to be flexible in use of tree species. Their use of different canopy strata for different behavioral activities provides an explanation for the affinity this species exhibits for a vertically stratified forest canopy.

  6. Occupational Employment in Nuclear-Related Activities, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Joe G.; Olsen, Kathryn

    Employment in nuclear- and nuclear energy-related activities in 1981 was examined and compared to that in previous years. Survey instruments were returned by 784 establishments. Total 1981 nuclear-related employment was estimated to be 249,500--a growth of 22,600 (10%) workers over the 1977 total. Government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO)…

  7. Human Relations Education; A Guidebook to Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffalo Public Schools, NY. Human Relations Project of Western New York.

    This guidebook is designed to acquaint teachers with human relations classroom materials, extracurricular activities, and an inservice approach to self-evaluation. A product of an ESEA Title III program, it contains human relations-oriented lessons--divided by grade level and subject matter--intended to supplement or enrich existing curricula and…

  8. Some Aspects of Socialization Through Formal Schooling Relating Primarily to Civic and Moral Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Thomas F.; And Others

    This is the report of a seminar assembled to develop ideas and stimulate interest in the study of the intersection between the social sciences and moral theory with respect to how formal schooling functions in the process of moral and civic education. The report consists essentially in the production of the papers produced for the seminar, in the…

  9. Factors related to physical activity: a study of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vilhjalmsson, R; Thorlindsson, T

    1998-09-01

    Although the consequences of physical activity have been carefully documented, less is known about its correlates, particularly among children and youth. Based on a representative national survey of 1131 Icelandic adolescents, the study examined various physical, psychological, social and demographic factors related to physical activity. Male sex, significant others' involvement in physical activity (father, friend and older brother), sociability, perceived importance of sport and of health improvement and satisfaction with mandatory gym classes in school, were all related to more involvement, whereas hours of paid work and TV-viewing were related to less. Furthermore, the data suggested that the influence of friend's participation in physical activity depends on his or her emotional significance. Influential others appeared to affect males and females in the same way. The meaning of the results and their implications for future research are discussed.

  10. Social power and approach-related neural activity.

    PubMed

    Boksem, Maarten A S; Smolders, Ruud; De Cremer, David

    2012-06-01

    It has been argued that power activates a general tendency to approach whereas powerlessness activates a tendency to inhibit. The assumption is that elevated power involves reward-rich environments, freedom and, as a consequence, triggers an approach-related motivational orientation and attention to rewards. In contrast, reduced power is associated with increased threat, punishment and social constraint and thereby activates inhibition-related motivation. Moreover, approach motivation has been found to be associated with increased relative left-sided frontal brain activity, while withdrawal motivation has been associated with increased right sided activations. We measured EEG activity while subjects engaged in a task priming either high or low social power. Results show that high social power is indeed associated with greater left-frontal brain activity compared to low social power, providing the first neural evidence for the theory that high power is associated with approach-related motivation. We propose a framework accounting for differences in both approach motivation and goal-directed behaviour associated with different levels of power.

  11. Conservation Activities Related to Energy: Energy Activities for Urban Elementary Students, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Joan S.; And Others

    Presented are simple activities, experiments, and demonstrations relating to energy conservation in the home. Activities are divided into four areas: (1) kitchen, (2) house, (3) transportation, and (4) heating and cooling. The material has been designed to require a minimum of preparation. Activity and game masters are provided. Activities may be…

  12. Active relatives and health-related physical fitness in European adolescents: the HELENA Study.

    PubMed

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Martínez-Gómez, David; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Marcos, Ascensión; Béghin, Laurent; Kafatos, Anthony; González-Gross, Marcela; Zaccaria, Maria; Molnár, Dénes; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J

    2012-01-01

    High physical fitness in childhood and adolescence is positively associated with favourable health-related outcomes. Our aim was to examine the relationship between relatives' (father, mother, brother, sister, and best friend) physical activity engagement and encouragement on adolescents' physical fitness. Adolescents were part of the HELENA study, a multi-centre study conducted in 10 cities from nine European countries in 2006-2008. Participants were 3288 adolescents (48% boys, 52% girls) aged 12.5-17.5 years with valid data on at least one of the three fitness variables studied: muscular strength (standing long jump), speed/agility (4×10 m shuttle run), and cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle run). The adolescents reported their relatives' physical activity engagement and encouragement. Analysis of covariance showed that relatives' physical activity engagement (father, mother, brother, and best friend) was positively related to cardiorespiratory fitness (P < 0.05); and mother's and sisters' physical activity engagement were positively associated with higher muscular strength in adolescents (P < 0.05). Furthermore, father's physical activity encouragement was positively linked to physical fitness (all fitness components) in adolescents (P < 0.05). Interventions aimed at improving physical fitness in young people might be more successful when family members, particularly mothers and fathers, are encouraged to engage in physical activity and support adolescents' physical activity.

  13. Diel activity of nymphal Dermacentor occidentalis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) in relation to meteorological factors and host activity periods.

    PubMed

    Lane, R S; Kleinjan, J E; Schoeler, G B

    1995-05-01

    Relation of diel activity and questing behavior of nymphal Dermacentor occidentalis Marx and Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls to meteorological factors was investigated in a shaded versus a sun-exposed outdoor arena. Oak-woodland soil covered partially with leaf litter and small rocks, and 24 vertically oriented grass stems 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 cm tall were provided as substrate and potential questing sites. Tick activity and weather conditions were monitored bihourly during 15 diel (24-h) experiments (D. occidentalis, 8; I. pacificus, 7). In shade, D. occidentalis was active throughout the day, but questing occurred mainly at night and in the morning on grass stems or atop soil when temperatures were cool and relative humidities high. Ticks seemed to prefer to quest at heights between approximately 4 and 10 cm. The time of day and height at which D. occidentalis quested on grass stems coincided with the activity periods and size of its lagomorph and rodent hosts. Low percentages (< or = 15%) of I. pacificus nymphs (n = 100 or 200) were active atop soil or leaf litter at night or sporadically throughout the day, but none ascended grass stems. This finding was reconfirmed by monitoring diurnal behavior of nymphs in an outdoor aquarium having leaf litter as substrate; < or = 4% of 53 ticks were detected on the topmost layer of leaves and, of those, most I. pacificus were situated on the lower versus the upper surfaces of such leaves. Activity of I. pacificus was correlated positively with relative humidity and negatively with soil temperature in one experiment. In the sun-exposed arena, ticks of both species died within 9-11 d as daytime soil-surface temperatures sometimes reached maximums of 73-77 degrees C and relative humidities dropped to 14-24%. In contrast, D. occidentalis and I. pacificus survived for up to 6 and 8 wk, respectively, in the shaded arena. After its introduction into the shaded arena, the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis Baird

  14. Factor H-related proteins determine complement-activating surfaces.

    PubMed

    Józsi, Mihály; Tortajada, Agustin; Uzonyi, Barbara; Goicoechea de Jorge, Elena; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago

    2015-06-01

    Complement factor H-related proteins (FHRs) are strongly associated with different diseases involving complement dysregulation, which suggests a major role for these proteins regulating complement activation. Because FHRs are evolutionarily and structurally related to complement inhibitor factor H (FH), the initial assumption was that the FHRs are also negative complement regulators. Whereas weak complement inhibiting activities were originally reported for these molecules, recent developments indicate that FHRs may enhance complement activation, with important implications for the role of these proteins in health and disease. We review these findings here, and propose that FHRs represent a complex set of surface recognition molecules that, by competing with FH, provide improved discrimination of self and non-self surfaces and play a central role in determining appropriate activation of the complement pathway.

  15. Body-related self-conscious emotions relate to physical activity motivation and behavior in men.

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Andree L; Pila, Eva; Wrosch, Carsten; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride and physical activity motivation and behavior among adult males. Specifically, motivation regulations (external, introjected, indentified, intrinsic) were examined as possible mediators between each of the body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity behavior. A cross-sectional study was conducted with adult men (N = 152; Mage = 23.72, SD = 10.92 years). Participants completed a questionnaire assessing body-related shame, guilt, authentic pride, hubristic pride, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. In separate multiple mediation models, body-related shame was positively associated with external and introjected regulations and negatively correlated with intrinsic regulation. Guilt was positively linked to external, introjected, and identified regulations. Authentic pride was negatively related to external regulation and positively correlated with both identified and intrinsic regulations and directly associated with physical activity behavior. Hubristic pride was positively associated with intrinsic regulation. Overall, there were both direct and indirect effects via motivation regulations between body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity (R(2) shame = .15, guilt = .16, authentic pride = .18, hubristic pride = .16). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding self-conscious emotions contextualized to the body and links to motivation and positive health behavior among men. PMID:24899517

  16. Body-related self-conscious emotions relate to physical activity motivation and behavior in men.

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Andree L; Pila, Eva; Wrosch, Carsten; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride and physical activity motivation and behavior among adult males. Specifically, motivation regulations (external, introjected, indentified, intrinsic) were examined as possible mediators between each of the body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity behavior. A cross-sectional study was conducted with adult men (N = 152; Mage = 23.72, SD = 10.92 years). Participants completed a questionnaire assessing body-related shame, guilt, authentic pride, hubristic pride, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. In separate multiple mediation models, body-related shame was positively associated with external and introjected regulations and negatively correlated with intrinsic regulation. Guilt was positively linked to external, introjected, and identified regulations. Authentic pride was negatively related to external regulation and positively correlated with both identified and intrinsic regulations and directly associated with physical activity behavior. Hubristic pride was positively associated with intrinsic regulation. Overall, there were both direct and indirect effects via motivation regulations between body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity (R(2) shame = .15, guilt = .16, authentic pride = .18, hubristic pride = .16). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding self-conscious emotions contextualized to the body and links to motivation and positive health behavior among men.

  17. State Legislation Related to Increasing Physical Activity: 2006-2012

    PubMed Central

    Eyler, Amy A.; Budd, Elizabeth; Camberos, Gabriela J.; Yan, Yan; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Strategies to improve physical activity prevalence often include policy and environmental changes. State-level policies can be influential in supporting access and opportunities for physical activity in schools and communities. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of state legislation related to physical activity and identify the correlates of enactment of this legislation. Methods An online legislative database was used to collect bills from 50 states in the U.S. from 2006-2012 for ten topics related to physical activity. Bills were coded for content and compiled into a database with state-level variables (e.g., obesity prevalence). With enactment status as the outcome, bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results Of the 1542 bills related to physical activity introduced, 30% (N=460) were enacted. Bills on public transportation and trails were more likely to be enacted than those without these topics. Primary sponsorship by the Republican Party, bipartisan sponsorship, and mention of specific funding amounts were also correlates of enactment. Conclusion Policy surveillance of bills and correlates of enactment are important for understanding patterns in legislative support for physical activity. This information can be used to prioritize advocacy efforts and identify ways for research to better inform policy. PMID:26104603

  18. Psychosocial Variables Related to Why Women are Less Active than Men and Related Health Implications.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Elizabeth Skidmore; Sackett, Sarah Carson

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews psychosocial influences on women's participation in physical activity as they differ from men and how associated activity differences impact women's risk for a number of chronic diseases. This topic directly aligns with the mission of this special edition related to disparities in women's health as the typically lower level of physical activity in females directly impacts their health. On average, females participate in physical activity at lower rates than their male counterparts. These lower rates of physical activity are directly related to both incidence of and outcomes from cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and gynecological cancers. The relationship between psychosocial factors that are understood to affect physical activity differs between men and women. Specifically, self-efficacy, social support, and motivation are empirically substantiated factors that found to impact physical activity participation among women differently than men. Understanding these relationships is integral to designing effective interventions to target physical activity participation in women so that the related health risks are adequately addressed. PMID:27398045

  19. Psychosocial Variables Related to Why Women are Less Active than Men and Related Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Elizabeth Skidmore; Sackett, Sarah Carson

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews psychosocial influences on women’s participation in physical activity as they differ from men and how associated activity differences impact women’s risk for a number of chronic diseases. This topic directly aligns with the mission of this special edition related to disparities in women’s health as the typically lower level of physical activity in females directly impacts their health. On average, females participate in physical activity at lower rates than their male counterparts. These lower rates of physical activity are directly related to both incidence of and outcomes from cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and gynecological cancers. The relationship between psychosocial factors that are understood to affect physical activity differs between men and women. Specifically, self-efficacy, social support, and motivation are empirically substantiated factors that found to impact physical activity participation among women differently than men. Understanding these relationships is integral to designing effective interventions to target physical activity participation in women so that the related health risks are adequately addressed. PMID:27398045

  20. Substrate Activity Screening (SAS) and Related Approaches in Medicinal Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gladysz, Rafaela; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Joossens, Jurgen; Augustyns, Koen; Van der Veken, Pieter

    2016-03-01

    Substrate activity screening (SAS) was presented a decade ago by Ellman and co-workers as a straightforward methodology for the identification of fragment-sized building blocks for enzyme inhibitors. Ever since, SAS and variations derived from it have been successfully applied to the discovery of inhibitors of various families of enzymatically active drug targets. This review covers key achievements and challenges of SAS and related methodologies, including the modified substrate activity screening (MSAS) approach. Special attention is given to the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of these methodologies, as a thorough understanding thereof is crucial for successfully transforming the identified fragment-sized hits into potent inhibitors.

  1. Origins of choice-related activity in mouse somatosensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongdian; Kwon, Sung E.; Severson, Kyle S.; O’Connor, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    During perceptual decisions about faint or ambiguous sensory stimuli, even identical stimuli can produce different choices. Spike trains from sensory cortex neurons can predict trial-to-trial variability in choice. Choice-related spiking is widely studied to link cortical activity to perception, but its origins remain unclear. Using imaging and electrophysiology, we found that mouse primary somatosensory cortex neurons showed robust choice-related activity during a tactile detection task. Spike trains from primary mechanoreceptive neurons did not predict choices about identical stimuli. Spike trains from thalamic relay neurons showed highly transient, weak choice-related activity. Intracellular recordings in cortex revealed a prolonged choice-related depolarization in most neurons that was not accounted for by feedforward thalamic input. Top-down axons projecting from secondary to primary somatosensory cortex signaled choice. An intracellular measure of stimulus sensitivity determined which neurons converted choice-related depolarization into spiking. Our results reveal how choice-related spiking emerges across neural circuits and within single neurons. PMID:26642088

  2. Origins of choice-related activity in mouse somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongdian; Kwon, Sung E; Severson, Kyle S; O'Connor, Daniel H

    2016-01-01

    During perceptual decisions about faint or ambiguous sensory stimuli, even identical stimuli can produce different choices. Spike trains from sensory cortex neurons can predict trial-to-trial variability in choice. Choice-related spiking is widely studied as a way to link cortical activity to perception, but its origins remain unclear. Using imaging and electrophysiology, we found that mouse primary somatosensory cortex neurons showed robust choice-related activity during a tactile detection task. Spike trains from primary mechanoreceptive neurons did not predict choices about identical stimuli. Spike trains from thalamic relay neurons showed highly transient, weak choice-related activity. Intracellular recordings in cortex revealed a prolonged choice-related depolarization in most neurons that was not accounted for by feed-forward thalamic input. Top-down axons projecting from secondary to primary somatosensory cortex signaled choice. An intracellular measure of stimulus sensitivity determined which neurons converted choice-related depolarization into spiking. Our results reveal how choice-related spiking emerges across neural circuits and within single neurons. PMID:26642088

  3. The relation between star formation and active nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, G. H.

    1987-01-01

    Three questions relevant to the relation between an active nucleus and surrounding star formation are discussed. The infrared stellar CO absorption bands can be used to identify galaxies with large populations of young, massive stars and thus can identify strong starburst unambiguously, such as in NGC 6240, and can help identify composite active/starburst systems such as Arp 220. An active nucleus is probably not required for LINER spectral characteristics; dusty starburst galaxies, particularly if they are nearly edge-on, can produce LINER spectra through the shock heating of their interstellar media by supernovae combined with the obscuration of their nuclei in the optical. The Galactic Center would be an ideal laboratory for studying the interaction of starbursts and active nuclei, if both could be demonstrated to occur there. Failure to detect a cusp in the stellar distribution raises questions about the presence of an active nucleus, which should be answered by additional observations in the near future.

  4. Localization of event-related activity by SAM(erf).

    PubMed

    Robinson, S E

    2004-01-01

    Synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM) has been used to image source power or source signal-to-noise ratio from MEG. However, the locations of maximal event-related oscillatory activity (or changes from resting state) do not necessarily coincide with those sites that are phase-locked to external events (i.e., localized by dipole fit to the averaged evoked response). Since an estimate of the source time-series may also be obtained by applying the beamformer coefficients to the MEG signal, one can image event-related activity by mapping some function reflecting the reliability of the averaged source waveform at each location. We have devised a new analysis method, SAM(erf), for obtaining a functional image of event-related brain activity and revealing the corresponding waveforms for activated sites. The mapping function used is the ratio of RMS amplitude of the averaged source waveform to that of the +/- average waveform, for a selected time window. This function is computed at each coordinate on a three-dimensional grid in the head. In addition to the SAM(erf) functional image, the averaged source waveforms for each local maximum in the image can be computed and displayed. This procedure can reveal multiple locations and waveforms at sites in the brain engaged in event-related activities. When this method is applied to evoked response studies, phase-locked activity can sometimes be found in areas distant from primary sensory cortex. Given the sensitivity of this functional imaging method to areas outside primary sensory cortex, it has the potential for detecting subtle changes in brain activity in health and disease. PMID:16012649

  5. Classical Photoreceptors Are Primarily Responsible for the Pupillary Light Reflex in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Varsha; Srivastava, Ipsit; Palchaudhuri, Shriya; Goel, Manvi; Sinha-Mahapatra, Sumit K.; Dhingra, Narender K.

    2016-01-01

    Pupillary light reflex (PLR) is an important clinical tool to assess the integrity of visual pathways. The available evidence suggests that melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) mediate PLR—driven by the classical photoreceptors (rods and cones) at low irradiances and by melanopsin activation at high irradiances. However, genetic or pharmacological elimination of melanopsin does not completely abolish PLR at high irradiances, raising the possibility that classical photoreceptors may have a role even at high irradiances. Using an inducible mouse model of photoreceptor degeneration, we asked whether classical photoreceptors are responsible for PLR at all irradiances, and found that the PLR was severely attenuated at all irradiances. Using multiple approaches, we show that the residual PLR at high irradiances in this mouse was primarily from the remnant rods and cones, with a minor contribution from melanopsin activation. In contrast, in rd1 mouse where classical photoreceptor degeneration occurs during development, the PLR was absent at low irradiances but intact at high irradiances, as reported previously. Since mRGCs receive inputs from classical photoreceptors, we also asked whether developmental loss of classical photoreceptors as in rd1 mouse leads to compensatory takeover of the high-irradiance PLR by mRGCs. Specifically, we looked at a distinct subpopulation of mRGCs that express Brn3b transcription factor, which has been shown to mediate PLR. We found that rd1 mouse had a significantly higher proportion of Brn3b-expressing M1 type of mRGCs than in the inducible model. Interestingly, inducing classical photoreceptor degeneration during development also resulted in a higher proportion of Brn3b-expressing M1 cells and partially rescued PLR at high irradiances. These results suggest that classical photoreceptors are primarily responsible for PLR at all irradiances, while melanopsin activation makes a minor contribution at very high irradiances

  6. Processing of action- but not stimulus-related prediction errors differs between active and observational feedback learning.

    PubMed

    Kobza, Stefan; Bellebaum, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Learning of stimulus-response-outcome associations is driven by outcome prediction errors (PEs). Previous studies have shown larger PE-dependent activity in the striatum for learning from own as compared to observed actions and the following outcomes despite comparable learning rates. We hypothesised that this finding relates primarily to a stronger integration of action and outcome information in active learners. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated brain activations related to action-dependent PEs, reflecting the deviation between action values and obtained outcomes, and action-independent PEs, reflecting the deviation between subjective values of response-preceding cues and obtained outcomes. To this end, 16 active and 15 observational learners engaged in a probabilistic learning card-guessing paradigm. On each trial, active learners saw one out of five cues and pressed either a left or right response button to receive feedback (monetary win or loss). Each observational learner observed exactly those cues, responses and outcomes of one active learner. Learning performance was assessed in active test trials without feedback and did not differ between groups. For both types of PEs, activations were found in the globus pallidus, putamen, cerebellum, and insula in active learners. However, only for action-dependent PEs, activations in these structures and the anterior cingulate were increased in active relative to observational learners. Thus, PE-related activity in the reward system is not generally enhanced in active relative to observational learning but only for action-dependent PEs. For the cerebellum, additional activations were found across groups for cue-related uncertainty, thereby emphasising the cerebellum's role in stimulus-outcome learning.

  7. High Tide, Low Tide. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snively, Gloria

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  8. Changes in music tempo entrain movement related brain activity.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ian; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Roesch, Etienne; Weaver, James; Williams, Duncan; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2014-01-01

    The neural mechanisms of music listening and appreciation are not yet completely understood. Based on the apparent relationship between the beats per minute (tempo) of music and the desire to move (for example feet tapping) induced while listening to that music it is hypothesised that musical tempo may evoke movement related activity in the brain. Participants are instructed to listen, without moving, to a large range of musical pieces spanning a range of styles and tempos during an electroencephalogram (EEG) experiment. Event-related desynchronisation (ERD) in the EEG is observed to correlate significantly with the variance of the tempo of the musical stimuli. This suggests that the dynamics of the beat of the music may induce movement related brain activity in the motor cortex. Furthermore, significant correlations are observed between EEG activity in the alpha band over the motor cortex and the bandpower of the music in the same frequency band over time. This relationship is observed to correlate with the strength of the ERD, suggesting entrainment of motor cortical activity relates to increased ERD strength. PMID:25571015

  9. Overview of EPA activities and research related to black carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this international presentation is to give an overview of EPA activities related to black carbon (BC). This overview includes some summary information on how EPA defines BC, current knowledge on United States emissions and forecasted emission reductions, and ongoin...

  10. Life Cycle of the Salmon. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarabochia, Kathy

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  11. Face Preference in Infancy and Its Relation to Motor Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libertus, Klaus; Needham, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Infants' preference for faces was investigated in a cross-sectional sample of 75 children, aged 3 to 11 months, and 23 adults. A visual preference paradigm was used where pairs of faces and toys were presented side-by-side while eye gaze was recorded. In addition, motor activity was assessed via parent report and the relation between motor…

  12. Beach Profiles and Transects. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Claire

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  13. Marshes, Estuaries and Wetlands. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrett, Andrea

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  14. Energy from the Sea. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Claire

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  15. Changes in music tempo entrain movement related brain activity.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ian; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Roesch, Etienne; Weaver, James; Williams, Duncan; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2014-01-01

    The neural mechanisms of music listening and appreciation are not yet completely understood. Based on the apparent relationship between the beats per minute (tempo) of music and the desire to move (for example feet tapping) induced while listening to that music it is hypothesised that musical tempo may evoke movement related activity in the brain. Participants are instructed to listen, without moving, to a large range of musical pieces spanning a range of styles and tempos during an electroencephalogram (EEG) experiment. Event-related desynchronisation (ERD) in the EEG is observed to correlate significantly with the variance of the tempo of the musical stimuli. This suggests that the dynamics of the beat of the music may induce movement related brain activity in the motor cortex. Furthermore, significant correlations are observed between EEG activity in the alpha band over the motor cortex and the bandpower of the music in the same frequency band over time. This relationship is observed to correlate with the strength of the ERD, suggesting entrainment of motor cortical activity relates to increased ERD strength.

  16. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., attendants, exercise boys, and watchmen employed at the breeding or training farm. On the other hand... horses which have been used in commercial racing and returned to a breeding or training farm for...

  17. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., attendants, exercise boys, and watchmen employed at the breeding or training farm. On the other hand... horses which have been used in commercial racing and returned to a breeding or training farm for...

  18. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., attendants, exercise boys, and watchmen employed at the breeding or training farm. On the other hand... horses which have been used in commercial racing and returned to a breeding or training farm for...

  19. Literature and the Sea. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katahira, Jenifer

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  20. American Poetry and the Sea. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Cecelia; Peterson, Peggy

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  1. Marine Biology Field Trip Sites. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  2. Estimating relative demand for wildlife: Conservation activity indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Gary G.; Larson, Joseph S.

    1982-09-01

    An alternative method of estimating relative demand among nonconsumptive uses of wildlife and among wildlife species is proposed. A demand intensity score (DIS), derived from the relative extent of an individual's involvement in outdoor recreation and conservation activities, is used as a weighting device to adjust the importance of preference rankings for wildlife uses and wildlife species relative to other members of a survey population. These adjusted preference rankings were considered to reflect relative demand levels (RDLs) for wildlife uses and for species by the survey population. This technique may be useful where it is not possible or desirable to estimate demand using traditional economic means. In one of the findings from a survey of municipal conservation commission members in Massachusetts, presented as an illustration of this methodology, poisonous snakes were ranked third in preference among five groups of reptiles. The relative demand level for poisonous snakes, however, was last among the five groups.

  3. The NIMH Research Domain Criteria initiative and error-related brain activity.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Gregory L; Gehring, William J

    2016-03-01

    Research on the neural response to errors has an important role in the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project, since it is likely to link psychopathology to the dysfunction of neural systems underlying basic behavioral functions, with the error-related negativity (ERN) appearing as a unit of measurement in three RDoC domains. A recent report builds on previous research by examining the ERN as a measure of the sustained threat construct and providing evidence that the ERN may reflect sensitivity more specifically to endogenous threat. Data from 515 adolescent females indicate that the ERN was enlarged primarily in older adolescents with self-reported checking behaviors, although it was blunted in adolescents with depressive symptoms regardless of age. Potential future studies for replicating and extending the research on the ERN and obsessive-compulsive (OC) behaviors are discussed, including studies that more fully characterize OC symptom dimensions, studies that integrate other measures of error-related brain activity and use computational modeling, studies that combine longitudinal, family, and molecular genetic measures, and interventional studies that specifically modulate error-related brain activity in individuals with OC behaviors. PMID:26877130

  4. Relations of PC indices to further geophysical activity parameters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) indices, PCN for the index values derived from Thule magnetic data and PCS derived from Vostok data, relate to the polar cap ionospheric plasma convection driven mainly by the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere. Thus, the PC indices serve to monitor the input power from the solar wind which drives a range of geophysical disturbances such as magnetic storms and substorms, energization of the plasma trapped in the Earth's near space, auroral activity, and heating of the upper atmosphere. The presentation will demonstrate the relations between the PC indices and further parameters and indices used to describe geophysical activity such as polar cap potentials, auroral electrojet activity, Joule and particle heating of the upper atmosphere, mid-latitude magnetic variations, and ring current indices Dst, SYM-H and ASY-H.

  5. The relation between self-esteem, sexual activity, and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R B; Frank, D I

    1994-01-01

    This study examined self-esteem in relation to sexual behaviors which often result in teen pregnancy. A sample of 141 male and 172 female adolescents of racial diversity was surveyed to elicit levels of self-esteem, sexual activity, pregnancy and fatherhood status. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory was used as well to elicit qualitative data about self-esteem, demographics, and sexual activity. Analysis revealed no differences in the self-esteem of males vs. females. Further, sexual activity or virginity was not related to self-esteem in either males or females. Pregnant teens did not have different levels of self-esteem from the nonpregnant. However, males who had fathered a child had lower self-esteem than did nonfathers. The findings support a multifocused approach to sex education for pregnancy prevention and also emphasize a need to include males in both pregnancy prevention efforts as well as in further research on teen pregnancy. PMID:8036980

  6. Extraction of Children's Friendship Relation from Activity Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Aki; Shintani, Kimio; Katsuki, Takuya; Kihara, Shin'ya; Ueda, Mari; Kaneda, Shigeo; Haga, Hirohide

    Children learn to fit into society through living in a group, and it's greatly influenced by their friend relations. Although preschool teachers need to observe them to assist in the growth of children's social progress and support the development each child's personality, only experienced teachers can watch over children while providing high-quality guidance. To resolve the problem, this paper proposes a mathematical and objective method that assists teachers with observation. It uses numerical data of activity level recorded by pedometers, and we make tree diagram called dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering with recorded activity level. Also, we calculate children's ``breadth'' and ``depth'' of friend relations by using more than one dendrogram. When we record children's activity level in a certain kindergarten for two months and evaluated the proposed method, the results usually coincide with remarks of teachers about the children.

  7. Pleasure-related analgesia activates opioid-insensitive circuits.

    PubMed

    Kut, Elvan; Candia, Victor; von Overbeck, Jan; Pok, Judit; Fink, Daniel; Folkers, Gerd

    2011-03-16

    Recent findings suggest that pain and pleasure share common neurochemical circuits, and studies in animals and humans show that opioid-mediated descending pathways can inhibit or facilitate pain. We explored the role of endogenous opioid neurotransmission in pleasure-related analgesia. μ-Opioidergic activity was blocked with 0.2 mg/kg naloxone to assess its effects on hedonic responses to pleasant emotional pictures (International Affective Picture System) and its modulating effects on heat pain tolerance. Naloxone did not alter subjective and autonomous reactions to pleasure induction or overall mood of participants. In addition, pleasure-related increases in pain tolerance persisted after reversal of endogenous μ-opioidergic neurotransmission. Subjective pain intensity and unpleasantness ratings increased after naloxone administration. These findings suggest that, in addition to opioid-sensitive circuits, mainly opioid-insensitive pain-modulating circuits are activated during pleasure-related analgesia. PMID:21411655

  8. Response of serotonergic caudal raphe neurons in relation to specific motor activities in freely moving cats.

    PubMed

    Veasey, S C; Fornal, C A; Metzler, C W; Jacobs, B L

    1995-07-01

    Serotonergic neuronal responses during three specific motor activities were studied in nuclei raphe obscurus (NRO) and raphe pallidus (NRP) of freely moving cats by means of extracellular single-unit recordings. Responses to treadmill-induced locomotion were primarily excitatory, with 21 of 24 neurons displaying increased firing rates, directly related to treadmill speed. Individual regression analyses determined three response patterns: maximal activation at low speed (0.25 m/sec), augmentation of neuronal activity only at high treadmill speed (0.77 m/sec), and a linear increase. A smaller fraction of NRO and NRP serotonergic neurons (6 of 27) also responded to hypercarbic ventilatory challenge with increased firing rates. The magnitude of neuronal response was dependent upon the fraction of inspired CO2 and was related to ventilatory motor output, specifically, inspiratory amplitude. A subgroup of neurons responsive to hypercarbia in wakefulness demonstrated significant reductions in neuronal response to hypercarbia in slow-wave sleep. Finally, unit activity for 12 of 29 cells increased in response to spontaneous feeding, displaying two distinct patterns of neuronal response in relation to onset and termination of feeding: rapid activation and deactivation versus a gradual increase and decrease. More than half of the cells studied under all three conditions were responsive to more than one motor task. These results indicate that serotonergic caudal raphe neurons are responsive to specific motor system challenges, with many neurons responsive to multiple motor tasks, and that the responsiveness of serotonergic neurons to at least one motor task, hypercarbic ventilatory challenge, is state dependent.

  9. The origin of word-related motor activity.

    PubMed

    Papeo, Liuba; Lingnau, Angelika; Agosta, Sara; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Battelli, Lorella; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2015-06-01

    Conceptual processing of verbs consistently recruits the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (lpMTG). The left precentral motor cortex also responds to verbs, with higher activity for action than nonaction verbs. The early timing of this effect has suggested that motor features of words' meaning are accessed directly, bypassing access to conceptual representations in lpMTG. An alternative hypothesis is that the retrieval of conceptual representations in lpMTG is necessary to drive more specific, motor-related representations in the precentral gyrus. To test these hypotheses, we first showed that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the verb-preferring lpMTG site selectively impoverished the semantic processing of verbs. In a second experiment, rTMS perturbation of lpMTG, relative to no stimulation (no-rTMS), eliminated the action-nonaction verb distinction in motor activity, as indexed by motor-evoked potentials induced in peripheral muscles with single-pulse TMS over the left primary motor cortex. rTMS pertubation of an occipital control site, relative to no-rTMS, did not affect the action-nonaction verb distinction in motor activity, but the verb contrast did not differ reliably from the lpMTG effect. The results show that lpMTG carries core semantic information necessary to drive the activation of specific (motor) features in the precentral gyrus.

  10. Antiproliferative activity of Saponaria vaccaria constituents and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Balsevich, J John; Ramirez-Erosa, Irving; Hickie, Robert A; Dunlop, Donna M; Bishop, Greg G; Deibert, Leah K

    2012-01-01

    Total methanolic extracts of Saponaria vaccaria seed derived from several varieties, as well as various purified components obtained through successive chromatographic separations of total extracts were evaluated for their growth inhibitory activity in WiDr (colon), MDA-MB-231 (breast), NCI-417 (lung) and PC-3 (prostate) human cancer cells as well as the non-tumorigenic fibroblast BJ (CRL-2522) cell line using MTT colorimetric assay. Purified bisdesmosidic saponins segetoside H and I were further examined using microscopy and apoptosis assays. Bisdesmosidic saponins exhibited dose-dependent growth inhibitory and selective apoptosis-inducing activity. Growth inhibitory effects were particularly strong in a breast (MDA-MB-231) and a prostate (PC-3) cancer cell line. Total extracts exhibited a different preference being most active against a colon cancer cell line (WiDr). In a comparison of varieties, all of the total seed extracts exhibited similar dose-dependent activities, but with some variation in potency. Monodesmosidic saponins vaccarosides A and B, phenolic vaccarin, and cyclopeptide segetalin A, co-occurring seed substituents, did not exhibit activity. The non-tumorigenic fibroblast cell line BJ (CRL 2522) was growth inhibited but did not undergo apoptosis when treated with bisdesmosidic saponins at low micromolar concentrations. Saponin-rich extracts from Kochia scoparia seed and Chenopodium quinoa were also evaluated alongside Saponaria saponins but did not exhibit activity. Closely related Quillaja saponins exhibited activity but were less potent. PMID:22056663

  11. Relative humidity and activity patterns of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, K.A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gonzalez, L.; Mather, T.N.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have shown clear relationships between relative humidity (RH) and the activity and survival of Ixodes scapularis Say (blacklegged tick). However, field studies have produced conflicting results. We examined this relationship using weekly tick count totals and hourly RH observations at three field sites, stratified by latitude, within the state of Rhode Island. Records of nymphal tick abundance were compared with several RH-related variables (e.g., RH at time of sampling and mean weekly daytime RH). In total, 825 nymphs were sampled in 2009, a year of greater precipitation, with a weighted average leaf litter RH recorded at time of sampling of 85.22%. Alternatively, 649 nymphs were collected in 2010, a year of relatively low precipitation, and a weighted average RH recorded at time of sampling was 75.51%. Negative binomial regression analysis of tick count totals identified cumulative hours <82% RH threshold as a significant factor observed in both years (2009: P = 0.0037; 2010: P < 0.0001). Mean weekly daytime RH did not significantly predict tick activity in either year. However, mean weekly daytime RH recorded with 1-wk lag before sample date was a significant variable (P = 0.0016) in 2010. These results suggest a lag effect between moisture availability and patterns of tick activity and abundance. Differences in the relative importance of each RH variable between years may have been due to abnormally wet summer conditions in 2009.

  12. A Survey of Health-Related Activities on Second Life

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Leslie; Wilson, Kumanan; Morra, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Background Increasingly, governments, health care agencies, companies, and private groups have chosen Second Life as part of their Web 2.0 communication strategies. Second Life offers unique design features for disseminating health information, training health professionals, and enabling patient education for both academic and commercial health behavior research. Objectives This study aimed to survey and categorize the range of health-related activities on Second Life; to examine the design attributes of the most innovative and popular sites; and to assess the potential utility of Second Life for the dissemination of health information and for health behavior change. Methods We used three separate search strategies to identify health-related sites on Second Life. The first used the application’s search engine, entering both generic and select illness-specific keywords, to seek out sites. The second identified sites through a comprehensive review of print, blog, and media sources discussing health activities on Second Life. We then visited each site and used a snowball method to identify other health sites until we reached saturation (no new health sites were identified). The content, user experience, and chief purpose of each site were tabulated as well as basic site information, including user traffic data and site size. Results We found a wide range of health-related activities on Second Life, and a diverse group of users, including organizations, groups, and individuals. For many users, Second Life activities are a part of their Web 2.0 communication strategy. The most common type of health-related site in our sample (n = 68) were those whose principle aim was patient education or to increase awareness about health issues. The second most common type of site were support sites, followed by training sites, and marketing sites. Finally, a few sites were purpose-built to conduct research in SL or to recruit participants for real-life research. Conclusions Studies

  13. N170 Changes Show Identifiable Chinese Characters Compete Primarily with Faces Rather than Houses

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Cong; He, Weiqi; He, Huamin; Ren, Guofang; Luo, Yuejia; Li, Hong; Luo, Wenbo

    2016-01-01

    Character processing is a crucial cognitive skill that is highly emphasized and industriously cultivated in contemporary society. In the present study, using a competition paradigm, we examined the electrophysiological correlates of different relationships between Chinese characters and faces and between Chinese characters and houses during early visual processing. We observed that identifiable Chinese characters compete primarily with faces rather than houses at an early visual processing stage, with a significantly reduced N170 for faces but not for houses, when they were viewed concurrently with identifiable characters relative to when they were viewed concurrently with unidentifiable characters. Consistent with our previous study, there was a significant increase in N170 after characters have been learned, indicating a modulatory effect of Chinese character identification level on N170 amplitude. Furthermore, we found an enlarged N170 in response to faces compared to houses, indicating that the neural mechanisms for processing faces and houses are different at an early visual processing stage. PMID:26779073

  14. Online Activity Levels Are Related to Caffeine Dependency.

    PubMed

    Phillips, James G; Landhuis, C Erik; Shepherd, Daniel; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2016-05-01

    Online activity could serve in the future as behavioral markers of emotional states for computer systems (i.e., affective computing). Hence, this study considered relationships between self-reported stimulant use and online study patterns. Sixty-two undergraduate psychology students estimated their daily caffeine use, and this was related to study patterns as tracked by their use of a Learning Management System (Blackboard). Caffeine dependency was associated with less time spent online, lower rates of file access, and fewer online activities completed. Reduced breadth or depth of processing during work/study could be used as a behavioral marker of stimulant use. PMID:27096737

  15. 15 CFR 908.11 - Maintenance of records of related activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS MAINTAINING RECORDS AND SUBMITTING REPORTS ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES § 908.11 Maintenance of records of related activities. (a) Persons whose activities relate to weather modification activities, other than persons engaged in weather modification activities, shall maintain records...

  16. 15 CFR 908.11 - Maintenance of records of related activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS MAINTAINING RECORDS AND SUBMITTING REPORTS ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES § 908.11 Maintenance of records of related activities. (a) Persons whose activities relate to weather modification activities, other than persons engaged in weather modification activities, shall maintain records...

  17. Age-related changes in neuromuscular function of the quadriceps muscle in physically active adults.

    PubMed

    Mau-Moeller, Anett; Behrens, Martin; Lindner, Tobias; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven

    2013-06-01

    Substantial evidence exists for the age-related decline in maximal strength and strength development. Despite the importance of knee extensor strength for physical function and mobility in the elderly, studies focusing on the underlying neuromuscular mechanisms of the quadriceps muscle weakness are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the contributions of age-related neural and muscular changes in the quadriceps muscle to decreases in isometric maximal voluntary torque (iMVT) and explosive voluntary strength. The interpolated twitch technique and normalized surface electromyography (EMG) signal during iMVT were analyzed to assess changes in neural drive to the muscles of 15 young and 15 elderly volunteers. The maximal rate of torque development as well as rate of torque development, impulse and neuromuscular activation in the early phase of contraction were determined. Spinal excitability was estimated using the H reflex technique. Changes at the muscle level were evaluated by analyzing the contractile properties and lean mass. The age-related decrease in iMVT was accompanied by a decline in voluntary activation and normalized surface EMG amplitude. Mechanical parameters of explosive voluntary strength were reduced while the corresponding muscle activation remained primarily unchanged. The spinal excitability of the vastus medialis was not different while M wave latency was longer. Contractile properties and lean mass were reduced. In conclusion, the age-related decline in iMVT of the quadriceps muscle might be due to a reduced neural drive and changes in skeletal muscle properties. The decrease in explosive voluntary strength seemed to be more affected by muscular than by neural changes. PMID:23453325

  18. Relation of School Environment and Policy to Adolescent Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Nefertiti; Harris, Sion K.; Doyle, Stephanie; Person, Sharina; Saelens, Brian E.; Kerr, Jacqueline; Norman, Gregory J.; Sallis, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) declines as children and adolescents age. The purpose of this study was to examine how specific school factors relate to youth PA, TV viewing, and body mass index (BMI). Methods: A sample of 12- to 18-year-old adolescents in 3 cities (N = 165, 53% females, mean age 14.6 [plus or minus] 1.7 years, 44% nonwhite)…

  19. Activity cliffs and activity cliff generators based on chemotype-related activity landscapes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Villanueva, Jaime; Méndez-Lucio, Oscar; Soria-Arteche, Olivia; Medina-Franco, José L

    2015-11-01

    Activity cliffs have large impact in drug discovery; therefore, their detection and quantification are of major importance. This work introduces the metric activity cliff enrichment factor and expands the previously reported activity cliff generator concept by adding chemotype information to representations of the activity landscape. To exemplify these concepts, three molecular databases with multiple biological activities were characterized. Compounds in each database were grouped into chemotype classes. Then, pairwise comparisons of structure similarities and activity differences were calculated for each compound and used to construct chemotype-based structure-activity similarity (SAS) maps. Different landscape distributions among four major regions of the SAS maps were observed for different subsets of molecules grouped in chemotypes. Based on this observation, the activity cliff enrichment factor was calculated to numerically detect chemotypes enriched in activity cliffs. Several chemotype classes were detected having major proportion of activity cliffs than the entire database. In addition, some chemotype classes comprising compounds with smooth structure activity relationships (SAR) were detected. Finally, the activity cliff generator concept was applied to compounds grouped in chemotypes to extract valuable SAR information.

  20. Age related alterations of adrenoreceptor activity in erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Lomsadze, G; Khetsuriani, R; Arabuli, M; Intskirveli, N; Sanikidze, T

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the study was the investigation of age-related functional alterations of adrenoreceptors and the effect of agonist and antagonist drugs on age related adrenoreceptor activity in erythrocyte membrane. The impact of isopropanol and propanol on functional activity β- adrenergic receptors in red blood cell membrane were studied in 50 practically healthy men--volunteers. (I group--75-89 years old, II group--22-30 years old). The EPR signals S1 and S2 were registered in red blood cell membrane samples after incubation with isopropanol and propanol respectively. It was found that decreasing sensitivity (functional activity) of red blood cells membrane adrenoreceptors comes with aging (S1oldrelated hypertension, heart failure, type II diabetes and other diseases, The findings suggests that the erythrocyte could be a new therapeutic marker in the treatment different diseases.

  1. Exercising self-control increases relative left frontal cortical activation.

    PubMed

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Crowell, Adrienne; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-02-01

    Self-control refers to the capacity to override or alter a predominant response tendency. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, as revealed by patterns of electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex. Participants completed a writing task that did vs did not require them to exercise self-control. Then they viewed pictures known to evoke positive, negative or neutral affect. We assessed electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants viewed the pictures, and participants reported their trait levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity at the end of the study. We found that exercising (vs not exercising) self-control increased relative left frontal cortical activity during picture viewing, particularly among individuals with relatively higher BAS than BIS, and particularly during positive picture viewing. A similar but weaker pattern emerged during negative picture viewing. The results suggest that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, which may help to explain the aftereffects of self-control (i.e. ego depletion).

  2. Sports practice is related to parasympathetic activity in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cayres, Suziane Ungari; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Rodrigues, Aristides Machado; Coelho e Silva, Manuel João; Codogno, Jamile Sanches; Barbosa, Maurício Fregonesi; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship among sports practice, physical education class, habitual physical activity and cardiovascular risk in adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 120 schoolchildren (mean: 11.7±0.7 years old), with no regular use of medicines. Sports practice and physical education classes were assessed through face-to-face interview, while habitual physical activity was assessed by pedometers. Bodyweight, height and height-cephalic trunk were used to estimate maturation. The following variables were measured: body fatness, blood pressure, resting heart rate, blood flow velocity, intima-media thickness (carotid and femoral) and heart rate variability (mean between consecutive heartbeats and statistical index in the time domain that show the autonomic parasympathetic nervous system activity root-mean by the square of differences between adjacent normal R-R intervals in a time interval). Statistical treatment used Spearman correlation adjusted by sex, ethnicity, age, body fatness and maturation. RESULTS: Independently of potential confounders, sports practice was positively related to autonomic parasympathetic nervous system activity (β=0.039 [0.01; 0.76]). On the other hand, the relationship between sport practice and mean between consecutive heartbeats (β=0,031 [-0.01; 0.07]) was significantly mediated by biological maturation. CONCLUSIONS: Sport practice was related to higher heart rate variability at rest. PMID:25887927

  3. Self-Capacitating Activities of Mothers' Clubs of Primarily Indigenous Membership in Bolivia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felty, Amelia Smith

    A case study was conducted of the organized, cooperative efforts of women in six communities in Bolivia. From December 1978 through January 1988, visits were made to women's organizations called "mothers' clubs." Effects of club membership on members, their families, and their communities were examined. A research review showed that: (1) women can…

  4. Children's Perceptions of Mood-Related Activities: Development of the Pleasant and Unpleasant Activities Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wierzbicki, Michael

    P. M. Lewinsohn has theorized that depression is related to the amount of positive reinforcement that an individual receives. Lewinsohn has supported this model in adults by showing that depression is correlated with an increase in unpleasant activities and a decrease in pleasant activities. This study extended Lewinsohn's model by developing…

  5. The Necessity of Public Relations for Sustainable Mining Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunbock; Ji, Sangwoo

    2015-04-01

    other hand, in the survey to determine what the greatest difficulties of the current mining activities, 54% of mining companies chose environmental regulations, 26% of mining companies chose conflicts between mine area residents and mining companies. Environmental regulations are may defined as the greatest difficulty of current mining activities. But most of environmental regulation's problems are caused by frictions with residents, because all of South Korean mines are very close to villages. So, the biggest difficulty of mining activities can be defined conflicts between residents and mining companies. Moreover, general people in South Korea including some mining engineers recognize the mining industry as a declined and pollution industry. Without clear understanding of mining activities, any mine developments and policies related to mining activities cannot be made by rational discussions. And, if their recognition is not formed in a rational way, it will be turned to extreme fear or blind hatred. Therefore, to understand mining activities correctly, the effective public relations strategy is necessary such as corporate advertisements or public advertisements.

