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  1. Serum Paraoxonase Activity and Malondialdehyde Serum Concentrations Remain Unaffected in Response to Hydroxyurea Therapy in β-Thalassemia Patients.

    PubMed

    Zohaib, Muhammad; Ansari, Saqib H; Hashim, Zehra; Shamsi, Tahir S; Zarina, Shamshad

    2016-07-01

    β-Thalassemia is the most common hereditary disorder characterized by reduced production of β-globin chains of hemoglobin A (HbA). In recent years, hydroxyurea (HU) has shown promising therapeutic benefits in patients with β-thalassemia by fetal hemoglobin augmentation. We have analyzed effects of hydroxyurea treatment on oxidative stress in β-thalassemia patients by assessing activities of paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase along with malondialdehyde (MDA) and total reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations. Blood samples from 159 individuals including 56 HU-treated and 58 untreated β-thalassemia patients and 45 healthy controls were analyzed. PON activity was found to be highest in healthy individuals (177.76 ± 4.44 U/mL) as compared to treated (52.67 ± 3.65 U/mL) and untreated (55.11 ± 3.26 U/mL) patients. A similar trend was observed in the case of arylesterase activity in normal, β-thalassemia-treated, and untreated (210.0 ± 11.25 U/mL, 163.03 ± 9.04 U/mL, 139.77 ± 10.10 U/mL) subjects. Serum MDA concentrations (2.59 ± 0.09 nmol/mL, 2.45 ± 0.08 nmol/mL, and 1.15 ± 0.05 nmol/mL) and total ROS concentrations (3.73 ± 0.20 nmol/mL, 3.54 ± 0.23 nmol/mL, and 2.45 ± 0.14 nmol/mL) were significantly elevated in both groups (untreated and treated) as compared to healthy individuals (P < .01). Oxidative stress was found to be markedly elevated in β-thalassemia patients as compared to healthy controls. Insignificant differences were, however, observed in mean concentrations of PON1 paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, serum MDA concentration and total ROS concentrations between HU-treated and untreated patients. We propose that HU therapy alone seems to be ineffective in managing oxidative stress and is likely to offer a better clinical outcome when supplemented with efficient iron chelation therapy and antioxidants. PMID:26608512

  2. Identification of the affected lower limb and unaffected side motor functions as determinants of activities of daily living performance in stroke patients using partial correlation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Togashi, Yui; Kasahara, Ryuichi; Ohashi, Takuro; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Otsuki, Koji

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the independent impact of the affected upper and lower limb, trunk, and unaffected side motor functions on activities of daily living in stroke patients using partial correlation analysis. [Subjects and Methods] This retrospective study included 77 stroke patients. Motor functions were assessed using the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set, and the activities of daily living performance was assessed using the Barthel index or Functional Independence Measure. Further, simple and partial correlation analyses were conducted between each motor function and activities of daily living parameter. [Results] Simple correlation analysis identified significant positive correlations for each pair. In contrast, partial correlation analysis only identified significant positive correlations between the affected lower limb or unaffected side functions and the Barthel index or Functional Independence Measure. This discrepancy between the two tests was explained by the significant interaction between the affected upper and lower limb functions and between the trunk and unaffected side functions. [Conclusion] The present study identified the affected lower limb and unaffected side motor functions as the major determinants of activities of daily living performance in stroke patients. These findings suggest that rehabilitation programs can be improved by targeting these areas. PMID:26311957

  3. Activated chemoreceptor arrays remain intact and hexagonally packed

    PubMed Central

    Briegel, Ariane; Beeby, Morgan; Thanbichler, Martin; Jensen, Grant J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Bacterial chemoreceptors cluster into exquisitively sensitive, tunable, highly ordered, polar arrays. While these arrays serve as paradigms of cell signalling in general, it remains unclear what conformational changes transduce signals from the periplasmic tips, where attractants and repellents bind, to the cytoplasmic signalling domains. Conflicting reports support and contest the hypothesis that activation causes large changes in the packing arrangement of the arrays, up to and including their complete disassembly. Using electron cryotomography, here we show that in Caulobacter crescentus, chemoreceptor arrays in cells grown in different media and immediately after exposure to the attractant galactose all exhibit the same 12 nm hexagonal packing arrangement, array size and other structural parameters. ΔcheB and ΔcheR mutants mimicking attractant- or repellent-bound states prior to adaptation also show the same lattice structure. We conclude that signal transduction and amplification must be accomplished through only small, nanoscale conformational changes. PMID:21992450

  4. Spot market activity remains weak as prices continue to fall

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    A summary of financial data for the uranium spot market in November 1996 is provided. Price ranges for the restricted and unrestricted markets, conversion, and separative work are listed, and total market volume and new contracts are noted. Transactions made are briefly described. Deals made and pending in the spot concentrates, medium and long-term, conversion, and markets are listed for U.S. and non-U.S. buyers. Spot market activity increased in November with just over 1.0 million lbs of U3O8 equivalent being transacted compared to October`s total of 530,000 lbs of U3O8 equivalent. The restricted uranium spot market price range slipped from $15.50-$15.70/lb U3O8 last month to $14.85/lb - $15.25/lb U3O8 this month. The unrestricted uranium spot market price range also slipped to $14.85/lb - $15.00/lb this month from $15.00/lb - $15.45/lb in October. Spot prices for conversion and separative work units remained at their October levels.

  5. Reduced 3-O-methyl-dopa levels in OCD patients and their unaffected parents is associated with the low activity M158 COMT allele

    PubMed Central

    Delorme, Richard; Betancur, Catalina; Chaste, Pauline; Kernéis, Solen; Stopin, Astrid; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Collet, Corinne; Bourgeron, Thomas; Leboyer, Marion; Launay, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Background The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is considered as a candidate gene in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Specifically, the COMT low-activity M158 allele has been suggested to be associated with OCD. However, there is no study reporting that COMT activity is decreased in OCD patients and that the decrease is mediated by the V158M polymorphism. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to assess COMT activity in OCD by measuring plasma levels of 3-O-methyl-dopa (3-OMD), which result from the methylation of levodopa by COMT, and to investigate the relationship between 3-OMD levels and the V158M polymorphism. We also examined whether 3-OMD levels represented an endophenotype, associated with the genetic liability to OCD, by assessing unaffected relatives of OCD patients. Method We assessed plasma 3-OMD levels in a sample of drug-free OCD probands (n = 34) and their unaffected parents (n = 63), and compared them with controls (n = 85). The COMT V158M polymorphism was genotyped in all participants. Results Lower plasma 3-OMD levels were found in OCD probands and their unaffected parents compared to controls. The COMT M158 allele was associated with reduced plasma 3-OMD levels in a co-dominant manner, both in OCD probands and their relatives, but not in controls. Conclusion Our results suggest that COMT activity could act as a limiting factor for the production of 3-OMD in OCD patients and in their relatives. These findings further support a role of COMT in the susceptibility to OCD and provide evidence that 3-OMD levels could represent an endophenotype in OCD. PMID:19676096

  6. Physiological Sleep Propensity Might Be Unaffected by Significant Variations in Self-Reported Well-Being, Activity, and Mood.

    PubMed

    Putilov, Arcady A

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective. Depressive state is often associated with such physical symptoms as general weakness, fatigue, tiredness, slowness, reduced activity, low energy, and sleepiness. The involvement of the sleep-wake regulating mechanisms has been proposed as one of the plausible explanations of this association. Both physical depressive symptoms and increased physiological sleep propensity can result from disordered and insufficient sleep. In order to avoid the influence of disordered and insufficient sleep, daytime and nighttime sleepiness were tested in winter depression characterized by normal night sleep duration and architecture. Materials and Methods. A total sample consisted of 6 healthy controls and 9 patients suffered from depression in the previous winter season. Sleep latency was determined across 5 daytime and 4 nighttime 20-min attempts to nap in summer as well as in winter before and after a week of 2-hour evening treatment with bright light. Results and Conclusions. Patients self-reported abnormally lowered well-being, activity, and mood only in winter before the treatment. Physiological sleep propensity was neither abnormal nor linked to significant changes in well-being, activity, and mood following the treatment and change in season. It seems unlikely that the mechanisms regulating the sleep-wake cycle contributed to the development of the physical depressive symptoms. PMID:26294978

  7. Physiological Sleep Propensity Might Be Unaffected by Significant Variations in Self-Reported Well-Being, Activity, and Mood

    PubMed Central

    Putilov, Arcady A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective. Depressive state is often associated with such physical symptoms as general weakness, fatigue, tiredness, slowness, reduced activity, low energy, and sleepiness. The involvement of the sleep-wake regulating mechanisms has been proposed as one of the plausible explanations of this association. Both physical depressive symptoms and increased physiological sleep propensity can result from disordered and insufficient sleep. In order to avoid the influence of disordered and insufficient sleep, daytime and nighttime sleepiness were tested in winter depression characterized by normal night sleep duration and architecture. Materials and Methods. A total sample consisted of 6 healthy controls and 9 patients suffered from depression in the previous winter season. Sleep latency was determined across 5 daytime and 4 nighttime 20-min attempts to nap in summer as well as in winter before and after a week of 2-hour evening treatment with bright light. Results and Conclusions. Patients self-reported abnormally lowered well-being, activity, and mood only in winter before the treatment. Physiological sleep propensity was neither abnormal nor linked to significant changes in well-being, activity, and mood following the treatment and change in season. It seems unlikely that the mechanisms regulating the sleep-wake cycle contributed to the development of the physical depressive symptoms. PMID:26294978

  8. PDGF-induced receptor phosphorylation and phosphoinositide hydrolysis are unaffected by protein kinase C activation in mouse swiss 3T3 and human skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Sturani, E.; Vicentini, L.M.; Zippel, R.; Toschi, L.; Pandiella-Alonso, A.; Comoglio, P.M.; Meldolesi, J.

    1986-05-29

    Short (1-10 min) pretreatment of intact cells with activators of protein kinase C (e.g. phorbol-12 myristate, 13-acetate, PMA) affects the activity of a variety of surface receptors (for growth factors, hormones and neurotransmitters), with inhibition of transmembrane signal generation. In two types of fibroblasts it is demonstrated that the PDGF receptor is unaffected by PMA. Exposure to PMA at concentrations up to 100 nM for 10 min failed to inhibit either one of the agonist-induced, receptor-coupled responses of PDGF: the autophosphorylation of receptor molecules at tyrosine residues, and the hydrolysis of membrane polyphosphoinositides. In contrast, the EGF receptor autophosphorylation (in A 431 cells) and the bombesin-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis were readily inhibited by PMA.

  9. Field Documentation of Unusual Post-Mortem Arthropod Activity on Human Remains.

    PubMed

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Crippen, Tawni L; Tarone, Aaron M; Singh, Baneshwar; Lenhart, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    During a forensic investigation, the presence of physical marks on human remains can influence the interpretation of events related to the death of an individual. Some tissue injury on human remains can be misinterpreted as ante- or peri-mortem wounds by an investigator when in reality the markings resulted from post-mortem arthropod activity. Unusual entomological data were collected during a study examining the decomposition of a set of human remains in San Marcos, Texas. An adult female Pediodectes haldemani (Girard) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and an Armadillidium cf. vulgare (Isopoda: Armadilidiidae) were documented feeding on the remains. Both arthropods produced physical marks or artifacts on the remains that could be misinterpreted as attack, abuse, neglect, or torture. Additionally, red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were observed constructing structures in the mark produced by the P. haldemani feeding. These observations provide insight into the potential of post-mortem arthropod damage to human remains, which previously had not been described for these taxa, and therefore, physical artifacts on any remains found in similar circumstances may result from arthropod activity and not ante- or peri-mortem wounds. PMID:26336287

  10. Activity in the primary somatosensory cortex induced by reflexological stimulation is unaffected by pseudo-information: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reflexology is an alternative medical practice that produces beneficial effects by applying pressure to specific reflex areas. Our previous study suggested that reflexological stimulation induced cortical activation in somatosensory cortex corresponding to the stimulated reflex area; however, we could not rule out the possibility of a placebo effect resulting from instructions given during the experimental task. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how reflexological stimulation of the reflex area is processed in the primary somatosensory cortex when correct and pseudo-information about the reflex area is provided. Furthermore, the laterality of activation to the reflexological stimulation was investigated. Methods Thirty-two healthy Japanese volunteers participated. The experiment followed a double-blind design. Half of the subjects received correct information, that the base of the second toe was the eye reflex area, and pseudo-information, that the base of the third toe was the shoulder reflex area. The other half of the subjects received the opposite information. fMRI time series data were acquired during reflexological stimulation to both feet. The experimenter stimulated each reflex area in accordance with an auditory cue. The fMRI data were analyzed using a conventional two-stage approach. The hemodynamic responses produced by the stimulation of each reflex area were assessed using a general linear model on an intra-subject basis, and a two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed on an intersubject basis to determine the effect of reflex area laterality and information accuracy. Results Our results indicated that stimulation of the eye reflex area in either foot induced activity in the left middle postcentral gyrus, the area to which tactile sensation to the face projects, as well as in the postcentral gyrus contralateral foot representation area. This activity was not affected by pseudo information

  11. Remaining Uncertainties in the Causes of Past and Future Atlantic Hurricane Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossin, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    There is no debate that hurricane activity in the North Atlantic has increased substantially since the relatively quiescent period of the 1970s and 1980s, but there is still uncertainty in the dominant cause of the increase. Increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gases (aGHG) have contributed to the observed increase in tropical sea surface temperatures (SST) over the past century, while shorter-term decadal variability in regions where hurricanes form and track is generally dominated by 1) internal variability, 2) natural factors such as volcanic eruptions and mineral aerosol variability, and 3) changes in anthropogenic aerosols. Direct SST warming from globally well-mixed aGHG is understood to have a much smaller effect on hurricane formation and intensification compared to the effect of regional warming due to changes in the three factors noted above. While most recent papers implicate both internal and external anthropogenic causes for the presently heightened Atlantic hurricane activity, some show that internal variability dominates and others show that anthropogenic factors dominate. In the Atlantic, model projection-based consensus indicates no change in storm frequency over the next century but the uncertainty is large and spans -50% to +50%. Mean storm intensity and rainfall rates are projected to increase with continued warming, and the models tend to agree better when projecting these measures of activity. Models that are capable of producing very strong hurricanes usually project increases in the frequency of the most intense hurricanes. This measure is highly relevant to physical and societal impacts. In the Atlantic, model-based consensus indicates substantial increases in the strongest hurricanes, but the uncertainty is large and spans -100% to +200% change over the next century.

  12. The active outer shell of Earth: What remains to be explored in carbon and life interactions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boetius, Antje

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in methods and technologies have allowed us to explore the interaction between life and abiotic resources from nano to megascales in space and time, and this has set new challenges to the geosciences. This lecture aims at discussing key biological factors in the question of the dynamics of carbon reservoirs and fluxes on Earth, and the challenges to the geosciences to incorporate and further this knowledge. Humans themselves as one such biological factor have considerably changed the dynamics of carbon and other elements, with repercussions to most other life forms on Earth. Which other life forms shape carbon fluxes and reservoirs, and what do we know about their key traits in catalyzing geochemical reactions, their past and their future? I will use case studies from my own research field - geobiology of the oceans and the cryosphere - and from other geoscience areas to highlight the considerable non-linearity introduced by life to element fluxes and the environment; and discuss advances but also gaps in knowledge and research approaches concerning assessing and predicting carbon transformations in the active outer shell of Earth.

  13. Impaired Prefrontal Hemodynamic Maturation in Autism and Unaffected Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Kawakubo, Yuki; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Kei-ichiro; Minowa, Michiko; Someya, Toshikazu; Minowa, Iwao; Kono, Toshiaki; Nishida, Hisami; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Kato, Nobumasa; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2009-01-01

    Background Dysfunctions of the prefrontal cortex have been previously reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Previous studies reported that first-degree relatives of individuals with ASD show atypical brain activity during tasks associated with social function. However, developmental changes in prefrontal dysfunction in ASD and genetic influences on the phenomena remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the change in hemoglobin concentration in the prefrontal cortex as measured with near-infrared spectroscopy, in children and adults with ASD during the letter fluency test. Moreover, to clarify the genetic influences on developmental changes in the prefrontal dysfunction in ASD, unaffected siblings of the ASD participants were also assessed. Methodology/Principal Findings Study participants included 27 individuals with high-functioning ASD, age- and IQ-matched 24 healthy non-affected siblings, and 27 unrelated healthy controls aged 5 to 39 years. The relative concentration of hemoglobin ([Hb]) in the prefrontal cortex was measured during the letter fluency task. For children, neither the [oxy-Hb] change during the task nor task performances differed significantly among three groups. For adults, the [oxy-Hb] increases during the task were significantly smaller in the bilateral prefrontal cortex in ASD than those in control subjects, although task performances were similar. In the adult siblings the [oxy-Hb] change was intermediate between those in controls and ASDs. Conclusion/Significance Although indirectly due to a cross-sectional design, the results of this study indicate altered age-related change of prefrontal activity during executive processing in ASD. This is a first near-infrared spectroscopy study that implies alteration in the age-related changes of prefrontal activity in ASD and genetic influences on the phenomena. PMID:19727389

  14. Model of complex chiral drug metabolic systems and numerical simulation of the remaining chirality toward analysis of dynamical pharmacological activity.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Yoshiyuki; Asahi, Toru

    2015-05-21

    In this study, systems of complicated pathways involved in chiral drug metabolism were investigated. The development of chiral drugs resulted in significant improvement in the remedies available for the treatment of various severe sicknesses. Enantiopure drugs undergo various biological transformations that involve chiral inversion and thus result in the generation of multiple enantiomeric metabolites. Identification of the specific active substances determining a given drug׳s efficacy among such a mixture of different metabolites remains a challenge. To comprehend this complexity, we constructed a mathematical model representing the complicated metabolic pathways simultaneously involving chiral inversion. Moreover, this model is applied to the metabolism of thalidomide, which has recently been revived as a potentially effective prescription drug for a number of intractable diseases. The numerical simulation results indicate that retained chirality in the metabolites reflects the original chirality of the unmetabolized drug, and a higher level of enantiomeric purity is preserved during spontaneous degradation. In addition, chirality remaining after equilibration is directly related to the rate constant not only for chiral inversion but also for generation and degradation. Furthermore, the retention of chirality is quantitatively predictable using this combination of kinetic parameters. Our simulation results well explain the behavior of thalidomide in the practical biological experimental data. Therefore, this model promises a comprehensive understanding of dynamic metabolic systems involving chiral drugs that express multiple enantiospecific drug efficacies. PMID:25791284

  15. Trait-level temporal lobe hypoactivation to social exclusion in unaffected siblings of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bolling, Danielle Z.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Vander Wyk, Brent C.

    2015-01-01

    Social exclusion elicits powerful feelings of negative affect associated with rejection. Additionally, experiencing social exclusion reliably recruits neural circuitry associated with emotion processing. Recent work has demonstrated abnormal neural responses to social exclusion in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, it remains unknown to what extent these abnormalities are due to atypical social experiences versus genetic predispositions to atypical neural processing. To address this question, the current study investigated brain responses to social exclusion compared to a baseline condition of fair play in unaffected siblings of youth with ASD using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We identified common deviations between unaffected siblings and ASD probands that might represent trait-level abnormalities in processing social exclusion versus fair play, specifically in the right anterior temporoparietal junction extending into posterior superior temporal sulcus. Thus, hypoactivation to social exclusion versus fair play in this region may represent a shared genetic vulnerability to developing autism. In addition, we present evidence supporting the idea that one’s status as an unaffected sibling moderates the relationship between IQ and neural activation to social exclusion versus fair play in anterior cingulate cortex. These results are discussed in the context of previous literature on neural endophenotypes of autism. PMID:26011751

  16. Transitive inference deficits in unaffected biological relatives of schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Onwuameze, Obiora E; Titone, Debra; Ho, Beng-Choon

    2016-08-01

    Currently available treatments have limited efficacy in remediating cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Efforts to facilitate cognition-enhancing drug discovery recommend the use of varied experimental cognitive paradigms (including relational memory) as assessment tools in clinical drug trials. Although relational memory deficits are increasingly being recognized as a reliable cognitive marker of schizophrenia, relational memory performance among unaffected biological relatives remains unknown. Therefore, we evaluated 73 adolescents or young adults (22 first- and 26 second-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and 25 healthy controls (HC)) using a well-validated transitive inference (TI) experimental paradigm previously used to demonstrate relational memory impairment in schizophrenia. We found that TI deficits were associated with schizophrenia risk with first-degree relatives showing greater impairment than second-degree relatives. First-degree relatives had poorer TI performance with significantly lower accuracy and longer response times than HC when responding to TI probe pairs. Second-degree relatives had significantly quicker response times than first-degree relatives and were more similar to HC in TI performance. We further explored the relationships between TI performance and neurocognitive domains implicated in schizophrenia. Among HC, response times were inversely correlated with FSIQ, verbal learning, processing speed, linguistic abilities and working memory. In contrast, relatives (first-degree in particular) had a differing pattern of TI-neurocognition relationships, which suggest that different brain circuits may be used when relatives encode and retrieve relational memory. Our finding that unaffected biological relatives of schizophrenia patients have TI deficits lends further support for the use of relational memory construct in future pro-cognition drug studies. PMID:27050477

  17. Computational substrates of social norm enforcement by unaffected third parties.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Songfa; Chark, Robin; Hsu, Ming; Chew, Soo Hong

    2016-04-01

    Enforcement of social norms by impartial bystanders in the human species reveals a possibly unique capacity to sense and to enforce norms from a third party perspective. Such behavior, however, cannot be accounted by current computational models based on an egocentric notion of norms. Here, using a combination of model-based fMRI and third party punishment games, we show that brain regions previously implicated in egocentric norm enforcement critically extend to the important case of norm enforcement by unaffected third parties. Specifically, we found that responses in the ACC and insula cortex were positively associated with detection of distributional inequity, while those in the anterior DLPFC were associated with assessment of intentionality to the violator. Moreover, during sanction decisions, the subjective value of sanctions modulated activity in both vmPFC and rTPJ. These results shed light on the neurocomputational underpinnings of third party punishment and evolutionary origin of human norm enforcement. PMID:26825438

  18. Sirtuins are Unaffected by PARP Inhibitors Containing Planar Nicotinamide Bioisosteres.

    PubMed

    Ekblad, Torun; Schüler, Herwig

    2016-03-01

    PARP-family ADP-ribosyltransferases (PARPs) and sirtuin deacetylases all use NAD(+) as cosubstrate for ADP-ribosyl transfer. PARP inhibitors are important research tools and several are being evaluated in cancer treatment. With the exception of a few tankyrase inhibitors, all current PARP inhibitors mimic the nicotinamide moiety in NAD(+) and block the nicotinamide binding pocket. We report here that while the activities of the four human sirtuin isoforms SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3 and SIRT6 are blocked by sirtuin inhibitor Ex527 in vitro, they are unaffected by the seven clinical and commonly used PARP inhibitors niraparib, olaparib, rucaparib, talazoparib, veliparib, PJ34, and XAV939. These findings indicate that PARP inhibitors containing planar nicotinamide mimetics do not bind to sirtuin cofactor sites. In conclusion, a simple commercially available assay can be used to rule out interference of novel PARP inhibitors with sirtuin NAD(+) binding. PMID:26518726

  19. Cardiac activation heat remains inversely dependent on temperature over the range 27-37°C.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Callum M; Han, June-Chiew; Loiselle, Denis S; Nielsen, Poul M F; Taberner, Andrew J

    2016-06-01

    The relation between heat output and stress production (force per cross-sectional area) of isolated cardiac tissue is a key metric that provides insight into muscle energetic performance. The heat intercept of the relation, termed "activation heat," reflects the metabolic cost of restoring transmembrane gradients of Na(+) and K(+) following electrical excitation, and myoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration following its release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. At subphysiological temperatures, activation heat is inversely dependent on temperature. Thus one may presume that activation heat would decrease even further at body temperature. However, this assumption is prima facie inconsistent with a study, using intact hearts, which revealed no apparent change in the combination of activation and basal metabolism between 27 and 37°C. It is thus desired to directly determine the change in activation heat between 27 and 37°C. In this study, we use our recently constructed high-thermal resolution muscle calorimeter to determine the first heat-stress relation of isolated cardiac muscle at 37°C. We compare the relation at 37°C to that at 27°C to examine whether the inverse temperature dependence of activation heat, observed under hypothermic conditions, prevails at body temperature. Our results show that activation heat was reduced (from 3.5 ± 0.3 to 2.3 ± 0.3 kJ/m(3)) at the higher temperature. This leads us to conclude that activation metabolism continues to decline as temperature is increased from hypothermia to normothermia and allows us to comment on results obtained from the intact heart by previous investigators. PMID:27016583

  20. In vivo tendon forces correlate with activity level and remain bounded: evidence in a rabbit flexor tendon model.

    PubMed

    Malaviya, P; Butler, D L; Korvick, D L; Proch, F S

    1998-11-01

    While some tendons and ligaments in the lower extremity develop peak forces proportional to the intensity of activity (Komi 1990; Komi et al., 1992; Korvick et al., 1996), others maintain a steady force regardless of activity level (Herzog et al., 1993; Prilutsky et al., 1994). Investigators (Biewener et al., 1988; Korvick et al., 1996) have also shown that peak knee and ankle tendon forces approach one-quarter to one-third of ultimate or failure force values. In the rabbit flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon model we tested several hypotheses, chiefly that peak in vivo forces not only increase with increasing activity but do not exceed one-third of their ultimate or failure values. The FDP tendon was instrumented in three animals, and each rabbit subjected to an experimental design involving three activity levels. Peak tensile forces and rates of rise and fall in tendon force increased significantly with increasing activity (p < 0.01). Further, the tendon maintained a non-zero force level throughout all trials. For the most vigorous activity, inclined hopping, tensile forces and stresses were, on average, within 30% of the tendon's ultimate force and stress values, respectively. Such in vivo measurements in different tendon systems should help investigators better understand the recruitment and contribution of important muscle-tendon units to joint stability and gait. PMID:9880061

  1. Academic Achievement in Children With Oral Clefts Versus Unaffected Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L.; Barron, Sheila; Romitti, Paul A.; Ansley, Timothy N.; Speltz, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare academic achievement in children with oral-facial clefts (OFC) with their unaffected siblings. Methods 256 children with OFC were identified from the Iowa Registry for Congenital and Inherited Disorders, and 387 unaffected siblings were identified from birth certificates. These data were linked to Iowa Testing Programs achievement data. We compared academic achievement in children with OFC with their unaffected siblings using linear regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. In post hoc analyses, we explored modifiers of siblings’ academic performance. Results Achievement scores were similar between children with OFC and their siblings. Children with cleft palate only were significantly more likely to use special education than their unaffected siblings. Siblings’ academic achievement was inversely related to distance in birth order and age from the affected child. Conclusion Children with OFC and their siblings received similar achievement scores. Younger siblings, in particular, may share a vulnerability to poor academic outcomes. PMID:24993102

  2. Unaffected Arm Muscle Hypercatabolism in Dysphagic Subacute Stroke Patients: The Effects of Essential Amino Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Aquilani, Roberto; Boselli, Mirella; D'Antona, Giuseppe; Baiardi, Paola; Boschi, Federica; Viglio, Simona; Iadarola, Paolo; Pasini, Evasio; Barbieri, Annalisa; Dossena, Maurizia; Bongiorno, Andria Innocenza; Verri, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in muscle protein turnover of the unaffected side of stroke patients could contribute to physical disability. We investigated whether hypercatabolic activity occurred in unaffected arm muscle and whether supplemented essential amino acids (EAAs) could limit muscle hypercatabolism (MH). Thirty-eight dysphagic subacute stroke subjects (<3 months after acute event) (29 males + 9 females; 69.7 ± 11.4 yrs) were enrolled and randomized to receive 8 g/day EAAs (n = 19; EAA group) or isocaloric placebo (maltodextrin; n = 19, Plac group). Before randomization, all patients had their arterial (A) and venous (V) amino acids measured and muscle (A − V) differences calculated in the unaffected arm. Eight matched and healthy subjects served as controls. When compared to healthy controls, the entire stroke population showed significant muscle release (= negative value A − V) of the amino acid phenylalanine (phenyl-) indicating a prevalence of MH. Moreover, randomized EAA and Plac groups had similar rates of MH. After 38 days from the start of the protocol, the EAA group but not the Plac group had MH converted to balanced protein turnover or anabolic activity. We concluded that muscle protein metabolism of the unaffected arm of dysphagic subacute stroke individuals could be characterized by MH which can be corrected by supplemented EAAs. PMID:25431770

  3. Unaffected arm muscle hypercatabolism in dysphagic subacute stroke patients: the effects of essential amino acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Aquilani, Roberto; Boselli, Mirella; D'Antona, Giuseppe; Baiardi, Paola; Boschi, Federica; Viglio, Simona; Iadarola, Paolo; Pasini, Evasio; Barbieri, Annalisa; Dossena, Maurizia; Bongiorno, Andria Innocenza; Verri, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in muscle protein turnover of the unaffected side of stroke patients could contribute to physical disability. We investigated whether hypercatabolic activity occurred in unaffected arm muscle and whether supplemented essential amino acids (EAAs) could limit muscle hypercatabolism (MH). Thirty-eight dysphagic subacute stroke subjects (<3 months after acute event) (29 males+9 females; 69.7±11.4 yrs) were enrolled and randomized to receive 8 g/day EAAs (n=19; EAA group) or isocaloric placebo (maltodextrin; n=19, Plac group). Before randomization, all patients had their arterial (A) and venous (V) amino acids measured and muscle (A-V) differences calculated in the unaffected arm. Eight matched and healthy subjects served as controls. When compared to healthy controls, the entire stroke population showed significant muscle release (=negative value A-V) of the amino acid phenylalanine (phenyl-) indicating a prevalence of MH. Moreover, randomized EAA and Plac groups had similar rates of MH. After 38 days from the start of the protocol, the EAA group but not the Plac group had MH converted to balanced protein turnover or anabolic activity. We concluded that muscle protein metabolism of the unaffected arm of dysphagic subacute stroke individuals could be characterized by MH which can be corrected by supplemented EAAs. PMID:25431770

  4. Exome sequencing of case-unaffected-parents trios reveals recessive and de novo genetic variants in sporadic ALS

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Karyn Meltz; Yu, Bing; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Pamphlett, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of genetic variants to sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains largely unknown. Either recessive or de novo variants could result in an apparently sporadic occurrence of ALS. In an attempt to find such variants we sequenced the exomes of 44 ALS-unaffected-parents trios. Rare and potentially damaging compound heterozygous variants were found in 27% of ALS patients, homozygous recessive variants in 14% and coding de novo variants in 27%. In 20% of patients more than one of the above variants was present. Genes with recessive variants were enriched in nucleotide binding capacity, ATPase activity, and the dynein heavy chain. Genes with de novo variants were enriched in transcription regulation and cell cycle processes. This trio study indicates that rare private recessive variants could be a mechanism underlying some case of sporadic ALS, and that de novo mutations are also likely to play a part in the disease. PMID:25773295

  5. Locomotion in Stroke Subjects: Interactions between Unaffected and Affected Sides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloter, Evelyne; Wirz, Markus; Dietz, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensorimotor interactions between unaffected and affected sides of post-stroke subjects during locomotion. In healthy subjects, stimulation of the tibial nerve during the mid-stance phase is followed by electromyography responses not only in the ipsilateral tibialis anterior, but also in the proximal arm…

  6. 12 CFR 1228.4 - State restrictions unaffected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State restrictions unaffected. 1228.4 Section 1228.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS RESTRICTIONS ON THE ACQUISITION OF, OR TAKING SECURITY INTERESTS IN, MORTGAGES ON PROPERTIES ENCUMBERED BY CERTAIN...

  7. 12 CFR 1228.4 - State restrictions unaffected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State restrictions unaffected. 1228.4 Section 1228.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS RESTRICTIONS ON THE ACQUISITION OF, OR TAKING SECURITY INTERESTS IN, MORTGAGES ON PROPERTIES ENCUMBERED BY CERTAIN...

  8. Phantom limb pain: low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in unaffected hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Di Rollo, Andrea; Pallanti, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Phantom limb pain is very common after limb amputation and is often difficult to treat. The motor cortex stimulation is a valid treatment for deafferentation pain that does not respond to conventional pain treatment, with relief for 50% to 70% of patients. This treatment is invasive as it uses implanted epidural electrodes. Cortical stimulation can be performed noninvasively by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). The stimulation of the hemisphere that isn't involved in phantom limb (unaffected hemisphere), remains unexplored. We report a case of phantom limb pain treated with 1 Hz rTMS stimulation over motor cortex in unaffected hemisphere. This stimulation produces a relevant clinical improvement of phantom limb pain; however, further studies are necessary to determine the efficacy of the method and the stimulation parameters. PMID:21629848

  9. Fronto-striatal dysfunction during reward processing in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Max; Kahn, René S; Vink, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder that is associated with impaired functioning of the fronto-striatal network, in particular during reward processing. However, it is unclear whether this dysfunction is related to the illness itself or whether it reflects a genetic vulnerability to develop schizophrenia. Here, we examined reward processing in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Brain activity was measured during reward anticipation and reward outcome in 27 unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients and 29 healthy volunteers using a modified monetary incentive delay task. Task performance was manipulated online so that all subjects won the same amount of money. Despite equal performance, siblings showed reduced activation in the ventral striatum, insula, and supplementary motor area (SMA) during reward anticipation compared to controls. Decreased ventral striatal activation in siblings was correlated with sub-clinical negative symptoms. During the outcome of reward, siblings showed increased activation in the ventral striatum and orbitofrontal cortex compared to controls. Our finding of decreased activity in the ventral striatum during reward anticipation and increased activity in this region during receiving reward may indicate impaired cue processing in siblings. This is consistent with the notion of dopamine dysfunction typically associated with schizophrenia. Since unaffected siblings share on average 50% of their genes with their ill relatives, these deficits may be related to the genetic vulnerability for schizophrenia. PMID:25368371

  10. Familial idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Evidence of lung inflammation in unaffected family members

    SciTech Connect

    Bitterman, P.B.; Rennard, S.I.; Keogh, B.A.; Wewers, M.D.; Adelberg, S.; Crystal, R.G.

    1986-05-22

    We evaluated 17 clinically unaffected members of three families with an autosomal dominant form of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis for evidence of alveolar inflammation. Each person in the study was examined by gallium-67 scanning for a general estimate of pulmonary inflammation, and by bronchoalveolar lavage for characterization of the types of recovered cells and their state of activation. Eight of the 17 subjects had evidence of alveolar inflammation on the lavage studies. Supporting data included increased numbers of neutrophils and activated macrophages that released one or more neutrophil chemoattractants, and growth factors for lung fibroblasts--findings similar to those observed in patients with overt idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Four of these eight also had a positive gallium scan; in all the other clinically unaffected subjects the scan was normal. During a follow-up of two to four years in seven of the eight subjects who had evidence of inflammation, no clinical evidence of pulmonary fibrosis has appeared. These results indicate that alveolar inflammation occurs in approximately half the clinically unaffected family members at risk of inheriting autosomal dominant idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Whether these persons with evidence of pulmonary inflammation but no fibrosis will proceed to have clinically evident pulmonary fibrosis is not yet known.

  11. Comparative efficacy of photo-activated disinfection and calcium hydroxide for disinfection of remaining carious dentin in deep cavities: a clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sidhartha; Shah, Naseem

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To comparatively evaluate the efficacy of photo-activated disinfection (PAD), calcium hydroxide (CH) and their combination on the treatment outcome of indirect pulp treatment (IPT). Materials and Methods Institutional ethical clearance and informed consent of the patients were taken. The study was also registered with clinical registry of India. Sixty permanent molars exhibiting deep occlusal carious lesion in patients with the age range of 18 - 22 yr were included. Clinical and radiographic evaluation and set inclusion and exclusion criteria's were followed. Gross caries excavation was accomplished. In group I (n = 20) PAD was applied for sixty seconds. In group II (n = 20), CH was applied to the remaining carious dentin, while in group III (n = 20), PAD application was followed by CH placement. The teeth were permanently restored. They were clinically and radiographically followed-up at 45 day, 6 mon and 12 mon. Relative density of the remaining affected dentin was measured by 'Radiovisiography (RVG) densitometric' analysis. Results Successful outcome with an increase in radiographic grey values were observed in all three groups. However, on inter-group comparison, this change was not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions PAD and CH both have equal disinfection efficacy in the treatment of deep carious dentin. PAD alone is as effective for treatment of deep carious lesion as calcium hydroxide and hence can be used as an alternative to CH. They can be used independently in IPT, since combining both does not offer any additional therapeutic benefits. PMID:25110643

  12. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    PubMed

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population. PMID:27348992

  13. Propellant-remaining modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgovitsky, S.

    1991-01-01

    A successful satellite mission is predicted upon the proper maintenance of the spacecraft's orbit and attitude. One requirement for planning and predicting the orbit and attitude is the accurate estimation of the propellant remaining onboard the spacecraft. Focuss is on the three methods that were developed for calculating the propellant budget: the errors associated with each method and the uncertainties in the variables required to determine the propellant remaining that contribute to these errors. Based on these findings, a strategy is developed for improved propellant-remaining estimation. The first method is based on Boyle's law, which related the values of pressure, volume, and temperature (PVT) of an ideal gas. The PVT method is used for the monopropellant and the bipropellant engines. The second method is based on the engine performance tests, which provide data that relate thrust and specific impulse associated with a propellant tank to that tank's pressure. Two curves representing thrust and specific impulse as functions of pressure are then generated using a polynomial fit on the engine performance data. The third method involves a computer simulation of the propellant system. The propellant flow is modeled by creating a conceptual model of the propulsion system configuration, taking into account such factors as the propellant and pressurant tank characteristics, thruster functionality, and piping layout. Finally, a thrust calibration technique is presented that uses differential correction with the computer simulation method of propellant-remaining modeling. Thrust calibration provides a better assessment of thruster performance and therefore enables a more accurate estimation of propellant consumed during a given maneuver.

  14. Executive functioning in anorexia nervosa patients and their unaffected relatives.

    PubMed

    Galimberti, Elisa; Fadda, Emma; Cavallini, Maria Cristina; Martoni, Riccardo Maria; Erzegovesi, Stefano; Bellodi, Laura

    2013-08-15

    Formal genetic studies suggested a substantial genetic influence for anorexia nervosa (AN), but currently results are inconsistent. The use of the neurocognitive endophenotype approach may facilitate our understanding of the AN pathophysiology. We investigated decision-making, set-shifting and planning in AN patients (n=29) and their unaffected relatives (n=29) compared to healthy probands (n=29) and their relatives (n=29). The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), the Tower of Hanoi (ToH) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were administered. Concordance rates and heritability indices were also calculated in probands/relatives. Impaired performance on the IGT and the WCST were found in both AN probands and their relatives, although planning appeared to be preserved. The IGT heritability index suggested the presence of genetic effects that influence this measure. No evidence for genetic effects was found for the WCST. The results suggest the presence of a shared dysfunctional executive profile in women with AN and their unaffected relatives, characterized by deficient decision-making and set-shifting. Concordance analysis strongly suggests that these impairments aggregate in AN families, supporting the hypothesis that they may constitute biological markers for AN. Decision-making impairment presents a moderate heritability, suggesting that decision-making may be a candidate endophenotype for AN. PMID:23122554

  15. Working Memory in Unaffected Relatives of Patients With Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruibin; Picchioni, Marco; Allen, Paul; Toulopoulou, Timothea

    2016-07-01

    Working memory deficits, a core cognitive feature of schizophrenia may arise from dysfunction in the frontal and parietal cortices. Numerous studies have also found abnormal neural activation during working memory tasks in patients' unaffected relatives. The aim of this study was to systematically identify and anatomically localize the evidence for those activation differences across all eligible studies. Fifteen functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) manuscripts, containing 16 samples of 289 unaffected relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and 358 healthy controls were identified that met our inclusion criteria: (1) used a working memory task; and (2) reported standard space coordinates. Activation likelihood estimation (ALE) identified convergence across studies. Compared to healthy controls, patients' unaffected relatives showed decreases in neural activation in the right middle frontal gyrus (BA9), as well as right inferior frontal gyrus (BA44). Increased activation was seen in relatives in the right frontopolar (BA10), left inferior parietal lobe (BA40), and thalamus bilaterally. These results suggest that the familial risk of schizophrenia is expressed in changes in neural activation in the unaffected relatives in the cortical-subcortical working memory network that includes, but is not restricted to the middle prefrontal cortex. PMID:26738528

  16. Reduced fronto–striatal white matter integrity in schizophrenia patients and unaffected siblings: a DTI study

    PubMed Central

    de Leeuw, Max; Bohlken, Marc M; Mandl, René C W; Kahn, René S; Vink, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is characterized by impairments in the fronto–striatal network. Underlying these impairments may be disruptions in anatomical pathways connecting frontal and striatal regions. However, the specifics of these disruptions remain unclear and whether these impairments are related to the genetic vulnerability of schizophrenia is not known. Methods: Here, we investigated fronto–striatal tract connections in 24 schizophrenia patients, 30 unaffected siblings, and 58 healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) was calculated for tracts connecting the striatum with frontal cortex regions including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial orbital frontal cortex, and inferior frontal gyrus. Specifically, the striatum was divided into three subregions (caudate nucleus, putamen, and nucleus accumbens) and mean FA was computed for tracts originating from these striatal subregions. Results: We found no differences between patients, siblings, and controls in mean FA when taking the whole striatum as a seed region. However, subregion analyses showed reduced FA in the tract connecting the left nucleus accumbens and left DLPFC in both patients (P=0.0003) and siblings (P=0.0008) compared with controls. Conclusions: The result of reduced FA in the tract connecting the left nucleus accumbens and left DLPFC indicates a possible reduction of white matter integrity, commonly associated with schizophrenia. As both patients and unaffected siblings show reduced FA, this may represent a vulnerability factor for schizophrenia.

  17. Impaired regulation of emotion: neural correlates of reappraisal and distraction in bipolar disorder and unaffected relatives

    PubMed Central

    Kanske, P; Schönfelder, S; Forneck, J; Wessa, M

    2015-01-01

    Deficient emotion regulation has been proposed as a crucial pathological mechanism in bipolar disorder (BD). We therefore investigated emotion regulation impairments in BD, the related neural underpinnings and their etiological relevance for the disorder. Twenty-two euthymic patients with bipolar-I disorder and 17 unaffected first-degree relatives of BD-I patients, as well as two groups of healthy gender-, age- and education-matched controls (N=22/17, respectively) were included. Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while applying two different emotion regulation techniques, reappraisal and distraction, when presented with emotional images. BD patients and relatives showed impaired downregulation of amygdala activity during reappraisal, but not during distraction, when compared with controls. This deficit was correlated with the habitual use of reappraisal. The negative connectivity of amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) observed during reappraisal in controls was reversed in BD patients and relatives. There were no significant differences between BD patients and relatives. As being observed in BD patients and unaffected relatives, deficits in emotion regulation through reappraisal may represent heritable neurobiological abnormalities underlying BD. The neural mechanisms include impaired control of amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli and dysfunctional connectivity of the amygdala to regulatory control regions in the OFC. These are, thus, important aspects of the neurobiological basis of increased vulnerability for BD. PMID:25603413

  18. The Jasper Ridge elevated CO{sub 2} experiment: Root acid phosphatase activity in Bromus hordeaceus and Avena barbata remains unchanged under elevated [CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Cardon, Z.G.; Jackson, R.

    1995-06-01

    Root acid phosphatase activity increases phosphate available to plants by cleaving phosphate esters in soil organic matter. Because of increased plant growth potential under elevated [CO{sub 2}], we hypothesized that high [CO{sub 2}]-grown plants might exhibit higher phosphatase activity than low [CO{sub 2}]-grown plants. We assayed phosphatase activity in two species grown on two substrates (Bromus on serpentine soil and Bromus and Avena on sandstone soil) under high and low [CO{sub 2}] and under several nutrient treatments. Phosphatase activity was expressed per gram fresh weight of roots. Phosphatase activity of Bromus roots (on sandstone) was first assayed in treatments where only P and K, or only N, were added to soil. Bromus roots in this case showed strong induction of phosphatase activity when N only had been added to soil, indicating that Bromus regulated its phosphatase activity in response to phosphate availability. Both Bromus and Avena growing in sandstone, and Bromus growing in serpentine, showed enhanced phosphatase activity at high nutrient (N, P, and K) levels over that at low nutrient levels, but no differences between phosphatase activity were apparent between [CO{sub 2}] treatments. The increased phosphatase activity at high N, P, and K may indicate enhanced {open_quotes}growth demand{close_quotes} (reflected in higher biomass) in both Avena and Bromus. In contrast, though Bromus {open_quotes}growth demand{close_quotes} (biomass) increased under high [CO{sub 2}] on sandstone, phosphatase activity did not increase.

  19. Familial expression of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan antibodies in affected and unaffected relatives of patients with Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, C; Yang, H; Li, Z; Rotter, J; Targan, S; Braun, J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Crohn's disease is a familial disorder, and antiglycan antibodies to the cell wall mannan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA) are highly correlated with Crohn's disease.
AIMS—To determine whether there is a familial pattern for expression of serum levels of anti-mannan Ig, and whether this trait is expressed in clinically unaffected Crohn's disease family members.
METHODS—349 patients with Crohn's disease, 87 Crohn's disease affected relatives, 333 inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) free relatives, 58 spouses, and 190 healthy control patients were studied. Serum IgG and IgA binding activity to S cerevisiae cell wall mannan was quantitated by ELISA.
RESULTS—A high percentage of patients with Crohn's disease (51.9%) and affected family members (56.3%) were seropositive for anti-mannan Ig, compared with the normal control population (3.7%). Seropositive and seronegative phenotypes of Crohn's disease probands were correlated among all affected relatives, and this association was stronger in affected first degree relatives. Statistical intraclass correlations of quantitative anti-mannan Ig levels revealed significantly less variation within, rather than between families. A significant familial aggregation was observed for affected relatives; this was even stronger for unaffected relatives. While a significant familial aggregation was observed among unaffected siblings pairs, there was no significant correlation among marital pairs.
CONCLUSION—Results show that anti-mannan Ig in family members affected and unaffected with Crohn's disease is a familial trait for both affected and unaffected relatives. The lack of concordance in marital pairs indicates that familiality is due in part to a genetic factor or childhood environmental exposure.


Keywords: Crohn's disease; inflammatory bowel disease; ulcerative colitis; anti-mannan antibodies; intraclass correlation; statistical genetics PMID:10601056

  20. Changes in motor function in the unaffected hand of stroke patients should not be ignored

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lingli; Li, Peihong; Mao, Zhibang; Qi, Xiang; Zou, Jun; Yu, Zhusheng

    2014-01-01

    Motor function changes in the unaffected hand of stroke patients with hemiplegia. These changes are often ignored by clinicians owing to the extent of motor disability of the affected hand. Finger tapping frequency and Lind-mark hand function score showed that the motor function of unaffected hands in stroke patients was poorer than that of a healthy control hand. After 2 weeks of rehabilitation treatment, motor function of the unaffected hand of stroke patients was obviously improved. Therefore, attention should also be paid to motor function in the unaffected hand of stroke patients with hemiplegia during rehabilitation. PMID:25221586

  1. The long-term hospitalization experience following military service in the 1991 Gulf War among veterans remaining on active duty, 1994–2004

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Tomoko I; DeBakey, Samar F; Nagaraj, Barbara E; Bellis, Kimberly S; Smith, Besa; Smith, Tyler C; Gackstetter, Gary D

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite more than a decade of extensive, international efforts to characterize and understand the increased symptom and illness-reporting among veterans of the 1991 Gulf War, concern over possible long-term health effects related to this deployment continue. The purpose of this study was to describe the long-term hospitalization experience of the subset of U.S. Gulf War veterans still on active duty between 1994 and 2004. Methods Gulf War veterans on active duty rosters as of October 1, 1994, were identified (n = 211 642) and compared with veterans who had separated from military service and then assessed for attrition at three-year intervals during a 10-year follow-up period, examining demographic and military service characteristics, Gulf War exposure variables, and hospitalization data. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to evaluate independent predictors of all-cause hospitalization among those still on active duty and to estimate cumulative probability of hospitalization, 1994–2004, by service branch. Results Members of our 1994 active duty cohort were more likely to be officers, somewhat older, and married compared with those who had separated from the military after serving in the 1991 Gulf War. Selected war-related exposures or experiences did not appear to influence separation with the exception of in-theater presence during the brief ground combat phase. Overall the top three diagnostic categories for hospitalizations were musculo-skeletal, injury and poisoning, and digestive disorders. Diseases of the circulatory system and symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions increased proportionately over time. In-theater hospitalization was the only significant independent predictor of long-term hospitalization risk among selected war-related exposures or experiences examined. The cumulative probability of hospitalization was highest for Army and lowest for Marines. Conclusion Our results were generally consistent with a previous

  2. Serotonergic antidepressants decrease hedonic signals but leave learning signals in the nucleus accumbens unaffected.

    PubMed

    Graf, Heiko; Metzger, Coraline D; Walter, Martin; Abler, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Investigating the effects of serotonergic antidepressants on neural correlates of visual erotic stimulation revealed decreased reactivity within the dopaminergic reward network along with decreased subjective sexual functioning compared with placebo. However, a global dampening of the reward system under serotonergic drugs is not intuitive considering clinical observations of their beneficial effects in the treatment of depression. Particularly, learning signals as coded in prediction error processing within the dopaminergic reward system can be assumed to be rather enhanced as antidepressant drugs have been demonstrated to facilitate the efficacy of psychotherapeutic interventions relying on learning processes. Within the same study sample, we now explored the effects of serotonergic and dopaminergic/noradrenergic antidepressants on prediction error signals compared with placebo by functional MRI. A total of 17 healthy male participants (mean age: 25.4 years) were investigated under the administration of paroxetine, bupropion and placebo for 7 days each within a randomized, double-blind, within-subject cross-over design. During functional MRI, we used an established monetary incentive task to explore neural prediction error signals within the bilateral nucleus accumbens as region of interest within the dopaminergic reward system. In contrast to diminished neural activations and subjective sexual functioning under the serotonergic agent paroxetine under visual erotic stimulation, we revealed unaffected or even enhanced neural prediction error processing within the nucleus accumbens under this antidepressant along with unaffected behavioural processing. Our study provides evidence that serotonergic antidepressants facilitate prediction error signalling and may support suggestions of beneficial effects of these agents on reinforced learning as an essential element in behavioural psychotherapy. PMID:26555033

  3. Left ventricular vortex formation is unaffected by diastolic impairment

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Kelley C.; Charonko, John C.; Niebel, Casandra L.; Little, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Normal left ventricular (LV) filling occurs rapidly early in diastole caused by a progressive pressure gradient within the ventricle and with a low left atrial pressure. This normal diastolic function is altered in patients with heart failure. Such impairment of diastolic filling is manifested as an abrupt deceleration of the early filling wave velocity. Although variations within the early filling wave have been observed previously, the underlying hydrodynamic mechanisms are not well understood. Previously, it was proposed that the mitral annulus vortex ring formation time was the total duration of early diastolic filling and provided a measure of the efficiency of diastolic filling. However, we found that the favorable LV pressure difference driving early diastolic filling becomes zero simultaneously with the deceleration of the early filling wave propagation velocity and pinch-off of the LV vortex ring. Thus we calculated the vortex ring formation time using the duration of the early diastolic filling wave from its initiation to the time of the early filling wave propagation velocity deceleration when pinch-off occurs. This formation time does not vary with decreasing intraventricular pressure difference or with degree of diastolic dysfunction. Thus we conclude the vortex ring pinch-off occurs before the completion of early diastole, and its formation time remains invariant to changes of diastolic function. PMID:22961866

  4. Left ventricular vortex formation is unaffected by diastolic impairment.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kelley C; Charonko, John C; Niebel, Casandra L; Little, William C; Vlachos, Pavlos P

    2012-11-15

    Normal left ventricular (LV) filling occurs rapidly early in diastole caused by a progressive pressure gradient within the ventricle and with a low left atrial pressure. This normal diastolic function is altered in patients with heart failure. Such impairment of diastolic filling is manifested as an abrupt deceleration of the early filling wave velocity. Although variations within the early filling wave have been observed previously, the underlying hydrodynamic mechanisms are not well understood. Previously, it was proposed that the mitral annulus vortex ring formation time was the total duration of early diastolic filling and provided a measure of the efficiency of diastolic filling. However, we found that the favorable LV pressure difference driving early diastolic filling becomes zero simultaneously with the deceleration of the early filling wave propagation velocity and pinch-off of the LV vortex ring. Thus we calculated the vortex ring formation time using the duration of the early diastolic filling wave from its initiation to the time of the early filling wave propagation velocity deceleration when pinch-off occurs. This formation time does not vary with decreasing intraventricular pressure difference or with degree of diastolic dysfunction. Thus we conclude the vortex ring pinch-off occurs before the completion of early diastole, and its formation time remains invariant to changes of diastolic function. PMID:22961866

  5. Heredity characteristics of schizophrenia shown by dynamic functional connectivity analysis of resting-state functional MRI scans of unaffected siblings.

