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Sample records for activities russian river

  1. 78 FR 14985 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... first issued an IHA, valid for a period of one year, on April 1, 2010 (75 FR 17382), and was subsequently issued IHAs for incidental take associated with the same activities on April 21, 2011 (76 FR 23306) and April 17, 2012 (77 FR 24471). The proposed activities include management of a naturally-...

  2. 77 FR 15722 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... pressure waves felt as a result of surf as opposed to seismic refraction). Electric resistivity profiling... issued an IHA, valid for a period of one year, on April 1, 2010 (75 FR 17382) and was subsequently issued a second IHA for incidental take associated with the same activities on April 21, 2011 (76 FR...

  3. 77 FR 24471 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... IHA, valid for a period of one year, on April 1, 2010 (75 FR 17382), and was subsequently issued a second IHA for incidental take associated with the same activities on April 21, 2011 (76 FR 23306..., 2012 (77 FR 15722). During the 30-day comment period, NMFS received a letter from the Marine...

  4. 78 FR 23746 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... a period of one year, on April 1, 2010 (75 FR 17382), and was subsequently issued IHAs for incidental take associated with the same activities on April 21, 2011 (76 FR 23306) and April 17, 2012 (77 FR... proposed IHA in the Federal Register on March 8, 2013 (78 FR 14985). During the 30-day comment period,...

  5. 76 FR 23306 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... IHA, valid for a period of one year, on April 1, 2010 (75 FR 17382). Management activities include... March 18, 2011 (76 FR 14924). During the 30-day comment period, NMFS received comment from three private... these stocks and their occurrence in the action area in the notice of the proposed IHA (76 FR...

  6. 76 FR 14924 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ..., valid for a period of one year, on April 1, 2010 (75 FR 17382). Management activities include management... (61 FR 56138), SCWA and the Corps engaged NMFS in pre-consultation technical assistance to evaluate... the current velocities to erode a wider and deeper channel and downcut into the barrier beach....

  7. Flooding on California's Russian River: Role of atmospheric rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralph, F.M.; Neiman, P.J.; Wick, G.A.; Gutman, S.I.; Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.; White, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental observations collected during meteorological field studies conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration near the Russian River of coastal northern California are combined with SSM/I satellite observations offshore to examine the role of landfalling atmospheric rivers in the creation of flooding. While recent studies have documented the characteristics and importance of narrow regions of strong meridional water vapor transport over the eastern Pacific Ocean (recently referred to as atmospheric rivers), this study describes their impact when they strike the U.S. West Coast. A detailed case study is presented, along with an assessment of all 7 floods on the Russian River since the experimental data were first available in October 1997. In all 7 floods, atmospheric river conditions were present and caused heavy rainfall through orographic precipitation. Not only do atmospheric rivers play a crucial role in the global water budget, they can also lead to heavy coastal rainfall and flooding, and thus represent a key phenomenon linkingweather and climate. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Water resources of the Russian rivers and their changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgievsky, Mikhail

    2016-10-01

    This paper is a review of the recent investigations related to changes in river water resources of the Russian Federation performed at the State Hydrological Institute (SHI). The long-term water resources fluctuations and their changes during the last decades including the significant changes in seasonal runoff are presented. The preliminary estimates of the possible future changes are also given.

  9. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  10. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  11. Aeolian Processes and Landforms in River Valleys of Central Russian Plain in MIS 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matlakhova, Ekaterina

    2015-04-01

    Late Pleistocene terraces in river valleys of Central Russian Plain were subject to aeolian reworking after the alluvial sedimentation had finished. Severe natural conditions of LGM (cold and dry climate, scarce vegetation) contributed activation of aeolian processes. Ground water lowering because of deep pre-LGM incision of rivers made deep aeolian reworking possible at low hypsometric levels of valley bottom. We studied lithological structure of terraces in river valleys of Central Russian Plain. The key sites were located in Seim (the middle Dnieper catchment) and Khoper (the middle Don catchment) river valleys. Field data was combined with quartz grains morphoscopy technique (study of texture of sediment particles using scanning electron microscope). Wide participation of aeolian sediments in terrace deposits was detected. During this study a new technique of the distinguishing of short-term aeolian reworking of alluvial deposits using quartz grains morphoscopy technique was developed. The main problem of interpretation the results of quartz grains morphoscopy is that aeolian signals are sometimes not clear due to short duration of wind action over alluvial sands. However, detailed studies of the quartz grains surfaces under scanning electron microscope helped to solve this problem. We used scanning electron microscope JEOL JSM-661 LV and worked with magnification from ×160 to ×400 for whole grains and up to ×1800 for some parts of grains. Deep aeolian reworking of Late Pleistocene terrace alluvium in river valleys of Central Russian Plain during LGM led to the formation of aeolian covers on the terrace surfaces. Also there are many relict dunes on Late Pleistocene river terrace surfaces. Sometimes the development of aeolian processes could led to more significant changes in the shape of the valley and formation of aeolian aprons. The thickness of aeolian covers can reach 3-5 m or more. Due to this reason morphology and topography of river terraces could