  6. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori

  7. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-08-14

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori

  8. Mental addition in bilinguals: an FMRI study of task-related and performance-related activation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jo-Fu Lotus; Imada, Toshiaki; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2012-08-01

    Behavioral studies show that bilinguals are slower and less accurate when performing mental calculation in their nondominant (second; L2) language than in their dominant (first; L1) language. However, little is known about the neural correlates associated with the performance differences observed between bilinguals' 2 languages during arithmetic processing. To address the cortical activation differences between languages, the current study examined task-related and performance-related brain activation during mental addition when problems were presented auditorily in participants' L1 and L2. Eleven Chinese-English bilinguals heard 2-digit addition problems that required exact or approximate calculations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results showed that auditorily presented multidigit addition in bilinguals activates bilateral inferior parietal and inferior frontal regions in both L1 and L2. Language differences were observed in the form of greater activation for L2 exact addition in the left inferior frontal area. A negative correlation between brain activation and behavioral performance during mental addition in L2 was observed in the left inferior parietal area. Current results provide further evidence for the effects of language-specific experience on arithmetic processing in bilinguals at the cortical level.

  9. Neighborhood Crime-Related Safety and Its Relation to Children's Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Kneeshaw-Price, Stephanie H; Saelens, Brian E; Sallis, James F; Frank, Lawrence D; Grembowski, David E; Hannon, Peggy A; Smith, Nicholas L; Chan, K C Gary

    2015-06-01

    Crime is both a societal safety and public health issue. Examining different measures and aspects of crime-related safety and their correlations may provide insight into the unclear relationship between crime and children's physical activity. We evaluated five neighborhood crime-related safety measures to determine how they were interrelated. We then explored which crime-related safety measures were associated with children's total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and MVPA in their neighborhoods. Significant positive correlations between observed neighborhood incivilities and parents' perceptions of general crime and disorder were found (r = 0.30, p = 0.0002), as were associations between parents' perceptions of general crime and disorder and perceptions of stranger danger (r = 0.30, p = 0.0002). Parent report of prior crime victimization in their neighborhood was associated with observed neighborhood incivilities (r = 0.22, p = 0.007) and their perceptions of both stranger danger (r = 0.24, p = 0.003) and general crime and disorder (r = 0.37, p < 0.0001). After accounting for covariates, police-reported crime within the census block group in which children lived was associated with less physical activity, both total and in their neighborhood (beta = -0.09, p = 0.005, beta = -0.01, p = 0.02, respectively). Neighborhood-active children living in the lowest crime-quartile neighborhoods based on police reports had 40 min more of total MVPA on average compared to neighborhood-active children living in the highest crime-quartile neighborhoods. Findings suggest that police reports of neighborhood crime may be contributing to lower children's physical activity.

  10. Relation Between Myocardial Infarction Deaths and Solar Activity in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Sandoval, R.

    2002-05-01

    We study the daily incidence of myocardial infarction deaths in Mexico for 4 years (1996-99) with a total of 129 917 cases in all the country, collected at the General Directorate of Epidemiology (National Ministry of Health). We divided the cases by sex and age and perform two kinds of analysis. First, we did an spectral analysis using the Maximum Entropy Method, considering the complete period, and minimum and maximum epochs of solar activity. The results show that the most persistent periodicity at higher frequencies in the myocardial infarction death occurrence is that of seven days. Considering the solar cycle phases, we found that during solar minimum times some frequencies are not detectable compared with solar maximum epochs, particularly that of seven days. Biological rhythms close to seven days, the circaseptans, are in general thought to be only the result of the social organization of life. However, this cannot be the only explanation, because the 7-days periodicity has been encountered in lower organisms not related with our rhythms of life. Thus, it has been proposed that biological rhythms could be evolutionary adaptations to environmental conditions, particularly, solar activity. In the second analysis we compared two solar activity-related phenomena: the Forbush decreases of cosmic rays and the geomagnetic index Ap for various levels of geomagnetic perturbations. The results show that during decreases of cosmic ray fluxes, for most cases there is a higher average myocardial infarction deaths occurrence, compared with the average incidence in days of no decreases. For geomagnetic activity we find the same situation in most cases. Furthermore, this behavior is more pronounced as the level of the perturbation increases and in times of maximum solar activity.

  11. Activation of multiple mitogen-activated protein kinases by recombinant calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, N; Disa, J; Spielman, W S; Brooks, D P; Nambi, P; Aiyar, N

    2000-02-18

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide is a 37-amino-acid neuropeptide and a potent vasodilator. Although calcitonin gene-related peptide has been shown to have a number of effects in a variety of systems, the mechanisms of action and the intracellular signaling pathways, especially the regulation of mitogen-activated protien kinase (MAPK) pathway, is not known. In the present study we investigated the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the regulation of MAPKs in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells stably transfected with a recombinant porcine calcitonin gene-related peptide-1 receptor. Calcitonin gene-related peptide caused a significant dose-dependent increase in cAMP response and the effect was inhibited by calcitonin gene-related peptide(8-37), the calcitonin gene-related peptide-receptor antagonist. Calcitonin gene-related peptide also caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38 MAPK) activities, with apparently no significant change in cjun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity. Forskolin, a direct activator of adenylyl cyclase also stimulated ERK and P38 activities in these cells suggesting the invovement of cAMP in this process. Calcitonin gene-related peptide-stimulated ERK and P38 MAPK activities were inhibited significantly by calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist, calcitonin gene-related peptide-(8-37) suggesting the involvement of calcitonin gene-related peptide-1 receptor. Preincubation of the cells with the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, H89 [¿N-[2-((p-bromocinnamyl)amino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide, hydrochloride¿] inhibited calcitonin gene-related peptide-mediated activation of ERK and p38 kinases. On the other hand, preincubation of the cells with wortmannin ¿[1S-(1alpha,6balpha,9abeta,11alpha, 11bbeta)]-11-(acetyloxy)-1,6b,7,8,9a,10,11, 11b-octahydro-1-(methoxymethyl)-9a,11b-dimethyl-3H-furo[4,3, 2-de]indeno[4,5-h]-2

  12. Error-Related Activity and Correlates of Grammatical Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Doug J.; Indefrey, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive control involves not only the ability to manage competing task demands, but also the ability to adapt task performance during learning. This study investigated how violation-, response-, and feedback-related electrophysiological (EEG) activity changes over time during language learning. Twenty-two Dutch learners of German classified short prepositional phrases presented serially as text. The phrases were initially presented without feedback during a pre-test phase, and then with feedback in a training phase on two separate days spaced 1 week apart. The stimuli included grammatically correct phrases, as well as grammatical violations of gender and declension. Without feedback, participants’ classification was near chance and did not improve over trials. During training with feedback, behavioral classification improved and violation responses appeared to both types of violation in the form of a P600. Feedback-related negative and positive components were also present from the first day of training. The results show changes in the electrophysiological responses in concert with improving behavioral discrimination, suggesting that the activity is related to grammar learning. PMID:21960979

  13. Physical activity behavior and related characteristics of highly-active 8th grade girls

    PubMed Central

    Taverno Ross, Sharon E.; Dowda, Marsha; Beets, Michael W.; Pate, Russell R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose While girls are generally less physically active than boys, some girls regularly engage in high levels of physical activity (PA); however, very little is known about these girls and how they differ from those who are less physically active. This study examined the PA behavior and related characteristics of highly-active adolescent girls and compared them with those who are less active. Methods Data from 1,866 8th grade girls from 6 field centers across the U.S. participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) were included in the present analysis. Mixed model ANOVAs examined differences in sociodemographic, anthropometric, psychosocial, and physical activity (accelerometry and self-report) variables between high- and low-active girls; effect sizes were calculated for the differences. Results High-active girls were taller, had lower BMIs and body fat, and were less sedentary. High-active girls scored higher on self-efficacy, enjoyment of PA, self-management strategies, outcome-expectancy value, and support from family and friends than low-active girls. Low-active girls participated in more leisure-time and educational sedentary activities than high-active girls. High-active girls participated in more PA classes/lessons outside of school, team sports, and individual sports. They were also more likely to participate in sports in an organized setting in the community or at school than low-active girls. Conclusions Health promotion efforts should focus on decreasing the amount of time girls spend in sedentary activities and replacing that time with organized PA opportunities; such efforts should seek to minimize perceived barriers and increase self-efficacy and support for PA. PMID:23384978

  14. Active turbulence in active nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thampi, S. P.; Yeomans, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    Dense, active systems show active turbulence, a state characterised by flow fields that are chaotic, with continually changing velocity jets and swirls. Here we review our current understanding of active turbulence. The development is primarily based on the theory and simulations of active liquid crystals, but with accompanying summaries of related literature.

  15. [Relation between physical activity, weight balance and breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Maître, Carole

    2013-05-01

    Many epidemiologic studies, with a good methodology, support the evidence of the positive role of regular physical activity on primary and tertiary prevention of breast cancer on the risk of recurrence and mortality. This relation depends on the level of total energy expenditure by week, which helps balance weight on lifetime, an essential part of benefit. The beneficial effects of physical activity are linked to many interrelated additional mechanisms: in a short-term, contraction of skeletal muscles involves aerobic metabolism which utilizes glucose and amino acids like glutamine, improves insulin sensitivity and lowers plasma insulin; in a long-term, physical activity produces favorable changes in body composition, decreasing body fat and increasing lean mass. That is a key point to reduce the intake of energy substrates stimulating carcinogenesis, to improve insulin sensitivity, to change the ratio of leptin and adiponectin, to enhance cellular immunity and to block cellular pathways of cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Maintaining a healthy weight through regular physical activity well balanced with energy intake is it a goal for prevention of breast cancer. PMID:23566614

  16. Simulating Activities: Relating Motives, Deliberation and Attentive Coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Activities are located behaviors, taking time, conceived as socially meaningful, and usually involving interaction with tools and the environment. In modeling human cognition as a form of problem solving (goal-directed search and operator sequencing), cognitive science researchers have not adequately studied "off-task" activities (e.g., waiting), non-intellectual motives (e.g., hunger), sustaining a goal state (e.g., playful interaction), and coupled perceptual-motor dynamics (e.g., following someone). These aspects of human behavior have been considered in bits and pieces in past research, identified as scripts, human factors, behavior settings, ensemble, flow experience, and situated action. More broadly, activity theory provides a comprehensive framework relating motives, goals, and operations. This paper ties these ideas together, using examples from work life in a Canadian High Arctic research station. The emphasis is on simulating human behavior as it naturally occurs, such that "working" is understood as an aspect of living. The result is a synthesis of previously unrelated analytic perspectives and a broader appreciation of the nature of human cognition. Simulating activities in this comprehensive way is useful for understanding work practice, promoting learning, and designing better tools, including human-robot systems.

  17. 2-Phenylaminonaphthoquinones and related compounds: synthesis, trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Sieveking, Ivan; Thomas, Pablo; Estévez, Juan C; Quiñones, Natalia; Cuéllar, Mauricio A; Villena, Juan; Espinosa-Bustos, Christian; Fierro, Angélica; Tapia, Ricardo A; Maya, Juan D; López-Muñoz, Rodrigo; Cassels, Bruce K; Estévez, Ramon J; Salas, Cristian O

    2014-09-01

    A series of new 2-aminonaphthoquinones and related compounds were synthesized and evaluated in vitro as trypanocidal and cytotoxic agents. Some tested compounds inhibited epimastigote growth and trypomastigote viability. Several compounds showed similar or higher activity and selectivity as compared with current trypanocidal drug, nifurtimox. Compound 4l exhibit higher selectivity than nifurtimox against Trypanosoma cruzi in comparison with Vero cells. Some of the synthesized quinones were tested against cancer cells and normal fibroblasts, showing that certain chemical modifications on the naphthoquinone moiety induce and excellent increase the selectivity index of the cytotoxicity (4g and 10). The results presented here show that the anti-T. cruzi activity of 2-aminonaphthoquinones derivatives can be improved by the replacement of the benzene ring by a pyridine moiety. Interestingly, the presence of a chlorine atom at C-3 and a highly lipophilic alkyl group or aromatic ring are newly observed elements that should lead to the discovery of more selective cytotoxic and trypanocidal compounds.

  18. Relation of tropical cyclone structure with thundersorm activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevtsov, B. M.; Permyakov, M. S.; Potalova, E. Yu.; Cherneva, N. V.; Holzworth, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Synoptic and mesoscale cyclone systems over an ocean and seas are often accompanied by thunderstorm activity, which intensity and spatial distribution are modulated by the dynamic structure of these systems. The paper considers a method connecting the parameters of this thunderstorm activity with weather system structures over oceans and seas with mesoscale formation intensities and forms in these systems determined by driving wind vortex fields of scatterometers and by satellite images in visible and infrared ranges. On the example of separate tropical cyclones (TC) of 2005-2013, the relation of lightning discharge frequency and density in the TC area of influence and spatial distribution of driving wind vortex is shown. The work was supported by the Russian-American Grant RUG1-7084-PA- 13 in the area of fundamental researches of FEB RAS and CRDF.

  19. Rocket effluent - Its ice nucleation activity and related properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parungo, F. P.; Allee, P. A.

    1978-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of inadvertent weather modification from rocket effluent, aerosol samples were collected from an instrumented aircraft subsequent to the Voyager I and II launches. The aerosol's morphology, concentration and size distribution were examined with an electron microscope. The elemental compositions of individual particles were analyzed with an X-ray energy spectrometer. Ice nucleus concentration was measured with a subfreezing thermal diffusion chamber. The particles' physical and chemical properties were related to their ice nucleation activity. A laboratory experiment on rocket propellant exhaust was conducted under controlled conditions. Both laboratory and field experimental results indicated that rocket propellant exhaust can produce active ice nuclei. Their consequences for potential inadvertant weather modification demand additional study.

  20. Rocket effluent: Its ice nucleation activity and related properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parungo, F. P.; Allee, P. A.

    1978-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of inadvertent weather modification from rocket effluent, aerosol samples were collected from an instrumented aircraft subsequent to the Voyager 1 and 2 launches. The aerosol's morphology, concentration, and size distribution were examined with an electron microscope. The elemental compositions of individual particles were analyzed with an X-ray energy spectrometer. Ice nucleus concentration was measured with a thermal diffusion chamber. The particles' physical and chemical properties were related to their ice nucleation activity. A laboratory experiment on rocket propellant exhaust was conducted under controlled conditions. Both laboratory and field experimental results indicated that rocket propellant exhaust can produce active ice nuclei and modify local weather in suitable meteorological conditions.

  1. Thyroid cancer incidence in relation to volcanic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Arnbjoernsson, E.A.; Arnbjoernsson, A.O.; Olafsson, A.

    1986-01-01

    Environmental or genetic factors are sought to explain the high incidence of thyroid cancer in Iceland. At present, it is impossible to cite any environmental factor, particularly one related to the volcanic activity in the country, which could explain the high incidence of thyroid cancer in Iceland. However, the thyroid gland in Icelanders is very small due to the high intake of iodine from seafood. It is, therefore, easier for physicians to find thyroid tumors. Furthermore, genetic factors are very likely to be of great importance in the small, isolated island of Iceland.

  2. The Chromospheric Activity-Age Relation for M Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestri, N. M.; Oswalt, T. D.; Hawley, S. L.

    2000-12-01

    We present preliminary results from our study in which we use moderate resolution spectroscopy to determine the correlation between the chromospheric activity and age of M dwarf stars in wide binary systems. We have observed ~50 M dwarf stars from our sample with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-m telescope. We measure the ratio of Hα luminosity to the bolometric luminosity (LHα /Lbol) of the M dwarf---a measure of activity that is proven to correlate well with age. This project is unique in that it will extend the chromospheric activity-age relation of low-mass main sequence stars beyond the ages provided by cluster methods. The ages so determined are also independent of the uncertainties in cluster age determinations. The technique has the potential to improve by at least a factor of two the precision and the range over which ages can currently be determined for main sequence stars. Work on this project is supported by the NASA Graduate Student Researchers Program grant NGT-50290 (N.M.S.).

  3. Identification of a novel CoA synthase isoform, which is primarily expressed in Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Nemazanyy, Ivan . E-mail: nemazanyy@imbg.org.ua; Panasyuk, Ganna; Breus, Oksana; Zhyvoloup, Alexander; Filonenko, Valeriy; Gout, Ivan T. . E-mail: i.gout@ucl.ac.uk

    2006-03-24

    CoA and its derivatives Acetyl-CoA and Acyl-CoA are important players in cellular metabolism and signal transduction. CoA synthase is a bifunctional enzyme which mediates the final stages of CoA biosynthesis. In previous studies, we have reported molecular cloning, biochemical characterization, and subcellular localization of CoA synthase (CoASy). Here, we describe the existence of a novel CoA synthase isoform, which is the product of alternative splicing and possesses a 29aa extension at the N-terminus. We termed it CoASy {beta} and originally identified CoA synthase, CoASy {alpha}. The transcript specific for CoASy {beta} was identified by electronic screening and by RT-PCR analysis of various rat tissues. The existence of this novel isoform was further confirmed by immunoblot analysis with antibodies directed to the N-terminal peptide of CoASy {beta}. In contrast to CoASy {alpha}, which shows ubiquitous expression, CoASy {beta} is primarily expressed in Brain. Using confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that both isoforms are localized on mitochondria. The N-terminal extension does not affect the activity of CoA synthase, but possesses a proline-rich sequence which can bring the enzyme into complexes with signalling proteins containing SH3 or WW domains. The role of this novel isoform in CoA biosynthesis, especially in Brain, requires further elucidation.

  4. Titanium nanotubes activate genes related to bone formation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pozio, Alfonso; Palmieri, Annalisa; Girardi, Ambra; Cura, Francesca; Carinci, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background: Titanium is used worldwide to make osseointegrable devices, thanks to its favorable characteristics as mechanical proprieties and biocompatibility, demonstrated by in vivo studies with animal models and clinical trials over a forty-year period. However, the exact genetic effect of the titanium layer on cells is still not well characterized. Materials and Methods: To investigate how titanium nanotubes stimulate osteoblasts differentiation and proliferation, some osteoblast genes (SP7, RUNX2, COL3A1, COL1A1, ALPL, SPP1 and FOSL1) were analyzed by quantitative Real Time RT- PCR. Results: After 15 days, osteoblasts cultivated on titanium naotube showed the up-regulation of bone related genes SP7, ENG, FOSL1 and SPP1 and the down-regulation of RUNX2, COL3A1, COL1A1, and ALPL. After 30 days of treatment, the bone related genes SP7, ENG, FOSL1 and RUNX2 were up-regulated while COL3A1, COL1A1, ALPL and SPP1 were down-regulated. Conclusions: Our results, demonstrates that titanium nanotubes can lead to osteoblast differentiation and extracellular matrix deposition and mineralization in dental pulp stem cells by the activation of osteoblast related genes SPP1, FOSL1 and RUNX2. PMID:23814577

  5. The development and characterization of a primarily mineral calcium phosphate - poly(epsilon-caprolactone) biocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkley, Ian Robert

    Orthopaedic reconstruction often involves the surgical introduction of structural implants that provide for rigid fixation, skeletal stabilization, and bone integration. The high stresses incurred by these implanted devices have historically limited material choices to metallic and select polymeric formulations. While mechanical requirements are achieved, these non-degradable materials do not participate actively in the remodeling of the skeleton and present the possibility of long-term failure or rejection. This is particularly relevant in cervical fusion, an orthopaedic procedure to treat damaged, degenerative or diseased intervertebral discs. A significant improvement on the available synthetic bone replacement/regeneration options for implants to treat these conditions in the cervical spine may be achieved with the development of primarily mineral biocomposites comprised of a bioactive ceramic matrix reinforced with a biodegradable polymer. Such a biocomposite may be engineered to possess the clinically required mechanical properties of a particular application, while maintaining the ability to be remodeled completely by the body. A biocomposite of Si-doped calcium phosphate (Si-CaP) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) was developed for application as such a synthetic bone material for potential use as a fusion device in the cervical spine. In this thesis, a method by which high mineral content Si-CaP/PCL biocomposites with interpenetrating matrices of mineral and polymer phases may be prepared will be demonstrated, in addition to the effects of the various preparation parameters on the biocomposite density, porosity and mechanical properties. This new technique by which dense, primarily ceramic Si-CaP/PCL biocomposites were prepared, allowed for the incorporation of mineral contents ranging between 45-97vol%. Polymer infiltration, accomplished solely by passive capillary uptake over several days, was found to be capable of fully infiltrating the microporosity

  6. Efficient transfection of DNA into primarily cultured rat sertoli cells by electroporation.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuping; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Okada, Keisuke; Matsushita, Kei; Enatsu, Noritoshi; Chiba, Koji; Yue, Huanxun; Fujisawa, Masato

    2013-03-01

    The expression of exogenous DNA in Sertoli cells is essential for studying its functional genomics, pathway analysis, and medical applications. Electroporation is a valuable tool for nucleic acid delivery, even in primarily cultured cells, which are considered difficult to transfect. In this study, we developed an optimized protocol for electroporation-based transfection of Sertoli cells and compared its efficiency with conventional lipofection. Sertoli cells were transfected with pCMV-GFP plasmid by square-wave electroporation under different conditions. After transfection of plasmid into Sertoli cells, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression could be easily detected by fluorescent microscopy, and cell survival was evaluated by dye exclusion assay using Trypan blue. In terms of both cell survival and the percentage expressing EGFP, 250 V was determined to produce the greatest number of transiently transfected cells. Keeping the voltage constant (250 V), relatively high cell survival (76.5% ± 3.4%) and transfection efficiency (30.6% ± 5.6%) were observed with a pulse length of 20 μm. The number of pulses significantly affected cell survival and EGFP expression (P < 0.001). Cell survival clearly decreased following one to three pulses, from 83.9% ± 6.1% to 3.2% ± 1.1%, with EGFP expression increasing from 41.8% ± 9.4% to 66.7% ± 5.2%. The yield of positive cells increased with increasing concentration of plasmid DNA (range, 10-50 μg/ml), from 14.0% ± 2.8% to 35.0% ± 6.3%, but cell viability steadily decreased following 20 μg/ml plasmid DNA, from 73.1% ± 4.9% to 57.0% ± 6.6%. Compared with two popular cationic lipid transfection methods, the transfection efficiency of electroporation (21.5% ± 5.7%) was significantly higher than those of Lipofectamine 2000 (2.9% ± 1.0%) and Effectene (1.9% ± 0.8%) in this experiment (P < 0.001). We describe the process of optimizing electroporation conditions, and the successful electroporation of plasmid

  7. Effect of peroxisomicine and related anthracenones on catalase activity.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Sepúlveda, M; Vargas-Zapata, R; Esquivel-Escobedo, D; Waksman de Torres, N; Piñeyro-López, A

    1995-08-01

    Dimeric anthracenones were isolated from toxic plants of the genus Karwinskia (Rhamnaceae). T 514 or peroxisomicine A1 is one of these toxic compounds which produces an irreversible and selective damage on the peroxisomes of yeast cells in vivo. In this paper we now report the inhibitory effect in vitro of peroxisomicine A1 and other structurally related anthracenones on liver catalase activity. The peroxisomicine A1 produces a non-competitive inhibition with respect to H2O2 on bovine, dog, and mouse liver catalases. In the three cases Vmax was decreased whereas Km was unaffected. Other dimeric anthracenones of natural origin were also found to be inhibitors of bovine liver catalase. There is a relationship between structure and degree of inhibition of all anthracenonic compounds tested. Peroxisomicine A1 and peroxisomicine A2 caused the highest degree of inhibition (IC50 = 3.34 and 3.64 microM, respectively). PMID:7480181

  8. Working Memory-Related Neural Activity Predicts Future Smoking Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Loughead, James; Wileyto, E Paul; Ruparel, Kosha; Falcone, Mary; Hopson, Ryan; Gur, Ruben; Lerman, Caryn

    2015-01-01

    Brief abstinence from smoking impairs cognition, particularly executive function, and this has a role in relapse to smoking. This study examined whether working memory-related brain activity predicts subsequent smoking relapse above and beyond standard clinical and behavioral measures. Eighty treatment-seeking smokers completed two functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions (smoking satiety vs 24 h abstinence challenge) during performance of a visual N-back task. Brief counseling and a short-term quit attempt followed. Relapse during the first 7 days was biochemically confirmed by the presence of the nicotine metabolite cotinine. Mean percent blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal change was extracted from a priori regions of interest: bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial frontal/cingulate gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Signal from these brain regions and additional clinical measures were used to model outcome status, which was then validated with resampling techniques. Relapse to smoking was predicted by increased withdrawal symptoms, decreased left DLPFC and increased PCC BOLD percent signal change (abstinence vs smoking satiety). Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated 81% area under the curve using these predictors, a significant improvement over the model with clinical variables only. The combination of abstinence-induced decreases in left DLPFC activation and reduced suppression of PCC may be a prognostic marker for poor outcome, specifically early smoking relapse. PMID:25469682

  9. 2-Phenylaminonaphthoquinones and related compounds: synthesis, trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Sieveking, Ivan; Thomas, Pablo; Estévez, Juan C; Quiñones, Natalia; Cuéllar, Mauricio A; Villena, Juan; Espinosa-Bustos, Christian; Fierro, Angélica; Tapia, Ricardo A; Maya, Juan D; López-Muñoz, Rodrigo; Cassels, Bruce K; Estévez, Ramon J; Salas, Cristian O

    2014-09-01

    A series of new 2-aminonaphthoquinones and related compounds were synthesized and evaluated in vitro as trypanocidal and cytotoxic agents. Some tested compounds inhibited epimastigote growth and trypomastigote viability. Several compounds showed similar or higher activity and selectivity as compared with current trypanocidal drug, nifurtimox. Compound 4l exhibit higher selectivity than nifurtimox against Trypanosoma cruzi in comparison with Vero cells. Some of the synthesized quinones were tested against cancer cells and normal fibroblasts, showing that certain chemical modifications on the naphthoquinone moiety induce and excellent increase the selectivity index of the cytotoxicity (4g and 10). The results presented here show that the anti-T. cruzi activity of 2-aminonaphthoquinones derivatives can be improved by the replacement of the benzene ring by a pyridine moiety. Interestingly, the presence of a chlorine atom at C-3 and a highly lipophilic alkyl group or aromatic ring are newly observed elements that should lead to the discovery of more selective cytotoxic and trypanocidal compounds. PMID:25127463

  10. Rhythmic brain activities related to singing in humans.

    PubMed

    Gunji, Atsuko; Ishii, Ryouhei; Chau, Wilkin; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Pantev, Christo

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the motor control related to sound production, we studied cortical rhythmic changes during continuous vocalization such as singing. Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) responses were recorded while subjects spoke in the usual way (speaking), sang (singing), hummed (humming) and imagined (imagining) a popular song. The power of alpha (8-15 Hz), beta (15-30 Hz) and low-gamma (30-60 Hz) frequency bands was changed during and after vocalization (singing, speaking and humming). In the alpha band, the oscillatory changes for singing were most pronounced in the right premotor, bilateral sensorimotor, right secondary somatosensory and bilateral superior parietal areas. The beta oscillation for the singing was also confirmed in the premotor, primary and secondary sensorimotor and superior parietal areas in the left and right hemispheres where were partly activated even for imagined a song (imaging). These regions have been traditionally described as vocalization-related sites. The cortical rhythmic changes were distinct in the singing condition compared with the other vocalizing conditions (speaking and humming) and thus we considered that more concentrated control of the vocal tract, diaphragm and abdominal muscles is responsible. Furthermore, characteristic oscillation in the high-gamma (60-200 Hz) frequency band was found in Broca's area only in the imaging condition and might occur singing rehearsal and storage process in Broca's area.

  11. Physical activity related information sources predict physical activity behaviors in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Johnson, Steven T; Karunamuni, Nandini; Boule, Normand G

    2010-12-01

    Physical activity (PA) is a key management strategy for type 2 diabetes. Despite the known benefits, PA levels are low. Whether the low level of PA is related to lack of knowledge or support is not fully understood. This study was conducted to describe where and how often adults with type 2 diabetes receive and seek information related to PA and examine the relationships between the source and quality of PA information with PA behaviors. A series of questions related to the source and quality of PA information were added to a baseline survey distributed to the participants (N = 244) of the Canadian Aerobic and Resistance Training in Diabetes (CARED) study. Physicians and television were found to be the main sources of PA-related information. In our cross-sectional model, sources of PA-related information other than that from health care professionals explained 14% (p = .05) and 16% (p < .05) of the variance for aerobic-based and resistance training behaviors and 22% (p < .01) and 15% (p < .05) for these behaviors in our longitudinal model. Physical activity (PA)-related information is widely available to adults with type 2 diabetes. Neither the quantity nor the quality of the PA information provided by health care professionals predicted PA behavior. These data provide further insight into the modes with which PA can be promoted to adults with type 2 diabetes. PMID:21170787

  12. [From surveillance to work-related accident prevention: the contribution of the ergonomics of the activity].

    PubMed

    Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de; Mendes, Renata Wey Berti

    2012-10-01

    Work-related accidents are complex phenomena determined by the work organization process, the dimensions of which are usually invisible to surveillance agents. The scope of this paper was a case study based on documentary evidence to analyze and compare the success of an intervention conducted at a meat processing and packaging factory, by focusing on checking health and safety norms in 1997, and incorporating ergonomic concepts in 2008. In 1997, surveillance actions focused primarily on visible risk factors. Despite fulfilling sanitation requirements, the company still had an annual accident rate of 26% in 2008, which motivated the search for a new approach. In 2008, it was seen that accidents were caused by a vicious cycle involving intense work, technical inadequacy, absenteeism and high turnover (84%) that led the company to recruit inexperienced workers. This scenario was aggravated by authoritarian management practices. The ergonomics of the activity contributed to the understanding of organizational causes -thus superseding the normative aspects of traditional surveillance - which revealed the importance of ensuring that surveillance actions for prevention are more effective. PMID:23099767

  13. Relative earthquake location for remote offshore and tectonically active continental regions using surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, M.; Ammon, C. J.; Vandemark, T. F.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake locations are a fundamental parameter necessary for reliable seismic monitoring and seismic event characterization. Within dense continental seismic networks, event locations can be accurately and precisely estimated. However, for many regions of interest, existing catalog data and traditional location methods provide neither accurate nor precise hypocenters. In particular, for isolated continental and offshore areas, seismic event locations are estimated primarily using distant observations, often resulting in inaccurate and imprecise locations. The use of larger, moderate-size events is critical to the construction of useful travel-time corrections in regions of strong geologic heterogeneity. Double difference methods applied to cross-correlation measured Rayleigh and Love wave time shifts are an effective tool at providing improved epicentroid locations and relative origin-time shifts in these regions. Previous studies have applied correlation of R1 and G1 waveforms to moderate-magnitude vertical strike-slip transform-fault and normal faulting earthquakes from nearby ridges. In this study, we explore the utility of phase-match filtering techniques applied to surface waves to improve cross-correlation measurements, particularly for smaller magnitude seismic events. We also investigate the challenges associated with applying surface-wave location methods to shallow earthquakes in tectonically active continental regions.

  14. [From surveillance to work-related accident prevention: the contribution of the ergonomics of the activity].

    PubMed

    Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de; Mendes, Renata Wey Berti

    2012-10-01

    Work-related accidents are complex phenomena determined by the work organization process, the dimensions of which are usually invisible to surveillance agents. The scope of this paper was a case study based on documentary evidence to analyze and compare the success of an intervention conducted at a meat processing and packaging factory, by focusing on checking health and safety norms in 1997, and incorporating ergonomic concepts in 2008. In 1997, surveillance actions focused primarily on visible risk factors. Despite fulfilling sanitation requirements, the company still had an annual accident rate of 26% in 2008, which motivated the search for a new approach. In 2008, it was seen that accidents were caused by a vicious cycle involving intense work, technical inadequacy, absenteeism and high turnover (84%) that led the company to recruit inexperienced workers. This scenario was aggravated by authoritarian management practices. The ergonomics of the activity contributed to the understanding of organizational causes -thus superseding the normative aspects of traditional surveillance - which revealed the importance of ensuring that surveillance actions for prevention are more effective.

  15. Analysis of supercooling activity of tannin-related polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Chikako; Wang, Donghui; Endoh, Keita; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2013-08-01

    Based on the discovery of novel supercooling-promoting hydrolyzable gallotannins from deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) in Katsura tree (see Wang et al. (2012) [38]), supercooling capability of a wide variety of tannin-related polyphenols (TRPs) was examined in order to find more effective supercooling-promoting substances for their applications. The TRPs examined were single compounds including six kinds of hydrolyzable tannins, 11 kinds of catechin derivatives, two kinds of structural analogs of catechin and six kinds of phenolcarboxylic acid derivatives, 11 kinds of polyphenol mixtures and five kinds of crude plant tannin extracts. The effects of these TRPs on freezing were examined by droplet freezing assays using various solutions containing different kinds of identified ice nucleators such as the ice nucleation bacterium (INB) Erwinia ananas, the INB Xanthomonas campestris, silver iodide and phloroglucinol as well as a solution containing only unintentionally included unidentified airborne ice nucleators. Among the 41 kinds of TRPs examined, all of the hydrolyzable tannins, catechin derivatives, polyphenol mixtures and crude plant tannin extracts as well as a few structural analogs of catechin and phenolcarboxylic acid derivatives exhibited supercooling-promoting activity (SCA) with significant differences (p>0.05) from at least one of the solutions containing different kinds of ice nucleators. It should be noted that there were no TRPs exhibiting ice nucleation-enhancing activity (INA) in all solutions containing identified ice nucleators, whereas there were many TRPs exhibiting INA with significant differences in solutions containing unidentified ice nucleators alone. An emulsion freezing assay confirmed that these TRPs did not essentially affect homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures. It is thought that not only SCA but also INA in the TRPs are produced by interactions with heterogeneous ice nucleators, not by direct interaction with water

  16. Analysis of supercooling activity of tannin-related polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Chikako; Wang, Donghui; Endoh, Keita; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2013-08-01

    Based on the discovery of novel supercooling-promoting hydrolyzable gallotannins from deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) in Katsura tree (see Wang et al. (2012) [38]), supercooling capability of a wide variety of tannin-related polyphenols (TRPs) was examined in order to find more effective supercooling-promoting substances for their applications. The TRPs examined were single compounds including six kinds of hydrolyzable tannins, 11 kinds of catechin derivatives, two kinds of structural analogs of catechin and six kinds of phenolcarboxylic acid derivatives, 11 kinds of polyphenol mixtures and five kinds of crude plant tannin extracts. The effects of these TRPs on freezing were examined by droplet freezing assays using various solutions containing different kinds of identified ice nucleators such as the ice nucleation bacterium (INB) Erwinia ananas, the INB Xanthomonas campestris, silver iodide and phloroglucinol as well as a solution containing only unintentionally included unidentified airborne ice nucleators. Among the 41 kinds of TRPs examined, all of the hydrolyzable tannins, catechin derivatives, polyphenol mixtures and crude plant tannin extracts as well as a few structural analogs of catechin and phenolcarboxylic acid derivatives exhibited supercooling-promoting activity (SCA) with significant differences (p>0.05) from at least one of the solutions containing different kinds of ice nucleators. It should be noted that there were no TRPs exhibiting ice nucleation-enhancing activity (INA) in all solutions containing identified ice nucleators, whereas there were many TRPs exhibiting INA with significant differences in solutions containing unidentified ice nucleators alone. An emulsion freezing assay confirmed that these TRPs did not essentially affect homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures. It is thought that not only SCA but also INA in the TRPs are produced by interactions with heterogeneous ice nucleators, not by direct interaction with water

  17. Species sorting and seasonal dynamics primarily shape bacterial communities in the Upper Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    Staley, Christopher; Gould, Trevor J; Wang, Ping; Phillips, Jane; Cotner, James B; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Bacterial community structure (BCS) in freshwater ecosystems varies seasonally and due to physicochemical gradients, but metacommunity structure of a major river remains understudied. Here we characterize the BCS along the Mississippi River and contributing rivers in Minnesota over three years using Illumina next-generation sequencing, to determine how changes in environmental conditions as well as inputs from surrounding land and confluences impacted community structure. Contributions of sediment to water microbial diversity were also evaluated. Long-term variation in community membership was observed, and significant shifts in relative abundances of major freshwater taxa, including α-Proteobacteria, Burkholderiales, and Actinomycetales, were observed due to temporal and spatial variations. Environmental parameters (e.g. temperature, rainfall, and nutrient concentrations) primarily contributed to differences in phyla abundances (88% of variance), with minimal influence from spatial distance alone (<1% of variance). Furthermore, an annually-recurrent BCS was observed in late summer, further suggesting that seasonal dynamics strongly influence community composition. Sediment communities differed from those in the water, but contributed up to 50% to community composition in the water column. Among water sampling sites, 34% showed significant variability in BCS of replicate samples indicating variability among riverine communities due to heterogeneity in the water column. Results of this study highlight the need for a better understanding of spatial and temporal variations in riverine bacterial diversity associated with physicochemical gradients and reveal how communities in sediments, and potentially other environmental reservoirs, impact waterborne BCS. Techniques used in this study may prove useful to determine sources of microbes from sediments and soils to waterways, which will facilitate best management practices and total maximum daily load determinations.

  18. Antifungal activity of tautomycin and related compounds against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaolong; Zhu, Xiaohui; Ding, Yicheng; Shen, Yinchu

    2011-08-01

    The potential of tautomycin to control oilseed rape stem rot was investigated in this paper. Tautomycin produced by Streptomyces spiroverticillatus strongly inhibited Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which causes oilseed rape stem rot. Tautomycin showed great inhibition of the mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates. The values of EC(50) and MIC were 3.26 × 10(-4) mM and 6.52 × 10(-4) mM, respectively. Tautomycin treatment also resulted in morphological abnormalities of S. sclerotiorum such as hyphal swellings and abnormally branched shapes, which were observed microscopically. Sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum soaked in the tautomycin solution for 24 h remained viable, but their ability to undergo myceliogenic germination on PDA plates was completely inhibited when the concentration of tautomycin reached 6.52 × 10(-4) mM. Tautomycin-treated oilseed rape leaves were found to have a low incidence of leaf blight caused by S. sclerotiorum. The activity of the protein phosphatase (PP) in S. sclerotiorum decreased by 41.6% and 52.6% when treated with 3.30 × 10(-4) mM and 6.52 × 10(-4) mM tautomycin, respectively. Cellular constituents also leaked from S. sclerotiorum cells incubated with tautomycin. The results suggest that the antimicrobial activity of tautomycin is due to the inhibition of the PP and then a change of membrane permeability. This paper also investigated related compounds that possess either a maleic anhydride or maleic acid moiety. Results showed 2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride, diphenylmaleic anhydride and dimethyl maleate demonstrated significant activity against S. sclerotiorum. The values of EC(50) for these three compounds were 0.31 mM, 0.15 mM and 3.99 mM, respectively. The MIC values obtained for these compounds were 1.11 mM, 0.56 mM and 9.58 mM, respectively.

  19. Antifungal activity of tautomycin and related compounds against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaolong; Zhu, Xiaohui; Ding, Yicheng; Shen, Yinchu

    2011-08-01

    The potential of tautomycin to control oilseed rape stem rot was investigated in this paper. Tautomycin produced by Streptomyces spiroverticillatus strongly inhibited Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which causes oilseed rape stem rot. Tautomycin showed great inhibition of the mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates. The values of EC(50) and MIC were 3.26 × 10(-4) mM and 6.52 × 10(-4) mM, respectively. Tautomycin treatment also resulted in morphological abnormalities of S. sclerotiorum such as hyphal swellings and abnormally branched shapes, which were observed microscopically. Sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum soaked in the tautomycin solution for 24 h remained viable, but their ability to undergo myceliogenic germination on PDA plates was completely inhibited when the concentration of tautomycin reached 6.52 × 10(-4) mM. Tautomycin-treated oilseed rape leaves were found to have a low incidence of leaf blight caused by S. sclerotiorum. The activity of the protein phosphatase (PP) in S. sclerotiorum decreased by 41.6% and 52.6% when treated with 3.30 × 10(-4) mM and 6.52 × 10(-4) mM tautomycin, respectively. Cellular constituents also leaked from S. sclerotiorum cells incubated with tautomycin. The results suggest that the antimicrobial activity of tautomycin is due to the inhibition of the PP and then a change of membrane permeability. This paper also investigated related compounds that possess either a maleic anhydride or maleic acid moiety. Results showed 2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride, diphenylmaleic anhydride and dimethyl maleate demonstrated significant activity against S. sclerotiorum. The values of EC(50) for these three compounds were 0.31 mM, 0.15 mM and 3.99 mM, respectively. The MIC values obtained for these compounds were 1.11 mM, 0.56 mM and 9.58 mM, respectively. PMID:21772304

  20. Physical activity and health related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research on the relationship between Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and physical activity (PA), to date, have rarely investigated how this relationship differ across objective and subjective measures of PA. The aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between HRQoL and PA, and examine how this relationship differs across objective and subjective measures of PA, within the context of a large representative national survey from England. Methods Using a sample of 5,537 adults (40–60 years) from a representative national survey in England (Health Survey for England 2008), Tobit regressions with upper censoring was employed to model the association between HRQoL and objective, and subjective measures of PA controlling for potential confounders. We tested the robustness of this relationship across specific types of PA. HRQoL was assessed using the summary measure of health state utility value derived from the EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) whilst PA was assessed via subjective measure (questionnaire) and objective measure (accelerometer- actigraph model GT1M). The actigraph was worn (at the waist) for 7 days (during waking hours) by a randomly selected sub-sample of the HSE 2008 respondents (4,507 adults – 16 plus years), with a valid day constituting 10 hours. Analysis was conducted in 2010. Results Findings suggest that higher levels of PA are associated with better HRQoL (regression coefficient: 0.026 to 0.072). This relationship is consistent across different measures and types of PA although differences in the magnitude of HRQoL benefit associated with objective and subjective (regression coefficient: 0.047) measures of PA are noticeable, with the former measure being associated with a relatively better HRQoL (regression coefficient: 0.072). Conclusion Higher levels of PA are associated with better HRQoL. Using an objective measure of PA compared with subjective shows a relatively better HRQoL. PMID:22871153

  1. Error-related electrocorticographic activity in humans during continuous movements.

    PubMed

    Milekovic, Tomislav; Ball, Tonio; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Aertsen, Ad; Mehring, Carsten

    2012-04-01

    Brain-machine interface (BMI) devices make errors in decoding. Detecting these errors online from neuronal activity can improve BMI performance by modifying the decoding algorithm and by correcting the errors made. Here, we study the neuronal correlates of two different types of errors which can both be employed in BMI: (i) the execution error, due to inaccurate decoding of the subjects' movement intention; (ii) the outcome error, due to not achieving the goal of the movement. We demonstrate that, in electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings from the surface of the human brain, strong error-related neural responses (ERNRs) for both types of errors can be observed. ERNRs were present in the low and high frequency components of the ECoG signals, with both signal components carrying partially independent information. Moreover, the observed ERNRs can be used to discriminate between error types, with high accuracy (≥83%) obtained already from single electrode signals. We found ERNRs in multiple cortical areas, including motor and somatosensory cortex. As the motor cortex is the primary target area for recording control signals for a BMI, an adaptive motor BMI utilizing these error signals may not require additional electrode implants in other brain areas.

  2. Overview of SRF-related Activities at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Reece

    2001-09-01

    SRF-related activities at JLab are varied and increasing. Operation of CEBAF at 5.7 GeV for nuclear physics is now routine. There has been significant progress in the development and testing of components and subsystems for a new cryomodule design for coming upgrades of the JLab CEBAF and FEL. Construction of the first such module has begun, and further optimization studies continue. Jefferson Lab joined the collaboration to build the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). JLab will contribute 81 cavities in 23 SNS cryomodules. Prototyping of the beta. 0.61 and 0.81 cavities is nearing completion. Development and testing of the high-power coaxial input coupler for SNS is underway. Fresh efforts have been initiated to pursue improved understanding and control of SRF surfaces. JLab has led discussions and development of modern low-level rf controls tailored for power-efficient operation of high-gradient SRF cavities in lightly-beamloaded, cw applications. To support these efforts, major upgrades and renovations to the JLab SRF facilities and information infrastructures are underway. The lab has recognized the importance of SRF to future developments in the accelerator community by the creation of the new Institute for SRF Science and Technology.