    PubMed

    Su, Jianpo; Shen, Hui; Zeng, Ling-Li; Qin, Jian; Liu, Zhening; Hu, Dewen

    2016-08-01

    Previous static resting-state functional connectivity (FC) MRI (rs-fcMRI) studies have suggested certain heredity characteristics of schizophrenia. Recently, dynamic rs-fcMRI analysis, which can better characterize the time-varying nature of intrinsic activity and connectivity and may therefore unveil the special connectivity patterns that are always lost in static FC analysis, has shown a potential neuroendophenotype of schizophrenia. In this study, we have extended previous static rs-fcMRI studies to a dynamic study by exploring whether healthy siblings share aberrant dynamic FC patterns with schizophrenic patients, which may imply a potential risk for siblings to develop schizophrenia. We utilized the dynamic rs-fcMRI method using a sliding window approach to evaluate FC discrepancies within transient states across schizophrenic patients, unaffected siblings, and matched healthy controls. Statistical analysis showed five trait-related connections that are related to cingulo-opercular, occipital, and default mode networks, reflecting the shared connectivity alterations between schizophrenic patients and their unaffected siblings. The findings suggested that schizophrenic patients and their unaffected siblings shared common transient functional disconnectivity, implying a potential risk for the healthy siblings of developing schizophrenia. PMID:27295028

  6. Postprandial thermogenesis and substrate oxidation are unaffected by sleep restriction

    PubMed Central

    Shechter, Ari; Rising, Russell; Wolfe, Scott; Albu, Jeanine B.; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives The extent to which alterations in energy expenditure (EE) in response to sleep restriction contribute to the short sleep-obesity relationship is not clearly defined. Short sleep may induce changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR), thermic effect of food (TEF), and postprandial substrate oxidation. Subjects/Methods Ten females (age and BMI: 22-43 y and 23.4-28 kg/m2) completed a randomized, crossover study assessing the effects of short (4 h/night) and habitual (8 h/night) sleep duration on fasting and postprandial RMR and respiratory quotient (RQ). Measurements were taken after 3 nights using whole-room indirect calorimetry. The TEF was assessed over a 6-h period following consumption of a high-fat liquid meal. Results Short vs. habitual sleep did not affect RMR (1.01 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 kcal/min; p=0.23). Fasting RQ was significantly lower after short vs. habitual sleep (0.84 ± 0.01 and 0.88 ± 0.01; p=0.028). Postprandial EE (short: 1.13 ± 0.04 and habitual: 1.10 ± 0.04, p=0.09) and RQ (short: 0.88 ± 0.01 and habitual: 0.88 ± 0.01, p=0.50) after the high-fat meal were not different between conditions. TEF was similar between conditions (0.24 ± 0.02 kcal/min in both; p=0.98), as was the ~6-h incremental area under the curve (1.16 ± 0.10 and 1.17 ± 0.09 kcal/min x 356 min after short and habitual sleep, respectively; p=0.92). Conclusions Current findings observed in non-obese healthy premenopausal women do not support the hypothesis that alterations in TEF and postprandial substrate oxidation are major contributors to the higher rate of obesity observed in short sleepers. In exploring a role of sleep duration on EE, research should focus on potential alterations in physical activity to explain the increased obesity risk in short sleepers. PMID:24352294

  7. Where do those remains come from?

    PubMed

    Nociarová, Dominika; Adserias, M Jose; Malgosa, Assumpció; Galtés, Ignasi

    2014-12-01

    Part of the study of skeletal remains or corpses in advance decay located in the field involves determining their origin. They may be the result of criminal activity, accident, unearthed because of erosion, or they may also have originated from a cemetery. The discovery site, condition of the remains, and the associated artifacts, are factors that could be helpful for the forensic anthropologist to identify the origin of the remains. In order to contribute to this recognition, an analysis was made of the exhumations of 168 unclaimed human remains from the cemetery of Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain). This investigation presents a description of artifacts and conditions of remains that could indicate that the human remains may have originated from a cemetery. PMID:25459276

  8. Ovine platelet function is unaffected by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation within the first 24 h.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Rylan A; Foley, Samuel; Shekar, Kiran; Diab, Sara; Dunster, Kimble R; McDonald, Charles; Fraser, John F

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated platelet dysfunction during short-term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and secondarily to determine if hyperoxaemia contributes to this dysfunction. Healthy sheep were anaesthetized and maintained on ECMO for either 2 or 24 h, with or without induction of smoke inhalation acute lung injury. A specialized animal-operating theatre was used to conduct the experimentation. Forty-three healthy female sheep were randomized into either a test or a control group. Following anaesthesia, test groups received ECMO ± smoke inhalation acute lung injury (SALI), whereas control groups were maintained with ventilation only ± SALI. Physiological, biochemical and coagulation data were obtained throughout via continuous monitoring and blood sampling. Platelet function was quantified through whole blood impedance aggregometry using Multiplate. Ovine platelet activity induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen was unaffected during the first 24 h of ECMO. However, progressive divergence of ADP-induced platelet activity was noted at cessation of the experiment. PaO2 was inversely related to ADP-dependent platelet activity in the ECMO groups--a relationship not identified in the control groups. ADP and collagen-dependent platelet activity are not significantly affected within the first 24 h of ECMO in sheep. However, dysfunction in ADP-dependent platelet activity may have continued to develop if observed beyond 24 h. Hyperoxaemia during ECMO does appear to affect how platelets react to ADP and may contribute to this developing dysfunction. Long-term animal models and investigation in clinical animals are warranted to fully investigate platelet function during ECMO. PMID:26196193

  9. Enhanced ERPs to visual stimuli in unaffected male siblings of ASD children.

    PubMed

    Anzures, Gizelle; Goyet, Louise; Ganea, Natasa; Johnson, Mark H

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by deficits in social and communication abilities. While unaffected relatives lack severe deficits, milder impairments have been reported in some first-degree relatives. The present study sought to verify whether mild deficits in face perception are evident among the unaffected younger siblings of children with ASD. Children between 6-9 years of age completed a face-recognition task and a passive viewing ERP task with face and house stimuli. Sixteen children were typically developing with no family history of ASD, and 17 were unaffected children with an older sibling with ASD. Findings indicate that, while unaffected siblings are comparable to controls in their face-recognition abilities, unaffected male siblings in particular show relatively enhanced P100 and P100-N170 peak-to-peak amplitude responses to faces and houses. Enhanced ERPs among unaffected male siblings is discussed in relation to potential differences in neural network recruitment during visual and face processing. PMID:25506753

  10. Synaptic Vesicle Recycling Is Unaffected in the Ts65Dn Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Marland, Jamie R. K.; Smillie, Karen J.; Cousin, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability, and arises from trisomy of human chromosome 21. Accumulating evidence from studies of both DS patient tissue and mouse models has suggested that synaptic dysfunction is a key factor in the disorder. The presence of several genes within the DS trisomy that are either directly or indirectly linked to synaptic vesicle (SV) endocytosis suggested that presynaptic dysfunction could underlie some of these synaptic defects. Therefore we determined whether SV recycling was altered in neurons from the Ts65Dn mouse, the best characterised model of DS to date. We found that SV exocytosis, the size of the SV recycling pool, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, activity-dependent bulk endocytosis and SV generation from bulk endosomes were all unaffected by the presence of the Ts65Dn trisomy. These results were obtained using battery of complementary assays employing genetically-encoded fluorescent reporters of SV cargo trafficking, and fluorescent and morphological assays of fluid-phase uptake in primary neuronal culture. The absence of presynaptic dysfunction in central nerve terminals of the Ts65Dn mouse suggests that future research should focus on the established alterations in excitatory / inhibitory balance as a potential route for future pharmacotherapy. PMID:26808141

  11. Metabolic actions of insulin in ovarian granulosa cells were unaffected by hyperandrogenism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shidou; Xu, Haijing; Cui, Yuqian; Wang, Wenting; Qin, Yingying; You, Li; Chan, Wai-Yee; Sun, Yun; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients have intra-ovarian hyperandrogenism and granulosa cells (GCs) from PCOS patients have impaired insulin-dependent glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. The purpose of this study is to determine whether excess androgen affects glucose metabolism and induces insulin resistance of GCs. We firstly explored the insulin metabolic signaling pathway and glucose metabolism in cultured GCs. The Akt phosphorylation and lactate production were increased after insulin treatment. Pre-treatment with PI3-K inhibitor attenuated insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt and lactate accumulation. However, after treating GCs with different concentrations of testosterone for 5 days, insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt and lactate production showed no significant change comparing with those of control cells. Finally, mRNA expression of insulin signaling mediators including INSR, IRS-1, IRS-2, and GLUT-4 in GCs was also not significantly altered after testosterone treatment. In conclusion, insulin activates PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway and promotes lactate production in ovarian GCs, but high androgen exerted no obvious influence on insulin signaling pathway and metabolic effect in GCs, suggesting that metabolic actions of insulin in ovarian GCs were unaffected by hyperandrogenism directly. PMID:27060006

  12. Content and Access Remain Key

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    It is impossible to review the year's outstanding government publication landscape without acknowledging that change remains paramount. Just as striking, however, is that these changes go hand in hand with some familiar constants. Within this shifting environment, there are the consistency and dependability of government information itself,…

  13. Tuberculin Skin-Test Reactions Are Unaffected by the Severity of Hyperendemic Intestinal Helminth Infections and Co-Infections

    PubMed Central

    Zevallos, Karine; Vergara, Katherine C.; Vergara, Antonio; Vidal, Carlos; Garcia, Hector H.; Evans, Carlton A.

    2010-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) quantifies cell-mediated immunity to tuberculosis antigens. Helminths suppress cell-mediated immunity, so we studied the effect of helminth infection and deworming on the TST in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in an indigenous Amazon community (N = 195). Stool microscopy diagnosed helminths in 98% and co-infection with multiple species in 24% of study subjects. The TST was positive (≥ 10 mm) for 49%, and responses increased with age (P < 0.001), Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination (P = 0.01), and tuberculosis contact (P = 0.05). TST results had no association with helminth-egg concentrations, species, or co-infections (all P > 0.1). One month after deworming with albendazole (three daily 400-mg doses), helminths were reduced, but 63% remained infected with helminths. Albendazole did not cause a change in TST size (P = 0.8) or positivity (P = 0.9) relative to placebo. Thus, TST reactions were unaffected by albendazole therapy that partially cured intestinal helminth infections, and TST interpretation was unaffected by high-burden helminth infections and co-infection with multiple helminth species. PMID:20682875

  14. Aberrant Gene Expression Profile of Unaffected Colon Mucosa from Patients with Unifocal Colon Polyp

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Jingjing; Ma, Lili; Yang, Jiayin; Xu, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate gene expression profiles in unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp to investigate the potential mucosa impairment in normal-appearing colon mucosa from these patients. Material/Methods Colon polyp patients were prospectively recruited. We obtained colon biopsies from the normal-appearing sites and polyp tissue through colonoscopy. Gene expression analysis was performed using microarrays. Gene ontology and clustering were evaluated by bioinformatics. Results We detected a total of 711 genes (274 up-regulated and 437 down-regulated) in polyp tissue and 256 genes (170 up-regulated and 86 down-regulated) in normal-appearing colon mucosa, with at least a 3-fold of change compared to healthy controls. Heatmapping of the gene expression showed similar gene alteration patterns between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue. Gene ontology analyses confirmed the overlapped molecular functions and pathways of altered gene expression between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp. The most significantly altered genes in normal-appearing tissues in polyp patients include immune response, external side of plasma membrane, nucleus, and cellular response to zinc ion. Conclusions Significant gene expression alterations exist in unaffected colon mucosa from patients with unifocal colon polyp. Unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue share great similarity and overlapping of altered gene expression profiles, indicating the potential possibility of recurrence of colon polyps due to underlying molecular abnormalities of colon mucosa in these patients. PMID:26675397

  15. Neurocognitive Functioning in Schizophrenia, their Unaffected Siblings and Healthy Controls: A Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Nehra, Ritu; Grover, Sandeep; Sharma, Sunil; Sharma, Aditi; Kate, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Neurocognitive functions are considered to be reliable endophenotypes for schizophrenia. This study aimed to study the neurocognitive functioning of unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia and compare the same with a group of patients with schizophrenia and a group of healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Three study groups, that is, unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia, patients of schizophrenia and healthy controls, each group comprising of 20 participants were evaluated on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and Digit Symbol Test. Results: Compared to healthy controls, unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia performed poorly on the tests of short-term verbal learning and memory, but no significant differences were seen between the two groups for executive functions, visual learning and psychomotor speed, concentration and graphomotor abilities. However, when compared with patients with schizophrenia, unaffected siblings performed poorly on the tests of executive functions, visual memory, verbal memory, psychomotor speed, concentration and graphomotor abilities. Conclusion: Cognitive markers like verbal memory deficits can distinguish unaffected siblings of schizophrenia from healthy controls and serve as an endophenotype for schizophrenia. PMID:27011403

  16. Hot spots remain the exception

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This article is a survey of the drilling activity and petroleum activity in Africa. The areas which seem to hold the highest promise for new discoveries or increased exports are Egypt's Western Desert which seems to offer the possibility of significant oil discoveries. In addition, Nigeria has dramatically increased its exploration activity which is counter to the global trend in 1986. Areas where activity is decreasing are Cameroon, South Africa. It is pointed out that the Gabon crude oil reserves may have been raised 60% by a single on-shore discovery.

  17. Contralateral Clinically Unaffected Eyes of Patients With Unilateral Infectious Keratitis Demonstrate a Sympathetic Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Cruzat, Andrea; Schrems, Wolfgang A.; Schrems-Hoesl, Laura M.; Cavalcanti, Bernardo M.; Baniasadi, Neda; Witkin, Deborah; Pavan-Langston, Deborah; Dana, Reza; Hamrah, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the contralateral unaffected eyes of patients with microbial keratitis (MK) for any immune cell or nerve changes by laser in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Methods A prospective study was performed on 28 patients with MK, including acute bacterial, fungal, and Acanthamoeba keratitis, as well as on their contralateral clinically unaffected eyes and on control groups, which consisted of 28 age-matched normal controls and 15 control contact lens (CL) wearers. Laser IVCM with the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph 3/Rostock Cornea Module and Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry of the central cornea were performed. Two masked observers assessed central corneal dendritiform cell density and subbasal corneal nerve parameters. Results The contralateral clinically unaffected eyes of patients with MK demonstrated significant diminishment in nerve density (15,603.8 ± 1265.2 vs. 24,102.1 ± 735.6 μm/mm2), total number of nerves (11.9 ± 1.0 vs. 24.9 ± 1.2/frame), number of branches (1.7 ± 0.2 vs. 19.9 ± 1.3/frame), and branch nerve length (5775.2 ± 757.1 vs. 12,715.4 ± 648.4 μm/mm2) (P < 0.001 for all parameters) compared to normal controls and CL wearers. Further, dendritiform cell density in the contralateral unaffected eyes was significantly increased as compared to that in controls (117.5 ± 19.9 vs. 24.2 ± 3.5 cells/mm2, P < 0.001). Conclusions We demonstrate a subclinical involvement in the contralateral clinically unaffected eyes in patients with unilateral acute MK. In vivo confocal microscopy reveals not only a diminishment of the subbasal corneal nerves and sensation, but also an increase in dendritiform cell density in the contralateral unaffected eyes of MK patients. These findings show bilateral immune alterations in a clinically unilateral disease. PMID:26465889

  18. Fronto-limbic Function in Unaffected Offspring at Familial Risk for Bipolar Disorder during an Emotional Working Memory Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; White, Richard; Bass, Jeremy; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from neuroimaging studies indicate that individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) exhibit altered functioning of fronto-limbic systems implicated in voluntary emotion regulation. Few studies, however, have examined the extent to which unaffected youth at familial risk for BD exhibit such alterations. Using an fMRI emotional working memory paradigm, we investigated the functioning of fronto-limbic systems in fifteen healthy bipolar offspring (8–17 years old) with at least one parent diagnosed with BD (HBO), and 16 age-matched healthy control (HC) participants. Neural activity and functional connectivity analyses focused on a priori neural regions supporting emotion processing (amygdala, ventral striatum) and voluntary emotion regulation (ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)). Relative to HC, HBO exhibited greater right VLPFC (BA47) activation in response to positive emotional distracters and reduced VLPFC modulation of the amygdala to both the positive and negative emotional distracters; there were no group differences in connectivity for the neutral distracters. These findings suggest that alterations in the functioning of fronto-limbic systems implicated in voluntary emotion regulation are present in unaffected bipolar offspring. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine the extent to which such alterations represent neurodevelopmental markers of risk for future onset of BD. PMID:23590840

  19. P-wave morphology is unaffected by training-induced biatrial dilatation: a prospective, longitudinal study in healthy athletes.

    PubMed

    D'Ascenzi, Flavio; Solari, Marco; Biagi, Michele; Cassano, Francesco; Focardi, Marta; Corrado, Domenico; Bonifazi, Marco; Mondillo, Sergio; Henein, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Biatrial enlargement is common in athletes with a further increase occurring after training. P-wave morphology seems to be unaffected by atrial size, however longitudinal data are not available. This study aimed to prospectively investigate whether exercise-induced increase in biatrial size corresponds to electrical changes on 12-lead ECG. Thirty-five athletes were evaluated at the beginning of the training and after 6 months by ECG and standard and speckle-tracking echocardiography. Twenty-three sedentary subjects served as controls. Athletes had greater left atrial (LA) and right atrial (RA) size compared with controls (20.7 ± 4.7 vs. 27.1 ± 6.6 and 17.3 ± 3.8 vs. 23.4 ± 6.3 mL/m2, respectively, p < 0.0001). After 6 months, a further increase in LA and RA size was observed (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Neither athletes nor controls fulfilled the ECG criteria for RA enlargement and no differences were found for LA enlargement criteria between athletes and controls (2/35, 6% vs. 0/23, 0%, p = 0.23). This percentage remained unchanged after training. Biatrial stiffness remained normal in athletes also after training. Training causes an increase in biatrial volumes, with normal filling pressures and normal stiffness. These changes in atrial morphology are not associated with respective electrical changes, suggesting that P-wave morphology is unaffected by training-induced biatrial dilatation in young healthy athletes. PMID:26474571

  20. 29 CFR 790.6 - Periods within the “workday” unaffected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THE EFFECT OF THE PORTAL-TO-PORTAL ACT OF 1947 ON THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Provisions... “workday” unaffected. (a) Section 4 of the Portal Act does not affect the computation of hours worked... included in the computation of hours worked to the same extent as would be required if the Portal Act...

  1. 29 CFR 790.6 - Periods within the “workday” unaffected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE EFFECT OF THE PORTAL-TO-PORTAL ACT OF 1947 ON THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Provisions... “workday” unaffected. (a) Section 4 of the Portal Act does not affect the computation of hours worked... included in the computation of hours worked to the same extent as would be required if the Portal Act...

  2. 29 CFR 790.6 - Periods within the “workday” unaffected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THE EFFECT OF THE PORTAL-TO-PORTAL ACT OF 1947 ON THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Provisions... “workday” unaffected. (a) Section 4 of the Portal Act does not affect the computation of hours worked... included in the computation of hours worked to the same extent as would be required if the Portal Act...

  3. 29 CFR 790.6 - Periods within the “workday” unaffected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... THE EFFECT OF THE PORTAL-TO-PORTAL ACT OF 1947 ON THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Provisions... “workday” unaffected. (a) Section 4 of the Portal Act does not affect the computation of hours worked... included in the computation of hours worked to the same extent as would be required if the Portal Act...

  4. 29 CFR 790.6 - Periods within the “workday” unaffected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THE EFFECT OF THE PORTAL-TO-PORTAL ACT OF 1947 ON THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Provisions... “workday” unaffected. (a) Section 4 of the Portal Act does not affect the computation of hours worked... included in the computation of hours worked to the same extent as would be required if the Portal Act...

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Boys with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder and Their Unaffected Siblings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durston, Sarah; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Schnack, Hugo G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Steenhuis, Mark P.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Kahn, Rene S.; Van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of increased familial risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on brain morphology. Method: Volumetric cerebral measures based on whole brain magnetic resonance imaging scans from 30 boys with ADHD, 30 of their unaffected siblings, and 30 matched controls were compared. Results: Both subjects with…

  6. Familiarity and recollection processes in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia and their unaffected parents

    PubMed Central

    Lefèbvre, Andrée-Anne; Cellard, Caroline; Tremblay, Sébastien; Achim, Amélie; Rouleau, Nancie; Maziade, Michel; Roy, Marc-André

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memory deficits are present in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and their unaffected relatives and could be considered as a cognitive indicator of genetic vulnerability to SZ. The present study, involving patients with SZ as well as their parents, used experimental tasks specifically designed to disentangle the contribution of familiarity and recollection processes to episodic memory. The performance of patients with SZ (n=26) and their unaffected parents (n=35) was compared with that of healthy control groups matched on socio-demographic variables (controls of patients, n=26; controls of parents, n=35) on two memory tasks assessing recollection and familiarity. The first task was designed to investigate item recognition and memory for item-spatial context associations whereas the second targeted item-item associations. The results revealed an overall episodic memory deficit in patients with SZ, encompassing both familiarity and recollection, while unaffected parents showed a dysfunction restricted to the recollection process. Our study highlights differences and similarities in the source of the episodic memory deficit found in patients with SZ and their unaffected parents, and it suggests that recollection could act as a cognitive endophenotype of SZ. The results also suggest that use of experimental tasks represents a promising method in the search of cognitive endophenotypes in SZ. PMID:19945175

  7. 42 CFR 35.52 - Delivery of possession only; title unaffected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delivery of possession only; title unaffected. 35.52 Section 35.52 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposal of Money and Effects of...

  8. 42 CFR 35.52 - Delivery of possession only; title unaffected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Delivery of possession only; title unaffected. 35.52 Section 35.52 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposal of Money and Effects of...

  9. 42 CFR 35.52 - Delivery of possession only; title unaffected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Delivery of possession only; title unaffected. 35.52 Section 35.52 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposal of Money and Effects of...

  10. 42 CFR 35.52 - Delivery of possession only; title unaffected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delivery of possession only; title unaffected. 35.52 Section 35.52 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposal of Money and Effects of...

  11. 42 CFR 35.52 - Delivery of possession only; title unaffected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delivery of possession only; title unaffected. 35.52 Section 35.52 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposal of Money and Effects of...

  12. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  13. Pancreatic Stem Cells Remain Unresolved

    PubMed Central

    Morahan, Grant

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is caused by absolute (type 1) or relative (type 2) deficiency of insulin-secreting islet β cells. An ideal treatment of diabetes would, therefore, be to replace the lost or deficient β cells, by transplantation of donated islets or differentiated endocrine cells or by regeneration of endogenous islet cells. Due to their ability of unlimited proliferation and differentiation into all functional lineages in our body, including β cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells are ideally placed as cell sources for a diabetic transplantation therapy. Unfortunately, the inability to generate functional differentiated islet cells from pluripotent stem cells and the poor availability of donor islets have severely restricted the broad clinical use of the replacement therapy. Therefore, endogenous sources that can be directed to becoming insulin-secreting cells are actively sought after. In particular, any cell types in the developing or adult pancreas that may act as pancreatic stem cells (PSC) would provide an alternative renewable source for endogenous regeneration. In this review, we will summarize the latest progress and knowledge of such PSC, and discuss ways that facilitate the future development of this often controversial, but crucial research. PMID:25132582

  14. Using Ipsilateral Motor Signals in the Unaffected Cerebral Hemisphere as a Signal Platform for Brain Computer Interfaces in Hemiplegic Stroke Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Bundy, David T.; Wronkiewicz, Mark; Sharma, Mohit; Moran, Daniel W.; Corbetta, Maurizio; Leuthardt, Eric C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Brain computer interface (BCI) systems have emerged as a method to restore function and enhance communication in motor impaired patients. To date, this has been primarily applied to patients who have a compromised motor outflow due to spinal cord dysfunction, but an intact and functioning cerebral cortex. The cortical physiology associated with movement of the contralateral limb has typically been the signal substrate that has been used as a control signal. While this is an ideal control platform in patients with an intact motor cortex, these signals are lost after a hemispheric stroke. Thus, a different control signal is needed that could provide control capability for a patient with a hemiparetic limb. Previous studies have shown that there is a distinct cortical physiology associated with ipsilateral, or same sided, limb movements. Thus far, it was unknown whether stroke survivors could intentionally and effectively modulate this ipsilateral motor activity from their unaffected hemisphere. Therefore, this study seeks to evaluate whether stroke survivors could effectively utilize ipsilateral motor activity from their unaffected hemisphere to achieve this BCI control. Approach To investigate this possibility, electroencephalographic (EEG) signals were recorded from four chronic hemispheric stroke patients as they performed (or attempted to perform) real and imagined hand tasks using either their affected or unaffected hand. Following performance of the screening task, the ability of patients to utilize a BCI system was investigated during on-line control of a 1-dimensional control task. Main Results Significant ipsilateral motor signals (associated with movement intentions of the affected hand) in the unaffected hemisphere, which were found to be distinct from rest and contralateral signals, were identified and subsequently used for a simple online BCI control task. We demonstrate here for the first time that EEG signals from the unaffected hemisphere

  15. Using ipsilateral motor signals in the unaffected cerebral hemisphere as a signal platform for brain-computer interfaces in hemiplegic stroke survivors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundy, David T.; Wronkiewicz, Mark; Sharma, Mohit; Moran, Daniel W.; Corbetta, Maurizio; Leuthardt, Eric C.

    2012-06-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems have emerged as a method to restore function and enhance communication in motor impaired patients. To date, this has been applied primarily to patients who have a compromised motor outflow due to spinal cord dysfunction, but an intact and functioning cerebral cortex. The cortical physiology associated with movement of the contralateral limb has typically been the signal substrate that has been used as a control signal. While this is an ideal control platform in patients with an intact motor cortex, these signals are lost after a hemispheric stroke. Thus, a different control signal is needed that could provide control capability for a patient with a hemiparetic limb. Previous studies have shown that there is a distinct cortical physiology associated with ipsilateral, or same-sided, limb movements. Thus far, it was unknown whether stroke survivors could intentionally and effectively modulate this ipsilateral motor activity from their unaffected hemisphere. Therefore, this study seeks to evaluate whether stroke survivors could effectively utilize ipsilateral motor activity from their unaffected hemisphere to achieve this BCI control. To investigate this possibility, electroencephalographic (EEG) signals were recorded from four chronic hemispheric stroke patients as they performed (or attempted to perform) real and imagined hand tasks using either their affected or unaffected hand. Following performance of the screening task, the ability of patients to utilize a BCI system was investigated during on-line control of a one-dimensional control task. Significant ipsilateral motor signals (associated with movement intentions of the affected hand) in the unaffected hemisphere, which were found to be distinct from rest and contralateral signals, were identified and subsequently used for a simple online BCI control task. We demonstrate here for the first time that EEG signals from the unaffected hemisphere, associated with overt and

  16. Social Motor Coordination in Unaffected Relatives of Schizophrenia Patients: A Potential Intermediate Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Del-Monte, Jonathan; Capdevielle, Delphine; Varlet, Manuel; Marin, Ludovic; Schmidt, Richard C.; Salesse, Robin N.; Bardy, Benoît G.; Boulenger, Jean Philippe; Gély-Nargeot, Marie Christine; Attal, Jérôme; Raffard, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Intermediate endophenotypes emerge as an important concept in the study of schizophrenia. Although research on phenotypes mainly investigated cognitive, metabolic or neurophysiological markers so far, some authors also examined the motor behavior anomalies as a potential trait-marker of the disease. However, no research has investigated social motor coordination despite the possible importance of its anomalies in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was thus to determine whether coordination modifications previously demonstrated in schizophrenia are trait-markers that might be associated with the risk for this pathology. Interpersonal motor coordination in 27 unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and 27 healthy controls was assessed using a hand-held pendulum task to examine the presence of interpersonal coordination impairments in individuals at risk for the disorder. Measures of neurologic soft signs, clinical variables and neurocognitive functions were collected to assess the cognitive and clinical correlates of social coordination impairments in at-risk relatives. After controlling for potential confounding variables, unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients had impaired intentional interpersonal coordination compared to healthy controls while unintentional interpersonal coordination was preserved. More specifically, in intentional coordination, the unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients exhibited coordination patterns that had greater variability and in which relatives did not lead the coordination. These results show that unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients, like the patients themselves, also present deficits in intentional interpersonal coordination. For the first time, these results suggest that intentional interpersonal coordination impairments might be a potential motor intermediate endophenotype of schizophrenia opening new perspectives for early diagnosis. PMID:24106467

  17. Resting-state cerebellar-cerebral networks are differently affected in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia patients and unaffected siblings

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Chen, Jindong; Wu, Renrong; Zhang, Zhikun; Yu, Miaoyu; Xiao, Changqing; Zhao, Jingping

    2015-01-01

    Dysconnectivity hypothesis posits that schizophrenia is a disorder with dysconnectivity of the cortico-cerebellar-thalamic-cortical circuit (CCTCC). However, it remains unclear to the changes of the cerebral connectivity with the cerebellum in schizophrenia patients and unaffected siblings. Forty-nine patients with first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia patients, 46 unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients and 46 healthy controls participated in the study. Seed-based resting-state functional connectivity approach was employed to analyze the data. Compared with the controls, the patients and the siblings share increased default-mode network (DMN) seed – right Crus II connectivity. The patients have decreased right dorsal attention network (DAN) seed – bilateral cerebellum 4,5 connectivity relative to the controls. By contrast, the siblings exhibit increased FC between the right DAN seed and the right cerebellum 6 and right cerebellum 4,5 compared to the controls. No other abnormal connectivities (executive control network and salience network) are observed in the patients/siblings relative to the controls. There are no correlations between abnormal cerebellar-cerebral connectivities and clinical variables. Cerebellar-cerebral connectivity of brain networks within the cerebellum are differently affected in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia patients and unaffected siblings. Increased DMN connectivity with the cerebellum may serve as potential endophenotype for schizophrenia. PMID:26608842

  18. Resting-state cerebellar-cerebral networks are differently affected in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia patients and unaffected siblings.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Chen, Jindong; Wu, Renrong; Zhang, Zhikun; Yu, Miaoyu; Xiao, Changqing; Zhao, Jingping

    2015-01-01

    Dysconnectivity hypothesis posits that schizophrenia is a disorder with dysconnectivity of the cortico-cerebellar-thalamic-cortical circuit (CCTCC). However, it remains unclear to the changes of the cerebral connectivity with the cerebellum in schizophrenia patients and unaffected siblings. Forty-nine patients with first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia patients, 46 unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients and 46 healthy controls participated in the study. Seed-based resting-state functional connectivity approach was employed to analyze the data. Compared with the controls, the patients and the siblings share increased default-mode network (DMN) seed - right Crus II connectivity. The patients have decreased right dorsal attention network (DAN) seed - bilateral cerebellum 4,5 connectivity relative to the controls. By contrast, the siblings exhibit increased FC between the right DAN seed and the right cerebellum 6 and right cerebellum 4,5 compared to the controls. No other abnormal connectivities (executive control network and salience network) are observed in the patients/siblings relative to the controls. There are no correlations between abnormal cerebellar-cerebral connectivities and clinical variables. Cerebellar-cerebral connectivity of brain networks within the cerebellum are differently affected in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia patients and unaffected siblings. Increased DMN connectivity with the cerebellum may serve as potential endophenotype for schizophrenia. PMID:26608842

  19. Visual Attention in Autism Families: "Unaffected" Sibs Share Atypical Frontal Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belmonte, Matthew K.; Gomot, Marie; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Background: In addition to their more clinically evident abnormalities of social cognition, people with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) manifest perturbations of attention and sensory perception which may offer insights into the underlying neural abnormalities. Similar autistic traits in ASC relatives without a diagnosis suggest a continuity…

  20. Area burned in the western United States is unaffected by recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Hart, Sarah J; Schoennagel, Tania; Veblen, Thomas T; Chapman, Teresa B

    2015-04-01

    In the western United States, mountain pine beetles (MPBs) have killed pine trees across 71,000 km(2) of forest since the mid-1990s, leading to widespread concern that abundant dead fuels may increase area burned and exacerbate fire behavior. Although stand-level fire behavior models suggest that bark beetle-induced tree mortality increases flammability of stands by changing canopy and forest floor fuels, the actual effect of an MPB outbreak on subsequent wildfire activity remains widely debated. To address this knowledge gap, we superimposed areas burned on areas infested by MPBs for the three peak years of wildfire activity since 2002 across the western United States. Here, we show that the observed effect of MPB infestation on the area burned in years of extreme fire appears negligible at broad spatial extents. Contrary to the expectation of increased wildfire activity in recently infested red-stage stands, we found no difference between observed area and expected area burned in red-stage or subsequent gray-stage stands during three peak years of wildfire activity, which account for 46% of area burned during the 2002-2013 period. Although MPB infestation and fire activity both independently increased in conjunction with recent warming, our results demonstrate that the annual area burned in the western United States has not increased in direct response to bark beetle activity. Therefore, policy discussions should focus on societal adaptation to the effects of recent increases in wildfire activity related to increased drought severity. PMID:25831541

  1. Odor Hedonic Capacity and Anhedonia in Schizophrenia and Unaffected First-Degree Relatives of Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Vidyulata; Moberg, Paul J.; Kohler, Christian G.; Gur, Raquel E.; Turetsky, Bruce I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: There is increasing evidence that schizophrenia patients have difficulties in the hedonic appraisal of odors. In a prior study, we assessed olfactory hedonic perception birhinally and found that males with schizophrenia failed to attach the appropriate hedonic valence to a pleasant odor, despite correctly perceiving changes in odor intensity. Female patients, in contrast, exhibited normal responses. The current study extends this work by examining odor valence processing in unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients, to determine the extent to which this abnormality may be genetically mediated. We also examine odor valence processing unirhinally, rather than birhinally, to probe possible lateralized differences in patients’ hedonic processing deficits. Method: Individuals with schizophrenia (n = 54), first-degree unaffected family members (n = 22), and demographically matched controls (n = 45) were administered the Suprathreshold Amyl Acetate Odor Intensity and Odor Pleasantness Rating Test. Results: In contrast to family members and controls, both male and female schizophrenia probands underevaluated the hedonic characteristics of amyl acetate at lower concentrations and overevaluated its pleasantness at concentrations perceived as unpleasant by both controls and relatives. These patient-specific differences could not be explained by differences in smoking habit, medication use, or subjective ratings of odor intensity. However, they were associated with increased levels of anhedonia/asociality and negative symptomatology. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that both male and female schizophrenia patients have difficulties in the unirhinal appraisal of hedonic valence. Normal responses in unaffected first-degree relatives suggest that this is an environmentally, rather than genetically, mediated abnormality denoting negative symptomatology. PMID:21616912

  2. Structural and Diffusion Property Alterations in Unaffected Siblings of Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Changzheng; Miao, Guodong; Yang, Qiong; Gao, Wei; Wolff, Jason J.; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Disrupted white matter integrity and abnormal cortical thickness are widely reported in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the relationship between alterations in white matter connectivity and cortical thickness in OCD is unclear. In addition, the heritability of this relationship is poorly understood. To investigate the relationship of white matter microstructure with cortical thickness, we measure fractional anisotropy (FA) of white matter in 30 OCD patients, 19 unaffected siblings and 30 matched healthy controls. Then, we take those regions of significantly altered FA in OCD patients compared with healthy controls to perform fiber tracking. Next, we calculate the fiber quantity in the same tracts. Lastly, we compare cortical thickness in the target regions of those tracts. Patients with OCD exhibited decreased FA in cingulum, arcuate fibers near the superior parietal lobule, inferior longitudinal fasciculus near the right superior temporal gyrus and uncinate fasciculus. Siblings showed reduced FA in arcuate fibers near the superior parietal lobule and anterior limb of internal capsule. Significant reductions in both fiber quantities and cortical thickness in OCD patients and their unaffected siblings were also observed in the projected brain areas when using the arcuate fibers near the left superior parietal lobule as the starting points. Reduced FA in the left superior parietal lobule was observed not only in patients with OCD but also in their unaffected siblings. Originated from the superior parietal lobule, the number of fibers was also found to be decreased and the corresponding cortical regions were thinner relative to controls. The linkage between disrupted white matter integrity and the abnormal cortical thickness may be a vulnerability marker for OCD. PMID:24489665

  3. Executive Function in Autism Probands With Average Intellectual Ability and Their Unaffected First-Degree Relatives

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Rebecca L.; Johnson, Ashley J.; Zimak, Eric; Joseph, Robert M.; Morrow, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aims to characterize executive function (EF) in pedigrees of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with average IQ. We examine the hypothesis that deficits in EF relate to lower levels of adaptive functioning, and we assess evidence for a cognitive extended phenotype in unaffected relatives in a large, well-characterized sample. Method Proband EF was assessed via parent report questionnaires (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning [BRIEF], n=109) and child neuropsychological tests (Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System [DKEFS], n=35). EF was also examined in parents (D-KEFS, n=335) and unaffected siblings (BRIEF, n=114; DKEFS, n=57). Adaptive functioning was assessed via the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales- II (VABS-II, n=155). All data were obtained from the Autism Consortium Clinical Genetics Database. Results Individuals with ASD demonstrated a high burden of EF weaknesses. Multiple regression analyses revealed that parent-reported EF deficits were related to profound reductions in adaptive functioning even after controlling for age, IQ, and severity of ASD symptoms. Parent-reported EF was also related to adaptive skills in preschoolers. First-degree unaffected relatives did not demonstrate difficulties with EF relative to normative data. Conclusion In our study, EF impairments do not appear to relate to broad familial risk factors for ASD but may be associated with factors relevant to the expression of ASD in probands. Results support the benefits of EF assessment as a way to identify potential therapeutic targets that could lead to improved adaptive behavior among children with ASD and average IQ. PMID:25151423

  4. Cigarette smoking in obsessive-compulsive disorder and unaffected parents of OCD patients

    PubMed Central

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Pizzagalli, Diego A.; Geller, Daniel A.; Reuman, Lillian; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is more prevalent among individuals with psychiatric disorders than the general population. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be an intriguing exception, although no recent study has investigated this hypothesis in OCD patients. Moreover, it is unknown whether reduced smoking rates are present in unaffected first-degree relatives of OCD patients. Methods We assessed smoking prevalence in adults with OCD and unaffected parents of youth with OCD (PYOCD). To this end, 113 adults with OCD completed online questionnaires assessing symptom severity and smoking status. Smoking status was obtained from an independent sample of 210 PYOCD assessed for psychiatric diagnoses. Results Smoking prevalence rates in adults with OCD (13.3%; n = 15) and PYOCD (9.5%; n = 20) samples were significantly lower than those found in representative samples of the general population (19-24%, all p < .001) and Axis I disorders (36-64%; p < .001). There were no smokers in the adult OCD subset without clinically significant depressive symptoms (n = 54). Conclusion Low prevalence of smoking in OCD may be familial and unique among psychiatric disorders, and might represent a possible state-independent OCD marker. Hypotheses concerning the uncharacteristically low prevalence rates are discussed with relation to OCD phenomenology and pathophysiology. PMID:24637253

  5. Cortical asymmetries in unaffected siblings of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ziwen; Li, Gang; Shi, Feng; Shi, Changzheng; Yang, Qiong; Chan, Raymond C K; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-12-30

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is considered to be associated with atypical brain asymmetry. However, no study has examined the asymmetry in OCD from the perspective of cortical morphometry. This study is aimed to describe the characteristics of cortical asymmetry in OCD patients, and to investigate whether these features exist in their unaffected siblings - a vital step in identifying putative endophenotypes for OCD. A total of 48 subjects (16 OCD patients, 16 unaffected siblings, and 16 matched controls) were recruited who had complete magnetic resonance imaging scans. Left-right hemispheric asymmetries of cortical thickness were measured using a surface-based threshold-free cluster enhancement method. OCD patients and siblings both showed leftward asymmetries of cortical thickness in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which showed a significant positive correlation with compulsive subscale scores. In addition, siblings and healthy controls showed significantly decreased leftward asymmetries in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and the decreased leftward bias in the OFC was accompanied by lower scales on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. To sum up, leftward asymmetries of cortical thickness in the ACC may represent an endophenotype of increased hereditary risk for OCD, while decreased leftward asymmetries of cortical thickness in the OFC may represent a protective factor. PMID:26522981

  6. Relationship between hearing threshold at the affected and unaffected ear in unilateral Meniere's disease.

    PubMed

    Albera, Roberto; Canale, Andrea; Cassandro, Claudia; Albera, Andrea; Sammartano, Azia Maria; Dagna, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss in Menière's disease has been described to affect above all low frequencies (upward curve) with a tendency to become irreversible and non-fluctuating at the higher frequencies (peaked curve) over time. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of MD on hearing function on the basis of differences existing between the affected and the unaffected ear in a group of patients affected by definite unilateral MD and whose contralateral ear was not affected by any disease other than age-related hearing loss (ARHL). Following this procedure we have also evaluated the possible effects of age and disease duration on hearing loss in MD. The study group consisted of 86 subjects affected by definite unilateral MD. In our sample a peaked audiometric curve characterized the affected ears; however, the result after subtracting the normal ear hearing threshold was an upward sloping curve, which highlighted the greater suffering at the lower frequencies. On the basis of differences existing between affected and unaffected ear, our data suggest that threshold evolution is more related to disease duration rather than to age. PMID:25552243

  7. DRD2 Schizophrenia-Risk Allele Is Associated With Impaired Striatal Functioning in Unaffected Siblings of Schizophrenia Patients.

    PubMed

    Vink, Matthijs; de Leeuw, Max; Luykx, Jurjen J; van Eijk, Kristel R; van den Munkhof, Hanna E; van Buuren, Mariët; Kahn, René S

    2016-05-01

    A recent Genome-Wide Association Study showed that the rs2514218 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in close proximity to dopamine receptor D2 is strongly associated with schizophrenia. Further, an in silico experiment showed that rs2514218 has a cis expression quantitative trait locus effect in the basal ganglia. To date, however, the functional consequence of this SNP is unknown. Here, we used functional Magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the impact of this risk allele on striatal activation during proactive and reactive response inhibition in 45 unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients. We included siblings to circumvent the illness specific confounds affecting striatal functioning independent from gene effects. Behavioral analyses revealed no differences between the carriers (n= 21) and noncarriers (n= 24). Risk allele carriers showed a diminished striatal response to increasing proactive inhibitory control demands, whereas overall level of striatal activation in carriers was elevated compared to noncarriers. Finally, risk allele carriers showed a blunted striatal response during successful reactive inhibition compared to the noncarriers. These data are consistent with earlier reports showing similar deficits in schizophrenia patients, and point to a failure to flexibly engage the striatum in response to contextual cues. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between impaired striatal functioning and the rs2514218 polymorphism. We take our findings to indicate that striatal functioning is impaired in carriers of the DRD2 risk allele, likely due to dopamine dysregulation at the DRD2 location. PMID:26598739

  8. Unaffected features of BSA stabilized Ag nanoparticles after storage and reconstitution in biological relevant media.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Laura E; Giacomelli, Carla E

    2015-08-01

    Silver-coated orthopedic implants and silver composite materials have been proposed to produce local biocidal activity at low dose to reduce post-surgery infection that remains one of the major contributions to the patient morbidity. This work presents the synthesis combined with the characterization, colloidal stability in biological relevant media, antimicrobial activity and handling properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) before and after freeze dry and storage. The nanomaterial was synthesized in aqueous solution with simple, reproducible and low-cost strategies using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the stabilizing agent. Ag-NP were characterized by means of the size distribution and morphology (UV-vis spectra, dynamic light scattering measurements and TEM images), charge as a function of the pH (zeta potential measurements) and colloidal stability in biological relevant media (UV-vis spectra and dynamic light scattering measurements). Further, the interactions between the protein and Ag-NP were evaluated by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and the antimicrobial activity was tested with two bacteria strains (namely Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis) mainly present in the infections caused by implants and prosthesis in orthopedic surgery. Finally, the Ag-NP dispersed in aqueous solution were dried and stored as long-lasting powders that were easily reconstituted without losing their stability and antimicrobial properties. The proposed methods to stabilize Ag-NP not only produce stable dispersions in media of biological relevance but also long-lasting powders with optimal antimicrobial activity in the nanomolar range. This level is much lower than the cytotoxicity determined in vitro on osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteoarthritic chondrocytes. The synthesized Ag-NP can be incorporated as additive of biomaterials or pharmaceutical products to confer antimicrobial activity in a powdered form in different formulations, dispersed in

  9. A unique library of myogenic cells from facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy subjects and unaffected relatives: family, disease and cell function

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Sachiko; Chen, Jennifer CJ; Rahimov, Fedik; Beermann, Mary Lou; Hanger, Kendal; Bibat, Genila M; Wagner, Kathryn R; Kunkel, Louis M; Emerson, Charles P; Miller, Jeffrey Boone

    2012-01-01

    To explore possible mechanisms of pathology in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), we generated a novel library of myogenic cells composed of paired cultures derived from FSHD subjects and unaffected first-degree relatives. We prepared cells from biopsies of both biceps and deltoid muscles obtained from each of 10 FSHD and 9 unaffected donors. We used this new collection to determine how family background and disease affected patterns of growth and differentiation, expression of a panel of candidate, and muscle-specific genes, and responses to exogenous stressors. We found that FSHD and unaffected cells had, on average, indistinguishable patterns of differentiation, gene expression, and dose-response curves to staurosporine, paraquat, hydrogen peroxide, and glutathione depletion. Differentiated FSHD and unaffected cultures were both more sensitive to glutathione depletion than proliferating cultures, but showed similar responses to paraquat, staurosporine, and peroxide. For stress responses, the sample size was sufficient to detect a 10% change in effect at the observed variability with a power of >99%. In contrast, for each of these properties, we found significant differences among cells from different cohorts, and these differences were independent of disease status, gender, or muscle biopsied. Thus, though none of the properties we examined could be used to reliably distinguish between FSHD and unaffected cells, family of origin was an important contributor to gene-expression patterns and stressor responses in cultures of both FSHD and unaffected myogenic cells. PMID:22108603

  10. Electrophysiological Correlates of Aberrant Motivated Attention and Salience Processing in Unaffected Relatives of Schizophrenia Patients.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Elizabeth H; Campbell, Alana M; Schipul, Sarah E; Bellion, Carolyn M; Donkers, Franc C L; Evans, Anna M; Belger, Aysenil

    2016-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) exhibit debilitating deficits in attention and affective processing, which are often resistant to treatment and associated with poor functional outcomes. Impaired orientation to task-relevant target information has been indexed by diminished P3b event-related potentials in patients, as well as their unaffected first-degree relatives, suggesting that P3b may be a vulnerability marker for schizophrenia. Despite intact affective valence processing, patients are unable to employ cognitive change strategies to reduce electrophysiological responses to aversive stimuli. Less is known about the attentional processing of emotionally salient task-irrelevant information in patients and unaffected first-degree relatives. The goal of the present study was to examine the neural correlates of salience processing, as indexed by the late positive potential (LPP), during the processing of emotionally salient distractor stimuli in 31 patients with SCZ, 28 first-degree relatives, and 47 control participants using an oddball paradigm. Results indicated that despite intact novelty detection (P3a), both SCZ and first-degree relatives demonstrated deficiencies in attentional processing, reflected in attenuated target-P3b, and aberrant motivated attention, with reduced early-LPP amplitudes for aversive stimuli relative to controls. First-degree relatives revealed a unique enhancement of the late-LPP response, possibly underlying an exaggerated evaluation of salient information and a compensatory engagement of neural circuitry. Furthermore, reduced early-LPP and target-P3b amplitudes were associated with enhanced symptom severity. These findings suggest that, in addition to P3b, LPP may be useful for monitoring clinical state. Future studies will explore the value of P3 and LPP responses as vulnerability markers for early detection and prediction of psychopathology. PMID:26251457

  11. Spondyloepiphseal dysplasia congenita in siblings born to unaffected parents: ? germ line mosaicism

    SciTech Connect

    Mulla, W.; McDonald-McGinn, D.; Zackai, E.

    1994-09-01

    Germ line mosaicism has been used to explain the birth of more than one child affected with a dominantly inherited disorder born to unaffected parents. Furthermore, it has been confirmed clinically in families where recurrence in siblings was originally thought to be autosomal recessive, but were affected individuals have reproduced affected offspring. Firm evidence of germ line mosaicism using mutation analysis by molecular methods exists for some autosomal disorders. We present two siblings with spondyloepipheseal dysplasia congenita (SEDC) born to unaffected parents. This suggests the presence of germ line mosaicism in this entity. Patient 1 was born at 32 weeks gestation to a G1P1 Puerto Rican mother. The pregnancy was complicated by polyhydramnios. The neonate, a short-limbed dwarf, died at 15 hours of age from respiratory distress and a compromised thoracic cavity. Patient 2, the sibling of patient 1 was born at 37 weeks gestation after a pregnancy complicated by polyhydramnios and prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of short-limbed dwarfism. The diagnosis of SEDC was made and, after review of the sibling`s postmortem X-rays, it was felt that she was similarly affected. The family history reveals no history of dwarfism or consanguinity. The SEDC is described as an autosomal dominant form of dwarfism with variable presentation including some cases that have been lethal in the neonatal period. SEDC is now believed to represent a family of collagen II mutations. Sporadic cases that have arisen in families with no history have been ascribed to new heterozygous mutations. Other families in which SEDC and SEMD recurred without a family history most likely represent germ line mosaicism. In these cases molecular studies should be pursued to document a collagen II mutation. We believe that germ line mosaicism is the most plausible explanation for recurrence in our family.

  12. Roundabout 1 exists predominantly as a basal dimeric complex and this is unaffected by binding of the ligand Slit2.

    PubMed

    Zakrys, Linas; Ward, Richard J; Pediani, John D; Godin, Antoine G; Graham, Gerard J; Milligan, Graeme

    2014-07-01

    Robo (Roundabout) receptors and their Slit polypeptide ligands are known to play key roles in neuronal development and have been implicated in both angiogenesis and cancer. Like the other family members, Robo1 is a large single transmembrane domain polypeptide containing a series of well-defined extracellular elements. However, the intracellular domain lacks structural definition and little is known about the quaternary structure of Robo receptors or how binding of a Slit might affect this. To address these questions combinations of both autofluorescent protein-based FRET imaging and time-resolved FRET were employed. Both approaches identified oligomeric organization of Robo1 that did not require the presence of the intracellular domain. SpIDA (spatial intensity distribution analysis) of eGFP-tagged forms of Robo1 indicated that for a C-terminally deleted version approximately two-thirds of the receptor was present as a dimer and one-third as a monomer. By contrast, full-length Robo1 was present almost exclusively as a dimer. In each case this was unaffected by the addition of Slit2, although parallel studies demonstrated the biological activity of Slit2 and its interaction with Robo1. Deletion of both the immunoglobulin and fibronectin type III extracellular repeats prevented dimer formation, with the immunoglobulin repeats providing the bulk of the protein-protein interaction affinity. PMID:24673457

  13. Chandra Reveals Remains of Giant Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo taken by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory that reveals the remains of an explosion in the form of two enormous arcs of multimillion-degree gas in the galaxy Centaurus A that appear to be part of a ring 25,000 light years in diameter. The size and location of the ring suggest that it could have been an explosion that occurred about 10 million years ago. A composite image made with radio (red and green), optical (yellow-orange), and X-ray data (blue) presents a sturning tableau of a turbulent galaxy. A broad band of dust and cold gas is bisected at an angle by opposing jets of high-energy particles blasting away from the supermassive black hole in the nucleus. Lying in a plane perpendicular to the jets are the two large arcs of x-ray emitting multi-million degree gas. This discovery can help astronomers better understand the cause and effect of violent outbursts from the vicinity of supermassive black holes of active galaxies. The Chandra program is managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

  14. Unaffected family members report improvements in daily routine sun-protection 2 years following melanoma genetic testing

    PubMed Central

    Aspinwall, Lisa G.; Taber, Jennifer M.; Kohlmann, Wendy; Leaf, Samantha L.; Leachman, Sancy A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Reducing ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure may decrease melanoma risk in the hereditary melanoma setting. It is unknown whether genetic counseling and test reporting of CDKN2A/p16 mutation status promote long-term compliance with photoprotection recommendations, especially in unaffected mutation carriers. Methods This study evaluated changes 2 years following melanoma genetic testing in self-reported practice of sun-protection (sunscreen, photoprotective clothing, UVR avoidance) among 37 members of two CDKN2A/p16 kindreds (10 unaffected carriers, 11 affected carriers, 16 unaffected noncarriers; response rate=64.9% of eligible participants). Results Multivariate profile analysis indicated that all 3 participant groups reported increased daily routine practice of sun-protection 2 years following melanoma genetic testing (p<.02), with 96.9% reporting that at least 1 sun-protection behavior was part of their daily routine, up from 78.1% at baseline (p<.015). Unaffected carriers (p<.024) and unaffected noncarriers (p<.027) reported significantly more frequent use of photoprotective clothing. Affected carriers maintained adherence to all sun-protection behaviors. Reported sunburns in the past 6 months decreased significantly (p<.018). Conclusion Members of high-risk families reported increased daily routine sun-protection and decreased sunburns 2 years following melanoma genetic testing, with no net decline in sun-protection following negative test results. Thus, genetic testing and counseling may motivate sustained improvements in prevention behaviors. PMID:24763292

  15. Effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide on vascular conductance are unaffected by anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Bouder, T.G.; Huffman, L.J.; Hedge, G.A. )

    1988-12-01

    In rats anesthetized with ketamine and pentobarbital (KET/PB), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) increases vascular conductance (VC) in the salivary gland, pancreas, and thyroid gland, whereas no changes in VC are observed in a number of other organs. Because anesthesia may alter the responsiveness of physiological systems, we compared the effects of VIP on organ VC in conscious or anesthetized rats. Chronically catheterized rats were studied in the conscious state or 30 min after induction of anesthesia with KET/PB, isoflurane, or Inactin. Blood flows were measured by the reference sample version of the radioactive microsphere (MS) technique using two MS injections ({sup 141}Ce-MS/{sup 85}Sr-MS). Mean arterial blood pressure was monitored and used in the calculation of VC. Organ VCs were similar under basal conditions in conscious and anesthetized rats. VIP infusion caused systemic hypotension and increased VCs in the salivary gland, pancreas, and thyroid gland, and these responses were largely unaffected by anesthesia. These results indicate that the anesthetics used do not alter basal VC or the responsiveness of the vasculature to exogenous VIP.