  12. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described..., “Green Valley of Russian River Valley” is a term of viticultural significance. “Sonoma County...

  13. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described..., “Green Valley of Russian River Valley” is a term of viticultural significance. “Sonoma County...

  14. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described..., “Green Valley of Russian River Valley” is a term of viticultural significance. “Sonoma County...

  15. Detecting Recent Atmospheric River Induced Flood Events over the Russian River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehran, A.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Ralph, F. M.; Lavers, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Almost all major flood events in the coastal Western U.S. occur as a result of multi-day extreme precipitation during the winter and late fall, and most such events are now known to be Atmospheric Rivers (ARs). AR events are defined as having integrated water vapor (IWV) exceeding 2 cm in an area at least 2000 km long and no more than 1000 km wide. The dominant moisture source in many AR events, including those associated with most floods in the Russian River basin in Northern California, is the tropics. We report on a hydrological analysis of selected floods in the Russian River basin using the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM), forced alternately by gridded station data, NWS WSR-88D radar data, and output from a regional atmospheric model. We also report results of river state forecasts using a river hydrodynamics model to reconstruct flood inundation from selected AR events. We diagnose errors in both the hydrological and river stage predictions, and discuss alternatives for future error reduction.

  16. Scenarios of long-term river runoff changes within Russian large river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiadi, A. G.; Koronkevich, N. I.; Milyukova, I. P.; Kislov, A. V.; Barabanova, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    The approach for long-term scenario projection of river runoff changes for Russian large river basins in XXI century includes method for scenario estimations for range of probable climatic changes, based on generalization of results of the calculations executed on ensemble of global climatic models and physical-statistical downscaling of their results are developed for mountain regions; hydrological model; method of alternative scenario estimations for water management complex transformation and GIS technologies. The suggested methodology allows to develop long-term scenario projection for: (1) changes of river runoff in large river basins as a result of climate changes and (2) transformations of the water management complex caused by social-economic changes, occurring in the country and their influence on river runoff. As one of the bases of methodology is used model of monthly water balance of RAS Institute of Geography (Georgiadi, Milyukova, 2000, 2002, 2006, 2009). As the climatic scenario the range of probable climatic changes which is estimated by results of calculations for deviations of climatic elements from their recent values which have been carried out on ensemble of global climatic models based on the two most contrasting scenario globally averaged air temperature changes is used. As ensemble of climatic scenarios results of the calculations executed on 10 global climatic models, included in the program of last experiment 20C3M-20th Century Climate in Coupled Models (Meehl et al., 2007), is used. The method for long-term scenario projection for transformation of water management complex characteristics and water consumption was developed. The method includes several blocks (Koronkevich, 1990, Koronkevich et al., 2009): growth of the population and development of an economy; different ways of use and protection of waters, in view of different technologies of prevention and decreasing of pollution of water resources. Development of scenarios assumes pre

  17. Assessment of Hydrologic Response to Variable Precipitation Forcing: Russian River Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifelli, R.; Hsu, C.; Johnson, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    NOAA Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) activities in California have involved deployment of advanced sensor networks to better track atmospheric river (AR) dynamics and inland penetration of high water vapor air masses. Numerical weather prediction models and decision support tools have been developed to provide forecasters a better basis for forecasting heavy precipitation and consequent flooding. The HMT also involves a joint project with California Department of Water Resources (CA-DWR) and the Scripps Institute for Oceanography (SIO) as part of CA-DWR's Enhanced Flood Response and Emergency Preparedness (EFREP) program. The HMT activities have included development and calibration of a distributed hydrologic model, the NWS Office of Hydrologic Development's (OHD) Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (RDHM), to prototype the distributed approach for flood and other water resources applications. HMT has applied RDHM to the Russian-Napa watersheds for research assessment of gap-filling weather radars for precipitation and hydrologic forecasting and for establishing a prototype to inform both the NWS Monterey Forecast Office and the California Nevada River Forecast Center (CNRFC) of RDHM capabilities. In this presentation, a variety of precipitation forcings generated with and without gap filling radar and rain gauge data are used as input to RDHM to assess the hydrologic response for selected case study events. Both the precipitation forcing and hydrologic model are run at different spatial and temporal resolution in order to examine the sensitivity of runoff to the precipitation inputs. Based on the timing of the events and the variations of spatial and temporal resolution, the parameters which dominate the hydrologic response are identified. The assessment is implemented at two USGS stations (Ukiah near Russian River and Austin Creek near Cazadero) that are minimally influenced by managed flows and objective evaluation can thus be derived. The results are assessed