  3. Activities of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and related peptides at the CGRP receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Maton, P.N.; Pradhan, T.; Zhou, Z.C.; Gardner, J.D.; Jensen, R.T. )

    1990-05-01

    In guinea pig pancreatic acini rat calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) increased amylase release 2-fold, salmon calcitonin had an efficacy of only 44% of that of CGRP and (Tyr0)CGRP(28-37) and human calcitonin had no actions. (Tyr0)CGRP(28-37), but not human calcitonin, antagonized the actions of CGRP in pancreatic acini with an IC50 of 3 microM. (Tyr0)CGRP(28-37) produced a parallel rightward shift in the dose-response curve for CGRP-stimulated amylase secretion. The inhibition was specific for CGRP and was reversible. Studies with 125I-CGRP demonstrated that CGRP, salmon calcitonin and (Tyr0)CGRP, but not human calcitonin, interacted with CGRP receptors on pancreatic acini. These results indicate that various CGRP-related peptides demonstrate different relationships between their abilities to occupy the CGRP receptor and to affect biologic activity, with CGRP itself being a full agonist, salmon calcitonin a partial agonist, (Tyr0)CGRP(28-37) a competitive antagonist, and human calcitonin having no actions.

  4. Survey of trace elements in coals and coal-related materials by neutron activation analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruch, R.R.; Cahill, R.A.; Frost, J.K.; Camp, L.R.; Gluskoter, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    Utilizing primarily instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and other analytical methods as many as 61 elements were quantitatively surveyed in 170 U.S. whole coals, 70 washed coals, and 40 bench samples. Data on areal and vertical distributions in various regions were obtained along with extensive information on the mode of occurrence of various elements in the coal matrix itself. ?? 1977 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  5. Dimethyl sulfide in the Baltic Sea: Annual variability in relation to biological activity

    SciTech Connect

    Leck, C.; Larsson, U.; Bagander, L.E.; Johansson, S.; Hajdu, S. )

    1990-03-15

    The in situ variation of dimethyl sulfide (CH{sub 3}SCH{sub 3}, DMS) at a fixed station in a coastal area of the Baltic Sea has been studied for a period of time (January 1987 to June 1988) covering the annual biological cycle. DMS in the surface waters of the brackish Baltic Sea showed a clear seasonal variation, ranging from 2 to 200 ng S/l. Lowest concentrations were in winter, peak values followed the spring bloom, and a pronounced maximum was found during the summer. Concentrations above low winter levels occurred only when the trophogenic layer was depleted of inorganic nitrogen. From data it is clear that the seasonal variation in DMS concentration is related to biological activity. However, the authors did not find any correlations between DMS concentration and gross parameters such as chlorophyll a, total phytoplankton biomass, or primary production on an annual basis. Further, they were not able to relate high DMS concentrations to any particular phytoplankton species or species assemblages. It appears that DMS production is primarily associated with phytoplankton growth under nitrogen-limited conditions and not with certain species. The authors found a significant correlation of ambient DMS concentration with copepod and total zooplankton biomass, suggesting zooplankton grazing pressure as the major factor responsible for the liberation of {beta}-dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) from phytoplankton cells and thus for the DMS production. The turnover time of DMS in the water column was calculated to be of the order of 2 days, and the most effective sink process seems to be microbiological and/or chemical origin.

  6. Activity-related redistribution of presynaptic proteins at the active zone.

    PubMed

    Tao-Cheng, J-H

    2006-09-01

    Immunogold labeling distributions of seven presynaptic proteins were quantitatively analyzed under control conditions and after high K+ depolarization in excitatory synapses from dissociated rat hippocampal cultures. Three parallel zones in presynaptic terminals were sampled: zones I and II, each about one synaptic vesicle wide extending from the active zone; and zone III, containing a distal pool of vesicles up to 200 nm from the presynaptic membrane. The distributions of SV2 and synaptophysin, two synaptic vesicle integral membrane proteins, generally followed the distribution of synaptic vesicles, which were typically evenly distributed under control conditions and had a notable depletion in zone III after stimulation. Labels of synapsin I and synuclein, two synaptic vesicle-associated proteins, were similar to each other; both were particularly sparse in zone I under control conditions but showed a prominent enrichment toward the active zone, after stimulation. Labels of Bassoon, Piccolo and RIM 1, three active zone proteins, had very different distribution profiles from one another under control conditions. Bassoon was enriched in zone II, Piccolo and RIM 1 in zone I. After stimulation, Bassoon and Piccolo remained relatively unchanged, but RIM 1 redistributed with a significant decrease in zone I, and increases in zones II and III. These results demonstrate that Bassoon and Piccolo are stable components of the active zone while RIM 1, synapsin I and synuclein undergo dynamic redistribution with synaptic activity.

  7. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the

  8. Novel cycloundecapeptides related to gramicidin S with both high antibiotic activity and low hemolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Makoto; Takanashi, Kazumasa; Harada, Takuji; Fujinuma, Kenta; Shindo, Mitsuno; Kimura, Masahiro; Uchida, Yoshiki

    2011-01-01

    To find candidates with high antimicrobial and low hemolytic activities, many gramicidin S (GS) analogs of various ring sizes have been designed and synthesized. However, syntheses of antimicrobially active analogues of GS having a disordered symmetry structure from C(2) have almost never been reported, because the stable, amphiphilic β-sheet structure of GS with C(2) symmetry is considered essential for its strong antibacterial activity. In the present studies, novel thirteen cycloundecapeptides 1-13 related to GS were synthesized and examined. Among them, cyclo(-Va1(1)-Orn(2)-Leu(3)-D-Phe(4)-X(5)-Pro(6)-Val(7)-Orn(8)-Leu(9)-D-Phe(10)-Pro(11)-) (X=Lys (10), Orn (11), Arg (12) and Lys(Lys) (13)) resulted in high antibiotic activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms tested. In addition, 11 showed low toxicity against sheep blood cells compared with that of GS. Further, circular dichroism (CD) spectra of 10-13 had a curve similar to each other, suggesting that the conformations of these analogues in methanol are similar to each other. However, CD spectra of 10-13 were different from that of GS in the 190-210 nm region. These results suggest that the presences of one added amino acid residue at position 5 of 10-13 might be partially effective through a structural change in the biological activity of 10-13. In addition, the structural modifications at position 5 lower the undesirable hemolytic activity and enhance the desirable antibiotic activity.

  9. Prognostic Cell Biological Markers in Cervical Cancer Patients Primarily Treated With (Chemo)radiation: A Systematic Review

    SciTech Connect

    Noordhuis, Maartje G.; Eijsink, Jasper J.H.; Roossink, Frank; Graeff, Pauline de; Pras, Elisabeth; Schuuring, Ed; Wisman, G. Bea A.; Bock, Geertruida H. de; Zee, Ate G.J. van der

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the prognostic and predictive significance of cell biological markers in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation. A PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane literature search was performed. Studies describing a relation between a cell biological marker and survival in {>=}50 cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation were selected. Study quality was assessed, and studies with a quality score of 4 or lower were excluded. Cell biological markers were clustered on biological function, and the prognostic and predictive significance of these markers was described. In total, 42 studies concerning 82 cell biological markers were included in this systematic review. In addition to cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-ag) levels, markers associated with poor prognosis were involved in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling (EGFR and C-erbB-2) and in angiogenesis and hypoxia (carbonic anhydrase 9 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}). Epidermal growth factor receptor and C-erbB-2 were also associated with poor response to (chemo)radiation. In conclusion, EGFR signaling is associated with poor prognosis and response to therapy in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation, whereas markers involved in angiogenesis and hypoxia, COX-2, and serum SCC-ag levels are associated with a poor prognosis. Therefore, targeting these pathways in combination with chemoradiation may improve survival in advanced-stage cervical cancer patients.

  10. 12 CFR 225.127 - Investment in corporations or projects designed primarily to promote community welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Nation's social problems. Although the interpretation primarily focuses on low- and moderate-income... remedying our social ills. Section 225.25(b)(6) is intended to provide an opportunity for them to assume... or medium-sized locally-controlled businesses in low-income urban or other economically...

  11. 12 CFR 225.127 - Investment in corporations or projects designed primarily to promote community welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... social problems. Although the interpretation primarily focuses on low- and moderate-income housing, it is... social ills. Section 225.25(b)(6) is intended to provide an opportunity for them to assume such a role... groups (for example, minority equity investments, on a temporary basis, in small or medium-sized...

  12. Enthusiasm Is Not Enough: Beginning Secondary Science Teachers in Primarily Hispanic Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Julie A.; Roehrig, Gillian

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the practices of three beginning secondary science teachers. The teachers were in their first year, worked with primarily Hispanic students in rural and urban schools, held undergraduate degrees in science, participated in postbaccalaureate certification programs of varying lengths, and had different cultural backgrounds from…

  13. 12 CFR 225.127 - Investment in corporations or projects designed primarily to promote community welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Nation's social problems. Although the interpretation primarily focuses on low- and moderate-income... remedying our social ills. Section 225.25(b)(6) is intended to provide an opportunity for them to assume... or medium-sized locally-controlled businesses in low-income urban or other economically...

  14. Propulsion and control propellers with thruster nozzles primarily for aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pabst, W.

    1986-01-01

    A propulsion and control propeller with thruster nozzles, primarily for aircraft application is described. Adjustability of rotor blades at the hub and pressurized gas expulsion combined with an air propeller increase power. Both characteristics are combined in one simple device, and, furthermore, incorporate overall aircraft control so that mechanisms which govern lateral and horizontal movement become superfluous.

  15. 12 CFR 225.127 - Investment in corporations or projects designed primarily to promote community welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... social problems. Although the interpretation primarily focuses on low- and moderate-income housing, it is... social ills. Section 225.25(b)(6) is intended to provide an opportunity for them to assume such a role... groups (for example, minority equity investments, on a temporary basis, in small or medium-sized...

  16. Autism and Developmental Screening in a Public, Primary Care Setting Primarily Serving Hispanics: Challenges and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windham, Gayle C.; Smith, Karen S.; Rosen, Nila; Anderson, Meredith C.; Grether, Judith K.; Coolman, Richard B.; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    We implemented screening of children 16-30 months of age (n = 1,760) from a typically under-served, primarily Hispanic, population, at routine pediatric appointments using the modified checklist for autism in toddlers (M-CHAT) and Ages and Stages Questionnaire. Screen positive rates of 26 and 39%, respectively, were higher than previous reports.…

  17. Examining the Effects of Introducing Online Access to ACS Journals at Primarily Undergraduate Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landolt, R. G.

    2007-01-01

    In collaboration with the Publications Division of the American Chemical Society (ACS), students and faculty at 24 primarily undergraduate institutions were provided online access to ACS primary research journals for a period of 18 months, and a group of eight schools were granted access to use the archives of ACS journals for a year. Resources…

  18. Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, O.

    1993-12-31

    Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

  19. Passerine exposure to primarily PCDFs and PCDDs in the river floodplains near Midland, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Fredricks, Timothy B; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Seston, Rita M; Coefield, Sarah J; Plautz, Stephanie C; Tazelaar, Dustin L; Shotwell, Melissa S; Bradley, Patrick W; Kay, Denise P; Giesy, John P

    2010-05-01

    House wren (Troglodytes aedon), tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), and eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) tissues collected in study areas (SAs) downstream of Midland, Michigan (USA) contained concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) greater than in upstream reference areas (RAs) in the region. The sum of concentrations of PCDD/DFs (SigmaPCDD/DFs) in eggs of house wrens and eastern bluebirds from SAs were 4- to 22-fold greater compared to those from RAs, whereas concentrations in tree swallow eggs were similar among areas. Mean concentrations of SigmaPCDD/DFs and sum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (SigmaTEQs(WHO-Avian)), based on 1998 WHO avian toxic equivalency factors, in house wren and eastern bluebird eggs ranged from 860 (430) to 1500 (910) ng/kg wet weight (ww) and 470 (150) to 1100 (510) ng/kg ww, respectively, at the most contaminated study areas along the Tittabawassee River, whereas mean concentrations in tree swallow eggs ranged from 280 (100) to 760 (280) ng/kg ww among all locations. Concentrations of SigmaPCDD/DFs in nestlings of all studied species at SAs were 3- to 50-fold greater compared to RAs. Mean house wren, tree swallow, and eastern bluebird nestling concentrations of SigmaPCDD/DFs and SigmaTEQs(WHO-Avian) ranged from 350 (140) to 610 (300) ng/kg ww, 360 (240) to 1100 (860) ng/kg ww, and 330 (100) to 1200 (690) ng/kg ww, respectively, at SAs along the Tittabawassee River. Concentrations of SigmaTEQs(WHO-Avian) were positively correlated with SigmaPCDD/DF concentrations in both eggs and nestlings of all species studied. Profiles of relative concentrations of individual congeners were dominated by furan congeners (69-84%), primarily 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, for all species at SAs on the Tittabawassee and Saginaw rivers but were dominated by dioxin congeners at upstream RAs.

  20. Passerine Exposure to Primarily PCDFs and PCDDs in the River Floodplains Near Midland, Michigan, USA

    PubMed Central

    Zwiernik, Matthew J.; Seston, Rita M.; Coefield, Sarah J.; Plautz, Stephanie C.; Tazelaar, Dustin L.; Shotwell, Melissa S.; Bradley, Patrick W.; Kay, Denise P.; Giesy, John P.

    2009-01-01

    House wren (Troglodytes aedon), tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), and eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) tissues collected in study areas (SAs) downstream of Midland, Michigan (USA) contained concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) greater than in upstream reference areas (RAs) in the region. The sum of concentrations of PCDD/DFs (ΣPCDD/DFs) in eggs of house wrens and eastern bluebirds from SAs were 4- to 22-fold greater compared to those from RAs, whereas concentrations in tree swallow eggs were similar among areas. Mean concentrations of ΣPCDD/DFs and sum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (ΣTEQsWHO-Avian), based on 1998 WHO avian toxic equivalency factors, in house wren and eastern bluebird eggs ranged from 860 (430) to 1500 (910) ng/kg wet weight (ww) and 470 (150) to 1100 (510) ng/kg ww, respectively, at the most contaminated study areas along the Tittabawassee River, whereas mean concentrations in tree swallow eggs ranged from 280 (100) to 760 (280) ng/kg ww among all locations. Concentrations of ΣPCDD/DFs in nestlings of all studied species at SAs were 3- to 50-fold greater compared to RAs. Mean house wren, tree swallow, and eastern bluebird nestling concentrations of ΣPCDD/DFs and ΣTEQsWHO-Avian ranged from 350 (140) to 610 (300) ng/kg ww, 360 (240) to 1100 (860) ng/kg ww, and 330 (100) to 1200 (690) ng/kg ww, respectively, at SAs along the Tittabawassee River. Concentrations of ΣTEQsWHO-Avian were positively correlated with ΣPCDD/DF concentrations in both eggs and nestlings of all species studied. Profiles of relative concentrations of individual congeners were dominated by furan congeners (69–84%), primarily 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, for all species at SAs on the Tittabawassee and Saginaw rivers but were dominated by dioxin congeners at upstream RAs. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10

  1. Altered Vision-Related Resting-State Activity in Pituitary Adenoma Patients with Visual Damage

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Haiyan; Wang, Xingchao; Wang, Zhongyan; Wang, Zhenmin; Liu, Pinan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate changes of vision-related resting-state activity in pituitary adenoma (PA) patients with visual damage through comparison to healthy controls (HCs). Methods 25 PA patients with visual damage and 25 age- and sex-matched corrected-to-normal-vision HCs underwent a complete neuro-ophthalmologic evaluation, including automated perimetry, fundus examinations, and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol, including structural and resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) sequences. The regional homogeneity (ReHo) of the vision-related cortex and the functional connectivity (FC) of 6 seeds within the visual cortex (the primary visual cortex (V1), the secondary visual cortex (V2), and the middle temporal visual cortex (MT+)) were evaluated. Two-sample t-tests were conducted to identify the differences between the two groups. Results Compared with the HCs, the PA group exhibited reduced ReHo in the bilateral V1, V2, V3, fusiform, MT+, BA37, thalamus, postcentral gyrus and left precentral gyrus and increased ReHo in the precuneus, prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, supramarginal gyrus (SMG), and putamen. Compared with the HCs, V1, V2, and MT+ in the PAs exhibited decreased FC with the V1, V2, MT+, fusiform, BA37, and increased FC primarily in the bilateral temporal lobe (especially BA20,21,22), prefrontal cortex, PCC, insular, angular gyrus, ACC, pre-SMA, SMG, hippocampal formation, caudate and putamen. It is worth mentioning that compared with HCs, V1 in PAs exhibited decreased or similar FC with the thalamus, whereas V2 and MT+ exhibited increased FCs with the thalamus, especially pulvinar. Conclusions In our study, we identified significant neural reorganization in the vision-related cortex of PA patients with visual damage compared with HCs. Most subareas within the visual cortex exhibited remarkable neural dysfunction. Some subareas, including the MT+ and V2, exhibited enhanced FC with the thalamic

  2. Relating Nutrient Uptake And Respiration With Metabolically Active Transient Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argerich, A.; Haggerty, R.; Christensen, C.

    2009-12-01

    Quantification of water transient storage zones is critical to understand stream nutrient uptake, but the common method to measure transient storage parameters (based on the use of conservative solutes as hydrologic tracers) does not allow distinguishing among different transient storage compartments that contribute in different proportions to nutrient uptake. We use an alternative experimental approach, the Resazurin (Raz) “smart” tracer, which in combination with a conservative tracer is expected to give the relation between metabolically active transient storage (MATS) versus whole transient storage. Raz is a weakly fluorescent phenoxazine dye that undergoes an irreversible reduction to highly fluorescent Resorufin (hereafter referred as Rru) in the presence of aerobic respiration. We conducted a combined injection of Raz, NaCl, NH4, and PO4 in WS01 at H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest. The injection was performed during low-baseflow conditions (Q<0.5 L/s) at a constant flow rate for 5 days. Changes in time in EC, Raz, Rru and nutrient concentrations were examined at 3 surface sampling sites and at 6 wells. Simultaneously to the injection we measured whole-reach metabolism and we performed an SF6 injection to measure the exchange coefficient of O2 between the atmosphere and stream water. The reach achieved plateau conditions in less than 15 hours after the injection began and recovered to pre-injection conditions 56 hours after the end of the injection. EC corrected by background conditions decreased with distance reflecting a dilution effect caused by the water gaining condition of the reach. Raz concentration increased and Rru concentration decreased along the reach reflecting the transformation of Raz to Rru with distance. The Rru to Raz ratio at surface water was correlated with instantaneous rates of net ecosystem production (NEP) measured over the whole reach. Percentage of surface water in wells during plateau ranged between 50% and 95%. Raz

  3. RECALIBRATION OF THE VIRIAL FACTOR AND M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} RELATION FOR LOCAL ACTIVE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Daeseong; Woo, Jong-Hak; Kelly, Brandon C.; Treu, Tommaso E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr E-mail: tt@physics.ucsb.edu

    2012-11-15

    Determining the virial factor of the broad-line region gas is crucial for calibrating active galactic nucleus black hole mass estimators, since the measured line-of-sight velocity needs to be converted into the intrinsic virial velocity. The average virial factor has been empirically calibrated based on the M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation of quiescent galaxies, but the claimed values differ by a factor of two in recent studies. We investigate the origin of the difference by measuring the M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation using an updated galaxy sample from the literature and explore the dependence of the virial factor on various fitting methods. We find that the discrepancy is primarily caused by the sample selection, while the difference stemming from the various regression methods is marginal. However, we generally prefer the FITEXY and Bayesian estimators based on Monte Carlo simulations for the M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation. In addition, the choice of independent variable in the regression leads to {approx}0.2 dex variation in the virial factor inferred from the calibration process. Based on the determined virial factor, we present the updated M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation of local active galaxies.

  4. Age-Related Changes in Spreading Activation during Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Rachel; Walker, Joanne; Gross, Julien; Hayne, Harlene

    2014-01-01

    The concept of spreading activation describes how retrieval of one memory cues retrieval of other memories that are associated with it. This study explored spreading activation in 6-, 12-, and 18-month-old infants. Infants (n = 144) learned two tasks within the same experimental session; one task, deferred imitation (DI), is typically remembered…

  5. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Children Physical Activity Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ang

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is critical to healthy development of children. It is well documented that helping children develop and sustain a physically active lifestyle requires children to become motivated. Many studies have been conducted in the past 2.5 decades on determinants and correlates for children and adolescents' physical activity…

  6. Infant Cardiac Activity: Developmental Changes and Relations with Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izard, Carroll E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined cardiac activity during the first 13 months of life. Indexes of cardiac activity changed in an orderly way with development. There were intercorrelations among the cardiac measures. Analyses indicated that measures of heart-rate variability were significantly higher in insecure children than in secure children. (BC)

  7. Top 10 research questions related to children physical activity motivation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ang

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity is critical to healthy development of children. It is well documented that helping children develop and sustain a physically active lifestyle requires children to become motivated. Many studies have been conducted in the past 2.5 decades on determinants and correlates for children and adolescents' physical activity motivation. The findings have informed researchers and practitioners about motivation sources for children and effective strategies to motivate children in given physical activity settings. Built on the extensive knowledge base and theoretical platforms formed by these research studies, the purpose of this article is to take a look at the current research landscape and provide subjective thoughts about what we still need to know about children's physical activity motivation. The product of this subjective thinking process rendered 10 potential questions for future research on children's physical activity motivation in both in-school and out-of-school settings. These topics encompass those focusing on children's physical activity motivation as a mental dispositional process, those conceptualizing the motivation as an outcome of person-environment interactions, and those attempting to dissect the motivation as an outcome of social-cultural influences and educational policies. It is hoped that the topics can serve researchers interested in children's physical activity motivation as starting blocks from which they can extend their conceptual thinking and identify research questions that are personally meaningful. It is also hoped that the list of potential questions can be helpful to researchers in accomplishing the imperative and significant mission to motivate children to be physically active in the 21st century and beyond. PMID:24592774

  8. Synthesis and Antimalarial Activity of Mallatojaponin C and Related Compounds.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Alexander L; Dalal, Seema; Cassera, M Belen; Zhao, Shuqi; Kingston, David G I

    2016-06-24

    The phloroglucinol mallotojaponin C (1) from Mallotus oppositifolius, which was previously shown by us to have both antiplasmodial and cytocidal activities against the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, was synthesized in three steps from 2',4',6'-trihydroxyacetophenone, and various derivatives were synthesized in an attempt to improve the bioactivity of this class of compounds. Two derivatives, the simple prenylated phloroglucinols 12 and 13, were found to have comparable antiplasmodial activities to that of mallotojaponin C. PMID:27228055

  9. Potentially Inappropriate Prescribing of Primarily Renally Cleared Medications for Older Veterans Affairs Nursing Home Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Joseph T.; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Handler, Steven M.; Weisbord, Steven; Pugh, Mary Jo; Semla, Todd; Stone, Roslyn A.; Aspinall, Sherrie L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Inappropriate prescribing of primarily renally cleared medications in older patients with kidney disease can lead to adverse outcomes. Objectives To estimate the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing of 21 primarily renally cleared medications based on 2 separate estimates of renal function and to identify factors associated with this form of suboptimal prescribing in older VA nursing home (NH) patients. Design Longitudinal study Participants Participants were 1304 patients, aged 65 years or older, admitted between January 1, 2004, and June 30, 2005, for 90 days or more to 1 of 133 VA NHs. Main Measures Potentially inappropriate prescribing of primarily renally cleared medications determined by estimating creatinine clearance using the Cock-croft Gault (CG) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations and applying explicit guidelines for contraindicated medications and dosing. Key Results The median estimated creatinine clearance via CG was 67 mL/min, whereas it was 80 mL/min/1.73m2 with the MDRD. Overall, 11.89% patients via CG and only 5.98% via MDRD had evidence of potentially inappropriate prescribing of at least 1 renally cleared medication. The most commonly involved medications were ranitidine, glyburide, gabapentin, and nitrofurantoin. Factors associated with potentially inappropriate prescribing as per the CG were age older than 85 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.42–7.43), obesity (AOR 0.26, 95% CI 0.14–0.50) and having multiple comorbidities (AOR 1.09 for each unit increase in the Charlson comorbidity index, 95% CI 1.01–1.19). Conclusions Potentially inappropriate prescribing of renally cleared medications is common in older VA NH patients. Intervention studies to improve the prescribing of primarily renally cleared medications in nursing homes are needed. PMID:21450179

  10. Glycogen Repletion in Brown Adipose Tissue upon Refeeding Is Primarily Driven by Phosphorylation-Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Carmean, Christopher M.; Huang, Y. Hanna; Brady, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen storage in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is generally thought to take place through passive, substrate-driven activation of glycogenesis rather than programmatic shifts favoring or opposing the storage and/or retention of glycogen. This perception exists despite a growing body of evidence suggesting that BAT glycogen storage is actively regulated by covalent modification of key glycogen-metabolic enzymes, protein turnover, and endocrine hormone signaling. Members of one such class of covalent-modification regulators, glycogen-binding Phosphoprotein Phosphatase-1 (PP1)-regulatory subunits (PPP1Rs), targeting PP1 to glycogen-metabolic enzymes, were dynamically regulated in response to 24 hr of starvation and/or 24 hr of starvation followed by ad libitum refeeding. Over-expression of the PPP1R Protein Targeting to Glycogen (PTG), under the control of the aP2 promoter in mice, inactivated glycogen phosphorylase (GP) and enhanced basal- and starvation-state glycogen storage. Total interscapular BAT glycogen synthase and the constitutive activity of GS were conditionally affected. During starvation, glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) levels and the relative phosphorylation of Akt (p-Ser-473-Akt) were both increased in PTG-overexpressing (Tg) mice, suggesting that elevated glycogen storage during starvation modifies broader cellular metabolic pathways. During refeeding, Tg and WT mice reaccumulated glycogen similarly despite altered GS and GP activities. All observations during refeeding suggest that the phosphorylation states of GS and GP are not physiologically rate-controlling, despite there being a clear balance of endogenous kinase- and phosphatase activities. The studies presented here reveal IBAT glycogen storage to be a tightly-regulated process at all levels, with potential effects on nutrient sensing in vivo. PMID:27213961

  11. 29 CFR 779.205 - Enterprise must consist of “related activities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Enterprise must consist of ârelated activities.â 779.205... STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Related Activities § 779.205 Enterprise must consist of “related activities.” The enterprise...

  12. 29 CFR 779.205 - Enterprise must consist of “related activities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enterprise must consist of ârelated activities.â 779.205... STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Related Activities § 779.205 Enterprise must consist of “related activities.” The enterprise...

  13. 29 CFR 779.205 - Enterprise must consist of “related activities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Enterprise must consist of ârelated activities.â 779.205... STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Related Activities § 779.205 Enterprise must consist of “related activities.” The enterprise...

  14. 29 CFR 779.205 - Enterprise must consist of “related activities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Enterprise must consist of ârelated activities.â 779.205... STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Related Activities § 779.205 Enterprise must consist of “related activities.” The enterprise...

  15. 29 CFR 779.205 - Enterprise must consist of “related activities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Enterprise must consist of ârelated activities.â 779.205... STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Related Activities § 779.205 Enterprise must consist of “related activities.” The enterprise...

  16. Environmental changes affect the assembly of soil bacterial community primarily by mediating stochastic processes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ximei; Johnston, Eric R; Liu, Wei; Li, Linghao; Han, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    Both 'species fitness difference'-based deterministic processes, such as competitive exclusion and environmental filtering, and 'species fitness difference'-independent stochastic processes, such as birth/death and dispersal/colonization, can influence the assembly of soil microbial communities. However, how both types of processes are mediated by anthropogenic environmental changes has rarely been explored. Here we report a novel and general pattern that almost all anthropogenic environmental changes that took place in a grassland ecosystem affected soil bacterial community assembly primarily through promoting or restraining stochastic processes. We performed four experiments mimicking 16 types of environmental changes and separated the compositional variation of soil bacterial communities caused by each environmental change into deterministic and stochastic components, with a recently developed method. Briefly, because the difference between control and treatment communities is primarily caused by deterministic processes, the deterministic change was quantified as (mean compositional variation between treatment and control) - (mean compositional variation within control). The difference among replicate treatment communities is primarily caused by stochastic processes, so the stochastic change was estimated as (mean compositional variation within treatment) - (mean compositional variation within control). The absolute of the stochastic change was greater than that of the deterministic change across almost all environmental changes, which was robust for both taxonomic and functional-based criterion. Although the deterministic change may become more important as environmental changes last longer, our findings showed that changes usually occurred through mediating stochastic processes over 5 years, challenging the traditional determinism-dominated view.

  17. Adolescent physical activity in relation to breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Boeke, Caroline E.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Oh, Hannah; Spiegelman, Donna; Willett, Walter C.; Tamimi, Rulla M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent physical activity may protect against premenopausal breast cancer. Whether it also prevents postmenopausal breast cancer, and whether associations are independent of adult activity, is unclear. We evaluated this association among 75,669 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II. In 1997, participants reported strenuous, moderate, and walking activity (hours/week) at ages 12–13, 14–17, 18–22, and 23–29 years. We estimated metabolic equivalent task hours (MET-h)/week. Participants also reported current physical activity over follow-up. Breast cancer diagnoses (n = 2,697; premenopausal = 1,351; postmenopausal = 965) through 2011 were reported by participants and confirmed with medical records. We additionally stratified analyses by median age at diagnosis. In Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for adolescent characteristics, physical activity from ages 14–22 was modestly inversely associated with premenopausal breast cancer [e.g., hazard ratio (HR) comparing 72+ to <21 MET-h/week 0.81 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.69–0.95; p-trend = 0.10) for ages 14–17 and 0.85 (95 % CI 0.71–1.02; p-trend = 0.06 for ages 18–22]. However, adjustment for adult activity and additional breast cancer risk factors attenuated the associations [ages 14–17: 0.85 (95 % CI 0.73–1.00; p-trend = 0.33)]. Associations were stronger among women diagnosed at younger ages [e.g., ages 18–22, HR 0.77 (95 % CI 0.60–0.99; p-trend = 0.05) for women diagnosed before 46.9 years; HR 1.02 (95 % CI 0.79–1.32; p-trend = 0.94) for those diagnosed at/after 46.9 years]. Early life physical activity was not associated with postmenopausal breast cancer. Overall, adolescent physical activity was not associated with breast cancer risk. However, we observed a suggestive inverse association of physical activity at ages 14–22 years with premenopausal breast cancer. PMID:24682675

  18. Relation of gamma oscillations in scalp recordings to muscular activity.

    PubMed

    Pope, Kenneth J; Fitzgibbon, Sean P; Lewis, Trent W; Whitham, Emma M; Willoughby, John O

    2009-06-01

    We recorded scalp electrical activity before and after full neuro-muscular paralysis in 5 volunteers and determined differences due to elimination of muscular activity on several standard applications of EEG. Due to paralysis, there were reductions in 'noisiness' of the standard scalp recordings which were maximal over the peripheral scalp, not explained by abolition of movement artefact, and best accounted for by sustained EMG activity in resting individuals. There was a corresponding reduction in spectral power in the gamma range. In central leads, the extent of gamma frequency coherence during a non-time-locked mental task (1 s epochs) was reduced by paralysis, likely due to a reduction in gamma-frequency coherence in widely arising EMG signals. In a time-locked mental task (auditory oddball), evoked responses were qualitatively unaffected by paralysis but 3 of 4 induced gamma responses were obscured by EMG. PMID:19229605

  19. Age-Related Variability in Cortical Activity during Language Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fridriksson, Julius; Morrow, K. Leigh; Moser, Dana; Baylis, Gordon C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the extent of cortical activity during overt picture naming using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Method: Participants comprised 20 healthy, adult participants with ages ranging from 20 to 82 years. While undergoing fMRI, participants completed a picture-naming task consisting of 60…

  20. Altered Error-Related Activity in Patients with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Kathrin; Wagner, Gerd; Schultz, Christoph; Schachtzabel, Claudia; Nenadic, Igor; Axer, Martina; Reichenbach, Jurgen R.; Sauer, Heinrich; Schlosser, Ralf G. M.

    2009-01-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) and executive cognitive control are core features of schizophrenia. However, findings regarding functional activation strengths are heterogeneous, partly due to differences in task demands and behavioral performance. Previous investigators proposed integrating these heterogeneous findings into a comprehensive model…

  1. Prospective Relations between Organized Activity Participation and Psychopathology during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnert, Amy M.; Garber, Judy

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined psychopathology as a predictor and outcome of organized activity involvement during high school among 198 adolescents who varied in risk for psychopathology as a function of their mother's depression history. Higher levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in eighth grade significantly predicted lower…

  2. Characteristics of Students Related to Computer-Mediated Communications Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Barry J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a study of individual differences among high school students that relate to and predict their use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools--e-mail, Usenet news, and a multimedia notebook--to support project-based science learning. Findings indicate that skill and experience with computers, parental education, access to computers,…

  3. Call 4 Concern: patient and relative activated critical care outreach.

    PubMed

    Odell, Mandy; Gerber, Karin; Gager, Melanie

    Patients can experience unexpected deterioration in their physiological condition that can lead to critical illness, cardiac arrest, admission to the intensive care unit and death. While ward staff can identify deterioration through monitoring physiological signs, these signs can be missed, interpreted incorrectly or mismanaged. Rapid response systems using early warning scores can fail if staff do not follow protocols or do not notice or manage deterioration adequately. Nurses often notice deterioration intuitively because of their knowledge of individual patients. Patients and their relatives have the greatest knowledge of patients, and can often pick up subtle signs physiological deterioration before this is identified by staff or monitoring systems. However, this ability has been largely overlooked. Call 4 Concern (C4C) is a scheme where patients and relatives can call critical care teams directly if they are concerned about a patient's condition- it is believed to be the first of its kind in the UK. A C4C feasibility project ran for six months, covering patients being transferred from the intensive care unit to general wards. C4C has the potential to prevent clinical deterioration and is valued by patients and relatives. Concerns of ward staff could be managed through project management. As it is relatively new, this field offers further opportunities for research. PMID:21139519

  4. Exploratory research on mutagenic activity of coal-related materials

    SciTech Connect

    Warshawsky, D.; Schoeny, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    The following samples were found to be mutagenic for strains TA1538, TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium: ETTM-10, ETTM-11, ETTM-15, ETTM-16, and ETTM-17. ETTM-13 was marginally mutagenic for TA1537. ETTM-14 was slightly mutagenic for TA1537, TA1538, and TA98. Mutagenicity by all samples was demonstrated only in the presence of hepatic enzyme extracts (S9) which provided metabolic activation. ETTM-11 was shown to be the most mutagenic sample assayed thus far; specific activity was 2.79 x 10/sup 4/ TA98 revertants/mg sample. Fractionation by serial extractions with increasingly polar organic solvents was done at least 2 x with ETTM-10, ETTM-11, ETTM-15, ETTM-16 and ETTM-17. For some samples highly mutagenic fractions were observed.

  5. Milk kefir: composition, microbial cultures, biological activities, and related products.

    PubMed

    Prado, Maria R; Blandón, Lina Marcela; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Rodrigues, Cristine; Castro, Guillermo R; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir's exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir's microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  6. Milk kefir: composition, microbial cultures, biological activities, and related products

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Maria R.; Blandón, Lina Marcela; Vandenberghe, Luciana P. S.; Rodrigues, Cristine; Castro, Guillermo R.; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos R.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir’s exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir’s microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance. PMID:26579086

  7. Activity-Related Outcomes of Articular Cartilage Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Peter N.; Vigneswaran, Hari; Harris, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this systematic review was to compare activity-based outcomes after microfracture, autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), and osteochondral autograft (OAT). Design: Multiple databases were searched with specific inclusion and exclusion criteria for level III and higher studies with activity outcomes after microfracture, OAT, osteochondral allograft, and ACI. Activity-based outcomes included the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), the Tegner Score, the Cincinnati Knee scores, the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee score, the Marx activity score, and/or the rate of return-to-sport. Results: Twenty studies were included (1,375 patients). Although results were heterogeneous, significant advantages were seen for ACI and OAT as compared with microfracture in Tegner scores at 1 year (ACI vs. microfracture, P = 0.0016), IKDC scores at 2 years (ACI vs microfracture, P = 0.046), Lysholm scores at 1 year (OAT vs microfracture, P = 0.032), and Marx scores at 2 years (OAT vs microfracture, P < 0.001). The only score or time point to favor microfracture was Lysholm score at 1 year (ACI vs microfracture, P = 0.037). No other standardized outcome measures or time points were significantly different. Several studies demonstrated significantly earlier return to competition with microfracture. Overall reoperation rates were similar, but of reoperations, a higher proportion of those following ACI were unplanned with the majority of performed for graft delamination or hypertrophy. Conclusions: ACI and OAT may have some benefits over microfracture, although return-to-sport is fastest following microfracture. Heterogeneity in technique, outcome measures, and patient populations hampers systematic comparison within the current literature. PMID:26069665

  8. Relative efficacy and palatability of three activated charcoal mixtures.

    PubMed

    Navarro, R P; Navarro, K R; Krenzelok, E P

    1980-02-01

    The addition of bentonite with or without chocolate syrup improved the palatability of activated charcoal preparations. Furthermore, bentonite did not significantly reduce the efficacy of charcoal to absorb aspirin. Chocolate syrup reduced the adsorption effectiveness significantly. The mixtures have a reduced shelf-life when premixed with water. However, the dry ingredients can be pre-weighed and sealed in a large jar. Water can be added just prior to administration. PMID:7361450

  9. Knee extensor muscle oxygen consumption in relation to muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Kooistra, R D; Blaauboer, M E; Born, J R; de Ruiter, C J; de Haan, A

    2006-12-01

    Recently, fatigability and muscle oxygen consumption (mVO(2)) during sustained isometric contractions were found to be less at shorter (30 degrees knee angle; 0 degrees = full extension) compared to longer knee extensor muscle lengths (90 degrees ) and, at low torques, less in the rectus femoris (RF) muscle than in the vastus lateralis and medialis. In the present study we hypothesized that these findings could be accounted for by a knee angle- and a muscle-dependent activation respectively. On two experimental days rectified surface EMG (rsEMG) was obtained as a measure of muscle activation in nine healthy young males. In addition, on day 1 maximal torque capacity (MTC) was carefully determined using superimposed nerve stimulation on brief high intensity contractions (> 70%MVC) at 30, 60 and 90 degrees knee angles. On day 2, subjects performed longer lasting isometric contractions (10-70%MTC) while mVO(2) was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). At 30 degrees , maximal mVO(2) was reached significantly later (11.0 s +/- 6.5 s) and was 57.9 +/- 8.3% less (average +/- SD, across intensities and muscles) than mVO(2) at 60 and 90 degrees (p < 0.05). However, rsEMG was on average only 18.0 +/- 11.8% (p = 0.062) less at the start of the contraction at 30 degrees . At 10%MTC at all knee angles, maximal mVO(2) of the RF occurred significantly later (28.8 +/- 36.0 s) and showed a significantly smaller increase in rsEMG compared to both vasti. In conclusion, it is unlikely that the tendency for less intense muscle activation could fully account for the approximately 60% lower oxygen consumption at 30 degrees , but the later increase in RFmVO(2) seemed to be caused by a less strong activation of the RF.

  10. Sleep Patterns of a Primarily Obese Sample of Treatment-Seeking Children

    PubMed Central

    Graef, Danielle M.; Janicke, David M.; McCrae, Christina S.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the sleep patterns and the role of day of the week and school break in these patterns within a primarily obese sample of children. Methods: Participants included 143 obese children (8-12 years) and their parents initiating treatment in a weight-management study in a community-based setting. Demographics, anthropometrics, and objectively measured sleep (i.e., with use of Sensewear Armbands) were collected prior to treatment. Results: Sleep duration was insufficient in our sample, as approximately 88% obtained less than 8 hours of sleep (mean = 6.92, standard deviation = 0.85). Those with lower total sleep time included older children, those identified as African American (compared to those identified as Caucasian), and those identified as Non-Hispanic (compared to those identified as Hispanic). Children on school break initiated sleep later than those in school the week of measurement. Children woke later on weekends and when on school break. There were no differences in day of the week or school break in predicting child sleep duration and total wake time (p's > 0.05). Conclusions: This study is one of the first to examine sleep patterns within a primarily obese sample of treatment-seeking rural children. There is a need for research to develop a better understanding of how sleep may affect health functioning and weight management, as well as quality of life and psychosocial functioning of children who are overweight or obese. Clinical Trials Information: Title of trial: Extension Family Lifestyle Intervention Project (E-FLIP for Kids). Clinical-Trials.gov identifier: NCT01820338. NIH/NIDDK Grant #: 1R18DK082374-01. Citation: Graef DM, Janicke DM, McCrae CS. Sleep patterns of a primarily obese sample of treatment-seeking children. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(10):1111-1117. PMID:25317092

  11. Bilateral Krukenberg Tumours Diagnosed Primarily by Transabdominal Sonography- A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Padala, Krishna Prasanthi; Mahesh; Gowda, Gautham; Pailoor, Aruna

    2015-01-01

    Krukenberg tumour, also known as carcinoma mucocellulare, is a metastatic adenocarcinoma of ovaries from different primary tumour sites. Gastric carcinoma is most common primary tumour responsible for approximately 50% of Krukenberg tumours. Discrimination between primary ovarian cancer and metastatic tumours in the ovary is important, because their management is different. Here we present a case of female suffering from gastric carcinoma with bilateral Krukenberg tumours, diagnosed primarily by transabdominal sonography. The patient was referred to higher centre for further treatment and followed up. PMID:26816967

  12. Relation between solar activity and regional sub-continental climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Rengaswamy

    2012-07-01

    Using stable oxygen isotopes in tree rings, speleothems from the subcontinent and foraminifera of marine sediments from the Indian ocean, we have deciphered the past variations on monsoon quantitatively. Many of the well known solar periodicities are found in these records. In this talk I plan to review the available evidence for quantitative and high resolution monsoon changes and their relation to solar variability. Causal mechanisms and climate models will also be discussed and our current understanding will be summarized. noindent

  13. State monitoring activities related to Pfiesteria-like organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Magnien, R E

    2001-01-01

    In response to potential threats to human health and fish populations, six states along the east coast of the United States initiated monitoring programs related to Pfiesteria-like organisms in 1998. These actions were taken in the wake of toxic outbreaks of Pfiesteria piscicida Steidinger & Burkholder in Maryland during 1997 and previous outbreaks in North Carolina. The monitoring programs have two major purposes. The first, rapid response, is to ensure public safety by responding immediately to conditions that may indicate the presence of Pfiesteria or related organisms in a toxic state. The second, comprehensive assessment, is to provide a more complete understanding of where Pfiesteria-like organisms may become a threat, to understand what factors may stimulate their growth and toxicity, and to evaluate the impacts of these organisms upon fish and other aquatic life. In states where human health studies are being conducted, the data from both types of monitoring are used to provide information on environmental exposure. The three elements included in each monitoring program are identification of Pfiesteria-like organisms, water quality measurements, and assessments of fish health. Identification of Pfiesteria-like organisms is a particularly difficult element of the monitoring programs, as these small species cannot be definitively identified using light microscopy; newly applied molecular techniques, however, are starting to provide alternatives to traditional methods. State monitoring programs also offer many opportunities for collaborations with research initiatives targeting both environmental and human health issues related to Pfiesteria-like organisms. PMID:11677180

  14. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities in the Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association received an award of Cooperative Agreement #NCC5-356 on September 29, 1998. The mission of this activity, know as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, USRA recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members.

  15. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities In the Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David

    2002-01-01

    The mission of this activity, known as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members. This paper is the final report from this now completed Cooperative Agreement.

  16. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities in the Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David; Marshall, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association received an award of Cooperative Agreement NCC5-356 on September 29, 1998. The mission of this activity, known as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, USRA recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members.

  17. The evolving role of physician organizations in quality related activities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    As the fields of quality assessment and improvement become integral parts of medical practice, the roles of National Medical Associations, and other physician organizations in these endeavors have undergone major changes in scope and intensity as well. The survey based report in this journal by Levi et al. suggests some major overall trends but also notes wide variation from country to country. In this commentary, we touch on some likely reasons for the variation seen in the focus of physician organization participation in quality activities, and offer some suggestions for why expanded involvement by physician organizations may be critical to quality efforts going forward. PMID:24959345

  18. 49 CFR 37.171 - Equivalency requirement for demand responsive service operated by private entities not primarily...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... service operated by private entities not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. 37.171... responsive service operated by private entities not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. A private entity not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people which operates...

  19. 49 CFR 37.171 - Equivalency requirement for demand responsive service operated by private entities not primarily...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... service operated by private entities not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. 37.171... responsive service operated by private entities not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. A private entity not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people which operates...