  16. Cell cycle progression in glioblastoma cells is unaffected by pathophysiological levels of hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Rosalie; Jenkinson, Michael D.; Haylock, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is associated with the increased malignancy of a broad range of solid tumours. While very severe hypoxia has been widely shown to induce cell cycle arrest, the impact of pathophysiological hypoxia on tumour cell proliferation is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different oxygen levels on glioblastoma (GBM) cell proliferation and survival. GBM is an extremely aggressive brain tumour with a heterogeneous oxygenation pattern. The effects of a range of oxygen tensions on GBM cell lines and primary cells were assessed using flow cytometry. Results indicate that cell cycle distribution and viability are unaffected by long term exposure (24–96 h) to pathophysiological levels of oxygen (1–8% O2). Both transient cell cycle arrest and small amounts of cell death could only be detected when cells were exposed to severe hypoxia (0.1% O2). No significant changes in p21 protein expression levels were detected. These findings reinforce the importance of using physiologically relevant oxygen tensions when investigating tumour hypoxia, and help to explain how solid tumours can be both hypoxic and highly proliferative, as is the case with GBM. PMID:26966676

  17. An Indian experience of neurocognitive endophenotypic markers in unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Ram Kumar; Kumar, Ashok; Satija, Yogesh; Gupta, Suresh; Singh, Paramjeet

    2016-01-01

    Context: Multiple vulnerability genes interact with environmental factors to develop a range of phenotypes in the schizophrenia spectrum. Endophenotypes can help characterize the impact of risk genes by providing genetically relevant traits that are more complaisant than the behavioral symptoms that classify mental illness. Aims: We aimed to investigate the neurocognitive endophenotypic markers for schizophrenia in Indian population. Settings and Design: In a cross-sectional study, we assessed neurocognitive functioning in 40 unaffected first-degree relatives (FDR) of schizophrenia patients with an equal number of healthy controls. Materials and Methods: FDR schizophrenia group was compared with the control group on measures of short-term memory, verbal working memory, auditory verbal memory on indices of immediate recall and recognition, visuospatial working memory, visual attention, and executive functions. Results: The study found that FDR schizophrenia scored poorly on all tested measures of neurocognition except visual attention. On calculating composite score, we found that composite neurocognitive score better discriminated the FDR schizophrenia from the control group. Conclusions: Neurocognitive measures of short-term memory, verbal working memory, auditory verbal memory, visuospatial working memory, and executive functions significantly differentiate FDR of patients with schizophrenia from controls and can be considered as endophenotypic markers of schizophrenia in non-Caucasian population. The exactitude of this approach can be increased by calculating a composite neurocognitive score which combines various neurocognitive measures. PMID:26985100

  18. Face shape of unaffected parents with cleft affected offspring: combining three-dimensional surface imaging and geometric morphometrics

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, SM; Naidoo, SD; Bardi, KM; Brandon, CA; Neiswanger, K; Resick, JM; Martin, RA; Marazita, ML

    2009-01-01

    Objective Various lines of evidence suggest that face shape may be a predisposing factor for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P). In the present study, 3D surface imaging and statistical shape analysis were used to evaluate face shape differences between the unaffected (non-cleft) parents of individuals with CL/P and unrelated controls. Methods Sixteen facial landmarks were collected from 3D captures of 80 unaffected parents and 80 matched controls. Prior to analysis, each unaffected parent was assigned to a subgroup on the basis of prior family history (positive or negative). A geometric morphometric approach was utilized to scale and superimpose the landmark coordinate data (Procrustes analysis), test for omnibus group differences in face shape, and uncover specific modes of shape variation capable of discriminating unaffected parents from controls. Results Significant disparity in face shape was observed between unaffected parents and controls (p < 0.01). Notably, these changes were specific to parents with a positive family history of CL/P. Shape changes associated with CL/P predisposition included marked flattening of the facial profile (midface retrusion), reduced upper facial height, increased lower facial height and excess interorbital width. Additionally, a sex-specific pattern of parent-control difference was evident in the transverse dimensions of the nasolabial complex. Conclusions The faces of unaffected parents from multiplex cleft families display meaningful shape differences compared with the general population. Quantitative assessment of the facial phenotype in cleft families may enhance efforts to discover the root causes of CL/P. PMID:19840279

  19. Voxel-based morphometry analysis reveals frontal brain differences in participants with ADHD and their unaffected siblings

    PubMed Central

    Bralten, Janita; Greven, Corina U.; Franke, Barbara; Mennes, Maarten; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Rommelse, Nanda N.J.; Hartman, Catharina; van der Meer, Dennis; O’Dwyer, Laurence; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on structural brain alterations in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been inconsistent. Both ADHD and brain volumes have a strong genetic loading, but whether brain alterations in patients with ADHD are familial has been underexplored. We aimed to detect structural brain alterations in adolescents and young adults with ADHD compared with healthy controls. We examined whether these alterations were also found in their unaffected siblings, using a uniquely large sample. Methods We performed voxel-based morphometry analyses on MRI scans of patients with ADHD, their unaffected siblings and typically developing controls. We identified brain areas that differed between participants with ADHD and controls and investigated whether these areas were different in unaffected siblings. Influences of medication use, age, sex and IQ were considered. Results Our sample included 307 patients with ADHD, 169 unaffected siblings and 196 typically developing controls (mean age 17.2 [range 8–30] yr). Compared with controls, participants with ADHD had significantly smaller grey matter volume in 5 clusters located in the precentral gyrus, medial and orbitofrontal cortex, and (para)cingulate cortices. Unaffected siblings showed intermediate volumes significantly different from controls in 4 of these clusters (all except the precentral gyrus). Medication use, age, sex and IQ did not have an undue influence on the results. Limitations Our sample was heterogeneous, most participants with ADHD were taking medication, and the comparison was cross-sectional. Conclusion Brain areas involved in decision making, motivation, cognitive control and motor functioning were smaller in participants with ADHD than in controls. Investigation of unaffected siblings indicated familiality of 4 of the structural brain differences, supporting their potential in molecular genetic analyses in ADHD research. PMID:26679925

  20. Local 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine lesions of rat amygdala: release of punished drinking, unaffected plus-maze behavior and ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Sommer, W; Möller, C; Wiklund, L; Thorsell, A; Rimondini, R; Nissbrandt, H; Heilig, M

    2001-04-01

    Several serotonergic drugs are effective for anxiety disorders, but underlying mechanisms are unclear, and findings in experimental animals are difficult to reconcile with human data. It has been proposed that differential effects of serotonin within specific anatomical systems may account for these difficulties, and the amygdala has been suggested as one of the structures involved. To examine this hypothesis, the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine was administered locally in rat amygdala. Within the amygdala, serotonin was depleted by approximately 80%, with other transmitters unaffected, and serotonin transporter labelling was decreased by approximately 85%. Cortical areas near the lesion site were also affected, although to a lesser degree. Other forebrain areas were unaffected. Lesions resulted in a specific anti-conflict effect in a punished drinking test, but did not influence elevated plus-maze behavior (under baseline conditions and after restraint stress), locomotor activity or ethanol intake. These data suggest that the punished drinking test and the elevated plus-maze may activate different components of fear circuitry, and that the serotonergic input to the amygdala specifically participates in fear-related behavioral suppression mediated by this structure. PMID:11182538

  1. Toys Remain Viral Playground for 24 Hours

    MedlinePlus

    ... a toy's surface at typical indoor temperatures and humidity levels. Specifically, they tested the ability of so- ... East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). At 60 percent relative humidity, 1 percent of the virus remained infectious on ...

  2. Sex Differences in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Compared with Their Unaffected Siblings and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Cho, In Hee; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Chung, Un-Sun; Park, Tae-Won; Son, Jung-Woo; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the nature of cognitive and behavioral sex differences in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and two comparison groups: a group of typically developing (TD) children and a group of unaffected siblings of ASD children. Sex differences in core autistic symptoms, co-occurring behavioral symptoms, and cognitive styles…

  3. Ciguatera: recent advances but the risk remains.

    PubMed

    Lehane, L; Lewis, R J

    2000-11-01

    Ciguatera is an important form of human poisoning caused by the consumption of seafood. The disease is characterised by gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. In cases of severe toxicity, paralysis, coma and death may occur. There is no immunity, and the toxins are cumulative. Symptoms may persist for months or years, or recur periodically. The epidemiology of ciguatera is complex and of central importance to the management and future use of marine resources. Ciguatera is an important medical entity in tropical and subtropical Pacific and Indian Ocean regions, and in the tropical Caribbean. As reef fish are increasingly exported to other areas, it has become a world health problem. The disease is under-reported and often misdiagnosed. Lipid-soluble, polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins accumulated in the muscles of certain subtropical and tropical marine finfish cause ciguatera. Ciguatoxins arise from biotransformation in the fish of less polar ciguatoxins (gambiertoxins) produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a marine dinoflagellate that lives on macroalgae, usually attached to dead coral. The toxins and their metabolites are concentrated in the food chain when carnivorous fish prey on smaller herbivorous fish. Humans are exposed at the end of the food chain. More than 400 species of fish can be vectors of ciguatoxins, but generally only a relatively small number of species are regularly incriminated in ciguatera. Ciguateric fish look, taste and smell normal, and detection of toxins in fish remains a problem. More than 20 precursor gambiertoxins and ciguatoxins have been identified in G. toxicus and in herbivorous and carnivorous fish. The toxins become more polar as they undergo oxidative metabolism and pass up the food chain. The main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1) causes ciguatera at levels=0.1 microg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. The main Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) is less polar and 10-fold less toxic than P-CTX-1. Ciguatoxins

  4. Effects of a powered ankle-foot prosthesis on kinetic loading of the unaffected leg during level-ground walking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background People with a lower-extremity amputation that use conventional passive-elastic ankle-foot prostheses encounter a series of stress-related challenges during walking such as greater forces on their unaffected leg, and may thus be predisposed to secondary musculoskeletal injuries such as chronic joint disorders. Specifically, people with a unilateral transtibial amputation have an increased susceptibility to knee osteoarthritis, especially in their unaffected leg. Previous studies have hypothesized that the development of this disorder is linked to the abnormally high peak knee external adduction moments encountered during walking. An ankle-foot prosthesis that supplies biomimetic power could potentially mitigate the forces and knee adduction moments applied to the unaffected leg of a person with a transtibial amputation, which could, in turn, reduce the risk of knee osteoarthritis. We hypothesized that compared to using a passive-elastic prosthesis, people with a transtibial amputation using a powered ankle-foot prosthesis would have lower peak resultant ground reaction forces, peak external knee adduction moments, and corresponding loading rates applied to their unaffected leg during walking over a wide range of speeds. Methods We analyzed ground reaction forces and knee joint kinetics of the unaffected leg of seven participants with a unilateral transtibial amputation and seven age-, height- and weight-matched non-amputees during level-ground walking at 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, and 1.75 m/s. Subjects with an amputation walked while using their own passive-elastic prosthesis and a powered ankle-foot prosthesis capable of providing net positive mechanical work and powered ankle plantar flexion during late stance. Results Use of the powered prosthesis significantly decreased unaffected leg peak resultant forces by 2-11% at 0.75-1.50 m/s, and first peak knee external adduction moments by 21 and 12% at 1.50 and 1.75 m/s, respectively. Loading rates were not

  5. Catholic Identity Remains a Public Relations Asset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, Eileen

    2004-01-01

    The massive sex scandal that rocked the Roman Catholic Church raises a question as to whether Catholic identity remains an asset that the nation's 8,000 Catholic schools should continue to promote. This case study found that continuing to promote Catholic identity has had no adverse effect on recruitment and enrollment at four Omaha, Nebraska,…

  6. Essential Qualities of Math Teaching Remain Unknown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    According to a new federal report, the qualities of an effective mathematics teacher remain frustratingly elusive. The report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel does not show what college math content and coursework are most essential for teachers. While the report offered numerous conclusions about math curriculum, cognition, and…

  7. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  8. Predicting the remaining service life of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear power plants are providing, currently, about 17 percent of the U.S. electricity and many of these plants are approaching their licensed life of 40 years. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out a program to develop a methodology for assessing the remaining safe-life of the concrete components and structures in nuclear power plants. This program has the overall objective of identifying potential structural safety issues, as well as acceptance criteria, for use in evaluations of nuclear power plants for continued service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is contributing to this program by identifying and analyzing methods for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete materials. This report examines the basis for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials of nuclear power facilities. Methods for predicting the service life of new and in-service concrete materials are analyzed. These methods include (1) estimates based on experience, (2) comparison of performance, (3) accelerated testing, (4) stochastic methods, and (5) mathematical modeling. New approaches for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials are proposed and recommendations for their further development given. Degradation processes are discussed based on considerations of their mechanisms, likelihood of occurrence, manifestations, and detection. They include corrosion, sulfate attack, alkali-aggregate reactions, frost attack, leaching, radiation, salt crystallization, and microbiological attack.

  9. Odor analysis of decomposing buried human remains

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Arpad Alexander; Smith, Rob R; Thompson, Cyril V; Burnett, Michael N; Dulgerian, Nishan; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2008-01-01

    This study, conducted at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility (ARF), lists and ranks the primary chemical constituents which define the odor of decomposition of human remains as detected at the soil surface of shallow burial sites. Triple sorbent traps were used to collect air samples in the field and revealed eight major classes of chemicals which now contain 478 specific volatile compounds associated with burial decomposition. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were collected below and above the body, and at the soil surface of 1.5-3.5 ft. (0.46-1.07 m) deep burial sites of four individuals over a 4-year time span. New data were incorporated into the previously established Decompositional Odor Analysis (DOA) Database providing identification, chemical trends, and semi-quantitation of chemicals for evaluation. This research identifies the 'odor signatures' unique to the decomposition of buried human remains with projected ramifications on human remains detection canine training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

  10. Hippocampal Shape Abnormalities of Patients with Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia and Their Unaffected Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sarah L. M.; Wang, Lei; Alpert, Kathryn I.; Greenstein, Deanna; Clasen, Liv; Lalonde, Francois; Miller, Rachel; Rapoport, Judith; Gogtay, Nitin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The hippocampus has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and hippocampal volume deficits have been a consistently reported abnormality, but the subregional specificity of the deficits remains unknown. The authors explored the nature and developmental trajectory of subregional shape abnormalities of the hippocampus in…

  11. Mill and the right to remain uninformed.

    PubMed

    Strasser, M

    1986-08-01

    In a recent article in the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, David Ost (1984) claims that patients do not have a right to waive their right to information. He argues that patients cannot make informed rational decisions without full information and thus, a right to waive information would involve a right to avoid one's responsibility to act as an autonomous moral agent. In support of his position, Ost cites a passage from Mill. Yet, a correct interpretation of the passage in question would support one's right to remain uninformed in certain situations. If the information would hurt one's chances for survival or hurt one's ability to make calm, rational decisions, then one not only does not have a duty to find out the information, but one's exercising one's right to remain uninformed may be the only rational course of action to take. PMID:3540171

  12. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

  13. Remains of Comet-Shoemaker/Levy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This illustration of the Comet-Shoemaker/Levy collision shows the first piece of the remains of the comet crashing into Jupiter. This event occurred in 1994 after tidal forces from Jupiter caused the comet to break up into 21 separate pieces. Although on a very different scale, the physical mechanism for the breakup of Shoemaker/Levy also caused the tidal disruption of the star in RX J1242-11. (Illustration: SEDS/D. Seal (edited by CXC/M. Weiss)

  14. Direct Dating of Hominids Remains In Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Falguères, C.

    When archaeological sites are associated with human remains, it is relevant to be able to date those valuable remains for different reasons. The main one is that it avoids the stratigraphical problems which can be due to intrusive burials in the sequence. The other reason consists in the fact that human bones may be encountered out of established stratigraphical context. On the other hand, the majority of dating methods currently used are destructive and can not be applied on these precious samples particularly when they are older than 40,000 years and can not be dated by radiocarbon. Since several years, we have developped a completely non-destructive method which consists in the measurement of human remains using the gamma -ray spectrometry. This technique has been used recently by other laboratories. We present here two important cases for the knowledge of human evolution in Eurasia. The first example is Qafzeh site in Israel where many human skeletons have been unearthed from burials associated with fauna and lithic artefacts. This site has been dated by several independent radiometric methods. So, it was possible to compare our gamma results with the other results yielded by the different methods. The second case concerns the most evolved Homo erectus found in Java, Indonesia, at Ngandong site, close to the Solo river. A recent debate has been focused on the age of these fossils and their direct dating is of outmost importance for the knowledge of settlement of Modern Humans in South-East Asia.

  15. Change of the Corticospinal Tract in the Unaffected Hemisphere by Change of the Dominant Hand Following Stroke: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sung Ho; Jang, Woo Hyuk

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the change of the corticospinal tract (CST) in the unaffected hemisphere by the change of the dominant hand in stroke patients, using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT).Forty-eight stroke patients with right-hand dominance were recruited. The patients were assigned to 3 groups: group A (12 patients)-right-hand dominance was maintained after the right-hand weakness, group B (17 patients)-right-hand dominance changed to the left-hand dominance after the right-hand weakness, and group C (19 patients)-right-hand dominance was maintained after the left-hand weakness had developed. The function of the unaffected upper extremity was evaluated using the grip strength (GS), Manual Function Test (MFT), Purdue Pegboard Test (PPT), and modified Barthel Index (MBI). DTT was performed twice (1st DTT, 2nd DTT), and the fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and voxel number (VN) of the CST in the unaffected hemisphere were measured.In group B, the VN on 2nd DTT was significantly increased compared with the 1st DTT, and all other clinical data (GS, MFT, PPT, and MBI) showed a significant increase between 1st and 2nd DTT (P < 0.05). The change of the VN showed moderate correlation with the change of the GS (r = 0.499, P < 0.05), PPT (r = 0.531, P < 0.05), and MBI (r = 0.551, P < 0.05).We found that the fiber number of the CST in the unaffected hemisphere was increased by the change of the dominant hand in stroke patients. We believe that our results have important implications in terms of neurorehabilitation. PMID:26871781

  16. Mild White Matter Changes in Un-medicated Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Patients and Their Unaffected Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Siyan; van den Heuvel, Odile A.; Cath, Danielle C.; van der Werf, Ysbrand D.; de Wit, Stella J.; de Vries, Froukje E.; Veltman, Dick J.; Pouwels, Petra J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with moderate genetic influences and white matter abnormalities in frontal-striatal and limbic regions. Inconsistencies in reported white matter results from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies can be explained, at least partly, by medication use and between-group differences in disease profile and stage. We used a family design aiming to establish whether white matter abnormalities, if present in un-medicated OCD patients, also exist in their unaffected siblings. Method: Forty-four OCD patients, un-medicated for at least the past 4 weeks, 15 of their unaffected siblings, and 37 healthy controls (HC) underwent DTI using a 3-Tesla MRI-scanner. Data analysis was done using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), and mean diffusivity (MD) values were compared within seven skeletonised regions of interest (ROIs), i.e., corpus callosum, bilateral cingulum bundle, bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus/frontal-occipital fasciculus (ILF/FOF) and bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Results: Un-medicated OCD patients, compared with HC, had significantly lower FA in the left cingulum bundle. FA was trend-significantly lower in all other ROIs, except for the corpus callosum. Significant three-group differences in FA (and in RD at trend-significant level) were observed in the left cingulum bundle, with the unaffected siblings representing an intermediate group between OCD patients and HC. Conclusions: OCD patients showed lower FA in the left cingulum bundle, partly driven by trend-significantly higher values in RD. Since the unaffected siblings were found to be an intermediate group between OCD patients and HC, this white matter alteration may be considered an endophenotype for OCD. PMID:26793045

  17. Change of the Corticospinal Tract in the Unaffected Hemisphere by Change of the Dominant Hand Following Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung Ho; Jang, Woo Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the change of the corticospinal tract (CST) in the unaffected hemisphere by the change of the dominant hand in stroke patients, using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). Forty-eight stroke patients with right-hand dominance were recruited. The patients were assigned to 3 groups: group A (12 patients)—right-hand dominance was maintained after the right-hand weakness, group B (17 patients)—right-hand dominance changed to the left-hand dominance after the right-hand weakness, and group C (19 patients)—right-hand dominance was maintained after the left-hand weakness had developed. The function of the unaffected upper extremity was evaluated using the grip strength (GS), Manual Function Test (MFT), Purdue Pegboard Test (PPT), and modified Barthel Index (MBI). DTT was performed twice (1st DTT, 2nd DTT), and the fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and voxel number (VN) of the CST in the unaffected hemisphere were measured. In group B, the VN on 2nd DTT was significantly increased compared with the 1st DTT, and all other clinical data (GS, MFT, PPT, and MBI) showed a significant increase between 1st and 2nd DTT (P < 0.05). The change of the VN showed moderate correlation with the change of the GS (r = 0.499, P < 0.05), PPT (r = 0.531, P < 0.05), and MBI (r = 0.551, P < 0.05). We found that the fiber number of the CST in the unaffected hemisphere was increased by the change of the dominant hand in stroke patients. We believe that our results have important implications in terms of neurorehabilitation. PMID:26871781

  18. Functional MRI in a 6-year-old boy with unilateral cortical malformation: concordant representation of both hands in the unaffected hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Staudt, M; Pieper, T; Grodd, W; Winkler, P; Holthausen, H; Krägeloh-Mann, I

    2001-06-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in a 6-year-old boy with a complex malformation of the right hemisphere who suffered from pharmaco-refractory epilepsy. Clinical examination revealed left-sided hemiparesis and marked mirror movements of the opposite hand both during paretic and non-paretic hand movements. Functional MRI of repetitive unimanual grasping demonstrated that the two hands share a common cortical representation located in the central motor region of the unaffected left hemisphere. The affected right hemisphere did not show any activation during either task. This case study demonstrates the feasibility and usefulness of motor fMRI in young children before they undergo epilepsy surgery. PMID:11521214

  19. Why Do Some Cores Remain Starless?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anathpindika, S.

    2016-08-01

    Prestellar cores, by definition, are gravitationally bound but starless pockets of dense gas. Physical conditions that could render a core starless (in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end, we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. We demonstrate: (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of ~ 105 yr. Those that remained starless briefly acquired a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the profile of a unstable BonnorEbert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16, and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. By contrast, B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other starless cores viz. B68, L694-2, L1517B, and L1689 could also be similarly induced to collapse. The temperature-profile of starless cores and those that collapsed was found to be radically different. While in the former type, only very close to the centre of a core was there any evidence of decline in gas temperature, by contrast, a core of the latter type developed a more uniformly cold interior. Our principle conclusions are: (a) thermal super-criticality of a core is insufficient to ensure it will become protostellar, (b) potential star-forming cores (the VeLLO L1521F here), could be experiencing dust-coagulation that must enhance gasdust coupling and in turn lower gas temperature, thereby assisting collapse. This also suggests, mere gravitational/virial boundedness of a core is insufficient to ensure it will form stars.

  20. Perinatal complications in unaffected sisters of anorexia nervosa patients: testing a covariation model between genetic and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Angela; Tenconi, Elena; Bosello, Romina; Degortes, Daniela; Santonastaso, Paolo

    2011-09-01

    Although perinatal complications are hypothesized to be risk factors for the development of anorexia nervosa (AN), no study to date explored this issue using a discordant sibling design. This type of design allows to explore whether the risk for obstetric complications is itself a consequence of the genetic vulnerability for AN (covariation model) or whether obstetric complications increase the risk of AN independently of (additive model), or in interaction with (interaction model), the disorder's genetic liability. The presence of perinatal complications was assessed through review of the obstetric records of 60 AN subjects, 60 unaffected sisters, and 70 healthy subjects. Unaffected sisters and healthy controls were compared in relation to perinatal characteristics and complications. There was no evidence for an elevated rate of complications in unaffected siblings of AN patients. Mothers with a positive psychiatric history tended to have more perinatal complications. Perinatal complications seem to be independent risk factors that may interact with, but are not caused by, familial risk factors for AN. In terms of prevention, a particular attention should be paid to mothers with a lifetime history of psychiatric disorders. PMID:21193995

  1. Childhood obsessive-compulsive traits in anorexia nervosa patients, their unaffected sisters and healthy controls: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Degortes, Daniela; Zanetti, Tatiana; Tenconi, Elena; Santonastaso, Paolo; Favaro, Angela

    2014-07-01

    Although there is evidence that childhood perfectionistic traits predate the onset of eating disorders, few studies to date have examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of these traits in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and their unaffected sisters. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of childhood obsessive-compulsive traits in patients with lifetime AN, their unaffected sisters and healthy women. A total of 116 AN patients, 32 healthy sisters and 119 controls were assessed by the EATATE Interview to assess traits such as perfectionism, inflexibility, rule-bound traits, drive for order and symmetry, and excessive doubt and cautiousness. Both self-report and maternal reports were collected. AN patients reported more childhood obsessive-compulsive traits than their healthy sisters and controls. In contrast, no differences between healthy controls and unaffected sisters emerged. In patients with AN, a dose-response relationship was found between the number of childhood obsessive-compulsive traits and psychopathology, including body image distortion, thus indicating that these traits are an important feature to be considered in assessing and treating eating disorders. PMID:24851802

  2. Increased Neural Responses to Reward in Adolescents and Young Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Their Unaffected Siblings

    PubMed Central

    von Rhein, Daniel; Cools, Roshan; Zwiers, Marcel P.; van der Schaaf, Marieke; Franke, Barbara; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Faraone, Stephen V.; van Rooij, Daan; van Dongen, Eelco V.; Lojowska, Maria; Mennes, Maarten; Buitelaar, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable neuropsychiatric disorder associated with abnormal reward processing. Limited and inconsistent data exist about the neural mechanisms underlying this abnormality. Furthermore, it is unknown whether reward processing is abnormal in unaffected siblings of participants with ADHD. Method We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain responses during reward anticipation and receipt with an adapted monetary incentive delay task in a large sample of adolescents and young adults with ADHD (n=150), their unaffected siblings (n=92), and control participants (n=108), all of the same age. Results Participants with ADHD showed, relative to control participants, increased responses in the anterior cingulate, anterior frontal cortex, and cerebellum during reward anticipation, and in the orbitofrontal, occipital cortex, and ventral striatum during reward receipt. Responses of unaffected siblings were increased in these regions as well, except for the cerebellum during anticipation and the orbitofrontal cortex during receipt. Conclusion ADHD in adolescents and young adults is associated with enhanced neural responses in frontostriatal circuitry to anticipation and receipt of reward. The findings support models emphasizing aberrant reward processing in ADHD and suggest that processing of reward is subject to familial influences. Future studies using standard monetary incentive delay task parameters have to replicate our findings. PMID:25901776

  3. The identification of submerged skeletonized remains.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Both, Katrin; Simpson, Ellie

    2008-03-01

    Examination was undertaken of skeletonized remains contained within 2 rubber boots dredged by a fishing boat from a depth of 145 m, approximately 185 km off the southern Australian coast in the Great Australian Bight. The boots had been manufactured in Australia in July 1993 and were of a type commonly used by local fishermen. Examination of the lower legs and feet revealed well-preserved bones with arthritic changes in keeping with an older male. DNA analyses using reference samples taken from relatives of fishermen who had disappeared in the area resulted in the identification of the victim as a 52-year-old prawn fisherman who had been swept off a boat over a decade earlier. DNA stability had been maintained by the low light, cold temperatures, and alkaline pH of the ocean floor. Integration of pathologic, anthropologic, and biologic analyses with police investigations enabled a positive identification to be made despite the unusual nature of the location of the remains and the time lapse since the disappearance of the victim. PMID:19749621

  4. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains.

    PubMed

    Der Sarkissian, C; Ermini, L; Jónsson, H; Alekseev, A N; Crubezy, E; Shapiro, B; Orlando, L

    2014-04-01

    Millions to billions of DNA sequences can now be generated from ancient skeletal remains thanks to the massive throughput of next-generation sequencing platforms. Except in cases of exceptional endogenous DNA preservation, most of the sequences isolated from fossil material do not originate from the specimen of interest, but instead reflect environmental organisms that colonized the specimen after death. Here, we characterize the microbial diversity recovered from seven c. 200- to 13 000-year-old horse bones collected from northern Siberia. We use a robust, taxonomy-based assignment approach to identify the microorganisms present in ancient DNA extracts and quantify their relative abundance. Our results suggest that molecular preservation niches exist within ancient samples that can potentially be used to characterize the environments from which the remains are recovered. In addition, microbial community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using a shotgun sequencing approach. In future, it may be possible to correlate, for example, the accumulation of postmortem DNA damage with the presence and/or abundance of particular microbes. PMID:24612293

  5. Decomposition Technique for Remaining Useful Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor); Saxena, Abhinav (Inventor); Celaya, Jose R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic tool disclosed here decomposes the problem of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a component or sub-system into two separate regression problems: the feature-to-damage mapping and the operational conditions-to-damage-rate mapping. These maps are initially generated in off-line mode. One or more regression algorithms are used to generate each of these maps from measurements (and features derived from these), operational conditions, and ground truth information. This decomposition technique allows for the explicit quantification and management of different sources of uncertainty present in the process. Next, the maps are used in an on-line mode where run-time data (sensor measurements and operational conditions) are used in conjunction with the maps generated in off-line mode to estimate both current damage state as well as future damage accumulation. Remaining life is computed by subtracting the instance when the extrapolated damage reaches the failure threshold from the instance when the prediction is made.

  6. So close: remaining challenges to eradicating polio.

    PubMed

    Toole, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative, launched in 1988, is close to achieving its goal. In 2015, reported cases of wild poliovirus were limited to just two countries - Afghanistan and Pakistan. Africa has been polio-free for more than 18 months. Remaining barriers to global eradication include insecurity in areas such as Northwest Pakistan and Eastern and Southern Afghanistan, where polio cases continue to be reported. Hostility to vaccination is either based on extreme ideologies, such as in Pakistan, vaccination fatigue by parents whose children have received more than 15 doses, and misunderstandings about the vaccine's safety and effectiveness such as in Ukraine. A further challenge is continued circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus in populations with low immunity, with 28 cases reported in 2015 in countries as diverse as Madagascar, Ukraine, Laos, and Myanmar. This paper summarizes the current epidemiology of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, and describes the remaining challenges to eradication and innovative approaches being taken to overcome them. PMID:26971523

  7. Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the handle rotated the vertical shaft and porcelain cams to engage various electrical switches and activate the lift mechanism. All electrical components have been removed. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  8. Tularemia vaccines: recent developments and remaining hurdles.

    PubMed

    Conlan, J Wayne

    2011-04-01

    Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen of humans and other mammals. Its inhaled infectious dose is very low and can result in very high mortality. Historically, subsp. tularensis was developed as a biological weapon and there are now concerns about its abuse as such by terrorists. A live attenuated vaccine developed pragmatically more than half a century ago from the less virulent holarctica subsp. is the sole prophylactic available, but it remains unlicensed. In recent years several other potential live, killed and subunit vaccine candidates have been developed and tested in mice for their efficacy against respiratory challenge with subsp. tularensis. This article will review these vaccine candidates and the development hurdles they face. PMID:21526941

  9. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed.

  10. Informative-Transmission Disequilibrium Test (i-TDT):Combined Linkage and Association Mapping That Includes Unaffected Offspring as Well as Affected Offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To date, there is no test valid for the composite null hypothesis of no linkage or no association that utilizes transmission information from heterozygous parents to their unaffected offspring as well as the affected offspring from ascertained nuclear families. Since the unaffected siblings also pro...

  11. Body size prediction from juvenile skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Christopher

    2007-05-01

    There are currently no methods for predicting body mass from juvenile skeletal remains and only a very limited number for predicting stature. In this study, stature and body mass prediction equations are generated for each year from 1 to 17 years of age using a subset of the Denver Growth Study sample, followed longitudinally (n = 20 individuals, 340 observations). Radiographic measurements of femoral distal metaphyseal and head breadth are used to predict body mass and long bone lengths are used to predict stature. In addition, pelvic bi-iliac breadth and long bone lengths are used to predict body mass in older adolescents. Relative prediction errors are equal to or smaller than those associated with similar adult estimation formulae. Body proportions change continuously throughout growth, necessitating age-specific formulae. Adult formulae overestimate stature and body mass in younger juveniles, but work well in 17-year-olds from the sample, indicating that in terms of body proportions they are representative of the general population. To illustrate use of the techniques, they are applied to the juvenile Homo erectus (ergaster) KNM-WT 15000 skeleton. New body mass and stature estimates for this specimen are similar to previous estimates derived using other methods. Body mass estimates range from 50 to 53 kg, and stature was probably slightly under 157 cm, although a precise stature estimate is difficult to determine due to differences in linear body proportions between KNM-WT 15000 and the Denver reference sample. PMID:17295297

  12. A study of 159 Portuguese patients with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) whose parents were both unaffected.

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, T; Sousa, A; Lourenço, E; Ramalheira, J

    1994-01-01

    We reviewed 1233 cases of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) from 489 Portuguese families registered at the Centro de Estudos de Paramiloidose, Porto, Portugal. It was found that in 159 cases, neither parent had shown symptoms of this hereditary dominant form of peripheral neuropathy. These cases appear to form a distinct group, with a later age at onset (mean 45.1 years, SD 12.0) than the group of patients with one affected parent (mean 31.2 years, SD 6.9) and a geographical origin not quite in the areas where the disease is most prevalent. Though this group is not significantly different from the general group of patients in clinical presentation at onset and severity of the disease, the average interval between onset and diagnosis (mean 4.5 years, SD 3.2) reflects the difficulties in diagnosing these patients in the absence of a positive family history. From the analysis of pedigrees and in spite of a large number of isolated cases, the occurrence of new mutations could not be proven, and it seems more likely that, in some families, the FAP gene may result in a milder expression or even remain "silent" for several generations. Further investigation of this discrepancy may prove to be important in elucidating the mechanisms involved in the pathogenetic process. PMID:8071954

  13. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  14. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  15. Anterior Cingulate Cortico-Hippocampal Dysconnectivity in Unaffected Relatives of Schizophrenia Patients: A Stochastic Dynamic Causal Modeling Study.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yi-Bin; Li, Chen; Cui, Long-Biao; Liu, Jian; Guo, Fan; Li, Liang; Liu, Ting-Ting; Liu, Kang; Chen, Gang; Xi, Min; Wang, Hua-Ning; Yin, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Familial risk plays a significant role in the etiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Many studies using neuroimaging have demonstrated structural and functional alterations in relatives of SZ patients, with significant results found in diverse brain regions involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), caudate, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and hippocampus. This study investigated whether unaffected relatives of first episode SZ differ from healthy controls (HCs) in effective connectivity measures among these regions. Forty-six unaffected first-degree relatives of first episode SZ patients-according to the DSM-IV-were studied. Fifty HCs were included for comparison. All subjects underwent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used stochastic dynamic causal modeling (sDCM) to estimate the directed connections between the left ACC, right ACC, left caudate, right caudate, left DLPFC, left hippocampus, and right hippocampus. We used Bayesian parameter averaging (BPA) to characterize the differences. The BPA results showed hyperconnectivity from the left ACC to right hippocampus and hypoconnectivity from the right ACC to right hippocampus in SZ relatives compared to HCs. The pattern of anterior cingulate cortico-hippocampal connectivity in SZ relatives may be a familial feature of SZ risk, appearing to reflect familial susceptibility for SZ. PMID:27512370

  16. Anterior Cingulate Cortico-Hippocampal Dysconnectivity in Unaffected Relatives of Schizophrenia Patients: A Stochastic Dynamic Causal Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Yi-Bin; Li, Chen; Cui, Long-Biao; Liu, Jian; Guo, Fan; Li, Liang; Liu, Ting-Ting; Liu, Kang; Chen, Gang; Xi, Min; Wang, Hua-Ning; Yin, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Familial risk plays a significant role in the etiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Many studies using neuroimaging have demonstrated structural and functional alterations in relatives of SZ patients, with significant results found in diverse brain regions involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), caudate, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and hippocampus. This study investigated whether unaffected relatives of first episode SZ differ from healthy controls (HCs) in effective connectivity measures among these regions. Forty-six unaffected first-degree relatives of first episode SZ patients—according to the DSM-IV—were studied. Fifty HCs were included for comparison. All subjects underwent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used stochastic dynamic causal modeling (sDCM) to estimate the directed connections between the left ACC, right ACC, left caudate, right caudate, left DLPFC, left hippocampus, and right hippocampus. We used Bayesian parameter averaging (BPA) to characterize the differences. The BPA results showed hyperconnectivity from the left ACC to right hippocampus and hypoconnectivity from the right ACC to right hippocampus in SZ relatives compared to HCs. The pattern of anterior cingulate cortico-hippocampal connectivity in SZ relatives may be a familial feature of SZ risk, appearing to reflect familial susceptibility for SZ. PMID:27512370

  17. Fire severity unaffected by spruce beetle outbreak in spruce-fir forests in southwestern Colorado.

    PubMed

    Andrus, Robert A; Veblen, Thomas T; Harvey, Brian J; Hart, Sarah J

    2016-04-01

    Recent large and severe outbreaks of native bark beetles have raised concern among the general public and land managers about potential for amplified fire activity in western North America. To date, the majority of studies examining bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fire severity in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have focused on outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests, but few studies, particularly field studies, have addressed the effects of the severity of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) infestation on subsequent fire severity in subalpine Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests. In Colorado, the annual area infested by spruce beetle outbreaks is rapidly rising, while MPB outbreaks are subsiding; therefore understanding this relationship is of growing importance. We collected extensive field data in subalpine forests in the eastern San Juan Mountains, southwestern Colorado, USA, to investigate whether a gray-stage (< 5 yr from outbreak to time of fire) spruce beetle infestation affected fire severity. Contrary to the expectation that bark beetle infestation alters subsequent fire severity, correlation and multivariate generalized linear regression analysis revealed no influence of pre-fire spruce beetle severity on nearly all field or remotely sensed measurements of fire severity. Findings were consistent across moderate and extreme burning conditions. In comparison to severity of the pre-fire beetle outbreak, we found that topography, pre-outbreak basal area, and weather conditions exerted a stronger effect on fire severity. Our finding that beetle infestation did not alter fire severity is consistent with previous retrospective studies examining fire activity following other bark beetle outbreaks and reiterates the overriding influence of climate that creates conditions conducive to large, high-severity fires in the subalpine zone of Colorado

  18. Long-term market brisk, spot remains sluggish

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    Spot market activity totaled almost 54,000 lbs of U3O8 equivalent. The restricted uranium spot market price range had a slight increase from a high last month of $15.60/lb U3O8 to a hgih this month of $16.00/lb U3O8. The unrestricted uranium spot market price range remained at last month`s prices for the first time in recent weeks. Spot prices for conversion and SWU also held steady at their March levels.

  19. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays*

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries - particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing. PMID:27579761

  20. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries -particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing. PMID:27579761

  1. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility. PMID:25929706

  2. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  3. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  4. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  5. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  6. Sustaining Community Participation: What Remains After the Money Ends?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkansa, Grace Akukwe; Chapman, David W.

    2006-12-01

    SUSTAINING COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION: WHAT REMAINS AFTER THE MONEY ENDS? - A major concern confronting development specialists in the education sector is the sustainability of project activities and outcomes, that is, their ability to persist once external funding ends. The increased attention of international development-assistance organizations to sustainability reflects the greater recent focus on outcome-based funding. The present study investigates differences between six communities in Ghana that varied in their ability to sustain externally initiated community-participation activities beyond the life of the external development-assistance project that promoted those activities. It was hypothesized that high- and low-sustaining communities differ in eight managerial and socio-cultural dimensions suggested by earlier research to be important for sustainability of community-level activities: planning, transparency, leadership, and participation, on one hand, and, on the other, social cohesion, resources, community skills, and valuing of education. Findings indicate that leadership and social cohesion are the two most vital elements in the sustainability of organizational structures intended to promote community participation in the oversight of local schools. Other factors suggested by the model are largely subsumed under leadership, so that the model can be simplified.

  7. Visual Search in the Real World: Color Vision Deficiency Affects Peripheral Guidance, but Leaves Foveal Verification Largely Unaffected

    PubMed Central

    Kugler, Günter; 't Hart, Bernard M.; Kohlbecher, Stefan; Bartl, Klaus; Schumann, Frank; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Schneider, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with color vision deficiencies report numerous limitations in daily life, restricting, for example, their access to some professions. However, they use basic color terms systematically and in a similar manner as people with normal color vision. We hypothesize that a possible explanation for this discrepancy between color perception and behavioral consequences might be found in the gaze behavior of people with color vision deficiency. Methods: A group of participants with color vision deficiencies and a control group performed several search tasks in a naturalistic setting on a lawn. All participants wore a mobile eye-tracking-driven camera with a high foveal image resolution (EyeSeeCam). Search performance as well as fixations of objects of different colors were examined. Results: Search performance was similar in both groups in a color-unrelated search task as well as in a search for yellow targets. While searching for red targets, participants with color vision deficiencies exhibited a strongly degraded performance. This was closely matched by the number of fixations on red objects shown by the two groups. Importantly, once they fixated a target, participants with color vision deficiencies exhibited only few identification errors. Conclusions: In contrast to controls, participants with color vision deficiencies are not able to enhance their search for red targets on a (green) lawn by an efficient guiding mechanism. The data indicate that the impaired guiding is the main influence on search performance, while foveal identification (verification) is largely unaffected by the color vision deficiency. PMID:26733851

  8. Comparative Analysis of Iron Homeostasis in Sub-Saharan African Children with Sickle Cell Disease and Their Unaffected Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Selma; Diawara, Aïssatou; Gbeha, Elias; Awadalla, Philip; Sanni, Ambaliou; Idaghdour, Youssef; Rahimy, M. Cherif

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an essential trace element subject to tight regulation to ensure adequate running of biological processes. In sub-Saharan Africa where hemoglobinopathies are common, iron homeostasis is likely to be impaired by these conditions. Here, we assessed and compared key serum proteins associated with iron metabolism between sub-Saharan African children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and their unaffected siblings. Complete blood counts and serum concentrations of four key proteins involved in iron regulation (ferritin, transferrin, sTfR, and hepcidin) were measured for 73 children with SCD and 68 healthy siblings in Benin, West Africa. We found significant differences in concentration of transferrin, sTfR, and ferritin between the two groups. Hepcidin concentrations were found at unusually high concentrations but did not differ among the two groups. We found a significant negative correlation between hepcidin levels and both MCH and MCV in the SCD group and report that sTfR concentrations show a correlation with MCV and MHC in opposite directions in the two groups. These results highlight the unusually high levels of hepcidin in the Beninese population and the patterns of differential iron homeostasis taking place under SCD status. These results lay the foundation for a systematic evaluation of the underlying mechanisms deregulating iron homeostasis in populations with SCD or high prevalence of iron deficiency. PMID:26942167

  9. High angular resolution diffusion imaging in a child with autism spectrum disorder and comparison with his unaffected identical twin.

    PubMed

    Conti, Eugenia; Pannek, Kerstin; Calderoni, Sara; Gaglianese, Anna; Fiori, Simona; Brovedani, Paola; Scelfo, Danilo; Rose, Stephen; Tosetti, Michela; Cioni, Giovanni; Guzzetta, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the use of brain diffusion MRI has led to the hypothesis that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show abnormally connected brains. We used the model of disease-discordant identical twins to test the hypothesis that higher-order diffusion MRI protocols are able to detect abnormal connectivity in a single subject. We studied the structural connectivity of the brain of a child with ASD, and of that of his unaffected identical twin, using high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) probabilistic tractography. Cortical regions were automatically parcellated from high-resolution structural images, and HARDI-based connection matrices were produced for statistical comparison. Differences in diffusion indexes between subjects were tested by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Tracts were defined as discordant when they showed a between-subject difference of 10 percent or more. Around 11 percent of the discordant intra-hemispheric tracts showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the ASD twin, while only 1 percent showed higher values. This difference was significant. Our findings in a disease-discordant identical twin pair confirm previous literature consistently reporting lower FA values in children with ASD. PMID:26446271

  10. Initial hepatic removal of chylomicron remnants is unaffected but endocytosis is delayed in mice lacking the low density lipoprotein receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Herz, J; Qiu, S Q; Oesterle, A; DeSilva, H V; Shafi, S; Havel, R J

    1995-01-01

    Two endocytic receptors, the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) and the LDLR-related protein (LRP), are thought to act in concert in the hepatic uptake of partially metabolized dietary lipoproteins, the chylomicron remnants. We have evaluated the role of these two receptors in the hepatic metabolism of chylomicron remnants in normal mice and in LDLR-deficient [LDLR (-/-)] mice. The rate of chylomicron remnant removal by the liver was normal up to 30 min after intravenous injection of chylomicrons into LDLR (-/-) mice and was unaffected by receptor-associated protein (RAP), a potent inhibitor of ligand binding to LRP. In contrast, endocytosis of the remnants by the hepatocytes, measured by their accumulation in the endosomal fraction and by the rate of hydrolysis of component cholesteryl esters, was dramatically reduced in the absence of the LDLR. Coadministration of RAP prevented the continuing hepatic removal of chylomicron remnants in LDL (-/-) mice after 30 min, consistent with blockade of the slow endocytosis by a RAP-sensitive process. Taken together with previous studies, our results are consistent with a model in which the initial hepatic removal of chylomicron remnants is primarily mediated by mechanisms that do not include LDLR or LRP, possibly involving glycosaminoglycan-bound hepatic lipase and apolipoprotein E. After the remnants bind to these alternative sites on the hepatocyte surface, endocytosis is predominantly mediated by the LDLR and also by a slower and less efficient backup process that is RAP sensitive and therefore most likely involves LRP. PMID:7753850

  11. Activity of alpha-1, 4-glucosidase in furazolidone-induced glycogenosis.

    PubMed

    Czarnecki, C M; Salam, A; Caldwell, R; Jankus, E F

    1978-01-01

    Furazolidone (FZ) at 700 and 800 p.p.m. was added to feed mixtures fed turkey poults two and three weeks posthatching, respectively, to induce acute experimental cardiomyopathy. Poults in the control pen received the same ration but without FZ. From EKG data obtained at 2, 4, and 5 weeks of age, control unaffected and experimental affected poults were selected for sacrifice. Poults were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and appropriate samples of hepatic tissue were removed for assays of activity of alpha-1, 4-glucosidase. Results indicate that enzyme activity in affected FZ-treated poults is similar to that in unaffected control poults. Lack of significant differences in activity of this lysosomal enzyme suggests that FZ-induced glycogenosis may be related to the adult form of idiopathic generalized glucogenosis, the etiology of which remains unidentified. PMID:353772

  12. What about the remaining twins since single-embryo transfer? How far can (should) we go?

    PubMed

    De Neubourg, D; Gerris, J

    2006-04-01

    Single-embryo transfer (SET) and more specifically elective SET (eSET) have taken their place in good clinical IVF/ICSI practice. After the initial cautious search for the characteristics of the twin-prone patient and of the selection of the embryo with the highest implantation potential many centres have embarked on the (progressive) implementation of SET, either by conviction or forced by legislation or both. It was only because the ongoing pregnancy rates remained largely unaffected that SET was accepted. Generally speaking, it can be said that the twinning rate after IVF/ICSI has dropped by at least 50% simply by transferring only one good-quality embryo in the first and second fresh IVF/ICSI cycles in young women, without decrease in the overall pregnancy rate. Preventing 'the second half' of IVF/ICSI twins constitutes another and probably tougher challenge because the target group is a heterogeneous mix consisting of patients in very different clinical situations. Can we expand our experience for further twin prevention to women of older age and to cycles of higher rank without a significant drop in pregnancy rates? Can we extend it to more cryopreservation cycles? To have an idea of future target groups for increased application of SET, we analysed the remaining twins after double-embryo transfer (DET), and from these data we suggest expanding the eSET policy to women <38 years of age until the third cycle and to cryopreservation cycles. PMID:16410338

  13. Efficiency of typing unaffected relatives in an affected-sib-pair linkage study with single-locus and multiple tightly linked markers

    SciTech Connect

    Holmans, P.; Clayton, D.

    1995-11-01

    In an affected-sib-pair study, the parents are often unavailable for typing, particularly for diseases of late onset. In many cases, however, it is possible to sample unaffected siblings. It is therefore desirable to assess the contribution of such siblings to the power of such a study. The likelihood ratio introduced by Risch and improved by Holmans was extended to incorporate data from unaffected siblings. Tests based on two likelihoods were considered: the full likelihood of the data, based on the identity-by-descent (IBD) sharing states of the entire sibship, and a pseudolikelihood based on the IBD sharing states of the affected pair only, using the unaffected siblings to infer parental genotypes. The latter approach was found to be more powerful, except when penetrance was high. Typing an unaffected sibling, or just one parent, was found to give only a small increase in power except when the PIC of the marker was low. Even then, typing an unaffected relative increased the overall number of individuals that had to be typed to achieve a given power. If there is no highly informative marker locus in the area under study, it may be possible to {open_quotes}build{close_quotes} one by combining the alleles from two or more neighboring tightly linked loci into haplotypes. Typing two loci gave a sizeable power increase over a single locus, but typing further loci gave much smaller gains. Building haplotypes will introduce phase uncertainties, with the result that such a system will yield less power than will a single locus with the same number of alleles. This power loss was small, however, and did not affect the conclusions regarding the worth of typing unaffected relatives. 14 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Centrophenoxine activates acetylcholinesterase activity in hippocampus of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, D; Singh, R

    1995-05-01

    Age-related changes in the acetylcholinesterase activity were measured in the hippocampus, brain stem and cerebellum of rats (aged 4, 8, 16 and 24 months). The age-dependent decrease in the enzyme activity first appeared in the hippocampus; the brain stem was affected later while the cerebellum remained unaffected. Centrophenoxine, usually considered as an ageing reversal drug and also regarded as a neuroenergeticum in human therapy, increased the acetylcholinesterase activity in the hippocampus of aged rats, the activity was also elevated in the brain stem but no in the cerebellum. The acetylcholinesterase-stimulating influence of the drug is likely to be implicated in the pharmacological reversal of the age related decline of the cholinergic system. This effect of the drug may also mediate its effects on cognitive and neuronal synaptic functions. PMID:7558197

  15. Mechanical determinants of bone form: insights from skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Ruff, C B

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of skeletal remains from humans living in the past forms an important complement to observational and experimental studies of living humans and animal models. Including earlier humans in such analyses increases the range of variation in both behavior and body size and shape that are represented, and can provide insights into the adaptive potential of the modern human skeleton. I review here a variety of studies of archaeological and paleontological remains that have investigated differences in skeletal structure from a mechanical perspective, focusing in particular on diaphyseal strength of the limb bones. Several conclusions can be drawn from these studies: 1) there has been a decline in overall skeletal strength relative to body size over the course of human evolution that has become progressively steeper in recent millennia, probably due to increased sedentism and technological advancement; 2) differences in pelvic structure and hip mechanical loadings affect femoral shape; 3) activity patterns affect overall strength and shape of both the lower and upper limb bones; and 4) responsiveness to changes in mechanical loading varies between skeletal features (e.g., articulations versus diaphyses) and by age. PMID:16172511

  16. [What remains is what should remain: using estates to construct biographies].

    PubMed

    Füssl, Wilhelm

    2014-09-01

    Estates play a major role in historical research, especially biographic research, for they supplement the official writings surrounding the individual view of a historical figure. But they nonetheless reflect only a small part of the scientific and private activities of a researcher. Moreover, before being handed over to an archive, they are also often filtered by the researchers themselves, by family members, and/or by successors to the historical figure's post. The history of an estate is thus of great importance to research. With an eye to the estates of natural scientists, the present text uses a concept of estates that includes not only the surviving texts but also artifacts with which the scientists worked. The focus will be on three physicists--Ernst Mach, Walther Gerlach, and Philipp Lenard--in order to investigate the significance of these objects for their respective biographies and for the history of physics. PMID:25296527

  17. Unique β-Glucuronidase Locus in Gut Microbiomes of Crohn’s Disease Patients and Unaffected First-Degree Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Gloux, Karine; Anba-Mondoloni, Jamila

    2016-01-01

    Crohn’s disease, an incurable chronic inflammatory bowel disease, has been attributed to both genetic predisposition and environmental factors. A dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, observed in numerous patients but also in at least one hundred unaffected first-degree relatives, was proposed to have a causal role. Gut microbiota β-D-glucuronidases (EC 3.2.1.33) hydrolyse β-D-glucuronate from glucuronidated compounds. They include a GUS group, that is homologous to the Escherichia coli GusA, and a BG group, that is homologous to metagenomically identified H11G11 BG and has unidentified natural substrates. H11G11 BG is part of the functional core of the human gut microbiota whereas GusA, known to regenerate various toxic products, is variably found in human subjects. We investigated potential risk markers for Crohn’s disease using DNA-sequence-based exploration of the β-D-glucuronidase loci (GUS or Firmicute H11G11-BG and the respective co-encoded glucuronide transporters). Crohn’s disease-related microbiomes revealed a higher frequency of a C7D2 glucuronide transporter (12/13) compared to unrelated healthy subjects (8/32). This transporter was in synteny with the potential harmful GUS β-D-glucuronidase as only observed in a Eubacterium eligens plasmid. A conserved NH2-terminal sequence in the transporter (FGDFGND motif) was found in 83% of the disease-related subjects and only in 12% of controls. We propose a microbiota-pathology hypothesis in which the presence of this unique β-glucuronidase locus may contribute to an increase risk for Crohn’s disease. PMID:26824357

  18. The effect of tactile discrimination training is enhanced when patients watch the reflected image of their unaffected limb during training.

    PubMed

    Moseley, G Lorimer; Wiech, Katja

    2009-08-01

    In patients with phantom limb pain or complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), sensory discrimination training increases tactile acuity, normalises cortical reorganisation and decreases pain. In healthy people, sensory cortical response, and tactile acuity, are greater if the participant looks towards the body part being stimulated. Does this effect enhance tactile training in CRPS patients? Ten patients underwent a 30-min tactile discrimination training session under four conditions (order randomised) in a 2 x 2 design: looking towards or away from the stimulated limb and seeing or not seeing skin. Tactile training imparted long-term improvement in tactile acuity when patients watched the reflected image of their unaffected limb in a mirror during training (that is, they looked towards the stimulated body part and could see the skin of the opposite body part in the mirror): two-point discrimination threshold (TPD) was 8mm less 2 days after training than it was before training ([95% CI=1.5-14.3mm], p<0.001). Although this condition also imparted a greater reduction in resting pain at post-treatment than the other conditions, and change in pain and change in TPD over the session were strongly related (r=0.83, p<0.001), there was no residual effect on pain at 2-day follow-up. In the other conditions, tactile acuity had returned to pre-training levels at 2-day follow-up. The results should directly improve management of CRPS, and have implications for rehabilitation of other conditions associated with nervous system injury or disease, for example stroke, in which tactile recovery is a major objective of rehabilitation. PMID:19501965

  19. 7 CFR 160.29 - Containers to remain intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers to remain intact. 160.29 Section 160.29... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.29 Containers to remain intact... the containers holding such naval stores remain intact as sampled until the analysis,...