  18. Turbidity and suspended-sediment transport in the Russian River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritter, John R.; Brown, William M.

    1971-01-01

    The Russian River in north coastal California has a persistent turbidness, which has reportedly caused a decline in the success of the sports fishermen. As a consequence, the number of sports fishermen angling in the river has declined, and industries dependent on their business have suffered. To determine the source of the turbidity and the rate of sediment transport in the basin, a network of sampling station was established in February 1964 along the river, on some of its tributaries, and near Lake Pillsbury in the upper Eel River basin.

  19. 76 FR 70866 - Expansions of the Russian River Valley and Northern Sonoma Viticultural Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ..., in the Federal Register (73 FR 49123) regarding the proposed expansion of the Russian River Valley....) ATF-159, published in the Federal Register (48 FR 48812) on October 21, 1983. It was expanded by 767 acres in T.D. TTB-7, published in the Federal Register (68 FR 67367) on December 2, ] 2003, and again...

  20. Ecosystem Services of Rivers: The Don River (Russian Federation) and the Roanoke River (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concept of ecosystem services recognizes the services, and benefits, provided to people by ecosystems. River systems provide many services to people, including freshwater provisioning, carbon storage, fisheries, recreation, transportation, and biodiversity. Here, we review th...

  1. Plains cottonwood's last stand: can it survive invasion of Russian olive onto the Milk River, Montana floodplain?

    PubMed

    Pearce, C M; Smith, D G

    2001-11-01

    Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.) was introduced in 1950 onto one site on the Milk River floodplain, northern Montana, 10 km downstream from the Canada/United States border. To analyze dispersal of Russian olive from the point source between 1950 and 1999, we compared distribution, numbers, size structure, and mortality of Russian olive and plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides Marsh:) on an unregulated reach of the Milk River floodplain in southeastern Alberta and north-central Montana. Within 50 years, Russian olive in this reach has moved upriver into Alberta and downriver to the Fresno Reservoir. It is now present on 69 of the 74 meander lobes sampled, comprising 34%, 62%, and 61% of all Russian olive and plains cottonwood seedlings, saplings, and trees, respectively. On some meander lobes, Russian olive has colonized similar elevations on the floodplain as plains cottonwood and is oriented in rows paralleling the river channel, suggesting that recruitment may be related to river processes. Breakup ice had killed 400 Russian olive saplings and trees and damaged >1000 others on 30 of the meander lobes in 1996. Nevertheless, Russian olive now outnumbers cottonwood on many sites on the Milk River floodplain because its seeds can be dispersed by wildlife (particularly birds) and probably by flood water and ice rafts; seeds are viable for up to 3 years and germination can take place on bare and well-vegetated soils; and saplings and trees are less palatable to livestock and beaver than plains cottonwood. Without control, Russian olive could be locally dominant on the Milk River floodplain in all age classes within 10 years and replace plains cottonwood within this century.

  2. Activity and bacterial diversity of snow around Russian Antarctic stations.

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Anna; Krylenkov, Vjacheslav; Severinov, Konstantin

    2013-11-01

    The diversity and temporal dynamics of bacterial communities in pristine snow around two Russian Antarctic stations was investigated. Taxonomic analysis of rDNA libraries revealed that snow communities were dominated by bacteria from a small number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that underwent dramatic swings in abundance between the 54th (2008-2009) and 55th (2009-2010) Russian Antarctic expeditions. Moreover, analysis of the 55th expedition samples indicated that there was very little, if any, correspondence in abundance of clones belonging to the same OTU present in rDNA and rRNA libraries. The latter result suggests that most rDNA clones originate from bacteria that are not alive and/or active and may have been deposited on the snow surface from the atmosphere. In contrast, clones most abundant in rRNA libraries (mostly belonging to Variovorax, Janthinobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Sphingomonas genera) may be considered as endogenous Antarctic snow inhabitants.