  20. Functionally relevant diversity of closely related Nitrospira in activated sludge

    PubMed Central

    Gruber-Dorninger, Christiane; Pester, Michael; Kitzinger, Katharina; Savio, Domenico F; Loy, Alexander; Rattei, Thomas; Wagner, Michael; Daims, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Nitrospira are chemolithoautotrophic nitrite-oxidizing bacteria that catalyze the second step of nitrification in most oxic habitats and are important for excess nitrogen removal from sewage in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To date, little is known about their diversity and ecological niche partitioning within complex communities. In this study, the fine-scale community structure and function of Nitrospira was analyzed in two full-scale WWTPs as model ecosystems. In Nitrospira-specific 16S rRNA clone libraries retrieved from each plant, closely related phylogenetic clusters (16S rRNA identities between clusters ranged from 95.8% to 99.6%) within Nitrospira lineages I and II were found. Newly designed probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) allowed the specific detection of several of these clusters, whose coexistence in the WWTPs was shown for prolonged periods of several years. In situ ecophysiological analyses based on FISH, relative abundance and spatial arrangement quantification, as well as microautoradiography revealed functional differences of these Nitrospira clusters regarding the preferred nitrite concentration, the utilization of formate as substrate and the spatial coaggregation with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria as symbiotic partners. Amplicon pyrosequencing of the nxrB gene, which encodes subunit beta of nitrite oxidoreductase of Nitrospira, revealed in one of the WWTPs as many as 121 species-level nxrB operational taxonomic units with highly uneven relative abundances in the amplicon library. These results show a previously unrecognized high diversity of Nitrospira in engineered systems, which is at least partially linked to niche differentiation and may have important implications for process stability. PMID:25148481

  1. Functionally relevant diversity of closely related Nitrospira in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Gruber-Dorninger, Christiane; Pester, Michael; Kitzinger, Katharina; Savio, Domenico F; Loy, Alexander; Rattei, Thomas; Wagner, Michael; Daims, Holger

    2015-03-01

    Nitrospira are chemolithoautotrophic nitrite-oxidizing bacteria that catalyze the second step of nitrification in most oxic habitats and are important for excess nitrogen removal from sewage in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To date, little is known about their diversity and ecological niche partitioning within complex communities. In this study, the fine-scale community structure and function of Nitrospira was analyzed in two full-scale WWTPs as model ecosystems. In Nitrospira-specific 16S rRNA clone libraries retrieved from each plant, closely related phylogenetic clusters (16S rRNA identities between clusters ranged from 95.8% to 99.6%) within Nitrospira lineages I and II were found. Newly designed probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) allowed the specific detection of several of these clusters, whose coexistence in the WWTPs was shown for prolonged periods of several years. In situ ecophysiological analyses based on FISH, relative abundance and spatial arrangement quantification, as well as microautoradiography revealed functional differences of these Nitrospira clusters regarding the preferred nitrite concentration, the utilization of formate as substrate and the spatial coaggregation with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria as symbiotic partners. Amplicon pyrosequencing of the nxrB gene, which encodes subunit beta of nitrite oxidoreductase of Nitrospira, revealed in one of the WWTPs as many as 121 species-level nxrB operational taxonomic units with highly uneven relative abundances in the amplicon library. These results show a previously unrecognized high diversity of Nitrospira in engineered systems, which is at least partially linked to niche differentiation and may have important implications for process stability. PMID:25148481

  2. Programmable electronic calculator in underground corrosion related activity. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    Tennessee Gas Pipeline Co. has developed programs for Hewlett-Packard HP-97 and HP-67 programmable calculators that relate to general corrosion-control operations in the gas pipeline industry. The first program describes in a fairly simple manner 1) the pressures that steel pipe can withstand with changes in the wall thickness and pipe diameter, 2) the strength of high or lower alloy steels, and 3) the properties or dimensions required for a given operating pressure. The program also considers the mandated safety factors (as required in populated areas, for example) in the calculated pipeline parameters.

  3. Subcontracted activities related to TES for building heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J.

    1980-01-01

    The subcontract program elements related to thermal energy storage for building heating and cooling systems are outlined. The following factors are included: subcontracts in the utility load management application area; life and stability testing of packaged low cost energy storage materials; and development of thermal energy storage systems for residential space cooling. Resistance storage heater component development, demonstration of storage heater systems for residential applications, and simulation and evaluation of latent heat thermal energy storage (heat pump systems) are also discussed. Application of thermal energy storage for solar application and twin cities district heating are covered including an application analysis and technology assessment of thermal energy storage.

  4. Decisive Data Sets in Phylogenomics: Lessons from Studies on the Phylogenetic Relationships of Primarily Wingless Insects

    PubMed Central

    Meusemann, Karen; Meyer, Benjamin; Borner, Janus; Petersen, Malte; Aberer, Andre J.; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Walzl, Manfred G.; Minh, Bui Quang; von Haeseler, Arndt; Ebersberger, Ingo; Pass, Günther; Misof, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of the primarily wingless insects are still considered unresolved. Even the most comprehensive phylogenomic studies that addressed this question did not yield congruent results. To get a grip on these problems, we here analyzed the sources of incongruence in these phylogenomic studies by using an extended transcriptome data set. Our analyses showed that unevenly distributed missing data can be severely misleading by inflating node support despite the absence of phylogenetic signal. In consequence, only decisive data sets should be used which exclusively comprise data blocks containing all taxa whose relationships are addressed. Additionally, we used Four-cluster Likelihood Mapping (FcLM) to measure the degree of congruence among genes of a data set, as a measure of support alternative to bootstrap. FcLM showed incongruent signal among genes, which in our case is correlated neither with functional class assignment of these genes nor with model misspecification due to unpartitioned analyses. The herein analyzed data set is the currently largest data set covering primarily wingless insects, but failed to elucidate their interordinal phylogenetic relationships. Although this is unsatisfying from a phylogenetic perspective, we try to show that the analyses of structure and signal within phylogenomic data can protect us from biased phylogenetic inferences due to analytical artifacts. PMID:24140757

  5. UTSI/CFFF MHD program completion and related activities

    SciTech Connect

    Muehlhauser, J.W.; Chapman, J.N.

    1999-04-30

    Maintenance work on the DOE CFFF facility remained in suspension for the entire quarter in accordance with the stop work order issued the previous quarter. Work resumed on the environmental restoration activities during the quarter and work performed is summarized. Progress continued on the five (5) high temperature superconductivity projects under Task 6. On the sol-gel process, improvement is reported in application of buffer layers to single crystals. Problems are discussed in applying buffer layers to nickel substrates. The status of cost performance studies is summarized. The status of diagnostic measurements directed toward real time control of manufacturing processes is reported with emphasis on measurement of surface smoothness. The results of atomic absorption measurement of MOCVD precursors are reported.

  6. 77 FR 55485 - Agency Information Collection Activities: H-2 Petitioner's Employment Related or Fee Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... published in the Federal Register on June 1, 2012, at 77 FR 106, allowing for a 60-day public comment period... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: H-2 Petitioner... Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the...

  7. Research activities in nuclear astrophysics and related areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA/GRO grant NAG 5-2081, at the University of Chicago, has provided support for a broad program of theoretical research in nuclear astrophysics and related areas, with regard to gamma-ray and hard X-ray emission from classical nova explosions. This research emphasized the possible detection of 22Na gamma-ray line emission from nearby novae involving ONeMg white dwarfs, the detailed examination of 26Al production in novae, and the possible detection of the predicted early gamma ray emission from novae that arises from the decay of the short lived, positron emitting isotopes of CNO elements. Studies of nova related problems have consumed an increasing fraction of the Principal Investigator's research efforts over the past decade. Current research addresses problems associated with the standard model for the outbursts of the classical novae: the occurrence of thermonuclear runaways (TNR) in the accreted hydrogen rich envelopes on white dwarfs in close binary systems (see, e.g., the reviews by Truran 1982; and Shara 1989). Research in progress and planned for the next three years has three main objectives: (1) to gain an improved understanding of the early evolution of the light curves of, particularly, the fastest novae; (2) to gain an improved understanding of the relative importance of the various possible mechanisms of envelope hydrogen depletion (e.g. winds, common envelope driven mass loss, and nuclear burning) to the long term evolution of novae in outburst; and (3) to seek to provide a somewhat more definitive statement of the role of classical novae in nucleosynthesis. Our proposed 2-D studies of convection during the early phases of the TNR and our systematic attempt to incorporate an improved treatment of radiation hydrodynamics into the hydrodynamic code utilized in our calculations, are particularly relevant to the first of these objectives. Further 2-D studies of the effects of common envelope evolution are intended to provide more realistic constraints

  8. Atmospheric studies related to aerospace activities and remote sensing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sze, N. D.; Isaacs, R. G.; Ko, M.; Mcelroy, M. B.

    1981-01-01

    Parallel investigations were conducted relating to: the sensitivity of 1-D photochemical model simulated column ozone perturbations due to a projected fleet of 1000 aircraft cruising 7 hours per day at altitudes of 15-16 and 18-19 km to uncertainties in kinetic rate constant data determining modeled OH concentrations and eddy diffusivity profile parameterization and a comparison of the inherent strengths and weaknesses of Eulerian and Langrangian averaging processes in the development of multidimensional models and investigation of approaches to applying the Generalized Lagrangian Mean (GLM) formalism to zonal-mean models. The role of multiple scattering and Earth curvature in the evaluation of diurnally dependent photodissociation rates and trace species variations was examined.

  9. UTSI/CFFF MHD Program Completion and Related Activities.

    SciTech Connect

    Irvin, R.L.; Bumpus, J.A.

    1997-10-31

    During this reporting period we have further studied the oxidation of soluble coal macromolecules by lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Previous studies by others have suggested that a soluble fraction (coal macromolecule B-111) from a nitric acid solubilized North Dakota Lignite is depolymerized by this enzyme. Our investigations indicate that fraction B-111 is a substrate for lignin peroxidase as this material is decolorized in the presence of lignin peroxidase H{sub 8} and hydrogen peroxide. Of interest, however, is the observation that little, if any, depolymerization of this material occurs. Instead, it appears that lignin peroxidase and coal macromolecule B-111 form a precipitate. These results are similar to those observed in our investigations of lignin peroxidase mediated oxidation of oxalate solubilize coal macromolecule. Previous studies in our laboratory using a spectrophotometric assay suggested that, in addition to oxalate, several other fungal metabolites are able to solubilize leonardite. We have reinvestigated this phenomenon using a more reliable gravimetric procedure for assessing solubilization. Our results confirm our earlier findings that malate, oxaloacetate and citrate are effective solubilizing agents whereas succinate, fumarate and {alpha}-ketoglutarate solubilize relatively small amounts of leonardite. Finally, we have studied the composition of the insoluble material remaining following extensive solubilization by sodium oxalate. The ratio of hydrogen to carbon is increased in the insoluble material relative to the parent leonardite. However, the ratio of oxygen to carbon is also increased in the insoluble material. Thus, the insoluble material does not appear to be more highly reduced that the parent leonardite and is not likely to be a better fuel that the parent material.

  10. Association between Hypoalbuminaemia and Mortality in Patients with Community-Acquired Bacteraemia Is Primarily Related to Acute Disorders.

    PubMed

    Magnussen, Bjarne; Oren Gradel, Kim; Gorm Jensen, Thøger; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Pedersen, Court; Just Vinholt, Pernille; Touborg Lassen, Annmarie

    2016-01-01

    We sought to investigate whether hypoalbuminaemia was mainly caused by acute or chronic factors in patients with community-acquired bacteraemia. In this population-based study, we considered 1844 adult cases of community-acquired bacteraemia that occurred in Funen, Denmark between 2000 and 2008. We used a stepwise prognostic predisposition-insult-response-organ dysfunction (PIRO) logistic regression model by initially including age and comorbidity, then added bacterial species, and finally sepsis severity. The models were furthermore analysed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Outcomes comprised mortality incidence on days 0-30 and 31-365 after the bacteraemia episode. Each step was performed with and without baseline albumin level measured on the date of bacteraemia. In 422 patients, their latest albumin measurement taken 8-30 days before the date of bacteraemia was also used in the analysis together with the baseline albumin level. For each decrease of 1g/L in plasma albumin level, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of mortality in the period of 0-30 days after bacteraemia were 0.86 (0.84-0.88) in both predisposition (P) and predisposition-insult (PI) models and 0.87 (0.85-0.89) in the full PIRO-model. The AUC values were 0.78 and 0.66 for mortality in the period of 0-30 days in the model comprising only predisposition factors with and without albumin levels added as a factor, respectively. The AUC values in the full PIRO-model were 0.81 and 0.73 with and without consideration of albumin levels, respectively. A higher proportion of patients died within 30 days if there was a decrease in the albumin level between days 8 and 30 before bacteraemia and the actual bacteraemia date. A single plasma albumin measurement on the bacteraemia date was a better prognostic predictor of short-term mortality than the sepsis severity score. PMID:27611431

  11. Association between Hypoalbuminaemia and Mortality in Patients with Community-Acquired Bacteraemia Is Primarily Related to Acute Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Magnussen, Bjarne; Oren Gradel, Kim; Gorm Jensen, Thøger; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Pedersen, Court; Just Vinholt, Pernille; Touborg Lassen, Annmarie

    2016-01-01

    We sought to investigate whether hypoalbuminaemia was mainly caused by acute or chronic factors in patients with community-acquired bacteraemia. In this population-based study, we considered 1844 adult cases of community-acquired bacteraemia that occurred in Funen, Denmark between 2000 and 2008. We used a stepwise prognostic predisposition-insult-response-organ dysfunction (PIRO) logistic regression model by initially including age and comorbidity, then added bacterial species, and finally sepsis severity. The models were furthermore analysed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Outcomes comprised mortality incidence on days 0–30 and 31–365 after the bacteraemia episode. Each step was performed with and without baseline albumin level measured on the date of bacteraemia. In 422 patients, their latest albumin measurement taken 8–30 days before the date of bacteraemia was also used in the analysis together with the baseline albumin level. For each decrease of 1g/L in plasma albumin level, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of mortality in the period of 0–30 days after bacteraemia were 0.86 (0.84–0.88) in both predisposition (P) and predisposition-insult (PI) models and 0.87 (0.85–0.89) in the full PIRO-model. The AUC values were 0.78 and 0.66 for mortality in the period of 0–30 days in the model comprising only predisposition factors with and without albumin levels added as a factor, respectively. The AUC values in the full PIRO-model were 0.81 and 0.73 with and without consideration of albumin levels, respectively. A higher proportion of patients died within 30 days if there was a decrease in the albumin level between days 8 and 30 before bacteraemia and the actual bacteraemia date. A single plasma albumin measurement on the bacteraemia date was a better prognostic predictor of short-term mortality than the sepsis severity score. PMID:27611431

  12. Rubus fruticosus L.: constituents, biological activities and health related uses.

    PubMed

    Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; De Feo, Vincenzo; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Moga, Marius

    2014-07-28

    Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.

  13. Relation between cooperative molecular motors and active Brownian particles.

    PubMed

    Touya, Clément; Schwalger, Tilo; Lindner, Benjamin

    2011-05-01

    Active Brownian particles (ABPs), obeying a nonlinear Langevin equation with speed-dependent drift and noise amplitude, are well-known models used to describe self-propelled motion in biology. In this paper we study a model describing the stochastic dynamics of a group of coupled molecular motors (CMMs). Using two independent numerical methods, one based on the stationary velocity distribution of the motors and the other one on the local increments (also known as the Kramers-Moyal coefficients) of the velocity, we establish a connection between the CMM and the ABP models. The parameters extracted for the ABP via the two methods show good agreement for both symmetric and asymmetric cases and are independent of N, the number of motors, provided that N is not too small. This indicates that one can indeed describe the CMM problem with a simpler ABP model. However, the power spectrum of velocity fluctuations in the CMM model reveals a peak at a finite frequency, a peak which is absent in the velocity spectrum of the ABP model. This implies richer dynamic features of the CMM model which cannot be captured by an ABP model.

  14. Reducing implant-related infections: active release strategies.

    PubMed

    Hetrick, Evan M; Schoenfisch, Mark H

    2006-09-01

    Despite sterilization and aseptic procedures, bacterial infection remains a major impediment to the utility of medical implants including catheters, artificial prosthetics, and subcutaneous sensors. Indwelling devices are responsible for over half of all nosocomial infections, with an estimate of 1 million cases per year (2004) in the United States alone. Device-associated infections are the result of bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation at the implantation site. Although useful for relieving associated systemic infections, conventional antibiotic therapies remain ineffective against biofilms. Unfortunately, the lack of a suitable treatment often leaves extraction of the contaminated device as the only viable option for eliminating the biofilm. Much research has focused on developing polymers that resist bacterial adhesion for use as medical device coatings. This tutorial review focuses on coatings that release antimicrobial agents (i.e., active release strategies) for reducing the incidence of implant-associated infection. Following a brief introduction to bacteria, biofilms, and infection, the development and study of coatings that slowly release antimicrobial agents such as antibiotics, silver ions, antibodies, and nitric oxide are covered. The success and limitations of these strategies are highlighted.

  15. UTSI/CFFF MHD program completion and related activity

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Joel W. Muehlhauser; Dr. James N. Chapman

    1999-07-30

    Maintenance work on the DOE CFFF facility and other related government property remained in suspension in accordance with the stop work order issued by DOE. Environmental remediation and preservation of the facility continued. Final actions were completed to dispose of the soil that was contaminated by diesel oil. Actions are underway to dispose of other wastes. Progress is reported on the 5 high temperature superconductivity projects under Task 6. Results are reported for various techniques for annealing cold rolled nickel tapes and applying buffer layer by the Sol-Gel process. Included in the annealing/coating work is one case that involved oxidizing the nickel to nickel oxide which is textured before application of the buffer layer. Work under the Optimum Coated Conductor included issuing a topical report describing the work on grain boundary grooving in nickel substrates as a function of annealing temperature and time. Also, the work to evaluate the mutual effects of adjacent superconductors. In the cost/performance analysis project, completion of a study on the economics of production of coated conductors by the MOCVD process is reported. In the diagnostics for real time process control project, a topical report that outlines the requirements for control of promising manufacturing processes was submitted, additional work is reported on using absorption spectroscopy as the basis for control of the stoichiometry for the MOCVD process and the work on scatterometry for measuring uniformity of surfaces is summarized.

  16. Indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma primarily involving the hard palate: outcome following radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Sarah A; Yahalom, Joachim

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to report the clinical and pathological characteristics, treatment strategies and outcome in patients with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) primarily involving the hard palate. Nine consecutive patients with indolent NHL of the hard palate were identified. The palate was a site of initial disease for six patients (four stage IAE and two stage IIIAE) and of relapse for three. There were four cases of grade 1-2 follicular lymphoma (FL), two of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and three of marginal zone lymphoma (MZL). All nine patients received involved site radiation therapy (RT) alone. There was no grade ≥ 3 toxicity. At a median follow-up of 55 months, 5-year freedom from local progression was 100%, disease-free survival was 38% and overall survival was 80%. In conclusion, involved site RT is well tolerated and provides excellent local control in the management of indolent lymphoma of the hard palate. PMID:23083063

  17. Consensus Guidelines for Oral Dosing of Primarily Renally Cleared Medications in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Joseph T.; Aspinall, Sherrie L.; Semla, Todd P.; Weisbord, Steven D.; Fried, Linda F.; Good, C. Bernie; Fine, Michael J.; Stone, Roslyn A.; Pugh, Mary Jo V.; Rossi, Michelle I.; Handler, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To establish consensus oral dosing guidelines for primarily renally cleared medications prescribed for older adults. Design Two-round modified Delphi Survey. Participants Expert panel of 11 geriatric clinical pharmacists. Measurements After a comprehensive literature search and review by the investigative group of 6 physicians (2 from general internal medicine, 2 nephrologists, 2 geriatricians), 45 dosing recommendations for 30 medications at various levels of renal function were created. The expert panel rated their agreement with each of these 45 dosing recommendations using a 5-point Likert scale (1= strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree). Recommendation-specific means and 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Consensus was defined as a lower 95% confidence limit of >4.0 for the recommendation –specific mean score. Results The response rate was 81.8% (9/11) for the first round. All respondents that completed the first round also completed the second round. The expert panel reached consensus on 26 recommendations involving 18 (60%) medications. For 10 medications (chlorpropamide, colchicine, cotrimoxazole, glyburide, meperidine, nitrofurantoin, probenecid, propoxyphene, spironolactone, and triamterene), the consensus recommendation was not to use the medication in older adults below a specified level of renal function (e.g., creatinine clearance < 30 ml/min). For the remaining 8 medications (acyclovir, amantadine, ciprofloxacin, gabapentin, memantine, ranitidine, rimantadine, and valacyclovir), specific recommendations for dose reduction or interval extension were made. Conclusion An expert panel of geriatric clinical pharmacists was able to reach consensus agreement on a number of oral medications that are primarily renally cleared. PMID:19170784

  18. Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme activities in rheumatoid arthritis: hepatobiliary enzyme dissociation and relation to disease activity.

    PubMed Central

    Aida, S

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Hyperphosphatasaemia has been observed occasionally in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and it has been suggested that the serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level is related to the activity of the disease. Therefore, the relationship between serum ALP and RA was studied. METHODS--The serum activities of hepatobiliary enzymes (ALP isoenzymes, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GTP), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)), immunoglobulins, RA haemagglutinin test (RAHA), C reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were observed in 288 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. RESULTS--Serum biliary ALP (ALP1) activity was detected in 31.6% of the patients. In patients positive for ALP1 the respective values of total ALP (ALPt) (p < 0.001), liver ALP (ALP2) (p < 0.001), bone ALP (ALP3) (p < 0.05), gamma-GTP (p < 0.001), LAP (p < 0.001), immunoglobulins IgG (p < 0.01), IgA (p < 0.01), and IgM (p < 0.01), RAHA (p < 0.001), CRP (p < 0.001), ESR (p < 0.001), and articular index (p < 0.001) were significantly higher than in patients who did not have ALP1. Significant Spearman's rank correlations (rs) were demonstrated between serum ALP2 level and the respective values of ALPt (rs = 0.9128, p < 0.001), ALP1 (rs = 0.4443, p < 0.001), ALP3 (rs = 0.5898, p < 0.001), gamma-GTP (rs = 0.2903, p < 0.001), LAP (rs = 0.3093, p < 0.001), IgA (rs = 0.2299, p < 0.01), IgM (rs = 0.1773, p < 0.05), RAHA (rs = 0.2420, p < 0.01), CRP (rs = 0.3532, p < 0.001), ESR (rs = 0.4006, p < 0.001). the articular index (rs = 0.4006, p < 0.001). However, no significant difference or correlation was noted for either AST or ALT. In many patients who showed abnormal hyperphosphatasaemia, hepatobiliary enzyme dissociation was observed: levels of ALPt (in 12.8%), ALP1 (in 31.6%), ALP2 (18.8%), gamma-GTP (in 4.3%), and LAP (in 19.3%) were abnormally high, but both AST and ALT were within normal limits. CONCLUSION

  19. Sub-micrometre Particulate Matter is Primarily in Liquid Form over Amazon Rainforests

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, Adam P.; Gong, Z. H.; Liu, Pengfei; Sato, Bruno; Cirino, Glauber; Zhang, Yue; Artaxo, Paulo; Bertram, Allan K.; Manzi, A.; Rizzo, L. V.; Souza, Rodrigo A.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) occurs in the Earth’s atmosphere both in liquid and non-liquid forms. The physical state affects the available physical and chemical mechanisms of growth and reactivity, ultimately affecting the number, size, and composition of the atmospheric particle population. Herein, the physical state, including the response to relative humidity (RH), was investigated on-line and in real time for PM (< 1 μm) over the tropical rain forest of central Amazonia during both the wet and dry seasons of 2013. The results show that the PM was liquid for RH > 80% across 296 to 300 K. These results, in conjunction with the distributions of RH and temperature in Amazonia, imply that near-surface submicron PM in Amazonia is liquid most of the time. The observations are consistent with laboratory experiments showing that PM produced by isoprene photo-oxidation is liquid across these meteorological conditions. The findings have implications for the mechanisms of new particle production in Amazonia, the growth of submicron particles and hence dynamics of the cloud life cycle, and the sensitivity of these processes to anthropogenic activities. An approach for inclusion of particle physical state in chemical transport models is presented.

  20. Mechanisms mediating renal sympathetic nerve activation in obesity-related hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Leo, S; Weng, C; Yang, X; Wu, Y; Tang, X

    2015-04-01

    Excessive renal sympathetic nerve activation may be one of the mechanisms underlying obesity-related hypertension. Impaired baroreflex sensitivity, adipokine disorders-such as leptin, adiponectin, and resistin-activation of the renin-angiotensin system, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and renal sodium retention present in obesity increase renal sympathetic nerve activity, thus contributing to the development of hypertension. Renal sympathetic denervation reduces both renal sympathetic activity and blood pressure in patients with obesity-related hypertension.

  1. Biologically active protein fragments containing specific binding regions of serum albumin or related proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, biologically active protein fragments can be constructed which contain only those specific portions of the serum albumin family of proteins such as regions known as subdomains IIA and IIIA which are primarily responsible for the binding properties of the serum albumins. The artificial serums that can be prepared from these biologically active protein fragments are advantageous in that they can be produced much more easily than serums containing the whole albumin, yet still retain all or most of the original binding potential of the full albumin proteins. In addition, since the protein fragment serums of the present invention can be made from non-natural sources using conventional recombinant DNA techniques, they are far safer than serums containing natural albumin because they do not carry the potentially harmful viruses and other contaminants that will be found in the natural substances.

  2. Continuous auroral activity related to high speed streams with interplaneraty ALFV&N wave trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guarnieri, Fernando L.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Kamide, Yosuke; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2004-01-01

    We discuss a type of intense magnetospheric/auroral activity that is not always substorms: High-Intensity, Long-Duration, Continuous AE Activity (HILDCAA) events, which occur during high speed solar wind streams. The high speed streams contain large-amplitude, nonlinear Alfvtn waves. Analyses of POLAR UV images, demonstrate that the AE increases/AL decreases in HILDCAAs are not always substorm expansion phases (although some substorms may occur). The associated auroral W energy deposition is throughout a continuous (360') auroral oval. During some image intervals, the dayside aurora is the most remarkable feature. Our hypothesis is that solar wind energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere/ionosphere is primarily directly driven due to the finite wavelength Alfv6n waves and the rapid dBz/dt variability.

  3. Relation between chemical composition or antioxidant activity and antihypertensive activity for six essential oils.

    PubMed

    Yvon, Yan; Raoelison, Emmanuel Guy; Razafindrazaka, René; Randriantsoa, Adolphe; Romdhane, Mehrez; Chabir, Naziha; Mkaddem, Mounira Guedri; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2012-08-01

    Six essential oils (EOs), Juniperus phoenicea (leaves and berries), Thymus capitatus, Lauris nobilis, Melaleuca armillaris, and Eucalyptus gracilis, were screened for their antioxidant and antihypertensive activity as well as their chemical compositions. We identified and quantified 24 compounds (representing 99.8% of total oil) for J. phoenicea leaves, 14 compounds (representing 98.8% of total oil) for J. phoenicea berries, 11 compounds (representing 99.6% of total oil) for T. capitatus, 32 compounds (representing 98.9% of total oil) for L. nobilis, 32 compounds (representing 98.7% of total oil) for M. armillaris, and 26 compounds (representing 99.3% of total oil) for E. gracilis. In the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the antioxidant activity was in the range of 0.59 to 2183.6 mg/L, whereas T. capitatus (1.24 ± 0.05 mg/L) gave the best activity in the 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate assay. Antihypertensive activity was evaluated by testing the vasorelaxing capacity of EOs on rat aorta precontracted by phenylephrine (10(-6) M). T. capitatus and L. nobilis were most active for an antihypertensive activity (29 ± 3 and 59 ± 2 mg/L, respectively). Correlations between chemical composition or antioxidant activity and/or antihypertensive activity were studied. Significant correlation has been found for antihypertensive activity and p-cymene (R(2) = 0.86), β-elemene (R(2) = 0.90), and β-myrcene (R(2) = 0.76). A good correlation has been found between antihypertensive activity and antioxidant activity by DPPH assay (R(2) = 0.98). Antioxidant activity can contribute to the prevention of the increase of the blood pressure. According to the literature, no study has been reported until now of correlation between antihypertensive activity and antioxidant activity. Natural EOs can find its interest and application in a medicinal area. PMID:22860587

  4. Activation of the human sensorimotor cortex during error-related processing: a magnetoencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Stemmer, Brigitte; Vihla, Minna; Salmelin, Riitta

    2004-05-13

    We studied error-related processing using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Previous event-related potential studies have documented error negativity or error-related negativity after incorrect responses, with a suggested source in the anterior cingulate cortex or supplementary motor area. We compared activation elicited by correct and incorrect trials using auditory and visual choice-reaction time tasks. Source areas showing different activation patterns in correct and error conditions were mainly located in sensorimotor areas, both ipsi- and contralateral to the response, suggesting that activation of sensorimotor circuits accompanies error processing. Additional activation at various other locations suggests a distributed network of brain regions active during error-related processing. Activation specific to incorrect trials tended to occur later in MEG than EEG data, possibly indicating that EEG and MEG detect different neural networks involved in error-related processes.

  5. Glutamate Synaptic Inputs to Ventral Tegmental Area Neurons in the Rat Derive Primarily from Subcortical Sources

    PubMed Central

    Omelchenko, Natalia; Sesack, Susan R.

    2007-01-01

    Dopamine and GABA neurons in the ventral tegmental area project to the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex and modulate locomotor and reward behaviors as well as cognitive and affective processes. Both midbrain cell types receive synapses from glutamate afferents that provide an essential control of behaviorally-linked activity patterns, although the sources of glutamate inputs have not yet been completely characterized. We used antibodies against the vesicular glutamate transporters VGlut1 and VGlut2 to investigate the morphology and synaptic organization of axons containing these proteins as putative markers of glutamate afferents from cortical versus subcortical sites, respectively. We also characterized the ventral tegmental area cell populations receiving VGlut1+ or VGlut2+ synapses according to their transmitter phenotype (dopamine or GABA) and major projection target (nucleus accumbens or prefrontal cortex). By light and electron microscopic examination, VGlut2+ as opposed to VGlut1+ axon terminals were more numerous, had a larger average size, synapsed more proximally, and were more likely to form convergent synapses onto the same target. Both axon types formed predominantly asymmetric synapses, although VGlut2+ terminals more often formed synapses with symmetric morphology. No absolute selectivity was observed for VGlut1+ or VGlut2+ axons to target any particular cell population. However, the synapses onto mesoaccumbens neurons more often involved VGlut2+ terminals, whereas mesoprefrontal neurons received relatively equal synaptic inputs from VGlut1+ and VGlut2+ profiles. The distinct morphological features of VGlut1 and VGlut2 positive axons suggest that glutamate inputs from presumed cortical and subcortical sources, respectively, differ in the nature and intensity of their physiological actions on midbrain neurons. More specifically, our findings imply that subcortical glutamate inputs to the ventral tegmental area expressing VGlut2 predominate over

  6. Myocardin-related transcription factor-A controls myofibroblast activation and fibrosis in response to myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Small, Eric M.; Thatcher, Jeffrey E.; Sutherland, Lillian B.; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Gerard, Robert D.; Richardson, James A.; DiMaio, J. Michael; Sadek, Hesham; Kuwahara, Koichiro; Olson, Eric N.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Myocardial infarction (MI) results in loss of cardiac myocytes in the ischemic zone of the heart followed by fibrosis and scar formation, which diminish cardiac contractility and impede angiogenesis and repair. Myofibroblasts, a specialized cell type that switches from a fibroblast-like state to a contractile, smooth muscle-like state, are believed to be primarily responsible for fibrosis of the injured heart and other tissues, although the transcriptional mediators of fibrosis and myofibroblast activation remain poorly defined. Myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs) are SRF co-factors that promote a smooth muscle phenotype and are emerging as components of stress-responsive signaling. Objective We aimed to examine the effect of MRTF-A on cardiac remodeling and fibrosis. Methods and Results Here we show that MRTF-A controls the expression of a fibrotic gene program that includes genes involved in extracellular matrix production and smooth muscle cell differentiation in the heart. In MRTF-A null mice, fibrosis and scar formation following MI or Angiotensin (Ang) II treatment are dramatically diminished compared with wild-type littermates. This protective effect of MRTF-A deletion is associated with a reduction in expression of fibrosis-associated genes, including collagen 1a2, a direct transcriptional target of SRF/MRTF-A. Conclusions We conclude that MRTF-A regulates myofibroblast activation and fibrosis in response to the renin-angiotensin system and post-MI remodeling. PMID:20558820

  7. Interest of active posturography to detect age-related and early Parkinson's disease-related impairments in mediolateral postural control.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Cédrick T; Delval, Arnaud; Defebvre, Luc

    2014-11-15

    Patients with Parkinson's disease display impairments of postural control most particularly in active, challenging conditions. The objective of the present study was to analyze early signs of disease-related and also age-related impairments in mediolateral body extension and postural control. Fifty-five participants (18 Hoehn and Yahr stage 2 patients in the off-drug condition, 18 healthy elderly control subjects, and 19 young adults) were included in the study. The participants performed a quiet stance task and two active tasks that analyzed the performance in mediolateral body motion: a limit of stability and a rhythmic weight shift task. As expected, the patients displayed significantly lower and slower body displacement (head, neck, lower back, center of pressure) than elderly control subjects when performing the two body excursion tasks. However, the behavioral variability in both tasks was similar between the groups. Under these active conditions, the patients showed significantly lower contribution of the hip postural control mechanisms compared with the elderly control subjects. Overall, the patients seemed to lower their performance in order to prevent a mediolateral postural instability. However, these patients, at an early stage of their disease, were not unstable in quiet stance. Complementarily, elderly control subjects displayed slower body performance than young adults, which therefore showed an additional age-related impairment in mediolateral postural control. Overall, the study illustrated markers of age-related and Parkinson's disease impairments in mediolateral postural control that may constrain everyday activities in elderly adults and even more in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  8. Activities, self-referent memory beliefs, and cognitive performance: evidence for direct and mediated relations.

    PubMed

    Jopp, Daniela; Hertzog, Christopher

    2007-12-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the role of activities and self-referent memory beliefs for cognitive performance in a life-span sample. A factor analysis identified 8 activity factors, including Developmental Activities, Experiential Activities, Social Activities, Physical Activities, Technology Use, Watching Television, Games, and Crafts. A second-order general activity factor was significantly related to a general factor of cognitive function as defined by ability tests. Structural regression models suggested that prediction of cognition by activity level was partially mediated by memory beliefs, controlling for age, education, health, and depressive affect. Models adding paths from general and specific activities to aspects of crystallized intelligence suggested additional unique predictive effects for some activities. In alternative models, nonsignificant effects of beliefs on activities were detected when cognition predicted both variables, consistent with the hypothesis that beliefs derive from monitoring cognition and have no influence on activity patterns. PMID:18179299

  9. The integrated dayside merging rate is controlled primarily by the solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Ramon E.

    2016-05-01

    An argument is presented to support the view that the rate of merging between the geomagnetic field and the interplanetary magnetic field across the dayside magnetosphere is controlled primarily by the solar wind parameters. The controlling parameters are the solar wind electric field in the Earth's frame of reference and the solar wind magnetosonic fast mode Mach number. These factors control to first order the total amount of magnetic flux that is carried by the magnetosheath flow to the dayside merging region. We argue that the global dayside merging rate is governed by the amount of flux that is delivered to the dayside merging line by the magnetosheath flow. The ionospheric conductance also plays an important role by modulating the shape of the magnetospheric obstacle around which the magnetosheath flow is deflected. The local conditions at the magnetopause, especially changes in magnetospheric plasma density will affect the local reconnection rate, but not the global dayside merging rate because to change the global merging rate the entire pattern of magnetosheath flow must be changed. The conceptual model presented here can explain how dayside merging depends on solar wind values, including both linear and nonlinear dependencies, through the application of a single, unifying perspective, without the need for ad hoc mechanisms that limit the dayside merging rate.

  10. Spontaneous reports of primarily suspected herbal hepatotoxicity by Pelargonium sidoides: was causality adequately ascertained?

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2012-06-01

    Spontaneous reports of primarily assumed hepatotoxicity in connection with the use of Pelargonium sidoides (PS) have been interpreted by the Drug Commission of the German Medical Association (DCGMA) as showing some hepatotoxic potential of PS used to treat common cold and other respiratory tract infections. Causality for PS was assessed using the liver specific, structured, quantitative, and updated scale of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS). In none of the 15 cases was there a highly probable or probable causality for PS. Analysis revealed confounding factors such as numerous final diagnoses unrelated to PS and poor data quality in virtually all cases. In only a minority of the cases were data provided to consider even common other diseases of the liver. For instance, biliary tract imaging data were available in only 3 patients; data to exclude virus infections by hepatitis A-C were provided in 4 cases and by CMV and EBV in 1 case, whereas HSV and VZV virus infections remained unconsidered. Thus, convincing evidence is lacking that PS was a potential hepatotoxin in the analyzed cases.

  11. Dehaloperoxidase-hemoglobin from Amphitrite ornata is primarily a monomer in solution.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew K; Franzen, Stefan; Davis, Michael F; Oliver, Ryan C; Krueger, Joanna K

    2011-04-14

    The crystal structures of the dehaloperoxidase-hemoglobin from A. ornata (DHP A) each report a crystallographic dimer in the unit cell. Yet, the largest dimer interface observed is 450 Å(2), an area significantly smaller than the typical value of 1200-2000 Å(2) and in contrast to the extensive interface region of other known dimeric hemoglobins. To examine the oligomerization state of DHP A in solution, we used gel permeation by fast protein liquid chromatography and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Gel permeation experiments demonstrate that DHP A elutes as a monomer (15.5 kDa) and can be separated from green fluorescent protein, which has a molar mass of 27 kDa, near the 31 kDa expected for the DHP A dimer. By SAXS, we found that DHP A is primarily monomeric in solution, but with a detectable level of dimer (~10%), under all conditions studied up to a protein concentration of 3.0 mM. These concentrations are likely 10-100-fold lower than the K(d) for dimer formation. Additionally, there was no significant effect either on the overall conformation of DHP A or its monomer-dimer equilibrium upon addition of the DHP A inhibitor, 4-iodophenol. PMID:21417234

  12. Audiovisual contrast enhancement is articulated primarily via the M-pathway.

    PubMed

    Jaekl, Philip M; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2010-12-17

    Although it has been previously reported that audiovisual integration can modulate performance on some visual tasks, multisensory interactions have not been explicitly assessed in the context of different visual processing pathways. In the present study, we test auditory influences on visual processing employing a psychophysical paradigm that reveals distinct spatial contrast signatures of magnocellular and parvocellular visual pathways. We found that contrast thresholds are reduced when noninformative sounds are presented with transient, low-frequency Gabor patch stimuli and thus favor the M-system. In contrast, visual thresholds are unaffected by concurrent sounds when detection is primarily attributed to P-pathway processing. These results demonstrate that the visual detection enhancement resulting from multisensory integration is mainly articulated by the magnocellular system, which is most sensitive at low spatial frequencies. Such enhancement may subserve stimulus-driven processes including the orientation of spatial attention and fast, automatic ocular and motor responses. This dissociation helps explain discrepancies between the results of previous studies investigating visual enhancement by sounds.

  13. Habitat-specific environmental conditions primarily control the microbiomes of the coral Seriatopora hystrix.

    PubMed

    Pantos, Olga; Bongaerts, Pim; Dennis, Paul G; Tyson, Gene W; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2015-09-01

    Reef-building corals form complex relationships with a range of microorganisms including bacteria, archaea, fungi and the unicellular microalgae of the genus Symbiodinium, which together form the coral holobiont. These symbionts are known to have both beneficial and deleterious effects on their coral host, but little is known about what the governing factors of these relationships are, or the interactions that exist between the different members of the holobiont and their environment. Here we used 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing to investigate how archaeal and bacterial communities associated with the widespread scleractinian coral Seriatopora hystrix are influenced by extrinsic (reef habitat and geographic location) and intrinsic (host genotype and Symbiodinium subclade) factors. Bacteria dominate the microbiome of S. hystrix, with members of the Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteriodetes being the most predominant in all samples. The richness and evenness of these communities varied between reef habitats, but there was no significant difference between distinct coral host lineages or corals hosting distinct Symbiodinium subclades. The coral microbiomes correlated to reef habitat (depth) and geographic location, with a negative correlation between Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, driven by the key members of both groups (Rhodobacteraceae and Hahellaceae, respectively), which showed significant differences between location and depth. This study suggests that the control of microbial communities associated with the scleractinian coral S. hystrix is driven primarily by external environmental conditions rather than by those directly associated with the coral holobiont.

  14. Floral biology of two Vanilloideae (Orchidaceae) primarily adapted to pollination by euglossine bees.

    PubMed

    Pansarin, E R; Pansarin, L M

    2014-11-01

    Vanilloideae comprises 15 genera distributed worldwide, among which are Vanilla and Epistephium (tribe Vanilleae). Based on field and laboratory investigations, the pollination biology of V. dubia and E. sclerophyllum was analysed. The former was surveyed in a semi-deciduous mesophytic forest at the biological reserve of Serra do Japi and in a marshy forest at the city of Pradópolis, southeastern Brazil. The latter was examined in rocky outcrop vegetation in the Chapada Diamantina, northeastern Brazil. In the studied populations, the tubular flowers of V. dubia and E. sclerophyllum were pollinated by bees. Pollen was deposited on either their scutellum (V. dubia) or scutum (E. sclerophyllum). The mentum region of V. dubia is dry, whereas that of E. sclerophyllum presents a small quantity of dilute nectar. Flowers of E. sclerophyllum are scentless, while those of V. dubia are odoriferous. Although V. dubia is self-compatible, it needs a pollinator to produce fruit. In contrast, E. sclerophyllum sets fruit through spontaneous self-pollination, but biotic pollination also occurs. Both species are primarily adapted to pollination by euglossine bees. Pollination by Euglossina seems to have occurred at least twice during the evolution of Vanilleae. Furthermore, shifts between rewarding and reward-free flowers and between autogamous and allogamous species have been reported among vanillas.

  15. Visual processing of informative multipoint correlations arises primarily in V2.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yunguo; Schmid, Anita M; Victor, Jonathan D

    2015-04-27

    Using the visual system as a model, we recently showed that the efficient coding principle accounted for the allocation of computational resources in central sensory processing: when sampling an image is the main limitation, resources are devoted to compute the statistical features that are the most variable, and therefore the most informative (eLife 2014;3:e03722. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.03722 Hermundstad et al., 2014). Building on these results, we use single-unit recordings in the macaque monkey to determine where these computations--sensitivity to specific multipoint correlations--occur. We find that these computations take place in visual area V2, primarily in its supragranular layers. The demonstration that V2 neurons are sensitive to the multipoint correlations that are informative about natural images provides a common computational underpinning for diverse but well-recognized aspects of neural processing in V2, including its sensitivity to corners, junctions, illusory contours, figure/ground, and 'naturalness.'

  16. Habitat-specific environmental conditions primarily control the microbiomes of the coral Seriatopora hystrix

    PubMed Central

    Pantos, Olga; Bongaerts, Pim; Dennis, Paul G; Tyson, Gene W; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Reef-building corals form complex relationships with a range of microorganisms including bacteria, archaea, fungi and the unicellular microalgae of the genus Symbiodinium, which together form the coral holobiont. These symbionts are known to have both beneficial and deleterious effects on their coral host, but little is known about what the governing factors of these relationships are, or the interactions that exist between the different members of the holobiont and their environment. Here we used 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing to investigate how archaeal and bacterial communities associated with the widespread scleractinian coral Seriatopora hystrix are influenced by extrinsic (reef habitat and geographic location) and intrinsic (host genotype and Symbiodinium subclade) factors. Bacteria dominate the microbiome of S. hystrix, with members of the Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteriodetes being the most predominant in all samples. The richness and evenness of these communities varied between reef habitats, but there was no significant difference between distinct coral host lineages or corals hosting distinct Symbiodinium subclades. The coral microbiomes correlated to reef habitat (depth) and geographic location, with a negative correlation between Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, driven by the key members of both groups (Rhodobacteraceae and Hahellaceae, respectively), which showed significant differences between location and depth. This study suggests that the control of microbial communities associated with the scleractinian coral S. hystrix is driven primarily by external environmental conditions rather than by those directly associated with the coral holobiont. PMID:25668159

  17. Dehaloperoxidase-Hemoglobin from Amphitrite ornata Is Primarily a Monomer in Solution

    SciTech Connect

    M Thompson; S Franzen; M Davis; R Oliver; j Krueger; J Tredup; C Chang; J Khan; E Baldwin

    2011-12-31

    The crystal structures of the dehaloperoxidase-hemoglobin from A. ornata (DHP A) each report a crystallographic dimer in the unit cell. Yet, the largest dimer interface observed is 450 {angstrom}{sup 2}, an area significantly smaller than the typical value of 1200-2000 {angstrom}{sup 2} and in contrast to the extensive interface region of other known dimeric hemoglobins. To examine the oligomerization state of DHP A in solution, we used gel permeation by fast protein liquid chromatography and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Gel permeation experiments demonstrate that DHP A elutes as a monomer (15.5 kDa) and can be separated from green fluorescent protein, which has a molar mass of 27 kDa, near the 31 kDa expected for the DHP A dimer. By SAXS, we found that DHP A is primarily monomeric in solution, but with a detectable level of dimer (10%), under all conditions studied up to a protein concentration of 3.0 mM. These concentrations are likely 10-100-fold lower than the K{sub d} for dimer formation. Additionally, there was no significant effect either on the overall conformation of DHP A or its monomer-dimer equilibrium upon addition of the DHP A inhibitor, 4-iodophenol.