  20. Schizophrenic Patients and Their Unaffected Siblings Share Increased Resting-State Connectivity in the Task-Negative Network but Not Its Anticorrelated Task-Positive Network

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haihong; Kaneko, Yoshio; Ouyang, Xuan; Li, Li; Hao, Yihui; Chen, Eric Y. H.; Jiang, Tianzi; Zhou, Yuan; Liu, Zhening

    2012-01-01

    Background: Abnormal connectivity of the anticorrelated intrinsic networks, the task-negative network (TNN), and the task-positive network (TPN) is implicated in schizophrenia. Comparisons between schizophrenic patients and their unaffected siblings enable further understanding of illness susceptibility and pathophysiology. We examined the resting-state connectivity differences in the intrinsic networks between schizophrenic patients, their unaffected siblings, and healthy controls. Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were obtained from 25 individuals in each subject group. The posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were used as seed regions to identify the TNN and TPN through functional connectivity analysis. Interregional connectivity strengths were analyzed using overlapped intrinsic networks composed of regions common to all subject groups. Results: Schizophrenic patients and their unaffected siblings showed increased connectivity in the TNN between the bilateral inferior temporal gyri. By contrast, schizophrenic patients alone demonstrated increased connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus and left inferior temporal gyrus and between the ventral medial prefrontal cortex and right lateral parietal cortex in the TNN. Schizophrenic patients exhibited increased connectivity between the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right inferior frontal gyrus in the TPN relative to their unaffected siblings, though this trend only approached statistical significance in comparison to healthy controls. Conclusion: Resting-state hyperconnectivity of the intrinsic networks may disrupt network coordination and thereby contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Similar, though milder, hyperconnectivity of the TNN in unaffected siblings of schizophrenic patients may contribute to the identification of schizophrenia endophenotypes and ultimately to the determination of schizophrenia

  1. Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Prognosis: An Uncertainty Propagation Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of remaining useful life is significant in the context of prognostics and health monitoring, and the prediction of remaining useful life is essential for online operations and decision-making. However, it is challenging to accurately predict the remaining useful life in practical aerospace applications due to the presence of various uncertainties that affect prognostic calculations, and in turn, render the remaining useful life prediction uncertain. It is challenging to identify and characterize the various sources of uncertainty in prognosis, understand how each of these sources of uncertainty affect the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction, and thereby compute the overall uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. In order to achieve these goals, this paper proposes that the task of estimating the remaining useful life must be approached as an uncertainty propagation problem. In this context, uncertainty propagation methods which are available in the literature are reviewed, and their applicability to prognostics and health monitoring are discussed.

  2. Canonical Wnt signaling in the oligodendroglial lineage--puzzles remain.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fuzheng; Lang, Jordan; Sohn, Jiho; Hammond, Elizabeth; Chang, Marcello; Pleasure, David

    2015-10-01

    The straightforward concept that accentuated Wnt signaling via the Wnt-receptor-β-catenin-TCF/LEF cascade (also termed canonical Wnt signaling or Wnt/β-catenin signaling) delays or blocks oligodendrocyte differentiation is very appealing. According to this concept, canonical Wnt signaling is responsible for remyelination failure in multiple sclerosis and for persistent hypomyelination in periventricular leukomalacia. This has given rise to the hope that pharmacologically inhibiting this signaling will be of therapeutic potential in these disabling neurological disorders. But current studies suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays distinct roles in oligodendrogenesis, oligodendrocyte differentiation, and myelination in a context-dependent manner (central nervous system regions, developmental stages), and that Wnt/β-catenin signaling interplays with, and is subjected to regulation by, other central nervous system factors and signaling pathways. On this basis, we propose the more nuanced concept that endogenous Wnt/β-catenin activity is delicately and temporally regulated to ensure the seamless development of oligodendroglial lineage cells in different contexts. In this review, we discuss the role Wnt/β-catenin signaling in oligodendrocyte development, focusing on the interpretation of disparate results, and highlighting areas where important questions remain to be answered about oligodendroglial lineage Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:25782433

  3. Isotope Tales: Remaining Problems, Unsolvable Questions, and Gentle Successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    fogel, marilyn; bradley, christina; newsome, seth; filipp, fabian

    2014-05-01

    Earth's biomes function and adapt today as climate changes and ecosystems and the organisms within them adapt. Stable isotope biogeochemistry has had a major influence in understanding climate perturbations and continues to be an active area of research on many fronts. Banking on the success of compound specific stable isotope analyses of amino acids, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen isotopes continue to reveal subtle shifts in oceanic food webs and metabolic changes in microbes, plants, and animals. A biochemical understanding of exactly how organisms process and partition stable isotopes during metabolism remains unsolved, but is required if this field is to move beyond description to quantitation. Although the patterns of carbon and nitrogen isotopes are fairly well established in the common amino acids, we need to consider specifics: How do shifting metabolic pathways (metabolomics) influence the outcome of stable isotope partitioning? What influence does the gut microflora in animals have on isotopic labeling? What are the intramolecular isotope patterns of common amino acids and what do they tell us? What can be learned with other isotope systems, such as hydrogen? Results and ideas of how to move forward in this field will be presented starting at the molecular level and ending with ecosystems.

  4. A Challenge for School Leaders: Gender Equity Issues Remain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragland, Joyce C.; Hatcher, Denise L.; Thomas, Jerald A., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Gender roles in North American education remain a pertinent and dynamic source of discourse. Many questions concerning gender bias remain. This study attempts to characterize a nine-year period of college students' recall of episodes of gender bias from their pre-college experiences. The survey instrument used in this research consisted of a nine…

  5. 49 CFR 845.51 - Investigation to remain open.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Investigation to remain open. 845.51 Section 845.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION... § 845.51 Investigation to remain open. Accident investigations are never officially closed but are...

  6. Head direction maps remain stable despite grid map fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, Jonathan R.; Derdikman, Dori

    2012-01-01

    Areas encoding space in the brain contain both representations of position (place cells and grid cells) and representations of azimuth (head direction cells). Previous studies have already suggested that although grid cells and head direction cells reside in the same brain areas, the calculation of head direction is not dependent on the calculation of position. Here we demonstrate that realignment of grid cells does not affect head direction tuning. We analyzed head direction cell data collected while rats performed a foraging task in a multi-compartment environment (the hairpin maze) vs. an open-field environment, demonstrating that the tuning of head direction cells did not change when the environment was divided into multiple sub-compartments, in the hairpin maze. On the other hand, as we have shown previously (Derdikman et al., 2009), the hexagonal firing pattern expressed by grid cells in the open-field broke down into repeating patterns in similar alleys when rats traversed the multi-compartment hairpin maze. The grid-like firing of conjunctive cells, which express both grid properties and head direction properties in the open-field, showed a selective fragmentation of grid-like firing properties in the hairpin maze, while the head directionality property of the same cells remained unaltered. These findings demonstrate that head direction is not affected during the restructuring of grid cell firing fields as a rat actively moves between compartments, thus strengthening the claim that the head direction system is upstream from or parallel to the grid-place system. PMID:22479237

  7. Endothelial function is unaffected by changing between carvedilol and metoprolol in patients with heart failure-a randomized study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Carvedilol has been shown to be superior to metoprolol tartrate to improve clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF), yet the mechanisms responsible for these differences remain unclear. We examined if there were differences in endothelial function, insulin stimulated endothelial function, 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate during treatment with carvedilol, metoprolol tartrate and metoprolol succinate in patients with HF. Methods Twenty-seven patients with mild HF, all initially treated with carvedilol, were randomized to a two-month treatment with carvedilol, metoprolol tartrate or metoprolol succinate. Venous occlusion plethysmography, 24-hour blood pressure and heart rate measurements were done before and after a two-month treatment period. Results Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation was not affected by changing from carvedilol to either metoprolol tartrate or metoprolol succinate. The relative forearm blood flow at the highest dose of serotonin was 2.42 ± 0.33 in the carvedilol group at baseline and 2.14 ± 0.24 after two months continuation of carvedilol (P = 0.34); 2.57 ± 0.33 before metoprolol tartrate treatment and 2.42 ± 0.55 after treatment (p = 0.74) and in the metoprolol succinate group 1.82 ± 0.29 and 2.10 ± 0.37 before and after treatment, respectively (p = 0.27). Diurnal blood pressures as well as heart rate were also unchanged by changing from carvedilol to metoprolol tartrate or metoprolol succinate. Conclusion Endothelial function remained unchanged when switching the beta blocker treatment from carvedilol to either metoprolol tartrate or metoprolol succinate in this study, where blood pressure and heart rate also remained unchanged in patients with mild HF. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials NCT00497003 PMID:21999413

  8. Properties and effects of remaining carbon from waste plastics gasifying on iron scale reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongmin; Chen, Shuwen; Miao, Xincheng; Yuan, Hao

    2011-06-01

    The carbonous activities of three kinds of carbon-bearing materials gasified from plastics were tested with coal coke as reference. The results showed that the carbonous activities of these remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. Besides, the fractal analyses showed that the porosities of remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. It revealed that these kinds of remaining carbon-bearing materials are conducive to improve the kinetics conditions of gas-solid phase reaction in iron scale reduction. PMID:25084574

  9. Detail of roofline with view of remaining cupola in background; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of roofline with view of remaining cupola in background; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Old Administrative Offices, Eighth Street, north side between Railroad Avenue & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. 53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF A WOODEN SETTLING BOX IN THE BACKGROUND RIGHT. AMALGAMATING PANS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  11. 7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE CROSS SUPPORT POLES EXTENDING TO HILLSIDE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  12. 6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK. VIEW IS TO THE WEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  13. 25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food cooked on the stove was served to workers in the eating area to the left of the counter (off picture). - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  14. The taphonomy of human remains in a glacial environment.

    PubMed

    Pilloud, Marin A; Megyesi, Mary S; Truffer, Martin; Congram, Derek

    2016-04-01

    A glacial environment is a unique setting that can alter human remains in characteristic ways. This study describes glacial dynamics and how glaciers can be understood as taphonomic agents. Using a case study of human remains recovered from Colony Glacier, Alaska, a glacial taphonomic signature is outlined that includes: (1) movement of remains, (2) dispersal of remains, (3) altered bone margins, (4) splitting of skeletal elements, and (5) extensive soft tissue preservation and adipocere formation. As global glacier area is declining in the current climate, there is the potential for more materials of archaeological and medicolegal significance to be exposed. It is therefore important for the forensic anthropologist to have an idea of the taphonomy in this setting and to be able to differentiate glacial effects from other taphonomic agents. PMID:26917542

  15. 11. DOUBLE CURVED RACK. UPPER PORTION ROTATES; LOWER PORTION REMAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DOUBLE CURVED RACK. UPPER PORTION ROTATES; LOWER PORTION REMAINS STATIONARY. DISCARDED ROLLER NEAR CENTER OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-6, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Cortland Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  16. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the southwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  17. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the west-northwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  18. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the south - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  19. View of remains of Feature 17, a cottage, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of remains of Feature 17, a cottage, view to the northwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  20. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the north - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  1. View of the remains of Feature 19, a cottage, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the remains of Feature 19, a cottage, view to the west-northwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  2. View of Feature 3, the remains of an administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 3, the remains of an administration building, view to the south - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  3. 7. Detail view: east side of north end, showing remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail view: east side of north end, showing remains of Fort San Antonio - Puente Guillermo Esteves, Spanning San Antonio Channel at PR-25 (Juan Ponce de Leon Avenue), San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  4. Cellar: Detail of paired relieving arch and remains of herringbone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cellar: Detail of paired relieving arch and remains of herringbone brick pattern from earlier cooking fireplace at back, southeast wall looking southeast - Kingston-Upon-Hill, Kitts Hummock Road, Dover, Kent County, DE

  5. 4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of Frame Belt House, Looking Southeast - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  6. 32. Interior view, encased fireplace and remains of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Interior view, encased - fireplace and remains of the hearth against the north wall, with scale l(note: hole punched through plaster allows access to the flues) - Kiskiack, Naval Mine Depot, State Route 238 vicinity, Yorktown, York County, VA

  7. 3. VIEW OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTH INTO THE REMAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTH INTO THE REMAINS OF THE TURBINE FLUMES. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  8. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, with floor boards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, with floor boards removed, showing cross beams, foundation sill and mortises, and horizontal wall boards. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  9. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, wall boards, tenoned uprights and mortised sill beams. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  10. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill with most floorboards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill with most floorboards removed, showing cross beams with mortises, vertical wall boards, and horizontal floor boards. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  11. 11. Remains of Douglasfir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Remains of Douglas-fir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, looking northeast. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  12. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, cross beams and notches for wall post beams. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  13. 13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the steam engine water tower for the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad. - Cotton Hill Station Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 16, Cotton Hill, Fayette County, WV

  14. 1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR A GENERATOR PAD - Fort Cronkhite, Anti-Aircraft Battery No. 1, Concrete Footing-Generator Pad, Wolf Road, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  15. 13. REMAINING TOP PART OF SOUTH ELEVATION, HAMMER BUILDING, SINCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. REMAINING TOP PART OF SOUTH ELEVATION, HAMMER BUILDING, SINCE JOINED TO BUILDING 6. - Hughes Aircraft Company, Assembly & Manufacturing Building, 6775 Centinela Avenue, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 11. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE ONLY REMAINING PART OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE ONLY REMAINING PART OF THE NORTH SIDE OF ORIGINAL LAB, FROM COURTYARD. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  17. 7. VIEW OF VESSEL FROM PORT BON, SHOWING REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF VESSEL FROM PORT BON, SHOWING REMAINS OF MAIN CABIN. AFT CABIN STILL STANDS ON STERN IN BACKGROUND - Motorized Sailing Vessel "Fox", Beached on East Bank ofBayou Lafourche, Larose, Lafourche Parish, LA

  18. 6. VIEW SOUTHWEST, COOLING TROUGH REMAINS Imperial Carbon Black ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SOUTHWEST, COOLING TROUGH REMAINS - Imperial Carbon Black Plant (Ruin), North side of North Fork of Hughes River along Bunnell Run Road just over 0.5 mile from its intersection with State Route 16, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  19. 3. VIEW NORTH, COOLING TANK REMAINS Imperial Carbon Black ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTH, COOLING TANK REMAINS - Imperial Carbon Black Plant (Ruin), North side of North Fork of Hughes River along Bunnell Run Road just over 0.5 mile from its intersection with State Route 16, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  20. 52. VIEW OF REMAINS OF ORIGINAL 1907 CONTROL PANEL, LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW OF REMAINS OF ORIGINAL 1907 CONTROL PANEL, LOCATED ON NORTH WALL OF EAST END OF CONTROL ROOM. PORTIONS OF THIS PANEL REMAINED IN USE UNTIL THE PLANT CLOSED. THE METERS AND CONTROLS ARE MOUNTED ON SOAPSTONE PANELS. THE INSTRUMENT IN THE LEFT CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS A TIRRILL VOLTAGE REGULATOR. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  1. Headspace constituents of the tree remain of Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, M; Hashimoto, Y; Taniguchi, Y; Kubota, K

    2001-01-01

    The volatile ingredients isolated from a fresh tree of Cinnamomum camphora (camphor tree) and from a tree remain of C. camphora were collected by using headspace techniques and analyzed by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). 99.77% of the constituents consisting 23 components from the fresh tree, 98.68% of the constituents consisting 24 components from the tree remain were identified. Of these ingredients, camphor was obtained as the most abundant component. PMID:11547425

  2. A non-destructive method for dating human remains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lail, Warren K.; Sammeth, David; Mahan, Shannon; Nevins, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The skeletal remains of several Native Americans were recovered in an eroded state from a creek bank in northeastern New Mexico. Subsequently stored in a nearby museum, the remains became lost for almost 36 years. In a recent effort to repatriate the remains, it was necessary to fit them into a cultural chronology in order to determine the appropriate tribe(s) for consultation pursuant to the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Because the remains were found in an eroded context with no artifacts or funerary objects, their age was unknown. Having been asked to avoid destructive dating methods such as radiocarbon dating, the authors used Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) to date the sediments embedded in the cranium. The OSL analyses yielded reliable dates between A.D. 1415 and A.D. 1495. Accordingly, we conclude that the remains were interred somewhat earlier than A.D. 1415, but no later than A.D. 1495. We believe the remains are from individuals ancestral to the Ute Mouache Band, which is now being contacted for repatriation efforts. Not only do our methods contribute to the immediate repatriation efforts, they provide archaeologists with a versatile, non-destructive, numerical dating method that can be used in many burial contexts.

  3. Identification of the remains of King Richard III.

    PubMed

    King, Turi E; Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez; Balaresque, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G; Balding, David; Maisano Delser, Pierpaolo; Neumann, Rita; Parson, Walther; Knapp, Michael; Walsh, Susan; Tonasso, Laure; Holt, John; Kayser, Manfred; Appleby, Jo; Forster, Peter; Ekserdjian, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Schürer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard's appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming. PMID:25463651

  4. Identification of the remains of King Richard III

    PubMed Central

    King, Turi E.; Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez; Balaresque, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G.; Balding, David; Delser, Pierpaolo Maisano; Neumann, Rita; Parson, Walther; Knapp, Michael; Walsh, Susan; Tonasso, Laure; Holt, John; Kayser, Manfred; Appleby, Jo; Forster, Peter; Ekserdjian, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Schürer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard’s appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming. PMID:25463651

  5. Microscopic residues of bone from dissolving human remains in acids.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Erwin; Zoon, Peter; van Wijk, Mayonne; Gerretsen, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Dissolving bodies is a current method of disposing of human remains and has been practiced throughout the years. During the last decade in the Netherlands, two cases have emerged in which human remains were treated with acid. In the first case, the remains of a cremated body were treated with hydrofluoric acid. In the second case, two complete bodies were dissolved in a mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. In both cases, a great variety of evidence was collected at the scene of crime, part of which was embedded in resin, polished, and investigated using SEM/EDX. Apart from macroscopic findings like residual bone and artificial teeth, in both cases, distinct microscopic residues of bone were found as follows: (partly) digested bone, thin-walled structures, and recrystallized calcium phosphate. Although some may believe it is possible to dissolve a body in acid completely, at least some of these microscopic residues will always be found. PMID:25677640

  6. Field contamination of skeletonized human remains with exogenous DNA.

    PubMed

    Edson, Suni M; Christensen, Alexander F

    2013-01-01

    The Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory reports the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of over 800 skeletal samples a year for the Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command-Central Identification Laboratory. These sequences are generated from degraded skeletal remains that are presumed to belong to U.S. service members missing from past military conflicts. In the laboratory, it is possible to control for contamination of remains; however, in the field, it can be difficult to prevent modern DNA from being transferred to skeletal elements and being carried forward through the analysis process. Four such cases are described here along with the controls in place in the laboratory to eliminate the possibility of the exogenous DNA being reported as authentic. In each case, the controls implemented by the laboratories prevented the false reporting of contaminant exogenous DNA from remains that were either faunal or human, but lacked endogenous DNA. PMID:22994903

  7. OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE PROCESSING AREA. WATER USED IN PROCESSING AT THE STAMP MILL WAS CIRCULATED HERE FOR RECLAMATION. SANDS WERE SETTLED OUT AND DEPOSITED IN ONE OF TWO TAILINGS HOLDING AREAS. CLEARED WATER WAS PUMPED BACK TO THE MILL FOR REUSE. THIS PROCESS WAS ACCOMPLISHED BY THE USE OF SETTLING CONES, EIGHT FEET IN DIAMETER AND SIX FEET HIGH. THE REMAINS OF FOUR CONES ARE AT CENTER, BEHIND THE TANK IN THE FOREGROUND. TO THE LEFT IS THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD BETWEEN THE MILL AND THE PARKING LOT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  8. Neuroanatomical Abnormalities and Cognitive Impairments Are Shared by Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Their Unaffected First-Degree Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Pironti, Valentino Antonio; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Müller, Ulrich; Dodds, Chris Martin; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward Thomas; Sahakian, Barbara Jacquelyn

    2014-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, yet the search for genes with a definitive role in its etiology has been elusive. Deconstructing the disorder in its endophenotypic traits, where the variance is thought to be associated with a fewer number of genes, should boost the statistical power of molecular genetic studies and clarify the pathophysiology of ADHD. In this study, we tested for neuroanatomical and cognitive endophenotypes in a group of adults with ADHD, their unaffected first-degree relatives, and typically developing control subjects. Methods Sixty participants, comprising 20 adults with ADHD, 20 unaffected first-degree relatives, and 20 typically developing control subjects matched for age and gender undertook structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Voxel-based morphometry with DARTEL was performed to obtain regional gray and white matter volumes. General linear analyses of the volumes of brain regions, adjusting for age and total intracranial volume, were used to compare groups. Sustained attention and response inhibition were also investigated as cognitive endophenotypes. Results Neuroanatomical abnormalities in gray matter volume in the right inferior frontal gyrus and white matter volume in the caudal portion of the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus were shared between ADHD probands and their unaffected first-degree relatives. In addition, impairments in sustained attention were also found to be shared between ADHD patients and their relatives. Conclusions Cognitive impairments in sustained attention and neuroanatomical abnormalities in the right inferior frontal gyrus and the posterior part of right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus are putative neurocognitive endophenotypes in adult ADHD. PMID:24199662

  9. Fusion Competent Synaptic Vesicles Persist upon Active Zone Disruption and Loss of Vesicle Docking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan Shan H; Held, Richard G; Wong, Man Yan; Liu, Changliang; Karakhanyan, Aziz; Kaeser, Pascal S

    2016-08-17

    In a nerve terminal, synaptic vesicle docking and release are restricted to an active zone. The active zone is a protein scaffold that is attached to the presynaptic plasma membrane and opposed to postsynaptic receptors. Here, we generated conditional knockout mice removing the active zone proteins RIM and ELKS, which additionally led to loss of Munc13, Bassoon, Piccolo, and RIM-BP, indicating disassembly of the active zone. We observed a near-complete lack of synaptic vesicle docking and a strong reduction in vesicular release probability and the speed of exocytosis, but total vesicle numbers, SNARE protein levels, and postsynaptic densities remained unaffected. Despite loss of the priming proteins Munc13 and RIM and of docked vesicles, a pool of releasable vesicles remained. Thus, the active zone is necessary for synaptic vesicle docking and to enhance release probability, but releasable vesicles can be localized distant from the presynaptic plasma membrane. PMID:27537483

  10. Energy intake over 2 days is unaffected by acute sprint interval exercise despite increased appetite and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Kristine; Olver, T Dylan; Abbott, Kolten C; Lemon, Peter W R

    2015-01-01

    A cumulative effect of reduced energy intake, increased oxygen consumption, and/or increased lipid oxidation could explain the fat loss associated with sprint interval exercise training (SIT). This study assessed the effects of acute sprint interval exercise (SIE) on energy intake, subjective appetite, appetite-related peptides, oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio over 2 days. Eight men (25 ± 3 years, 79.6 ± 9.7 kg, body fat 13% ± 6%; mean ± SD) completed 2 experimental treatments: SIE and recovery (SIEx) and nonexercise control. Each 34-h treatment consisted of 2 consecutive 10-h test days. Between 0800-1800 h, participants remained in the laboratory for 8 breath-by-breath gas collections, 3 buffet-type meals, 14 appetite ratings, and 4 blood samples for appetite-related peptides. Treatment comparisons were made using 2-way repeated measures ANOVA or t tests. An immediate, albeit short-lived (<1 h), postexercise suppression of appetite and increase in peptide YY (PYY) were observed (P < 0.001). However, overall hunger and motivation to eat were greater during SIEx (P < 0.02) without affecting energy intake. Total 34-h oxygen consumption was greater during SIEx (P = 0.04), elicited by the 1491-kJ (22%) greater energy expenditure over the first 24 h (P = 0.01). Despite its effects on oxygen consumption, appetite, and PYY, acute SIE did not affect energy intake. Consequently, if these dietary responses to SIE are sustained with regular SIT, augmentations in oxygen consumption and/or a substrate shift toward increased fat use postexercise are most likely responsible for the observed body fat loss with this type of exercise training. PMID:25494974

  11. Teacher Retention: Why Do Beginning Teachers Remain in the Profession?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Duane; Marlow, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    As beginning teachers continue to leave the profession within the first several years of entering, educators must identify factors which cause teachers to remain in the profession, as well as factors related to attrition if the current teacher shortage is to be remedied. The purpose of this study was to examine the reported attitudes of beginning…

  12. 5. View of remaining rock ledge from construction of passage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of remaining rock ledge from construction of passage to enter mill (Riverdale Cotton Mill was built into the side of a hill). Partially subterranean area was popular with employees trying to escape the heat of the mill, now an unofficial smoking area. - Riverdale Cotton Mill, Corner of Middle & Lower Streets, Valley, Chambers County, AL

  13. 11. ENTRY STAIRWELL TO CABLE TUNNEL. REMAINS OF ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. ENTRY STAIRWELL TO CABLE TUNNEL. REMAINS OF ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION STATIONS AT LEFT, TRACKSIDE CAMERA STAND AT FAR RIGHT. Looking northeast toward launch pad. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing Control Blockhouse, South of Sled Track at east end, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. Remains of abutments for Bridge No. 1575 at MD Rt. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Remains of abutments for Bridge No. 1575 at MD Rt. 51 in Spring Gap, Maryland, looking northeast. (Compare with HAER MD-115 photos taken 1988). - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  15. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF REMAINS OF 40" BLOOMING MILL; THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF REMAINS OF 40" BLOOMING MILL; THE ENGINE ROOM CONTAINING THE MESTA-CORLISS STEAM ENGINE, IS LOCATED AT THE FAR END OF THE MILL AS SEEN TO THE FAR RIGHT (THE BUILDING WITH THE SHED ROOF). - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  16. 18. A view looking southeast at the remains of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. A view looking southeast at the remains of the director's office, his reception room and a portion of the elevator lobby. These two rooms were equipped with their own air conditioners. - John T. Beasley Building, 632 Cherry Street (between Sixth & Seventh Streets), Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  17. 6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers and Automobile Engine Connected to Pulley Wheel, Looking Southwest - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  18. DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER PRESS REMAINS, BOILER, SECONDARY ORE BIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER PRESS REMAINS, BOILER, SECONDARY ORE BIN, TRAM TRESTLE AND WATER TANK, LOOKING NORTHWEST. HIS VIEW IS TAKEN FROM THE THIRD LEVEL OF THE MILL, NEARBY THE BLACKSMITH'S FORGE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  19. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown. PMID:24919796

  20. 5. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT UPPER GUIDE WALL REMAINS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT UPPER GUIDE WALL REMAINS AND LAND WALL FROM THE OHIO RIVER. - Ohio Slack Water Dams, Lock & Dam No. 4, East bank of Ohio River at mile point 18.6, along State Route 65, Ambridge, Beaver County, PA

  1. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Alan J.; Adair, Brooke; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving. PMID:23304507

  2. As Year Ends, Questions Remain for New Orleans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2008-01-01

    In rebuilding public schooling in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, education reformers have managed to hire energetic teachers, break ground on a few new school buildings, raise public confidence, and show progress on test scores. But fundamental questions remain as the 2007-08 academic year draws to a close, including how the city's…

  3. Plans and objectives of the remaining Apollo missions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherer, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    The three remaining Apollo missions will have significantly increased scientific capabilities. These result from increased payload, more time on the surface, improved range, and more sophisticated experiments on the surface and in orbit. Landing sites for the last three missions will be carefully selected to maximize the total scientific return.

  4. Administrative Climate and Novices' Intent to Remain Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogodzinski, Ben; Youngs, Peter; Frank, Kenneth A.; Belman, Dale

    2012-01-01

    Using survey data from novice teachers at the elementary and middle school level across 11 districts, multilevel logistic regressions were estimated to examine the association between novices' perceptions of the administrative climate and their desire to remain teaching within their schools. We find that the probability that a novice teacher…

  5. Robotics to enable older adults to remain living at home.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Alan J; Adair, Brooke; Miller, Kimberly; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving. PMID:23304507

  6. 15. CYLINDRICAL FISH SCALER Remnants of the wire screen remain, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CYLINDRICAL FISH SCALER Remnants of the wire screen remain, through which the fish tumbled as the cylinder revolved. Note geared ring around cylinder, and the small drive shaft by which it was driven. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  7. REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS OPEN. MECHANICS JONI BAINE (R) AND BILL THEODORE(L) OPEN FLAP CARRIAGE ACCESS WITH AN IMPACT GUN. THEY WILL CHECK TRANSMISSION FLUID AND OIL THE JACK SCREW. AT FAR LEFT UTILITY MECHANICS BEGIN BODY POLISHING. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  8. Aftermath. The remains of the southwest end of the bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aftermath. The remains of the southwest end of the bridge lie next to the southwest pier. View is south-southeast from confluence of Trinity and South Fork Trinity Rivers - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  9. Angiotensin II-dependent chronic hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy are unaffected by gp91phox-containing NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Touyz, Rhian M; Mercure, Chantel; He, Ying; Javeshghani, Danesh; Yao, Guoying; Callera, Glaucia E; Yogi, Alvaro; Lochard, Nadheige; Reudelhuber, Timothy L

    2005-04-01

    The gp91phox-containing NADPH oxidase is the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cardiovascular system and inactivation of gp91phox has been reported to blunt hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy seen in angiotensin (Ang) II-infused animals. In the current study, we sought to determine the role of gp91phox-derived ROS on cardiovascular outcomes of chronic exposure to Ang II. The gp91phox-deficient mice were crossed with transgenic mice expressing active human renin in the liver (TTRhRen). TTRhRen mice exhibit chronic Ang II-dependent hypertension and frank cardiac hypertrophy by age 10 to 12 weeks. Four genotypes of mice were generated: control, TTRhRen trangenics (TTRhRen), gp91phox-deficient (gp91-), and TTRhRen transgenic gp91phox-deficient (TTRhRen/gp91-). Eight to 10 mice/group were studied. ROS levels were significantly reduced (P<0.05) in the heart and aorta of TTRhRen/gp91- and gp91-mice compared with control counterparts, and this was associated with reduced cardiac, aortic, and renal NADPH oxidase activity (P<0.05). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), cardiac mass, and cardiac fibrosis were increased in TTRhRen versus controls. In contrast to its action on ROS generation, gp91phox inactivation had no effect on development of hypertension or cardiac hypertrophy in TTRhRen mice, although interstitial fibrosis was reduced. Cardiac and renal expression of gp91phox homologues, Nox1 and Nox4, was not different between groups. Thus, although eliminating gp91phox-associated ROS production may be important in cardiovascular consequences in acute insult models, it does not prevent the development of hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in a model in which the endogenous renin-angiotensin system is chronically upregulated. PMID:15753233

  10. Identifying and Reducing Remaining Stocks of Rinderpest Virus.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Keith; Visser, Dawid; Evans, Brian; Vallat, Bernard

    2015-12-01

    In 2011, the world was declared free from rinderpest, one of the most feared and devastating infectious diseases of animals. Rinderpest is the second infectious disease, after smallpox, to have been eradicated. However, potentially infectious rinderpest virus material remains widely disseminated among research and diagnostic facilities across the world and poses a risk for disease recurrence should it be released. Member Countries of the World Organisation for Animal Health and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations are committed to destroying remaining stocks of infectious material or ensuring that it is stored under international supervision in a limited number of approved facilities. To facilitate this commitment and maintain global freedom from rinderpest, World Organisation for Animal Health Member Countries must report annually on rinderpest material held in their countries. The first official surveys, conducted during 2013-2015, revealed that rinderpest material was stored in an unacceptably high number of facilities and countries. PMID:26584400

  11. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  12. Mandibular remains support taxonomic validity of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Darryl J; DeWitt, Thomas J; Carlson, Keely B; Brophy, Juliet K; Schroeder, Lauren; Ackermann, Rebecca R; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    Since the announcement of the species Australopithecus sediba, questions have been raised over whether the Malapa fossils represent a valid taxon or whether inadequate allowance was made for intraspecific variation, in particular with reference to the temporally and geographically proximate species Au. africanus. The morphology of mandibular remains of Au. sediba, including newly recovered material discussed here, shows that it is not merely a late-surviving morph of Au. africanus. Rather-as is seen elsewhere in the cranium, dentition, and postcranial skeleton-these mandibular remains share similarities with other australopiths but can be differentiated from the hypodigm of Au. africanus in both size and shape as well as in their ontogenetic growth trajectory. PMID:23580533

  13. Dental DNA fingerprinting in identification of human remains

    PubMed Central

    Girish, KL; Rahman, Farzan S; Tippu, Shoaib R

    2010-01-01

    The recent advances in molecular biology have revolutionized all aspects of dentistry. DNA, the language of life yields information beyond our imagination, both in health or disease. DNA fingerprinting is a tool used to unravel all the mysteries associated with the oral cavity and its manifestations during diseased conditions. It is being increasingly used in analyzing various scenarios related to forensic science. The technical advances in molecular biology have propelled the analysis of the DNA into routine usage in crime laboratories for rapid and early diagnosis. DNA is an excellent means for identification of unidentified human remains. As dental pulp is surrounded by dentin and enamel, which forms dental armor, it offers the best source of DNA for reliable genetic type in forensic science. This paper summarizes the recent literature on use of this technique in identification of unidentified human remains. PMID:21731342

  14. Late Pleistocene human remains from Wezmeh Cave, western Iran.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Biglari, Fereidoun; Mashkour, Marjan; Monchot, Hervé; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Rougier, Hélène; Heydari, Saman; Abdi, Kamyar

    2008-04-01

    Paleontological analysis of remains from Wezmeh Cave in western Iran have yielded a Holocene Chalcolithic archeological assemblage, a rich Late Pleistocene carnivore faunal assemblage, and an isolated unerupted human maxillary premolar (P(3) or possibly P(4)). Species representation and U-series dating of faunal teeth place the carnivore assemblage during oxygen isotope stages (OIS) 3 and 2, and noninvasive gamma spectrometry dating of the human premolar places it at least as old as early OIS 2. The human premolar crown morphology is not diagnostic of late archaic versus early modern human affinities, but its buccolingual diameter places it at the upper limits of Late Pleistocene human P(3) and P(4) dimensions and separate from a terminal Pleistocene regional sample. Wezmeh Cave therefore provides additional Paleolithic human remains from the Zagros Mountains and further documents Late Pleistocene human association with otherwise carnivore-dominated cave assemblages. PMID:18000894

  15. USING CONDITION MONITORING TO PREDICT REMAINING LIFE OF ELECTRIC CABLES.

    SciTech Connect

    LOFARO,R.; SOO,P.; VILLARAN,M.; GROVE,E.

    2001-03-29

    Electric cables are passive components used extensively throughout nuclear power stations to perform numerous safety and non-safety functions. It is known that the polymers commonly used to insulate the conductors on these cables can degrade with time; the rate of degradation being dependent on the severity of the conditions in which the cables operate. Cables do not receive routine maintenance and, since it can be very costly, they are not replaced on a regular basis. Therefore, to ensure their continued functional performance, it would be beneficial if condition monitoring techniques could be used to estimate the remaining useful life of these components. A great deal of research has been performed on various condition monitoring techniques for use on electric cables. In a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, several promising techniques were evaluated and found to provide trendable information on the condition of low-voltage electric cables. These techniques may be useful for predicting remaining life if well defined limiting values for the aging properties being measured can be determined. However, each technique has advantages and limitations that must be addressed in order to use it effectively, and the necessary limiting values are not always easy to obtain. This paper discusses how condition monitoring measurements can be used to predict the remaining useful life of electric cables. The attributes of an appropriate condition monitoring technique are presented, and the process to be used in estimating the remaining useful life of a cable is discussed along with the difficulties that must be addressed.

  16. Belarus ratifies START I pact; Ukraine remains last holdout

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, D.

    1993-03-01

    The Belarus Parliment ratified START I by a vote of 218 to 1 on February 4, 1993. The Parliment also voted to accede to the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty as a non-nuclear weapon state. The Parliment also passed two companion accords with Russia to coordinate the withdrawal of the ICBMs now in Belarus and to define the legal states of those weapons. Ukraine remains the only party to START I that has not yet approved the treaty.

  17. Direct dating of Early Upper Palaeolithic human remains from Mladec.

    PubMed

    Wild, Eva M; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Kutschera, Walter; Steier, Peter; Trinkaus, Erik; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2005-05-19

    The human fossil assemblage from the Mladec Caves in Moravia (Czech Republic) has been considered to derive from a middle or later phase of the Central European Aurignacian period on the basis of archaeological remains (a few stone artefacts and organic items such as bone points, awls, perforated teeth), despite questions of association between the human fossils and the archaeological materials and concerning the chronological implications of the limited archaeological remains. The morphological variability in the human assemblage, the presence of apparently archaic features in some specimens, and the assumed early date of the remains have made this fossil assemblage pivotal in assessments of modern human emergence within Europe. We present here the first successful direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of five representative human fossils from the site. We selected sample materials from teeth and from one bone for 14C dating. The four tooth samples yielded uncalibrated ages of approximately 31,000 14C years before present, and the bone sample (an ulna) provided an uncertain more-recent age. These data are sufficient to confirm that the Mladec human assemblage is the oldest cranial, dental and postcranial assemblage of early modern humans in Europe and is therefore central to discussions of modern human emergence in the northwestern Old World and the fate of the Neanderthals. PMID:15902255

  18. Microsatellites identify depredated waterfowl remains from glaucous gull stomachs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Bowman, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    Prey remains can provide valuable sources of information regarding causes of predation and the species composition of a predator's diet. Unfortunately, the highly degraded state of many prey samples from gastrointestinal tracts often precludes unambiguous identification. We describe a procedure by which PCR amplification of taxonomically informative microsatellite loci were used to identify species of waterfowl predated by glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We found that one microsatellite locus unambiguously distinguished between species of the subfamily Anserinae (whistling ducks, geese and swans) and those of the subfamily Anatidae (all other ducks). An additional locus distinguished the remains of all geese and swan species known to nest on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta in western Alaska. The study focused on two waterfowl species which have experienced precipitous declines in population numbers: emperor geese (Chen canagica) and spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri). No evidence of predation on spectacled eiders was observed. Twenty-six percent of all glaucous gull stomachs examined contained the remains of juvenile emperor geese.

  19. Osteometric sex determination of burned human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, D; Thompson, T J U; Cunha, E

    2013-10-01

    Sex determination of human burned skeletal remains is extremely hard to achieve because of heat-related fragmentation, warping and dimensional changes. In particular, the latter is impeditive of osteometric analyses that are based on references developed on unburned bones. New osteometric references were thus obtained which allow for more reliable sex determinations. The calcined remains of cremated Portuguese individuals were examined and specific standard measurements of the humerus, femur, talus and calcaneus were recorded. This allowed for the compilation of new sex discriminating osteometric references which were then tested on independent samples with good results. Both the use of simple section points and of logistic regression equations provided successful sex classification scores. These references may now be used for the sex determination of burned skeletons. Its reliability is highest for contemporary Portuguese remains but nonetheless these results have important repercussion for forensic research. More conservative use of these references may also prove valuable for other populations as well as for archaeological research. PMID:24112343

  20. Skeletal preservation of children's remains in the archaeological record.

    PubMed

    Manifold, B M

    2015-12-01

    Taphonomy is an important consideration in the reconstruction of past environments and events. Taphonomic alterations and processes are commonly encountered on human skeletal remains in both archaeological and forensic contexts. It is these processes that can alter the appearance of bone after death and the properties of the bones influence their reaction to these processes thus leading to differential preservation within a skeletal sample, none more so than the remains of children. This study investigates the skeletal preservation of 790 child and adolescent skeletons from six contrasting early and late medieval cemeteries from Britain in an attempt to assess whether geographical location and geology had an effect on the overall preservation of the skeletons. Skeletons were examined from six cemeteries, namely; Auldhame in Scotland, Edix Hill and Great Chesterford from Cambridgeshire; St Oswald's Priory from Gloucester and Wharram Percy from Yorkshire, and finally, the site of Llandough in Wales. The state of preservation was assessed using the anatomical preservation index (AP1), qualitative bone index (QBI) and the bone representation index (BRI). Also the presence of natural and artificial taphonomic processes was recorded for each skeleton. The results show a specific pattern of preservation and representation for non-adult remains across all sites with some differences in the states of preservation from different geographical locations and geological influences. Children under two years of age were found to be less affected by taphonomic processes than their older counterparts. PMID:26391374

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN A PREVIOUSLY UNAFFECTED AREA BY CONVENTIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES AND CELL-BLOCK FIXATION

    PubMed Central

    ABRANTES, Tuanne Rotti; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; da SILVA, Denise Amaro; PERIÉ, Carolina dos Santos F. S.; V. MENDES, Artur Augusto; MENEZES, Rodrigo Caldas; SILVA, Valmir Laurentino; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges

    2016-01-01

    After the report of a second case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in São Bento da Lagoa, Itaipuaçu, in the municipality of Maricá, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological survey was carried out, through active search, totaling 145 dogs. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and rapid chromatographic immunoassay based on dual-path platform (DPP(r)) were used to perform the serological examinations. The parasitological diagnosis of cutaneous fragments was performed by parasitological culture, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In the serological assessment, 21 dogs were seropositive by IFA, 17 by ELISA, and 11 by DPP(r), with sensitivity of 66.7%, 66.7% and 50%, and specificity of 87.2%, 90.2% and 94%, respectively for each technique. The immunohistochemistry of bone marrow using the cell-block technique presented the best results, with six positive dogs found, three of which tested negative by the other parasitological techniques. Leishmania sp. was isolated by parasitological culture in three dogs. The detection of autochthonous Leishmania infantum in Itaipuaçu, and the high prevalence of seropositive dogs confirm the circulation of this parasite in the study area and alert for the risk of expansion in the State of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26910449

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN A PREVIOUSLY UNAFFECTED AREA BY CONVENTIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES AND CELL-BLOCK FIXATION.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Tuanne Rotti; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Silva, Denise Amaro da; Perié, Carolina Dos Santos F S; V Mendes Júnior, Artur Augusto; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas; Silva, Valmir Laurentino; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges

    2016-01-01

    After the report of a second case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in São Bento da Lagoa, Itaipuaçu, in the municipality of Maricá, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological survey was carried out, through active search, totaling 145 dogs. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and rapid chromatographic immunoassay based on dual-path platform (DPP(r)) were used to perform the serological examinations. The parasitological diagnosis of cutaneous fragments was performed by parasitological culture, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In the serological assessment, 21 dogs were seropositive by IFA, 17 by ELISA, and 11 by DPP(r), with sensitivity of 66.7%, 66.7% and 50%, and specificity of 87.2%, 90.2% and 94%, respectively for each technique. The immunohistochemistry of bone marrow using the cell-block technique presented the best results, with six positive dogs found, three of which tested negative by the other parasitological techniques. Leishmania sp. was isolated by parasitological culture in three dogs. The detection of autochthonous Leishmania infantum in Itaipuaçu, and the high prevalence of seropositive dogs confirm the circulation of this parasite in the study area and alert for the risk of expansion in the State of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26910449

  3. Ion selectivity of porcine skeletal muscle Ca2+ release channels is unaffected by the Arg615 to Cys615 mutation.

    PubMed Central

    Shomer, N H; Mickelson, J R; Louis, C F

    1994-01-01

    The Arg615 to Cys615 mutation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release channel of malignant hyperthermia susceptible (MHS) pigs results in a decreased sensitivity of the channel to inhibitory Ca2+ concentrations. To investigate whether this mutation also affects the ion selectivity filter of the channel, the monovalent cation conductances and ion permeability ratios of single Ca2+ release channels incorporated into planar lipid bilayers were compared. Monovalent cation conductances in symmetrical solutions were: Li+, 183 pS +/- 3 (n = 21); Na+, 474 pS +/- 6 (n = 29); K+, 771 pS +/- 7 (n = 29); Rb+, 502 pS +/- 10 (n = 22); and Cs+, 527 pS +/- 5 (n = 16). The single-channel conductances of MHS and normal Ca2+ release channel were not significantly different for any of the monovalent cations tested. Permeability ratios measured under biionic conditions had the permeability sequence Ca2+ >> Li+ > Na+ > K+ > or Rb+ > Cs+, with no significant difference noted between MHS and normal channels. This systematic examination of the conduction properties of the pig skeletal muscle Ca2+ release channel indicated a higher Ca2+ selectivity (PCa2+:Pk+ approximately 15.5) than the sixfold Ca2+ selectivity previously reported for rabbit skeletal (Smith et al., 1988) or sheep cardiac muscle (Tinker et al., 1992) Ca2+ release channels. These results also indicate that although Ca2+ regulation of Ca2+ release channel activity is altered, the Arg615 to Cys615 mutation of the porcine Ca2+ release channel does not affect the conductance or ion selectivity properties of the channel. PMID:7948678

  4. Protozoan Predation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Is Unaffected by the Carriage of Shiga Toxin-Encoding Bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Carrie E; Shringi, Smriti; Besser, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a food-borne bacterium that causes hemorrhagic diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. While cattle are a known source of E. coli O157:H7 exposure resulting in human infection, environmental reservoirs may also be important sources of infection for both cattle and humans. Bacteriophage-encoded Shiga toxins (Stx) carried by E. coli O157:H7 may provide a selective advantage for survival of these bacteria in the environment, possibly through their toxic effects on grazing protozoa. To determine Stx effects on protozoan grazing, we co-cultured Paramecium caudatum, a common ciliate protozoon in cattle water sources, with multiple strains of Shiga-toxigenic E. coli O157:H7 and non-Shiga toxigenic cattle commensal E. coli. Over three days at ambient laboratory temperature, P. caudatum consistently reduced both E. coli O157:H7 and non-Shiga toxigenic E. coli populations by 1-3 log cfu. Furthermore, a wild-type strain of Shiga-toxigenic E. coli O157:H7 (EDL933) and isogenic mutants lacking the A subunit of Stx 2a, the entire Stx 2a-encoding bacteriophage, and/or the entire Stx 1-encoding bacteriophage were grazed with similar efficacy by both P. caudatum and Tetrahymena pyriformis (another ciliate protozoon). Therefore, our data provided no evidence of a protective effect of either Stx or the products of other bacteriophage genes on protozoan predation of E. coli. Further research is necessary to determine if the grazing activity of naturally-occurring protozoa in cattle water troughs can serve to decrease cattle exposure to E. coli O157:H7 and other Shiga-toxigenic E. coli. PMID:26824472

  5. Protozoan Predation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Is Unaffected by the Carriage of Shiga Toxin-Encoding Bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Carrie E.; Shringi, Smriti; Besser, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a food-borne bacterium that causes hemorrhagic diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. While cattle are a known source of E. coli O157:H7 exposure resulting in human infection, environmental reservoirs may also be important sources of infection for both cattle and humans. Bacteriophage-encoded Shiga toxins (Stx) carried by E. coli O157:H7 may provide a selective advantage for survival of these bacteria in the environment, possibly through their toxic effects on grazing protozoa. To determine Stx effects on protozoan grazing, we co-cultured Paramecium caudatum, a common ciliate protozoon in cattle water sources, with multiple strains of Shiga-toxigenic E. coli O157:H7 and non-Shiga toxigenic cattle commensal E. coli. Over three days at ambient laboratory temperature, P. caudatum consistently reduced both E. coli O157:H7 and non-Shiga toxigenic E. coli populations by 1–3 log cfu. Furthermore, a wild-type strain of Shiga-toxigenic E. coli O157:H7 (EDL933) and isogenic mutants lacking the A subunit of Stx 2a, the entire Stx 2a-encoding bacteriophage, and/or the entire Stx 1-encoding bacteriophage were grazed with similar efficacy by both P. caudatum and Tetrahymena pyriformis (another ciliate protozoon). Therefore, our data provided no evidence of a protective effect of either Stx or the products of other bacteriophage genes on protozoan predation of E. coli. Further research is necessary to determine if the grazing activity of naturally-occurring protozoa in cattle water troughs can serve to decrease cattle exposure to E. coli O157:H7 and other Shiga-toxigenic E. coli. PMID:26824472

  6. New fossil cercopithecid remains from the Humpata Plateau, southern Angola.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, N G

    1994-08-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to describe and identify the well-preserved cranial remains of a fossil cercopithecid recently recovered from sites on the Humpata Plateau in southern Angola. In the past, papionin fossils recovered from the Angolan site of Tchiua (Leba) have been referred to various taxa, including Dinopithecus ingens, Parapapio sp., and Papio (Dinopithecus) quadratirostris. Comparison of the new Angolan papionin cranial remains with those previously described from the Humpata Plateau and a large range of living and fossil Papionini revealed that the range of metrical and morphological variation present in the Humpata papionin sample was consistent with that found in a single extant papionin species. The Humpata cranial remains bear the largest number of similarities to Theropithecus baringensis R. Leakey, 1969, and it is to this species that the remains are hereby referred. This assignment is based on a suite of 11 shared attributes of the Humpata papionin fossils and the type specimen of T. baringensis, KNM BC2, which include: large molar teeth of relatively low relief with pinched cusps and with a prominent distal fovea on M3; a small, low cranial vault with little mid-parietal expansion; a bow-shaped supraorbital torus; trapezoidal, inferiorly tapering orbits; a functional complex related to the presence of a large and vertically oriented anterior temporalis muscle; a large infratemporal fossa with an anteromedially oriented posterior border; a long muzzle with a steep interorbital drop, shallow incisive arc, flattened dorsum, and rounded maxillary ridges; nasal bones that extend across the breadth of the posterior margin of the nasal aperture and then taper markedly as they approach nasion; prominent, inferiorly divergent mental ridges; and relatively shallow mandibular fossae that are long, elliptical in shape, and extend to the level of the M3. The results of the current study suggest that T. baringensis (now including the Humpata

  7. "Recent" macrofossil remains from the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Duc, Cynthia; de Vernal, Anne; Archambault, Philippe; Brice, Camille; Roberge, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The examination of surface sediment samples collected from 17 sites along the Lomonosov Ridge at water depths ranging from 737 to 3339 meters during Polarstern Expedition PS87 in 2014 (Stein, 2015), indicates a rich biogenic content almost exclusively dominated by calcareous remains. Amongst biogenic remains, microfossils (planktic and benthic foraminifers, pteropods, ostracods, etc.) dominate but millimetric to centrimetric macrofossils occurred frequently at the surface of the sediment. The macrofossil remains consist of a large variety of taxa, including gastropods, bivalvia, polychaete tubes, scaphopods, echinoderm plates and spines, and fish otoliths. Among the Bivalvia, the most abundant taxa are Portlandia arctica, Hyalopecten frigidus, Cuspidaria glacilis, Policordia densicostata, Bathyarca spp., and Yoldiella spp. Whereas a few specimens are well preserved and apparently pristine, most mollusk shells displayed extensive alteration features. Moreover, most shells were covered by millimeter scale tubes of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis sp. suggesting transport from low intertidal or subtidal zone. Both the ecological affinity and known geographic distribution of identified bivalvia as named above support the hypothesis of transportation rather than local development. In addition to mollusk shells, more than a hundred fish otoliths were recovered in surface sediments. The otoliths mostly belong to the Gadidae family. Most of them are well preserved and without serpulid tubes attached to their surface, suggesting a local/regional origin, unlike the shell remains. Although recovered at the surface, the macrofaunal assemblages of the Lomonosov Ridge do not necessarily represent the "modern" environments as they may result from reworking and because their occurrence at the surface of the sediment may also be due to winnowing of finer particles. Although the shells were not dated, we suspect that their actual ages may range from modern to several thousands of

  8. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease. PMID:27400066

  9. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Raw Cow's Milk Remains Infectious After Pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Kváč, Martin; Tomanová, Vendula; Samková, Eva; Koubová, Jana; Kotková, Michaela; Hlásková, Lenka; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the prevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in raw cow's milk and evaluates the effect of different milk pasteurization treatments on E. cuniculi infectivity for severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach, 1 of 50 milking cows was found to repeatedly shed E. cuniculi in its feces and milk. Under experimental conditions, E. cuniculi spores in milk remained infective for SCID mice following pasteurization treatments at 72 °C for 15 s or 85 °C for 5 s. Based on these findings, pasteurized cow's milk should be considered a potential source of E. cuniculi infection in humans. PMID:26650923

  10. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Frías, Liesbeth; Leles, Daniela; Araújo, Adauto

    2013-01-01

    Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future. PMID:23440107

  11. Remains to be transmitted: Primo Levi's traumatic dream.

    PubMed

    Blévis, Jean-Jacques

    2004-07-01

    Drawing on the writings of Primo Levi and the psychoanalysis of Jacques Lacan, the author attempts to conceive psychic trauma as a coalescence of traumas, since this is perhaps the only way to prevent a subject from being forced back into identification with the catastrophic event, whatever that may have been. A recurrent dream of Primo Levi's suggests to the author the way that traumas may have coalesced within Levi. The hope would be to restore the entire significance of what remains from that traumatic event to the speech (parole) of the Other, to the speech of every human, even the most helpless, bruised, or destroyed among us. PMID:15287444

  12. Research potential and limitations of trace analyses of cremated remains.

    PubMed

    Harbeck, Michaela; Schleuder, Ramona; Schneider, Julius; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Schmahl, Wolfgang W; Grupe, Gisela

    2011-01-30

    Human cremation is a common funeral practice all over the world and will presumably become an even more popular choice for interment in the future. Mainly for purposes of identification, there is presently a growing need to perform trace analyses such as DNA or stable isotope analyses on human remains after cremation in order to clarify pending questions in civil or criminal court cases. The aim of this study was to experimentally test the potential and limitations of DNA and stable isotope analyses when conducted on cremated remains. For this purpose, tibiae from modern cattle were experimentally cremated by incinerating the bones in increments of 100°C until a maximum of 1000°C was reached. In addition, cremated human remains were collected from a modern crematory. The samples were investigated to determine level of DNA preservation and stable isotope values (C and N in collagen, C and O in the structural carbonate, and Sr in apatite). Furthermore, we assessed the integrity of microstructural organization, appearance under UV-light, collagen content, as well as the mineral and crystalline organization. This was conducted in order to provide a general background with which to explain observed changes in the trace analyses data sets. The goal is to develop an efficacious screening method for determining at which degree of burning bone still retains its original biological signals. We found that stable isotope analysis of the tested light elements in bone is only possible up to a heat exposure of 300°C while the isotopic signal from strontium remains unaltered even in bones exposed to very high temperatures. DNA-analyses seem theoretically possible up to a heat exposure of 600°C but can not be advised in every case because of the increased risk of contamination. While the macroscopic colour and UV-fluorescence of cremated bone give hints to temperature exposure of the bone's outer surface, its histological appearance can be used as a reliable indicator for the

  13. OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND MINE MANAGER'S HOME, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. RIGHT, TAILINGS PILES ARE AT CENTER WITH CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS TO THE LEFT OF THE PILES. PARKING LOT IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE AREA BETWEEN THE COLLAPSED TANK AT CENTER LEFT AND THE REMAINS OF THE MANAGER'S HOUSE AT LOWER RIGHT IS A TAILINGS HOLDING AREA. TAILINGS FROM THE MILL WERE HELD HERE. THE LARGE SETTLING TANKS WERE CHARGED FROM THIS HOLDING AREA BY A TRAM ON RAILS AND BY A SLUICEWAY SEEN AS THE DARK SPOT ON THE CENTER LEFT EDGE OF THE FRAME. AFTER THE TAILINGS WERE LEACHED, THEY WERE DEPOSITED ON THE LARGE WASTE PILE AT CENTER RIGHT. THE TANK AT CENTER RIGHT EDGE IS WHERE THE WATER PIPELINE ENTERED THE WORKS. A STRAIGHT LINE OF POSTS IN THE GROUND GO ACROSS THE CENTER FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, WHICH ORIGINALLY SUSPENDED THE WATER PIPELINE GOING FROM THE WATER HOLDING TANK AT RIGHT UP TO THE SECONDARY WATER TANKS ABOVE THE MILL. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  14. Medulloblastoma subgroups remain stable across primary and metastatic compartments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Dubuc, Adrian M; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Mack, Stephen; Gendoo, Deena M A; Remke, Marc; Wu, Xiaochong; Garzia, Livia; Luu, Betty; Cavalli, Florence; Peacock, John; López, Borja; Skowron, Patryk; Zagzag, David; Lyden, David; Hoffman, Caitlin; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Eberhart, Charles; MacDonald, Tobey; Li, Xiao-Nan; Van Meter, Timothy; Northcott, Paul A; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Hawkins, Cynthia; Rutka, James T; Bouffet, Eric; Pfister, Stefan M; Korshunov, Andrey; Taylor, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    Medulloblastoma comprises four distinct molecular variants with distinct genetics, transcriptomes, and outcomes. Subgroup affiliation has been previously shown to remain stable at the time of recurrence, which likely reflects their distinct cells of origin. However, a therapeutically relevant question that remains unanswered is subgroup stability in the metastatic compartment. We assembled a cohort of 12-paired primary-metastatic tumors collected in the MAGIC consortium, and established their molecular subgroup affiliation by performing integrative gene expression and DNA methylation analysis. Frozen tissues were collected and profiled using Affymetrix gene expression arrays and Illumina methylation arrays. Class prediction and hierarchical clustering were performed using existing published datasets. Our molecular analysis, using consensus integrative genomic data, establishes the unequivocal maintenance of molecular subgroup affiliation in metastatic medulloblastoma. We further validated these findings by interrogating a non-overlapping cohort of 19 pairs of primary-metastatic tumors from the Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute using an orthogonal technique of immunohistochemical staining. This investigation represents the largest reported primary-metastatic paired cohort profiled to date and provides a unique opportunity to evaluate subgroup-specific molecular aberrations within the metastatic compartment. Our findings further support the hypothesis that medulloblastoma subgroups arise from distinct cells of origin, which are carried forward from ontogeny to oncology. PMID:25689980

  15. Prions and lymphoid organs: solved and remaining mysteries.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Tracy; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Prion colonization of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) is a critical step preceding neuroinvasion in prion pathogenesis. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which depend on both tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) signaling for maintenance, are thought to be the primary sites of prion accumulation in SLOs. However, prion titers in RML-infected TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes and rates of neuroinvasion in TNFR1 (-/-) mice remain high despite the absence of mature FDCs. Recently, we discovered that TNFR1-independent prion accumulation in lymph nodes relies on LTβR signaling. Loss of LTβR signaling in TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes coincided with the de-differentiation of high endothelial venules (HEVs)-the primary sites of lymphocyte entry into lymph nodes. These findings suggest that HEVs are the sites through which prions initially invade lymph nodes from the bloodstream. Identification of HEVs as entry portals for prions clarifies a number of previous observations concerning peripheral prion pathogenesis. However, a number of questions still remain: What is the mechanism by which prions are taken up by HEVs? Which cells are responsible for delivering prions to lymph nodes? Are HEVs the main entry site for prions into lymph nodes or do alternative routes also exist? These questions and others are considered in this article. PMID:23357827

  16. Reconstructing fish populations using Chaoborus (Diptera: Chaoboridae) remains a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweetman, Jon N.; Smol, John P.