  3. Characterizing changes in streamflow under historical and current climates for the Russian River, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, J.; Flint, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    Precipitation in California is naturally more variable than elsewhere in the United States, and climate change is expected to increase the frequency and severity of precipitation and streamflow anomalies. As part of a larger effort to assess flow conditions under historical, current, and future climates, we characterized the change in the Russian River's mainstem flows between two 30-year periods that represent historical (1951 to 1980) and current (1981 to 2010) climate conditions. Analyses included measured data from one mainstem gage (Ukiah) that represents natural flow conditions, and three mainstem gages (Hopland, Healdsburg, and Guerneville) regulated by diversion into the Russian River from the adjacent Eel River and by reservoir storage. Analysis of natural flows at the Ukiah gage under the current climate indicates statistically significant increases in low flow metrics that include: median monthly flows from July to October; number of zero flow days; and 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, 30- and 90-day minimum flows. In contrast to the Ukiah gage, decreases in low flows under the current climate at the three regulated-streamflow gages varied with distance downstream. Statistically significant declines in median monthly flows occurred during the second period (1981-2010) from August to November at Hopland, September to November at Healdsburg and in October at Guerneville. Although mean annual flow declined at all four gages during the second period and median monthly low flows declined at the downstream gages, median monthly low flows and minimum flows at the Ukiah gage which represents natural flows increased during the driest months (July to October). Results from this study will be used to support ecological studies and water resource planning within the Russian River watershed. The relative importance of climate and watershed response on the quality and quantity of streamflow under historical and current climates will be assessed and results compared to analyses of

  4. Water-Quality Data for the Lower Russian River Basin, Sonoma County, California, 2003-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anders, Robert; Davidek, Karl; Koczot, Kathryn M.

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sonoma County Water Agency, began a study to determine the chemical, microbiological, and isotopic composition of the surface water and ground water in selected areas of the Lower Russian River Basin, Sonoma County, California. This report is a compilation of the hydrologic and water-quality data collected from 10 Russian River sites, 1 gravel-terrace pit site, 12 ground-water sites, 11 tributary sites including Mark West Creek, and 2 estuary sites between the city of Healdsburg and the Pacific Ocean, for the period August 2003 to September 2004. Field measurements made included streamflow, barometric pressure, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and turbidity. Water samples were analyzed for nutrients, major ions, total and dissolved organic carbon, trace elements, mercury, wastewater compounds, total coliform, Escherichia coli, Enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, and the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Discharge measurements and sampling techniques were modified to accommodate the very low summer flows at most of the tributaries, and discharge measurements were made with an acoustic Doppler velocity meter at the estuary river site to overcome the complexities associated with tidal influences.

  5. Russian Folktales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Anne

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of Russian folktales suggests a structured approach to introducing the characters, settings, and motifs in an elementary classroom. Highlights include beginner-level texts; connections to Russian culture; writing connections; activities; and an annotated bibliography of 32 titles. (LRW)

  6. A Scalable Water Balance Model Within the Russian River, California, Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, J. R.

    2007-12-01

    The availability of long term hydrologic data sets provides opportunities for quantifying hydrologic variability and examining evidence for changing conditions following land surface alterations and climate change. The Russian River basin in California is typical of many watersheds on the fringe of expanding metropolitan regions with competing demands for water from municipal, agricultural, recreational, and environmental constituencies. The Russian River basin is convenient for analysis because there is limited water imported and exported. One of the major challenges faced by water resources engineers within this basin is to understand the conditions necessary for the restoration of salmon and steelhead trout that have life cycles dependent upon migrations between the upper reaches of the watershed and the Pacific Ocean. The amount, timing and duration of surface water flows are frequently cited as some of the key factors controlling fishery health and recovery. The Russian River basin has numerous long-term data sets on flow, precipitation and water quality measures that have been gathered into a data cube for analysis and synthesis. Results to date have focused on comparing annual water balances for sub-watersheds that span over an order of magnitude in area. The data reveal a simple scalable relationship that annual runoff depth equals annual precipitation minus approximately 450 mm of water. This 450 mm of annual water demand represents a basin-wide integration of soil and groundwater dynamics and transpiration by vegetation. There is little evidence of human alteration of this relationship over a 60 year record. This scalable relationship is used to investigate how runoff from the basin would respond to changes in annual precipitation.