  18. Habitat-specific environmental conditions primarily control the microbiomes of the coral Seriatopora hystrix.

    PubMed

    Pantos, Olga; Bongaerts, Pim; Dennis, Paul G; Tyson, Gene W; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2015-09-01

    Reef-building corals form complex relationships with a range of microorganisms including bacteria, archaea, fungi and the unicellular microalgae of the genus Symbiodinium, which together form the coral holobiont. These symbionts are known to have both beneficial and deleterious effects on their coral host, but little is known about what the governing factors of these relationships are, or the interactions that exist between the different members of the holobiont and their environment. Here we used 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing to investigate how archaeal and bacterial communities associated with the widespread scleractinian coral Seriatopora hystrix are influenced by extrinsic (reef habitat and geographic location) and intrinsic (host genotype and Symbiodinium subclade) factors. Bacteria dominate the microbiome of S. hystrix, with members of the Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteriodetes being the most predominant in all samples. The richness and evenness of these communities varied between reef habitats, but there was no significant difference between distinct coral host lineages or corals hosting distinct Symbiodinium subclades. The coral microbiomes correlated to reef habitat (depth) and geographic location, with a negative correlation between Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, driven by the key members of both groups (Rhodobacteraceae and Hahellaceae, respectively), which showed significant differences between location and depth. This study suggests that the control of microbial communities associated with the scleractinian coral S. hystrix is driven primarily by external environmental conditions rather than by those directly associated with the coral holobiont. PMID:25668159

  19. Physical activity in people with asbestos related pleural disease and dust-related interstitial lung disease: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Dale, Marita T; McKeough, Zoe J; Munoz, Phillip A; Corte, Peter; Bye, Peter T P; Alison, Jennifer A

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to measure the levels of physical activity (PA) in people with dust-related pleural and interstitial lung diseases and to compare these levels of PA to a healthy population. There is limited data on PA in this patient population and no previous studies have compared PA in people with dust-related respiratory diseases to a healthy control group. Participants with a diagnosis of a dust-related respiratory disease including asbestosis and asbestos related pleural disease (ARPD) and a healthy age- and gender-matched population wore the SenseWear(®) Pro3 armband for 9 days. Six-minute walk distance, Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form health survey and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were also measured. Fifty participants were recruited and 46 completed the study; 22 with ARPD, 10 with dust-related interstitial lung disease (ILD) and 14 healthy age-matched participants. The mean (standard deviation) steps/day were 6097 (1939) steps/day for dust-related ILD, 9150 (3392) steps/day for ARPD and 10,630 (3465) steps/day for healthy participants. Compared with the healthy participants, dust-related ILD participants were significantly less active as measured by steps/day ((mean difference 4533 steps/day (95% confidence interval (CI): 1888-7178)) and energy expenditure, ((mean difference 512 calories (95% CI: 196-827)) and spent significantly less time engaging in moderate, vigorous or very vigorous activities (i.e. >3 metabolic equivalents; mean difference 1.2 hours/day (95% CI: 0.4-2.0)). There were no differences in levels of PA between healthy participants and those with ARPD. PA was reduced in people with dust-related ILD but not those with ARPD when compared with healthy age and gender-matched individuals.

  20. Expression of transferrin receptors on mitogen-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes: relation to cellular activation and related metabolic events.

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, R M; Galbraith, G M

    1981-01-01

    Mitogen-activated normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes bind transferrin to specific membrane receptors. In this study, lymphocytes stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin for 0-66 hr were examined to determine the relation of this phenomenon to cellular activation and related metabolic events. Transferrin receptors were first detected at 20-24 hr. This event was consistently preceded by RNA and protein turnover which commenced during the first 6 hr of culture, whereas initiation of DNA synthesis was detected concurrently with the appearance of receptors or slightly later (24-30 hr). Exposure of cells to inhibitors of RNA and protein synthesis early during culture (at 0 or 24 hr) prevented the expression of transferrin receptors, but also caused generalized metabolic failure, and abrogated cellular activation. In contrast, later addition of these agents at 48 hr did not interfere significantly with the process of activation, but did suppress the terminal increase in receptor-bearing cells observed during the final 18 hr in control cultures lacking inhibitor. After deliberate thermal stripping of receptors from activated cells, the reappearance of membrance binding sites which normally occurred within 30 min, was also blocked by cycloheximide, puromycin and actinomycin D. However, similar inhibition of DNA which was induced by hydroxyurea had much less effect upon both the initial appearance of receptors and their reappearance after ligand-induced depletion. These results demonstrate that the appearance of transferrin receptors upon human lymphocytes is dependent upon cellular activation and requires synthesis of protein and RNA. PMID:6172372

  1. Spatial Rotation and Recognizing Emotions: Gender Related Differences in Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments, gender and ability (performance and emotional intelligence) related differences in brain activity--assessed with EEG methodology--while respondents were solving a spatial rotation tasks and identifying emotions in faces were investigated. The most robust gender related difference in brain activity was observed in the lower-2…

  2. Parental Social Support and the Physical Activity-Related Behaviors of Youth: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Alderman, Brandon L.

    2010-01-01

    Social support from parents serves as one of the primary influences of youth physical activity-related behaviors. A systematic review was conducted on the relationship of parental social support to the physical activity-related behaviors of youth. Four categories of social support were identified, falling under two distinct mechanisms--tangible…

  3. Elementary Physical Education Teachers' Content Knowledge of Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Jose A.; Disch, James G.; Morales, Julio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine elementary physical education teachers' content knowledge of physical activity and health-related fitness. Sixty-four female and 24 male teachers completed the Appropriate Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness test. Descriptive statistics results indicated that the mean percentage score for the test…

  4. 12 CFR 225.126 - Activities not closely related to banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities not closely related to banking. 225.126 Section 225.126 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE... Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.126 Activities not closely related to banking. Pursuant...

  5. 12 CFR 225.126 - Activities not closely related to banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Activities not closely related to banking. 225.126 Section 225.126 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE... Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.126 Activities not closely related to banking. Pursuant...

  6. 76 FR 33721 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Harbor Activities Related to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... 3, 2010 (74 FR 46742, September 11, 2009). The Delta IV/EELV launch vehicle is comprised of a common... activities). NMFS outlined the purpose of the program in the Notice of Proposed IHA (76 FR 21862, April 19, 2011). The activities to be conducted have not changed between the Notice of Proposed IHA (76 FR...

  7. 76 FR 21862 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Harbor Activities Related to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... not limited to, migration, breathing, nursing, breeding, feeding, or sheltering . Summary of Request... support Delta IV/EELV launch activities from the Space Launch Complex at VAFB Harbor and would occur in... the same activities from 2002 to 2010, with the last IHA expiring on September 3, 2010 (74 FR...

  8. Abstracts in Adapted Physical Activity (AAPA). Volume I: Research on Mentally Handicapped Individuals in Relation to Physical Activity Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, Michael J.

    The bibliography contains 150 annotated citations of research articles on individuals with mental retardation who were studied in relation to their physical activity settings. Citations provide information on the title, author, journal or related document in which the article appears, and the content or focus of the article. Citations are indexed…

  9. Does Increasing Community and Liquor Licensees’ Awareness, Police Activity, and Feedback Reduce Alcohol-Related Violent Crime? A Benefit-Cost Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Héctor José; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher M.; Petrie, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees’ awareness, police activity, and feedback) on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions. PMID:24169411

  10. Does increasing community and liquor licensees' awareness, police activity, and feedback reduce alcohol-related violent crime? A benefit-cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Héctor José; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher M; Petrie, Dennis J

    2013-10-28

    Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees' awareness, police activity, and feedback) on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions.

  11. Chapter 6: Children's Environmental Access in Relation to Motor Competence, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Woods, Amelia Mays; Woods, Martha K.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine levels of physical activity engagement, motor competence, and physical fitness as related to child access to physical activity facilities in the home and school environments. The present investigation attempts to further efforts to examine the relationship between physical activity levels and access.…

  12. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Physical Activity in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Brown, William H.; McIver, Kerry L.; Howie, Erin K.; Dowda, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to highlight important research needs related to physical activity in 3-to 5-year-old children. We identified research needs in 3 major categories: health effects, patterns of physical activity, and interventions and policies. The top research needs include identifying the health effects of physical activity, the…

  13. The effects of altitude training are mediated primarily by acclimatization, rather than by hypoxic exercise.

    PubMed

    Levine, B D; Stray-Gundersen, J

    2001-01-01

    For training at altitude to be effective, it must provide some advantage above and beyond similar training at sea level. This advantage could be provided by: 1) acclimatization to altitude which improves oxygen transport and/or utilization; 2) hypoxic exercise which "intensifies" the training stimulus; or 3) some combination of both. Controlled studies of "typical" altitude training, involving both altitude acclimatization and hypoxic exercise have never been shown to improve sea level performance. This failure has been attributed to reduced training loads at altitude. One approach developed by Levine and Stray-Gundersen, called "living high-training low" has been shown to improve sea level performance over events lasting 8-20 minutes. This strategy combines altitude acclimatization (2,500 m) with low altitude training to get the optimal effect. The opposite strategy, "living low-training high" is proposed by Dr. Hoppeler in this debate. In defense of the primacy of the altitude acclimatization effect, data will be presented to support the following: 1). Living high-training low clearly improves performance in athletes of all abilities; 2). The mechanism of this improvement is primarily an increase in erythropoietin leading to increased red cell mass, VO2max, and running performance; 3). Rather than intensifying the training stimulus, training at altitude leads to the opposite effect--reduced speeds, reduced power output, reduced oxygen flux--and, following the principal of symmorphosis, is not likely to provide any advantage for a well trained athlete; 4). At the moderate altitudes used by most athletes, resting oxygen delivery to skeletal muscle is well preserved, arguing against any detrimental effect on "protein synthesis"; 5). It is possible however, that at significantly higher altitudes, acclimatization leads to appetite suppression, inhibition of protein synthesis, muscle wasting, excessive ventilatory work, and metabolic compensation that is NOT

  14. Pituitary tumor disappearance in a patient with newly diagnosed acromegaly primarily treated with octreotide LAR.

    PubMed

    Resmini, E; Murialdo, G; Giusti, M; Boschetti, M; Minuto, F; Ferone, D

    2005-02-01

    We describe the case of an acromegalic patient primarily treated with octreotide LAR in whom the pituitary tumor disappeared after 18 months of treatment. A 68-yr-old woman, with clinical suspicion of acromegaly, was admitted to our Unit with the ultrasonographical evidence of cardiac hypertrophy, arrhythmias, right branch block and interatrial septum aneurism. She referred hands and feet enlargement since the age of 30 and facial disfigurements since the age of 50. At the age of 45 she underwent surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome and at the age of 61 an euthyroid nodular goiter was diagnosed. Hormonal evaluation showed elevated circulating GH levels (25+/-3.2 ng/ml), not suppressible after oral glucose load, and elevated IGF-I levels (646 ng/ml), whereas the remaining pituitary function was normal. Visual perimetry was normal, whereas magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an intrasellar pituitary adenoma with maximal diameter of 9 mm. In order to improve cardiovascular function before surgery, the patient started octreotide LAR 20 mg every 4 weeks for 3 months. Then based on IGF-I values, the dose was adjusted to 30 mg. After 6 months a second MRI showed significant tumor reduction (>50% of baseline maximal diameter), GH and IGF-I were within the normal range and the patient continued the treatment. After one-year therapy, an improvement of cardiac alterations was recorded and the patient was referred to the neurosurgeon. However, she refused the operation. At 18-month follow-up, MRI showed the complete disappearance of direct and indirect signs of pituitary adenoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case of complete radiological remission of pituitary tumor during octreotide LAR treatment in acromegaly.

  15. In vitro metabolism of piperaquine is primarily mediated by CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tina Ming-Na; Huang, Liusheng; Johnson, Marla K.; Lizak, Patricia; Kroetz, Deanna; Aweeka, Francesca; Parikh, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Piperaquine (PQ) is part of a first-line treatment regimen for Plasmodium falciparum malaria recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). We aimed to determine the major metabolic pathway(s) of PQ in vitro. A reliable, validated tandem mass spectrometry method was developed. Concentrations of PQ were measured after incubation with both human liver microsomes (HLMs) and expressed cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s). In pooled HLMs, incubations with an initial PQ concentration of 0.3 µM resulted in a 34.8 ± 4.9% loss of substrate over 60 min, corresponding to a turnover rate of 0.009 min−1 (r2 = 0.9223). Miconazole, at nonspecific P450 inhibitory concentrations, resulted in almost complete inhibition of PQ metabolism. The greatest inhibition was demonstrated with selective CYP3A4 (100%) and CYP2C8 (66%) inhibitors. Using a mixture of recombinant P450 enzymes, turnover for PQ metabolism was estimated as 0.0099 min−1; recombinant CYP3A4 had a higher metabolic rate (0.017 min−1) than recombinant CYP2C8 (p < .0001). Inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated PQ loss was greatest using the selective inhibitor ketoconazole (9.1 ± 3.5% loss with ketoconazole vs 60.7 ± 5.9% with no inhibitor, p < .0001). In summary, the extent of inhibition of in vitro metabolism with ketoconazole (83%) denotes that PQ appears to be primarily catalyzed by CYP3A4. Further studies to support these findings through the identification and characterization of PQ metabolites are planned. PMID:22671777

  16. Cross-language activation of morphological relatives in cognates: the role of orthographic overlap and task-related processing.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Kimberley; Dijkstra, Ton; Baayen, R Harald

    2015-01-01

    We considered the role of orthography and task-related processing mechanisms in the activation of morphologically related complex words during bilingual word processing. So far, it has only been shown that such morphologically related words (i.e., morphological family members) are activated through the semantic and morphological overlap they share with the target word. In this study, we investigated family size effects in Dutch-English identical cognates (e.g., tent in both languages), non-identical cognates (e.g., pil and pill, in English and Dutch, respectively), and non-cognates (e.g., chicken in English). Because of their cross-linguistic overlap in orthography, reading a cognate can result in activation of family members both languages. Cognates are therefore well-suited for studying mechanisms underlying bilingual activation of morphologically complex words. We investigated family size effects in an English lexical decision task and a Dutch-English language decision task, both performed by Dutch-English bilinguals. English lexical decision showed a facilitatory effect of English and Dutch family size on the processing of English-Dutch cognates relative to English non-cognates. These family size effects were not dependent on cognate type. In contrast, for language decision, in which a bilingual context is created, Dutch and English family size effects were inhibitory. Here, the combined family size of both languages turned out to better predict reaction time than the separate family size in Dutch or English. Moreover, the combined family size interacted with cognate type: the response to identical cognates was slowed by morphological family members in both languages. We conclude that (1) family size effects are sensitive to the task performed on the lexical items, and (2) depend on both semantic and formal aspects of bilingual word processing. We discuss various mechanisms that can explain the observed family size effects in a spreading activation framework.

  17. Functional properties of monkey caudate neurons. III. Activities related to expectation of target and reward.

    PubMed

    Hikosaka, O; Sakamoto, M; Usui, S

    1989-04-01

    1. The present paper reports complex neural activities in the monkey caudate nucleus that precede and anticipate visual stimuli and reward in learned visuomotor paradigms. These activities were revealed typically in the delayed saccade task in which memory and anticipation were required. We classified these activities according to their relationships to the task. 2. Activity related to expectation of a cue (n = 46) preceded the presentation of a spot of light (target cue) that signified the future location of saccade target. When the target cue was delayed, the activity was prolonged accordingly. The same spot of light was preceded by no activity if it acted as a distracting stimulus. 3. The sustained activity (n = 80) was a tonic discharge starting after the target cue as if holding the spatial information. 4. The activity related to expectation of target (n = 109) preceded the appearance of the target whose location was cued previously. It started with or after a saccade to the cued target location and ended with the appearance of the target. The activity was greater when the target was expected to appear in the contralateral visual field. 5. The activity related to expectation of reward (n = 57) preceded a task-specific reward. It started with the appearance of the final target and ended with the reward. In most cases, the activity was nonselective for how the monkey obtained the reward, i.e., by visual fixation only, by a saccade, or by a hand movement. The activity was dependent partly on visual fixation. 6. A few neurons showed tonic activity selectively before lever release and are thus considered to be related to the preparation of hand movements. 7. The activity related to breaking fixation (n = 33) occurred phasically if the monkey broke fixation, aborting the trial. 8. Activity related to reward (n = 104) was a phasic discharge that occurred before or after a reward of water was delivered. The activity was not simply related to a specific movement

  18. Cognitive training-related changes in hippocampal activity associated with recollection in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kirchhoff, Brenda A.; Anderson, Benjamin A.; Smith, Staci E.; Barch, Deanna M.; Jacoby, Larry L.

    2013-01-01

    Impairments in the ability to recollect specific details of personally experienced events are one of the main cognitive changes associated with aging. Cognitive training can improve older adults’ recollection. However, little is currently known regarding the neural correlates of these training-related changes in recollection. Prior research suggests that the hippocampus plays a central role in supporting recollection in young and older adults, and that age-related changes in hippocampal function may lead to age-related changes in recollection. The present study investigated whether cognitive training-related increases in older adults’ recollection are associated with changes in their hippocampal activity during memory retrieval. Older adults’ hippocampal activity during retrieval was examined before and after they were trained to use semantic encoding strategies to intentionally encode words. Training-related changes in recollection were positively correlated with training-related changes in activity for old words in the hippocampus bilaterally. Positive correlations were also found between training-related changes in activity in prefrontal and left lateral temporal regions associated with self-initiated semantic strategy use during encoding and training-related changes in right hippocampal activity associated with recollection during retrieval. These results suggest that cognitive training-related improvements in older adults’ recollection can be supported by changes in their hippocampal activity during retrieval. They also suggest that age differences in cognitive processes engaged during encoding are a significant contributor to age differences in recollection during retrieval. PMID:22728150

  19. Hydrothermal changes related to earthquake activity at Mud Volcano, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Pitt, A.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.

    1982-04-10

    The Mud Volcano hydrothermal area in Yellowstone National Park is near the intersection of a 20-km-long zone of northeast trending normal faults with the eastern resurgent dome within the 600,000-year-odd Yellowstone caldera. Recent crustal uplift along the northeast trending axis of the caldera is at a maximum (700 mm since 1923) near the Mud Volcano area. From 1973 through April 1978, less than 10 earthquakes (largest M 2.4) were located within 3 km of the Mud Volcano area. In May 1978, earthquakes began occurring beneath the hydrothermal area at depths of 1 to 5 km. The seismic activity continued until the end of November with intense swarms (100 events per hour) occurring on October 23 and November 7. The largest event (M 3.1) occured on November 14 and at least 8 events were M 2.5 or larger. In December 1978, heat flux in the Mud Volcano hydrothermal features began increasing along a 2-km-long northeast trending zone. Existing mud cauldrons became more active, new mud cauldrons and fumeroles were formed, and vegetation (primarily lodgepole pine) was killed by increased soil temperature. The increase in heat flux continued through July 1979 then gradually declined, reaching the early 1978 level by June 1980. The spatial and temporal association of earthquakes and increased hydrothermal activity at Mud Volcano suggests that the seismic activity expanded preexisting fracture systems, premitting increased fluid flow from depths of several kilometers.

  20. 77 FR 477 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Rules Relating to Regulation of Domestic Exchange...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities: Rules Relating to Regulation of Domestic Exchange-Traded...., permitting electronic submission of responses. Rules Relating to Regulation of Domestic Exchange-Traded... solicits comments on rules related to risk disclosure concerning exchange traded commodity options....

  1. 49 CFR 178.337 - Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined in subpart G of part 173 of this subchapter. 178... MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined...

  2. 49 CFR 178.337 - Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined in subpart G of part 173 of this subchapter. 178... MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined...

  3. 49 CFR 178.337 - Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined in subpart G of part 173 of this subchapter. 178... MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined...

  4. 49 CFR 178.337 - Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined in subpart G of part 173 of this subchapter. 178... MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined...

  5. 49 CFR 178.337 - Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined in subpart G of part 173 of this subchapter. 178... MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined...

  6. 49 CFR 37.107 - Acquisition of passenger rail cars by private entities primarily engaged in the business of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in providing specified public transportation to extend its useful life for ten years or more, or... entities primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. 37.107 Section 37.107 Transportation... entities primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. (a) A private entity which is...

  7. 49 CFR 37.107 - Acquisition of passenger rail cars by private entities primarily engaged in the business of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in providing specified public transportation to extend its useful life for ten years or more, or... entities primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. 37.107 Section 37.107 Transportation... entities primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. (a) A private entity which is...

  8. Reaction time-related activity reflecting periodic, task-specific cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Barber, Anita D; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2016-01-01

    Reaction time (RT) is associated with increased amplitude of the Blood Oxygen-Level Dependent (BOLD) response in cognitive control regions. The current study examined whether the Primary Condition (PC) effect and RT-BOLD effect both reflect the same cognitive control processes. In addition, RT-BOLD effects were examined in two Go/No-go tasks with different demands to determine whether RT-related activity is task-dependent, reflecting the recruitment of task-specific cognitive processes. Data simulations showed that RT-related activity could be distinguished from that of the primary condition if it is mean-centered. In that case, RT-related activity reflects periodically-engaged processes rather than "time-on-task" (ToT). RT-related activity was mostly distinct from that of the primary Go contrast, particularly for the perceptual decision task. Therefore, RT effects can reflect additional cognitive processes that are not captured by the PC contrast consistent with a periodic-engagement account. RT-BOLD effects occurred in a separate set of regions for the two tasks. For the task requiring a perceptual decision, RT-related activity occurred within occipital and posterior parietal regions supporting visual attention. For the task requiring a working memory decision, RT-related activity occurred within fronto-parietal regions supporting the maintenance and retrieval of task representations. The findings suggest that RT-related activity reflects task-specific processes that are periodically-engaged, particularly during less demanding tasks. PMID:26318935

  9. Blast exposure in rats with body shielding is characterized primarily by diffuse axonal injury.

    PubMed

    Garman, Robert H; Jenkins, Larry W; Switzer, Robert C; Bauman, Richard A; Tong, Lawrence C; Swauger, Peter V; Parks, Steven A; Ritzel, David V; Dixon, C Edward; Clark, Robert S B; Bayir, Hülya; Kagan, Valerian; Jackson, Edwin K; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2011-06-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the signature insult in combat casualty care. Survival with neurological damage from otherwise lethal blast exposures has become possible with body armor use. We characterized the neuropathologic alterations produced by a single blast exposure in rats using a helium-driven shock tube to generate a nominal exposure of 35 pounds per square inch (PSI) (positive phase duration ∼ 4 msec). Using an IACUC-approved protocol, isoflurane-anesthetized rats were placed in a steel wedge (to shield the body) 7 feet inside the end of the tube. The left side faced the blast wave (with head-only exposure); the wedge apex focused a Mach stem onto the rat's head. The insult produced ∼ 25% mortality (due to impact apnea). Surviving and sham rats were perfusion-fixed at 24 h, 72 h, or 2 weeks post-blast. Neuropathologic evaluations were performed utilizing hematoxylin and eosin, amino cupric silver, and a variety of immunohistochemical stains for amyloid precursor protein (APP), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), ED1, and rat IgG. Multifocal axonal degeneration, as evidenced by staining with amino cupric silver, was present in all blast-exposed rats at all time points. Deep cerebellar and brainstem white matter tracts were most heavily stained with amino cupric silver, with the morphologic staining patterns suggesting a process of diffuse axonal injury. Silver-stained sections revealed mild multifocal neuronal death at 24 h and 72 h. GFAP, ED1, and Iba1 staining were not prominently increased, although small numbers of reactive microglia were seen within areas of neuronal death. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability (as measured by IgG staining) was seen at 24 h and primarily affected the contralateral cortex. Axonal injury was the most prominent feature during the initial 2 weeks following blast exposure, although degeneration of other neuronal processes was also present

  10. Activation of NADP-Malate Dehydrogenase, Pyruvate,Pi Dikinase, and Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphatase in Relation to Photosynthetic Rate in Maize 1

    PubMed Central

    Usuda, Hideaki; Ku, Maurice S. B.; Edwards, Gerald E.

    1984-01-01

    The activity and extent of light activation of three photosynthetic enzymes, pyruvate,Pi dikinase, NADP-malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH), and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), were examined in maize (Zea mays var Royal Crest) leaves relative to the rate of photosynthesis during induction and under varying light intensities. There was a strong light activation of NADP-MDH and pyruvate,Pi dikinase, and light also activated FBPase 2- to 4-fold. During the induction period for whole leaf photosynthesis at 30°C under high light, the time required to reach half-maximum activation for all three enzymes was only 1 minute or less. After 2.5 minutes of illumination the enzymes were fully activated, while the photosynthetic rate was only at half-maximum activity, indicating that factors other than enzyme activation limit photosynthesis during the induction period in C4 plants. Under steady state conditions, the light intensity required to reach half-maximum activation of the three enzymes was similar (300-400 microEinsteins per square meter per second), while the light intensity required for half-maximum rates of photosynthesis was about 550 microEinsteins per square meter per second. The light activated levels of NADP-MDH and FBPase were well in excess of the in vivo activities which would be required during photosynthesis, while maximum activities of pyruvate,Pi dikinase were generally just sufficient to accommodate photosynthesis, suggesting the latter may be a rate limiting enzyme. There was a large (5-fold) light activation of FBPase in isolated bundle sheath strands of maize, whereas there was little light activation of the enzyme in isolated mesophyll protoplasts. In mesophyll protoplasts the enzyme was largely located in the cytoplasm, although there was a low amount of light-activated enzyme in the mesophyll chloroplasts. The results suggest the chloroplastic FBPase in maize is primarily located in the bundle sheath cells. PMID:16663806

  11. Activity as Object-Related: Resolving the Dichotomy of Individual and Collective Planes of Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetsenko, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This article suggests that the principle of object-relatedness, introduced by Vygotsky and expanded by A. N. Leontiev, can be used to conceptualize human subjectivity within a profoundly social view of human development. This is achieved by reformulating the premises of cultural-historical activity theory to include the notion that material…

  12. 77 FR 38587 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Harbor Activities Related to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... 2002 to 2011, with the last Authorization expiring on June 6, 2012 (76 FR 33721, June 9, 2011). United... associated with these activities. Pinnipeds sometimes show startle reactions when exposed to sudden brief... core off-loading procedures, may elicit such a reaction. In addition, the movements of cranes...

  13. 29 CFR 779.209 - Vertical activities which are “related activities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... structure such as the manufacturing, warehousing, and retailing of a particular product or products.” Where... business activities, such as a wholesaling and retailing or manufacturing and retailing, are interrelated... to carry out a business purpose of the manufacturing plant, retailing and manufacturing will...

  14. [Relative abundance, population structure, habitat preferences and activity patterns of Tapirus bairdii (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae), in Chimalapas forest, Oaxaca, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Lira-Torres, Iván; Briones-Salas, Miguel; Sánchez-Rojas, Gerardo

    2014-12-01

    Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) is endangered primarily because of habitat loss and fragmentation, and overhunting throughout its distribution range. One of the priority land areas for the conservation of this species is the Northern part of its range in the Chimalapas forest, Oaxaca. The aim of this research was to determine the relative abundance, population struc- ture, habitat preferences and activity patterns of Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) in the Chimalapas forest, Oaxaca, Mexico, through the non-invasive technique of camera-trap sampling. A total of five sampling sessions were undertaken among 2009-2013, and used a total of 30 camera-traps in each period. The determinant factor of the sampling design was the hunting between two study areas. A total sampling effort of 9000 trap-days allowed to estimate an index of relative abundance (IRA) of 6.77 tapir photographs/1,000 trap-days (n = 61). IRA varied significantly between sampling stations (Mann-Whitney, p < 0.01). The frequency of Baird's tapir photos was higher in the dry season in tropical rain forest without hunting (χ2, p < 0.5). In the rainy season, the tropical rain forest and secondary vegetation habitats showed higher photo frequency than expected from random (χ2, p < 0.5). Considering population structure, a 95.08% of adult animals was obtained in photographic records (n = 58). Three types of activity pattern were observed, with more nocturnal records (88.33%; Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05). The Chimalapas forest appears to be the second most important terrestrial priority ecoregion, just after the Mayan Forest (Campeche, Chiapas, Quintana Roo), for the conservation of tapir populations, not only for Mexico but also for Central America. PMID:25720176

  15. [Relative abundance, population structure, habitat preferences and activity patterns of Tapirus bairdii (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae), in Chimalapas forest, Oaxaca, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Lira-Torres, Iván; Briones-Salas, Miguel; Sánchez-Rojas, Gerardo

    2014-12-01

    Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) is endangered primarily because of habitat loss and fragmentation, and overhunting throughout its distribution range. One of the priority land areas for the conservation of this species is the Northern part of its range in the Chimalapas forest, Oaxaca. The aim of this research was to determine the relative abundance, population struc- ture, habitat preferences and activity patterns of Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) in the Chimalapas forest, Oaxaca, Mexico, through the non-invasive technique of camera-trap sampling. A total of five sampling sessions were undertaken among 2009-2013, and used a total of 30 camera-traps in each period. The determinant factor of the sampling design was the hunting between two study areas. A total sampling effort of 9000 trap-days allowed to estimate an index of relative abundance (IRA) of 6.77 tapir photographs/1,000 trap-days (n = 61). IRA varied significantly between sampling stations (Mann-Whitney, p < 0.01). The frequency of Baird's tapir photos was higher in the dry season in tropical rain forest without hunting (χ2, p < 0.5). In the rainy season, the tropical rain forest and secondary vegetation habitats showed higher photo frequency than expected from random (χ2, p < 0.5). Considering population structure, a 95.08% of adult animals was obtained in photographic records (n = 58). Three types of activity pattern were observed, with more nocturnal records (88.33%; Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05). The Chimalapas forest appears to be the second most important terrestrial priority ecoregion, just after the Mayan Forest (Campeche, Chiapas, Quintana Roo), for the conservation of tapir populations, not only for Mexico but also for Central America.

  16. Sounds elicit relative left frontal alpha activity in 2-month-old infants

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Xiaoqin; Xu, Lin; Li, Mingyan; Shao, Jie; Zhao, Zhengyan; Lamm, Connie; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Charles A.; Lozoff, Betsy

    2015-01-01

    As one kind of sounds, human voices are important for language acquisition and human-infant relations. Human voices have positive effects on infants, e.g., soothe infants and evoke an infant's smile. Increased left relative to right frontal alpha activity as assessed by the electroencephalogram (EEG) is considered to reflect approach-related emotions. In the present study, we recorded the EEG in thirty-eight 2-month-old infants during a baseline period and then while they listened to sounds, i.e., human voices. Infants displayed increased relative left frontal alpha activity in response to sounds compared to the baseline condition. These results suggest that sounds can elicit relative left frontal activity in young infants, and that this approach-related emotion presents early in life. PMID:25242501

  17. Primarily Physics, Investigations in Sound, Light and Heat for K-3. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Evalyn; Mercier, Sheryl

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9. Field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS indicates that this interpretation produces the following beneficial results: (1) mathematics becomes more meaningful, hence more useful; (2) science is…

  18. Activation heat, activation metabolism and tension-related heat in frog semitendinosus muscles

    PubMed Central

    Homsher, E.; Mommaerts, W. F. H. M.; Ricchiuti, N. V.; Wallner, A.

    1972-01-01

    1. Frog semitendinosus muscles were stretched to various lengths beyond the rest length (l0) and their initial heat and isometric tension production were measured. 2. As the overlap between the thick and thin filaments is reduced, the initial twitch heat and tension decline in a linear manner. At a point at which the twitch tension approaches zero, the initial heat is 30% of that seen at l0. It is concluded that this heat is the activation heat and reflects the energetics of calcium release and reaccumulation. The initial heat at shorter sarcomere lengths appears to be the sum of the activation heat plus a heat production associated with the interaction of the thick and thin filaments. 3. A similar relationship between heat and tension production is seen in tetanic contractions. 4. The time course of activation heat production in a twitch can be resolved into two phases: a temperature insensitive (Q10 < 1·3) `fast' phase (with a time constant of 45 msec) and a temperature sensitive (Q10 = 2·8) `slow' phase (with a time constant of 330 msec at 0° C). 5. Measurements of the creatine phosphate (PC) hydrolysis by muscles contracting isometrically at various muscle lengths at and beyond l0, indicate an enthalpy change of -11·2 kcal/mole PC hydrolysed. The enthalpy change for the ATP hydrolysis by muscles stretched so that little or no tension was produced with stimulation was -9·9 kcal/mole ATP hydrolysed. It is concluded that the net activation heat is produced by the hydrolysis of PC or ATP. PMID:4536938

  19. Prostanoids regulate angiogenesis acting primarily on IP and EP4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Khuyen Gia; Allison, Sarah; Murray, Michael; Petrovic, Nenad

    2015-09-01

    Angiogenesis is regulated by numerous activators and inhibitors, including prostanoids. Although many studies have identified their roles in inflammation, regulatory functions of prostanoids in angiogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we compared the activation of angiogenesis in vitro by two prostanoids with important vascular roles: prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) - thought to be the most important prostanoid activator of angiogenesis - and prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin or PGI2), whose receptors are predominantly expressed in endothelial cells. Both of these prostanoids activate G-protein coupled receptors: EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4 by PGE2 and IP by prostacyclin. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to characterize two pivotal pro-angiogenic processes in vitro: cell migration (using the matrigel droplet assay developed in our laboratory) and "tube formation" (a widely accepted method of assessing formation of blood vessel precursors). The suppression of cell migration and tube formation by the IP-specific antagonist CAY10441 was more extensive (~80%) than by the EP4-specific antagonist L-161,982 (~20%). AH6809, an antagonist of EP1, EP2 and EP3 receptors did not significantly suppress angiogenesis. Expression of the pro-angiogenic receptors KDR and Tie-2 in HUVECs was preferentially suppressed by antagonism of IP and EP4 receptors, respectively. EP4 and IP receptor agonists elicited biphasic actions on angiogenic processes in which there was activation at low concentration, and rapid desensitization at high concentrations - a characteristic common to many G-protein coupled receptors. Together these findings suggest that the prostacyclin-IP pathway plays a major role in the regulation of pro-angiogenic processes in HUVECs.

  20. Chemical and biological studies of a new cigarette that primarily heats tobacco. Part 1. Chemical composition of mainstream smoke.

    PubMed

    Borgerding, M F; Bodnar, J A; Chung, H L; Mangan, P P; Morrison, C C; Risner, C H; Rogers, J C; Simmons, D F; Uhrig, M S; Wendelboe, F N; Wingate, D E; Winkler, L S

    1998-07-01

    A new-technology cigarette has been developed. While the new cigarette burns some tobacco, it does not use tobacco as the fuel to sustain combustion and provide heat to the cigarette. Rather, the new cigarette primarily heats tobacco thereby reducing products of smoke formation mechanisms such as tobacco combustion, tobacco pyrolysis and pyrosynthesis. The mainstream smoke composition from a cigarette based on the new design (TOB-HT) has been characterized in comparative chemical testing with two reference cigarettes using the FTC puffing regimen. Thermal properties, UV absorption characteristics, elemental composition and materials balance studies all suggest a simplified smoke aerosol. Twenty-five smoke constituents ("target compounds") identified by the scientific community as compounds that may contribute to the diseases statistically associated with smoking have also been measured. Mainstream smoke concentrations of most target compounds are significantly lower with the TOB-HT cigarette when compared with reference cigarettes in the ultra-light "tar" and light "tar" categories. Taken together, chemical analysis results suggest simplified TOB-HT smoke chemistry with marked reductions in specific chemicals reported to be biologically active.

  1. Chemical and biological studies of a new cigarette that primarily heats tobacco. Part 1. Chemical composition of mainstream smoke.

    PubMed

    Borgerding, M F; Bodnar, J A; Chung, H L; Mangan, P P; Morrison, C C; Risner, C H; Rogers, J C; Simmons, D F; Uhrig, M S; Wendelboe, F N; Wingate, D E; Winkler, L S

    1998-03-01

    A new-technology cigarette has been developed. While the new cigarette burns some tobacco, it does not use tobacco as the fuel to sustain combustion and provide heat to the cigarette. Rather, the new cigarette primarily heats tobacco thereby reducing products of smoke formation mechanisms such as tobacco combustion, tobacco pyrolysis and pyrosynthesis. The mainstream smoke composition from a cigarette based on the new design (TOB-HT) has been characterized in comparative chemical testing with two reference cigarettes using the FTC puffing regimen. Thermal properties, UV absorption characteristics, elemental composition and materials balance studies all suggest a simplified smoke aerosol. Twenty-five smoke constituents ("target compounds") identified by the scientific community as compounds that may contribute to the diseases statistically associated with smoking have also been measured. Mainstream smoke concentrations of most target compounds are significantly lower with the TOB-HT cigarette when compared with reference cigarettes in the ultra-light "tar" and light "tar" categories. Taken together, chemical analysis results suggest simplified TOB-HT smoke chemistry with marked reductions in specific chemicals reported to be biologically active.

  2. CFD Activity at Aerojet Related to Seals and Fluid Film Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bache, George E.

    1991-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) activities related to seals and fluid film bearings are presented. Among the topics addressed are the following: Aerovisc Numeric and its capabilities; Recent Seal Applications; and Future Code Developments.

  3. 78 FR 77439 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Part 41, Relating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Part 41, Relating to Security Futures Products AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... extension of a proposed collection of certain information by the agency. In compliance with the...

  4. Increases in Cognitive and Linguistic Processing Primarily Account for Increases in Speaking Rate with Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.

    2013-01-01

    Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 ("N" = 7), 7 ("N" = 10), 10…

  5. No Federal Programs are Designed Primarily to Support Engineering Education, but Many Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Federal civilian agency support for engineering education in 1980 is described. The support is placed in categories, current concerns about the supply of engineers and conditions of engineering schools are related to the support, and the changes made by the fiscal year 1982 budget are identified. It was found that 38 programs in 11 federal…

  6. Systematic mining of analog series with related core structures in multi-target activity space.

    PubMed

    Gupta-Ostermann, Disha; Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2013-08-01

    We have aimed to systematically extract analog series with related core structures from multi-target activity space to explore target promiscuity of closely related analogous. Therefore, a previously introduced SAR matrix structure was adapted and further extended for large-scale data mining. These matrices organize analog series with related yet distinct core structures in a consistent manner. High-confidence compound activity data yielded more than 2,300 non-redundant matrices capturing 5,821 analog series that included 4,288 series with multi-target and 735 series with multi-family activities. Many matrices captured more than three analog series with activity against more than five targets. The matrices revealed a variety of promiscuity patterns. Compound series matrices also contain virtual compounds, which provide suggestions for compound design focusing on desired activity profiles.

  7. Physical activity, health-related quality of life and depression during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tendais, Iva; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Mota, Jorge; Conde, Ana

    2011-02-01

    This study examines physical activity patterns among women, from pre-pregnancy to the second trimester of pregnancy, and the relationship between physical activity status based on physical activity guidelines and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depression over pregnancy. 56 healthy pregnant women self-reported physical activity, HRQoL and depression at 10-15 and 19-24 weeks of pregnancy and physical activity before pregnancy. Whereas vigorous leisure physical activity decreased after conception, moderate leisure physical activity and work related physical activity remained stable over time. The prevalence of recommended physical activity was 39.3% and 12.5% in the 1st and 2nd trimesters of pregnancy respectively, and 14.3% pre-pregnancy. From the 1st to the 2nd pregnancy trimester, most physical HRQoL dimensions scores decreased and only mental component increased, independently of physical activity status. No changes in mean depression scores were observed. These data suggest that physical activity patterns change with pregnancy and that physical and mental components are differentially affected by pregnancy course, independently of physical activity status.

  8. Human land uses enhance sediment denitrification and N2O production in Yangtze lakes primarily by influencing lake water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Yao, L.; Wang, Z.; Xiong, Z.; Liu, G.

    2015-10-01

    Sediment denitrification in lakes alleviates the effects of eutrophication through the removal of nitrogen to the atmosphere as N2O and N2. However, N2O contributes notably to the greenhouse effect and global warming. Human land uses (e.g. agricultural and urban areas) strongly affect lake water quality and sediment characteristics, which, in turn, may regulate lake sediment denitrification and N2O production. In this study, we investigated sediment denitrification and N2O production and their relationships to within-lake variables and watershed land uses in 20 lakes from the Yangtze River basin in China. The results indicated that both lake water quality and sediment characteristics were significantly influenced by watershed land uses. N2O production rates increased with increasing background denitrification rates. Background denitrification and N2O production rates were positively related to water nitrogen concentrations but were not significantly correlated with sediment characteristics and plant community structure. A significant positive relationship was observed between background denitrification rate and percentage of human-dominated land uses (HDL) in watersheds. Structural equation modelling revealed that the indirect effects of HDL on sediment denitrification and N2O production in Yangtze lakes were mediated primarily through lake water quality. Our findings also suggest that although sediments in Yangtze lakes can remove large quantities of nitrogen through denitrification, they may also be an important source of N2O, especially in lakes with high nitrogen content.

  9. The Reliability and Validity of Drug Users' Self Reports of Amphetamine Use Among Primarily Heroin and Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Napper, Lucy E.; Fisher, Dennis G.; Johnson, Mark E.; Wood, Michele M.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively few studies have addressed the psychometric properties of self-report measures of amphetamine use. This study examines the reliability and validity of the Risk Behavior Assessment's (RBA) lifetime and recent amphetamine-use questions. To evaluate validity, 4027 out-of-treatment primarily cocaine and heroin users provided urine samples that were compared to self-report data; to evaluate reliability, 218 completed the RBA at two time points, 48 hours apart. In the overall sample, self-reports demonstrated moderately high validity, with a 95% accuracy rate (kappa =.54). When analysis was restricted to recent amphetamine users validity was slightly lower (71.5% accuracy; kappa = .41). Test-retest data indicated good reliability for self-reports of ever having used amphetamine (kappa =.79), and amphetamine use in the past 30 days (.75 < r < .91). Out-of-treatment drug users provided accurate self-reports of amphetamine use. Reliable and valid measures are essential for describing and predicting trends in amphetamine use, evaluating the effectiveness of interventions, and developing policies and programs. PMID:20053503

  10. The role of body-related self-conscious emotions in motivating women's physical activity.

    PubMed

    Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Kowalski, Kent C; Wilson, Philip M; Mack, Diane E; Crocker, Peter R E

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a model where body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride were associated with physical activity regulations and behavior. Adult women (N = 389; M age = 29.82, SD = 15.20 years) completed a questionnaire assessing body-related pride, shame, and guilt, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. The hypothesized measurement and structural models were deemed adequate, as was a revised model examining shame-free guilt and guilt-free shame. In the revised structural model, body-related pride was positively significantly related to identified and intrinsic regulations. Body-related shame-free guilt was significantly associated with external, introjected, and identified regulations. Body-related guilt-free shame was significantly positively related to external and introjected regulation, and negatively associated with intrinsic regulation. Identified and intrinsic regulations were significantly positively related to physical activity (R2 = .62). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding the realm of body-related self-conscious emotions and the associated links to regulations and physical activity behavior.

  11. Prospective Reciprocal Relations between Physical Activity and Depression in Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Jerstad, Sarah J.; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Stice, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Objective Although research has found an inverse correlation between physical activity and depression among adolescents, few studies have examined this relation prospectively. Thus, we tested whether physical activity reduces risk for future escalations in depression and whether depression decreases likelihood of future change in physical activity. Method Data from a longitudinal study involving annual assessments of 496 adolescent girls (M age = 13, SD 0.7) followed over a 6-year period were analyzed to address these questions. Results Physical activity significantly reduced risk for future increases in depressive symptoms and risk for onset of major/minor depression and depressive symptoms and major/minor depression significantly reduced future physical activity, controlling for several covariates, though predictive effects were modest. Conclusions Results support a bidirectional relation between exercise and depression and imply that interventions that increase physical activity may reduce risk for depression among this high-risk population. PMID:20350037

  12. Increases in cognitive and linguistic processing primarily account for increases in speaking rate with age.

    PubMed

    Nip, Ignatius S B; Green, Jordan R

    2013-01-01

    Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 (N = 7), 7 (N = 10), 10 (N = 9), 13 (N = 7), 16 (N = 9) years, and young adults (N = 11) in speaking tasks varying in task demands. Speaking rate increased with age, with decreases in pauses and articulator displacements but not increases in articulator movement speed. Movement speed did not appear to constrain the speaking. Rather, age-related increases in speaking rate are due to gains in cognitive and linguistic processing and speech motor control.

  13. Top 10 research questions related to physical activity in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Pate, Russell R; O'Neill, Jennifer R; Brown, William H; McIver, Kerry L; Howie, Erin K; Dowda, Marsha

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to highlight important research needs related to physical activity in 3- to 5-year-old children. We identified research needs in 3 major categories: health effects, patterns of physical activity, and interventions and policies. The top research needs include identifying the health effects of physical activity, the effects of physical activity on the development of healthy weight, the effects of physical activity on learning and behavior, and the health implications of sedentary behavior. Research questions concerning patterns of physical activity include determining the prevalence of 3- to 5-year-olds meeting the current physical activity guidelines; the social and environmental factors that influence physical activity in home, preschool, and community settings; and how physical activity tracks into later childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Research questions about interventions and policies include identifying the most effective strategies to promote physical activity in home, child care, and community settings and to reach diverse populations of young children, identifying effective intervention implementation and dissemination strategies, and determining the effectiveness of national, state, local, and institutional policies for increasing physical activity. In conclusion, research is needed to establish a full understanding of the health implications of physical activity in 3- to 5-year-old children, to better understand the nature of physical activity behavior in this group, and to learn how to promote physical activity in young children. PMID:24592775

  14. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  15. The Relation between Childhood Spatial Activities and Spatial Abilities in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Randi A.; Voyer, Daniel; Cherney, Isabelle D.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between childhood spatial activities and cognitive gender differences in adults through the validation of the Childhood Activities Questionnaire developed by Cherney and Voyer (2010). A sample of 403 (133 males, 270 females) undergraduates in Introductory Psychology courses at University of New Brunswick, NB,…

  16. A Social Cognitive Perspective of Physical-Activity-Related Behavior in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine student and teacher physical-activity-related behavior using the theory of planned behavior and self-efficacy theory. Although teachers reported an overwhelmingly positive attitude toward teaching physical activity lessons to promote fitness development, they only devoted 4% of their class time to…

  17. Low natural-killer-cell activity in familial melanoma patients and their relatives.

    PubMed

    Hersey, P; Edwards, A; Honeyman, M; McCarthy, W H

    1979-07-01

    Patients with melanoma who had one or more close relatives with melanoma were studied for their natural-killer-cell (NK) activity against cultured melanoma cells and Chang cells. A high proportion of the patients and their relatives were found to have low NK activity against these target cells. In most of the patients this could not be attributed to general depression of their immune function, since B- and T-cell numbers and the mitogenic response to PHA were within normal limits. The levels of NK activity of the patients and their relatives were found to be significantly correlated, suggesting that the NK activity in these families may have been genetically (or environmentally) determined. Several genetic markers were examined in the patients and their relatives for association with the disease state and NK activity. No association with HLA antigens or ABO blood groups was detected, but there was a low incidence of the Rhesus negative phenotype in the patients (the Rh phenotype had previously been associated with high NK activity). The present results indicate that NK activity has a familial association in families with a high incidence of melanoma, and raise the question whether low NK activity may be one of the predisposing factors in the development of familial melanoma.