    2006-08-01

    Fish are an important component of many lakes, and a valuable resource in many countries, yet knowledge of how fish populations have fluctuated in the past is very limited. One potential source of information on fisheries dynamics is paleolimnology. This paper reviews the use of the sedimentary remains of the dipteran insect Chaoborus (commonly referred to as the phantom midge) in reconstructing past presence or absence of fish populations. We provide a brief overview of the ecology of Chaoborus larvae, and review the factors believed to be important in determining their distribution and abundance. In particular, we outline the important role fish have in structuring chaoborid assemblages. We highlight several recent studies utilizing Chaoborus remains in reconstructing past fish dynamics, including their use in determining the effects of acidification and piscicide additions on fish populations, and to tracing fish introductions into previously fishless lakes. We conclude by discussing the potential applications of other aquatic invertebrates, such as the Cladocera and Chironomidae, to infer changes in fish populations, and suggest that by integrating the information provided by these different proxies, we may further improve our ability to infer changes in past fish populations.

  17. Detection of Buried Human Remains Using Bioreporter Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, A. Dr.; Singleton, G. B.

    2001-10-01

    The search for buried human remains is a difficult, laborious and time-consuming task for law enforcement agencies. This study was conducted as a proof of principle demonstration to test the concept of using bioreporter microorganisms as a means to cover large areas in such a search. These bioreporter microorganisms are affected by a particular component of decaying organic matter that is distinct from decaying vegetation. The diamino compounds cadaverine and putrescine were selected as target compounds for the proof-of-principle investigation, and a search for microorganisms and genes that are responsive to either of these compounds was conducted. One recombinant clone was singled out for characterization based on its response to putrescine. The study results show that small concentrations of putrescine increased expression from this bioreporter construct. Although the level of increase was small (making it difficult to distinguish the signal from background), the results demonstrate the principle that bioreporters can be used to detect compounds resulting from decaying human remains and suggest that a wider search for target compounds should be conducted.

  18. Ambient aerosols remain highly acidic despite dramatic sulfate reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenes, Athanasios; Weber, Rodney; Guo, Hongyu; Russell, Armistead

    2016-04-01

    The pH of fine particles has many vital environmental impacts. By affecting aerosol concentrations, chemical composition and toxicity, particle pH is linked to regional air quality and climate, and adverse effects on human health. Sulfate is often the main acid component that drives pH of fine particles (i.e., PM2.5) and is neutralized to varying degrees by gas phase ammonia. Sulfate levels have decreased by approximately 70% over the Southeastern United States in the last fifteen years, but measured ammonia levels have been fairly steady implying the aerosol may becoming more neutral. Using a chemically comprehensive data set, combined with a thermodynamic analysis, we show that PM2.5 in the Southeastern U.S. is highly acidic (pH between 0 and 2), and that pH has remained relatively unchanged throughout the past decade and a half of decreasing sulfate. Even with further sulfate reductions, pH buffering by gas-particle partitioning of ammonia is expected to continue until sulfate drops to near background levels, indicating that fine particle pH will remain near current levels into the future. These results are non-intuitive and reshape expectations of how sulfur emission reductions impact air quality in the Southeastern U.S. and possibly other regions across the globe.

  19. A method for defleshing human remains using household bleach.

    PubMed

    Mann, Robert W; Berryman, Hugh E

    2012-03-01

    Medical examiners and forensic anthropologists are often faced with the difficult task of removing soft tissue from the human skeleton without damaging the bones, teeth and, in some cases, cartilage. While there are a number of acceptable methods that can be used to remove soft tissue including macerating in water, simmering or boiling, soaking in ammonia, removing with scissors, knife, scalpel or stiff brush, and dermestid beetles, each has its drawback in time, safety, or potential to damage bone. This technical report using the chest plate of a stabbing victim presents a safe and effective alternative method for removing soft tissue from human remains, in particular the chest plate, following autopsy, without damaging or separating the ribs, sternum, and costal cartilage. This method can be used to reveal subtle blunt force trauma to bone, slicing and stabbing injuries, and other forms of trauma obscured by overlying soft tissue. Despite the published cautionary notes, when done properly household bleach (3-6% sodium hypochlorite) is a quick, safe, and effective method for examining cartilage and exposing skeletal trauma by removing soft tissue from human skeletal remains. PMID:22150429

  20. Homotypic gap junctional communication associated with metastasis increases suppression increases with PKA kinase activity and is unaffected by P13K inhibition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Loss of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) between cancer cells is a common characteristic of malignant transformation. This communication is mediated by connexin proteins that make up the functional units of gap junctions. Connexins are highly regulated at the protein level and phosp...

  1. Increased HIV-1 activity in anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions compared with unaffected anal mucosa in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Pollakis, Georgios; Richel, Olivier; Vis, Joost D; Prins, Jan M; Paxton, William A; de Vries, Henry J C

    2014-06-01

    We studied 3 patients with focal intra-anal tissue high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs). All had increased human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA and DNA in lesions compared with that in healthy mucosa. HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1 episomal DNA were indicative of ongoing viral replication, more so in anal HSILs. PMID:24604897

  2. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... life indicators; minimum requirements. 84.83 Section 84.83 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES... indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements. (a) Elapsed time indicators shall...

  3. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... life indicators; minimum requirements. 84.83 Section 84.83 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES... indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements. (a) Elapsed time indicators shall...

  4. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... life indicators; minimum requirements. 84.83 Section 84.83 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES... indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements. (a) Elapsed time indicators shall...

  5. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... life indicators; minimum requirements. 84.83 Section 84.83 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES... indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements. (a) Elapsed time indicators shall...

  6. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... life indicators; minimum requirements. 84.83 Section 84.83 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES... indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements. (a) Elapsed time indicators shall...

  7. 25 CFR 139.4 - Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership. 139.4 Section 139.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, WAPATO-SATUS UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION...

  8. 25 CFR 139.4 - Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership. 139.4 Section 139.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, WAPATO-SATUS UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION...

  9. 25 CFR 138.4 - Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership. 138.4 Section 138.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, AHTANUM UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT,...

  10. 25 CFR 138.4 - Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership. 138.4 Section 138.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, AHTANUM UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT,...

  11. 25 CFR 139.4 - Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership. 139.4 Section 139.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, WAPATO-SATUS UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION...

  12. 25 CFR 139.4 - Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership. 139.4 Section 139.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, WAPATO-SATUS UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION...

  13. 25 CFR 138.4 - Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership. 138.4 Section 138.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, AHTANUM UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT,...

  14. 25 CFR 138.4 - Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership. 138.4 Section 138.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, AHTANUM UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT,...

  15. 25 CFR 139.4 - Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership. 139.4 Section 139.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, WAPATO-SATUS UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION...

  16. 25 CFR 138.4 - Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership. 138.4 Section 138.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, AHTANUM UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT,...

  17. Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-11-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices

  18. Oldest directly dated remains of sheep in China.

    PubMed

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-01-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ(13)C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ(13)C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices. PMID:25417648

  19. Weight references for burned human skeletal remains from Portuguese samples.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Eugénia; Thompson, Tim J U

    2013-09-01

    Weight is often one of the few recoverable data when analyzing human cremains but references are still rare, especially for European populations. Mean weights for skeletal remains were thus documented for Portuguese modern cremations of both recently deceased individuals and dry skeletons, and the effect of age, sex, and the intensity of combustion was investigated using both multivariate and univariate statistics. The cremains from fresh cadavers were significantly heavier than the ones from dry skeletons regardless of sex and age cohort (p < 0.001 to p = 0.003). As expected, males were heavier than females and age had a powerful effect in female skeletal weight. The effect of the intensity of combustion in cremains weight was unclear. These weight references may, in some cases, help estimating the minimum number of individuals, the completeness of the skeletal assemblage, and the sex of an unknown individual. PMID:23822840

  20. Reidentification of Avian Embryonic Remains from the Cretaceous of Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Varricchio, David J.; Balanoff, Amy M.; Norell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm) egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT) was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar) 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus) identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record. PMID:26030147

  1. Mineralized Remains of Morphotypes of Filamentous Cyanobacteria in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    ) investigations of freshly fractured interior surfaces of carbonaceous meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and recent microbial extremophiles and filamentous cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection in a several carbonaceous meteorites of the mineralized remains of a wide variety of complex filamentous trichomic microorganisms. These embedded forms are consistent in size and microstructure with well-preserved morphotypes of mat- forming filamentous trichomic cyanobacteria and the degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. We present the results of comparative imaging studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) that are similar in size, morphology and microstructure to morphotypes found embedded in meteorites. EDAX elemental studies reveal that forms found in carbonaceous meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes and microbial cells. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in filaments, trichomes, hormogonia, and cells of recent cyanobacteria.

  2. Future Remains: Industrial Heritage at the Hanford Plutonium Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, Brian

    This dissertation argues that U.S. environmental and historic preservation regulations, industrial heritage projects, history, and art only provide partial frameworks for successfully transmitting an informed story into the long range future about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy. This argument is important because plutonium from nuclear weapons production is toxic to humans in very small amounts, threatens environmental health, has a half-life of 24, 110 years and because the industrial heritage project at Hanford is the first time an entire U.S. Department of Energy weapons production site has been designated a U.S. Historic District. This research is situated within anthropological interest in industrial heritage studies, environmental anthropology, applied visual anthropology, as well as wider discourses on nuclear studies. However, none of these disciplines is really designed or intended to be a completely satisfactory frame of reference for addressing this perplexing challenge of documenting and conveying an informed story about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy into the long range future. Others have thought about this question and have made important contributions toward a potential solution. Examples here include: future generations movements concerning intergenerational equity as evidenced in scholarship, law, and amongst Native American groups; Nez Perce and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation responses to the Hanford End State Vision and Hanford's Canyon Disposition Initiative; as well as the findings of organizational scholars on the advantages realized by organizations that have a long term future perspective. While these ideas inform the main line inquiry of this dissertation, the principal approach put forth by the researcher of how to convey an informed story about nuclear technology and waste into the long range future is implementation of the proposed Future Remains clause, as

  3. [New studies of COX-inhibitors, yet issues remain].

    PubMed

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2003-09-18

    Advantages and risks related to the use of selective COX-2 inhibitors when treating arthritis are currently being scrutinized by authorities and public. The discussion tends towards exaggerated claims for or against their usefulness. The issue of cardiovascular safety is still not finally settled. In an experimental study using patients with severe coronary disease, administration of celecoxib resulted in improved endothelial function together with reduced CRP levels. Gastrointestinal tolerance was studied in patients who had recently recovered from peptic ulcer bleeding. In this group of high risk patients, celecoxib was as safe as combined therapy using omeprazol and diclofenac when given for 6 months. However, both COX inhibitors caused hypertension and adverse renal effects. The second generation of selective inhibitors is being launched. Etoricoxib--related to rofecoxib--was shown to be as potent as indomethacin in the treatment of acute gout, but it caused fewer adverse reactions. In general, however, any advantage of second generation as compared to first generation COX-2 inhibitors remains to be proven. The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care, in its "SBU Alert", has published an appraisal of celecoxib and rofecoxib, in which the need for further long-term safety studies is emphasized. PMID:14558211

  4. Are the alleged remains of Johann Sebastian Bach authentic?

    PubMed

    Zegers, Richard H C; Maas, Mario; Koopman, A Ton G; Maat, George J R

    2009-02-16

    A skeleton alleged to be that of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was exhumed from a graveyard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1894, but its authenticity is not established. In 1895, anatomist Wilhelm His concluded from his examination of the skeleton and reconstruction of the face that it most likely belonged to Bach. In 1949, surgeon Wolfgang Rosenthal noticed exostoses on the skeleton and on x-rays of 11 living organists and proposed a condition, Organistenkrankheit, which he interpreted as evidence that the skeleton was Bach's. However, our critical assessment of the remains analysis raises doubts: the localisation of the grave was dubious, and the methods used by His to reconstruct the face are controversial. Also, our study of the pelvic x-rays of 12 living professional organists failed to find evidence for the existence of Organistenkrankheit. We believe it is unlikely that the skeleton is that of Bach; techniques such as DNA analysis might help resolve the question but, to date, church authorities have not approved their use on the skeleton. PMID:19220191

  5. Remains of Homo erectus from Bouri, Middle Awash, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asfaw, Berhane; Gilbert, W Henry; Beyene, Yonas; Hart, William K; Renne, Paul R; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Vrba, Elisabeth S; White, Tim D

    2002-03-21

    The genesis, evolution and fate of Homo erectus have been explored palaeontologically since the taxon's recognition in the late nineteenth century. Current debate is focused on whether early representatives from Kenya and Georgia should be classified as a separate ancestral species ('H. ergaster'), and whether H. erectus was an exclusively Asian species lineage that went extinct. Lack of resolution of these issues has obscured the place of H. erectus in human evolution. A hominid calvaria and postcranial remains recently recovered from the Dakanihylo Member of the Bouri Formation, Middle Awash, Ethiopia, bear directly on these issues. These approximately 1.0-million-year (Myr)-old Pleistocene sediments contain abundant early Acheulean stone tools and a diverse vertebrate fauna that indicates a predominantly savannah environment. Here we report that the 'Daka' calvaria's metric and morphological attributes centre it firmly within H. erectus. Daka's resemblance to Asian counterparts indicates that the early African and Eurasian fossil hominids represent demes of a widespread palaeospecies. Daka's anatomical intermediacy between earlier and later African fossils provides evidence of evolutionary change. Its temporal and geographic position indicates that African H. erectus was the ancestor of Homo sapiens. PMID:11907576

  6. Negotiating compliance in heart failure: remaining issues and questions.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Marcia J E; Riegel, Barbara; Carlson, Beverly; De Geest, Sabina

    2005-12-01

    Living with heart failure (HF) means living with a chronic illness characterized by periods of acute decompensation alternating with periods of relative stability. Improved medical care for patients with cardiovascular diseases, coupled with the aging of the populations in the developed world, has resulted in a steadily increasing prevalence of HF. Rehospitalization rates are high for this patient population. In 20-64% of the cases, poor compliance by patients with the prescribed HF treatment is a contributing factor to hospitalization. This article uses a review of the literature on HF non-compliance, including the prevalence, barriers, consequences, and the long-term outcomes of non-compliance with HF therapy, to illustrate remaining issues and questions. Original studies published in English or German between 1966 and June 2004 identified by combining patient compliance, non-compliance, adherence, self-care, rehospitalization, patient education, and management programs, with heart failure in the search strategy are included. Creative approaches to achieving a true partnership between providers and patients are needed if clinical outcomes are to improve. PMID:15893959

  7. Atomic data for stellar spectroscopy: recent successes and remaining needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Christopher; Lawler, James E.; Wood, Michael P.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth A.; Cowan, John J.

    2014-11-01

    Stellar chemical composition analyses provide vital insights into galactic nucleosynthesis. Atomic line data are critical inputs to stellar abundance computations. Recent lab studies have made significant progress in refining and extending knowledge of transition probabilities, isotopic wavelength shifts, and hyperfine substructure patterns for the absorption lines that are of most interest to stellar spectroscopists. The observable neutron-capture (n-capture) element species (Z \\gt 30) have been scrutinized in lab studies by several groups. For many species the uncertainties in experimental oscillator strengths are ≤slant 10%, which permits detailed assessment of rapid and slow n-capture nucleosynthesis contributions. In this review, extreme examples of r-process-enriched stars in the galactic halo will be shown, which suggest that the description of observable n-capture abundances in these stars is nearly complete. Unfortunately, there are serious remaining concerns about the reliability of observed abundances of lighter elements. In particular, it is not clear that line formation in real stellar atmospheres is being modeled correctly. But for many elements with Z \\lt 30 the atomic transition data are not yet settled. Highlights will be given of some recent large improvements, with suggestions for the most important needs for the near future.

  8. New Evidence Links Stellar Remains to Oldest Recorded Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    Recent observations have uncovered evidence that helps to confirm the identification of the remains of one of the earliest stellar explosions recorded by humans. The new study shows that the supernova remnant RCW 86 is much younger than previously thought. As such, the formation of the remnant appears to coincide with a supernova observed by Chinese astronomers in 185 A.D. The study used data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton Observatory, "There have been previous suggestions that RCW 86 is the remains of the supernova from 185 A.D.," said Jacco Vink of University of Utrecht, the Netherlands, and lead author of the study. "These new X-ray data greatly strengthen the case." When a massive star runs out of fuel, it collapses on itself, creating a supernova that can outshine an entire galaxy. The intense explosion hurls the outer layers of the star into space and produces powerful shock waves. The remains of the star and the material it encounters are heated to millions of degrees and can emit intense X-ray radiation for thousands of years. Animation of a Massive Star Explosion Animation of a Massive Star Explosion In their stellar forensic work, Vink and colleagues studied the debris in RCW 86 to estimate when its progenitor star originally exploded. They calculated how quickly the shocked, or energized, shell is moving in RCW 86, by studying one part of the remnant. They combined this expansion velocity with the size of the remnant and a basic understanding of how supernovas expand to estimate the age of RCW 86. "Our new calculations tell us the remnant is about 2,000 years old," said Aya Bamba, a coauthor from the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Japan. "Previously astronomers had estimated an age of 10,000 years." The younger age for RCW 86 may explain an astronomical event observed almost 2000 years ago. In 185 AD, Chinese astronomers (and possibly the Romans) recorded the appearance of a new

  9. Carnivoran remains from the Malapa hominin site, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Brian F; Werdelin, Lars; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Berger, Lee R

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea). Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat). The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene. PMID:22073222

  10. Coal's role in electrical power generation: Will it remain competitive?

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, C.

    1999-07-01

    Coal is the most abundant worldwide fossil fuel. In the US, coal represents 95% of fossil energy reserves. The US coal resources represent more energy than either proven oil or natural gas reserves and can be expected to last more than 250 years at current consumption rates. Coal fired power plants currently produce 56% of electrical generation in the US and 36% worldwide, and forecasts show coal use to increase. Impressive statistics such as these, along with the direct correlation between electrical growth and GDP should indicate that coal has a bright future. There are some clouds on the horizon, however, that could dim this seemingly rosy picture. Potentially, the greatest challenge to coal's future is CO2 emission restrictions to address global climate change. Realistically, coal has to be a part of the generation mix of developing nations, particularly those with abundant coal resources such as China and India. If electrification of these countries and corresponding economic growth is to take place, there are not presently a lot of cost effective alternatives. This paper presents a discussion of what the coal industry is doing to remain competitive. It looks at environmental and competitive issues facing coal use.

  11. Carnivoran Remains from the Malapa Hominin Site, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Brian F.; Werdelin, Lars; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Berger, Lee R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea). Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat). The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene. PMID:22073222

  12. DNA Profiling Success Rates from Degraded Skeletal Remains in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Emma; Stephenson, Mishel

    2016-07-01

    No data are available regarding the success of DNA Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling from degraded skeletal remains in Guatemala. Therefore, DNA profiling success rates relating to 2595 skeletons from eleven cases at the Forensic Anthropology Foundation of Guatemala (FAFG) are presented. The typical postmortem interval was 30 years. DNA was extracted from bone powder and amplified using Identifiler and Minifler. DNA profiling success rates differed between cases, ranging from 50.8% to 7.0%, the overall success rate for samples was 36.3%. The best DNA profiling success rates were obtained from femur (36.2%) and tooth (33.7%) samples. DNA profiles were significantly better from lower body bones than upper body bones (p = <0.0001). Bone samples from males gave significantly better profiles than samples from females (p = <0.0001). These results are believed to be related to bone density. The findings are important for designing forensic DNA sampling strategies in future victim recovery investigations. PMID:27364268

  13. National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program Remains Suboptimal in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jae Myung; Moon, Jeong Seop; Chung, Il-Kwun; Kim, Jin-Oh; Im, Jong Pil; Cho, Yu Kyung; Kim, Hyun Gun; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Hang Lak; Jang, Jae Young; Kim, Eun Sun; Jung, Yunho; Moon, Chang Mo; Kim, Yeol; Park, Bo Young

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims We evaluated the characteristics of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) and opinions regarding the National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program (NEQIP). Methods We surveyed physicians performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy and/or colonoscopy screenings as part of the NCSP via e-mail between July and August in 2015. The 32-item survey instrument included endoscopic capacity, sedation, and reprocessing of endoscopes as well as opinions regarding the NEQIP. Results A total of 507 respondents were analyzed after the exclusion of 40 incomplete answers. Under the current capacity of the NCSP, the typical waiting time for screening endoscopy was less than 4 weeks in more than 90% of endoscopy units. Performance of endoscopy reprocessing was suboptimal, with 28% of respondents using unapproved disinfectants or not knowing the main ingredient of their disinfectants and 15% to 17% of respondents not following reprocessing protocols. Agreement with the NEQIP was optimal, because only 5.7% of respondents did not agree with NEQIP; however, familiarity with the NEQIP was suboptimal, because only 37.3% of respondents were familiar with the NEQIP criteria. Conclusions The NEQ-IP remains suboptimal in Korea. Given the suboptimal performance of endoscopy reprocessing and low familiarity with the NEQIP, improved quality in endoscopy reprocessing and better understanding of the NEQIP should be emphasized in Korea. PMID:27282270

  14. Mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria in carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-09-01

    rocks, living, cryopreserved and fossilized extremophiles and cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection of mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria, mats and consortia in many carbonaceous meteorites. These well-preserved and embedded microfossils are consistent with the size, morphology and ultra-microstructure of filamentous trichomic prokaryotes and degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. EDAX elemental studies reveal that the forms in the meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes, and microbial cells. The eextensive protocols and methodologies that have been developed to protect the samples from contamination and to distinguish recent contaminants from indigenous microfossils are described recent bio-contaminants. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in the cells, filaments, trichomes, and hormogonia of recently living cyanobacteria. The results of comparative optical, ESEM and FESEM studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) of similar size, morphology and microstructure to microfossils found embedded in the Murchison CM2 and the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorites are presented

  15. Without nerves, immunology remains incomplete – in vivo veritas

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Andrew J; Downing, James E G; Miyan, Jaleel A

    2005-01-01

    Interest in the interactions between nervous and immune systems involved in both pathological and homeostatic mechanisms of host defence has prompted studies of neuroendocrine immune modulation and cytokine involvement in neuropathologies. In this review we concentrate on a distinct area of homeostatic control of both normal and abnormal host defence activity involving the network of peripheral c-fibre nerve fibres. These nerve fibres have long been recognized by dermatologists and gastroenterologists as key players in abnormal inflammatory processes, such as dermatitis and eczema. However, the involvement of nerves can all too easily be regarded as that of isolated elements in a local phenomenon. On the contrary, it is becoming increasingly clear that neural monitoring of host defence activities takes place, and that involvement of central/spinal mechanisms are crucial in the co-ordination of the adaptive response to host challenge. We describe studies demonstrating neural control of host defence and use the specific examples of bone marrow haemopoiesis and contact sensitivity to highlight the role of direct nerve fibre connections in these activities. We propose a host monitoring system that requires interaction between specialized immune cells and nerve fibres distributed throughout the body and that gives rise to both neural and immune memories of prior challenge. While immunological mechanisms alone may be sufficient for local responsiveness to subsequent challenge, data are discussed that implicate the neural memory in co-ordination of host defence across the body, at distinct sites not served by the same nerve fibres, consistent with central nervous mediation. PMID:16162264

  16. Sky-view factor visualization for detection of archaeological remains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokalj, Žiga; Oštir, Krištof; Zakšek, Klemen

    2013-04-01

    Many archaeological remains are covered by sand or vegetation but it still possible to detect them by remote sensing techniques. One of them is airborne laser scanning that enables production of digital elevation models (DEM) of very high resolution (better than 1 m) with high relative elevation accuracy (centimetre level), even under forest. Thus, it has become well established in archaeological applications. However, effective interpretation of digital elevation models requires appropriate data visualization. Analytical relief shading is used in most cases. Although widely accepted, this method has two major drawbacks: identifying details in deep shades and inability to properly represent linear features lying parallel to the light beam. Several authors have tried to overcome these limitations by changing the position of the light source or by filtering. This contribution addresses the DEM visualization problem by sky-view factor, a visualization technique based on diffuse light that overcomes the directional problems of hill-shading. Sky-view factor is a parameter that describes the portion of visible sky limited by relief. It can be used as a general relief visualization technique to show relief characteristics. In particular, we show that this visualization is a very useful tool in archaeology. Applying the sky-view factor for visualization purposes gives advantages over other techniques because it reveals small (or large, depending on the scale of the observed phenomenon and consequential algorithm settings) relief features while preserving the perception of general topography. In the case study (DEM visualization of a fortified enclosure of Tonovcov grad in Slovenia) we show that for the archaeological purposes the sky-view factor is the optimal DEM visualization method. Its ability to consider the neighborhood context makes it an outstanding tool when compared to other visualization techniques. One can choose a large search radius and the most important

  17. AIDS, individual behaviour and the unexplained remaining variation.

    PubMed

    Katz, Alison

    2002-01-01

    From the start of the AIDS pandemic, individual behaviour has been put forward, implicitly or explicitly, as the main explanatory concept for understanding the epidemiology of HIV infection and in particular for the rapid spread and high prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. This has had enormous implications for the international response to AIDS and has heavily influenced public health policy and strategy and the design of prevention and care interventions at national, community and individual level. It is argued that individual behaviour alone cannot possibly account for the enormous variation in HIV prevalence between population groups, countries and regions and that the unexplained remaining variation has been neglected by the international AIDS community. Biological vulnerability to HIV due to seriously deficient immune systems has been ignored as a determinant of the high levels of infection in certain populations. This is in sharp contrast to well proven public health approaches to other infectious diseases. In particular, it is argued that poor nutrition and co-infection with the myriad of other diseases of poverty including tuberculosis, malaria, leishmaniasis and parasitic infections, have been neglected as root causes of susceptibility, infectiousness and high rates of transmission of HIV at the level of populations. Vulnerability in terms of non-biological factors such as labour migration, prostitution, exchange of sex for survival, population movements due to war and violence, has received some attention but the solutions proposed to these problems are also inappropriately focused on individual behaviour and suffer from the same neglect of economic and political root causes. As the foundation for the international community's response to the AIDS pandemic, explanations of HIV/AIDS epidemiology in terms of individual behaviour are not only grossly inadequate, they are highly stigmatising and may in some cases, be racist. They have diverted attention from

  18. Activity-dependent plasticity of hippocampal place maps.

    PubMed

    Schoenenberger, Philipp; O'Neill, Joseph; Csicsvari, Jozsef

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neurons encode a cognitive map of space. These maps are thought to be updated during learning and in response to changes in the environment through activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Here we examine how changes in activity influence spatial coding in rats using halorhodopsin-mediated, spatially selective optogenetic silencing. Halorhoposin stimulation leads to light-induced suppression in many place cells and interneurons; some place cells increase their firing through disinhibition, whereas some show no effect. We find that place fields of the unaffected subpopulation remain stable. On the other hand, place fields of suppressed place cells were unstable, showing remapping across sessions before and after optogenetic inhibition. Disinhibited place cells had stable maps but sustained an elevated firing rate. These findings suggest that place representation in the hippocampus is constantly governed by activity-dependent processes, and that disinhibition may provide a mechanism for rate remapping. PMID:27282121

  19. Activity-dependent plasticity of hippocampal place maps

    PubMed Central

    Schoenenberger, Philipp; O'Neill, Joseph; Csicsvari, Jozsef

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neurons encode a cognitive map of space. These maps are thought to be updated during learning and in response to changes in the environment through activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Here we examine how changes in activity influence spatial coding in rats using halorhodopsin-mediated, spatially selective optogenetic silencing. Halorhoposin stimulation leads to light-induced suppression in many place cells and interneurons; some place cells increase their firing through disinhibition, whereas some show no effect. We find that place fields of the unaffected subpopulation remain stable. On the other hand, place fields of suppressed place cells were unstable, showing remapping across sessions before and after optogenetic inhibition. Disinhibited place cells had stable maps but sustained an elevated firing rate. These findings suggest that place representation in the hippocampus is constantly governed by activity-dependent processes, and that disinhibition may provide a mechanism for rate remapping. PMID:27282121

  20. Exploratory genotype–phenotype correlations of facial form and asymmetry in unaffected relatives of children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Steven F; Weinberg, Seth M; Nidey, Nichole L; Defay, David K; Marazita, Mary L; Wehby, George L; Moreno Uribe, Lina M

    2014-01-01

    Family relatives of children with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) who presumably carry a genetic risk yet do not manifest overt oral clefts, often present with distinct facial morphology of unknown genetic etiology. This study investigates distinct facial morphology among unaffected relatives and examines whether candidate genes previously associated with overt NSCL/P and left–right body patterning are correlated with such facial morphology. Cases were unaffected relatives of individuals with NSCL/P (n = 188) and controls (n = 194) were individuals without family history of NSCL/P. Cases and controls were genotyped for 20 SNPs across 13 candidate genes for NSCL/P (PAX7, ABCA4-ARHGAP29, IRF6, MSX1, PITX2, 8q24, FOXE1, TGFB3 and MAFB) and left–right body patterning (LEFTY1, LEFTY2, ISL1 and SNAI1). Facial shape and asymmetry phenotypes were obtained via principal component analyses and Procrustes analysis of variance from 32 coordinate landmarks, digitized on 3D facial images. Case–control comparisons of phenotypes obtained were performed via multivariate regression adjusting for age and gender. Phenotypes that differed significantly (P < 0.05) between cases and controls were regressed on the SNPs one at a time. Cases had significantly (P < 0.05) more profile concavity with upper face retrusion, upturned noses with obtuse nasolabial angles, more protrusive chins, increased lower facial heights, thinner and more retrusive lips and more protrusive foreheads. Furthermore, cases showed significantly more directional asymmetry compared to controls. Several of these phenotypes were significantly associated with genetic variants (P < 0.05). Facial height and width were associated with SNAI1. Midface antero-posterior (AP) projection was associated with LEFTY1. The AP position of the chin was related to SNAI1, IRF6, MSX1 and MAFB. The AP position of the forehead and the width of the mouth were associated with ABCA4–ARHGAP29 and

  1. Remaining challenges in cellular flavin cofactor homeostasis and flavoprotein biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Giancaspero, Teresa A.; Colella, Matilde; Brizio, Carmen; Difonzo, Graziana; Fiorino, Giuseppina M.; Leone, Piero; Brandsch, Roderich; Bonomi, Francesco; Iametti, Stefania; Barile, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The primary role of the water-soluble vitamin B2 (riboflavin) in cell biology is connected with its conversion into FMN and FAD, the cofactors of a large number of dehydrogenases, oxidases and reductases involved in a broad spectrum of biological activities, among which energetic metabolism and chromatin remodeling. Subcellular localisation of FAD synthase (EC 2.7.7.2, FADS), the second enzyme in the FAD forming pathway, is addressed here in HepG2 cells by confocal microscopy, in the frame of its relationships with kinetics of FAD synthesis and delivery to client apo-flavoproteins. FAD synthesis catalyzed by recombinant isoform 2 of FADS occurs via an ordered bi-bi mechanism in which ATP binds prior to FMN, and pyrophosphate is released before FAD. Spectrophotometric continuous assays of the reconstitution rate of apo-D-aminoacid oxidase with its cofactor, allowed us to propose that besides its FAD synthesizing activity, hFADS is able to operate as a FAD “chaperone.” The physical interaction between FAD forming enzyme and its clients was further confirmed by dot blot and immunoprecipitation experiments carried out testing as a client either a nuclear lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) or a mitochondrial dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (Me2GlyDH, EC 1.5.8.4). Both enzymes carry out similar reactions of oxidative demethylation, in which tetrahydrofolate is converted into 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate. A direct transfer of the cofactor from hFADS2 to apo-dimethyl glycine dehydrogenase was also demonstrated. Thus, FAD synthesis and delivery to these enzymes are crucial processes for bioenergetics and nutri-epigenetics of liver cells. PMID:25954742

  2. Remaining challenges in cellular flavin cofactor homeostasis and flavoprotein biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Giancaspero, Teresa A; Colella, Matilde; Brizio, Carmen; Difonzo, Graziana; Fiorino, Giuseppina M; Leone, Piero; Brandsch, Roderich; Bonomi, Francesco; Iametti, Stefania; Barile, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The primary role of the water-soluble vitamin B2 (riboflavin) in cell biology is connected with its conversion into FMN and FAD, the cofactors of a large number of dehydrogenases, oxidases and reductases involved in a broad spectrum of biological activities, among which energetic metabolism and chromatin remodeling. Subcellular localisation of FAD synthase (EC 2.7.7.2, FADS), the second enzyme in the FAD forming pathway, is addressed here in HepG2 cells by confocal microscopy, in the frame of its relationships with kinetics of FAD synthesis and delivery to client apo-flavoproteins. FAD synthesis catalyzed by recombinant isoform 2 of FADS occurs via an ordered bi-bi mechanism in which ATP binds prior to FMN, and pyrophosphate is released before FAD. Spectrophotometric continuous assays of the reconstitution rate of apo-D-aminoacid oxidase with its cofactor, allowed us to propose that besides its FAD synthesizing activity, hFADS is able to operate as a FAD "chaperone." The physical interaction between FAD forming enzyme and its clients was further confirmed by dot blot and immunoprecipitation experiments carried out testing as a client either a nuclear lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) or a mitochondrial dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (Me2GlyDH, EC 1.5.8.4). Both enzymes carry out similar reactions of oxidative demethylation, in which tetrahydrofolate is converted into 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate. A direct transfer of the cofactor from hFADS2 to apo-dimethyl glycine dehydrogenase was also demonstrated. Thus, FAD synthesis and delivery to these enzymes are crucial processes for bioenergetics and nutri-epigenetics of liver cells. PMID:25954742

  3. Oncolytic viruses as immunotherapy: progress and remaining challenges.

    PubMed

    Aurelian, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) comprise an emerging cancer therapeutic modality whose activity involves both direct tumor cell lysis and the induction of immunogenic cell death (ICD). Cellular proteins released from the OV-lysed tumor cells, known as damage-associated molecular patterns and tumor-associated antigens, activate dendritic cells and elicit adaptive antitumor immunity. Interaction with the innate immune system and the development of long-lasting immune memory also contribute to OV-induced cell death. The degree to which the ICD component contributes to the clinical efficacy of OV therapy is still unclear. Modulation of a range of immune interactions may be beneficial or detrimental in nature and the interactions depend on the specific tumor, the site and extent of the disease, the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, the OV platform, the dose, time, and delivery conditions, as well as individual patient responses. To enhance the contribution of ICD, OVs have been engineered to express immunostimulatory genes and strategies have been developed to combine OV therapy with chemo- and immune-based therapeutic regimens. However, these approaches carry the risk that they may also be tolerogenic depending on their levels and the presence of other cytokines, their direct antiviral effects, and the timing and conditions of their expression. The contribution of autophagy to adaptive immunity, the ability of the OVs to kill cancer stem cells, and the patient's baseline immune status are additional considerations. This review focuses on the complex and as yet poorly understood balancing act that dictates the outcome of OV therapy. We summarize current understanding of the OVs' function in eliciting antitumor immunity and its relationship to therapeutic efficacy. Also discussed are the criteria involved in restraining antiviral immune responses and minimizing pathology while promoting antitumor immunity to override immune tolerance. PMID:27226725

  4. Oncolytic viruses as immunotherapy: progress and remaining challenges

    PubMed Central

    Aurelian, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) comprise an emerging cancer therapeutic modality whose activity involves both direct tumor cell lysis and the induction of immunogenic cell death (ICD). Cellular proteins released from the OV-lysed tumor cells, known as damage-associated molecular patterns and tumor-associated antigens, activate dendritic cells and elicit adaptive antitumor immunity. Interaction with the innate immune system and the development of long-lasting immune memory also contribute to OV-induced cell death. The degree to which the ICD component contributes to the clinical efficacy of OV therapy is still unclear. Modulation of a range of immune interactions may be beneficial or detrimental in nature and the interactions depend on the specific tumor, the site and extent of the disease, the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, the OV platform, the dose, time, and delivery conditions, as well as individual patient responses. To enhance the contribution of ICD, OVs have been engineered to express immunostimulatory genes and strategies have been developed to combine OV therapy with chemo- and immune-based therapeutic regimens. However, these approaches carry the risk that they may also be tolerogenic depending on their levels and the presence of other cytokines, their direct antiviral effects, and the timing and conditions of their expression. The contribution of autophagy to adaptive immunity, the ability of the OVs to kill cancer stem cells, and the patient’s baseline immune status are additional considerations. This review focuses on the complex and as yet poorly understood balancing act that dictates the outcome of OV therapy. We summarize current understanding of the OVs’ function in eliciting antitumor immunity and its relationship to therapeutic efficacy. Also discussed are the criteria involved in restraining antiviral immune responses and minimizing pathology while promoting antitumor immunity to override immune tolerance. PMID:27226725

  5. Chemical Loss of Polar Ozone: Present Understanding and Remaining Uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salawitch, Ross; Canty, Tim; Cunnold, Derek; Dorf, Marcel; Frieler, Katja; Godin-Beekman, Sophie; Newchurch, Michael; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Rex, Markus; Stimpfle, Rick; Streibel, Martin; vonderGathen, Peter; Weisenstein, Debra; Yan, Eun-Su

    2005-01-01

    Not long after the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole, it was established that halogen compounds, supplied to the atmosphere mainly by anthropogenic activities, are the primary driver of polar ozone loss. We will briefly review the chemical mechanisms that cause polar ozone loss and the early evidence showing the key role played by anthropogenic halogens. Recently, stratospheric halogen loading has leveled off, due to adherence to the Montreal Protocol and its amendments that has essentially banned CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) and other halocarbons. We will describe recent reports of the first stage of recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole (e.g., a statistically significant slowing of the downward trend), associated with the leveling off of stratospheric halogens. Despite this degree of understanding, we will discuss the tendency of photochemical models to underestimate the observed rate of polar ozone loss and a hypothesis that has recently been put forth that might resolve this discrepancy. Finally, we will briefly discuss chemical loss of Arctic ozone, which

  6. Muscle phenotype remains unaltered after limb autotomy and unloading.

    PubMed

    Griffis, B; Moffett, S B; Cooper, R L

    2001-01-01

    Loss of chelipeds in crustaceans results in severe atrophy of the major muscle responsible for lifting the limb, the anterior levator. We decided to test if this loss of mechanical load altered muscle phenotype as measured by SDS-PAGE analysis of levator total protein and actomyosin fractions. Levator muscles of adult crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, with either functional regenerate limbs or lack of limb buds (papilla stage) were compared with those from normal contralateral limbs and those from pristine animals. We find that there is no difference in protein profiles among the three conditions. However, the total protein profile for the dually excited levator muscle is unique compared to those of fast or slow muscles of the abdomen (L and SEL, respectively), which receive only phasic or tonic excitatory innervation. The levator myosin heavy chain profile is similar to that of slow phenotype muscles such as the SEL and opener. We conclude that load does not influence levator phenotype. This is likely due either to the intact innervation and continued activation of the levator during atrophy or to the maintenance of passive tension on the muscle. J. Exp. Zool. 289:10-22, 2001. PMID:11169489

  7. Relevance of Five-Factor Model personality traits for obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with psychotic disorders and their un-affected siblings.

    PubMed

    Schirmbeck, Frederike; Boyette, Lindy-Lou; van der Valk, Renate; Meijer, Carin; Dingemans, Peter; Van, Rien; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René S; de Haan, Lieuwe; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; Meijer, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2015-02-28

    High rates of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia require pathogenic explanations. Personality traits may represent risk and resiliency factors for the development of mental disorders and their comorbidities. The aim of the present study was to explore the associations between Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits and the liability for OCS in patients with psychotic disorders and in their un-affected siblings. FFM traits, occurrence and severity of OCS and (subclinical) psychotic symptoms were assessed in 208 patients and in 281 siblings. Differences in FFM traits between participants with vs. without comorbid OCS were examined and the predictive value of FFM traits on group categorization was evaluated. Associations between FFM traits and OCS severity were investigated. Patients and siblings with OCS showed significantly higher Neuroticism compared to their counterparts without OCS. Neuroticism was positively associated with higher OCS severity and significantly predicted group assignment in both patients and in siblings. Patients with comorbid OCS presented with lower scores on Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Higher Neuroticism, and to a lesser degree lower Extraversion and Conscientiousness might add to the vulnerability of patients with a psychotic disorder to also develop OCS. Future prospective studies are needed to elucidate proposed personality-psychopathology interrelations and possible mediating factors. PMID:25613659

  8. Intestinal and Systemic Immune Development and Response to Vaccination Are Unaffected by Dietary (1,3/1,6)-β-d-Glucan Supplementation in Neonatal Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Hester, Shelly N.; Comstock, Sarah S.; Thorum, Shannon C.; Monaco, Marcia H.; Pence, Brandt D.; Woods, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Infants are susceptible to infections in early life and must rely on their innate immune system for protection. β-Glucans potentiate immune responses. Therefore, we evaluated the influence of purified yeast (1,3/1,6)-β-d-glucan (Wellmune WGP, here referred to as WGP) on the development of the gastrointestinal tract and the intestinal and systemic immune systems in neonatal piglets. Piglets were fed formula containing 0 (control), 1.8, 18, or 90 mg WGP/kg body weight (BW) and were vaccinated against human influenza. Piglets were euthanized at 7 or 21 days of age. Piglet weight and small intestinal length and weight were unaffected by dietary WGP. In addition, WGP did not affect ileal crypt depth, villus height, or ascending colon cuff depth. Immune parameters not affected by WGP supplementation included T cell phenotypes, cytokine gene expression, and cell proliferation. However, vaccination and developmental effects were seen. Overall, the doses of 1.8, 18, and 90 mg/kg BW of dietary WGP had no effect on intestinal or immune development and did not improve the antibody response to vaccination in neonatal piglets. PMID:22815151

  9. Perceptions of Prostate Cancer Screening Controversy and Informed Decision Making: Implications for Development of a Targeted Decision Aid for Unaffected Male First-Degree Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Gwede, Clement K.; Davis, Stacy N.; Wilson, Shaenelle; Patel, Mitul; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Meade, Cathy D.; Rivers, Brian M.; Yu, Daohai; Torres-Roca, Javier; Heysek, Randy; Spiess, Philippe E.; Pow-Sang, Julio; Jacobsen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose First-degree relatives (FDRs) of prostate cancer (PC) patients should consider multiple concurrent personal risk factors when engaging in informed decision making (IDM) about PC screening. This study assessed perceptions of IDM recommendations and risk-appropriate strategies for IDM among FDRs of varied race/ethnicity. Design A cross-sectional, qualitative Setting Study setting was a cancer center in southwest Florida. Participants The study comprised 44 participants (24 PC patients and 20 unaffected FDRs). Method Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted and analyzed using content analysis and constant comparison methods. Results Patients and FDRs found the PC screening debate and IDM recommendations to be complex and counterintuitive. They overwhelmingly believed screening saves lives and does not have associated harms. There was a strongly expressed need to improve communication between patients and FDRs. A single decision aid that addresses the needs of all FDRs, rather than separating by race/ethnicity, was recommended as sufficient by study participants. These perspectives guided the development of an innovative decision aid that deconstructs the screening controversy and IDM processes into simpler concepts and provides step-by-step strategies for FDRs to engage in IDM. Conclusion Implementing IDM among FDRs is challenging because the IDM paradigm departs from historical messages promoting routine screening. These contradictions should be recognized and addressed for men to participate effectively in IDM. A randomized pilot study evaluating outcomes of the resulting decision aid is underway. PMID:24968183

  10. Successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Fanconi anemia from an unaffected HLA-genotype-identical sibling selected using preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Satkiran S; Kahn, Jeffrey P; MacMillan, Margaret L; Ramsay, Norma K C; Wagner, John E

    2004-02-01

    The only proven cure for Fanconi anemia (FA)-associated bone marrow failure is successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, HSCT with donors other than HLA-identical siblings is associated with high morbidity and poor survival. Therefore, we used preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to select an embryo produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF) that was unaffected by FA and was HLA-identical to the proband. The patient was a 6-year-old girl with FA and myelodysplasia previously treated with oxymetholone and prednisone. After her parents underwent 5 cycles of IVF with intrauterine transfer of 7 embryos over a span of 4 years, successful pregnancy ensued. Twenty-eight days after delivery, the patient underwent transplantation with her newborn sibling donor's HLA-identical umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Neutrophil recovery occurred on day 17 without subsequent acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease. Currently, 2.5 years after transplantation, the patient is well and hematopoiesis is normal. In summary, we have described the first successful transplantation, using IVF and PGD, of HSCs from a donor selected on the basis of specific, desirable disease and HLA characteristics. The medical, legal, and ethical issues involved with this approach are discussed. PMID:14504102

  11. Alterations in Sensitivity to Estrogen, Dihydrotestosterone, and Xenogens in B-Lymphocytes from Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Unaffected Twins/Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Martyn A.; Gist, Taylor L.; Baskin, David S.

    2013-01-01

    It has been postulated that androgen overexposure in a susceptible person leads to excessive brain masculinization and the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotype. In this study, the responses to estradiol (E2), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) on B-lymphocytes from ASD subjects and controls are compared. B cells were obtained from 11 ASD subjects, their unaffected fraternal twins, and nontwin siblings. Controls were obtained from a different cell bank. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and sodium 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction levels were measured after incubation with different concentrations of E2, DHT, and DDE. XTT/LDH ratio, representative of mitochondria number per cell, was calculated. E2, DHT, and DDE all cause “U”-shaped growth curves, as measured by LDH levels. ASD B cells show less growth depression compared to siblings and controls (P < 0.01). They also have reduced XTT/LDH ratios (P < 0.01) when compared to external controls, whereas siblings had values of XTT/LDH between ASD and external controls. B-lymphocytes from people with ASD exhibit a differential response to E2, DHT, and hormone disruptors in regard to cell growth and mitochondrial upregulation when compared to non-ASD siblings and external controls. Specifically, ASD B-lymphocytes show significantly less growth depression and less mitochondrial upregulation when exposed to these effectors. A mitochondrial deficit in ASD individuals is implied. PMID:24363669

  12. Alterations in sensitivity to estrogen, dihydrotestosterone, and xenogens in B-lymphocytes from children with autism spectrum disorder and their unaffected twins/siblings.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Martyn A; Gist, Taylor L; Baskin, David S

    2013-01-01

    It has been postulated that androgen overexposure in a susceptible person leads to excessive brain masculinization and the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotype. In this study, the responses to estradiol (E2), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) on B-lymphocytes from ASD subjects and controls are compared. B cells were obtained from 11 ASD subjects, their unaffected fraternal twins, and nontwin siblings. Controls were obtained from a different cell bank. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and sodium 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction levels were measured after incubation with different concentrations of E2, DHT, and DDE. XTT/LDH ratio, representative of mitochondria number per cell, was calculated. E2, DHT, and DDE all cause "U"-shaped growth curves, as measured by LDH levels. ASD B cells show less growth depression compared to siblings and controls (P < 0.01). They also have reduced XTT/LDH ratios (P < 0.01) when compared to external controls, whereas siblings had values of XTT/LDH between ASD and external controls. B-lymphocytes from people with ASD exhibit a differential response to E2, DHT, and hormone disruptors in regard to cell growth and mitochondrial upregulation when compared to non-ASD siblings and external controls. Specifically, ASD B-lymphocytes show significantly less growth depression and less mitochondrial upregulation when exposed to these effectors. A mitochondrial deficit in ASD individuals is implied. PMID:24363669

  13. DNA extraction: an anthropologic aspect of bone remains from sixth- to seventh-century ad bone remains.

    PubMed

    Di Nunno, Nunzio; Saponetti, Sandro Sublimi; Scattarella, Vito; Emanuel, Patrizia; Baldassarra, Stefania Lonero; Volpe, Giuliano; Di Nunno, Cosimo

    2007-12-01

    In the archeological site of the early Christian Episcopal complex of Saint Peter, in Canosa di Puglia (Bari, Italy), during the operations of archaeological excavations, tombs were discovered. They were dated between the sixth and seventh centuries ad with carbon 14 methodology. Five skeletons were found in the 5 tombs: 28A: male individual, 43 years old. The height was 170 cm; the biomass was 65.7 kg. The analysis of the bones indicated several noteworthy pathologies, such as a number of hypoplasia lines of the enamel, the presence of Schmorl hernias on the first 2 lumbar vertebrae, and the outcome of subacromial impingement syndrome. 28E was a male individual, with a biologic age of death of between 44 and 60 years. The height was 177 cm. He had a posttraumatic fracture callus of the medial third of the clavicle, with an oblique fracture rima. 29B was a female individual, 44-49 years old. The height was 158.8 cm; the biomass was 64.8 kg. There was Wells bursitis on the ischial tuberosity on both sides. 29E was a male individual, 45-50 years old. The height was 169.47 cm; the biomass was 70.8 kg. The third and the fourth vertebrae showed Baastrup syndrome (compression of the vertebral spine). There were radiologic signs of deformity on the higher edge of the acetabula and results of frequent sprains of the ankles. 31A was a male individual, 47-54 years old. The height was 178.65 cm; the biomass was 81 kg. The vertebral index showed a heavy overloading in the thoracic lumbar region. There were bony formations under the periosteum on both on the higher and medium facets of the first metatarsus and on the higher and lateral facets of the fifth metatarsus on both sides. As the topography indicates, these small ossifications coincided with the contact points between the back of the foot and parts of the upper shoe. From the osseous remains, in particular from the teeth (central incisors), the DNA was extracted and typed to identify potential family ties among all the

  14. Remaining challenges in cellular flavin cofactor homeostasis and flavoprotein biogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giancaspero, Teresa Anna; Colella, Matilde; Brizio, Carmen; Difonzo, Graziana; Fiorino, Giuseppina Maria; Leone, Piero; Brandsch, Roderich; Bonomi, Francesco; Iametti, Stefania; Barile, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The primary role of the water-soluble vitamin B2 (riboflavin) in cell biology is connected with its conversion into FMN and FAD, the cofactors of a large number of dehydrogenases, oxidases and reductases involved in energetic metabolism, epigenetics, protein folding, as well as in a number of diverse regulatory processes. The problem of localisation of flavin cofactor synthesis events and in particular of the FAD synthase (EC 2.7.7.2) in HepG2 cells is addressed here by confocal microscopy in the frame of its relationships with kinetics of FAD synthesis and delivery to client apo-flavoproteins. FAD synthesis catalysed by recombinant isoform 2 of FADS occurs via an ordered bi-bi mechanism in which ATP binds prior to FMN, and pyrophosphate is released before FAD. Spectrophotometric continuous assays of the reconstitution rate of apo-D-aminoacid oxidase with its cofactor, allowed us to propose that besides its FAD synthesising activity, hFADS is able to operate as a FAD "chaperone". The physical interaction between FAD forming enzyme and its clients was further confirmed by dot blot and immunoprecipitation experiments carried out testing as a client either a nuclear or a mitochondrial enzyme that is lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1, EC 1.-.-.-) and dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (Me2GlyDH, EC 1.5.8.4), respectively which carry out similar reactions of oxidative demethylation, assisted by tetrahydrofolate used to form 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate. A direct transfer of the cofactor from hFADS2 to apo-dimethyl glycine dehydrogenase was also demonstrated. Thus, FAD synthesis and delivery to these enzymes are crucial processes for bioenergetics and nutri-epigenetics of liver cells.