  7. Fitting sediment rating curves using regression analysis: a case study of Russian Arctic rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tananaev, N. I.

    2015-03-01

    Published suspended sediment data for Arctic rivers is scarce. Suspended sediment rating curves for three medium to large rivers of the Russian Arctic were obtained using various curve-fitting techniques. Due to the biased sampling strategy, the raw datasets do not exhibit log-normal distribution, which restricts the applicability of a log-transformed linear fit. Non-linear (power) model coefficients were estimated using the Levenberg-Marquardt, Nelder-Mead and Hooke-Jeeves algorithms, all of which generally showed close agreement. A non-linear power model employing the Levenberg-Marquardt parameter evaluation algorithm was identified as an optimal statistical solution of the problem. Long-term annual suspended sediment loads estimated using the non-linear power model are, in general, consistent with previously published results.

  8. Seasonal variation in sediment transport on the Russian River shelf, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, D.E.; Cacchione, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Near-bottom currents, light transmission and scattering, and bottom pressure were measured with GEOPROBE tripods and vector-averaging current meters during June 1979 to April 1980 on the central shelf 10 km west of the Russian River, California. The instruments were located on the mid-shelf mud belt composed of bimodal sandy clayey silts contributed principally by the Russian River. During the summer season of persistent northwesterly, upwelling-favorable winds, the average and maximum current speeds 5 m above the bottom were 11 and 31 cm s-1, respectively. The mean (subtidal) flow at 5 m above bottom was poleward and slightly offshore at about 6 cm s-1. The strongest wave-generated bottom currents were about 10 cm s-1, but oscillatory velocities > 5 cm s-1 were infrequent. Suspended-matter concentrations, derived from the optical data at 1.9 m above the bottom, ranged from 1 to 6 mg l-1. The optical data show that the currents and waves were generally below threshold levels for sediment erosion through the summer. In contrast, during the autumn and, particularly, the winter months, the average and maximum concentrations of suspended matter increased substantially. The increases were primarily caused by larger waves from distant storms and short intervals of strong currents associated with local storms and, secondarily, by the large seasonal flow of the Russian River. Wind-driven and wave-generated bottom currents were as large as 37 and 45 cm s-1, respectively, during local storms in December 1979 and February 1980. Suspended-matter concentrations averaged about 7 mg l-1 during non-storm winter periods, but increased to nearly 150 mg l-1 during a December storm. Estimates of suspended-matter flux near the bottom show that the local winter storms, which had a combined duration of about 12 days, could account for 30 to 50% of the total annual suspended-sediment transport at the mid-shelf site. Although intervals of large swell were at times superimposed on southward

  9. Cold region river discharge uncertainty—estimates from large Russian rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, Alexander I.; Yakovleva, Tatyana I.; Lammers, Richard B.; Karasev, Iosiph Ph.; Vörösmarty, Charles. J.; Linder, Ernst

    2006-07-01

    We develop an error model to understand the reliability and accuracy of river discharge datasets that are now being used for a variety of important global change questions. The developed error model for cold region river discharge uses standard hydrometric data along with information on the frequency and precision of measurements, characteristics of river channel capacity, and method of discharge computation. The uncertainties of daily, monthly and annual discharge data for the downstream gauges of the six largest Eurasian rivers (Severnaya Dvina, Pechora, Ob', Yenisei, Lena and Kolyma) in the pan-Arctic drainage along with uncertainty of aggregated annual time series are evaluated using the suggested methodology. The study shows that uncertainties associated with discharge determination significantly change from year to year and strongly depend on the computational methods used and frequency of discharge measurements. Recent work by Peterson et al. (2002) has shown increases in river discharge to the Arctic Ocean of the six largest Eurasian rivers of 7% from 1936 to 1999. This paper focuses on determination of reliability in the discharge data which provided such conclusion. The obtained results further confirm the findings of Peterson et al. (2002) concerning the rise in river discharge. We found that errors of the total annual discharge for the six rivers over the period 1950-2000 are in the range 1.5-3.5%. The long-term trend of the observed discharge from these six rivers into the Arctic Ocean for 1936-2000, along with uncertainty associated with discharge data, is 2.0±0.4 km 3/year.