  18. Sex Differences in Brain Activity Related to General and Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2005-01-01

    The study investigated gender differences in resting EEG (in three individually determined narrow [alpha] frequency bands) related to the level of general and emotional intelligence. Brain activity of males decreased with the level of general intelligence, whereas an opposite pattern of brain activity was observed in females. This difference was…

  19. SPECIAL ACTIVITIES SUPPLEMENTAL TO AND RELATED TO THE ART PROGRAM AT DEEP RIVER OUTDOOR EDUCATION CENTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary City Public School System, IN.

    A CURRICULUM GUIDE DEALING WITH VARIOUS SUBJECT AREAS WAS PREPARED FOR POSSIBLE STUDY ACTIVITIES THAT WOULD USE THE LEARNING RESOURCES AVAILABLE AT THE DEEP RIVER OUTDOOR EDUCATION CENTER IN GARY, INDIANA. ACTIVITIES GUIDES ARE PRESENTED FOR (1) ART ACTITIVIES RELATED TO DESIGN, COLOR, LANDSCAPE REPRESENTATION, PAPER CONSTRUCTION, DRAWING, PRINT…

  20. Performance-Related Activity in Medial Rostral Prefrontal Cortex (Area 10) during Low-Demand Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Sam J.; Simons, Jon S.; Frith, Christopher D.; Burgess, Paul W.

    2006-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have frequently observed relatively high activity in medial rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC) during rest or baseline conditions. Some accounts have attributed this high activity to the occurrence of unconstrained stimulus-independent and task-unrelated thought processes during baseline conditions. Here, the authors investigated…

  1. The Effects of Reflective Activities on Skill Adaptation in a Work-Related Instrumental Learning Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    In work-related instrumental learning contexts, the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory predict skill adaptation as an outcome. This prediction was tested by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants' response and error rates…

  2. Prospective Reciprocal Relations between Physical Activity and Depression in Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerstad, Sarah J.; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Stice, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although an inverse correlation between physical activity and depression among adolescents has been found in research, this relation has seldom been examined prospectively. Thus, we tested whether physical activity reduces risk for future escalations in depression and whether depression decreases likelihood of future change in physical…

  3. Adolescents' Perceptions of Relative Weight and Self-Reported Weight Loss Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felts, Michael; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Data from the 1990 North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to examine adolescents' perceptions of relative weight and the relationship of these perceptions to physical activity levels, weight loss efforts, and television viewing time. About 25 percent (860) considered themselves too fat and reported little physical activity. (SM)

  4. Sub-micrometre particulate matter is primarily in liquid form over Amazon rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, Adam P.; Gong, Zhaoheng; Liu, Pengfei; Sato, Bruno; Cirino, Glauber; Zhang, Yue; Artaxo, Paulo; Bertram, Allan K.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter influences the Earth’s energy balance directly, by altering or absorbing solar radiation, and indirectly by influencing cloud formation. Whether organic particulate matter exists in a liquid, semi-solid, or solid state can affect particle growth and reactivity, and hence particle number, size and composition. The properties and abundance of particles, in turn, influence their direct and indirect effects on energy balance. Non-liquid particulate matter was identified over a boreal forest of Northern Europe, but laboratory studies suggest that, at higher relative humidity levels, particles can be liquid. Here we measure the physical state of particulate matter with diameters smaller than 1 μm over the tropical rainforest of central Amazonia in 2013. A real-time particle rebound technique shows that the particulate matter was liquid for relative humidity greater than 80% for temperatures between 296 and 300 K during both the wet and dry seasons. Combining these findings with the distributions of relative humidity and temperature in Amazonia, we conclude that near-surface sub-micrometre particulate matter in Amazonia is liquid most of the time during both the wet and the dry seasons.

  5. Increased Pain Communication following Multiple Group Memberships Salience Leads to a Relative Reduction in Pain-Related Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jetten, Jolanda; Molenberghs, Pascal; Bastian, Brock; Karnadewi, Fika

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a fundamental human experience that triggers a range of social and psychological responses. In this study, we present behavioral and fMRI data to examine the effect of multiple group memberships salience on reported and neural indices of pain. We found that participants expressed higher levels of pain when more social group memberships were salient. This is consistent with the notion that pain itself motivates people to communicate their pain, and more so when multiple psychological resources are salient. In addition, fMRI results reveal an interesting twist: when participants increased their pain reporting as group memberships increased (from one group to four), there was a corresponding relative reduction in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula activation. These results provide evidence for an adaptive response to pain: the more people make use of the social resources at their disposal when experiencing pain, the less pain areas are activated. PMID:27657917

  6. Physical activity and screen-media-related parenting practices have different associations with children's objectively measured physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children's physical activity (PA) is inversely associated with children's weight status. Parents may be an important influence on children's PA by restricting sedentary time or supporting PA. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of PA and screen-media–related [television (TV) and...

  7. 77 FR 38307 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition, Extension, Without...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee... Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 730, Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition; OMB Control No. 1615-0037.... (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition. (3) Agency form number, if...

  8. Differences in Feedback- and Inhibition-Related Neural Activity in Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dibbets, Pauline; Evers, Lisbeth; Hurks, Petra; Marchetta, Natalie; Jolles, Jelle

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine response inhibition- and feedback-related neural activity in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using event-related functional MRI. Sixteen male adults with ADHD and 13 healthy/normal controls participated in this study and performed a modified Go/NoGo task. Behaviourally,…

  9. 77 FR 5778 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Rules Relating to Regulation of Domestic Exchange...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities: Rules Relating to Regulation of Domestic Exchange-Traded... extension of the collection. The collection covers rules related to risk disclosure concerning exchange... INFORMATION: In the notice of Extension of an Existing Collection, FR Doc. 2011-33841, on page 477 in...

  10. Testing a Conceptual Model Related to Weight Perceptions, Physical Activity and Smoking in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Bercovitz, Kim; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a conceptual model based on theoretical and empirically supported relationships related to the influences of weight perceptions, weight concerns, desires to change weight, friends, age and location in relation to physical activity (PA) and smoking in adolescents. A total of 1242 males and 1446 females (mean…

  11. The Event-Related Low-Frequency Activity of Highly and Average Intelligent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Tongran; Shi, Jiannong; Zhao, Daheng; Yang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Using time-frequency analysis techniques to investigate the event-related low-frequency (delta: 0.5-4 Hz; theta: 4-8 Hz) activity of auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) data of highly and average intelligent children, 18 intellectually gifted children, and 18 intellectually average children participated the present study. Present findings…

  12. Reduced Specificity of Hippocampal and Posterior Ventrolateral Prefrontal Activity during Relational Retrieval in Normal Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giovanello, Kelly S.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of episodic memory in young adults demonstrate greater functional neural activity in ventrolateral pFC and hippocampus during retrieval of relational information as compared with item information. We tested the hypothesis that healthy older adults--individuals who exhibit behavioral declines in relational memory--would show…

  13. Activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex during self-related processing: positive subjective value or personal significance?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Marcia K.

    2015-01-01

    Well-being and subjective experience of a coherent world depend on our sense of ‘self’ and relations between the self and the environment (e.g. people, objects and ideas). The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) is involved in self-related processing, and disrupted vMPFC activity is associated with disruptions of emotional/social functioning (e.g. depression and autism). Clarifying precise function(s) of vMPFC in self-related processing is an area of active investigation. In this study, we sought to more specifically characterize the function of vMPFC in self-related processing, focusing on two alternative accounts: (i) assignment of positive subjective value to self-related information and (ii) assignment of personal significance to self-related information. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants imagined owning objects associated with either their perceived ingroup or outgroup. We found that for ingroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with increased than decreased post-ownership preference. In contrast, for outgroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with decreased than increased post-ownership preference. Our findings support the idea that the function of vMPFC in self-related processing may not be to represent/evaluate the ‘positivity’ or absolute preference of self-related information but to assign personal significance to it based on its meaning/function for the self. PMID:24837477

  14. Prion Protein M129V Polymorphism Affects Retrieval-Related Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchmann, Andreas; Mondadori, Christian R. A.; Hanggi, Jurgen; Aerni, Amanda; Vrticka, Pascal; Luechinger, Roger; Boesiger, Peter; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M.; de Quervain, Dominique J.-F.; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Henke, Katharina

    2008-01-01

    The prion protein Met129Val polymorphism has recently been related to human long-term memory with carriers of either the 129[superscript MM] or the 129[superscript MV] genotype recalling 17% more words than 129[superscript VV] carriers at 24 h following learning. Here, we sampled genotype differences in retrieval-related brain activity at 30 min…

  15. The World Wide Web and Active Learning in the International Relations Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzma, Lynn M.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the use of the World Wide Web by international relations students and scholars. Considers an instructional web project for an international relations class outlining the project's contribution to active learning and the development of students' critical thinking and problem-solving skills. Provides advice for educators interested in…

  16. Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Physical Activity of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Angela; Hannon, James C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge is related to self-reported physical activity (PA) of high school students. Students (N=165) enrolled in physical education from two schools in the Southwestern U.S participated. A 100-point HRF knowledge test was assembled, focusing on the HRF concepts of…

  17. Both cell substratum regulation and hormonal regulation of milk protein gene expression are exerted primarily at the posttranscriptional level

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenstein, R.S.; Rosen, J.M.

    1988-08-01

    The mechanism by which individual peptide and steroid hormones and cell-substratum interactions regulate milk protein gene expression has been studied in the COMMA-D mammary epithelial cell line. In the presence of insulin, hydrocortisone, and prolactin, growth of COMMA-D cells on floating collagen gels in comparison with that on a plastic substratum resulted in a 2.5- to 3-fold increase in the relative rate of ..beta..-casein gene transcription but a 37-fold increase in ..beta..-casein mRNA accumulation. In contrast, whey acidic protein gene transcription was constitutive in COMMA-D cells grown on either substratum, but its mRNA was unstable and little intact mature mRNA was detected. Culturing COMMA-D cells on collagen also promoted increased expression of other genes expressed in differentiated mammary epithelial cells, including those encoding ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-casein, transferrin, malic enzyme, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase but decreased the expression of actin and histone genes. Using COMMA-D cells, the authors defined further the role of individual hormones in influencing ..beta..-casein gene transcription. With insulin alone, a basal level of ..beta..-casein gene transcription was detected in COMMA-D cells grown on floating collagen gels. Addition of prolactin but not hydrocortisone resulted in a 2.5- to 3.0-fold increase in ..beta..-casein gene transcription, but both hormones were required to elicit the maximal 73-fold induction in mRNA accumulation. The posttranscriptional effect of hormones on casein mRNA accummulation preceded any detectable changes in the relative rate of transcription. Thus, regulation by both hormones and cell substratum of casein gene expression is exerted primarily at the post transcriptional level.

  18. Stereotype activation is unintentional: Behavioural and event-related potenials evidence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Yang, Ya-Ping; Tan, Chen-Hao; Zhao, Xiang-Xia; Liu, Yong-He; Lin, Chong-De

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a priming Stroop paradigm was used to determine whether stereotype activation is unintentional. Priming conditions (priming/no-priming) and the relationship between priming and target (consistent/inconsistent/no-relation) were the independent variables; accuracy, reaction time and N400 amplitude were used as dependent variables. The reaction time revealed that stereotype activation is, to some extent, unintentional. Furthermore, the event-related potenial (ERP) results showed that N400 amplitude was larger for inconsistent conditions than for consistent conditions. This result supported the notion that stereotype activation is an unintentional and automatic process.

  19. Relations among physical activity patterns, lifestyle activities, and fundamental movement skills for Finnish students in grade 7.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Timo; Kalaja, Sami; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Jutila, Ari; Virtanen, Petri; Watt, Anthony

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the relations among leisure time physical activity and in sport clubs, lifestyle activities, and the locomotor, balance manipulative skills of Grade 7 students participating in Finnish physical education at a secondary school in central Finland completed self-report questionnaires on their physical activity patterns at leisure time and during sport club participation, and time spent watching television and using the computer and other electronic media. Locomotor skills were analyzed by the leaping test, balance skills by the flamingo standing test, and manipulative skills by the accuracy throwing test. Analysis indicated physical activity in sport clubs positively explained scores on balance and locomotor tests but not on accuracy of throwing. Leisure time physical activity and lifestyle activities were not statistically significant predictors of performance on any movement skill tests. Girls scored higher on the static balance skill and boys higher on the throwing task. Overall, physical activity in sport clubs was more strongly associated with performance on the fundamental movement tasks than was physical activity during leisure. PMID:19425451

  20. Cerebral Activations Related to Ballistic, Stepwise Interrupted and Gradually Modulated Movements in Parkinson Patients

    PubMed Central

    Toxopeus, Carolien M.; Maurits, Natasha M.; Valsan, Gopal; Conway, Bernard A.; Leenders, Klaus L.; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) experience impaired initiation and inhibition of movements such as difficulty to start/stop walking. At single-joint level this is accompanied by reduced inhibition of antagonist muscle activity. While normal basal ganglia (BG) contributions to motor control include selecting appropriate muscles by inhibiting others, it is unclear how PD-related changes in BG function cause impaired movement initiation and inhibition at single-joint level. To further elucidate these changes we studied 4 right-hand movement tasks with fMRI, by dissociating activations related to abrupt movement initiation, inhibition and gradual movement modulation. Initiation and inhibition were inferred from ballistic and stepwise interrupted movement, respectively, while smooth wrist circumduction enabled the assessment of gradually modulated movement. Task-related activations were compared between PD patients (N = 12) and healthy subjects (N = 18). In healthy subjects, movement initiation was characterized by antero-ventral striatum, substantia nigra (SN) and premotor activations while inhibition was dominated by subthalamic nucleus (STN) and pallidal activations, in line with the known role of these areas in simple movement. Gradual movement mainly involved antero-dorsal putamen and pallidum. Compared to healthy subjects, patients showed reduced striatal/SN and increased pallidal activation for initiation, whereas for inhibition STN activation was reduced and striatal-thalamo-cortical activation increased. For gradual movement patients showed reduced pallidal and increased thalamo-cortical activation. We conclude that PD-related changes during movement initiation fit the (rather static) model of alterations in direct and indirect BG pathways. Reduced STN activation and regional cortical increased activation in PD during inhibition and gradual movement modulation are better explained by a dynamic model that also takes into account enhanced

  1. Cerebral activations related to ballistic, stepwise interrupted and gradually modulated movements in Parkinson patients.

    PubMed

    Toxopeus, Carolien M; Maurits, Natasha M; Valsan, Gopal; Conway, Bernard A; Leenders, Klaus L; de Jong, Bauke M

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience impaired initiation and inhibition of movements such as difficulty to start/stop walking. At single-joint level this is accompanied by reduced inhibition of antagonist muscle activity. While normal basal ganglia (BG) contributions to motor control include selecting appropriate muscles by inhibiting others, it is unclear how PD-related changes in BG function cause impaired movement initiation and inhibition at single-joint level. To further elucidate these changes we studied 4 right-hand movement tasks with fMRI, by dissociating activations related to abrupt movement initiation, inhibition and gradual movement modulation. Initiation and inhibition were inferred from ballistic and stepwise interrupted movement, respectively, while smooth wrist circumduction enabled the assessment of gradually modulated movement. Task-related activations were compared between PD patients (N = 12) and healthy subjects (N = 18). In healthy subjects, movement initiation was characterized by antero-ventral striatum, substantia nigra (SN) and premotor activations while inhibition was dominated by subthalamic nucleus (STN) and pallidal activations, in line with the known role of these areas in simple movement. Gradual movement mainly involved antero-dorsal putamen and pallidum. Compared to healthy subjects, patients showed reduced striatal/SN and increased pallidal activation for initiation, whereas for inhibition STN activation was reduced and striatal-thalamo-cortical activation increased. For gradual movement patients showed reduced pallidal and increased thalamo-cortical activation. We conclude that PD-related changes during movement initiation fit the (rather static) model of alterations in direct and indirect BG pathways. Reduced STN activation and regional cortical increased activation in PD during inhibition and gradual movement modulation are better explained by a dynamic model that also takes into account enhanced

  2. Age-Related Changes in BOLD Activation Pattern in Phonemic Fluency Paradigm: An Investigation of Activation, Functional Connectivity and Psychophysiological Interactions

    PubMed Central

    La, Christian; Garcia-Ramos, Camille; Nair, Veena A.; Meier, Timothy B.; Farrar-Edwards, Dorothy; Birn, Rasmus; Meyerand, Mary E.; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging is associated with decline of cognitive functions. However, even before those declines become noticeable, the neural architecture underlying those mechanisms has undergone considerable restructuring and reorganization. During performance of a cognitive task, not only have the task-relevant networks demonstrated reorganization with aging, which occurs primarily by recruitment of additional areas to preserve performance, but the task-irrelevant network of the “default-mode” network (DMN), which is normally deactivated during task performance, has also consistently shown reduction of this deactivation with aging. Here, we revisited those age-related changes in task-relevant (i.e., language system) and task-irrelevant (i.e., DMN) systems with a language production paradigm in terms of task-induced activation/deactivation, functional connectivity, and context-dependent correlations between the two systems. Our task fMRI data demonstrated a late increase in cortical recruitment in terms of extent of activation, only observable in our older healthy adult group, when compared to the younger healthy adult group, with recruitment of the contralateral hemisphere, but also other regions from the network previously underutilized. Our middle-aged individuals, when compared to the younger healthy adult group, presented lower levels of activation intensity and connectivity strength, with no recruitment of additional regions, possibly reflecting an initial, uncompensated, network decline. In contrast, the DMN presented a gradual decrease in deactivation intensity and deactivation extent (i.e., low in the middle-aged, and lower in the old) and similar gradual reduction of functional connectivity within the network, with no compensation. The patterns of age-related changes in the task-relevant system and DMN are incongruent with the previously suggested notion of anti-correlation of the two systems. The context-dependent correlation by psycho

  3. The shape of the Neandertal femur is primarily the consequence of a hyperpolar body form

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Timothy D.

    2003-01-01

    Neandertal femora are distinct from contemporaneous near-modern human femora. Traditionally, these contrasts in femoral shape have been explained as the result of the elevated activity levels and limited cultural abilities of Neandertals. More recently, however, researchers have realized that many of these femoral differences may be explained by the cold-adapted bodies of Neandertals vs. the warm-adapted bodies of near-modern humans. This study explicitly tests this proposed link between climate-induced body proportions and femoral shape by considering the entire hip as a unit by using geometric morphometric methods adapted to deal with articulated structures. Based on recent human patterns of variation, most contrasts in shape between the femora of Neandertals and near-modern humans seem to be secondary consequences of differences in climate-induced body proportions. These results, considered in light of hip mechanics during growth, highlight the importance of developmental and functional integration in determining skeletal form. PMID:12761384

  4. Proportion of soft tissue in selected bone cuts fed primarily as enrichments to large carnivores.

    PubMed

    Felicetti, Laura; Kearney, Celeste C; Woodward, Lloyd; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2008-03-01

    Zoos often offer large bones or cuts of meat containing bone (bone cuts) to carnivores to provide oral stimulation and behavioral enrichment. Because of its abrasive action, the act of chewing on a bone can increase the oral health of large felids as well as provide an enriching activity. Unfortunately, because the quantity of edible tissue on the bones is usually unknown, when feeding these cuts one can easily miscalculate an animal's caloric and nutrient intake. To fully comprehend the contribution of bones as a dietary item as opposed to an enrichment item, we removed the soft tissue from a total of 70 samples, representing 14 types of bone cuts commonly used in managed carnivore feeding programs. Across types of cuts, soft tissue averaged 50% of wet weight, with pork knuckles averaging the lowest (23%) and horse shanks the greatest (74%) percent soft tissue. Zoo Biol 27:154-158, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Cumulative stress in childhood is associated with blunted reward-related brain activity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jamie L; Albert, Dustin; Iselin, Anne-Marie R; Carré, Justin M; Dodge, Kenneth A; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2016-03-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is strongly associated with negative outcomes in adulthood, including reduced motivation and increased negative mood. The mechanisms mediating these relations, however, are poorly understood. We examined the relation between exposure to ELS and reward-related brain activity, which is known to predict motivation and mood, at age 26, in a sample followed since kindergarten with annual assessments. Using functional neuroimaging, we assayed individual differences in the activity of the ventral striatum (VS) during the processing of monetary rewards associated with a simple card-guessing task, in a sample of 72 male participants. We examined associations between a cumulative measure of ELS exposure and VS activity in adulthood. We found that greater levels of cumulative stress during childhood and adolescence predicted lower reward-related VS activity in adulthood. Extending this general developmental pattern, we found that exposure to stress early in development (between kindergarten and grade 3) was significantly associated with variability in adult VS activity. Our results provide an important demonstration that cumulative life stress, especially during this childhood period, is associated with blunted reward-related VS activity in adulthood. These differences suggest neurobiological pathways through which a history of ELS may contribute to reduced motivation and increased negative mood. PMID:26443679

  6. The temporal dynamics of metacognition: Dissociating task-related activity from later metacognitive processes.

    PubMed

    Desender, Kobe; Van Opstal, Filip; Hughes, Gethin; Van den Bussche, Eva

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, neuroscience research spent much effort in revealing brain activity related to metacognition. Despite this endeavor, it remains unclear exactly when metacognitive experiences develop during task performance. To investigate this, the current study used EEG to temporally and spatially dissociate task-related activity from metacognitive activity. In a masked priming paradigm, metacognitive experiences of difficulty were induced by manipulating congruency between prime and target. As expected, participants more frequently rated incongruent trials as difficult and congruent trials as easy, while being completely unable to perceive the masked primes. Results showed that both the N2 and the P3 ERP components were modulated by congruency, but that only the P3 modulation interacted with metacognitive experiences. Single-trial analysis additionally showed that the magnitude of the P3 modulation by congruency accurately predicted the metacognitive response. Source localization indicated that the N2 task-related activity originated in the ACC, whereas the P3-interplay between task-related activation and metacognitive experiences originated from the precuneus. We conclude that task-related activity can be dissociated from later metacognitive processing.

  7. Cumulative stress in childhood is associated with blunted reward-related brain activity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jamie L; Albert, Dustin; Iselin, Anne-Marie R; Carré, Justin M; Dodge, Kenneth A; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2016-03-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is strongly associated with negative outcomes in adulthood, including reduced motivation and increased negative mood. The mechanisms mediating these relations, however, are poorly understood. We examined the relation between exposure to ELS and reward-related brain activity, which is known to predict motivation and mood, at age 26, in a sample followed since kindergarten with annual assessments. Using functional neuroimaging, we assayed individual differences in the activity of the ventral striatum (VS) during the processing of monetary rewards associated with a simple card-guessing task, in a sample of 72 male participants. We examined associations between a cumulative measure of ELS exposure and VS activity in adulthood. We found that greater levels of cumulative stress during childhood and adolescence predicted lower reward-related VS activity in adulthood. Extending this general developmental pattern, we found that exposure to stress early in development (between kindergarten and grade 3) was significantly associated with variability in adult VS activity. Our results provide an important demonstration that cumulative life stress, especially during this childhood period, is associated with blunted reward-related VS activity in adulthood. These differences suggest neurobiological pathways through which a history of ELS may contribute to reduced motivation and increased negative mood.

  8. Do Motives to Undertake Physical Activity Relate to Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys and Girls?

    PubMed Central

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Dankulincova Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Kalman, Michal; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence contribute to obesity and poor health outcomes in adolescence, and these associations endure into adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between motives for PA and the level of PA among adolescent boys and girls. We obtained data regarding motives for PA and frequency of PA in 2010 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study in the Czech and Slovak Republics (n = 9018, mean age = 13.6, 49% boys). Respondents answered questions about their motives for PA and the frequency of their PA. Motives for PA were assessed using 13 items, which were structured in four groups. We explored the association between the motives for PA and sufficient PA using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, and separately for boys and girls. “Good child” motives and Achievement motives were significantly associated with sufficient PA among both boys and girls. Health motives were associated with sufficient PA only among boys, and Social motives were associated with sufficient PA only among girls. Motives for PA were associated with the level of PA, and this association was partially gender dependent. These gender differences should be considered in interventions focusing on enhancement of PA. PMID:26184246

  9. The MicroActive project: automatic detection of disease-related molecular cell activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuberg, Liv; Mielnik, Michal; Johansen, Ib-Rune; Voitel, Jörg; Gulliksen, Anja; Solli, Lars; Karlsen, Frank; Bayer, Tobias; Schönfeld, Friedhelm; Drese, Klaus; Keegan, Helen; Martin, Cara; O'Leary, John; Riegger, Lutz; Koltay, Peter

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the MicroActive project is to develop an instrument for molecular diagnostics. The instrument will first be tested for patient screening for a group of viruses causing cervical cancer. Two disposable polymer chips with reagents stored on-chip will be inserted into the instrument for each patient sample. The first chip performs sample preparation of the epithelial cervical cells while mRNA amplification and fluorescent detection takes place in the second chip. More than 10 different virus markers will be analysed in one chip. We report results on sub-functions of the amplification chip. The sample is split into smaller droplets, and the droplets move in parallel channels containing different dried reagents for the different analyses. We report experimental results on parallel droplet movement control using one external pump only, combined with hydrophobic valves. Valve burst pressures are controlled by geometry. We show droplet control using valves with burst pressures between 800 and 4500 Pa. We also monitored the re-hydration times for two necessary dried reagents. After sample insertion, uniform concentration of the reagents in the droplet was reached after respectively 60 s and 10 min. These times are acceptable for successful amplification. Finally we have shown positive amplification of HPV type 16 using dried enzymes stored in micro chambers.

  10. Active region upflow plasma: its relation to small activity and the solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrini, Cristina H.; Culhane, J. Leonard; Cristiani, Germán; Vásquez, Alberto; Van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Baker, Deborah; Pick, Monique; Demoulin, Pascal; Nuevo, Federico

    Recent studies show that active region (AR) upflowing plasma, observed by the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS), can gain access to open field lines and be released into the solar wind via magnetic interchange reconnection occurring below the source surface at magnetic null-points in pseudo-streamer configurations. When only one simple bipolar AR is present on the Sun and it is fully covered by the separatrix of a streamer, like AR 10978 on December 2007, it seems unlikely that the upflowing AR plasma could find its way into the slow solar wind. However, signatures of plasma with AR composition at 1 AU that appears to originate from the West of AR 10978 were recently found by Culhane and coworkers. We present a detailed topology analysis of AR 10978 based on a linear force-free magnetic field model at the AR scale, combined with a global PFSS model. This allows us, on one hand, to explain the variations observed in the upflows to the West of the AR as the result of magnetic reconnection at quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs). While at a global scale, we show that reconnection, occurring in at least two main steps, first at QSLs and later at a high-altitude coronal null-point, allows the AR plasma to get around the topological obstacle of the streamer separatrix and be released into the solar wind.

  11. Persistent differences in patterns of brain activation after sports-related concussion: a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Dettwiler, Annegret; Murugavel, Murali; Putukian, Margot; Cubon, Valerie; Furtado, John; Osherson, Daniel

    2014-01-15

    Avoiding recurrent injury in sports-related concussion (SRC) requires understanding the neural mechanisms involved during the time of recovery after injury. The decision for return-to-play is one of the most difficult responsibilities facing the physician, and so far this decision has been based primarily on neurological examination, symptom checklists, and neuropsychological (NP) testing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may be an additional, more objective tool to assess the severity and recovery of function after concussion. The purpose of this study was to define neural correlates of SRC during the 2 months after injury in varsity contact sport athletes who suffered a SRC. All athletes were scanned as they performed an n-back task, for n=1, 2, 3. Subjects were scanned within 72 hours (session one), at 2 weeks (session two), and 2 months (session three) post-injury. Compared with age and sex matched normal controls, concussed subjects demonstrated persistent, significantly increased activation for the 2 minus 1 n-back contrast in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in all three sessions and in the inferior parietal lobe in session one and two (α≤0.01 corrected). Measures of task performance revealed no significant differences between concussed versus control groups at any of the three time points with respect to any of the three n-back tasks. These findings suggest that functional brain activation differences persist at 2 months after injury in concussed athletes, despite the fact that their performance on a standard working memory task is comparable to normal controls and normalization of clinical and NP test results. These results might indicate a delay between neural and behaviorally assessed recovery after SRC. PMID:23914845

  12. A 22-yrs Hurricane Cycle and its Relation to Geomagnetic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Blanca; Pazos, Marni

    Applying spectral analysis to the Atlantic and Pacific hurricane time series, we found period-icities that coincide with the main sunspot and magnetic solar cycles. To assess the possibility that these periodicities could be associated to solar activity, we obtain correlations between hurricane occurrence and several solar activity-related phenomena, such as the total solar irra-diance, the cosmic ray flux and the Dst index of geomagnetic activity. Our results indicate that the highest significant correlations are found between the Atlantic and Pacific hurricanes and the Dst index. Most importantly, both oceans present the highest hurricane-Dst correlations during the ascending part of odd solar cycles and the descending phase of even solar cycles. This shows not only the existence of a 22yrs cycle but also the nature of such periodicity. Fur-thermore, we found that the Atlantic hurricanes behave differently from the Pacific hurricanes in relation to the solar activity-related disturbances considered.

  13. Different dimensions of hand preference that relate to skilled and unskilled activities.

    PubMed

    Steenhuis, R E; Bryden, M P

    1989-06-01

    Hand preference is multidimensional with two major factors and a variable number of minor factors. In the present factor analyses of hand preference, there was no evidence to support Healey, Liederman and Geschwind's (1986) suggestion that hand preference dimensions can be distinguished on the basis of those requiring movement of the distal musculature (fingers and hand) and those requiring movement of the proximal. The first factor reported here relates to "skilled" activities. Hand preference for the use of tools and manipulation of other objects is strongly lateralized in self-professed right- and left-handers. "Less skilled" activities such as picking up objects load on a second and a third factor. Preference for picking up objects including very small ones and relatively heavy ones is much less lateralized, although there appears to be a distinction between activities that involve strength and those that do not. A fourth factor relates to the use of bats and axes, a bimanual activity.

  14. Do words hurt? Brain activation during the processing of pain-related words.

    PubMed

    Richter, Maria; Eck, Judith; Straube, Thomas; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Weiss, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies suggested that areas of the pain matrix of the human brain are recruited by the processing of pain-related environmental cues such as pain-related pictures or descriptors of pain. However, it is still sketchy whether those activations are specific to the pain-relevance of the stimuli or simply reflect a general effect of negative valence or increased arousal. The present study investigates the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of pain-related, negative, positive, and neutral words. Pain-related words were matched to negative words regarding valence and arousal, and to positive words regarding arousal. Sixteen healthy subjects were scanned during two tasks, imagination and distraction, using functional MRI. When subjects were instructed to image a situation associated with the word presented (imagination task), we found increased activation within dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), inferior patietal gyri (IPG), and precuneus when processing pain-related words compared to other words. However, when attention was focused on a foreground task and words were presented in the background (distraction task), we found a decrease in activation within dorsal anterior cingulum (dACC) and a relative increase in activation within the subgenual ventral anterior cingulum (sACC) when processing pain related words compared to other words. Thus, activations to pain-related words are strongly modulated by the attention demands of the task. Most remarkably, the differences in processing pain-related words compared to non-pain-related words are specific to the pain-relevance of the words and cannot simply be explained by their valence or arousal.

  15. Involvement of human internal globus pallidus in the early modulation of cortical error-related activity.

    PubMed

    Herrojo Ruiz, María; Huebl, Julius; Schönecker, Thomas; Kupsch, Andreas; Yarrow, Kielan; Krauss, Joachim K; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Kühn, Andrea A

    2014-06-01

    The detection and assessment of errors are a prerequisite to adapt behavior and improve future performance. Error monitoring is afforded by the interplay between cortical and subcortical neural systems. Ample evidence has pointed to a specific cortical error-related evoked potential, the error-related negativity (ERN), during the detection and evaluation of response errors. Recent models of reinforcement learning implicate the basal ganglia (BG) in early error detection following the learning of stimulus-response associations and in the modulation of the cortical ERN. To investigate the influence of the human BG motor output activity on the cortical ERN during response errors, we recorded local field potentials from the sensorimotor area of the internal globus pallidus and scalp electroencephalogram representing activity from the posterior medial frontal cortex in patients with idiopathic dystonia (hands not affected) during a flanker task. In error trials, a specific pallidal error-related potential arose 60 ms prior to the cortical ERN. The error-related changes in pallidal activity-characterized by theta oscillations-were predictive of the cortical error-related activity as assessed by Granger causality analysis. Our findings show an early modulation of error-related activity in the human pallidum, suggesting that pallidal output influences the cortex at an early stage of error detection.

  16. Is Transport in Accretion Disks Primarily Local or Non-local?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Eric G.

    2014-10-01

    Accretion disks likely involve some combination of local and non-local angular momentum transport. Coronae and jets provide evidence for large scale transport and disk thermal emission may provide evidence for local transport. Identifying the principles that determine the relative local vs. nonlocal fraction poses a set of challenges and highlights a significant gap between numerical simulation results and improved, practical mean field accretion theory. The dominant mechanisms of transport may in fact be non-local and non-viscous. Even the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) for example, often invoked as a source of local turbulence, may produce predominantly non-local transport. I will overview progress and open issues on these themes, drawing in concepts from disk theory, dynamo theory, and corona formation.

  17. Is oxidative stress primarily involved in reperfusion injury of the ischemic heart

    SciTech Connect

    Nohl, H.; Stolze, K.; Napetschnig, S.; Ishikawa, T. )

    1991-01-01

    Reperfusion injury of ischemic organs is suggested to result from metabolic derangements initiating an imbalanced formation of free oxygen radicals. Most investigators in this field have used the spin-trap 5,5'-dimethyl-N-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) to stabilize these short-lived radicals and make them visible by means of the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. ESR signals obtained from intravascular DMPO were reported to indicate the formation of free OH. radicals and, in some cases, also carbon-centered radicals. We were unable to confirm these findings. Carbon-centered radicals were not obtained irrespectively of conditions studied, while oxygen-centered DMPO-adducts could only be detected in minor amounts. Instead, we observed an ascorbyl-related ESR signal. The addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), which was used by many investigators in this field, was found to greatly influence ESR-spectra of the reperfusion fluid. The ascorbyl radical concentration was clearly reduced and the DMPO-OH. adduct became more prominent. The addition of iron further stimulated this change eliciting a Fenton-type reaction responsible for DMPO-OH.-related ESR spectra in the perfusate after ischemia. Accordingly, we observed the release of iron and ascorbic acid into the perfusate as a consequence of ischemia. We could demonstrate that iron in the presence of ascorbate and EDTA causes both types of radicals detected in the perfusate. DMPO-OH. generation in the presence of EDTA was found to result from free OH. radicals that were not generated in the absence of EDTA.

  18. Constitutive activities of estrogen-related receptors: Transcriptional regulation of metabolism by the ERR pathways in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Huss, Janice M; Garbacz, Wojciech G; Xie, Wen

    2015-09-01

    The estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) comprise a small group of orphan nuclear receptor transcription factors. The ERRα and ERRγ isoforms play a central role in the regulation of metabolic genes and cellular energy metabolism. Although less is known about ERRβ, recent studies have revealed the importance of this isoform in the maintenance of embryonic stem cell pluripotency. Thus, ERRs are essential to many biological processes. The development of several ERR knockout and overexpression models and the application of advanced functional genomics have allowed rapid advancement of our understanding of the physiology regulated by ERR pathways. Moreover, it has enabled us to begin to delineate the distinct programs regulated by ERRα and ERRγ that have overlapping effects on metabolism and growth. The current review primarily focuses on the physiologic roles of ERR isoforms related to their metabolic regulation; therefore, the ERRα and ERRγ are discussed in the greatest detail. We emphasize findings from gain- and loss-of-function models developed to characterize ERR control of skeletal muscle, heart and musculoskeletal physiology. These models have revealed that coordinating metabolic capacity with energy demand is essential for seemingly disparate processes such as muscle differentiation and hypertrophy, innate immune function, thermogenesis, and bone remodeling. Furthermore, the models have revealed that ERRα- and ERRγ-deficiency in mice accelerates progression of pathologic processes and implicates ERRs as etiologic factors in disease. We highlight the human diseases in which ERRs and their downstream metabolic pathways are perturbed, including heart failure and diabetes. While no natural ligand has been identified for any of the ERR isoforms, the potential for using synthetic small molecules to modulate their activity has been demonstrated. Based on our current understanding of their transcriptional mechanisms and physiologic relevance, the ERRs have

  19. The role of activity engagement in the relations between Openness/Intellect and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Salthouse, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    The current project investigated why people with high levels of Openness/Intellect tend to have higher levels of cognitive functioning than people with lower levels of Openness/Intellect. We hypothesized that the positive relationship between Openness/Intellect and cognition might be attributable to more open people being more likely to engage in cognitively stimulating activities that are beneficial for cognitive functioning. Three conceptualizations of activity engagement based on: (a) self ratings of duration and intensity of engagement; (b) perceived routineness of one’s activities; and (c) disposition to engage in cognitively stimulating activities, were investigated as possible mediators of the Openness/Intellect-cognition relations. Although several of the relevant simple correlations were of moderate size and statistically significant, we found little evidence that activity engagement mediated the relations between Openness/Intellect and cognition. PMID:21057659

  20. Anhedonia is associated with reduced incentive cue related activation in the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yu Sun; Barch, Deanna

    2015-12-01

    Research has shown that reward incentives improve cognitive control in motivationally salient situations. Much previous work in this domain has focused on incentive cue-related activity in a number of brain regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and striatum. However, the more sustained changes in functional brain activity during task contexts with incentives have been relatively less explored. Here, we examined both the cue-related and sustained effects of rewards (i.e., monetary incentives) on cognitive control, with a particular focus on the roles of the DLPFC and striatum, using a mixed state-item design. We investigated whether variability in a reward-related trait (i.e., anhedonia) would modulate the sustained and/or the cue-related transient aspects of motivated cognitive control. Twenty-seven healthy individuals performed a modified response conflict task (Padmala & Pessoa, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 3419-3432, 2011) during scanning, in which participants were asked to categorize images as either houses or buildings with either congruent or incongruent overlaid words. Participants performed a baseline condition without knowledge of monetary incentives, followed by reward blocks with monetary incentives on some cued trials (reward cues) for fast and correct responses. We replicated previous work by showing increases in both sustained activity during reward versus baseline blocks and transient. cue-related activity in bilateral DLPFC and the basal ganglia. Importantly, healthy individuals with higher anhedonia showed less of an increase in trial-by-trial activity as a function of reward in the lateral globus pallidus. Together, our results suggest that reduced hedonic experience may be related to abnormality of reward cue-related activity in the basal ganglia. PMID:26105776

  1. Anhedonia is associated with reduced incentive cue related activation in the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yu Sun; Barch, Deanna

    2015-12-01

    Research has shown that reward incentives improve cognitive control in motivationally salient situations. Much previous work in this domain has focused on incentive cue-related activity in a number of brain regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and striatum. However, the more sustained changes in functional brain activity during task contexts with incentives have been relatively less explored. Here, we examined both the cue-related and sustained effects of rewards (i.e., monetary incentives) on cognitive control, with a particular focus on the roles of the DLPFC and striatum, using a mixed state-item design. We investigated whether variability in a reward-related trait (i.e., anhedonia) would modulate the sustained and/or the cue-related transient aspects of motivated cognitive control. Twenty-seven healthy individuals performed a modified response conflict task (Padmala & Pessoa, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 3419-3432, 2011) during scanning, in which participants were asked to categorize images as either houses or buildings with either congruent or incongruent overlaid words. Participants performed a baseline condition without knowledge of monetary incentives, followed by reward blocks with monetary incentives on some cued trials (reward cues) for fast and correct responses. We replicated previous work by showing increases in both sustained activity during reward versus baseline blocks and transient. cue-related activity in bilateral DLPFC and the basal ganglia. Importantly, healthy individuals with higher anhedonia showed less of an increase in trial-by-trial activity as a function of reward in the lateral globus pallidus. Together, our results suggest that reduced hedonic experience may be related to abnormality of reward cue-related activity in the basal ganglia.

  2. Structure-Activity Relations In Enzymes: An Application Of IR-ATR Modulation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fringeli, Urs P.; Ahlstrom, Peter; Vincenz, Claudius; Fringeli, Marianna

    1985-12-01

    Relations between structure and specific activity in immobilized acetylcholinesterase (ACNE) have been studied by means of pH- and Ca++-modulation technique combined with attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared (IR) spectroscopy and enzyme activity measurement. Periodic modulation of pH and Ca++-concentration enabled a periodic on-off switching of about 40% of the total enzyme activity. It was found that about 0.5 to 1% of the amino acids were involved in this process. These 15 to 30 amino acids assumed antiparallel pleated sheet structure in the inhibited state and random and/or helical structure in the activated state.

  3. Recent Northern Hemisphere tropical expansion primarily driven by black carbon and tropospheric ozone.

    PubMed

    Allen, Robert J; Sherwood, Steven C; Norris, Joel R; Zender, Charles S

    2012-05-16

    Observational analyses have shown the width of the tropical belt increasing in recent decades as the world has warmed. This expansion is important because it is associated with shifts in large-scale atmospheric circulation and major climate zones. Although recent studies have attributed tropical expansion in the Southern Hemisphere to ozone depletion, the drivers of Northern Hemisphere expansion are not well known and the expansion has not so far been reproduced by climate models. Here we use a climate model with detailed aerosol physics to show that increases in heterogeneous warming agents--including black carbon aerosols and tropospheric ozone--are noticeably better than greenhouse gases at driving expansion, and can account for the observed summertime maximum in tropical expansion. Mechanistically, atmospheric heating from black carbon and tropospheric ozone has occurred at the mid-latitudes, generating a poleward shift of the tropospheric jet, thereby relocating the main division between tropical and temperate air masses. Although we still underestimate tropical expansion, the true aerosol forcing is poorly known and could also be underestimated. Thus, although the insensitivity of models needs further investigation, black carbon and tropospheric ozone, both of which are strongly influenced by human activities, are the most likely causes of observed Northern Hemisphere tropical expansion.

  4. Gesture Frequency Linked Primarily to Story Length in 4-10-Year Old Children's Stories.

    PubMed

    Nicoladis, Elena; Marentette, Paula; Navarro, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that older children gesture more while telling a story than younger children. This increase in gesture use has been attributed to increased story complexity. In adults, both narrative complexity and imagery predict gesture frequency. In this study, we tested the strength of three predictors of children's gesture use in a narrative context: age, narrative complexity (measured by discourse connectors), and use of imagery (measured by story length). French-, Spanish-, and English-speaking children between 4 and 10 years participated in this study. Including these three groups allows us to test for the generalizability of our results and for cross-linguistic differences in gesture frequency. All the children watched cartoons and retold the story. The results showed that the length of the story was a significant predictor of children's gesture rate while age and discourse connectors were not. There were no differences between language groups. One possible in interpretation of these results is that children's gesture frequency is strongly linked to activation of imagery.