  15. Modern hunting behavior in the early Middle Paleolithic: faunal remains from Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel.

    PubMed

    Yeshurun, Reuven; Bar-Oz, Guy; Weinstein-Evron, Mina

    2007-12-01

    Understanding the behavioral adaptations and subsistence strategies of Middle Paleolithic humans is critical in the debate over the evolution and manifestations of modern human behavior. The study of faunal remains plays a central role in this context. Until now, the majority of Levantine archaeofaunal evidence was derived from late Middle Paleolithic sites. The discovery of faunal remains from Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel (>200 ka), allowed for detailed taphonomic and zooarchaeological analyses of these early Middle Paleolithic remains. The Misliya Cave faunal assemblage is overwhelmingly dominated by ungulate taxa. The most common prey species is the Mesopotamian fallow deer (Dama mesopotamica), followed closely by the mountain gazelle (Gazella gazella). Some aurochs (Bos primigenius) remains are also present. Small-game species are rare. The fallow deer mortality pattern is dominated by prime-aged individuals. A multivariate taphonomic analysis demonstrates (1) that the assemblage was created solely by humans occupying the cave and was primarily modified by their food-processing activities; and (2) that gazelle carcasses were transported complete to the site, while fallow deer carcasses underwent some field butchery. The new zooarchaeological data from Misliya Cave, particularly the abundance of meat-bearing limb bones displaying filleting cut marks and the acquisition of prime-age prey, demonstrate that early Middle Paleolithic people possessed developed hunting capabilities. Thus, modern large-game hunting, carcass transport, and meat-processing behaviors were already established in the Levant in the early Middle Paleolithic, more than 200 ka ago. PMID:17669471

  16. Severely dystrophic axons at amyloid plaques remain continuous and connected to viable cell bodies.

    PubMed

    Adalbert, Robert; Nogradi, Antal; Babetto, Elisabetta; Janeckova, Lucie; Walker, Simon A; Kerschensteiner, Martin; Misgeld, Thomas; Coleman, Michael P

    2009-02-01

    Synapse loss precedes cell death in Alzheimer's disease, but the timing of axon degeneration relative to these events, and the causal relationships remain unclear. Axons become so severely dystrophic near amyloid plaques that their interruption, causing permanent loss of function, extensive synapse loss, and potentially cell death appears imminent. However, it remains unclear whether axons are truly interrupted at plaques and whether cell bodies fail to support their axons and dendrites. We traced TgCRND8 mouse axons longitudinally through, distal to, and proximal from dystrophic regions. The corresponding neurons not only survived but remained morphologically unaltered, indicating absence of axonal damage signalling or a failure to respond to it. Axons, no matter how dystrophic, remained continuous and initially morphologically normal outside the plaque region, reflecting support by metabolically active cell bodies and continued axonal transport. Immunochemical and ultrastructural studies showed dystrophic axons were tightly associated with disruption of presynaptic transmission machinery, suggesting local functional impairment. Thus, we rule out long-range degeneration axons or dendrites as major contributors to early synapse loss in this model, raising the prospect of a therapeutic window for functional rescue of individual neurons lasting months or even years after their axons become highly dystrophic. We propose that multi-focal pathology has an important role in the human disease in bringing about the switch from local, and potentially recoverable, synapse loss into permanent loss of neuronal processes and eventually their cell bodies. PMID:19059977

  17. Prevalence of Anti-Peptidylarginine Deiminase Type 4 Antibodies in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Unaffected First-Degree Relatives in Indigenous North American Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ferucci, Elizabeth D.; Darrah, Erika; Smolik, Irene; Choromanski, Tammy L.; Robinson, David B.; Newkirk, Marianna M.; Fritzler, Marvin J.; Rosen, Antony; El-Gabalawy, Hani S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether anti-peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PAD4) antibodies were present in first-degree relatives of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in two indigenous North American populations with high prevalence of RA. Methods Participants were recruited from two indigenous populations in Canada and the United States, including RA patients (probands), their unaffected first-degree relatives, and healthy unrelated controls. Sera were tested for the presence of anti-PAD4 antibodies, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies, and rheumatoid factor (RF). HLA-DRB1 subtyping was performed and participants were classified according to number of shared epitope alleles present. Results Antibodies to PAD4 were detected in 24 of 82 (29.3%) probands; 2 of 147 (1.4%) relatives; and no controls (p <0.0001). Anti-CCP was present in 39/144 (27.1%) of the relatives, and there was no overlap between positivity for anti-CCP and PAD4 in the relatives. In RA patients, anti-PAD4 antibodies were associated with disease duration (p=0.0082) and anti-CCP antibodies (p=0.008), but not smoking or shared epitope alleles. Conclusion Despite a significant prevalence of anti-CCP in first-degree relatives, anti-PAD4 antibodies were almost exclusively found in established RA. The prevalence of anti-PAD4 antibodies in RA is similar to the prevalence described in other populations and these autoantibodies are associated with disease duration and anti-CCP in RA. PMID:23908443

  18. Influence of different fertilizer supplements on decomposition of cereal stubble remains in chernozem soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, I. V.; Klein, O. I.; Kulikova, N. A.; Stepanova, E. V.; Koroleva, O. V.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Recently, many farmers have converted to low-disturbance tillage land cultivation as disk or plow fields can result in water and wind erosion of soil. So, crop residue and plant crowns and roots are left to hold the soil. However, low-disturbance tillage can be a challenge to manage since the key to crop production still requires good seed-to-soil contact. Therefore, decomposition of stubble in agricultural soils in situ is an issue of the day of modern agriculture. The aim of the present study was to compare different organic and inorganic fertilizer supplements on decomposition of cereal stubble remains in chernozem soil. Materials and methods Field trials were conducted in Krasnodar region, Russia. To promote stubble decomposition, a biopreparation that was cultural liquid obtained during cultivation of white-rot fungi Coriolus hirsutus 075 (Wulf Ex. Fr.) Quel. was used at the dosage of 150 ml/ha. The other tested supplements included ammonium nitrate (34 kg/ha), commercially available humate LignohumateTM (0.2 kg/ha) and combination of Lignohumate and biopreparation. Test plots were treated once after wheat harvesting. Non-treated ploughed plot was used as a blank. Soil samples were collected within 2 and 14 weeks after soil treatment. To control soil potential for stubble remains decomposition enzymatic activity is soil was determined. To perform soil analysis, stubble remains were carefully separated from soils followed by soil extraction with 0.14 M phosphate buffer pH 7.1 and analysis of the extracts for laccase and peroxidase activities [1,2]. Estimation of stubble decomposition in soil was performed by cellulose contents determination [3]. Results and discussion The obtained results demonstrated after 14 weeks of treatment increase of soil enzymatic activity due to soil supplementation was observed. Introduction of ammonium nitrate resulted in 108% of peroxidise activity as compared to blank. That value for Lignohumate variant was estimated

  19. Soil bacterial community structure remains stable over a 5-year chronosequence of insect-induced tree mortality

    PubMed Central

    Ferrenberg, Scott; Knelman, Joseph E.; Jones, Jennifer M.; Beals, Stower C.; Bowman, William D.; Nemergut, Diana R.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive tree mortality from insect epidemics has raised concern over possible effects on soil biogeochemical processes. Yet despite the importance of microbes in nutrient cycling, how soil bacterial communities respond to insect-induced tree mortality is largely unknown. We examined soil bacterial community structure (via 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing) and community assembly processes (via null deviation analysis) along a 5-year chronosequence (substituting space for time) of bark beetle-induced tree mortality in the southern Rocky Mountains, USA. We also measured microbial biomass and soil chemistry, and used in situ experiments to assess inorganic nitrogen mineralization rates. We found that bacterial community structure and assembly—which was strongly influenced by stochastic processes—were largely unaffected by tree mortality despite increased soil ammonium (NH4+) pools and reductions in soil nitrate (NO3−) pools and net nitrogen mineralization rates after tree mortality. Linear models suggested that microbial biomass and bacterial phylogenetic diversity are significantly correlated with nitrogen mineralization rates of this forested ecosystem. However, given the overall resistance of the bacterial community to disturbance from tree mortality, soil nitrogen processes likely remained relatively stable following tree mortality when considered at larger spatial and longer temporal scales—a supposition supported by the majority of available studies regarding biogeochemical effects of bark beetle infestations in this region. Our results suggest that soil bacterial community resistance to disturbance helps to explain the relatively weak effects of insect-induced tree mortality on soil N and C pools reported across the Rocky Mountains, USA. PMID:25566204

  20. Soil bacterial community structure remains stable over a 5-year chronosequence of insect-induced tree mortality.

    PubMed

    Ferrenberg, Scott; Knelman, Joseph E; Jones, Jennifer M; Beals, Stower C; Bowman, William D; Nemergut, Diana R

    2014-01-01

    Extensive tree mortality from insect epidemics has raised concern over possible effects on soil biogeochemical processes. Yet despite the importance of microbes in nutrient cycling, how soil bacterial communities respond to insect-induced tree mortality is largely unknown. We examined soil bacterial community structure (via 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing) and community assembly processes (via null deviation analysis) along a 5-year chronosequence (substituting space for time) of bark beetle-induced tree mortality in the southern Rocky Mountains, USA. We also measured microbial biomass and soil chemistry, and used in situ experiments to assess inorganic nitrogen mineralization rates. We found that bacterial community structure and assembly-which was strongly influenced by stochastic processes-were largely unaffected by tree mortality despite increased soil ammonium ([Formula: see text]) pools and reductions in soil nitrate ([Formula: see text]) pools and net nitrogen mineralization rates after tree mortality. Linear models suggested that microbial biomass and bacterial phylogenetic diversity are significantly correlated with nitrogen mineralization rates of this forested ecosystem. However, given the overall resistance of the bacterial community to disturbance from tree mortality, soil nitrogen processes likely remained relatively stable following tree mortality when considered at larger spatial and longer temporal scales-a supposition supported by the majority of available studies regarding biogeochemical effects of bark beetle infestations in this region. Our results suggest that soil bacterial community resistance to disturbance helps to explain the relatively weak effects of insect-induced tree mortality on soil N and C pools reported across the Rocky Mountains, USA. PMID:25566204

  1. Activation of PPAR{gamma} is not involved in butyrate-induced epithelial cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, S.; Waechtershaeuser, A.; Loitsch, S.; Knethen, A. von; Bruene, B.; Stein, J. . E-mail: j.stein@em.uni-frankfurt.de

    2005-10-15

    Histone deacetylase-inhibitors affect growth and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells by inducing expression of several transcription factors, e.g. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) or vitamin D receptor (VDR). While activation of VDR by butyrate mainly seems to be responsible for cellular differentiation, the activation of PPAR{gamma} in intestinal cells remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PPAR{gamma} in butyrate-induced cell growth inhibition and differentiation induction in Caco-2 cells. Treatment with PPAR{gamma} ligands ciglitazone and BADGE (bisphenol A diglycidyl) enhanced butyrate-induced cell growth inhibition in a dose- and time-dependent manner, whereas cell differentiation was unaffected after treatment with PPAR{gamma} ligands rosiglitazone and MCC-555. Experiments were further performed in dominant-negative PPAR{gamma} mutant cells leading to an increase in cell growth whereas butyrate-induced cell differentiation was again unaffected. The present study clearly demonstrated that PPAR{gamma} is involved in butyrate-induced inhibition of cell growth, but seems not to play an essential role in butyrate-induced cell differentiation.

  2. 76 FR 14058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY. The human remains were..., Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in consultation with representatives...

  3. Effects of boiling and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant activity of Sonchus oleraceus leaves.

    PubMed

    Mawalagedera, S M M R; Ou, Zong-Quan; McDowell, Arlene; Gould, Kevin S

    2016-03-01

    Leaves of Sonchus oleraceus L. are especially rich in phenolic compounds and have potent extractable antioxidants. However, it is not known how their antioxidant activity changes after cooking and gastrointestinal digestion. We recorded the profile of phenolics and their associated antioxidant activity in both raw and boiled S. oleraceus leaf extracts after in vitro gastric and intestinal digestion, and quantified their antioxidant potentials using Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. Boiling significantly diminished the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and concentrations of ascorbate and chicoric acid in the soluble fractions. In contrast, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and concentrations of caftaric and chlorogenic acids were unaffected. Phenolics in the soluble fraction were absorbed into cultured human cells and exerted antioxidant activity. Only chlorogenic acid content remained stable during gastrointestinal digestion. S. oleraceus appears to be an excellent dietary source of phenolic antioxidants. PMID:26891707

  4. Unidentified bodies and human remains: an Italian glimpse through a European problem.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, C; Porta, D; De Angelis, D; Gibelli, D; Poppa, P; Grandi, M

    2010-02-25

    The identification of cadavers (the main activity of forensic odontologists and anthropologists) is a crucial issue in forensic pathology, but the official entity of this problem is still poorly known in most countries, apart from a few American reports. In this article the authors present a descriptive study of unidentified decedents over a 14-year period (1995-2008) in Milan. The number of cadavers or human remains arriving at the morgue with no identity amounts to 454 - 3.1% of all autopsies at the Institute of Legal Medicine, with a mean of 32 unidentified subjects every year; 62% reached a positive identification in a period of time ranging from a few days to 10 years. 17% on an average remain unidentified. Most identification processes involved forensic odontology and anthropology. This study aims at revealing the problem and hopefully may provide some food for thought for forensic pathologists, anthropologists and odontologists so that they may focus on this issue and on possible solutions in their countries. PMID:20005650

  5. What Remains on Your Mind After You Are Done?: Flexible Regulation of Knowledge Accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Hedberg, Per H.; Higgins, E. Tory

    2011-01-01

    The accessibility of stored knowledge has been found to decline over time after activation without further stimulation. A special case is goal pursuit; goal-related knowledge remains accessible until goal completion, and then its accessibility declines rapidly. We hypothesized that after goal completion the decline in accessibility of goal-related knowledge would be especially rapid for strong promotion-focused individuals because their motivation to eagerly advance beyond the status quo would make accessibility of this knowledge an irrelevant detriment. We hypothesized an opposite effect for strongly prevention-predominant individuals because their motivation to vigilantly maintain a satisfactory state would make accessibility of this knowledge continually relevant. The results of two studies supported both these predicted moderators of accessibility change. Indeed, we found that for strongly prevention-predominant participants, knowledge accessibility actually increased over time after goal completion. We discuss how even basic cognitive mechanisms, like changes in accessibility, can be affected by general motivational concerns. PMID:21765541

  6. UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANISM OF CYTOCHROME P450 3A4: RECENT ADVANCES AND REMAINING PROBLEMS

    PubMed Central

    Sevrioukova, Irina F.; Poulos, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) represent a diverse group of heme-thiolate proteins found in almost all organisms. CYPs share a common protein fold but differ in substrate selectivity and catalyze a wide variety of monooxygenation reactions via activation of molecular oxygen. Among 57 human P450s, the 3A4 isoform (CYP3A4) is the most abundant and the most important because it metabolizes the majority of the administered drugs. A remarkable feature of CYP3A4 is its extreme promiscuity in substrate specificity and cooperative substrate binding, which often leads to undesirable drug-drug interactions and toxic side effects. Owing to its importance in drug development and therapy, CYP3A4 has been the most extensively studied mammalian P450. In this review we provide an overview on recent progress and remaining problems in the CYP3A4 research. PMID:23018626

  7. Activity and stability of a complex bacterial soil community under simulated Martian conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Merrison, Jonathan; Nørnberg, Per; Aagaard Lomstein, Bente; Finster, Kai

    2005-04-01

    A simulation experiment with a complex bacterial soil community in a Mars simulation chamber was performed to determine the effect of Martian conditions on community activity, stability and survival. At three different depths in the soil core short-term effects of Martian conditions with and without ultraviolet (UV) exposure corresponding to 8 Martian Sol were compared. Community metabolic activities and functional diversity, measured as glucose respiration and versatility in substrate utilization, respectively, decreased after UV exposure, whereas they remained unaffected by Martian conditions without UV exposure. In contrast, the numbers of culturable bacteria and the genetic diversity were unaffected by the simulated Martian conditions both with and without UV exposure. The genetic diversity of the soil community and of the colonies grown on agar plates were evaluated by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) on DNA extracts. Desiccation of the soil prior to experimentation affected the functional diversity by decreasing the versatility in substrate utilization. The natural dominance of endospores and Gram-positive bacteria in the investigated Mars-analogue soil may explain the limited effect of the Mars incubations on the survival and community structure. Our results suggest that UV radiation and desiccation are major selecting factors on bacterial functional diversity in terrestrial bacterial communities incubated under simulated Martian conditions. Furthermore, these results suggest that forward contamination of Mars is a matter of great concern in future space missions.

  8. 38 CFR 21.7137 - Rates of payment of basic educational assistance for individuals with remaining entitlement under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 21.7137, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... educational assistance for individuals with remaining entitlement under 38 U.S.C. chapter 34. 21.7137 Section... REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION All Volunteer Force Educational Assistance Program (Montgomery GI Bill-Active...

  9. Human remains sold to the highest bidder! A snapshot of the buying and selling of human skeletal remains on eBay, an Internet auction site.

    PubMed

    Huxley, Angie K; Finnegan, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Internet auction sites have become increasingly popular, with diverse items up for sale to the public worldwide. The purposes of this paper are to inform the forensic community that human skeletal remains, old and new, are for sale on the eBay internet auction site, and to advise forensic scientists that eBay does not use a forensic anthropologist to assess photographs of these materials. Over the last few years, this website was "surfed," with numerous auctions during this period. After contacting eBay by email, representatives responded that they adhere to Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) and that their website indicates that auctions must state that sale of human remains is for instructional purposes only. Based on the photographs, the remains appear to be of prehistoric and modern origin. An unfortunate consequence of such sale may generate interest in stealing remains from graves, mortuaries, hospitals, or county morgues worldwide. PMID:14979339

  10. Tamoxifen inhibits BK channels in chick cochlea without alterations in voltage-dependent activation.

    PubMed

    Tong, Mingjie; Duncan, R Keith

    2009-07-01

    Large-conductance, Ca(2+)-activated, and voltage-gated potassium channels (BK, BK(Ca), or Maxi-K) play an important role in electrical tuning in nonmammalian vertebrate hair cells. Systematic changes in tuning frequency along the tonotopic axis largely result from variations in BK channel kinetics, but the molecular changes underpinning these functional variations remain unknown. Auxiliary beta(1) have been implicated in low-frequency tuning at the cochlear apex because these subunits dramatically slow channel kinetics. Tamoxifen (Tx), a (xeno)estrogen compound known to activate BK channels through the beta-subunit, was used to test for the functional presence of beta(1). The hypotheses were that Tx would activate the majority of BK channels in hair cells from the cochlear apex due to the presence of beta(1) and that the level of activation would exhibit a tonotopic gradient following the expression profile of beta(1). Outside-out patches of BK channels were excised from tall hair cells along the apical half of the chicken basilar papilla. In low-density patches, single-channel conductance was reduced and the averaged open probability was unaffected by Tx. In high-density patches, the amplitude of ensemble-averaged BK current was inhibited, whereas half-activation potential and activation kinetics were unaffected by Tx. In both cases, no tonotopic Tx-dependent activation of channel activity was observed. Therefore, contrary to the hypotheses, electrophysiological assessment suggests that molecular mechanisms other than auxiliary beta-subunits are involved in generating a tonotopic distribution of BK channel kinetics and electric tuning in chick basilar papilla. PMID:19439526

  11. 75 FR 5108 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... possession and control of the University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository... notice. A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by University of Wyoming,...

  12. 76 FR 14057 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... possession and control of the University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository... of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in...

  13. Neutron measurements of the fuel remaining in the TMI II once-through steam generators (OTSG'S)

    SciTech Connect

    Geelhood, B.D.; Abel, K.H.

    1989-02-01

    Polypropylene tubes containing a string of 18 copper rods were inserted into the lower head region and each J-leg of the two once-through steam generators (OTSG) of the unit two reactor at Three Mile Island. The object was to measure the neutron flux present in those regions and estimate the amount of residual fuel remaining in each OTSG. The neutron flux from any residual fuel induces a radioisotope, /sup 64/Cu, in the copper coupons. The /sup 64/Cu activity is detected by coincidence counting the two 511-keV gamma rays produced by the annihilation of the positron emitted in the decay of /sup 64/Cu. The copper coupons were placed between two 6-inch diameter, 6-inch long NaI(Tl) crystals and the electronics produced a coincidence count whenever the two gamma rays were uniquely detected. The net coincidence count is proportional to the amount of /sup 64/Cu activity in the coupon. This document discusses calculation methods, statistical methods, and results of this research. 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  14. 32 CFR 776.71 - Requirement to remain in good standing with licensing authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirement to remain in good standing with... SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.71 Requirement to remain in good standing with licensing authorities. (a) Requirement to remain in good standing with state...

  15. 32 CFR 776.71 - Requirement to remain in good standing with licensing authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirement to remain in good standing with... SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.71 Requirement to remain in good standing with licensing authorities. (a) Requirement to remain in good standing with state...

  16. 32 CFR 776.71 - Requirement to remain in good standing with licensing authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement to remain in good standing with... SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.71 Requirement to remain in good standing with licensing authorities. (a) Requirement to remain in good standing with state...

  17. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or... unidentifiable human remains. (a) General. This section implements section 8(c)(5) of the Act and applies...

  18. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  19. Re-engineering NASA's space communications to remain viable in a constrained fiscal environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda Shaller; Hei, Donald J., Jr.; Kelly, Angelita C.; Lightfoot, Patricia C.; Bell, Holland T.; Cureton-Snead, Izeller E.; Hurd, William J.; Scales, Charles H.

    1994-01-01

    Along with the Red and Blue Teams commissioned by the NASA Administrator in 1992, NASA's Associate Administrator for Space Communications commissioned a Blue Team to review the Office of Space Communications (Code O) Core Program and determine how the program could be conducted faster, better, and cheaper. Since there was no corresponding Red Team for the Code O Blue Team, the Blue Team assumed a Red Team independent attitude and challenged the status quo, including current work processes, functional distinctions, interfaces, and information flow, as well as traditional management and system development practices. The Blue Team's unconstrained, non-parochial, and imaginative look at NASA's space communications program produced a simplified representation of the space communications infrastructure that transcends organizational and functional boundaries, in addition to existing systems and facilities. Further, the Blue Team adapted the 'faster, better, cheaper' charter to be relevant to the multi-mission, continuous nature of the space communications program and to serve as a gauge for improving customer services concurrent with achieving more efficient operations and infrastructure life cycle economies. This simplified representation, together with the adapted metrics, offers a future view and process model for reengineering NASA's space communications to remain viable in a constrained fiscal environment. Code O remains firm in its commitment to improve productivity, effectiveness, and efficiency. In October 1992, the Associate Administrator reconstituted the Blue Team as the Code O Success Team (COST) to serve as a catalyst for change. In this paper, the COST presents the chronicle and significance of the simplified representation and adapted metrics, and their application during the FY 1993-1994 activities.

  20. Modeling the effects of human activity on Katmai brown bears (Ursus arctos) through the use of survival analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, T.S.; Johnson, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Brown bear-human interactions were observed in 1993, 1995, and 1997 at Kulik River in Katmai National Park and Preserve, Alaska. We analyzed these interactions using survival analysis, creating survival curves for the time that bears remained on the river in the presence, and absence, of human activity. Bear-only survival curves did not vary significantly between years (p = 0.067). Ninety-seven percent of bears left the river within 70 minutes of arrival in all years. Temporal patterns of bear activity were unaffected by the presence of humans as long as the bears did not share river zones with humans (p = 0.062 to p = 0.360). When people and bears did not share river zones, 38.6% (1993), 36.0% (1995), and 37.0% (1997) of bears remained on the river for at least 10 minutes after arrival. In contrast, when people and bears shared river zones, fewer bears remained on the river after the first 10 minutes, with 28.6% (1993), 25.0% (1995), and 32.6% (1997) observed in each year. We conclude that human activity displaced 26.0% (1993), 30.5% (1995), and 12.0% (1997) of the bears using the river, which otherwise would likely have remained longer. Over the three years of study, habituation to human activity may account for observed changes in bears' use of the river.

  1. Zooxanthellae harvested by ciliates associated with brown band syndrome of corals remain photosynthetically competent.

    PubMed

    Ulstrup, Karin E; Kühl, Michael; Bourne, David G

    2007-03-01

    Brown band syndrome is a new coral affliction characterized by a local accumulation of yet-unidentified ciliates migrating as a band along the branches of coral colonies. In the current study, morphologically intact zooxanthellae (= Symbiodinium) were observed in great numbers inside the ciliates (>50 dinoflagellates per ciliate). Microscale oxygen measurements and variable chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis along with microscopic observations demonstrated that zooxanthellae within the ciliates are photosynthetically competent and do not become compromised during the progression of the brown band zone. Zooxanthellae showed similar trends in light acclimation in a comparison of rapid light curve and steady-state light curve measures of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence. Extended light exposure of steady-state light curves resulted in higher quantum yields of photosystem II. The brown band tissue exhibited higher photosynthetically active radiation absorptivity, indicating more efficient light absorption due to a higher density of zooxanthellae in the ciliate-dominated zone. This caused relatively higher gross photosynthesis rates in the zone with zooxanthella-containing ciliates compared to healthy coral tissue. The observation of photosynthetically active intracellular zooxanthellae in the ciliates suggests that the latter can benefit from photosynthates produced by ingested zooxanthellae and from photosynthetic oxygen production that alleviates diffusion limitation of oxic respiration in the densely populated brown band tissue. It remains to be shown whether the zooxanthellae form a stable symbiotic association with the ciliate or are engulfed incidentally during grazing on coral tissue and then maintained as active inside the ciliate for a period before being digested and replaced by new zooxanthellae. PMID:17259357

  2. Zooxanthellae Harvested by Ciliates Associated with Brown Band Syndrome of Corals Remain Photosynthetically Competent▿

    PubMed Central

    Ulstrup, Karin E.; Kühl, Michael; Bourne, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Brown band syndrome is a new coral affliction characterized by a local accumulation of yet-unidentified ciliates migrating as a band along the branches of coral colonies. In the current study, morphologically intact zooxanthellae (= Symbiodinium) were observed in great numbers inside the ciliates (>50 dinoflagellates per ciliate). Microscale oxygen measurements and variable chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis along with microscopic observations demonstrated that zooxanthellae within the ciliates are photosynthetically competent and do not become compromised during the progression of the brown band zone. Zooxanthellae showed similar trends in light acclimation in a comparison of rapid light curve and steady-state light curve measures of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence. Extended light exposure of steady-state light curves resulted in higher quantum yields of photosystem II. The brown band tissue exhibited higher photosynthetically active radiation absorptivity, indicating more efficient light absorption due to a higher density of zooxanthellae in the ciliate-dominated zone. This caused relatively higher gross photosynthesis rates in the zone with zooxanthella-containing ciliates compared to healthy coral tissue. The observation of photosynthetically active intracellular zooxanthellae in the ciliates suggests that the latter can benefit from photosynthates produced by ingested zooxanthellae and from photosynthetic oxygen production that alleviates diffusion limitation of oxic respiration in the densely populated brown band tissue. It remains to be shown whether the zooxanthellae form a stable symbiotic association with the ciliate or are engulfed incidentally during grazing on coral tissue and then maintained as active inside the ciliate for a period before being digested and replaced by new zooxanthellae. PMID:17259357

  3. Mummified remains from the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia - Reviewing peculiarities and limitations of human and non-human radiological identification and analysis in mummified remains.

    PubMed

    Petaros, Anja; Janković, Ivor; Cavalli, Fabio; Ivanac, Gordana; Brkljačić, Boris; Čavka, Mislav

    2015-10-01

    Forensic protocols and medico-legal techniques are increasingly being employed in investigations of museological material. The final findings of such investigations may reveal interesting facts on historical figures, customs and habits, as well as provide meaningful data for forensic use. Herein we present a case review where forensic experts were requested to identify taxonomic affinities, stage of preservation and provide skeletal analysis of mummified non-human archaeological remains, and verify whether two mummified hands are human or not. The manuscript offers a short review on the process and particularities of radiological species identification, the impact of post-mortem changes in the analysis and imaging of mummified remains as well as the macroscopical interpretation of trauma, pathology and authenticity in mummified remains, which can all turn useful when dealing with forensic cases. PMID:26344461

  4. The association of white matter volume in psychotic disorders with genotypic variation in NRG1, MOG and CNP: a voxel-based analysis in affected individuals and their unaffected relatives.

    PubMed

    Cannon, D M; Walshe, M; Dempster, E; Collier, D A; Marshall, N; Bramon, E; Murray, R M; McDonald, C

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the role of variation in putative psychosis genes coding for elements of the white matter system by examining the contribution of genotypic variation in three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) neuregulin 1 (NRG1) SNP8NRG221533, myelin oligodendrocytes glycoprotein (MOG) rs2857766 and CNP (rs2070106) and one haplotype HAP(ICE) (deCODE) to white matter volume in patients with psychotic disorder and their unaffected relatives. Structural magnetic resonance imaging and blood samples for genotyping were collected on 189 participants including patients with schizophrenia (SZ) or bipolar I disorder (BDI), unaffected first-degree relatives of these patients and healthy volunteers. The association of genotypic variation with white matter volume was assessed using voxel-based morphometry in SPM5. The NRG1 SNP and the HAP(ICE) haplotype were associated with abnormal white matter volume in the BDI group in the fornix, cingulum and parahippocampal gyrus circuit. In SZ the NRG1 SNP risk allele was associated with lower white matter volume in the uncinate fasciculus (UF), right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the anterior limb of the internal capsule. Healthy G-homozygotes of the MOG SNP had greater white matter volume in areas of the brainstem and cerebellum; this relationship was absent in those with a psychotic disorder and the unaffected relatives groups. The CNP SNP did not contribute to white matter volume variation in the diagnostic groups studied. Variation in the genes coding for structural and protective components of myelin are implicated in abnormal white matter volume in the emotion circuitry of the cingulum, fornix, parahippocampal gyrus and UF in psychotic disorders. PMID:23032943

  5. Caterpillar-induced plant volatiles remain a reliable signal for foraging wasps during dual attack with a plant pathogen or non-host insect herbivore.

    PubMed

    Ponzio, Camille; Gols, Rieta; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Dicke, Marcel

    2014-08-01

    Plants respond to herbivory with the emission of plant volatiles, which can be used by the herbivores' natural enemies to locate their hosts or prey. In nature, plants are often simultaneously confronted with insect herbivores and phytopathogens, potentially interfering with the attraction of the herbivores' enemies as a result of modifications of the induced volatile blend. Here, we investigated parasitoid (Cotesia glomerata) attraction to volatiles of plants challenged by different attackers, either alone or in combination with Pieris brassicae caterpillars, hosts of C. glomerata. We used a natural system consisting of Brassica nigra plants, eggs and larvae of P. brassicae, Brevicoryne brassicae aphids and the bacterial phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. In all cases, parasitoids successfully located host-infested plants, and wasp foraging behaviour was unaffected by the simultaneous presence of a non-host attacker or host eggs. Analysis of the volatile emissions show that the volatile blends of caterpillar-infested treatments were different from those without caterpillars. Furthermore, dually attacked plants could not be separated from those with only caterpillars, regardless of non-host identity, supporting the behavioural data. Our results suggest that, in this system, indirect plant defences may be more resistant to interference than is generally assumed, with volatiles induced during dual attack remaining reliable indicators of host presence for parasitoids. PMID:24697624

  6. Risk remaining from fine particle contaminants after vacuum cleaning of hard floor surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Andrew; Johnson, David L; Brooks, J; Griffith, Daniel A

    2008-12-01

    In the indoor environment, settled surface dust often functions as a reservoir of hazardous particulate contaminants. In many circumstances, a major contributing source to the dust pool is exterior soil. Young children are particularly susceptible to exposure to both outdoor derived soil and indoor derived dust present in the indoor dust pool. This is because early in life the exploratory activities of the infant are dominated by touching and mouthing behavior. Inadvertent exposure to dust through mouth contact and hand-to-mouth activity is an inevitable consequence of infant development. Clean-up of indoor dust is, in many circumstances, critically important in efforts to minimize pediatric exposure. In this study, we examine the efficiency of vacuum cleaner removal of footwear-deposited soil on vinyl floor tiles. The study utilized a 5 x 10 foot (c. 152.5 x 305 cm) test surface composed of 1-foot-square (c. 30.5 x 30.5 cm) vinyl floor tiles. A composite test soil with moderately elevated levels of certain elements (e.g., Pb) was repeatedly introduced onto the floor surface by footwear track-on. The deposited soil was subsequently periodically removed from randomly selected tiles using a domestic vacuum cleaner. The mass and loading of soil elements on the tiles following vacuuming were determined both by wet wipe collection and by subsequent chemical analysis. It was found that vacuum cleaner removal eliminated much of the soil mass from the floor tiles. However, a small percentage of the mass was not removed and a portion of this residual mass could be picked up by moistened hand-lifts. Furthermore, although the post-vacuuming tile soil mass was sizably reduced, for some elements (notably Pb) the concentration in the residual soil was increased. We interpret this increased metal concentration to be a particle size effect with smaller particles (with a proportionately higher metal content) remaining in situ after vacuuming. PMID:18566895

  7. The carnivore remains from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    García, N; Arsuaga, J L; Torres, T

    1997-01-01

    Remains of carnivores from the Sima de los Huesos site representing at least 158 adult individuals of a primitive (i.e., not very speleoid) form of Ursus deningeri Von Reichenau 1906, have been recovered through the 1995 field season. These new finds extend our knowledge of this group in the Sierra de Atapuerca Middle Pleistocene. Material previously classified as Cuoninae indet, is now assigned to Canis lupus and a third metatarsal assigned in 1987 to Panthera of gombaszoegensis, is in our opinion only attributable to Panthera sp. The family Mustelidae is added to the faunal list and includes Martes sp. and a smaller species. The presence of Panthera leo cf. fossilis, Lynx pardina spelaea and Felis silvestris, is confirmed. The presence of a not very speloid Ursus deningeri, together with the rest of the carnivore assemblage, points to a not very late Middle Pleistocene age, i.e., oxygen isotope stage 7 or older. Relative frequencies of skeletal elements for the bear and fox samples are without major biases. The age structure of the bear sample, based on dental wear stages, does not follow the typical hibernation mortality profile and resembles a catastrophic profile. The site was not a natal or refuge den. The hypothesis that the site was a natural trap is the most plausible. If the Sima de los Huesos functioned as a natural trap (without an egress out), the human accumulation cannot be attributed to carnivore: activities and must be explained differently. PMID:9300340

  8. Parietal Bone Thickness and Vascular Diameters in Adult Modern Humans: A Survey on Cranial Remains.

    PubMed

    Eisová, Stanislava; Rangel de Lázaro, Gizéh; Píšová, Hana; Pereira-Pedro, Sofia; Bruner, Emiliano

    2016-07-01

    Cranial bone thickness varies among modern humans, and many factors influencing this variability remain unclear. Growth hormones and physical activity are thought to influence the vault thickness. Considering that both systemic factors and energy supply influence the vascular system, and taking into account the structural and biomechanical interaction between endocranial vessels and vault bones, in this study we evaluate the correlation between vascular and bone diameters. In particular, we tested the relationship between the thickness of the parietal bone (which is characterized, in modern humans, by a complex vascular network) and the lumen size of the middle meningeal and diploic vessels, in adult modern humans. Our results show no patent correlation between the thickness of parietal bone and the size of the main vascular channels. Values and distributions of the branching patterns, as well as anatomical relationships between vessels and bones, are also described in order to provide information concerning the arrangement of the endocranial vascular morphology. This information is relevant in both evolutionary and medical contexts. Anat Rec, 299:888-896, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27072555

  9. An Assessment of Uncertainty in Remaining Life Estimation for Nuclear Structural Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Fricke, Jacob M.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, several operating US light-water nuclear power reactors (LWRs) have moved to extended-life operations (from 40 years to 60 years), and there is interest in the feasibility of extending plant life to 80 years. Operating experience suggests that material degradation of structural components in LWRs (such as the reactor pressure vessel) is expected to be the limiting factor for safe operation during extended life. Therefore, a need exists for assessing the condition of LWR structural components and determining its remaining useful life (RUL). The ability to estimate RUL of degraded structural components provides a basis for determining safety margins (i.e., whether safe operation over some pre-determined time horizon is possible), and scheduling degradation management activities (such as potentially modifying operating conditions to limit further degradation growth). A key issue in RUL estimation is calculation of uncertainty bounds, which are dependent on current material state, as well as past and future stressor levels (such as time-at-temperature, pressure, and irradiation). This paper presents a preliminary empirical investigation into the uncertainty of RUL estimates for nuclear structural materials.

  10. Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents three activities: (1) investigating succession in a schoolground; (2) investigating oak galls; and (3) making sun prints (photographs made without camera or darkroom). Each activity includes a list of materials needed and procedures used. (JN)

  11. Trust as a determinant of entrepreneurs' preference to remain tenants in Turkish business incubators.

    PubMed

    Aşcigil, Semra F; Magner, Nace R; Temel, Elif Karabulut

    2011-08-01

    Relations of two types of trust by entrepreneurs with the entrepreneurs' preference to remain an incubator tenant were examined using questionnaire data from 67 owners of companies in 6 Turkish incubators. As hypothesized, trust in incubator management had a positive and unique relation with preference to remain an incubator tenant. However, trust in other incubator tenants did not show the hypothesized positive and unique relation with preference to remain a tenant; the results indicated the relation is negative. PMID:22049659

  12. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    SciTech Connect

    Hauschild, Veronique; Watson, Annetta Paule; Bock, Robert Eldon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  13. The rate of X-ray-induced DNA double-strand break repair in the embryonic mouse brain is unaffected by exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Woodbine, Lisa; Haines, Jackie; Coster, Margaret; Barazzuol, Lara; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Sienkiewicz, Zenon; Jeggo, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Following in utero exposure to low dose radiation (10–200 mGy), we recently observed a linear induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and activation of apoptosis in the embryonic neuronal stem/progenitor cell compartment. No significant induction of DSB or apoptosis was observed following exposure to magnetic fields (MF). In the present study, we exploited this in vivo system to examine whether exposure to MF before and after exposure to 100 mGy X-rays impacts upon DSB repair rates. Materials and methods: 53BP1 foci were quantified following combined exposure to radiation and MF in the embryonic neuronal stem/progenitor cell compartment. Embryos were exposed in utero to 50 Hz MF at 300 μT for 3 h before and up to 9 h after exposure to 100 mGy X-rays. Controls included embryos exposed to MF or X-rays alone plus sham exposures. Results: Exposure to MF before and after 100 mGy X-rays did not impact upon the rate of DSB repair in the embryonic neuronal stem cell compartment compared to repair rates following radiation exposure alone. Conclusions: We conclude that in this sensitive system MF do not exert any significant level of DNA damage and do not impede the repair of X-ray induced damage. PMID:25786477

  14. 77 FR 11583 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... with the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the... agency that has control of the Native American human remains and associated funerary objects....

  15. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... human remains previously determined to be Native American under § 10.9, but for which no lineal... AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or... federally-recognized and are known to have a relationship of shared group identity with the particular...

  16. 22 CFR 72.30 - Provisions in a will or advanced directive regarding disposition of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... regarding disposition of remains. 72.30 Section 72.30 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND... disposition of remains. United States state law regarding advance directives, deaths and estates include... accept such directions, particularly if the surviving spouse/next-of-kin disagree with the wishes of...

  17. 22 CFR 72.30 - Provisions in a will or advanced directive regarding disposition of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... regarding disposition of remains. 72.30 Section 72.30 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND... disposition of remains. United States state law regarding advance directives, deaths and estates include... accept such directions, particularly if the surviving spouse/next-of-kin disagree with the wishes of...

  18. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony...

  19. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... prove that it has right of possession, as defined at § 10.10(a)(2), to culturally unidentifiable human... human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects,...

  20. Veteran Special Education Teachers' Perspectives on Factors that Influenced Them to Remain in the Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, Kimberly M.

    2009-01-01

    Literature indicates a shortage of qualified special educators in schools across the United States. This shortage is likely to grow if current trends of attrition continue. There remains an important gap in the current literature regarding the factors that influence veteran special educators to remain in their profession. This information is…

  1. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony...

  2. Remaining Off Alcohol and Drugs: A Self-Management Skills Program for Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunphy, Peter Hughes

    The Remaining Off Alcohol and Drugs Program (ROAD) was developed to teach newly abstinent chemical misusing clients how to remain alcohol and drug free. It provides its participants with a repertoire of knowledge, skills and behaviors that they can use in dealing with the most common problems caused by discontinuing chemical use and which can be…

  3. Career Motivation in Newly Licensed Registered Nurses: What Makes Them Remain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Zarata Mann; Bailey, Jessica H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite vast research on newly licensed registered nurses (RNs), we don't know why some newly licensed registered nurses remain in their current jobs and others leave the nursing profession early in their career. Job satisfaction, the most significant factor emerging from the literature, plays a significant role in nurses' decisions to remain in…

  4. Abnormal ERD/ERS but unaffected BOLD response in patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease during index extension: a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Visani, E; Minati, L; Canafoglia, L; Gilioli, I; Granvillano, A; Varotto, G; Aquino, D; Fazio, P; Bruzzone, M G; Franceschetti, S; Panzica, F

    2011-03-01

    Electrophysiological studies indicate that Unverricht-Lundborg's disease (ULD), the most common form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy in Europe, is characterized by the involvement of multiple cortical regions in degenerative changes that lead to enhanced excitation and deficient inhibition. We searched for the haemodynamic correlates of these effects using functional MRI (fMRI) of self-paced index extensions, a well-accepted task highlighting significant differences. EEG and fMRI were simultaneously acquired in 11 ULD patients and 16 controls, performing the index extensions individually (event-related task) as well as repetitively (block task). ERD/ERS analysis was performed for the EEG data in the alpha and beta bands. fMRI time-series were analyzed using the traditional general linear model, as well as with an assumption-free approach, and by means of cross-region correlations representing functional connectivity. In line with the existing literature, ULD patients had enhanced desynchronization in the alpha band and reduced post-movement synchronization in the beta band. By contrast, fMRI did not reveal any difference between the two groups; there were no activation intensity, latency or extent effects, no significant engagement of additional regions, and no changes to functional connectivity. We conclude that, so long as the patients are executing a task which does not induce obvious action myoclonus, the hypothesized abnormalities in pyramidal neuron and interneuron dynamics are relatively subtle, embodied in processes which are not metabolically-demanding and take place at a time-scale invisible to fMRI. PMID:21107673

  5. Activity of a crude extract formulation in experimental hepatic amoebiasis and in immunomodulation studies.

    PubMed

    Sohni, Y R; Bhatt, R M

    1996-11-01

    The activity of a crude extract formulation was evaluated in experimental amoebic liver abscess in golden hamsters and in immunomodulation studies. The formulation comprises the following five plants-Boerhavia diffusa, Tinospora cordifolia, Berberis aristata, Terminalia chebula and Zingiber officinale. The formulation had a maximum cure rate of 73% at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day in hepatic amoebiasis reducing the average degree of infection (ADI) to 1.3 as compared to 4.2 for sham-treated controls. In immunomodulation studies humoral immunity was enhanced as evidenced by the haemagglutination titre. The T-cell counts remained unaffected in the animals treated with the formulation but cell-mediated immune response was stimulated as observed in the leukocyte migration inhibition (LMI) tests. PMID:8953425

  6. The Effects of Storage Conditions on the Preservation of Enzymatic Activity in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Cosby, Christi N.; Troiano, Nancy W.; Kacena, Melissa A.

    2009-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase are two major enzymatic measures of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity, respectively. As a result, the preservation of the enzymes in bone specimens to near in vivo accuracy is essential. Despite standardization of the staining process, several factors related to the storage of blocks and slides before sectioning and staining impact the level of enzymes detected in the tissue. Block condition (intact, faced, or unstained) as well as environment (temperature and length of time in storage) affect alkaline phosphatase preservation while the acid phosphatase enzyme remains unaffected. We conclude that to optimally preserve alkaline phosphatase enzyme, methacrylate-embedded undecalcified murine bones should be stored as intact blocks. After sectioning, the faced blocks should be stored at 4°C for optimal enzyme staining of future sections. Furthermore, it is best to stain sections immediately after sectioning. PMID:20686670

  7. Reasons for Schizophrenia Patients Remaining out of Treatment: Results from a Prospective Study in a Rural South Indian Community

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Channaveerachari Naveen; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Suresha, Kudumallige Krishnappa; Venkatesh, Basappa K.; Kishorekumar, Kengeri V.; Arunachala, Udupi; Gangadhar, Bangalore N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A few studies have examined the factors associated with schizophrenia patients remaining untreated in India. Materials and Methods: We identified 184 schizophrenia patients in a rural community, offered the treatment with antipsychotics and followed them up in their Primary Health Centers for 1-year. Twenty-nine (15.8%) patients remained untreated at both the baseline and 1-year follow-up despite our best attempts to keep them under the treatment umbrella. They were interviewed in detail regarding the reasons for remaining untreated. This group was compared with another group of patients (n = 69) who had stopped the treatment at baseline but were successfully brought under the treatment umbrella throughout the 1-year follow-up period. Results: The reasons for remaining untreated were (n; %): (a) Unsatisfactory improvement with previous treatment attempts (19; 65.5%), (b) poor bond between the patients and the families (6; 20.7%), (c) active symptoms not allowing any treatment efforts from the family members (6; 20.7%), (d) magico-religious beliefs about the illness and its treatment (4; 13.8%), (e) poor social support (3; 10.3%), (f) adverse effects of the medications (2; 6.9%), and (g) perception of recovery and cure (1; 3.4%). For many patients, a constellation of these reasons was responsible for them remaining untreated. In contrast, the common reasons for those who restarted medications to have stopped the treatment at some time were the lack of awareness, the need to continue medications (47; 68.1%), and the financial constraints (28; 40.6%). Conclusion: The predominant reason for schizophrenia patients not remaining on the treatment in this rural community was the families’ lack of faith in antipsychotic treatment. Provision of comprehensive treatment package including medical, psychosocial and rehabilitative services, and sensitizing the community about benefits of the treatment may help in ensuring that all patients with psychosis receive the

  8. Following rotator cuff tears, the remaining (intact) tendons are mechanically altered

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Stephanie M.; Getz, Charles L.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2009-01-01

    Although presumed, damage in the remaining (intact) rotator cuff tendons in the presence of an isolated supraspinatus tendon tear or multiple tendon tear has not been well studied. This study utilized an animal model of multiple rotator cuff tendon tears to investigate alterations in the remaining (intact) tendon mechanical properties at 4 and 8 weeks post-injury. Twenty-four animals served as uninjured controls, while seventy-two were divided among the tendon detachment groups (supraspinatus tendon detachment, supraspinatus+infraspinatus tendon detachment, supraspinatus+subscapularis tendon detachment). We found the remaining (intact) rotator cuff tendons have decreased mechanical properties in the presence of rotator cuff tears. Remaining (intact) subscapularis and infraspinatus tendon cross-sectional area increased, while tendon modulus decreased after both one and two tendon tears. Additionally, the remaining (intact) tendon cross-sectional areas continued to increase with time post-injury. These alterations could potentially lead to further tendon damage and tear progression. PMID:19095175

  9. Farm-scale distribution of deforestation and remaining forest cover in Mato Grosso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Peter D.; Vanwey, Leah

    2016-04-01

    An analysis of data on property size and type as well as land use reveals the distribution of deforestation, remaining forest cover and carbon stocks in Mato Grosso, Brazil's third largest state. Nearly two-thirds of remaining forests and carbon reserves, equating to between 2 and 3 Pg of carbon, are located on private properties. Around 80% of forests and carbon reserves are on properties larger than 1,000 ha, with smallholder farms and public land reform settlements controlling only a tiny fraction of the state's remaining forest and carbon reserves. Efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation must target owners controlling most of the remaining forest and land types with the highest deforestation rates. We thus suggest that policymakers seeking to protect the remaining forest should focus both incentives and enforcement of anti-deforestation laws in the larger properties where most of these forests are located.

  10. Taphonomic Patterning of Cemetery Remains Received at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Boston, Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Pokines, James T; Zinni, Debra Prince; Crowley, Kate

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 49 cases of cemetery remains received at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Massachusetts (OCME-MA), in Boston was compared with published taphonomic profiles of cemetery remains. The present sample is composed of a cross section of typical cases in this region that ultimately are derived from modern to historical coffin burials and get turned over to or seized by law enforcement. The present sample was composed of a large portion of isolated remains, and most were completely skeletonized. The most prevalent taphonomic characteristics included uniform staining (77.6%), coffin wear (46.9%), and cortical Exfoliation (49.0%). Other taphonomic changes occurring due to later surface exposure of cemetery remains included subaerial weathering, animal gnawing, algae formation, and excavation marks. A case of one set of skeletal remains associated with coffin artifacts and cemetery offerings that was recovered from transported cemetery fill is also presented. PMID:26260865

  11. Salicylate improves macrophage cholesterol homeostasis via activation of Ampk.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Morgan D; Ford, Rebecca J; McGregor, Chelsea P; LeBlond, Nicholas D; Snider, Shayne A; Stypa, Stephanie A; Day, Emily A; Lhoták, Šárka; Schertzer, Jonathan D; Austin, Richard C; Kemp, Bruce E; Steinberg, Gregory R

    2015-05-01

    Atherosclerosis stems from imbalances in lipid metabolism and leads to maladaptive inflammatory responses. The AMP-activated protein kinase (Ampk) is a highly conserved serine/threonine kinase that regulates many aspects of lipid and energy metabolism, although its specific role in controlling macrophage cholesterol homeostasis remains unclear. We sought to address this question by testing the effects of direct Ampk activators in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages from Ampk β1-deficient (β1(-/-)) mice. Macrophages from Ampk β1(-/-) mice had enhanced lipogenic capacity and diminished cholesterol efflux, although cholesterol uptake was unaffected. Direct activation of Ampk β1 via salicylate (the unacetylated form of aspirin) or A-769662 (a small molecule activator), decreased the synthesis of FAs and sterols in WT but not Ampk β1(-/-) macrophages. In lipid-laden macrophages, Ampk activation decreased cholesterol content (foam cell formation) and increased cholesterol efflux to HDL and apoA-I, effects that occurred in an Ampk β1-dependent manner. Increased cholesterol efflux was also associated with increased gene expression of the ATP binding cassette transporters, Abcg1 and Abca1. Moreover, in vivo reverse cholesterol transport was suppressed in mice that received Ampk β1(-/-) macrophages compared with the WT control. Our data highlight the therapeutic potential of targeting macrophage Ampk with new or existing drugs for the possible reduction in foam cell formation during the early stages of atherosclerosis. PMID:25773887

  12. Failed hypospadias repair: An algorithm for secondary reconstruction using remaining local tissue.

    PubMed

    Nozohoor Ekmark, Ann; Svensson, Henry; Arnbjörnsson, Einar; Hansson, Emma

    2015-11-01

    Salvage hypospadias surgery is performed after failed primary reconstruction. Several treatment strategies have been suggested, all with pros and cons. The aim of this study was to evaluate our treatment algorithm for primary hypospadias repair applied to secondary cases in which a salvage procedure is indicated and, most importantly, local tissue is present. The algorithm was applied to 36 consecutive patients who had undergone a total of 109 surgical procedures before referral. In accordance with the algorithm, 12 patients without ventral curvature achieved a satisfactory result with one procedure by the use of local skin flaps. Six patients with moderate ventral curvature underwent orthoplasty, fistula closure, and/or urethral reconstruction using local skin flaps in one session. Eighteen patients with a severe ventral curvature or a proximal meatus were reconstructed in two stages using Byars' technique. After a median of two salvage procedures (range: 1-4), all patients but one, who awaits splitting of a skin bridge in the meatus, were successfully reconstructed. Two patients in active follow-up have potential problems requiring further surgery. Our findings indicate that failed hypospadias repairs are often due to an underestimation of the ventral curvature at the initial repair. Therefore, reevaluation of the degree of curvature is important. One-stage salvage repairs can be used, provided that none or minimal curvature remains. In cases of marked curvature, however, a meticulous resection of the chordee and ventral scarring is crucial. The subsequent repair of the large ventral defect and the long urethral reconstruction can, in most cases, be safely managed in a two-stage procedure. PMID:26195272

  13. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Mally

    1992-01-01

    A series of four activities are presented to enhance students' abilities to appreciate and use trigonometry as a tool in problem solving. Activities cover problems applying the law of sines, the law of cosines, and matching equivalent trigonometric expressions. A teacher's guide, worksheets, and answers are provided. (MDH)

  14. Respirators versus medical masks: evidence accumulates but the jury remains out

    PubMed Central

    Killingley, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Killingley (2011). Respiratory versus medical masks: evidence accumulates but the jury remains out. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750‐2659.2011.00237.x. PMID:21477131

  15. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the subsurface leak remaining subsurface accident

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Subsurface Leak Remaining Subsurface. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  16. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the subsurface leak remaining subsurface accident

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-19

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Subsurface Leak Remaining Subsurface. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  17. 43 CFR 3255.12 - How long will information I give BLM remain confidential or proprietary?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... information I give BLM remain confidential or proprietary? The FOIA (5 U.S.C. 552) does not provide a finite period of time during which information may be exempt from public disclosure. BLM will review...