  5. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in the Mouse Induces Axotomy Primarily within the Axon Initial Segment

    PubMed Central

    Greer, John E.; Hånell, Anders; McGinn, Melissa J.; Povlishock, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is a consistent component of traumatic brain injury (TBI), and is associated with much of its morbidity. Increasingly it has also been recognized as a major pathology of mild TBI (mTBI). In terms of its pathogenesis, numerous studies have investigated the susceptibility of the nodes of Ranvier, the paranode and internodal regions to TAI. The nodes of Ranvier, with their unique composition and concentration of ion channels, have been suggested as the primary site of injury, initiating a cascade of abnormalities in the related paranodal and internodal domains that lead to local axonal swellings and detachment. No investigation, however, has determined the effect of TAI upon the axon initial segment (AIS), a segment critical to regulating polarity and excitability. The current study sought to identify the susceptibility of these different axon domains to TAI within the neocortex, where each axonal domain could be simultaneously assessed. Utilizing a mouse model of mTBI, a temporal and spatial heterogeneity of axonal injury was found within the neocortical gray matter. Although axonal swellings were found in all domains along myelinated neocortical axons, the majority of TAI occurred within the AIS, which progressed without overt structural disruption of the AIS itself. The finding of primary AIS involvement has important implications regarding neuronal polarity and the fate of axotomized processes, while also raising therapeutic implications, as the mechanisms underlying such axonal injury in the AIS may be distinct from those described for nodal/paranodal injury. PMID:23595276

  6. Mild traumatic brain injury in the mouse induces axotomy primarily within the axon initial segment.

    PubMed

    Greer, John E; Hånell, Anders; McGinn, Melissa J; Povlishock, John T

    2013-07-01

    Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is a consistent component of traumatic brain injury (TBI), and is associated with much of its morbidity. Increasingly, it has also been recognized as a major pathology of mild TBI (mTBI). In terms of its pathogenesis, numerous studies have investigated the susceptibility of the nodes of Ranvier, the paranode and internodal regions to TAI. The nodes of Ranvier, with their unique composition and concentration of ion channels, have been suggested as the primary site of injury, initiating a cascade of abnormalities in the related paranodal and internodal domains that lead to local axonal swellings and detachment. No investigation, however, has determined the effect of TAI upon the axon initial segment (AIS), a segment critical to regulating polarity and excitability. The current study sought to identify the susceptibility of these different axon domains to TAI within the neocortex, where each axonal domain could be simultaneously assessed. Utilizing a mouse model of mTBI, a temporal and spatial heterogeneity of axonal injury was found within the neocortical gray matter. Although axonal swellings were found in all domains along myelinated neocortical axons, the majority of TAI occurred within the AIS, which progressed without overt structural disruption of the AIS itself. The finding of primary AIS involvement has important implications regarding neuronal polarity and the fate of axotomized processes, while also raising therapeutic implications, as the mechanisms underlying such axonal injury in the AIS may be distinct from those described for nodal/paranodal injury. PMID:23595276

  7. Do cholinesterase inhibitors act primarily on attention deficit? A naturalistic study in Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Bracco, Laura; Bessi, Valentina; Padiglioni, Sonia; Marini, Sandro; Pepeu, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Attention is the first non-memory domain affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD), before deficits in language and visuo-spatial function, and it is claimed that attention deficits are responsible for the difficulties with daily living in early demented patients. The aim of this longitudinal study in a group of 121 Caucasian, community-dwelling, mild-to-moderate AD patients (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score >17) was to detect which cognitive domains were most affected by the disease and whether one year treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors was more effective in preserving attention than memory. All subjects were evaluated by a neuropsychological battery including global measurements (MMSE, Information-Memory-Concentration Test) and tasks exploring verbal long-term memory, language, attention, and executive functions. The comparison between two evaluations, made 12 months apart, shows statistically significant differences, indicating deterioration compared to baseline, in the following tests: MMSE (with no gender differences), Composite Memory Score, Short Story Delayed Recall, Trail-Making Test A, Semantic Fluency Test, and Token Test. Conversely, there were no differences in the two evaluations of the Digit Span, Corsi Tapping Test, Short Story Immediate Recall, and Phonemic Fluency Tests. It appears that the treatment specifically attenuated the decline in tests assessing attention and executive functions. A stabilization of the ability to pay attention, with the ensuing positive effects on executive functions, recent memory, and information acquisition which depend on attention, appears to be the main neuropsychological mechanism through which the activation of the cholinergic system, resulting from cholinesterase inhibition, exerts its effect on cognition. PMID:24577458

  8. Maize Centromere Structure and Evolution: Sequence Analysis of Centromeres 2 and 5 Reveals Dynamic Loci Shaped Primarily by Retrotransposons

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Patrice S.; Koo, Dal-Hoe; Shi, Jinghua; Gao, Zhi; Han, Fangpu; Lee, Hyeran; Xu, Ronghui; Allison, Jamie; Birchler, James A.; Jiang, Jiming; Dawe, R. Kelly; Presting, Gernot G.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a comprehensive and general approach for mapping centromeres and present a detailed characterization of two maize centromeres. Centromeres are difficult to map and analyze because they consist primarily of repetitive DNA sequences, which in maize are the tandem satellite repeat CentC and interspersed centromeric retrotransposons of maize (CRM). Centromeres are defined epigenetically by the centromeric histone H3 variant, CENH3. Using novel markers derived from centromere repeats, we have mapped all ten centromeres onto the physical and genetic maps of maize. We were able to completely traverse centromeres 2 and 5, confirm physical maps by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and delineate their functional regions by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with anti-CENH3 antibody followed by pyrosequencing. These two centromeres differ substantially in size, apparent CENH3 density, and arrangement of centromeric repeats; and they are larger than the rice centromeres characterized to date. Furthermore, centromere 5 consists of two distinct CENH3 domains that are separated by several megabases. Succession of centromere repeat classes is evidenced by the fact that elements belonging to the recently active recombinant subgroups of CRM1 colonize the present day centromeres, while elements of the ancestral subgroups are also found in the flanking regions. Using abundant CRM and non-CRM retrotransposons that inserted in and near these two centromeres to create a historical record of centromere location, we show that maize centromeres are fluid genomic regions whose borders are heavily influenced by the interplay of retrotransposons and epigenetic marks. Furthermore, we propose that CRMs may be involved in removal of centromeric DNA (specifically CentC), invasion of centromeres by non-CRM retrotransposons, and local repositioning of the CENH3. PMID:19956743

  9. Activity in the human superior colliculus relating to endogenous saccade preparation and execution

    PubMed Central

    Furlan, Michele; Smith, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years a small number of studies have applied functional imaging techniques to investigate visual responses in the human superior colliculus (SC), but few have investigated its oculomotor functions. Here, in two experiments, we examined activity associated with endogenous saccade preparation. We used 3-T fMRI to record the hemodynamic activity in the SC while participants were either preparing or executing saccadic eye movements. Our results showed that not only executing a saccade (as previously shown) but also preparing a saccade produced an increase in the SC hemodynamic activity. The saccade-related activity was observed in the contralateral and to a lesser extent the ipsilateral SC. A second experiment further examined the contralateral mapping of saccade-related activity with a larger range of saccade amplitudes. Increased activity was again observed in both the contralateral and ipsilateral SC that was evident for large as well as small saccades. This suggests that the ipsilateral component of the increase in BOLD is not due simply to small-amplitude saccades producing bilateral activity in the foveal fixation zone. These studies provide the first evidence of presaccadic preparatory activity in the human SC and reveal that fMRI can detect activity consistent with that of buildup neurons found in the deeper layers of the SC in studies of nonhuman primates. PMID:26041830

  10. Activity in the human superior colliculus relating to endogenous saccade preparation and execution.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Michele; Smith, Andrew T; Walker, Robin

    2015-08-01

    In recent years a small number of studies have applied functional imaging techniques to investigate visual responses in the human superior colliculus (SC), but few have investigated its oculomotor functions. Here, in two experiments, we examined activity associated with endogenous saccade preparation. We used 3-T fMRI to record the hemodynamic activity in the SC while participants were either preparing or executing saccadic eye movements. Our results showed that not only executing a saccade (as previously shown) but also preparing a saccade produced an increase in the SC hemodynamic activity. The saccade-related activity was observed in the contralateral and to a lesser extent the ipsilateral SC. A second experiment further examined the contralateral mapping of saccade-related activity with a larger range of saccade amplitudes. Increased activity was again observed in both the contralateral and ipsilateral SC that was evident for large as well as small saccades. This suggests that the ipsilateral component of the increase in BOLD is not due simply to small-amplitude saccades producing bilateral activity in the foveal fixation zone. These studies provide the first evidence of presaccadic preparatory activity in the human SC and reveal that fMRI can detect activity consistent with that of buildup neurons found in the deeper layers of the SC in studies of nonhuman primates.

  11. Age-related differences in actual and perceived levels of physical activity in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Labbrozzi, Dina; Bortoli, Laura; Bertollo, Maurizio; Bucci, Ines; Doria, Christian; Robazza, Claudio

    2012-06-01

    Age-related differences in actual and perceived physical activity were investigated in a sample of adolescent girls, also considering the relationship between physical activity and motor abilities. Self-reported physical activity was measured in 11-year-old (n=66) and 13-year-old (n=52) girls by means of the physical activity questionnaire-children form, and actual levels of activity were assessed by means of the Lifecorder uniaxial accelerometer. The Sit-and-Reach Test was employed to estimate flexibility, while lower limb strength was measured by squat jump and counter-movement jump tests. Weight and height were measured, and sex-specific age-related body mass index cutoff points were used to identify overweight and obesity. Findings showed a drop in objective vigorous physical activity in older girls, which was also reflected in the physical activity questionnaire. Contrary to expectations, no association was found between motor abilities and measured physical activity. Results highlight the need to understand the reasons why girls progressively reduce their involvement in physical activity as they get older, so as to plan interventions aimed at preventing this decline.

  12. Hypocretinergic neurons are activated in conjunction with goal-oriented survival-related motor behaviors.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, Pablo; Ramos, Oscar V; Sampogna, Sharon; Chase, Michael H

    2011-10-24

    Hypocretinergic neurons are located in the area of the lateral hypothalamus which is responsible for mediating goal-directed, survival-related behaviors. Consequently, we hypothesize that the hypocretinergic system functions to promote these behaviors including those patterns of somatomotor activation upon which they are based. Further, we hypothesize that the hypocretinergic system is not involved with repetitive motor activities unless they occur in conjunction with the goal-oriented behaviors that are governed by the lateral hypothalamus. In order to determine the veracity of these hypotheses, we examined Fos immunoreactivity (as a marker of neuronal activity) in hypocretinergic neurons in the cat during: a) Exploratory Motor Activity; b) Locomotion without Reward; c) Locomotion with Reward; and d) Wakefulness without Motor Activity. Significantly greater numbers of hypocretinergic neurons expressed c-fos when the animals were exploring an unknown environment during Exploratory Motor Activity compared with all other paradigms. In addition, a larger number of Hcrt+Fos+neurons were activated during Locomotion with Reward than during Wakefulness without Motor Activity. Finally, very few hypocretinergic neurons were activated during Locomotion without Reward and Wakefulness without Motor Activity, wherein there was an absence of goal-directed activities. We conclude that the hypocretinergic system does not promote wakefulness per se or motor activity per se but is responsible for mediating specific goal-oriented behaviors that take place during wakefulness. Accordingly, we suggest that the hypocretinergic system is responsible for controlling the somatomotor system and coordinating its activity with other systems in order to produce successful goal-oriented survival-related behaviors that are controlled by the lateral hypothalamus. PMID:21839102

  13. Hypocretinergic neurons are activated in conjunction with goal-oriented survival-related motor behaviors.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, Pablo; Ramos, Oscar V; Sampogna, Sharon; Chase, Michael H

    2011-10-24

    Hypocretinergic neurons are located in the area of the lateral hypothalamus which is responsible for mediating goal-directed, survival-related behaviors. Consequently, we hypothesize that the hypocretinergic system functions to promote these behaviors including those patterns of somatomotor activation upon which they are based. Further, we hypothesize that the hypocretinergic system is not involved with repetitive motor activities unless they occur in conjunction with the goal-oriented behaviors that are governed by the lateral hypothalamus. In order to determine the veracity of these hypotheses, we examined Fos immunoreactivity (as a marker of neuronal activity) in hypocretinergic neurons in the cat during: a) Exploratory Motor Activity; b) Locomotion without Reward; c) Locomotion with Reward; and d) Wakefulness without Motor Activity. Significantly greater numbers of hypocretinergic neurons expressed c-fos when the animals were exploring an unknown environment during Exploratory Motor Activity compared with all other paradigms. In addition, a larger number of Hcrt+Fos+neurons were activated during Locomotion with Reward than during Wakefulness without Motor Activity. Finally, very few hypocretinergic neurons were activated during Locomotion without Reward and Wakefulness without Motor Activity, wherein there was an absence of goal-directed activities. We conclude that the hypocretinergic system does not promote wakefulness per se or motor activity per se but is responsible for mediating specific goal-oriented behaviors that take place during wakefulness. Accordingly, we suggest that the hypocretinergic system is responsible for controlling the somatomotor system and coordinating its activity with other systems in order to produce successful goal-oriented survival-related behaviors that are controlled by the lateral hypothalamus.

  14. Antioxidant enzyme activity in endemic Baikalean versus Palaearctic amphipods: tagma- and size-related changes.

    PubMed

    Timofeyev, M A

    2006-03-01

    The activities of key antioxidant enzymes in two endemic Baikalean amphipod species: Pallasea cancelloides (Gerstf), Eulimnogammarus verrucosus (Gerstf) and the widely distributed Palearctic species Gammarus lacustris (Sars) were studied. This work was done to prove or disprove the hypothesis that Baikalean endemics have specifics in antioxidants system different from Palearctic species. The activities of antioxidant enzymes peroxidase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were measured in different sections (tagmata) of the amphipods' bodies as well as in different size groups. Well expressed tagma-related differences in peroxidase activity as well as smaller differences in catalase activity were shown in all studied species. There were no measured differences in glutathione-S-transferase activity among body sections. The existence of size-related changes in some antioxidant enzymes and the difference in such changes between Baikalean and Palearctic amphipods were noted. A significant increase in peroxidase activity with the size was found in both Baikalean species while a significant decrease in peroxidase activity was observed in the Palearctic G. lacustris. In Baikalean P. cancelloides, a significant decrease of catalase activity with the increase in age of crustaceans was noted, while in E. verrucosus no such relationship was found. In the Palearctic G. lacustris, a significant increase in catalase activity with the increase in size was noted. All species are shown to have no size-related differences in glutathione-S-transferase activity. The differences between species as well as between both different tagmata and size-classes within a particular species were estimated. It was assumed that the estimated differences in enzymes activity most likely depend on interspecific variation, rather than on conditional specifics in Lake Baikal. PMID:16460977

  15. Alterations in brain activation during cognitive empathy are related to social functioning in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew J; Schroeder, Matthew P; Abram, Samantha V; Goldman, Morris B; Parrish, Todd B; Wang, Xue; Derntl, Birgit; Habel, Ute; Decety, Jean; Reilly, James L; Csernansky, John G; Breiter, Hans C

    2015-01-01

    Impaired cognitive empathy (ie, understanding the emotional experiences of others) is associated with poor social functioning in schizophrenia. However, it is unclear whether the neural activity underlying cognitive empathy relates to social functioning. This study examined the neural activation supporting cognitive empathy performance and whether empathy-related activation during correctly performed trials was associated with self-reported cognitive empathy and measures of social functioning. Thirty schizophrenia outpatients and 24 controls completed a cognitive empathy paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neural activity corresponding to correct judgments about the expected emotional expression in a social interaction was compared in schizophrenia subjects relative to control subjects. Participants also completed a self-report measure of empathy and 2 social functioning measures (social competence and social attainment). Schizophrenia subjects demonstrated significantly lower accuracy in task performance and were characterized by hypoactivation in empathy-related frontal, temporal, and parietal regions as well as hyperactivation in occipital regions compared with control subjects during accurate cognitive empathy trials. A cluster with peak activation in the supplementary motor area (SMA) extending to the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) correlated with social competence and social attainment in schizophrenia subjects but not controls. These results suggest that neural correlates of cognitive empathy may be promising targets for interventions aiming to improve social functioning and that brain activation in the SMA/aMCC region could be used as a biomarker for monitoring treatment response.

  16. HIV Promoter Integration Site Primarily Modulates Transcriptional Burst Size Rather Than Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Skupsky, Ron; Burnett, John C.; Foley, Jonathan E.; Schaffer, David V.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian gene expression patterns, and their variability across populations of cells, are regulated by factors specific to each gene in concert with its surrounding cellular and genomic environment. Lentiviruses such as HIV integrate their genomes into semi-random genomic locations in the cells they infect, and the resulting viral gene expression provides a natural system to dissect the contributions of genomic environment to transcriptional regulation. Previously, we showed that expression heterogeneity and its modulation by specific host factors at HIV integration sites are key determinants of infected-cell fate and a possible source of latent infections. Here, we assess the integration context dependence of expression heterogeneity from diverse single integrations of a HIV-promoter/GFP-reporter cassette in Jurkat T-cells. Systematically fitting a stochastic model of gene expression to our data reveals an underlying transcriptional dynamic, by which multiple transcripts are produced during short, infrequent bursts, that quantitatively accounts for the wide, highly skewed protein expression distributions observed in each of our clonal cell populations. Interestingly, we find that the size of transcriptional bursts is the primary systematic covariate over integration sites, varying from a few to tens of transcripts across integration sites, and correlating well with mean expression. In contrast, burst frequencies are scattered about a typical value of several per cell-division time and demonstrate little correlation with the clonal means. This pattern of modulation generates consistently noisy distributions over the sampled integration positions, with large expression variability relative to the mean maintained even for the most productive integrations, and could contribute to specifying heterogeneous, integration-site-dependent viral production patterns in HIV-infected cells. Genomic environment thus emerges as a significant control parameter for gene expression

  17. Firing behavior of vestibular neurons during active and passive head movements: vestibulo-spinal and other non-eye-movement related neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCrea, R. A.; Gdowski, G. T.; Boyle, R.; Belton, T.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The firing behavior of 51 non-eye movement related central vestibular neurons that were sensitive to passive head rotation in the plane of the horizontal semicircular canal was studied in three squirrel monkeys whose heads were free to move in the horizontal plane. Unit sensitivity to active head movements during spontaneous gaze saccades was compared with sensitivity to passive head rotation. Most units (29/35 tested) were activated at monosynaptic latencies following electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral vestibular nerve. Nine were vestibulo-spinal units that were antidromically activated following electrical stimulation of the ventromedial funiculi of the spinal cord at C1. All of the units were less sensitive to active head movements than to passive whole body rotation. In the majority of cells (37/51, 73%), including all nine identified vestibulo-spinal units, the vestibular signals related to active head movements were canceled. The remaining units (n = 14, 27%) were sensitive to active head movements, but their responses were attenuated by 20-75%. Most units were nearly as sensitive to passive head-on-trunk rotation as they were to whole body rotation; this suggests that vestibular signals related to active head movements were cancelled primarily by subtraction of a head movement efference copy signal. The sensitivity of most units to passive whole body rotation was unchanged during gaze saccades. A fundamental feature of sensory processing is the ability to distinguish between self-generated and externally induced sensory events. Our observations suggest that the distinction is made at an early stage of processing in the vestibular system.

  18. Firing behavior of vestibular neurons during active and passive head movements: vestibulo-spinal and other non-eye-movement related neurons.

    PubMed

    McCrea, R A; Gdowski, G T; Boyle, R; Belton, T

    1999-07-01

    The firing behavior of 51 non-eye movement related central vestibular neurons that were sensitive to passive head rotation in the plane of the horizontal semicircular canal was studied in three squirrel monkeys whose heads were free to move in the horizontal plane. Unit sensitivity to active head movements during spontaneous gaze saccades was compared with sensitivity to passive head rotation. Most units (29/35 tested) were activated at monosynaptic latencies following electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral vestibular nerve. Nine were vestibulo-spinal units that were antidromically activated following electrical stimulation of the ventromedial funiculi of the spinal cord at C1. All of the units were less sensitive to active head movements than to passive whole body rotation. In the majority of cells (37/51, 73%), including all nine identified vestibulo-spinal units, the vestibular signals related to active head movements were canceled. The remaining units (n = 14, 27%) were sensitive to active head movements, but their responses were attenuated by 20-75%. Most units were nearly as sensitive to passive head-on-trunk rotation as they were to whole body rotation; this suggests that vestibular signals related to active head movements were cancelled primarily by subtraction of a head movement efference copy signal. The sensitivity of most units to passive whole body rotation was unchanged during gaze saccades. A fundamental feature of sensory processing is the ability to distinguish between self-generated and externally induced sensory events. Our observations suggest that the distinction is made at an early stage of processing in the vestibular system. PMID:10400968

  19. Trabecular bone recovers from mechanical unloading primarily by restoring its mechanical function rather than its morphology.

    PubMed

    Ozcivici, Engin; Judex, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Upon returning to normal ambulatory activities, the recovery of trabecular bone lost during unloading is limited. Here, using a mouse population that displayed a large range of skeletal susceptibility to unloading and reambulation, we tested the impact of changes in trabecular bone morphology during unloading and reambulation on its simulated mechanical properties. Female adult mice from a double cross of BALB/cByJ and C3H/HeJ strains (n=352) underwent 3wk of hindlimb unloading followed by 3wk of reambulation. Normally ambulating mice served as controls (n=30). As quantified longitudinally by in vivo μCT, unloading led to an average loss of 43% of trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) in the distal femur. Finite element models of the μCT tomographies showed that deterioration of the trabecular structure raised trabecular peak Von-Mises (PVM) stresses on average by 27%, indicating a significant increase in the risk of mechanical failure compared to baseline. Further, skewness of the Von-Mises stress distributions (SVM) increased by 104% with unloading, indicating that the trabecular structure became inefficient in resisting the applied load. During reambulation, bone of experimental mice recovered on average only 10% of its lost BV/TV. Even though the addition of trabecular tissue was small during reambulation, PVM and SVM as indicators of risk of mechanical failure decreased by 56% and 57%, respectively. Large individual differences in the response of trabecular bone, together with a large sample size, facilitated stratification of experimental mice based on the level of recovery. As a fraction of all mice, 66% of the population showed some degree of recovery in BV/TV while in 89% and 87% of all mice, PVM and SVM decreased during reambulation, respectively. At the end of the reambulation phase, only 8% of the population recovered half of the unloading induced losses in BV/TV while 50% and 49% of the population recovered half of the unloading induced

  20. Trabecular bone recovers from mechanical unloading primarily by restoring its mechanical function rather than its morphology.

    PubMed

    Ozcivici, Engin; Judex, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Upon returning to normal ambulatory activities, the recovery of trabecular bone lost during unloading is limited. Here, using a mouse population that displayed a large range of skeletal susceptibility to unloading and reambulation, we tested the impact of changes in trabecular bone morphology during unloading and reambulation on its simulated mechanical properties. Female adult mice from a double cross of BALB/cByJ and C3H/HeJ strains (n=352) underwent 3wk of hindlimb unloading followed by 3wk of reambulation. Normally ambulating mice served as controls (n=30). As quantified longitudinally by in vivo μCT, unloading led to an average loss of 43% of trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) in the distal femur. Finite element models of the μCT tomographies showed that deterioration of the trabecular structure raised trabecular peak Von-Mises (PVM) stresses on average by 27%, indicating a significant increase in the risk of mechanical failure compared to baseline. Further, skewness of the Von-Mises stress distributions (SVM) increased by 104% with unloading, indicating that the trabecular structure became inefficient in resisting the applied load. During reambulation, bone of experimental mice recovered on average only 10% of its lost BV/TV. Even though the addition of trabecular tissue was small during reambulation, PVM and SVM as indicators of risk of mechanical failure decreased by 56% and 57%, respectively. Large individual differences in the response of trabecular bone, together with a large sample size, facilitated stratification of experimental mice based on the level of recovery. As a fraction of all mice, 66% of the population showed some degree of recovery in BV/TV while in 89% and 87% of all mice, PVM and SVM decreased during reambulation, respectively. At the end of the reambulation phase, only 8% of the population recovered half of the unloading induced losses in BV/TV while 50% and 49% of the population recovered half of the unloading induced

  1. Host-seeking activity of ixodid ticks in relation to weather variables.

    PubMed

    Hubálek, Zdenek; Halouzka, Jirí; Juricová, Zina

    2003-12-01

    Ixodid ticks were monitored in a temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest in South Moravia (Czech Republic). Relative abundance of the ticks collected before noon (10.00-12.00 h) was compared to several weather variables (air and soil temperatures, relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed, and derived values) using the Pearson correlation coefficient. The tick numbers were found to be most closely related to the amplitude of the soil (-5 cm) temperature between 07 h and 14 h (TSamp, in Ixodes ricinus), and the soil temperature (TS) at noon (in Haemaphysalis concinna) or in the morning (Dermacentor reticulatus). While a growing amplitude in TSamp caused an increased host-seeking activity of I. ricinus and H. concinna, it suppressed the activity of D. reticulatus, a tick species mainly occurring in colder seasons of the year in Central Europe. The air temperature (TA) and relative humidity (RH) were also closely related to the tick activity, whereas rainfall and wind speed remained largely uncorrelated with the activity of the three tick species. Multiple linear regression on several variables (TSamp, TA, TS, TA-TS, RH) explained 48% of the variance in I. ricinus, 47% in H. concinna, and 38% in D. reticulatus. Predictive two-variable regression models of relative abundance in host-seeking ticks were based on morning temperature (TA or TS) and morning RH as the most important environmental factors: they explained 32% (I. ricinus), 39% (H. concinna), and 35% (D. reticulatus) of the variance.

  2. Role of yoga and physical activity in work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dentists

    PubMed Central

    Koneru, Suneetha; Tanikonda, Rambabu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Work-related musculoskeletal pain is one of the occupational hazards in dentists. Aims: To find the prevalence and severity of musculoskeletal pain in dentists, to compare musculoskeletal pain among dentists practicing yoga, those practicing physical activities, and those without any physical activity, and also to know the effects of sex, age, and workload on musculoskeletal pain. Materials and Methods: A self-reporting work-related questionnaire and the Nordic questionnaire for analysis of musculoskeletal disorders were given to graduated dentists attending Indian dental conference in Mumbai, to know the musculoskeletal pain experienced in the last 12 months and feedback was obtained from 220 dentists. Results: The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in dentists was 34.5%. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was 10.5%, 21.7%, and 45.6% in dentists with regular yoga practice, other physical activity, and no physical activity, respectively. There was statistically significant difference in the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among dentists who were practicing yoga when compared with those in no regular activity group. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, there was significant role of physical activity on the quality and quantity of work-related musculoskeletal disorders experienced by dentists. Yoga was found to be more effective than other modes of physical activities. More research is needed on musculoskeletal problems in dentists, with an emphasis on larger sample sizes and correlating other factors like age and sex of the dentists, duration of practice, years of practicing yoga, and working hours per week. PMID:26236679

  3. Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Europe Is Clinal and Influenced Primarily by Geography, Rather than by Language

    PubMed Central

    Rosser, Zoë H.; Zerjal, Tatiana; Hurles, Matthew E.; Adojaan, Maarja; Alavantic, Dragan; Amorim, António; Amos, William; Armenteros, Manuel; Arroyo, Eduardo; Barbujani, Guido; Beckman, Gunhild; Beckman, Lars; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Bosch, Elena; Bradley, Daniel G.; Brede, Gaute; Cooper, Gillian; Côrte-Real, Helena B. S. M.; de Knijff, Peter; Decorte, Ronny; Dubrova, Yuri E.; Evgrafov, Oleg; Gilissen, Anja; Glisic, Sanja; Gölge, Mukaddes; Hill, Emmeline W.; Jeziorowska, Anna; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Kayser, Manfred; Kivisild, Toomas; Kravchenko, Sergey A.; Krumina, Astrida; Kučinskas, Vaidutis; Lavinha, João; Livshits, Ludmila A.; Malaspina, Patrizia; Maria, Syrrou; McElreavey, Ken; Meitinger, Thomas A.; Mikelsaar, Aavo-Valdur; Mitchell, R. John; Nafa, Khedoudja; Nicholson, Jayne; Nørby, Søren; Pandya, Arpita; Parik, Jüri; Patsalis, Philippos C.; Pereira, Luísa; Peterlin, Borut; Pielberg, Gerli; Prata, Maria João; Previderé, Carlo; Roewer, Lutz; Rootsi, Siiri; Rubinsztein, D. C.; Saillard, Juliette; Santos, Fabrício R.; Stefanescu, Gheorghe; Sykes, Bryan C.; Tolun, Aslihan; Villems, Richard; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Jobling, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    Clinal patterns of autosomal genetic diversity within Europe have been interpreted in previous studies in terms of a Neolithic demic diffusion model for the spread of agriculture; in contrast, studies using mtDNA have traced many founding lineages to the Paleolithic and have not shown strongly clinal variation. We have used 11 human Y-chromosomal biallelic polymorphisms, defining 10 haplogroups, to analyze a sample of 3,616 Y chromosomes belonging to 47 European and circum-European populations. Patterns of geographic differentiation are highly nonrandom, and, when they are assessed using spatial autocorrelation analysis, they show significant clines for five of six haplogroups analyzed. Clines for two haplogroups, representing 45% of the chromosomes, are continentwide and consistent with the demic diffusion hypothesis. Clines for three other haplogroups each have different foci and are more regionally restricted and are likely to reflect distinct population movements, including one from north of the Black Sea. Principal-components analysis suggests that populations are related primarily on the basis of geography, rather than on the basis of linguistic affinity. This is confirmed in Mantel tests, which show a strong and highly significant partial correlation between genetics and geography but a low, nonsignificant partial correlation between genetics and language. Genetic-barrier analysis also indicates the primacy of geography in the shaping of patterns of variation. These patterns retain a strong signal of expansion from the Near East but also suggest that the demographic history of Europe has been complex and influenced by other major population movements, as well as by linguistic and geographic heterogeneities and the effects of drift. PMID:11078479

  4. Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response in mice is primarily dependent on the Ah phenotype of lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed

    Silkworth, J B; Antrim, L A; Sack, G

    1986-12-01

    Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons act through the aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor in mice to produce a series of toxic effects of the immune system. The receptor protein is a product of the Ah gene locus. Ah responsive (Ahb/Ahb) mice express a high affinity receptor in both lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues whereas nonresponsive Ahd/Ahd mice express a poor affinity receptor. To determine the role of the Ah receptor of lymphoid tissue relative to that of nonlymphoid tissue in the induction of immune impairment, bone marrow was used to reconstitute lethally irradiated mice of the same or opposite Ah phenotype. All mice were given 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (35 and 350 mumol/kg) ip 2 days before immunization with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). The immune response to this T dependent antigen and organ weights were determined 5 or 7 days later in normal or chimeric mice, respectively. Monoclonal Lyt 1.1 and Lyt 1.2 antibodies were used to establish the origin of the cells which repopulated the chimeric thymuses. The immune responses of both BALB/cBy (Ahb/Ahb) and the BALB/cBy X DBA/2 hybrid, CByD2F1 (Ahb/Ahd), were significantly suppressed but DBA/2 mice were unaffected. The immune responses of chimeric BALB/cBy----BALB/cBy and BALB/cBy----DBA/2 (donor----recipient) mice were also significantly suppressed and thymic atrophy was observed in both cases. The serum anti-SRBC antibody titers of DBA/2----BALB/cBy chimeras were also significantly decreased although not to the same extent as in BALB/cBy----DBA/2 mice. Chimeric DBA/2----DBA/2 mice were not affected. These results indicate that the sensitivity to Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response is primarily determined by the Ah phenotype of the lymphoid tissue.

  5. Sensory-related neural activity regulates the structure of vascular networks in the cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lacoste, Baptiste; Comin, Cesar H.; Ben-Zvi, Ayal; Kaeser, Pascal S.; Xu, Xiaoyin; Costa, Luciano da F.; Gu, Chenghua

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Neurovascular interactions are essential for proper brain function. While the effect of neural activity on cerebral blood flow has been extensively studied, whether neural activity influences vascular patterning remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that neural activity promotes the formation of vascular networks in the early postnatal mouse barrel cortex. Using a combination of genetics, imaging, and computational tools to allow simultaneous analysis of neuronal and vascular components, we found that vascular density and branching were decreased in the barrel cortex when sensory input was reduced by either a complete deafferentation, a genetic impairment of neurotransmitter release at thalamocortical synapses, or a selective reduction of sensory-related neural activity by whisker plucking. In contrast, enhancement of neural activity by whisker stimulation led to an increase in vascular density and branching. The finding that neural activity is necessary and sufficient to trigger alterations of vascular networks reveals a novel feature of neurovascular interactions. PMID:25155955

  6. Relating subsurface temperature changes to microbial activity at a crude oil-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Warren, Ean; Bekins, Barbara A

    2015-11-01

    Crude oil at a spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota has been undergoing aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation for over 30 years, creating a 150-200 m plume of primary and secondary contaminants. Microbial degradation generates heat that should be measurable under the right conditions. To measure this heat, thermistors were installed in wells in the saturated zone and in water-filled monitoring tubes in the unsaturated zone. In the saturated zone, a thermal groundwater plume originates near the residual oil body with temperatures ranging from 2.9°C above background near the oil to 1.2°C down gradient. Temperatures in the unsaturated zone above the oil body were up to 2.7°C more than background temperatures. Previous work at this site has shown that methane produced from biodegradation of the oil migrates upward and is oxidized in a methanotrophic zone midway between the water table and the surface. Enthalpy calculations and observations demonstrate that the temperature increases primarily result from aerobic methane oxidation in the unsaturated zone above the oil. Methane oxidation rates at the site independently estimated from surface CO2 efflux data are comparable to rates estimated from the observed temperature increases. The results indicate that temperature may be useful as a low-cost measure of activity but care is required to account for the correct heat-generating reactions, other heat sources and the effects of focused recharge.

  7. Relating subsurface temperature changes to microbial activity at a crude oil-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Warren, Ean; Bekins, Barbara A

    2015-11-01

    Crude oil at a spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota has been undergoing aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation for over 30 years, creating a 150-200 m plume of primary and secondary contaminants. Microbial degradation generates heat that should be measurable under the right conditions. To measure this heat, thermistors were installed in wells in the saturated zone and in water-filled monitoring tubes in the unsaturated zone. In the saturated zone, a thermal groundwater plume originates near the residual oil body with temperatures ranging from 2.9°C above background near the oil to 1.2°C down gradient. Temperatures in the unsaturated zone above the oil body were up to 2.7°C more than background temperatures. Previous work at this site has shown that methane produced from biodegradation of the oil migrates upward and is oxidized in a methanotrophic zone midway between the water table and the surface. Enthalpy calculations and observations demonstrate that the temperature increases primarily result from aerobic methane oxidation in the unsaturated zone above the oil. Methane oxidation rates at the site independently estimated from surface CO2 efflux data are comparable to rates estimated from the observed temperature increases. The results indicate that temperature may be useful as a low-cost measure of activity but care is required to account for the correct heat-generating reactions, other heat sources and the effects of focused recharge. PMID:26409188

  8. Relating subsurface temperature changes to microbial activity at a crude oil-contaminated site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Ean; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2015-11-01

    Crude oil at a spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota has been undergoing aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation for over 30 years, creating a 150-200 m plume of primary and secondary contaminants. Microbial degradation generates heat that should be measurable under the right conditions. To measure this heat, thermistors were installed in wells in the saturated zone and in water-filled monitoring tubes in the unsaturated zone. In the saturated zone, a thermal groundwater plume originates near the residual oil body with temperatures ranging from 2.9 °C above background near the oil to 1.2 °C down gradient. Temperatures in the unsaturated zone above the oil body were up to 2.7 °C more than background temperatures. Previous work at this site has shown that methane produced from biodegradation of the oil migrates upward and is oxidized in a methanotrophic zone midway between the water table and the surface. Enthalpy calculations and observations demonstrate that the temperature increases primarily result from aerobic methane oxidation in the unsaturated zone above the oil. Methane oxidation rates at the site independently estimated from surface CO2 efflux data are comparable to rates estimated from the observed temperature increases. The results indicate that temperature may be useful as a low-cost measure of activity but care is required to account for the correct heat-generating reactions, other heat sources and the effects of focused recharge.

  9. Relating subsurface temperature changes to microbial activity at a crude oil-contaminated site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warren, Ean; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Crude oil at a spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota has been undergoing aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation for over 30 years, creating a 150–200 m plume of primary and secondary contaminants. Microbial degradation generates heat that should be measurable under the right conditions. To measure this heat, thermistors were installed in wells in the saturated zone and in water-filled monitoring tubes in the unsaturated zone. In the saturated zone, a thermal groundwater plume originates near the residual oil body with temperatures ranging from 2.9 °C above background near the oil to 1.2 °C down gradient. Temperatures in the unsaturated zone above the oil body were up to 2.7 °C more than background temperatures. Previous work at this site has shown that methane produced from biodegradation of the oil migrates upward and is oxidized in a methanotrophic zone midway between the water table and the surface. Enthalpy calculations and observations demonstrate that the temperature increases primarily result from aerobic methane oxidation in the unsaturated zone above the oil. Methane oxidation rates at the site independently estimated from surface CO2 efflux data are comparable to rates estimated from the observed temperature increases. The results indicate that temperature may be useful as a low-cost measure of activity but care is required to account for the correct heat-generating reactions, other heat sources and the effects of focused recharge.

  10. Feeding and diurnal related activity of lateral hypothalamic neurons in freely behaving rats.

    PubMed

    Ono, T; Sasaki, K; Nishino, H; Fukuda, M; Shibata, R

    1986-05-14

    Activity of 64 single neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LHA) was recorded for 1-8 days in freely behaving rats. The activity of 26 (40.6%) neurons varied with circadian rhythm and in relation to feeding. Activity of 23 of these neurons decreased during consumption of each pellet, and that of one increased. The activity of two other neurons increased intermittently, at night, prior to and during eating and drinking episodes. All changed activity with sleep-wake changes; increasing in the dark or upon arousal, and decreasing in the light or during slow wave sleep, but the activity was independent of individual movement, except feeding. The activity of 29 (45.3%) neurons varied only diurnally. Of these, 26 neurons also had sleep-wake responses and activity changes that corresponded to behavior. The firing rate of the other 3 neurons was independent of sleep-wake condition or individual feeding activity, but gradually increased in the dark to a maximum in the early morning, then subsided rapidly in 1-2 h. Four (6.3%) neurons were related only to feeding and not to diurnal rhythm, and 5 (7.8%) neurons were not related to either. Of the 5 neurons that were unrelated to either diurnal rhythm or feeding acts, 3 increased activity at light on and decreased it at light off for 4-13 min. These data suggest LHA neuronal involvement in control of short term feeding or individual feeding episodes, and long term feeding or circadian feeding rhythm.

  11. Environmental, policy, and cultural factors related to physical activity in sedentary American Indian women.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Janice L; Allen, Peg; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Yazzie, Dedra A; Curtis, Michelle; Davis, Sally M

    2002-01-01

    Focus group interviews were conducted to explore sociocultural, environmental, and policy-related determinants of physical activity among sedentary American Indian women. Thirty women aged 20 to 50 years (mean = 37.4 +/- 10.6 years) participated. Three sessions were conducted with women aged 20 to 34 years and three with women aged 35 to 50 to evaluate response differences by age. Because no obvious age differences were observed, data were pooled. Barriers to physical activity included inadequate support for household and child care responsibilities and difficulties balancing home-related and societal expectations with physical activity. In addition, women reported little support from their communities and work sites to be physically active. Environmental barriers included lack of safe outdoor areas and accessible walking trails. Weather and stray dogs were also commonly mentioned. Sociocultural barriers included giving family obligations priority above all other things, being expected to eat large portions of high-fat foods, and failing to follow a traditionally active lifestyle. Enablers of physical activity included support from family and coworkers and participation in traditional community events. Suggested intervention approaches included accessible and affordable programs and facilities, community emphasis on physical activity, and programs that incorporated the needs of larger women and of families. Participants emphasized a preference for programs that were compatible with the role expectations of their families and communities, and they expressed the desire for acceptance and encouragement to be physically active from the family, the community, the worksite, and their tribal leaders. PMID:12487141

  12. Demonstration of motor imagery movement and phantom movement-related neuronal activity in human thalamus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, William S; Weiss, Nirit; Lawson, Herman Christopher; Ohara, Shinji; Rowland, Lance; Lenz, Frederick A

    2011-01-26

    Functional imaging studies show that motor imagery activates multiple structures in the human forebrain. We now show that phantom movements in an amputee and imagined movements in intact individuals elicit responses from neurons in several human thalamic nuclei. These include the somatic sensory nucleus receiving input from the periphery (ventral caudal), and the motor nuclei receiving input from the cerebellum [ventral intermediate (Vim)] and the basal ganglia [ventral oral posterior (Vop)]. Seven neurons in the amputee showed phantom movement-related activity (three Vim, two Vop, and two ventral caudal). In addition, seven neurons in a group of three controls showed motor imagery-related activity (four Vim and three Vop). These studies were performed during single neuron recording sessions in patients undergoing therapeutic treatment of phantom pain, tremor, and chronic pain conditions by thalamic stimulation. The activity of neurons in these sensory and motor nuclei, respectively, may encode the expected sensory consequences and the dynamics of planned movements.

  13. Policy perceptions related to physical activity and healthy eating in Mississippi

    PubMed Central

    Tabak, Rachel G.; Jones, Ellen; Jacobs, Julie A.; Dobbs, Thomas; Sutton, Victor; Dove, Cassandra; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Determine the public perceptions about policies related to physical activity and healthy eating to inform efforts to change policy for these important public health issues Design Cross sectional, structured phone interview survey Setting 10 counties in Mississippi (5 counties with the highest and 5 with the lowest obesity prevalence) Participants Random sample of 2,800 adults Main Outcome Measure Level of support for each individual policy and summary of support for ten policies related to healthy eating and activity and four related to local funding for infrastructure for physical activity Results This survey showed strong policy support among Mississippi residents for a diverse set of policies aimed at promoting healthy eating and physical activity behaviors. This was particularly true for those in counties with the highest levels of obesity. Support for policies related to healthy eating and activity was highest for: Requiring at least 30 minutes of physical activity or physical education everyday for children in kindergarten through 12th grade (93%) and lowest for: Taxing soda and soft drinks and using the money for public education campaigns to fight obesity in children (65%). Support for the use of local government funds to build and maintain infrastructure for physical activity was high across all categories, ranging from 86% (recreation centers) to 74% (swimming pools). The levels of support for each policy, varied according to several demographic characteristics; in general, support for nearly every policy was greater among African Americans, females, and those in counties with higher levels of obesity. Logistic models predicting level of support for healthy eating and physical activity found significant associations with several demographic factors. PMID:23399933

  14. Activity-related sexual dimorphism in Alaskan foragers from Point Hope: Evidences from the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Gimeno, Pere; Galtés, Ignasi; Jordana, Xavier; Manyosa, Joan; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2015-01-01

    Ipiutak (100BCE-500CE) and Tigara (1200 - 1700CE) are two populations from Point Hope, Alaska. As commonly observed in forager communities, it may be expected males and females to have been involved in markedly different daily activities. Nevertheless, activity-related sexual dimorphism in these populations has been scarcely studied. Using humeral diaphyseal cross-sectional properties and forearm rotational efficiency, which are activity-dependent characteristics, we aim to assess differences between sexes and discuss what activities could have triggered them. Our results suggest that in Ipiutak males and females did not differ meaningfully in their cross-sectional properties. Conversely, in Tigara males had a greater rigidity of the entire humeral diaphysis than females, which suggests the existence of greater relative activity levels and more physically demanding tasks, possibly related to hunting activities. Concerning the differences between sexes in the forearm rotational efficiency, in Tigara females rotational efficiency in elbow flexion is maximal in a more supinated position than in males, which leads to an improvement of efficiency in those stages related to manipulation, and so improves the manipulative capacities of the upper limb. These differences in efficiency are caused by a more proximally oriented humeral medial epicondyle in females, which is thus confirmed to be a good feature to assess differences in labor. Therefore females in Tigara probably performed in a daily basis household activities, such as hide processing and other manipulative labors. In Ipiutak, the analysis of forearm rotational efficiency did not reveal differences between sexes. Overall, the results suggest that division of labor in Ipiutak was not as marked as in Tigara, where upper limb skeletal structure supports the idea that both sexes were involved in different daily activities. Nevertheless, the generalized lack of results in Ipiutak could be due to the small sample

  15. The identification and structure-activity relations of a cardioactive FMRFamide-related peptide from the blue crab Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Krajniak, K G

    1991-01-01

    The pericardial organs and thoracic ganglia of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus were resected and extracted. The extracts were fractionated by HPLC and the fractions analyzed by a radioimmunoassay (RIA) to FMRFamide. Multiple peaks of immunoreactivity were present and one of these, upon fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-ms) and microsequencing, yielded the sequence GYNRSFLRFamide. The amount of this peptide in each crab is between 7 and 13 pmol. Several incomplete sequences were also characterized, suggesting a precursor with multiple copies of peptides related to GYNRSFLRFamide might occur. The peptide caused a dose-dependent increase in heart rate; threshold was 10 to 30 nM, and the EC50 was 323 +/- 62 nM. A structure-activity study of GYNRSFLRFamide on the crab heart suggests that, for full potency, a peptide should be at least a heptapeptide with the sequence XXZFLRFamide, where X is any amino acid and Z is either asparagine or serine.

  16. Quantitative structure-activity relationships and docking studies of calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kyani, Anahita; Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Jenssen, Håvard

    2012-02-01

    Defining the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide in migraine pathogenesis could lead to the application of calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists as novel migraine therapeutics. In this work, quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling of biological activities of a large range of calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists was performed using a panel of physicochemical descriptors. The computational studies evaluated different variable selection techniques and demonstrated shuffling stepwise multiple linear regression to be superior over genetic algorithm-multiple linear regression. The linear quantitative structure-activity relationship model revealed better statistical parameters of cross-validation in comparison with the non-linear support vector regression technique. Implementing only five peptide descriptors into this linear quantitative structure-activity relationship model resulted in an extremely robust and highly predictive model with calibration, leave-one-out and leave-20-out validation R(2) of 0.9194, 0.9103, and 0.9214, respectively. We performed docking of the most potent calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists with the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor and demonstrated that peptide antagonists act by blocking access to the peptide-binding cleft. We also demonstrated the direct contact of residues 28-37 of the calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists with the receptor. These results are in agreement with the conclusions drawn from the quantitative structure-activity relationship model, indicating that both electrostatic and steric factors should be taken into account when designing novel calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists. PMID:21974743

  17. Present wind activity on Mars - Relation to large latitudinally zoned sediment deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P.

    1982-01-01

    The relation of present Martian winds to large latitudinally zoned sediment deposits has been investigated using global wind streak data and mapping of large sand and dust deposits. Dune sand deposits occur primarily in three latitude belts: north polar (74-85 degrees North), low latitude (5 degrees North-20 degrees South), and south polar (40-80 degrees South). Comparison with wind streak data shows the high-latitude dunes to be in areas of seasonally reversing winds. The present winds can form latitudinal dune belts from a variety of initial dune distributions, including uniform distribution and a polar source. The presence of dune sand within the polar layered deposits, the erosional state of the deposits, and the present surface wind flow away from the poles indicate that both polar dune concentrations have been derived from erosion of the layered deposits. The low-latitude dunes are topographically confined in canyons and craters; they are probably subject to long-term reversal of orientations with climate cycles.