  18. 43 CFR 3255.12 - How long will information I give BLM remain confidential or proprietary?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... information I give BLM remain confidential or proprietary? The FOIA (5 U.S.C. 552) does not provide a finite period of time during which information may be exempt from public disclosure. BLM will review...

  19. 43 CFR 3255.12 - How long will information I give BLM remain confidential or proprietary?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... information I give BLM remain confidential or proprietary? The FOIA (5 U.S.C. 552) does not provide a finite period of time during which information may be exempt from public disclosure. BLM will review...

  20. 43 CFR 3255.12 - How long will information I give BLM remain confidential or proprietary?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... information I give BLM remain confidential or proprietary? The FOIA (5 U.S.C. 552) does not provide a finite period of time during which information may be exempt from public disclosure. BLM will review...

  1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING OPERATOR’S HOUSE. REMAINS OF BALTIMORE & OHIO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING OPERATOR’S HOUSE. REMAINS OF BALTIMORE & OHIO CHICAGO TERMINAL RAILROAD BRIDGE BEYOND. - Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway, Bridge No. 6, Spanning Calumet River, east of Chicago Skyway (I-90), Chicago, Cook County, IL

  2. Italy makes U-turn on nuclear power, but hurdles remain

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-15

    A consortium consisting of ENEL and EDF in partnership with others including Edison, a major generator, and possibly a number of heavy industrial electricity users could invest in nuclear plants. But many technical, political, regulatory, and financial hurdles remain.

  3. View of the remains of timber/carpentry shop (Feature 4), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the remains of timber/carpentry shop (Feature 4), looking east - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  4. 169. Credit FM. Remains of H.H. Noble residence, destroyed by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    169. Credit FM. Remains of H.H. Noble residence, destroyed by fire. 'Noble Castle' stood atop the ridge near Lakes Grace and Nora, overlooking Volta. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  5. Measuring direct drive ICF remaining ablator areal density using a gas Cherenkov detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubery, Michael; Horsfield, Colin; Herrmann, Hans; Kim, Yongho; Hoffmann, Nelson; Mack, Joseph; Young, Carl; Evans, Scott; Sedillo, Tom; Caldwell, Steven; Grafil, Elliot; Stoeffl, Wolfgang; Milnes, James; Atomic Weapons Establishment PLC Team; Los Alamos National Laboratory Team; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Team; Photek Ltd Team

    2013-10-01

    Neutrons from a compressed direct drive ICF target produce γ rays through inelastic interactions with ablator material. The inelastic γ intensity is proportional to the remaining ablator areal density at bang time and the neutron yield. Remaining ablator areal density is an important metric for the quality of the implosion and is strongly correlated with fuel temperature and compression. This contribution describes how a background signal routinely measured on the gas Cherenkov detectors can be used to infer the intensity of the low-energy inelastic gammas from the ablator on the same trace as the DT fusion γ signal, which is directly proportional to the neutron yield; therefore allowing the remaining ablator areal density to be measured in a self consistent manner. Results from recent experiments at the Omega laser facility designed to prove the technique are discussed. In addition, Monte Carlo modelling shows the technique can be used to measure remaining ablator areal density for both plastic and glass capsules.

  6. IET control building (TAN620). remains of periscope connections and control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET control building (TAN-620). remains of periscope connections and control console at far west wall of control room. facing westerly. INEEL negative no. HD-21-2-2 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. North façade, entrance. The square tower has the remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North façade, entrance. The square tower has the remains of a sign, Kaiser Foundation Hospital. Horizontal ribbon windows continue on this façade. - Richmond Field Hospital, 1330 Cutting Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  8. View of Feature 2, the remains of the Geology/Change Room, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 2, the remains of the Geology/Change Room, view to the southeast - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  9. Early human cultural and skeletal remains from guitarrero cave, northern peru.

    PubMed

    Lynch, T F; Kennedy, K A

    1970-09-25

    An early man site in highland Peru yielded a rich cultural assemblage in stratigraphic association with faunal remains, botanical remains, and campfire remnants that furnished secure radiocarbon dates. A human mandible and teeth, showing interesting patterns of occlusal wear, were found in a stratum dated by a charcoal sample to 10,610 B.C., the oldest such date in South America. PMID:17772515

  10. A Study on Generic Representation of Skeletal Remains Replication of Prehistoric Burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, C.-W.; Chiu, H.-L.; Chang, S.-K.

    2015-08-01

    Generic representation of skeletal remains from burials consists of three dimensions which include physical anthropologists, replication technicians, and promotional educators. For the reason that archaeological excavation is irreversible and disruptive, detail documentation and replication technologies are surely needed for many purposes. Unearthed bones during the process of 3D digital scanning need to go through reverse procedure, 3D scanning, digital model superimposition, rapid prototyping, mould making, and the integrated errors generated from the presentation of colours and textures are important issues for the presentation of replicate skeleton remains among professional decisions conducted by physical anthropologists, subjective determination of makers, and the expectations of viewers. This study presents several cases and examines current issues on display and replication technologies for human skeletal remains of prehistoric burials. This study documented detail colour changes of human skeleton over time for the reference of reproduction. The tolerance errors of quantification and required technical qualification is acquired according to the precision of 3D scanning, the specification requirement of rapid prototyping machine, and the mould making process should following the professional requirement for physical anthropological study. Additionally, the colorimeter is adopted to record and analyse the "colour change" of the human skeletal remains from wet to dry condition. Then, the "colure change" is used to evaluate the "real" surface texture and colour presentation of human skeletal remains, and to limit the artistic presentation among the human skeletal remains reproduction. The"Lingdao man No.1", is a well preserved burial of early Neolithic period (8300 B.P.) excavated from Liangdao-Daowei site, Matsu, Taiwan , as the replicating object for this study. In this study, we examined the reproduction procedures step by step for ensuring the surface

  11. Comparative morphology and paleobiology of Middle Pleistocene human remains from the Bau de l'Aubesier, Vaucluse, France

    PubMed Central

    Lebel, Serge; Trinkaus, Erik; Faure, Martine; Fernandez, Philippe; Guérin, Claude; Richter, Daniel; Mercier, Norbert; Valladas, Helène; Wagner, Günther A.

    2001-01-01

    The discovery of later Middle Pleistocene human remains from the Bau de l'Aubesier, France reinforces an evolutionary model of the gradual accumulation of Neandertal-derived facial and dental features during the Middle Pleistocene of the northwestern Old World. The pronounced maxillary incisor beveling of Aubesier 4 helps to extend the antiquity of nondietary use of the anterior dentition. The interproximal “toothpick” groove on the Aubesier 10 molar increases the sample for these lesions. The pathological loss of the mandibular dentition of Aubesier 11 indicates advanced antemortem masticatory impairment, at a level previously undocumented before the Late Pleistocene. These remains support a view of later Middle Pleistocene humans able to support debilitated individuals despite the considerable use of their bodies to accomplish routine activities. PMID:11553766

  12. An analysis of the alleged skeletal remains of Carin Göring.

    PubMed

    Kjellström, Anna; Edlund, Hanna; Lembring, Maria; Ahlgren, Viktoria; Allen, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 1991, treasure hunters found skeletal remains in an area close to the destroyed country residence of former Nazi leader Hermann Göring in northeastern Berlin. The remains, which were believed to belong to Carin Göring, who was buried at the site, were examined to determine whether it was possible to make a positive identification. The anthropological analysis showed that the remains come from an adult woman. The DNA analysis of several bone elements showed female sex, and a reference sample from Carin's son revealed mtDNA sequences identical to the remains. The profile has one nucleotide difference from the Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS), the common variant 263G. A database search resulted in a frequency of this mtDNA sequence of about 10% out of more than 7,000 European haplotypes. The mtDNA sequence found in the ulna, the cranium and the reference sample is, thus, very common among Europeans. Therefore, nuclear DNA analysis was attempted. The remains as well as a sample from Carin's son were successfully analysed for the three nuclear markers TH01, D7S820 and D8S1179. The nuclear DNA analysis of the two samples revealed one shared allele for each of the three markers, supporting a mother and son relationship. This genetic information together with anthropological and historical files provides an additional piece of circumstantial evidence in our efforts to identify the remains of Carin Göring. PMID:23284605

  13. Uncertainty Quantification in Remaining Useful Life of Aerospace Components using State Space Models and Inverse FORM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the inverse first-order reliability method (inverse- FORM) to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life (RUL) of aerospace components. The prediction of remaining useful life is an integral part of system health prognosis, and directly helps in online health monitoring and decision-making. However, the prediction of remaining useful life is affected by several sources of uncertainty, and therefore it is necessary to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. While system parameter uncertainty and physical variability can be easily included in inverse-FORM, this paper extends the methodology to include: (1) future loading uncertainty, (2) process noise; and (3) uncertainty in the state estimate. The inverse-FORM method has been used in this paper to (1) quickly obtain probability bounds on the remaining useful life prediction; and (2) calculate the entire probability distribution of remaining useful life prediction, and the results are verified against Monte Carlo sampling. The proposed methodology is illustrated using a numerical example.

  14. Development of Method for Remaining Life Assessment of Oil-Immersed Transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Tetsuro; Nakahara, Yasuo; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Urabe, Noboru; Itoh, Masayoshi

    This paper presents a method for remaining life assessment of oil-immersed transformers using analyzable structured neural networks. Remaining life assessment of oil-immersed transformer is very important. Furfural method is conventionally used for such an assessment. In the furfural method, the average degree of polymerization is determined by considering the nonlinear correlation between the furfural and average degree of polymerization. The remaining life is estimated by considering the average degree of polymerization. However, a range of estimates of the remaining life is obtained when the furfural method is used, making accurate estimation difficult. The proposed method can be used to estimate the remaining life of an oil-immersed transformer accurately; this method involves analyzable structured neural networks and ensemble method. In the proposed method, not only furfural but also oil temperature, operational status, cooling type, etc., are considered. Since various factors are considered as input variables and a nonlinear model, i.e., artificial neural networks are used, accurate estimation of the remaining life has been realized. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by numerical simulation using actual measured data.

  15. Reintegration of the regenerated and the remaining tissues during joint regeneration in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Takeshi; Yamada, Shigehito

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Urodele amphibians, such as newts, can regenerate a functional limb, including joints, after amputation at any level along the proximal−distal axis of the limb. The blastema can regenerate the limb morphology largely independently of the stump after proximal−distal identity has been established, but the remaining and regenerated tissues must be structurally reintegrated (matched in size and shape). Here we used newt joint regeneration as a model to investigate reintegration, because a functionally interlocking joint requires structural integration between its opposing skeletal elements. After forelimbs were amputated at the elbow joint, the joint was regenerated between the remaining and regenerated skeletal elements. The regenerated cartilage was thick around the amputated joint to make a reciprocally interlocking joint structure with the remaining bone. Furthermore, during regeneration, the extracellular matrix of the remaining tissues was lost, suggesting that the remaining tissues might contribute to the morphogenesis of regenerating cartilage. Our results showed that the area of the regenerated cartilage matched the area of the apposed remaining cartilage, thus contributing to formation of a functional structure.

  16. Decomposition of Concealed and Exposed Porcine Remains in the North Carolina Piedmont.

    PubMed

    Cammack, J A; Cohen, A C; Kreitlow, K L; Roe, R M; Watson, D W

    2016-01-01

    We examined the decomposition and subsequent insect colonization of small pig carrion (Sus scrofa (L.)) placed in concealed and open environments during spring, summer, and fall in Raleigh, North Carolina, as a model for juvenile human remains. Remains were concealed in simulated attics in three manners, ranging from minimal to well-concealed. Concealment had a significant effect on the insect community colonizing the remains across all three seasons; the beetles Necrobia rufipes (DeGeer) (Cleridae) and Dermestes maculatus (DeGeer) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were the only species indicative of remains located indoors, whereas numerous fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sepsidae, and Piophilidae) and beetle (Coleoptera: Silphidae, Staphylinidae, and Histeridae) species and an ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Prenolepis sp.) were indicative of remains located outdoors. Season also significantly affected the insect species, particularly the blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) colonizing remains: Lucilia illustris (Meigen) was indicative of the spring, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) and Chrysomya megacephala (F.) were indicative of the summer, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Calliphora vomitoria (L.) were indicative of the fall. In addition, across all seasons, colonization was delayed by 35–768 h, depending on the degree of concealment. These differences among the insect communities across seasons and concealment treatments, and the effects of concealment on colonization indicate that such information is important and should to be considered when analyzing entomological evidence for criminal investigations. PMID:26590193

  17. An Analysis of the Alleged Skeletal Remains of Carin Göring

    PubMed Central

    Kjellström, Anna; Edlund, Hanna; Lembring, Maria; Ahlgren, Viktoria; Allen, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 1991, treasure hunters found skeletal remains in an area close to the destroyed country residence of former Nazi leader Hermann Göring in northeastern Berlin. The remains, which were believed to belong to Carin Göring, who was buried at the site, were examined to determine whether it was possible to make a positive identification. The anthropological analysis showed that the remains come from an adult woman. The DNA analysis of several bone elements showed female sex, and a reference sample from Carin's son revealed mtDNA sequences identical to the remains. The profile has one nucleotide difference from the Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS), the common variant 263G. A database search resulted in a frequency of this mtDNA sequence of about 10% out of more than 7,000 European haplotypes. The mtDNA sequence found in the ulna, the cranium and the reference sample is, thus, very common among Europeans. Therefore, nuclear DNA analysis was attempted. The remains as well as a sample from Carin's son were successfully analysed for the three nuclear markers TH01, D7S820 and D8S1179. The nuclear DNA analysis of the two samples revealed one shared allele for each of the three markers, supporting a mother and son relationship. This genetic information together with anthropological and historical files provides an additional piece of circumstantial evidence in our efforts to identify the remains of Carin Göring. PMID:23284605

  18. Effects of Isoflurane Anesthesia on Ensemble Patterns of Ca2+ Activity in Mouse V1: Reduced Direction Selectivity Independent of Increased Correlations in Cellular Activity

    PubMed Central

    Goltstein, Pieter M.; Montijn, Jorrit S.; Pennartz, Cyriel M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Anesthesia affects brain activity at the molecular, neuronal and network level, but it is not well-understood how tuning properties of sensory neurons and network connectivity change under its influence. Using in vivo two-photon calcium imaging we matched neuron identity across episodes of wakefulness and anesthesia in the same mouse and recorded spontaneous and visually evoked activity patterns of neuronal ensembles in these two states. Correlations in spontaneous patterns of calcium activity between pairs of neurons were increased under anesthesia. While orientation selectivity remained unaffected by anesthesia, this treatment reduced direction selectivity, which was attributable to an increased response to the null-direction. As compared to anesthesia, populations of V1 neurons coded more mutual information on opposite stimulus directions during wakefulness, whereas information on stimulus orientation differences was lower. Increases in correlations of calcium activity during visual stimulation were correlated with poorer population coding, which raised the hypothesis that the anesthesia-induced increase in correlations may be causal to degrading directional coding. Visual stimulation under anesthesia, however, decorrelated ongoing activity patterns to a level comparable to wakefulness. Because visual stimulation thus appears to ‘break’ the strength of pairwise correlations normally found in spontaneous activity under anesthesia, the changes in correlational structure cannot explain the awake-anesthesia difference in direction coding. The population-wide decrease in coding for stimulus direction thus occurs independently of anesthesia-induced increments in correlations of spontaneous activity. PMID:25706867

  19. Characterisation of lysozyme activity in the in situ pellicle using a fluorimetric assay.

    PubMed

    Hannig, Christian; Spitzmüller, Bettina; Hannig, Matthias

    2009-03-01

    Lysozyme is among the most protective enzymes in the pellicle layer. The aim of the present study was to establish a precise fluorimetric assay for determination and characterisation of lysozyme activity immobilised in the initial in situ formed pellicle. For in situ pellicle formation, bovine enamel slabs were fixed on maxillary splints and carried by six subjects for different times (3, 30 min) on buccal and palatal sites. The enzymatic assay was based on hydrolysis of cell walls from Micrococcus lysodeicticus linked to a fluorogenic substance. When the substrate is hydrolysed, a fluorescing product is released. Furthermore, the effects of chlorhexidine and black tea on lysozyme in the in situ pellicle were investigated. The fluorimetric method allowed direct determination of the enzyme activity with the slab inside the well of a microtiter plate. The mean immobilised activity over all samples amounted to 68.67 +/- 27.35 U/cm(2) (desorbed activity = 46.76 +/- 21.18 U/cm(2)). The enzyme activity exposed at the pellicles' surfaces increased in a time-dependant manner and showed a Michaelis-Menten kinetic. Chlorhexidine and black tea reduced lysozyme activity of the in situ pellicle significantly. After rinsing with tea or chlorhexidine, V(max) was reduced, whereas K(m) remained unaffected indicating a negative allosteric effect of the V type. The fluorimetric method is appropriate for determination of pellicle lysozyme activity. The influence of effectors on immobilised lysozyme activity can be monitored. PMID:18810509

  20. The friction coefficient of shoulder joints remains remarkably low over 24 h of loading.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brian K; Durney, Krista M; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2015-11-01

    The frictional response of whole human joints over durations spanning activities of daily living has not been reported previously. This study measured the friction of human glenohumeral joints during 24 h of reciprocal loading in a pendulum testing device, at moderate (0.2 mm/s, 4320 cycles) and low (0.02 mm/s, 432 cycles) sliding speeds, under a 200 N load. The effect of joint congruence was also investigated by testing human humeral heads against significantly larger mature bovine glenoids. Eight human joints and six bovine joints were tested in four combinations: human joints tested at moderate (hHCMS, n=6) and low speed (hHCLS, n=3), human humeral heads tested against bovine glenoids at moderate speed (LCMS, n=3), and bovine joints tested at moderate speed (bHCMS, n=3). In the first half hour the mean±standard deviation of the friction coefficient was hHCMS: 0.0016±0.0011, hHCLS: 0.0012±0.0002, LCMS: 0.0008±0.0002 and bHCMS: 0.0024±0.0008; in the last four hours it was hHCMS: 0.0057±0.0025, hHCLS: 0.0047±0.0017, LCMS: 0.0012±0.0003 and bHCMS: 0.0056±0.0016. The initial value was lower than the final value (p<0.0001). The value in LCMS was significantly lower than in hHCMS and bHCMS (p<0.01). No visual damage was observed in any of the specimens. These are the first results to demonstrate that the friction coefficient of natural human shoulders remains remarkably low (averaging as little as 0.0015 and no greater than 0.006) for up to 24 h of continuous loading. The sustained low friction coefficients observed in incongruent joints (~0.001) likely represent rolling rather than sliding friction. PMID:26472306

  1. [Association between tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Martins, Aline Blaya; Dalberto, Charlene da Silveira; Hugo, Fernando Neves

    2015-12-01

    The presence of tooth root remains is a common clinical finding among elderly patients and may reflect a need for treatment. The scope of this study sought to explore the association between the presence of tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly. Secondary data from two sanitary districts of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, were analyzed. A conceptual theoretical model was used in the analysis to assess factors related to self-perceived oral health: gender, age, education, marital status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, demand for oral health care, participation in community groups, family economic self-sufficiency, oral health service accessed, number of teeth and the presence of tooth root remains. The statistical data were analyzed using Chi-square and Poisson Regression tests (95% CI analysis; α 5%). The sample consisted of 849 elderly individuals with a mean age of 69.7 years (± 7.2); 14.5% of the elderly had tooth root remains and 60.7% reported good self-perceived oral health. According to the hierarchical analysis, the absence of tooth root remains was associated with good oral health perception. The qualification and expansion of health care provided should be considered in order to allow planning actions to ensure the maintenance of good oral health for the elderly. PMID:26691792

  2. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Charlene; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students collect and organize data from a real-world simulation of the scientific concept of half life. Students collect data using a marble sifter, analyze the data using a graphing calculator, and determine an appropriate mathematical model. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  3. Cu-sil dentures - a novel approach to conserve few remaining teeth: Case reports.

    PubMed

    Jain, Jayesh Kumar; Prabhu, C R Allama; Zahrane, Mohammed Al; Esawy, Mohammed Sayed Al; Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj; Pal, Kapil Singh

    2015-08-01

    The present prime concern in dentistry is on preservation of remaining natural teeth. Presence of few teeth in oral cavity help in preserving alveolar ridge integrity, maintain the proprioception, and gives psychological benefit to the patient. Transitional denture provides us with alternative treatment plan for the patients willing to replace their missing teeth while retaining their very few remaining teeth. A relatively newer type of transitional denture is Cu-sil denture. A Cu-sil denture is a denture with holes, lined by a gasket of silicone rubber, the holes thus providing space for remaining natural teeth to emerge into the oral cavity through the denture. Cu-sil denture is the simplest removable partial denture, but its fabrication requires special armamentarium and material. This case report represents a simple chairside technique to fabricate Cu-sil dentures in usual dental set-up. PMID:26464557

  4. Anthropometry of hand in sex determination of dismembered remains - A review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Krishan, Kewal

    2011-01-01

    Sex determination is an important and one of the foremost criteria in establishing the identity of an individual. Identification of dismembered/severed human remains that are frequently found in cases of mass disasters and criminal mutilation is a challenging task for the medicolegal experts. The paper presents a review of anthropometric studies conducted on hand with regard to identification of the deceased from dismembered remains. The review further discusses the anthropometric landmarks, techniques, methods, reliability and accuracy and the overall significance of hand anthropometry in personal identification. This review is an attempt to discuss the sexual dimorphism exhibited by the anthropometry of the hand that can assist forensic experts in the identification of amputated/dismembered remains. PMID:21216373

  5. First sauropod (Dinosauria: Saurischia) remains from the Guichón Formation, Late Cretaceous of Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Matías; Perea, Daniel; Cambiaso, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    We report the first sauropod remains recorded in the Guichón Formation, western Uruguay. The materials belong to a middle-sized sauropod represented by more than one individual, and among other remains include more than fifty caudal centra. Close to the bones, several eggshell fragments resembling Sphaerovum erbeniMones, 1980 were found. We discuss the biostratigraphic implications of these findings, which for the first time allow us to confidently refer the Guichón Formation to the Late Cretaceous. The combination of several synapomorphies such as a biconvex first caudal centrum, strongly procoelous middle and distal caudal centra, and a pyramidal astragalus suggests that the sauropod remains belong to a derived lithostrotian, probably related to Pellegrinisaurus powelli, Baurutitan britoi and Alamosaurus sanjuanensis. A few isolated teeth (now lost) referred by Frederich von Huene in 1934 to ornithomimid theropods and ornithischians are herein reinterpreted as belonging to indeterminate theropods and basal iguanodontians.

  6. Neandertal postcranial remains from the Sima de las Palomas del Cabezo Gordo, Murcia, southeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Walker, Michael J; Ortega, Jon; López, Mariano V; Parmová, Klára; Trinkaus, Erik

    2011-04-01

    The Sima de las Palomas, southeastern Spain, has yielded a series of Neandertal postcranial remains, including immature and mature isolated elements and the fragmentary partial skeleton of a young adult (Palomas 92). The remains largely conform to the general late archaic/Neandertal morphological pattern in terms of humeral diaphyseal shape, pectoralis major tuberosity size and pillar thickness, ulnar coronoid process height, manual middle phalangeal epiphyseal breadth, manual distal phalangeal tuberosity shape and breadth, femoral diaphyseal shape, and probably body proportions. Palomas 92 contrasts with the Neandertals in having variably gracile hand remains, a more sellar trapezial metacarpal 1 facet, more anteroposteriorly expanded mid-proximal femoral diaphysis, and less robust pedal proximal phalanges. The Palomas Neandertals contrast with more northern European Neandertals particularly in various reflections of overall body size. PMID:21404228

  7. Pesticide pollution remains severe after cleanup of a stockpile of obsolete pesticides at Vikuge, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Elfvendahl, Sara; Mihale, Matobola; Kishimba, Michael A; Kylin, Henrik

    2004-12-01

    High levels of DDT residues and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were found in soil, well water, and surface water around a collapsed pesticide storage shed at Vikuge Farm, Tanzania. Residues of DDT and HCHs were found at three soil depths down to 50 cm. Surface soil samples contained up to 28% total DDT and 6% total HCH residues. Water samples had concentrations of up to 30 microg L(-1) of organochlorine pesticides. Other compounds detected were aldrin, azinphos-methyl, carbosulfan, gamma-chlordane, chlorprofam, heptachlor, hexazinone, metamitron, metazachlor, pendimethalin, and thiabendazole. Although the visible remains of pesticides have been removed, the remaining soil is itself hazardous waste and poses a risk to the environment and the inhabitants of the surrounding villages. These findings show the necessity to follow up the environmental situation at former storage sites of obsolete stocks of pesticides, and that the environmental problems are not necessarily solved by removing the visible remains. PMID:15666681

  8. [Buried Pleistocene human remains of Weissenthurm, Mayen-Koblenz district: new and old information

    PubMed

    Flohr, Stefan; von Berg, Axel; Protsch von Zieten, Reiner

    2004-03-01

    The landscape at central Rhine and Mosel is one of the most famous archaeological sites in middle Europe. A layer of pumicetufa from the eruption of the lake Laacher volcano 13,000 years B.P. is an important mark which approximately divides the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic period. Although numerous excavations in this area have been carried out, quaternary hominid remains are quite rare. A few short notes from the early 1920s reports of human bones "below the pumice, in Weissenthurm, District Mayen-Koblenz, Rhineland-Palatinate". However, these remains were probably destroyed in the Second World War in Munich on April 25, 1944. Recently, some new information has appeared on the discovery and the whereabouts of these fragments. The chronological classification of the Weissenthurm-hominid into the Pleistocene based on this information remains uncertain. PMID:15109032

  9. Influence of spiking activity on cortical local field potentials

    PubMed Central

    Waldert, Stephan; Lemon, Roger N; Kraskov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The intra-cortical local field potential (LFP) reflects a variety of electrophysiological processes including synaptic inputs to neurons and their spiking activity. It is still a common assumption that removing high frequencies, often above 300 Hz, is sufficient to exclude spiking activity from LFP activity prior to analysis. Conclusions based on such supposedly spike-free LFPs can result in false interpretations of neurophysiological processes and erroneous correlations between LFPs and behaviour or spiking activity. Such findings might simply arise from spike contamination rather than from genuine changes in synaptic input activity. Although the subject of recent studies, the extent of LFP contamination by spikes is unclear, and the fundamental problem remains. Using spikes recorded in the motor cortex of the awake monkey, we investigated how different factors, including spike amplitude, duration and firing rate, together with the noise statistic, can determine the extent to which spikes contaminate intra-cortical LFPs. We demonstrate that such contamination is realistic for LFPs with a frequency down to ∼10 Hz. For LFP activity below ∼10 Hz, such as movement-related potential, contamination is theoretically possible but unlikely in real situations. Importantly, LFP frequencies up to the (high-) gamma band can remain unaffected. This study shows that spike–LFP crosstalk in intra-cortical recordings should be assessed for each individual dataset to ensure that conclusions based on LFP analysis are valid. To this end, we introduce a method to detect and to visualise spike contamination, and provide a systematic guide to assess spike contamination of intra-cortical LFPs. PMID:23981719

  10. Middle Paleolithic human remains from the Gruta da Oliveira (Torres Novas), Portugal.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Maki, Julia; Zilhão, João

    2007-10-01

    Ongoing excavations in the Middle Paleolithic levels at the Gruta da Oliveira, Portugal have yielded four fragmentary human remains, a manual phalanx and an ulna from levels 9 and 10, and a humerus and a tibia from levels 18 and 19. The first two remains date to approximately 39 ka 14C BP ( approximately 43.5 ka cal BP), whereas the latter two derive from earlier in oxygen isotope stage 3. The preserved portions of the phalanx, humerus, and tibia align them morphologically with the Neandertals. In addition, the Oliveira 4 tibial diaphysis shows evidence of carnivore (probably canid) gnawing. PMID:17632802

  11. Material Aging and Degradation Detection and Remaining Life Assessment for Plant Life Management

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Henager, Charles H.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Pitman, Stan G.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2012-12-31

    One of the major factors that may impact long term operations is structural material degradation, Detecting materials degradation, estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of the component, and determining approaches to mitigating the degradation are important from the perspective of long term operations. In this study, multiple nondestructive measurement and monitoring methods were evaluated for their ability to assess the material degradation state. Metrics quantifying the level of damage from these measurements were defined, and evaluated for their ability to provide estimates of remaining life of the component. An example of estimating the RUL from nondestructive measurements of material degradation condition is provided.

  12. Teacher Leadership: Preparing New Teachers with Effective Strategies to Remain in Urban Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Deirdre R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was is to identify factors that are significant indicators of teachers' reasons for remaining in an urban school district. In an effort to understand the problem of retaining teachers in urban areas there have been countless research that have been conducted concentrating in the area of teacher retention in urban…

  13. Point Cloud Metrics for Separating Standing Archaeological Remains and Low Vegetation in ALS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, R.; Nuninger, L.

    2013-07-01

    The integration of Airborne Laser Scanning survey into archaeological research and cultural heritage management has substantially added to our knowledge of archaeological remains in forested areas, and is changing our understanding of how these landscapes functioned in the past. While many types of archaeological remains manifest as micro-topography, several important classes of features commonly appear as standing remains. The identification of these remains is important for archaeological prospection surveys based on ALS data, and typically represent structures from the Roman, Medieval and early Modern periods. Standing structures in mixed scenes with vegetation are not well addressed by standard classification approaches developed to identify bare earth (terrain), individual trees or plot characteristics, or buildings (roofed structures). In this paper we propose an approach to the identification of these structures in the point cloud based on multi-scale measures of local density, roughness, and normal orientation. We demonstrate this approach using discrete-return ALS data collected in the Franche-Comte region of France at a nominal point density of 8 pts/m2, a resolution which, in coming years, will become increasingly available to archaeologists through government supported mapping schemes.

  14. Taming Disruptive Technologies, or How To Remain Relevant in the Digital Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Philip

    2001-01-01

    Discusses electronic books as a disruptive technology, that is, a technology that has appeal to its users but upsets the traditional models. Highlights include a history of print technology; types of electronic books; reader devices; stakeholders, including users, librarians, and publishers; and how vendors can remain relevant. (LRW)

  15. 8. ARAI Shop and maintenance building ARA627 interior view. Remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. ARA-I Shop and maintenance building ARA-627 interior view. Remains of cabinetry and electrical switch panel in one of rooms. Ineel photo no. 1-11. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. Credit BG. View looks south southwest (202°) across remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. View looks south southwest (202°) across remains of concrete pad foundation for the mess hall. North Base Road (3rd Street) passes nearby. Building 4318 is in the distance at the extreme left of view - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Base Mess Hall T-27, Third Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. 49. Taken from highline; "McKinley hat" remains on "B" furnace; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Taken from high-line; "McKinley hat" remains on "B" furnace; no longer used, "McKinley hat was open receptacle with bell below. Hat carried charge to furnace top, dumping it to bell; bell locked onto furnace top, dropping charge into furnace. Looking east - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  18. 40 CFR 180.34 - Tests on the amount of residue remaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tests on the amount of residue remaining. 180.34 Section 180.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Procedural Regulations § 180.34 Tests on the amount of...

  19. 40 CFR 180.34 - Tests on the amount of residue remaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tests on the amount of residue remaining. 180.34 Section 180.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Procedural Regulations § 180.34 Tests on the amount of...

  20. What Makes Hotel Expatriates Remain in Their Overseas Assignments: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Zoe Ju-Yu

    2012-01-01

    In this study the researcher uses a qualitative research design to discover what makes hotel expatriates remain in their overseas assignments. In-depth interviews, participant observations, and personal documents are used as data collection methods. Four hotel expatriates are recruited as participants of the study. The collected interview…

  1. 1. VIEW EAST/SOUTHEAST FROM LEFT TO RIGHT REMAINS OF POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW EAST/SOUTHEAST FROM LEFT TO RIGHT REMAINS OF POWER PLANT TEST STAND INCLUDING SUPPORT BUILDING (BACKGROUND), FLAME TRENCH (FOREGROUND) RECENT ADDITION (O-RING FACILITY) OVER OTHER FLAME TRENCH. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Power Plant Test Stand, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  2. Helping Beginning Teachers Remain in the Profession: A Successful Induction Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Sonya C.; Evans, Elizabeth D.

    2006-01-01

    Quality teachers are needed if all students are to perform to high standards, yet teacher shortages in both general and special education remain a national concern. Too many teachers, both veterans and novices, are leaving the profession and the national attrition rate for new teachers is highest among the most "academically talented." Induction…

  3. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How long will your application remain in effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will...

  4. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How long will your application remain in effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will...

  5. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How long will your application remain in effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will...

  6. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How long will your application remain in effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will...

  7. 78 FR 19303 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... (Creek) Nation; and United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma. In the Federal Register (66 FR... Federal Register (66 FR 32846-32847, June 18, 2001). A reassessment of the inventory during tribal... group identity with the human remains and associated funerary objects. In the Federal Register (66...

  8. Induction Programs Effect on Beginning Teachers' Feelings of Preparedness and Plans to Remain in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted for the purpose of reporting the possible relationships between induction programs on beginning teachers' feelings of preparedness as well as their plans to remain in teaching. The exploration of the experiences of teachers during their first year of teaching aims to evaluate the support system they are offered during…

  9. Who Escapes or Remains a Victim of Bullying in Primary School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolke, Dieter; Woods, Sarah; Samara, Muthanna

    2009-01-01

    The stability of both direct and relational victimization and factors that contribute to remaining, escaping or becoming a victim of bullying were investigated. 663 children at baseline aged 6-9 (years 2-4) were interviewed about their bullying experiences and parents completed a behaviour and health measure. Children's perception of the degree…

  10. Dementia and Friendship: The Quality and Nature of the Relationships That Remain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Phyllis Braudy

    2013-01-01

    Friendships are an integral part of the human experience. Yet, dementia often takes a toll on social relationships, and many friends withdraw. This research, however, focuses on friendships that remain, despite a diagnosis of dementia. It examines the quality of the friendships of people with dementia and long-term friendships. Data were collected…

  11. Female College Presidents: Characteristics to Become and Remain Chief Executive Officer of a College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balram, Arlette

    2012-01-01

    Through an ethnographic approach, the perceptions of female college presidents from the northeastern region of the United States regarding leadership styles and the characteristics to become and remain the chief executive officer of a college were investigated. Six presidents from various types of four-year colleges were interviewed. Themes,…

  12. "Game Remains": A Platform Design Grounded in Indigenous Knowledge Systems for Dialogue and Composition Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Cristobal M.; Ingram-Goble, Adam; Twist, Kade L.; Chacon, Raven

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the design and implementation of a game as an instrument for dialogue, both as a social tool and a shared interface for music performance. Beyond describing the design of "Game Remains," the article shares the details of an impact story of how an installation in Guelph's Musagetes Boarding House Arts in Canada has…

  13. Optimization of DNA Recovery and Amplification from Non-Carbonized Archaeobotanical Remains

    PubMed Central

    Wales, Nathan; Andersen, Kenneth; Cappellini, Enrico; Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from archaeobotanical remains can provide key insights into many prominent archaeological research questions, including processes of domestication, past subsistence strategies, and human interactions with the environment. However, it is often difficult to isolate aDNA from ancient plant materials, and furthermore, such DNA extracts frequently contain inhibitory substances that preclude successful PCR amplification. In the age of high-throughput sequencing, this problem is even more significant because each additional endogenous aDNA molecule improves analytical resolution. Therefore, in this paper, we compare a variety of DNA extraction techniques on primarily desiccated archaeobotanical remains and identify which method consistently yields the greatest amount of purified DNA. In addition, we test five DNA polymerases to determine how well they replicate DNA extracted from non-charred ancient plant remains. Based upon the criteria of resistance to enzymatic inhibition, behavior in quantitative real-time PCR, replication fidelity, and compatibility with aDNA damage, we conclude these polymerases have nuanced properties, requiring researchers to make educated decisions as to which one to use for a given task. The experimental findings should prove useful to the aDNA and archaeological communities by guiding future research methodologies and ensuring precious archaeobotanical remains are studied in optimal ways, and may thereby yield important new perspectives on the interactions between humans and past plant communities. PMID:24475182

  14. Analysis of solids remaining following chemical cleaning in tank 6F

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, Michael R.; Fondeur, Fernando F.; Missimer, David M.; Summer, Michael E.; Fink, Samuel D.

    2010-02-05

    Following chemical cleaning, a solid sample was collected and submitted to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. SRNL analyzed this sample by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the composition of the solids remaining in Tank 6F and to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process.

  15. Remaining in an Abusive Relationship: An Investment Model Analysis of Nonvoluntary Dependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusbult, Caryl E.; Martz, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes the nature of interdependence in ongoing relationships, using an investment model to understand decisions to remain in abusive relationships. Found that feelings of commitment were greater among women who had poorer-quality economic alternatives, were more heavily invested in their relationship, and who experienced less dissatisfaction…

  16. Influences of the Heart: Novice and Experienced Teachers Remaining in the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Susan V.; Brown, John J., Jr.; Kirby-Smith, Antionette; Severson, Beth

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted a phenomenological inquiry that described factors that influenced two novice and two experienced teachers' decisions to remain in the teaching field. These teachers taught in both Title I and non-Title I elementary schools, and their teaching experiences ranged from four months to 38 years. Data for this research…

  17. 30 CFR 1227.111 - Do existing delegation agreements remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Do existing delegation agreements remain in effect? 1227.111 Section 1227.111 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE DELEGATION TO STATES Existing Delegations § 1227.111...

  18. 30 CFR 1227.111 - Do existing delegation agreements remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Do existing delegation agreements remain in effect? 1227.111 Section 1227.111 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue DELEGATION TO STATES Existing Delegations § 1227.111...

  19. The use of cadaver dogs in locating scattered, scavenged human remains: preliminary field test results.

    PubMed

    Komar, D

    1999-03-01

    Specially trained air scent detection canines (Canis familiaris) are commonly used by law enforcement to detect narcotics, explosives or contraband, and by fire investigators to detect the presence of accelerants. Dogs are also used by police, military, and civilian groups to locate lost or missing persons, as well as victims of natural or mass disasters. A further subspecialty is "cadaver" searching, or the use of canines to locate buried or concealed human remains. Recent forensic investigations in central Alberta demonstrated that the use of cadaver dogs could be expanded to include locating partial, scattered human remains dispersed by repeated animal scavenging. Eight dog-and-handler teams participated in a two-month training program using human and animal remains in various stages of decay as scent sources. Ten blind field tests were then conducted which simulated actual search conditions. Recovery rates ranged between 57% and 100%, indicating that properly trained cadaver dogs can make significant contributions in the location and recovery of scattered human remains. PMID:10097372

  20. The Relationship between Organizational Commitment, Intention to Remain and Attitude towards Absenteeism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotter, Naomi G.; Mills, Miriam K.

    In recent years, organizational analysts have examined the dynamics of organizational commitment both in production and service industries. These efforts have attempted to identify the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment. The linkages between organizational commitment, employees' intention to remain, and attitudes towards…

  1. Unique organic remains from an upper Permian coal bearing sequence in the Talcher Coalfield, Orissa, India

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, A.

    2004-07-01

    The playnological assemblage of coal bearing upper Permian sequence of Talcher Coalfield registers presence of some peculiar organic remains. These are described as Orissiella gen. nov., which is characterized by a vesicle with collar-like structure at the oral end, spines and or corrugations on the body. The affinity and palaeoecological significance of Orissiella is also discussed. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 plates.

  2. Human remains from Zhirendong, South China, and modern human emergence in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wu; Jin, Chang-Zhu; Zhang, Ying-Qi; Cai, Yan-Jun; Xing, Song; Wu, Xiu-Jie; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Pan, Wen-Shi; Qin, Da-Gong; An, Zhi-Sheng; Trinkaus, Erik; Wu, Xin-Zhi

    2010-01-01

    The 2007 discovery of fragmentary human remains (two molars and an anterior mandible) at Zhirendong (Zhiren Cave) in South China provides insight in the processes involved in the establishment of modern humans in eastern Eurasia. The human remains are securely dated by U-series on overlying flowstones and a rich associated faunal sample to the initial Late Pleistocene, >100 kya. As such, they are the oldest modern human fossils in East Asia and predate by >60,000 y the oldest previously known modern human remains in the region. The Zhiren 3 mandible in particular presents derived modern human anterior symphyseal morphology, with a projecting tuber symphyseos, distinct mental fossae, modest lateral tubercles, and a vertical symphysis; it is separate from any known late archaic human mandible. However, it also exhibits a lingual symphyseal morphology and corpus robustness that place it close to later Pleistocene archaic humans. The age and morphology of the Zhiren Cave human remains support a modern human emergence scenario for East Asia involving dispersal with assimilation or populational continuity with gene flow. It also places the Late Pleistocene Asian emergence of modern humans in a pre-Upper Paleolithic context and raises issues concerning the long-term Late Pleistocene coexistence of late archaic and early modern humans across Eurasia. PMID:20974952

  3. Evaluation of remaining life of the double-shell tank waste systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schwenk, E.B.

    1995-05-04

    A remaining life assessment of the DSTs (double-shell tanks) and their associated waste transfer lines, for continued operation over the next 10 years, was favorable. The DST assessment was based on definition of significant loads, evaluation of data for possible material degradation and geometric changes and evaluation of structural analyses. The piping assessment was based primarily on service experience.

  4. The effect of victim age on burnt bone fragmentation: implications for remains recovery.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, Kathryn

    2013-09-10

    This research investigates how victim bone age affects the fragmentation and subsequent recovery of burnt bone. It could be inferred that the lower density and higher organic content of bone from younger individuals results in more significant bone breakdown compared to bone from older individuals. Previous research has suggested that while neonate bone can be difficult to destroy in a burn environment it is more fragile post-burning. Results comparing fragmentation of calcined piglet and fattening-pig remains reveal that, while consisting of smaller fragments, the younger material is less fragmented with more complete or almost complete bone elements. These observations have significant implications for remains recovery, especially of younger remains, as it highlights the value of this material as well as the importance of utilising search and recovery strategies that minimise post-burning disturbance. Younger bone responds differently to the burn environment and, therefore; it needs to be taken into consideration when planning remains discovery and retrieval to ensure maximum benefit to the investigation and individuals involved. PMID:23683947

  5. 77 FR 59659 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... here given in accordance with the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 U... of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the Native American human...

  6. 17. VIEW TO SOUTH, ENGINE/PUMP HOUSE EXTENSION, REMAINS OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW TO SOUTH, ENGINE/PUMP HOUSE EXTENSION, REMAINS OF THE ELECTRIC GENERATOR DRIVEN BY A SMALL STEAM ENGINE LOCATED EAST OF PUMP NO. 4; THIS UNIT REPLACED AN EARLIER GENERATOR INSTALLED IN 1909 - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. Wide Complex Tachycardia – Ventricular Tachycardia or Not Ventricular Tachycardia, That Remains the Question

    PubMed Central

    B Garner, John; M Miller, John

    2013-01-01

    Arriving at the correct diagnosis in cases of wide complex tachycardia remains problematic for many clinicians. In this paper, we review the historical development of criteria used to differentiate among the major diagnostic possibilities and compare the strengths and weaknesses of various differentiating algorithms. PMID:26835036

  8. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long will your application remain in effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will...

  9. Credit PSR. View looking north northwest (346°) with remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit PSR. View looking north northwest (346°) with remains of skeet range shooting stations (posts) in foreground. This was one of North Base's few recreational features. In the distance is a debris field of spent clay pigeons - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Skeet Range, North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. Fee-For-Service, While Much Maligned, Remains The Dominant Payment Method For Physician Visits.

    PubMed

    Zuvekas, Samuel H; Cohen, Joel W

    2016-03-01

    Recent concerted efforts have sought to shift provider payment away from fee-for-service and toward risk-based alternatives. Despite these efforts, fee-for-service not only remains the dominant payment method but has continued to grow, with nearly 95 percent of all physician office visits in 2013 reimbursed in this fashion. PMID:26953294

  11. La Ferrassie 8 Neandertal child reloaded: New remains and re-assessment of the original collection.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Balzeau, Antoine

    2015-05-01

    The first evidence of the partial infant Neandertal skeleton La Ferrassie 8 (LF8) was discovered in 1970, although most of the remains were found in 1973 as part of the 1968-1973 work at the site by H. Delporte. This individual and the other Neandertal children from La Ferrassie were published in the early 1980s by J.-L. Heim, and since then LF8 has been regarded as coming from a poorly documented excavation. The recent rediscovery of the box that contained the hominin bones given by Delporte to Heim in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (MNHN) collection provided new fossils and helped to locate LF8 in the site: level M2 in square 1. Two visits to the Musée d'Archéologie nationale et Domaine national de Saint-Germain-en-Laye (MAN) yielded additional fossil remains from both the 1970 and 1973 excavations and resulted in the discovery of all of the notes from the excavation of H. Delporte between 1968 and 1973. Here the new fossil remains (47 after performing all possible refits), representing significant portions of the cranium, mandible, and vertebral column together with fragmentary hand and costal remains, are described. Unsurprisingly, the morphology of the bony labyrinth and of a complete stapes from the nearly complete left temporal show clear Neandertal affinities. Additionally, a complete reassessment of the original LF8 collection has resulted in the identification of several errors in the anatomical determination. Despite the significant increase in the anatomical representation of LF8, the skeletal remains are still limited to the head, thorax, pelvis, and four hand phalanges, with some very fragile elements relatively well preserved. Different hypotheses are proposed to explain this anatomical representation, which can be tested during future fieldwork. PMID:25805043

  12. Nondestructive sampling of human skeletal remains yields ancient nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Bolnick, Deborah A; Bonine, Holly M; Mata-Míguez, Jaime; Kemp, Brian M; Snow, Meradeth H; LeBlanc, Steven A

    2012-02-01

    Museum curators and living communities are sometimes reluctant to permit ancient DNA (aDNA) studies of human skeletal remains because the extraction of aDNA usually requires the destruction of at least some skeletal material. Whether these views stem from a desire to conserve precious materials or an objection to destroying ancestral remains, they limit the potential of aDNA research. To help address concerns about destructive analysis and to minimize damage to valuable specimens, we describe a nondestructive method for extracting DNA from ancient human remains. This method can be used with both teeth and bone, but it preserves the structural integrity of teeth much more effectively than that of bone. Using this method, we demonstrate that it is possible to extract both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from human remains dating between 300 BC and 1600 AD. Importantly, the method does not expose the remains to hazardous chemicals, allowing them to be safely returned to curators, custodians, and/or owners of the samples. We successfully amplified mitochondrial DNA from 90% of the individuals tested, and we were able to analyze 1-9 nuclear loci in 70% of individuals. We also show that repeated nondestructive extractions from the same tooth can yield amplifiable mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. The high success rate of this method and its ability to yield DNA from samples spanning a wide geographic and temporal range without destroying the structural integrity of the sampled material may make possible the genetic study of skeletal collections that are not available for destructive analysis. PMID:22183740

  13. Genetic identification of putative remains of the famous astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus.

    PubMed

    Bogdanowicz, Wiesław; Allen, Marie; Branicki, Wojciech; Lembring, Maria; Gajewska, Marta; Kupiec, Tomasz

    2009-07-28

    We report the results of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses of skeletal remains exhumed in 2005 at Frombork Cathedral in Poland, that are thought to be those of Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543). The analyzed bone remains were found close to the altar Nicolaus Copernicus was responsible for during his tenure as priest. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) profiles from 3 upper molars and the femurs were identical, suggesting that the remains originate from the same individual. Identical mtDNA profiles were also determined in 2 hairs discovered in a calendar now exhibited at Museum Gustavianum in Uppsala, Sweden. This calendar was the property of Nicolaus Copernicus for much of his life. These findings, together with anthropological data, support the identification of the human remains found in Frombork Cathedral as those of Nicolaus Copernicus. Up-to-now the particular mtDNA haplotype has been observed only 3 times in Germany and once in Denmark. Moreover, Y-chromosomal and autosomal short tandem repeat markers were analyzed in one of the tooth samples, that was much better preserved than other parts of the skeleton. Molecular sex determination revealed that the skeleton is from a male individual, and this result is consistent with morphological investigations. The minimal Y-chromosomal haplotype determined in the putative remains of Nicolaus Copernicus has been observed previously in many countries, including Austria, Germany, Poland, and the Czech Republic. Finally, an analysis of the SNP located in the HERC2 gene revealed the C/C genotype that is predominant in blue-eyed humans, suggesting that Copernicus may have had a light iris color. PMID:19584252

  14. (210)Po poisoning as possible cause of death: forensic investigations and toxicological analysis of the remains of Yasser Arafat.

    PubMed

    Froidevaux, Pascal; Bochud, François; Baechler, Sébastien; Castella, Vincent; Augsburger, Marc; Bailat, Claude; Michaud, Katarzyna; Straub, Marietta; Pecchia, Marco; Jenk, Theo M; Uldin, Tanya; Mangin, Patrice

    2016-02-01

    The late president of the Palestinian Authority, Yasser Arafat, died in November 2004 in Percy Hospital, one month after having experienced a sudden onset of symptoms that included severe nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain and which were followed by multiple organ failure. In spite of numerous investigations performed in France, the pathophysiological mechanisms at the origin of the symptoms could not be identified. In 2011, we found abnormal levels of polonium-210 ((210)Po) in some of Arafat's belongings that were worn during his final hospital stay and which were stained with biological fluids. This finding led to the exhumation of Arafat's remains in 2012. Significantly higher (up to 20 times) activities of (210)Po and lead-210 ((210)Pb) were found in the ribs, iliac crest and sternum specimens compared to reference samples from the literature (p-value <1%). In all specimens from the tomb, (210)Po activity was supported by a similar activity of (210)Pb. Biokinetic calculations demonstrated that a (210)Pb impurity, as identified in a commercial source of 3MBq of (210)Po, may be responsible for the activities measured in Arafat's belongings and remains 8 years after his death. The absence of myelosuppression and hair loss in Mr Arafat's case compared to Mr Litvinenko's, the only known case of malicious poisoning with (210)Po, could be explained by differences in the time delivery-scheme of intake. In conclusion, statistical Bayesian analysis combining all the evidence gathered in our forensic expert report moderately supports the proposition that Mr Arafat was poisoned by (210)Po. PMID:26707208

  15. Small Molecule DFPM Derivative-Activated Plant Resistance Protein Signaling in Roots Is Unaffected by EDS1 Subcellular Targeting Signal and Chemical Genetic Isolation of victr R-Protein Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Mevers, Emily; García, Ana V.; Highhouse, Samantha; Gerwick, William H.; Parker, Jane E.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2016-01-01

    The small molecule DFPM ([5-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)furan-2-yl]-piperidine-1-ylmethanethione) was recently shown to trigger signal transduction via early effector-triggered immunity signaling genes including EDS1 and PAD4 in Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0. Chemical genetic analyses of A. thaliana natural variants identified the plant Resistance protein-like Toll/Interleukin1 Receptor (TIR)-Nucleotide Binding (NB)-Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) protein VICTR as required for DFPM-mediated root growth arrest. Here a chemical genetic screen for mutants which disrupt DFPM-mediated root growth arrest in the Col-0 accession identified new mutant alleles of the TIR-NB-LRR gene VICTR. One allele, victr-6, carries a Gly216-to-Asp mutation in the Walker A domain supporting an important function of the VICTR nucleotide binding domain in DFPM responses consistent with VICTR acting as a canonical Resistance protein. The essential nucleo-cytoplasmic regulator of TIR-NB-LRR-mediated effector-triggered immunity, EDS1, was reported to have both nuclear and cytoplasmic actions in pathogen resistance. DFPM was used to investigate the requirements for subcellular EDS1 localization in DFPM-mediated root growth arrest. EDS1-YFP fusions engineered to localize mainly in the cytoplasm or the nucleus by tagging with a nuclear export signal (NES) or a nuclear localization signal (NLS), respectively, were tested. We found that wild-type EDS1-YFP and both the NES and NLS-tagged EDS1 variants were induced by DFPM treatments and fully complemented eds1 mutant plants in root responses to DFPM, suggesting that enrichment of EDS1 in either compartment could confer DFPM-mediated root growth arrest. We further found that a light and O2-dependent modification of DFPM is necessary to mediate DFPM signaling in roots. Chemical analyses including Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and High-Resolution Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry identified a DFPM modification product that is likely responsible for bioactivity mediating root growth arrest. We propose a chemical structure of this product and a possible reaction mechanism for DFPM modification. PMID:27219122

  16. Small Molecule DFPM Derivative-Activated Plant Resistance Protein Signaling in Roots Is Unaffected by EDS1 Subcellular Targeting Signal and Chemical Genetic Isolation of victr R-Protein Mutants.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Hans-Henning; Park, Jiyoung; Mevers, Emily; García, Ana V; Highhouse, Samantha; Gerwick, William H; Parker, Jane E; Schroeder, Julian I

    2016-01-01

    The small molecule DFPM ([5-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)furan-2-yl]-piperidine-1-ylmethanethione) was recently shown to trigger signal transduction via early effector-triggered immunity signaling genes including EDS1 and PAD4 in Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0. Chemical genetic analyses of A. thaliana natural variants identified the plant Resistance protein-like Toll/Interleukin1 Receptor (TIR)-Nucleotide Binding (NB)-Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) protein VICTR as required for DFPM-mediated root growth arrest. Here a chemical genetic screen for mutants which disrupt DFPM-mediated root growth arrest in the Col-0 accession identified new mutant alleles of the TIR-NB-LRR gene VICTR. One allele, victr-6, carries a Gly216-to-Asp mutation in the Walker A domain supporting an important function of the VICTR nucleotide binding domain in DFPM responses consistent with VICTR acting as a canonical Resistance protein. The essential nucleo-cytoplasmic regulator of TIR-NB-LRR-mediated effector-triggered immunity, EDS1, was reported to have both nuclear and cytoplasmic actions in pathogen resistance. DFPM was used to investigate the requirements for subcellular EDS1 localization in DFPM-mediated root growth arrest. EDS1-YFP fusions engineered to localize mainly in the cytoplasm or the nucleus by tagging with a nuclear export signal (NES) or a nuclear localization signal (NLS), respectively, were tested. We found that wild-type EDS1-YFP and both the NES and NLS-tagged EDS1 variants were induced by DFPM treatments and fully complemented eds1 mutant plants in root responses to DFPM, suggesting that enrichment of EDS1 in either compartment could confer DFPM-mediated root growth arrest. We further found that a light and O2-dependent modification of DFPM is necessary to mediate DFPM signaling in roots. Chemical analyses including Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and High-Resolution Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry identified a DFPM modification product that is likely responsible for bioactivity mediating root growth arrest. We propose a chemical structure of this product and a possible reaction mechanism for DFPM modification. PMID:27219122

  17. Modulation of bone remodeling via mechanically activated ion channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Randall L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    A critical factor in the maintenance of bone mass is the physical forces imposed upon the skeleton. Removal of these forces, such as in a weightless environment, results in a rapid loss of bone, whereas application of exogenous mechanical strain has been shown to increase bone formation. Numerous flight and ground-based experiments indicate that the osteoblast is the key bone cell influenced by mechanical stimulation. Aside from early transient fluctuations in response to unloading, osteoclast number and activity seem unaffected by removal of strain. However, bone formation is drastically reduced in weightlessness and osteoblasts respond to mechanical strain with an increase in the activity of a number of second messenger pathways resulting in increased anabolic activity. Unfortunately, the mechanism by which the osteoblast converts physical stimuli into a biochemical message, a process we have termed biochemical coupling, remains elusive. Prior to the application of this grant, we had characterized a mechanosensitive, cation nonselective channel (SA-cat) in osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells that we proposed is the initial signalling mechanism for mechanotransduction. During the execution of this grant, we have made considerable progress to further characterize this channel as well as to determine its role in the osteoblastic response to mechanical strain. To achieve these goals, we combined electrophysiologic techniques with cellular and molecular biology methods to examine the role of these channels in the normal function of the osteoblast in vitro.