  18. Modulations in oscillatory activity with amplitude asymmetry can produce cognitively relevant event-related responses

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Hanneke; van der Werf, Jurrian; Mazaheri, Ali; Medendorp, W. Pieter; Jensen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Event-related responses and oscillatory activity are typically regarded as manifestations of different neural processes. Recent work has nevertheless revealed a mechanism by which slow event-related responses are created as a direct consequence of modulations in brain oscillations with nonsinusoidal properties. It remains unknown if this mechanism applies to cognitively relevant event-related responses. Here, we investigated whether sustained event-related fields (ERFs) measured during working memory maintenance can be explained by modulations in oscillatory power. In particular, we focused on contralateral delayed activity (CDA) typically observed in working memory tasks in which hemifield specific attention is manipulated. Using magnetoencephalography, we observed sustained posterior ERFs following the presentation of the memory target. These ERFs were systematically lateralized with respect to the hemisphere in which the target was presented. A strikingly similar pattern emerged for modulations in alpha (9–13 Hz) power. The alpha power and ERF lateralization were strongly correlated over subjects. Based on a mechanistic argument pertaining to the nonsinusoidal properties of the alpha activity, we conclude that the ERFs modulated by working memory are likely to be directly produced by the modulations in oscillatory alpha activity. Given that posterior alpha activity typically reflects disengagement, we conclude that the CDA is not attributable to an additive process reflecting memory maintenance per se but, rather, is a consequence of how attentional resources are allocated. PMID:20080773

  19. Multilevel modelling of built environment characteristics related to neighbourhood walking activity in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Li, F.; Fisher, K; Brownson, R.; Bosworth, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relation between built environment factors (representing several dimensions of urban form of neighbourhoods) and walking activity at both the neighbourhood level and the resident level, in an older adult sample. Design, setting, participants: A cross sectional, multilevel design with neighbourhoods as the primary sampling unit and senior residents as the secondary unit. Five hundred and seventy seven residents (mean age = 74 years, SD = 6.3 years) participated in the survey, which was conducted among 56 city defined neighbourhoods in Portland, Oregon, USA. Neighbourhood level variables were constructed using geographical information systems. Resident level variables consisted of a mix of self reports and geocoded data on the built environment. Main outcome measure: Self reported neighbourhood walking. Main results: A positive relation was found between built environment factors (density of places of employment, household density, green and open spaces for recreation, number of street intersections) and walking activity at the neighbourhood level. At the resident level, perceptions of safety for walking and number of nearby recreational facilities were positively related to high levels of walking activity. A significant interaction was observed between number of street intersections and perceptions of safety from traffic. Conclusions: Certain neighbourhood built environment characteristics related to urban form were positively associated with walking activity in the neighbourhoods of senior residents. Public health promotion of walking activity/urban mobility and the design of interventions need to consider the contribution of neighbourhood level built environment influences. PMID:15965138

  20. Directory of International and Regional Organizations Conducting Standards-Related Activities, May 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitenberg, Maureen

    1989-05-01

    The directory contains information on 338 international and regional organizations which conduct standardization, certification, laboratory accreditation, or other standards-related activities. The volume describes their work in these areas, the scope of each organization, national affliations of members, U.S. participants, restrictions on membership, as well as the availability of any standards in English. The volume is designed to serve the needs of Federal agencies and standards writers for information on international and regional organizations involved in standardization and related activities. It may also be useful to manufacturers, engineers, purchasing agents, and others.

  1. Perceptions of Midwest rural women related to their physical activity and eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jane; Schmer, Carol; Ward-Smith, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    The study aim was to describe the perceptions of 65 Midwestern rural women related to healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management. A semistructured interview guide was used to elicit data. Theory of planned behavior constructs were used to categorize the data into 4 predominant themes related to healthy lifestyle behaviors, (a) knowledge and attitudes, (b) rural cultural influences, (c) facilitators, and (d) barriers. Analyses revealed that facilitators and barriers consisted of social and environmental factors, and personal life situations. Results suggest key elements for developing and implementing effective physical activity and weight management interventions for Midwestern rural women.

  2. Perceptions of Midwest rural women related to their physical activity and eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jane; Schmer, Carol; Ward-Smith, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    The study aim was to describe the perceptions of 65 Midwestern rural women related to healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management. A semistructured interview guide was used to elicit data. Theory of planned behavior constructs were used to categorize the data into 4 predominant themes related to healthy lifestyle behaviors, (a) knowledge and attitudes, (b) rural cultural influences, (c) facilitators, and (d) barriers. Analyses revealed that facilitators and barriers consisted of social and environmental factors, and personal life situations. Results suggest key elements for developing and implementing effective physical activity and weight management interventions for Midwestern rural women. PMID:23659220

  3. Event-related potential evidence for parallel activation of two languages in bilingual speech production.

    PubMed

    Guo, Taomei; Peng, Danling

    2006-11-27

    The cross-language identity effect refers to the benefit of processing a translation distractor in the cross-language picture-word interference task. The first event-related-potential evidence for this effect was obtained in a picture-naming priming task using Chinese-English bilinguals of languages with distinct scripts. The results indicated that parallel activation of both languages is a universal phenomenon in bilingual speech production. Furthermore, the present study revealed that the temporal course and magnitude of activation of the nontarget language during target language production was modulated by the relative proficiency in the two languages.

  4. Increase of lipoprotein-lipase activity in skeletal muscle during heavy exercise. Relation to epinephrine excretion.

    PubMed

    Lithell, H; Cedermark, M; Fröberg, J; Tesch, P; Karlsson, J

    1981-11-01

    As part of the training programme for Swedish elite soldiers, a 10 day march is carried out with a heavy pack under active-service conditions. Six soldiers volunteered to take part in an investigation on the energy consumption with special regard to the lipid metabolism at different levels of physical effort. The degree of physical work was evaluated by continuous heart-rate recording and analysis of the excretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine in the urine. Fasting values of triglycerides and free fatty acids in blood plasma were determined and muscle biopsies (taken in the morning and in the afternoon) were analysed for lipoprotein-lipase (LPL) activity. After an overnight fast the free fatty acids were increased only in the mornings following days of heavy physical work. The plasma triglyceride concentrations were lowest in a morning proceeded by 3 days of heavy work. The muscle LPL activity in the morning was highest after a day of heavy work and lowest after days of rest. During days of heavy work this activity increased and was higher in the afternoon than in the morning. Muscle LPL activity in the afternoon was closely related to urinary excretion of epinephrine. The data indicate that LPL activity is elevated in the working skeletal muscle increasing the access of fatty acids. The degree of elevation is related to the degree of effort as described by the urinary excretion of morning. Muscle LPL activity in the afternoon was closely related to urinary excretion of epinephrine. The data indicate that LPL activity is elevated in the working skeletal muscle increasing the access of fatty acids. The degree of elevation is related to the degree of effort as described by the urinary excretion of morning. Muscle LPL activity in the afternoon was closely related to urinary excretion of epinephrine. The data indicate that LPL activity is elevated in the working skeletal muscle increasing the access of fatty acids. The degree of elevation is related to the degree

  5. Reactive oxygen species-related activities of nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haohao; Yin, Jun-Jie; Wamer, Wayne G; Zeng, Mingyong; Lo, Y Martin

    2014-03-01

    Nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides are among the most widely used engineered and naturally occurring nanostructures, and the increasing incidence of biological exposure to these nanostructures has raised concerns about their biotoxicity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress is one of the most accepted toxic mechanisms and, in the past decades, considerable efforts have been made to investigate the ROS-related activities of iron nanostructures. In this review, we summarize activities of nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides in ROS-related redox processes, addressing in detail the known homogeneous and heterogeneous redox mechanisms involved in these processes, intrinsic ROS-related properties of iron nanostructures (chemical composition, particle size, and crystalline phase), and ROS-related bio-microenvironmental factors, including physiological pH and buffers, biogenic reducing agents, and other organic substances.

  6. 31 CFR 575.207 - Prohibited transactions relating to travel to Iraq or to activities within Iraq.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or Iraq; (b) Relating to travel and activities for the conduct of the official business of the United States Government or the United Nations; or (c) Relating to journalistic activity by persons...

  7. Functional properties of monkey caudate neurons. I. Activities related to saccadic eye movements.

    PubMed

    Hikosaka, O; Sakamoto, M; Usui, S

    1989-04-01

    1. We recorded single cell activities in the caudate nucleus of the monkeys trained to perform a series of visuomotor tasks. In the first part of this paper, we summarize the types and locations of neurons in the monkey caudate nucleus. In the second part, we report the characteristics of neurons related to saccadic eye movements. 2. Neurons were classified into two types in terms of spontaneous discharge pattern. A majority of the neurons (2,287/2,559, 89%) had very low-frequency discharges (mostly less than 1 Hz). The rest (n = 272) showed irregular-tonic discharges (3-8 Hz) with broad spikes. 3. Of 2,559 neurons tested, 867 showed spike activity related to some aspects of the tasks; 502 neurons showed discharges in response to environmental changes outside, not in relation to, the tasks. None of the neurons responsive in or outside the tasks belonged to the irregular-tonic type. 4. The task-related activities were classified as: Saccade-related, Visual, Auditory, Cognitive, Fixation-related, and Reward-related. The activities detected outside the tasks were classified into: Visual, Auditory, Movement-related, Reward-related, and Other. Few neurons had both task-related and task-unrelated activities. 5. The locations of recorded neurons were determined using a coordinate system based on the anterior and posterior commissures. Task-related neurons were clustered longitudinally in the central part of the caudate. Neurons responsive outside the tasks were more widely distributed; specifically, auditory neurons were in the medial part, whereas movement-related neurons were in the lateral part. The irregular-tonic neurons were dispersed all over the caudate. 6. The monkey was trained to fixate on a spot of light on the screen and, when the spot moved, to follow it by making a saccade. A visually guided saccade occurred when the spot moved to another location without a time gap (saccade task). A memory-guided saccade occurred when the spot first disappeared and after a

  8. Reward value enhances post-decision error-related activity in the cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jessica E; Ogawa, Akitoshi; Sakagami, Masamichi

    2016-06-01

    By saying "Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new", Albert Einstein himself allegedly implied that the making and processing of errors are essential for behavioral adaption to a new or changing environment. These essential error-related cognitive and neural processes are likely influenced by reward value. However, previous studies have not dissociated accuracy and value and so the distinct effect of reward on error processing in the brain remained unknown. Therefore, we set out to investigate this at various points in decision-making. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan participants while they completed a random dot motion discrimination task where reward and non-reward were associated with stimuli via classical conditioning. Pre-error activity was found in the medial frontal cortex prior to response but this was not related to reward value. At response time, error-related activity was found to be significantly greater in reward than non-reward trials in the midcingulate cortex. Finally at outcome time, error-related activity was found in the anterior cingulate cortex in non-reward trials. These results show that reward value enhances post-decision but not pre-decision error-related activities and these results therefore have implications for theories of error correction and confidence.

  9. Reward value enhances post-decision error-related activity in the cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jessica E; Ogawa, Akitoshi; Sakagami, Masamichi

    2016-06-01

    By saying "Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new", Albert Einstein himself allegedly implied that the making and processing of errors are essential for behavioral adaption to a new or changing environment. These essential error-related cognitive and neural processes are likely influenced by reward value. However, previous studies have not dissociated accuracy and value and so the distinct effect of reward on error processing in the brain remained unknown. Therefore, we set out to investigate this at various points in decision-making. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan participants while they completed a random dot motion discrimination task where reward and non-reward were associated with stimuli via classical conditioning. Pre-error activity was found in the medial frontal cortex prior to response but this was not related to reward value. At response time, error-related activity was found to be significantly greater in reward than non-reward trials in the midcingulate cortex. Finally at outcome time, error-related activity was found in the anterior cingulate cortex in non-reward trials. These results show that reward value enhances post-decision but not pre-decision error-related activities and these results therefore have implications for theories of error correction and confidence. PMID:26739226

  10. The Chromospheric Activity and Age Relation among Main Sequence Stars in Wide Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswalt, Terry D.; Zhao, J.

    2011-05-01

    We present a study of the chromospheric activity levels in 36 wide binary systems. Thirty one of the binaries contain a white dwarf component. In such binaries the total age can be estimated by adding the cooling age of the white dwarf to an estimate of the progenitor's main sequence lifetime. To better understand how activity correlates to stellar age, 14 cluster member stars were also observed. Our observations confirm the expectation derived from studies of single main sequence stars that activity decays with age. However, for the first time we demonstrate that this relation extends from 50 Myr to at least 8 Gyr for stars with 1.0 < V-I < 2.4 color index. We also find that little change in activity occurs for stars with V-I < 1.0 and ages between 1 Gyr and 5 Gyr. The slope of constant age lines in the activity vs. V-I plane for young stars is relatively steep, while for old stars it appears to be flatter. In addition, our sample includes five wide binaries consisting of two main sequence stars. These pairs provide a useful reality check on our activity vs. age relation. Support for this project from NSF grant AST-0807919 to Florida Institute of Technology is gratefully acknowledged.

  11. Altered cognition-related brain activity and interactions with acute pain in migraine

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Vani A.; Khan, Shariq A.; Keaser, Michael L.; Hubbard, Catherine S.; Goyal, Madhav; Seminowicz, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of migraine on neural cognitive networks. However, cognitive dysfunction is increasingly being recognized as a comorbidity of chronic pain. Pain appears to affect cognitive ability and the function of cognitive networks over time, and decrements in cognitive function can exacerbate affective and sensory components of pain. We investigated differences in cognitive processing and pain–cognition interactions between 14 migraine patients and 14 matched healthy controls using an fMRI block-design with two levels of task difficulty and concurrent heat (painful and not painful) stimuli. Across groups, cognitive networks were recruited in response to a difficult cognitive task, and a pain–task interaction was found in the right (contralateral to pain stimulus) posterior insula (pINS), such that activity was modulated by decreasing the thermal pain stimulus or by engaging the difficult cognitive task. Migraine patients had less task-related deactivation within the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left dorsal anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) compared to controls. These regions have been reported to have decreased cortical thickness and cognitive-related deactivation within other pain populations, and are also associated with pain regulation, suggesting that the current findings may reflect altered cognitive function and top-down regulation of pain. During pain conditions, patients had decreased task-related activity, but more widespread task-related reductions in pain-related activity, compared to controls, suggesting cognitive resources may be diverted from task-related to pain-reduction-related processes in migraine. Overall, these findings suggest that migraine is associated with altered cognitive-related neural activity, which may reflect altered pain regulatory processes as well as broader functional restructuring. PMID:25610798

  12. Antimicrobial activity of the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula against food-related pathogenic and putrefactive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ogihara, Hirokazu; Endou, Fumiko; Furukawa, Soichi; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kouichi; Anzai, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Solvent extracts from the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula (Venus flytrap) were prepared using eight different organic solvents, and examined for antibacterial activity against food-related pathogenic and putrefactive bacteria. All solvent extracts showed higher antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria than against gram negative bacteria. The TLC-bioautography analysis of the extracts revealed that a yellow spot was detected at Rf value of 0.85, which showed strong antibacterial activity. The UV, MS, and NMR analyses revealed that the antibacterial compound was plumbagin. PMID:24077538

  13. Antimicrobial activity of the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula against food-related pathogenic and putrefactive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ogihara, Hirokazu; Endou, Fumiko; Furukawa, Soichi; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kouichi; Anzai, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Solvent extracts from the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula (Venus flytrap) were prepared using eight different organic solvents, and examined for antibacterial activity against food-related pathogenic and putrefactive bacteria. All solvent extracts showed higher antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria than against gram negative bacteria. The TLC-bioautography analysis of the extracts revealed that a yellow spot was detected at Rf value of 0.85, which showed strong antibacterial activity. The UV, MS, and NMR analyses revealed that the antibacterial compound was plumbagin.

  14. Photo-activated luminescence sensor and method of detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds

    DOEpatents

    Dinh, Tuan V.

    1996-01-01

    A sensor for detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds uses a photo-activator that produces a photo-product complex with the contaminant. Characteristics of the light emitted from the complex will indicate the presence of the contaminant. A probe containing the photo-activator has an excitation light interface and a contaminant interface. One particular embodiment uses a porous membrane as the contaminant interface, so that the contaminant can migrate therethrough to the photo-activator and thereby form the complex.

  15. Photo-activated luminescence sensor and method of detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds

    DOEpatents

    Dinh, T.V.

    1996-06-11

    A sensor for detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds uses a photo-activator that produces a photo-product complex with the contaminant. Characteristics of the light emitted from the complex will indicate the presence of the contaminant. A probe containing the photo-activator has an excitation light interface and a contaminant interface. One particular embodiment uses a porous membrane as the contaminant interface, so that the contaminant can migrate there through to the photo-activator and thereby form the complex. 23 figs.

  16. On the neglect of causality principles in solar activity - climate relations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Many research papers have claimed to demonstrate close relations between solar activity and the terrestrial climate. In most cases the relations have been based on comparisons between time series of solar activity parameters, for instance sunspot numbers, and climate parameters, for instance terrestrial temperatures. However, many of the reported close relations are based on skilfully manipulated data and neglect of basic causality principles. For cause-effect relations to be reliably established, the cause must obviously happen prior to the effects. Thus it is problematic to use, for instance, running averages of parameters if the result depends too much on posterior elements of the causative time series or precursory elements of the effects. Even more neglected are the causality principles for cause-effect relations with a strongly varying source function. Damping of source variations by smoothing data handling introduces additional implied delays, which should be considered in the judgement of apparent correlations between processed time series of cause and effect parameters. The presentation will discuss examples of frequently quoted solar activity-climate relations (e.g., by Reid, Friis-Christensen, and Svensmark), which violate basic causality principles.

  17. Thymidine kinase of bacteria: activity of the enzyme in actinomycetes and related organisms.

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Tomioka, H

    1984-07-01

    Various micro-organisms were studied for their thymidine kinase (adenosine 5'-triphosphate:thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.21) (TK) activity. The sonicated cell extract of Escherichia coli K12 had a TK activity of 35-66 pmol thymidine monophosphate formed min-1 (mg protein)-1. The cell extracts of Salmonella typhimurium and Klebsiella pneumoniae showed a markedly higher (5- to 11-fold) TK activity. Somewhat lower but significant TK activity was detected in the cell extracts of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus subtilis and Proteus mirabilis. In contrast, weak TK activity, if any, was detected in the cell extracts of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This was also the case with respect to the cell extracts of various actinomycetes (such as Nocardia and Streptomyces) and related organisms (such as Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium and Rhodococcus).

  18. Respiratory-related activity of cricothyroid muscle in awake normal humans.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, J R; Brancatisano, A; Engel, L A

    1991-05-01

    The role of the cricothyroid muscle (CT) in respiration is unclear. To examine the respiratory-related electrical activity of the CT, we measured its electromyogram (EMG) and compared it with that of the alae nasi (AN) in eight healthy subjects. During quiet breathing the CT EMG phasing was inspiratory in seven subjects. This pattern was similar to the AN with respect to phasing and shape of the integrated EMG. The onset of phasic CT and AN activity related to inspiration preceded flow by 173 +/- 39 and 570 +/- 76 (SE) ms, respectively (P less than 0.01). We measured the duration from onset of phasic activity to peak of the EMG (TA) and the total cycle duration (TT). TA/TT of the CT was 0.29 +/- 0.02, similar to that of the AN (0.28 +/- 0.03). Inspiratory resistive loading, panting, and voluntary hyperventilation increased CT activity above the peak level seen during tidal breathing. Voluntary glottic closure increased CT activity to a level above tonic but below peak tidal activity. The findings suggest that the phasic electrical activity of the CT simulates predominantly that of an upper airway dilator. PMID:1864803

  19. Age-Related Changes in Hepatic Activity and Expression of Detoxification Enzymes in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vyskočilová, Erika; Szotáková, Barbora; Skálová, Lenka; Bártíková, Hana; Hlaváčová, Jitka

    2013-01-01

    Process of aging is accompanied by changes in the biotransformation of xenobiotics and impairment of normal cellular functions by free radicals. Therefore, this study was designed to determine age-related differences in the activities and/or expressions of selected drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in young and old rats. Specific activities of 8 drug-metabolizing enzymes and 4 antioxidant enzymes were assessed in hepatic subcellular fractions of 6-week-old and 21-month-old male Wistar rats. Protein expressions of carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were determined using immunoblotting. Remarkable age-related decrease in specific activities of CYP2B, CYP3A, and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase was observed, whereas no changes in activities of CYP1A2, flavine monooxygenase, aldo-keto reductase 1C, and antioxidant enzymes with advancing age were found. On the other hand, specific activity of CBR1 and GST was 2.4 folds and 5.6 folds higher in the senescent rats compared with the young ones, respectively. Interindividual variability in CBR1 activity increased significantly with rising age. We suppose that elevated activities of GST and CBR1 may protect senescent rats against xenobiotic as well as eobiotic electrophiles and reactive carbonyls, but they may alter metabolism of drugs, which are CBR1 and especially GSTs substrates. PMID:23971034

  20. A Local Baseline of the Black Hole Mass Scaling Relations for Active Galaxies. III.The MBH– Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennert, Vardha N.; Treu, Tommaso; Auger, Matthew W.; Cosens, Maren; Park, Daeseong; Rosen, Rebecca; Harris, Chelsea E.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2015-08-01

    We create a baseline of the black hole (BH) mass ({M}{BH})—stellar-velocity dispersion (σ) relation for active galaxies, using a sample of 66 local (0.02\\lt z\\lt 0.09) Seyfert-1 galaxies, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Analysis of SDSS images yields AGN luminosities free of host-galaxy contamination, and morphological classification. 51/66 galaxies have spiral morphology. Out of these, 28 bulges have Sérsic index n\\lt 2 and are considered candidate pseudo-bulges, with eight being definite pseudo-bulges based on multiple classification criteria met. Only 4/66 galaxies show signs of interaction/merging. High signal-to-noise ratio Keck spectra provide the width of the broad Hβ emission line free of Fe ii emission and stellar absorption. AGN luminosity and Hβ line widths are used to estimate {M}{BH}. The Keck-based spatially resolved kinematics is used to determine stellar-velocity dispersion within the spheroid effective radius ({σ }{spat,{reff}}). We find that σ can vary on average by up to 40% across definitions commonly used in the literature, emphasizing the importance of using self-consistent definitions in comparisons and evolutionary studies. The {M}{BH}–σ relation for our Seyfert-1 galaxy sample has the same intercept and scatter as that of reverberation-mapped AGNs as well as that of quiescent galaxies, consistent with the hypothesis that our single epoch {M}{BH} estimator and sample selection function do not introduce significant biases. Barred galaxies, merging galaxies, and those hosting pseudo-bulges do not represent outliers in the {M}{BH}–σ relation. This is in contrast with previous work, although no firm conclusion can be drawn on this matter due to the small sample size and limited resolution of the SDSS images.

  1. Cognitive activity relates to cognitive performance but not to Alzheimer disease biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Gidicsin, Christopher M.; Maye, Jacqueline E.; Locascio, Joseph J.; Pepin, Lesley C.; Philiossaint, Marlie; Becker, J. Alex; Younger, Alayna P.; Dekhtyar, Maria; Schultz, Aaron P.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Marshall, Gad A.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Hedden, Trey; Sperling, Reisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to determine whether there was a relationship between lifestyle factors and Alzheimer disease biomarkers. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated self-reported histories of recent and past cognitive activity, self-reported history of recent physical activity, and objective recent walking activity in 186 clinically normal individuals with mean age of 74 ± 6 years. Using backward elimination general linear models, we tested the hypotheses that greater cognitive or physical activity would be associated with lower Pittsburgh compound B–PET retention, greater 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose–PET metabolism, and larger hippocampal volume, as well as better cognitive performance on neuropsychological testing. Results: Linear regression demonstrated that history of greater cognitive activity was correlated with greater estimated IQ and education, as well as better neuropsychological testing performance. Self-reported recent physical activity was related to objective exercise monitoring. However, contrary to hypotheses, we did not find evidence of an association of Pittsburgh compound B retention, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake, or hippocampal volume with past or current levels of cognitive activity, or with current physical activity. Conclusions: We conclude that a history of lifelong cognitive activity may support better cognitive performance by a mechanism that is independent of brain β-amyloid burden, brain glucose metabolism, or hippocampal volume. PMID:26062627

  2. Trade-offs between commuting time and health-related activities.

    PubMed

    Christian, Thomas J

    2012-10-01

    To further understand documented associations between obesity and urban sprawl, this research describes individuals' trade-offs between health-related activities and commuting time. A cross-section of 24,861 working-age individuals employed full-time and residing in urban counties is constructed from the American Time Use Survey (2003-2010). Data are analyzed using seemingly unrelated regressions to quantify health-related activity decreases in response to additional time spent commuting. Outcomes are total daily minutes spent in physical activity at a moderate or greater intensity, preparing food, eating meals with family, and sleeping. Commuting time is measured as all travel time between home and work and vice versa. The mean commuting time is 62 min daily, the median is 55 min, and 10.1% of workers commute 120 min or more. Spending an additional 60 min daily commuting above average is associated with a 6% decrease in aggregate health-related activities and spending an additional 120 min is associated with a 12% decrease. The greatest percentage of commuting time comes from sleeping time reductions (28-35%). Additionally, larger proportions of commuting time are taken from physical activity and food preparation relative to the mean commuting length: of 60 min spent commuting, 16.1% is taken from physical activity and 4.1% is taken from food preparation; of 120 min commuting, 20.3% is taken from physical activity and 5.6% is taken from food preparation. The results indicate that longer commutes are associated with behavioral patterns which over time may contribute to obesity and other poor health outcomes. These findings will assist both urban planners and researchers wishing to understand time constraints' impacts on health. PMID:22689293

  3. BDNF val66met affects hippocampal volume and emotion-related hippocampal memory activity.

    PubMed

    Molendijk, M L; van Tol, M-J; Penninx, B W J H; van der Wee, N J A; Aleman, A; Veltman, D J; Spinhoven, P; Elzinga, B M

    2012-01-31

    The val(66)met polymorphism on the BDNF gene has been reported to explain individual differences in hippocampal volume and memory-related activity. These findings, however, have not been replicated consistently and no studies to date controlled for the potentially confounding impact of early life stress, such as childhood abuse, and psychiatric status. Using structural and functional MRI, we therefore investigated in 126 depressed and/or anxious patients and 31 healthy control subjects the effects of val(66)met on hippocampal volume and encoding activity of neutral, positive and negative words, while taking into account childhood abuse and psychiatric status. Our results show slightly lower hippocampal volumes in carriers of a met allele (n=54) relative to val/val homozygotes (n=103) (P=0.02, effect size (Cohen's d)=0.37), which appeared to be independent of childhood abuse and psychiatric status. For hippocampal encoding activity, we found a val(66)met-word valence interaction (P=0.02) such that carriers of a met allele showed increased levels of activation in response to negative words relative to activation in the neutral word condition and relative to val/val homozygotes. This, however, was only evident in the absence of childhood abuse, as abused val/val homozygotes showed hippocampal encoding activity for negative words that was comparable to that of carriers of a met allele. Neither psychiatric status nor memory accuracy did account for these associations. In conclusion, BDNF val(66)met has a significant impact on hippocampal volume independently of childhood abuse and psychiatric status. Furthermore, early adverse experiences such as childhood abuse account for individual differences in hippocampal encoding activity of negative stimuli but this effect manifests differently as a function of val(66)met.

  4. Relative Contributions of Specific Activity Histories and Spontaneous Processes to Size Remodeling of Glutamatergic Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Dvorkin, Roman; Ziv, Noam E.

    2016-01-01

    The idea that synaptic properties are defined by specific pre- and postsynaptic activity histories is one of the oldest and most influential tenets of contemporary neuroscience. Recent studies also indicate, however, that synaptic properties often change spontaneously, even in the absence of specific activity patterns or any activity whatsoever. What, then, are the relative contributions of activity history-dependent and activity history-independent processes to changes synapses undergo? To compare the relative contributions of these processes, we imaged, in spontaneously active networks of cortical neurons, glutamatergic synapses formed between the same axons and neurons or dendrites under the assumption that their similar activity histories should result in similar size changes over timescales of days. The size covariance of such commonly innervated (CI) synapses was then compared to that of synapses formed by different axons (non-CI synapses) that differed in their activity histories. We found that the size covariance of CI synapses was greater than that of non-CI synapses; yet overall size covariance of CI synapses was rather modest. Moreover, momentary and time-averaged sizes of CI synapses correlated rather poorly, in perfect agreement with published electron microscopy-based measurements of mouse cortex synapses. A conservative estimate suggested that ~40% of the observed size remodeling was attributable to specific activity histories, whereas ~10% and ~50% were attributable to cell-wide and spontaneous, synapse-autonomous processes, respectively. These findings demonstrate that histories of naturally occurring activity patterns can direct glutamatergic synapse remodeling but also suggest that the contributions of spontaneous, possibly stochastic, processes are at least as great. PMID:27776122

  5. Tissue-type plasminogen activator suppresses activated stellate cells through low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1.

    PubMed

    Kang, Liang-I; Isse, Kumiko; Koral, Kelly; Bowen, William C; Muratoglu, Selen; Strickland, Dudley K; Michalopoulos, George K; Mars, Wendy M

    2015-10-01

    Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and trans-differentiation into myofibroblast (MFB)-like cells is key for fibrogenesis after liver injury and a potential therapeutic target. Recent studies demonstrated that low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1)-dependent signaling by tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is a pro-fibrotic regulator of the MFB phenotype in kidney. This study investigated whether LRP1 signaling by t-PA is also relevant to HSC activation following injury. Primary and immortalized rat HSCs were treated with t-PA and assayed by western blot, MTT, and TUNEL. In vitro results were then verified using an in vivo, acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) injury model that examined the phenotype and recovery kinetics of MFBs from wild-type animals vs mice with a global (t-PA) or HSC-targeted (LRP1) deletion. In vitro, in contrast to kidney MFBs, exogenous, proteolytically inactive t-PA suppressed, rather than induced, activation markers in HSCs following phosphorylation of LRP1. This process was mediated by LRP1 as inhibition of t-PA binding to LRP1 blocked the effects of t-PA. In vivo, following acute injury, phosphorylation of LRP1 on activated HSCs occurred immediately prior to their disappearance. Mice lacking t-PA or LRP1 retained higher densities of activated HSCs for a longer time period compared with control mice after injury cessation. Hence, t-PA, an FDA-approved drug, contributes to the suppression of activated HSCs following injury repair via signaling through LRP1. This renders t-PA a potential target for exploitation in treating patients with fibrosis.

  6. Intrinsic relative activities of κ opioid agonists in activating Gα proteins and internalizing receptor: Differences between human and mouse receptors.

    PubMed

    DiMattio, Kelly M; Ehlert, Frederick J; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan

    2015-08-15

    Several investigators recently identified biased κ opioid receptor (KOP receptor) agonists. However, no comprehensive study of the functional selectivity of available KOP receptor agonists at the human and mouse KOP receptors (hKOP receptor and mKOP receptor, respectively) has been published. Here we examined the ability of over 20 KOP receptor agonists to activate G proteins and to internalize the receptor. Clonal neuro-2a mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells stably transfected with the hKOP receptor or mKOP receptor were used. We employed agonist-induced [(35)S]GTPγS binding and KOP receptor internalization as measures of activation of G protein and β-arrestin pathways, respectively. The method of Ehlert and colleagues was used to quantify intrinsic relative activities at G protein activation (RAi-G) and receptor internalization (RAi-I) and the degree of functional selectivity between the two [Log RAi-G - logRAi-I, RAi-G/RAi-I and bias factor]. The parameter, RAi, represents a relative estimate of agonist affinity for the active receptor state that elicits a given response. The endogenous ligand dynorphin A (1-17) was designated as the balanced ligand with a bias factor of 1. Interestingly, we found that there were species differences in functional selectivity. The most striking differences were for 12-epi-salvinorin A, U69,593, and ICI-199,441. 12-Epi-salvinorin A was highly internalization-biased at the mKOP receptor, but apparently G protein-biased at hKOP receptor. U69,593 was much more internalization-biased at mKOP receptor than hKOP receptor. ICI199,441 showed internalization-biased at the mKOP receptor and G protein-biased at the hKOP receptor. Possible mechanisms for the observed species differences are discussed.

  7. Intrinsic Relative Activities of Opioid Agonists in Activating Gα proteins and Internalizing Receptor: Differences between Human and Mouse Receptors

    PubMed Central

    DiMattio, Kelly M.; Ehlert, Frederick J.; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Several investigators recently identified biased opioid receptor (KOP receptor) agonists. However, no comprehensive study of the functional selectivity of available KOP receptor agonists at the human and mouse KOP receptors (hKOP receptor and mKOP receptor, respectively) has been published. Here we examined the ability of over 20 KOP receptor agonists to activate G proteins and to internalize the receptor. Clonal neuro-2a mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells stably transfected with the hKOP receptor or mKOP receptor were used. We employed agonist-induced [35S]GTPγS binding and KOP receptor internalization as measures of activation of G protein and β-arrestin pathways, respectively. The method of Ehlert and colleagues was used to quantify intrinsic relative activities at G protein activation (RAi−G) and receptor internalization (RAi−I) and the degree of functional selectivity between the two [Log RAi−G − Log RAi−I, RAi−G/RAi−I and bias factor]. The parameter, RAi, represents a relative estimate of agonist affinity for the active receptor state that elicits a given response. The endogenous ligand dynorphin A (1–17) was designated as the balanced ligand with a bias factor of 1. Interestingly, we found that there were species differences in functional selectivity. The most striking differences were for 12-epi-salvinorin A, U69,593, and ICI-199,441. 12-Epi-salvinorin A was highly internalization-biased at the mKOP receptor, but apparently G protein-biased at hKOP receptor. U69,593 was much more internalization-biased at mKOP receptor than hKOP receptor. ICI199,441 showed internalization-biased at the mKOP receptor and G protein-biased at the hKOP receptor. Possible mechanisms for the observed species differences are discussed. PMID:26057692

  8. Twitch-related and rhythmic activation of the developing cerebellar cortex

    PubMed Central

    Plumeau, Alan M.; Mukherjee, Didhiti; Blumberg, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellum is a critical sensorimotor structure that exhibits protracted postnatal development in mammals. Many aspects of cerebellar circuit development are activity dependent, but little is known about the nature and sources of the activity. Based on previous findings in 6-day-old rats, we proposed that myoclonic twitches, the spontaneous movements that occur exclusively during active sleep (AS), provide generalized as well as topographically precise activity to the developing cerebellum. Taking advantage of known stages of cerebellar cortical development, we examined the relationship between Purkinje cell activity (including complex and simple spikes), nuchal and hindlimb EMG activity, and behavioral state in unanesthetized 4-, 8-, and 12-day-old rats. AS-dependent increases in complex and simple spike activity peaked at 8 days of age, with 60% of units exhibiting significantly more activity during AS than wakefulness. Also, at all three ages, approximately one-third of complex and simple spikes significantly increased their activity within 100 ms of twitches in one of the two muscles from which we recorded. Finally, we observed rhythmicity of complex and simple spikes that was especially prominent at 8 days of age and was greatly diminished by 12 days of age, likely due to developmental changes in climbing fiber and mossy fiber innervation patterns. All together, these results indicate that the neurophysiological activity of the developing cerebellum can be used to make inferences about changes in its microcircuitry. They also support the hypothesis that sleep-related twitches are a prominent source of discrete climbing and mossy fiber activity that could contribute to the activity-dependent development of this critical sensorimotor structure. PMID:26156383

  9. 50 CFR 23.62 - What factors are considered in making a finding of not for primarily commercial purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION... INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Factors Considered in Making Certain... satisfied that the specimen is not to be used for primarily commercial purposes. Trade in Appendix-I...

  10. 50 CFR 23.62 - What factors are considered in making a finding of not for primarily commercial purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION... INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Factors Considered in Making Certain... satisfied that the specimen is not to be used for primarily commercial purposes. Trade in Appendix-I...

  11. 50 CFR 23.62 - What factors are considered in making a finding of not for primarily commercial purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION... INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Factors Considered in Making Certain... satisfied that the specimen is not to be used for primarily commercial purposes. Trade in Appendix-I...

  12. 50 CFR 23.62 - What factors are considered in making a finding of not for primarily commercial purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION... INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Factors Considered in Making Certain... satisfied that the specimen is not to be used for primarily commercial purposes. Trade in Appendix-I...

  13. Optimal Scaling of HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviors in Ethnically Diverse Homosexually Active Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Susan D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Used homogeneity analysis and latent class analysis to analyze sexual behavior patterns in two samples of homosexually active men. Results support the existence of a single, nonlinear, latent dimension underlying male homosexual behaviors consistent with HIV-related risk taking, providing an efficient means to scale sexual behavior patterns. (RJM)

  14. Early Fishing Peoples of Puget Sound. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNutt, Nan

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  15. Determining the Views and Adequacy of the Preschool Teachers Related to Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akçay, Nilüfer Okur

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it is aimed to determine the views and adequacy of the preschool teachers related to science activities. The study is based on descriptive survey model. The sample of the study consists of 47 preschool teachers working in Agri city center. Personal information form, semi-structured interview form to determine the views of the…

  16. 77 FR 36001 - Draft Report Assessing Rural Water Activities and Related Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Draft Report Assessing Rural Water Activities and Related Programs AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The draft Rural Water Assessment Report reviews the status of the Bureau of Reclamation's rural potable water projects and its plan...

  17. Object relations theory and activity theory: a proposed link by way of the procedural sequence model.

    PubMed

    Ryle, A

    1991-12-01

    An account of object relations theory (ORT), represented in terms of the procedural sequence model (PSM), is compared to the ideas of Vygotsky and activity theory (AT). The two models are seen to be compatible and complementary and their combination offers a satisfactory account of human psychology, appropriate for the understanding and integration of psychotherapy. PMID:1786224

  18. Test-Retest Reliability of a Survey to Measure Transport-Related Physical Activity in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badland, Hannah; Schofield, Grant

    2006-01-01

    The present research details test-retest reliability of a newly developed, telephone-administered TPA survey for adults. This instrument examines barriers, perceptions, and current travel behaviors to place of work/study and local convenience shops. Demonstrated test-retest reliability of the Active Friendly Environments-Transport-Related Physical…

  19. Health-Related Fitness in Sport Education and Multi-Activity Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Mitchum B.; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    To date, studies examining the Sport Education (SE) model have largely focused on gains in sporting performance and/or psychosocial development. The purpose of this study was to compare the health-related fitness benefits for pupils participating in SE and traditional multi-activity (MA) units of instruction. Participants were two preservice…

  20. Web-Assisted Instruction for Changing Social Cognitive Variables Related to Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suminski, Richard R.; Petosa, Rick

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the efficacy of Web-assisted instruction for promoting the use of social cognitive theory (SCT) strategies related to physical activity. They recruited college students attending health courses. The authors created 3 groups (Web-assisted, comparison, and control) based on the course structure. The Web-assisted group received…

  1. [Mammals' camera-trapping in Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico: relative abundance and activity patterns].

    PubMed

    Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Zarco-González, Martha M; Rodríguez-Soto, Clarita; Soria-Díaz, Leroy; Urios, Vicente

    2011-03-01

    Species conservation and their management depend on the availability of their population behavior and changes in time. This way, population studies include aspects such as species abundance and activity pattern, among others, with the advantage that nowadays new technologies can be applied, in addition to common methods. In this study, we used camera-traps to obtain the index of relative abundance and to establish activity pattern of medium and large mammals in Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico. The study was conducted from December 2003 to May 2006, with a total sampling effort of 4 305 trap-days. We obtained 897 photographs of 19 different species. Nasua narica, Sylvilagus floridanus and Urocyon cinereoargenteus were the most abundant, in agreement with the relative abundance index (RAI, number of independent records/100 trap-days), and according to previous studies with indirect methods in the area. The activity patterns of the species showed that 67% of them are nocturnal, except Odocoileus virginianus, Nasua narica and others. Some species showed differences with previously reported patterns, which are related with seasonality, resources availability, organism sex, principally. The applied method contributed with reliable data about relative abundance and activity patterns. PMID:21516657

  2. AN OVERVIEW OF OECD AND EPA/ORD ACTIVITIES RELATED TO AMPHIBIAN TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been significant recent activity related to testing amphibians in a regulatory setting. Much of this has emanated from interest by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Office of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in utilizing amphibians in scree...

  3. 20 CFR 667.266 - What are the limitations related to religious activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Limitations related to sectarian activities are set forth at WIA section 188(a)(3) and 29 CFR 37.6(f). (b)(1) 29 CFR part 2, subpart D governs the circumstances under which DOL support, including WIA Title I.... See also 20 CFR 667.275 and 29 CFR 37.6(f)(1). 29 CFR part 2, subpart D also contains...

  4. Associations between Physical Activity and Health-Related Factors in a National Sample of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinger, Mary K.; Brittain, Danielle R.; Hutchinson, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between meeting the current moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) recommendation and health-related factors in a national sample of college students. Participants: Participants (N = 67,861) completed the National College Health Assessment II during the Fall 2008/Spring 2009 academic year. Methods:…

  5. The Relation of Exposure to Parental Criminal Activity, Arrest, and Sentencing to Children's Maladjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Wilson, Laura C.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the psychosocial maladjustment of 32 children with an incarcerated parent from the child's perspective as well as from the perspective of their caregiver. We focused on the relation between the incarcerated parent's report of children's exposure to parental criminal activity, arrest, and sentencing and caregivers' and children's…

  6. A Content Analysis of Turkish Newspapers: Prevalence of Articles Containing Health Information Related to Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koksal, Leyla; Subasi, Feryal; Luleci, Emel; Hey, William

    2012-01-01

    This study was retrospective in design and the purpose was to review health information related to PA (physical activity) in articles of Turkish newspapers. The search covered newspaper articles printed between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2004 in all Turkish newspapers that are accessible via the electronic newspaper database. Four daily…

  7. Squalls on the Nisqually: A Simulation Game. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrett, Andrea

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  8. Investigation of the Relations between Religious Activities and Subjective Well-Being of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relation between participation in religious activities and the subjective wellbeing of high school students. The study group involves 196 participants, 99 female and 97 male; all of the participants were adolescents attending high school in Eskisehir, Turkey, their ages varying from 14 to 16. The measurement…

  9. The Influence of Activation Level on Belief Bias in Relational Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Adrian P.

    2013-01-01

    A novel explanation of belief bias in relational reasoning is presented based on the role of working memory and retrieval in deductive reasoning, and the influence of prior knowledge on this process. It is proposed that belief bias is caused by the believability of a conclusion in working memory which influences its activation level, determining…

  10. Assessing New Entrepreneurial Activities for University-Related Foundations. Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Gerald B.

    2002-01-01

    University-related foundations considering new entrepreneurial activities should examine several questions and criteria before pursuing such opportunities. Each foundation has its own strategic priorities, values, and culture, and what works for one may not fit another. While the differing historical, tax, and legal environments facing foundations…

  11. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  12. Federal monitoring activities related to food and nutritian: How do they compare?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several monitoring activities related to food are carried out by the Federal Government in the United States. These include the What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES), conducted by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Depart...

  13. Antioxidant and Antimelanogenic activities of polyamine conjugates from corn bran and related hydroxycinnamic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antioxidant activity of three major polyamine conjugates, N,N'-dicoumaroyl- putrescine (DCP), N-p-coumaroyl-N'-feruloylputrescine (CFP) and N,N'-diferuloyl- putrescine (DFP) isolated from corn bran, and their related hydroxycinnamic acids, p-coumaric acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA), were evaluat...

  14. 26 CFR 1.924(e)-1 - Activities relating to the disposition of export property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... that advertising activity is a foreign cost. The FSC may rely upon the distribution statistics of the.... If the distribution statistics show that 85 percent or more of the readership, radio listeners, or... supplier to United States distributors for resale to Canadian retail customers. The related supplier,...

  15. 34 Activities To Promote Careers in Special Education and Related Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Professions in Special Education, Reston, VA.

    This guide was developed to assist in the recruitment of new professionals to the field of special education and related services. The 34 suggested activities are based on the assumptions that planned, systematic recruitment at the local level is critical to attracting dedicated and talented individuals to the field; that career choices are often…

  16. Views of School Administrators Related to In-Service Training Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güngör, Semra Kiranli; Yildirim, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to specify the views of school administrators related to in-service training activities. In this research, semi-structured interview method, one of the qualitative research methods, has been used. Content analysis has been used in order to analyze the interview data and themes and sub-themes have been constituted. The…

  17. How Different Types of Conceptual Relations Modulate Brain Activation during Semantic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Olga; Weis, Susanne; Zellagui, Nadia; Sass, Katharina; Huber, Walter; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Mathiak, Klaus; Kircher, Tilo

    2011-01-01

    Semantic priming, a well-established technique to study conceptual representation, has thus far produced variable fMRI results, both regarding the type of priming effects and their correlation with brain activation. The aims of the current study were (a) to investigate two types of semantic relations--categorical versus associative--under…

  18. 76 FR 10385 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Various Contract Related Forms That Will be Included in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Various Contract Related Forms That Will be Included in the Homeland Security Acquisition Regulation, DHS FORM 0700-01, DHS FORM 0700-02, DHS FORM 0700-03...: The Department of Homeland Security, Office of Chief Procurement Officer, Acquisition Policy...

  19. Recent Science and Engineering Graduates Working in Energy-Related Activities, 1979 and 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sharon E.

    Employment and professional activities of recent science and engineering graduates who described their work as energy-related were examined. The survey included graduates who received bachelor's or master's degrees between 1972 and 1979 and was conducted in 1976, 1978, 1979, and 1980. Data indicated that the number of graduates who reported…

  20. Effect of swimming activity on relative weight and body composition of juvenile rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.; Del Rio, C.M.; Rule, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    Fisheries managers often assess body condition using relative weight (Wr) because it provides a comparative measure of fish plumpness among individuals and populations. However, it is not known whether the morphological information that Wr summarizes reflects physiological measures, such as relative lipid reserves, in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The purpose of this study was to determine whether swimming activity affects either the Wr or proximate body composition of juvenile (total length, 170-260 mm) rainbow trout. When rainbow trout from a hatchery were fed ad libitum for 147 d, inactive (no current) and active (15 cm/s current velocity) fish did not differ in Wr However, inactive rainbow trout maintained relatively constant lipid levels, whereas active fish declined in lipid content. Relative weight may provide a comparable measure of body form, but it is not an accurate index of lipid content between active and inactive rainbow trout fed an excess ration. For assessing the physiological condition of rainbow trout, measurement of proximate body composition appears to be more accurate than indices based on length and weight.