  18. The interaction between noradrenaline activation and distension activation of the rabbit ear artery.

    PubMed

    Speden, R N; Warren, D M

    1986-06-01

    Excised, pressurized segments of the rabbit ear artery have been used to examine the interaction between the transmural pressure and constriction of arteries by extraluminal noradrenaline. The bath temperature was kept at 32-33 degrees C to suppress instability and spontaneity of constriction. Fast, reproducible jumps in pressure were obtained by using a microcomputer to control an electropneumatic transducer. The arteries did not react actively to transmural pressure changes unless already activated by noradrenaline. Active arteries responded to distension by a pressure jump with a reproducible compensatory constriction which was unaffected by tetrodotoxin. The counteraction of distension was due primarily to enhanced activation of the muscle. Distension activation decreased with increasing constriction. Utilization of the force-generating capacity of the arteries either remained unchanged at 20-30% or, in one experiment, increased slightly when constriction against a transmural pressure of 60 mmHg was increased from 20 to 75% of maximal by raising the noradrenaline concentration. When the transmural pressure was 90 mmHg, the 35-55% utilization of the force-generating capacity either remained constant or fell as constriction was increased. Most of the force-generating capacity was available for counteracting the distension of moderately constricted arteries (less than 40% of maximal) produced by a 60-90 mmHg jump. More than 78% of the maximum capacity was used in attempting to overcome the distension when it was maintained by computer-controlled increases in transmural pressure. The moderate constrictions were produced with noradrenaline concentrations which were 500-10,000 times lower than that used to maximally activate the arteries. The rabbit ear artery possesses a powerful, distension-sensitive mechanism that acts to minimize diameter changes initiated by transmural pressure jumps. The diameter of the active artery was determined by a combination of

  19. Experiments and simulation on diffusion and activation of codoped with arsenic and phosphorous germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Tsouroutas, P.; Tsoukalas, D.; Bracht, H.

    2010-07-15

    We report arsenic and phosphorus diffusion experiments and activation related phenomena in codoped germanium substrates utilizing conventional thermal annealing. Chemical profiles were obtained by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, sheet resistance was estimated by the Van der Pauw method. Our study covers the temperature range from 600 to 750 deg. C. We accurately described the dopant profiles with a quadratic dependence of the dopants diffusion coefficient on the free electron concentration. In our simulations we considered the dopant pile-up near the surface and dopant loss owing to outdiffusion during the annealing. Although the double donor codoping technique exhibited no advantage over monodoping with P concerning the level of activation and junction depth, it was interesting to observe the different diffusion behavior of the two dopants. Whereas the diffusion of As indicates a retardation under codoping the diffusion of P remains either unaffected or is slightly enhanced by codoping. The activation level of the codoped samples remains lower compared to the respective monodoped samples, except for the highest annealing temperature.

  20. Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch: initial development and preliminary performance assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Iseli, A.M.; Kwen, H.D.; Ul-Alam, M.; Balasubramanian, M.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2011-11-07

    The objective is to produce a proof of concept prototype Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch (ECHRP) with self-decontamination capability to provide increased protection to emergency response personnel. The key objective was to decrease the concentration of toxic chemicals through the use of an absorbent and reactive nanocellulose liner. Additionally, nanomaterials with biocidal properties were developed and tested as a 'stand-alone' treatment. The setting was a private company research laboratory. The main outcome measures were production of a functional prototype. A functional prototype capable of mitigating the threats due to sulfur mustard, Soman, and a large variety of liquid and vapor toxic industrial chemicals was produced. Stand-alone biocidal treatment efficacy was validated. The ECHRP provides superior protection from both chemical and biological hazards to various emergency response personnel and human remains handlers.

  1. Reliability in age determination by pulp/tooth ratio in upper canines in skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, Roberto; Brogi, Giuseppe; Ferrante, Luigi; Mirtella, Dora; Vultaggio, Claudia; Cingolani, Mariano; Fornaciari, Gino

    2006-07-01

    Estimation of age of skeletal remains is one of the most complex questions for anthropologists. The most common macroscopic methods are based on dental wear and histological evaluation of bone remodeling. These methods are often qualitative, require great technical expertise, and have proved inexact in the estimation of ages over 50 years. Certain dental methods investigate the apposition of secondary dentine, in the study of tooth cross-sections, and X-rays to study width, height, and pulp area. The primary author previously proposed a method of estimating the age of a living person based on the pulp/tooth ratio (PTR) method in the upper canines. The aim of the present study is to verify whether the PTR method can also be used to estimate the age at death of skeletal remains. This paper investigates the study of historical samples of known age as a means to validate the proposed method. PMID:16882230

  2. The human cranial remains from Gran Dolina Lower Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    Arsuaga, J L; Martínez, I; Lorenzo, C; Gracia, A; Muñoz, A; Alonso, O; Gallego, J

    1999-01-01

    In this article we study the cranial remains of the late Lower Pleistocene human fossils from Gran Dolina (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain), assigned to the new species Homo antecessor. The cranial remains belong to at least five individuals, both juveniles and adults. The most outstanding feature is the totally modern human morphology of the very complete face ATD6-69, representing the earliest occurrence of the modern face in the fossil record. The Gran Dolina fossils show in the face a suite of modern human apomorphies not found in earlier hominids nor in contemporary or earlier Homo erectus fossils. There are also traits in the Gran Dolina fossils shared with both Neandertals and modern humans, which reinforce the hypothesis that Neandertals and modern humans form a clade, and that the Gran Dolina fossils are a common ancestor to both lineages. PMID:10496996

  3. {13C }/{12C } ratios of pleistocene mummified remains from beringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombin, Miguel; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    1985-01-01

    During the Quaternary glacial episodes, when sea level was considerably lower, Asia and North America were linked by large extensions of circumarctic land (Beringia), which remained unglaciated. This land mass served not only as a biogeographical bridge for plants, animals, and humans, but also supported a biome very different from present tundra or boreal coniferous forests, which was dominated by steppes and a rich mammalian megafauna. Carbon stable isotope ratios of Beringian late Pleistocene mummified remains of bison, equids, mammoth, caribou, musk-ox, moose, woolly rhino, and other undetermined species, found preserved in permafrost, indicate that these megaherbivores fed exclusively on C 3 plants, and that C 4 grasses were not differentially ingested by bison, as previously suggested. Paleoclimatic constraints probably prevented the formation of a warm-season (C 4) guild during the later part of the growing season in the steppes of Beringia during the last glaciation.

  4. Quantum Dots for Cancer Research: Current Status, Remaining Issues, and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Min; Peng, Chun-wei; Pang, Dai-Wen; Li, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a major threat to public health in the 21st century because it is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis, cancer invasion, and metastasis remain unclear. Thus, the development of a novel approach for cancer detection is urgent, and real-time monitoring is crucial in revealing its underlying biological mechanisms. With the optical and chemical advantages of quantum dots (QDs), QD-based nanotechnology is helpful in constructing a biomedical imaging platform for cancer behavior study. This review mainly focuses on the application of QD-based nanotechnology in cancer cell imaging and tumor microenvironment studies both in vivo and in vitro, as well as the remaining issues and future perspectives. PMID:23691472

  5. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Yongbing; Wang, Bo; Hu, Yaowu; Wang, Changsui; Jiang, Hongen

    2012-01-01

    Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd) to 9(th) centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life. PMID:23028807

  6. Middle Paleolithic human remains from the Gruta Da Oliveira (Torres Novas), Portugal.

    PubMed

    Willman, John C; Maki, Julia; Bayle, Priscilla; Trinkaus, Erik; Zilhão, João

    2012-09-01

    Additional Middle Paleolithic human remains from layers 17, 18, and 22 of the Gruta da Oliveira, Portugal consist of a proximal manual phalanx 2 (Oliveira 5), a partial postcanine tooth (Oliveira 6), a humeral diaphysis (Oliveira 7), a distal mandibular molar (Oliveira 8), and a mandibular premolar (P(3) ) (Oliveira 9). Oliveira 5, 6, and 8 are unremarkable for Late Pleistocene humans. The Oliveira 7 right humerus is moderately robust or the individual had the stocky body proportions of other European (including Iberian) Neandertals. The Oliveira 9 P(3) has a large and symmetrical crown and lacks a distal accessory ridge and accessory lingual cusps, overlapping both Neandertal and recent human ranges of variation. It contrasts with at least recent human P(3) s in having relatively thin enamel. These join the Oliveira 1 to 4 remains in further documenting early MIS 3 Neandertal morphology in western Iberia. PMID:22610966

  7. Microscopic analysis of feather and hair fragments associated with human mummified remains from Kagamil Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dove, C.J.; Peurach, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    Human mummified remains of 34 different infant and adult individuals from Kagamil Island, Alaska, are accessioned in the Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Kagamil Island is one of the small islands in the Island of Four Mountains group of the Aleutian Islands, Alaska and is well known for the mummy caves located on the southwest coast of the island. The Kagamil mummy holdings at the Smithsonian represent one of the largest, best documented and preserved collections of this type. Although these specimens are stored in ideal conditions, many small feather and hair fragments have become loose or disassociated from the actual mummies over the years. This preliminary investigation of fragmentary fiber material retrieved from these artifacts is the first attempt to identify bird and mammal species associated with the mummified remains of the Kagamil Island, Alaska collection and is part of the ongoing research connected with these artifacts.

  8. Archaeobotanical Study of Ancient Food and Cereal Remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Yongbing; Wang, Bo; Hu, Yaowu; Wang, Changsui; Jiang, Hongen

    2012-01-01

    Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3rd to 9th centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life. PMID:23028807

  9. Persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Frost, C.N.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, have not been commonly identified as prey items in digestive tracts of fishes collected in the wild. In particular, the diet of northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, an abundant Pacific Northwest freshwater predator which has been widely studied, has not included juvenile white sturgeon. To aid in interpreting these results and help in planning future feeding studies, we determined the persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in this predator's digestive tract. Northern pikeminnow (mean total length = 476 mm), were force-fed meals of 2 or 3 juvenile white sturgeon (mean total length = 91 mm). After digestive periods of 4, 8, 16, 24, 28, and 32h at a water temperature of about 17 ??C, fish were sacrificed, digestive tracts removed, and contents examined. Our results indicate that juvenile white sturgeon would be readily discernable in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow at least a day after feeding, with scutes remaining undigested and identifiable for 28 h.

  10. Remaining Technical Challenges and Future Plans for Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Bruckner, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The application of Oil-Free technologies (foil gas bearings, solid lubricants and advanced analysis and predictive modeling tools) to advanced turbomachinery has been underway for several decades. During that time, full commercialization has occurred in aircraft air cycle machines, turbocompressors and cryocoolers and ever-larger microturbines. Emerging products in the automotive sector (turbochargers and superchargers) indicate that high volume serial production of foil bearings is imminent. Demonstration of foil bearings in APU s and select locations in propulsion gas turbines illustrates that such technology also has a place in these future systems. Foil bearing designs, predictive tools and advanced solid lubricants have been reported that can satisfy anticipated requirements but a major question remains regarding the scalability of foil bearings to ever larger sizes to support heavier rotors. In this paper, the technological history, primary physics, engineering practicalities and existing experimental and experiential database for scaling foil bearings are reviewed and the major remaining technical challenges are identified.

  11. The influence of activity on axon pathfinding in the optic tectum.

    PubMed

    Kita, Elizabeth M; Scott, Ethan K; Goodhill, Geoffrey J

    2015-06-01

    The relative importance of neural activity versus activity-independent cues in shaping the initial wiring of the brain is still largely an open question. While activity is clearly critical for circuit rearrangements after initial connections have been made, whether it also plays a role in initial axon pathfinding remains to be determined. Here, we investigated this question using the guidance of zebrafish retinal ganglion cell axons to their targets in the tectum as a model. Recent results have implicated biased branching as a key feature of pathfinding in the zebrafish tectum. Using tetrodotoxin to silence neural activity globally, we found a decrease in the area covered by axon branches during pathfinding. After reaching the target, there were dynamic differences in axon length, area and the number of branches between conditions. However, other aspects of pathfinding were unaffected by silencing, including the ratio of branches directed toward the target, length, and number of branches, as well as turning angle, velocity, and number of growth cones per axon. These results challenge the hypothesis that neural connections develop in sequential stages of molecularly guided pathfinding and activity-based refinement. Despite a maintenance of overall guidance, axon pathfinding dynamics can nevertheless be altered by activity loss. PMID:25556913

  12. Effect of various chemicals on the aldehyde dehydrogenase activity of the rat liver cytosol.

    PubMed

    Marselos, M; Vasiliou, V

    1991-01-01

    The cytosolic activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) was studied in the rat liver, after acute administration of various carcinogenic and chemically related compounds. Male Wistar rats were treated with 27 different chemicals, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, nitrosamines, azo dyes, as well as with some known direct-acting carcinogens. The cytosolic ALDH activity of the liver was determined either with propionaldehyde and NAD (P/NAD), or with benzaldehyde and NADP (B/NADP). The activity of ALDH remained unaffected after treatment with 1-naphthylamine, nitrosamines and also with the direct-acting chemical carcinogens tested. On the contrary, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (Arochlor 1254) and 2-naphthylamine produced a remarkable increase of ALDH. In general, the response to the effectors was disproportionate between the two types of enzyme activity, being much in favour for the B/NADP activity. This fact resulted to an inversion of the ratio B/NADP vs. P/NAD, which under constitutive conditions is lower than 1. In this respect, the most potent compounds were found to be polychlorinated biphenyls, 3-methylcholanthrene, benzo(a)pyrene and 1,2,5,6-dibenzoanthracene. Our results suggest that the B/NADP activity of the soluble ALDH is greatly induced after treatment with compounds possessing aromatic ring(s) in their molecule. It is not known, if this response of the hepatocytes is related with the process of chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:2060039

  13. US Public Health Preparedness for Zika and Other Threats Remains Vulnerable.

    PubMed

    Duchin, Jeffrey S

    2016-04-01

    The unanticipated global outbreak of Zika virus infection is the most current but certainly not the last emerging infectious disease challenge to confront the US public heath system. Despite a number of such threats in recent years, significant gaps remain in core areas of public health system readiness. Stable, sustained investments are required to establish a solid foundation for achieving necessary national public health emergency preparedness and response capacity. PMID:26952646

  14. Behavioral inferences from the Skhul/Qafzeh early modern human hand remains

    PubMed Central

    Niewoehner, Wesley A.

    2001-01-01

    Two groups of humans are found in the Near East ≈100,000 years ago, the late archaic Neanderthals and the early modern Skhul/Qafzeh humans. Observations that Neanderthals were more heavily muscled, had stronger upper-limb bones, and possessed unusual shapes and orientations of some upper-limb joint complexes relative to the Skhul/Qafzeh hominids, have led some researchers to conclude that significant between-group upper-limb-related behavioral differences must have been present, despite the association of the two groups with similar Middle Paleolithic archeological complexes. A three-dimensional morphometric analysis of the hand remains of the Skhul/Qafzeh hominids, Neanderthals, early and late Upper Paleolithic humans, and Holocene humans supports the dichotomy. The Skhul/Qafzeh carpometacarpal remains do not have any unique morphologies relative to the other fossil samples remains examined. However, in the functionally significant metacarpal 1 and 3 bases they resemble Upper Paleolithic humans, not Neanderthals. Furthermore, the Skhul/Qafzeh sample differs significantly from the Neanderthals in many other aspects of hand functional anatomy. Given the correlations between changes in tool technologies and functional adaptations seen in the hands of Upper Paleolithic humans, it is concluded that the Skhul/Qafzeh hand remains were adapted to Upper Paleolithic-like manipulative repertoires. These results support the inference of significant behavioral differences between Neanderthals and the Skhul/Qafzeh hominids and indicate that a significant shift in human manipulative behaviors was associated with the earliest stages of the emergence of modern humans. PMID:11248017

  15. Skeletal remains from Punic Carthage do not support systematic sacrifice of infants.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jeffrey H; Houghton, Frank; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Bondioli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Two types of cemeteries occur at Punic Carthage and other Carthaginian settlements: one centrally situated housing the remains of older children through adults, and another at the periphery of the settlement (the "Tophet") yielding small urns containing the cremated skeletal remains of very young animals and humans, sometimes comingled. Although the absence of the youngest humans at the primary cemeteries is unusual and worthy of discussion, debate has focused on the significance of Tophets, especially at Carthage, as burial grounds for the young. One interpretation, based on two supposed eye-witness reports of large-scale Carthaginian infant sacrifice [Kleitarchos (3(rd) c. BCE) and Diodorus Siculus (1(st) c. BCE)], a particular translation of inscriptions on some burial monuments, and the argument that if the animals had been sacrificed so too were the humans, is that Tophets represent burial grounds reserved for sacrificial victims. An alternative hypothesis acknowledges that while the Carthaginians may have occasionally sacrificed humans, as did their contemporaries, the extreme youth of Tophet individuals suggests these cemeteries were not only for the sacrificed, but also for the very young, however they died. Here we present the first rigorous analysis of the largest sample of cremated human skeletal remains (348 burial urns, N = 540 individuals) from the Carthaginian Tophet based on tooth formation, enamel histology, cranial and postcranial metrics, and the potential effects of heat-induced bone shrinkage. Most of the sample fell within the period prenatal to 5-to-6 postnatal months, with a significant presence of prenates. Rather than indicating sacrifice as the agent of death, this age distribution is consistent with modern-day data on perinatal mortality, which at Carthage would also have been exacerbated by numerous diseases common in other major cities, such as Rome and Pompeii. Our diverse approaches to analyzing the cremated human remains from

  16. Dating human skeletal remains using a radiometric method: biogenic versus diagenetic 90Sr and 210Pb in vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Schrag, Bettina; Uldin, Tanya; Mangin, Patrice; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2012-07-10

    In forensic science, there is a strong interest in determining the post-mortem interval (PMI) of human skeletal remains up to 50 years after death. Currently, there are no reliable methods to resolve PMI, the determination of which relies almost exclusively on the experience of the investigating expert. Here we measured (90)Sr and (210)Pb ((210)Po) incorporated into bones through a biogenic process as indicators of the time elapsed since death. We hypothesised that the activity of radionuclides incorporated into trabecular bone will more accurately match the activity in the environment and the food chain at the time of death than the activity in cortical bone because of a higher remodelling rate. We found that determining (90)Sr can yield reliable PMI estimates as long as a calibration curve exists for (90)Sr covering the studied area and the last 50 years. We also found that adding the activity of (210)Po, a proxy for naturally occurring (210)Pb incorporated through ingestion, to the (90)Sr dating increases the reliability of the PMI value. Our results also show that trabecular bone is subject to both (90)Sr and (210)Po diagenesis. Accordingly, we used a solubility profile method to determine the biogenic radionuclide only, and we are proposing a new method of bone decontamination to be used prior to (90)Sr and (210)Pb dating. PMID:22497702

  17. A review of sex estimation techniques during examination of skeletal remains in forensic anthropology casework.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Chatterjee, Preetika M; Kanchan, Tanuj; Kaur, Sandeep; Baryah, Neha; Singh, R K

    2016-04-01

    Sex estimation is considered as one of the essential parameters in forensic anthropology casework, and requires foremost consideration in the examination of skeletal remains. Forensic anthropologists frequently employ morphologic and metric methods for sex estimation of human remains. These methods are still very imperative in identification process in spite of the advent and accomplishment of molecular techniques. A constant boost in the use of imaging techniques in forensic anthropology research has facilitated to derive as well as revise the available population data. These methods however, are less reliable owing to high variance and indistinct landmark details. The present review discusses the reliability and reproducibility of various analytical approaches; morphological, metric, molecular and radiographic methods in sex estimation of skeletal remains. Numerous studies have shown a higher reliability and reproducibility of measurements taken directly on the bones and hence, such direct methods of sex estimation are considered to be more reliable than the other methods. Geometric morphometric (GM) method and Diagnose Sexuelle Probabiliste (DSP) method are emerging as valid methods and widely used techniques in forensic anthropology in terms of accuracy and reliability. Besides, the newer 3D methods are shown to exhibit specific sexual dimorphism patterns not readily revealed by traditional methods. Development of newer and better methodologies for sex estimation as well as re-evaluation of the existing ones will continue in the endeavour of forensic researchers for more accurate results. PMID:26926105

  18. Influence of remaining dentin wall thickness on the fracture strength of endodontically treated tooth

    PubMed Central

    Haralur, Satheesh B.; Al-Qahtani, Ali Saad; Al-Qarni, Marie Mohammed; Al-Homrany, Rami Mohammed; Aboalkhair, Ayyob Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Remaining dentin wall thickness may influence the fracture resistance of tooth. Aims: To investigate the effect of various coronal dentin wall widths on the fracture strength of root canal treated teeth. Materials and Methods: Fifty recently extracted single canal mandibular premolars were used for the study. Ten unrestored teeth were used as control (Group 1); remaining teeth were root canal treated and divided into four groups (n = 10). The Groups 2a, 2b and 3a, 3b were having 2.5 mm, 1.5 mm remaining dentin with and without post, respectively. The samples fracture resistance was tested under the universal testing machine. The data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey test for comparative evaluation. Results: The mean fracture strength observed in Group 1 was (29.75 Mpa) followed by Group 2a (28.97 Mpa), Group 2b (27.70 Mpa), Group 3a (23.39 Mpa), and Group 3b (16.38 Mpa). There was no statistically significant difference between control and Groups 2a and 2b with P > 0.05. The post contributed significantly for fracture resistance in Group 3a. Conclusion: The endodontic post is not required in root canal treated teeth >2.5 mm coronal dentin wall width while the post is essential for a tooth with <1.5 mm dentin wall width to improve fracture resistance. PMID:26957796

  19. New Neanderthal remains from Mani peninsula, Southern Greece: the Kalamakia Middle Paleolithic cave site.

    PubMed

    Harvati, Katerina; Darlas, Andreas; Bailey, Shara E; Rein, Thomas R; El Zaatari, Sireen; Fiorenza, Luca; Kullmer, Ottmar; Psathi, Eleni

    2013-06-01

    The Kalamakia cave, a Middle Paleolithic site on the western coast of the Mani peninsula, Greece, was excavated in 1993-2006 by an interdisciplinary team from the Ephoreia of Paleoanthropology and Speleology (Greek Ministry of Culture) and the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris). The site is dated to between ca. 100,000 and >39,000 years BP (Before Present) and has yielded Mousterian lithics, a rich fauna, and human remains from several layers. The latter include 10 isolated teeth, a cranial fragment and three postcranial elements. The remains represent at least eight individuals, two of them subadults, and show both carnivore and anthropogenic modifications. They can be identified as Neanderthal on the basis of diagnostic morphology on most specimens. A diet similar to that of Neanderthals from mixed habitat is suggested by our analysis of dental wear (occlusal fingerprint analysis) and microwear (occlusal texture microwear analysis), in agreement with the faunal and palynological analyses of the site. These new fossils significantly expand the Neanderthal sample known from Greece. Together with the human specimens from Lakonis and Apidima, the Kalamakia human remains add to the growing evidence of a strong Neanderthal presence in the Mani region during the Late Pleistocene. PMID:23490263

  20. A code of ethics for evidence-based research with ancient human remains.

    PubMed

    Kreissl Lonfat, Bettina M; Kaufmann, Ina Maria; Rühli, Frank

    2015-06-01

    As clinical research constantly advances and the concept of evolution becomes a strong and influential part of basic medical research, the absence of a discourse that deals with the use of ancient human remains in evidence-based research is becoming unbearable. While topics such as exhibition and excavation of human remains are established ethical fields of discourse, when faced with instrumentalization of ancient human remains for research (i.e., ancient DNA extractions for disease marker analyses) the answers from traditional ethics or even more practical fields of bio-ethics or more specific biomedical ethics are rare to non-existent. The Centre for Evolutionary Medicine at the University of Zurich solved their needs for discursive action through the writing of a self-given code of ethics which was written in dialogue with the researchers at the Institute and was published online in Sept. 2011: http://evolutionäremedizin.ch/coe/. The philosophico-ethical basis for this a code of conduct and ethics and the methods are published in this article. PMID:25998650

  1. Skeletal remains of a diminutive primate from the Paleocene of Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storch, Gerhard

    2008-10-01

    Most living mammal orders, including our own, started their career during the first 10 million years of the Cenozoic, the Age of Mammals. The fossil record documents that early Paleogene adaptive radiations of various clades included tiny species of the size of living shrews. Remains of particularly diminutive limb bones are described from the late Paleocene site of Walbeck, Sachsen-Anhalt. Discovered in 1939, it has remained the only known Paleocene mammal-bearing locality from Germany. The remains are referred to the family Adapisoriculidae, which is considered on the basis of the present postcranial evidence to represent plesiadapiform primates rather than alleged lipotyphlan insectivores as previously proposed. The Walbeck fossils compete with the Early Eocene species Toliapina vinealis from Europe and Picromomys petersonorum from North America for the status of the smallest known primate, fossil and living. Their estimated body weights are as small as 10 g. The limb bones show features related to enhanced flexion at the elbow and hip joint, suggesting arboreal habits and environments such as terminal branches. The diminutive size and tooth morphology suggest feeding on small insects and other invertebrates. Postcranials are important to assess early radiations, such tiny specimens as the present ones are extremely scarce in the fossil record, however.

  2. Hand and foot remains from the Gran Dolina Early Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, C; Arsuaga, J L; Carretero, J M

    1999-01-01

    We report here the study of the 22 hand and foot remains from the Early Pleistocene level TD6 of the Gran Dolina site at Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) recovered from 1994 to 1996. These remains are paratypes of Homo antecessor. All of the elements are briefly described and compared with other fossil hominids. The capitate has a constricted neck, well developed head, strong attachment for the ligamentum interosseum trapezoid-capitate, a palmarly placed trapezoid facet with a distinctive small dorsal trapezoid facet, a highly curved and oblique orientation of the second metacarpal facet, and a transversally oriented dorsodistal border. A hamate with a moderately projecting and lightly built hamulus; an inferred reduced styloid process on the third metacarpal base; a wide second metacarpal head; and middle phalanges with well marked insertions for the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle and wide heads. The morphology and dimensions of the pedal remains from TD6 are very similar to modern humans; but the base, proximal articular surface and shafts of the proximal hallucal phalanges are more rounded and the midshaft of the proximal toe phalanx is wider. PMID:10496998

  3. Method and apparatus to predict the remaining service life of an operating system

    DOEpatents

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Terrones, Kristine M.; Maynard, Melody A.; Pawlowski, Ronald A. , Ferryman; Thomas A.; Skorpik, James R.; Wilson, Bary W.

    2008-11-25

    A method and computer-based apparatus for monitoring the degradation of, predicting the remaining service life of, and/or planning maintenance for, an operating system are disclosed. Diagnostic information on degradation of the operating system is obtained through measurement of one or more performance characteristics by one or more sensors onboard and/or proximate the operating system. Though not required, it is preferred that the sensor data are validated to improve the accuracy and reliability of the service life predictions. The condition or degree of degradation of the operating system is presented to a user by way of one or more calculated, numeric degradation figures of merit that are trended against one or more independent variables using one or more mathematical techniques. Furthermore, more than one trendline and uncertainty interval may be generated for a given degradation figure of merit/independent variable data set. The trendline(s) and uncertainty interval(s) are subsequently compared to one or more degradation figure of merit thresholds to predict the remaining service life of the operating system. The present invention enables multiple mathematical approaches in determining which trendline(s) to use to provide the best estimate of the remaining service life.

  4. Echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease-some answers, but questions remain.

    PubMed

    Rémond, Marc G W; Maguire, Graeme P

    2015-07-01

    Despite being preventable, rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a significant global cause of cardiovascular disease. Echocardiographic screening for early detection of RHD has the potential to enable timely commencement of treatment (secondary prophylaxis) to halt progression to severe valvular disease. However, a number of issues remain to be addressed regarding its feasibility. The natural history of Definite RHD without a prior history of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and Borderline RHD are both unclear. Even if they are variants of RHD it is not known whether secondary antibiotic prophylaxis will prevent disease progression as it does in "traditionally" diagnosed RHD. False positives can also have a detrimental impact on individuals and their families as well as place substantial burdens on health care systems. Recent research suggests that handheld echocardiography (HAND) may offer a cheaper and more convenient alternative to standard portable echocardiography (STAND) in RHD screening. However, while HAND is sensitive for the detection of Definite RHD, it is less sensitive for Borderline RHD and is relatively poor at detecting mitral stenosis (MS). Given its attendant limited specificity, potential cases detected with HAND would require re-examination by standard echocardiography. For now, echocardiographic screening for RHD should remain a subject of research rather than routine health care. PMID:26835376

  5. Unilateral nephrectomy elongates primary cilia in the remaining kidney via reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang Jun; Jang, Hee-Seong; Kim, Jee In; Lipschutz, Joshua H.; Park, Kwon Moo

    2016-01-01

    The length of primary cilia is associated with normal cell and organ function. In the kidney, the change of functional cilia length/mass is associated with various diseases such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, polycystic kidney disease, and congenital solitary kidney. Here, we investigate whether renal mass reduction affects primary cilia length and function. To induce renal mass reduction, mice were subjected to unilateral nephrectomy (UNx). UNx increased kidney weight and superoxide formation in the remaining kidney. Primary cilia were elongated in proximal tubule cells, collecting duct cells and parietal cells of the remaining kidney. Mn(III) Tetrakis (1-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (MnTMPyP), an antioxidant, reduced superoxide formation in UNx-mice and prevented the elongation of primary cilia. UNx increased the expression of phosphorylated ERK, p21, and exocyst complex members Sec8 and Sec10, in the remaining kidney, and these increases were prevented by MnTMPyP. In MDCK, a kidney tubular epithelial cell line, cells, low concentrations of H2O2 treatment elongated primary cilia. This H2O2-induced elongation of primary cilia was also prevented by MnTMPyP treatment. Taken together, these data demonstrate that kidney compensation, induced by a reduction of renal mass, results in primary cilia elongation, and this elongation is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:26923764

  6. Use of the global positioning system in the field recovery of scattered human remains.

    PubMed

    Listi, Ginesse A; Manhein, Mary H; Leitner, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the Global Positioning System (GPS) as a tool for field mapping of scattered human remains or other materials in forensic investigations. Two aspects of the GPS are considered: (1) the level of accuracy that can be obtained using a mid-priced GPS unit, and (2) the effectiveness of using the GPS to map scattered materials. The positional accuracy of the GPS receiver was tested using a National Geodetic Survey (NGS) point located in Baton Rouge, LA. The utility of the GPS for mapping was investigated by setting up a mock field recovery and mapping the remains using both the GPS and traditional archeological methods. The results indicate that the positional error for a single location using GPS was less than one-half meter. However, when multiple positions were considered, the data produced on different days were not consistent. Further, the GPS receiver used in this study could not distinguish items in close association. Factors such as tree cover density, the proximity of the materials to structures or trees, and satellite positioning contributed to the erratic data. These results indicate that traditional techniques and photographs are still indispensable for mapping scattered remains or artifacts. PMID:17209903

  7. The use of fish remains in sediments for the reconstruction of paleoproductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drago, T.; Ferreira-Bartrina, V.; Santos, A. M. P.; Pinheiro, J.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of the works concerning fish productivity are based in fish landing records. However, in order to understand the causes of variability in fish productivity (natural and/or anthropogenic) it is essential to have information from periods when human impacts (e.g., fisheries) are considered unimportant. This can be achieved through the use of fish remains, i.e. scales, vertebrae and otoliths, from sediment records. The obtained data can be used to develop time series of fish stocks revealing the history of fish population dynamics over the last centuries or millennia. The majority of these works are located in Eastern Boundary Current Systems (e.g., Benguela, Peru-Humboldt, California), because these are associated with coastal upwelling and high productivity, which in some cases is at the origin of low bottom oxygen levels, leading to scale preservation. A search for fish remains in the Portuguese margin sediments is in progress in the context of the ongoing research project POPEI (High-resolution oceanic paleoproductivity and environmental changes; correlation with fish populations), which intend to fill the gap in studies of this type for the Canary Current System. In this paper we review some general ideas of the use of fish remains, related studies, methodologies and data processing, as well as presenting the first results of POPEI.

  8. A Re-Appraisal of the Early Andean Human Remains from Lauricocha in Peru.

    PubMed

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Llamas, Bastien; Lindauer, Susanne; Tomasto-Cagigao, Elsa; Kuzminsky, Susan; Rohland, Nadin; Santos, Fabrício R; Kaulicke, Peter; Valverde, Guido; Richards, Stephen M; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Seidenberg, Verena; Mallick, Swapan; Cooper, Alan; Reich, David; Haak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of human remains from the Lauricocha cave in the Central Andean highlands in the 1960's provided the first direct evidence for human presence in the high altitude Andes. The skeletons found at this site were ascribed to the Early to Middle Holocene and represented the oldest known population of Western South America, and thus were used in several studies addressing the early population history of the continent. However, later excavations at Lauricocha led to doubts regarding the antiquity of the site. Here, we provide new dating, craniometric, and genetic evidence for this iconic site. We obtained new radiocarbon dates, generated complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear SNP data from five individuals, and re-analyzed the human remains of Lauricocha to revise the initial morphological and craniometric analysis conducted in the 1960's. We show that Lauricocha was indeed occupied in the Early to Middle Holocene but the temporal spread of dates we obtained from the human remains show that they do not qualify as a single contemporaneous population. However, the genetic results from five of the individuals fall within the spectrum of genetic diversity observed in pre-Columbian and modern Native Central American populations. PMID:26061688

  9. Blood or spores? A cautionary note on interpreting cellular debris on human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Cappella, A; Stefanelli, S; Caccianiga, M; Rizzi, A; Bertoglio, B; Sforza, C; Cattaneo, C

    2015-07-01

    The identification of red blood cells on both skeletal human remains and decomposed corpses is of remarkable importance in forensic sciences, irrespective of its diagnostic value; their presence is often perplexing and difficult to interpret especially when in the context of decomposition and taphonomical variables. Some clinical research has focused on the morphological changes of red blood cells over time by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), but no research has investigated whether botanical structures can be confused for red blood cells. Since some literature has recently presumed the detection of erythrocyte-like cells on skeletal remains (even ancient) as surely erythrocytes, and most have never taken into consideration the chance of an origin different from blood, such as botanical, the present study aims at verifying the possibility of confusion between erythrocytes and botanical cells by applying SEM analysis and at highlighting the pitfalls in this particular issue through a test submitted to pathologists and natural scientists asked to discriminate between red blood cells and different vegetal structures (60 images obtained by SEM analysis). The results showed that although there are diagnostic features useful in identifying red blood cells from botanical structures, some spores resulted very similar to decaying red blood cells, which calls for attention and great caution when studying decomposed human remains. PMID:25563601

  10. A Re-Appraisal of the Early Andean Human Remains from Lauricocha in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Kuzminsky, Susan; Rohland, Nadin; Santos, Fabrício R.; Kaulicke, Peter; Valverde, Guido; Richards, Stephen M.; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Seidenberg, Verena; Mallick, Swapan; Cooper, Alan; Reich, David; Haak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of human remains from the Lauricocha cave in the Central Andean highlands in the 1960’s provided the first direct evidence for human presence in the high altitude Andes. The skeletons found at this site were ascribed to the Early to Middle Holocene and represented the oldest known population of Western South America, and thus were used in several studies addressing the early population history of the continent. However, later excavations at Lauricocha led to doubts regarding the antiquity of the site. Here, we provide new dating, craniometric, and genetic evidence for this iconic site. We obtained new radiocarbon dates, generated complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear SNP data from five individuals, and re-analyzed the human remains of Lauricocha to revise the initial morphological and craniometric analysis conducted in the 1960’s. We show that Lauricocha was indeed occupied in the Early to Middle Holocene but the temporal spread of dates we obtained from the human remains show that they do not qualify as a single contemporaneous population. However, the genetic results from five of the individuals fall within the spectrum of genetic diversity observed in pre-Columbian and modern Native Central American populations. PMID:26061688

  11. Micromorphological Aspects of Forensic Geopedology: can vivianite be a marker of human remains permanence in soil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, Stephania Irmgard Elena; Trombino, Luca; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    The number of death cases of forensic interest grows up every year. When decomposed or skeletal remains come out from the soil, the bones become of anthropological competence and the scene of crime become of soil specialists competence. The present study concerns real cases of buried/hidden remains in clandestine graves which have been studied in order to prove the permanence in soil even if the soil particles have been washed away or the body is no more buried. One hypothesis has been taken in account, related to the evidences of vivianite crystallization on the bones. The vivianite is an iron hydrate phosphate (Fe3(PO4)2·8(H2O)) that usually forms in anoxic, reducing and rich in organic matter conditions. In these conditions the iron in the soil is in reduced form (Fe2+) and associates with the phosphorous, present in the environment, as attested in archaeological contexts. Going back to the cases of buried/hidden remains, it is possible to state that the soil can be source of iron, while the bones can supply phosphorous and the decomposition process induces the anoxic/reducing conditions in the burial area. In this light, the presence of vivianite crystallizations on the bones could be a method to discriminate burial (i.e. permanence in soil) even if the remains are found in a different context than a clandestine grave. Analyses have been performed using petrographic microscope and scanning electron microscope microanalysis (SEM-EDS) on bones, and point out the presence of vivianite crystallizations on the bones. This evidence, thanks to the significance of vivianite in the archaeological context, can be regarded as a marker of the permanence of the human remains into the soil, like a ‘buried evidence' testimonial; on the contrary the absence of vivianite is not indicative of a ‘non buried status'. Further studies and new experiments are in progress in order to clarify the pathways of vivianite crystallization on different skeletal districts, in different

  12. Influence of dietary zinc and copper on digestive enzyme activity and intestinal morphology in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Hedemann, M S; Jensen, B B; Poulsen, H D

    2006-12-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of high dietary concentrations of Zn as zinc oxide and Cu as copper sulfate on the activity of digestive enzymes in the pancreas and the intestinal mucosa, intestinal morphology, and mucin histochemistry in pigs after weaning. Thirty-two pigs were weaned at 4 wk of age. The pigs were fed standard weaning diets supplemented with Zn (100 or 2,500 ppm) and Cu (0 or 175 ppm) in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments for a 14-d period. In pancreatic tissue, the activity of amylase, carboxypeptidase A, chymotrypsin, trypsin, and lipase increased (P < 0.01) in pigs fed 2,500 ppm of Zn, whereas the activity of carboxypeptidase B and carboxylester hydrolase was unaffected. Copper had no effect on the activity of pancreatic enzymes. In small intestinal contents, the total activity of amylase and carboxypeptidase A was greater in pigs fed 100 ppm of Zn (P < 0.05), whereas feeding 2,500 ppm of Zn increased the chymotrypsin activity (P < 0.001). The remaining enzymes were unaffected by dietary Zn concentration. The villi were longer in the cranial small intestine (P < 0.001) in pigs fed 100 ppm of Zn than in pigs fed 2,500 ppm of Zn, but otherwise there were no clear effects of Zn and Cu supplementation on intestinal morphology. In the cranial small intestine, the activity of maltase (P < 0.001), sucrase (P < 0.001), and lactase was greater in pigs fed 100 ppm of Zn, even though there was a Zn x Cu interaction (P < 0.05) in lactase activity. In the middle and caudal small intestine, no clear differences between dietary treatments were observed. The activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in the intestinal mucosa was not affected by dietary Zn or Cu. In pigs fed 100 ppm of Zn, the activity of aminopeptidase N was greater in the caudal small intestine, but dietary Zn or Cu had no effect on aminopeptidase N in the cranial and middle small intestine. No effect of dietary Zn or Cu supplementation was found on

  13. Determining buried grid street system and native of the remains with GPR and petrography, in ancient Nysa city, Aydin - Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadioglu, Selma; Kadioglu, Musa; Kadioglu, Yusuf K.

    2010-05-01

    Nysa, is one of the most important ancient cities of the region of Caria in Anatolia (Asia Minor), was built on the slopes on the sides of the stream called Tekkecik, in a 3 km North of Sultanhisar, East of Aydın city of Turkey. The buildings, streets and public squares of the ancient city were supported by vaulted substructures adapted to the topographic conditions. There are important ruins on the site from the Hellenistic and the Roman periods and the Byzantine era. Now the Greek theatre and its walled entrance are intact. Other important remains are the gymnasium, stadium, library, temple, nymphaeum, bridge a tunnel like structure and the Byzantine churches in the West; the agora, Bouleuterion / Gerontikon, and the Roman public baths in the East. The first aim of the study was to determine the locations of the buried streets thought grid system according to the some excavated results already in the east and west side of the Nysa. Therefore the GPR studies were realized selected areas, which could include the streets, around the Bouleuterion / Gerontikon and at the South of the library. Two dimensional (2D) GPR data were measured on the parallel GPR profiles spaced 1m apart on each part of the study areas using 250 MHz shielded antennas. The processed parallel profile data set was formed through a solid 3D view by aligning the profiles respectively. A simplified amplitude-color range and appropriate opacity function were constructed to activate buried remains. Interactive interpretation was done with time slices and transparent sub-blocks of the 3D volume by arranging an opaque function. It was known that the maximum amplitudes represented the remains. So, weak amplitude range around the zero amplitude was eliminated by giving zero opacity value and transparent 3D imaging was obtained. The second known was that the amplitudes were decreased according to time. Therefore, amplitude scale could be weighted by a constant coefficient changing with the time range of

  14. Incidental findings in the use of DNA to identify human remains: an ethical assessment.

    PubMed

    Parker, Lisa S; London, Alex John; Aronson, Jay D

    2013-02-01

    DNA analysis is increasingly used to identify the remains of victims of conflicts and disasters. This is especially true in cases where remains are badly damaged and fragmented, or where antemortem records are unavailable. Incidental findings (IFs)-that is, genetics-related information for which investigators were not looking-may result from these identification efforts employing DNA analysis. Because of the critical role played by family members of the missing in identification efforts, as well as the familial nature of DNA, identification initiatives employing DNA analysis are particularly prone to reveal IFs about familial relationships, such as misattributed paternity or false beliefs about sibling relationships. Despite forensic scientists' widespread awareness of the possibility of generating IFs, to date there has been relatively little explicit guidance about their management. This paper fills that gap. It offers substantive guidance about the ethical management of IFs in this context. To ensure that the analysis addresses actual needs and practices in the field, one author (JDA) conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants from six regionally diverse organizations involved in post-conflict or post-disaster identification efforts. The paper first describes how methods of DNA analysis give rise to IFs. Next, it explains the importance of developing an ethically justified general policy for managing IFs and discusses features of DNA identification efforts that are relevant to such a policy. Then it presents an argument in support of a general policy of nondisclosure-specifically, that considerations of fair access to the individual and social benefits of identification efforts, and the concern to minimize and fairly distribute the risks of participation, support a policy of nondisclosure. It concludes by considering some implications of this argument for the choice among scientific practices involved in using DNA analysis to identify human remains

  15. Wood remains from the Late Triassic (Carnian) of Jordan and their paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Hamad, Abdalla M. B.; Jasper, André; Uhl, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    During field work in the Triassic of Jordan fossil wood remains have been discovered at five horizons (S-1AR-S-5AR) of the Late Triassic (Carnian) Abu Ruweis Formation in NW Jordan. In most horizons wood remains are too badly preserved to allow for a detailed xylotomic investigation. Only two horizons provided material which exhibited anatomical details: (1) in horizon S-1AR we found rare and rather small fragments of woody charcoal exhibiting cellular details (representing the first macroscopic evidence of paleo-wildfires from the Late Triassic of the Middle East), and (2) in horizon S-5AR surfaces of partly compressed (gagatized) and partly permineralized wood fragments exhibited anatomical details that could be investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy. All wood remains that allow for a detailed investigation show features typical of gymnosperms, but at the moment nothing can be said about a more specific taxonomic affinity of most of the woods, although wood from horizon S-5AR exhibits characteristics of protopinoid wood. Our data provide evidence that gymnospermous woody vegetation cover has existed in the source areas of the sediments deposited in the Abu Ruweis Formation in Jordan and that this woody vegetation occasionally experienced wildfires. This, together with lithological data, provides evidence for a seasonally dry (maybe even arid) climate during deposition of the Abu Ruweis Formation. On a larger scale our findings contribute to the very scarce current knowledge about Late Triassic wildfires on the entire continent Gondwana, from where so far only three records of macro-charcoals, as undisputed evidence of paleo-wildfires, have been published from this period.

  16. Long-Term Functional Dynamics of an Aphidophagous Coccinellid Community Remain Unchanged despite Repeated Invasions

    PubMed Central

    Bahlai, Christine A.; Colunga-Garcia, Manuel; Gage, Stuart H.; Landis, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    Aphidophagous coccinellids (ladybeetles) are important providers of herbivore suppression ecosystem services. In the last 30 years, the invasion of exotic coccinellid species, coupled with observed declines in native species, has led to considerable interest in the community dynamics and ecosystem function of this guild. Here we examined a 24-year dataset of coccinellid communities in nine habitats in southwestern Michigan for changes in community function in response to invasion. Specifically we analyzed their temporal population dynamics and species diversity, and we modeled the community’s potential to suppress pests. Abundance of coccinellids varied widely between 1989 and 2012 and became increasingly exotic-dominated. More than 71% of 57,813 adult coccinellids captured over the 24-year study were exotic species. Shannon diversity increased slightly over time, but herbivore suppression potential of the community remained roughly constant over the course of the study. However, both Shannon diversity and herbivore suppression potential due to native species declined over time in all habitats. The relationship between Shannon diversity and herbivore suppression potential varied with habitat type: a positive relationship in forest and perennial habitats, but was uncorrelated in annual habitats. This trend may have been because annual habitats were dominated by a few, highly voracious exotic species. Our results indicated that although the composition of the coccinellid community in southwestern Michigan has changed dramatically in the past several decades, its function has remained relatively unchanged in both agricultural and natural habitats. While this is encouraging from the perspective of pest management, it should be noted that losses of one of the dominant exotic coccinellids could result in a rapid decline in pest suppression services if the remaining community is unable to respond. PMID:24349505

  17. Incidental Findings in the Use of DNA to Identify Human Remains: An Ethical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Lisa S.; Aronson, Jay D.

    2012-01-01

    DNA analysis is increasingly used to identify the remains of victims of conflicts and disasters. This is especially true in cases where remains are badly damaged and fragmented, or where antemortem records are unavailable. Incidental findings (IFs)—that is, genetics-related information for which investigators were not looking—may result from these identification efforts employing DNA analysis. Because of the critical role played by family members of the missing in identification efforts, as well as the familial nature of DNA, identification initiatives employing DNA analysis are particularly prone to reveal IFs about familial relationships, such as misattributed paternity or false beliefs about sibling relationships. Despite forensic scientists’ widespread awareness of the possibility of generating IFs, to date there has been relatively little explicit guidance about their management. This paper fills that gap. It offers substantive guidance about the ethical management of IFs in this context. To ensure that the analysis addresses actual needs and practices in the field, one author (JDA) conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants from six regionally diverse organizations involved in post-conflict or post-disaster identification efforts. The paper first describes how methods of DNA analysis give rise to IFs. Next, it explains the importance of developing an ethically justified general policy for managing IFs and discusses features of DNA identification efforts that are relevant to such a policy. Then it presents an argument in support of a general policy of nondisclosure—specifically, that considerations of fair access to the individual and social benefits of identification efforts, and the concern to minimize and fairly distribute the risks of participation, support a policy of nondisclosure. It concludes by considering some implications of this argument for the choice among scientific practices involved in using DNA analysis to identify human

  18. Estimation of the pre-burning condition of human remains in forensic contexts.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, D; Cunha, E; Thompson, T J U

    2015-09-01

    The determination of the original condition of human remains prior to burning is critical since it may facilitate the reconstruction of circumstances surrounding death in forensic cases. Although the use of heat-induced bone changes is not a completely reliable proxy for determining pre-burning conditions, it is not completely devoid of potential, as we can observe a clear difference in the occurrence of such features between the fleshed and dry bones. In order to quantify this difference and determine its true value for forensic research, the frequencies of heat-induced warping and thumbnail fractures were documented on modern cremations of cadavers from recently deceased individuals and from the cremations of skeletons previously inhumed. The effect of age, sex, time span from death to cremation, duration and temperature of combustion on those frequencies was statistically investigated. Results demonstrated that the heat-induced features were significantly more frequent in the sample of cadavers. In addition, warping was determined to be the most useful indicator of the pre-burning condition of human remains. Temperature of combustion was the only variable having a significant effect on the frequency of both features, suggesting that fluctuation of temperature, along with collagen preservation and recrystallization of the inorganic phase, is paramount for their occurrence. Both warping and thumbnail fractures may eventually be used for the estimation of the pre-burning condition of human remains in lack of other indicators, but their reliability is far from absolute. Ideally, such inference must be supported by other data such as skeletal representation, objects or defleshing marks on the bones. PMID:24878617

  19. Prognostication of LED Remaining Useful Life and Color Stability in the Presence of Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Lall, Pradeep; Zang, Hao; Davis, J Lynn

    2015-06-22

    The reliability of LED products may be affected by both luminous flux drop and color shift. Previous research on the topic focuses on either luminous maintenance or color shift. However, luminous flux degradation usually takes very long time to observe in LEDs under normal operating conditions. In this paper, the impact of a VOC (volatile organic compound) contaminated luminous flux and color stability are examined. As a result, both luminous degradation and color shift had been recorded in a short time. Test samples are white, phosphorconverted, high-power LED packages. Absolute radiant flux is measured with integrating sphere system to calculate the luminous flux. Luminous flux degradation and color shift distance were plotted versus aging time to show the degradation pattern. A prognostic health management (PHM) method based on the state variables and state estimator have been proposed in this paper. In this PHM framework, unscented kalman filter (UKF) was deployed as the carrier of all states. During the estimation process, third order dynamic transfer function was used to implement the PHM framework. Both of the luminous flux and color shift distance have been used as the state variable with the same PHM framework to exam the robustness of the method. Predicted remaining useful life is calculated at every measurement point to compare with the tested remaining useful life. The result shows that state estimator can be used as the method for the PHM of LED degradation with respect to both luminous flux and color shift distance. The prediction of remaining useful life of LED package, made by the states estimator and data driven approach, falls in the acceptable errorbounds (20%) after a short training of the estimator.

  20. Can we be (and stay) friends? Remaining friends after dissolution of a romantic relationship.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Melinda; Hackathorn, Jana; Clark, Eddie M; Mattingly, Brent A

    2011-01-01

    Although many individuals report being friends with their ex-romantic partners (Wilmot, Carbaugh, & Baxter, 1985), the literature regarding post-romantic friendships is very limited. We investigated whether satisfaction in the dissolved romantic relationship could predict post-romantic friendships and friendship maintenance. We found that the more satisfied individuals were during the dissolved romance, the more likely they were to remain friends and the more likely they were to engage in friendship maintenance behaviors. We also found that friendship maintenance fully mediated the association between past romantic satisfaction and current friendship satisfaction. PMID:22017080