  10. The declining prevalence of overweight among Russian children: income, diet, and physical activity behavior changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Household income has been shown to be positively associated with overweight among post-Soviet Russian adults. The aim of this study is to examine the relationships among income, diet, physical activity behaviors and overweight among Russian children during a period of economic upheaval. Subjects inc...

  11. [The activities of the Russian Society of Red Cross during the First World War].

    PubMed

    Gorelova, L Ye; Rudoiy, N A

    2013-01-01

    During the First World War, the Russian Society of Red Cross used experience of previous wars expanded its activities. The medical service functioned in the conditions of cruel war. For the first time in history, the weapon of mass destruction was applied The merit of the Russian society of Red Cross was development of specialized medical care.

  12. Activity of the Russian Federation on the Space Debris Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loginov, S.; Yakovlev, M.; Mikhailov, M.; Garlov, A.; Feldstein, V.; Oleynikov, I.; Makarov, Y.; Bulynin, Y.; Trushlyakov, V.

    2013-08-01

    Research of space debris problems in the Russian Federation is carried out in following aspects 1) observation, 2) modelling, 3) protection and 4) mitigation. The Russian Federation is devoted to the international efforts on space debris problem resolution and is already implementing practical steps on space debris mitigation on a voluntary basis within its own national mechanisms taking into account the COPUOS UN and IADC Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines.

  13. Ontogenetic behavior and migration of Volga River Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, with a note on adaptive significance of body color

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Zhuang, P.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Z.

    2002-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments with Volga River Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, to develop a conceptual model of early behavior. We daily observed fish from day-0 (embryos, first life interval after hatching) to day-29 feeding larvae for preference of bright habitat and cover, swimming distance above the bottom, up- and downstream movement, and diel activity. Hatchling embryos initiated a downstream migration, which suggests that predation risk of embryos at spawning sites is high. Migration peaked on days 0-5 and ceased on day 7 (8-day migration). Migrants preferred bright, open habitat and early migrants swam-up far above the bottom (maximum daily median, 140 cm) in a vertical swim tube. Post-migrant embryos did not prefer bright illumination but continued to prefer white substrate, increased use of cover habitat, and swam on the bottom. Larvae initiated feeding on day 10 after 170.6 cumulative temperature degree-days. Larvae did not migrate, weakly preferred bright illumination, preferred white substrate and open habitat, and swam near the bottom (daily median 5-78 cm). The lack of a strong preference by larvae for bright illumination suggests foraging relies more on olfaction than vision for locating prey. A short migration by embryos would disperse wild sturgeon from a spawning area, but larvae did not migrate, so a second later migration by juveniles disperses young sturgeon to the sea (2-step migration). Embryo and larva body color was light tan and tail color was black. The migration, behavior, and light body color of Russian sturgeon embryos was similar to species of Acipenser and Scaphirhynchus in North America and to Acipenser in Asia that migrate after hatching as embryos. The similarity in migration style and body color among species with diverse phylogenies likely reflects convergence for common adaptations across biogeographic regions. ?? 2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  14. Water-quality data for the Russian River Basin, Mendocino and Sonoma Counties, California, 2005-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anders, Robert; Davidek, Karl; Stoeckel, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    Field measurements included discharge, barometric pressure, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, temperature, and turbidity. All samples were analyzed for nutrients, major ions, trace metals, total and dissolved organic carbon, organic wastewater compounds, standard bacterial indicators, and the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Standard bacterial indicators included total coliform, Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Clostridium perfringens for the period 2005 through 2007, and total and fecal coliform, and enterococci for 2010. In addition, enrichment of enterococci was performed on all surface-water samples collected during summer 2006, for detection of the human-associated enterococcal surface protein in Enterococcus faecium to assess the presence of sewage effluent in the Russian River. Other analyses included organic wastewater compounds of bed sediment samples collected from four Russian River sites during 2005; carbon-13 isotopic values of the dissolved inorganic carbon for surface-water and groundwater samples collected during 2006; human-use pharmaceuticals on Russian River samples collected during 2007 and 2010; and the radiogenic isotopes tritium and carbon-14 for groundwater samples collected during 2008.

  15. Uncertainty Analysis of Radar and Gauge Rainfall Estimates in the Russian River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifelli, R.; Chen, H.; Willie, D.; Reynolds, D.; Campbell, C.; Sukovich, E.

    2013-12-01

    Radar Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (QPE) has been a very important application of weather radar since it was introduced and made widely available after World War II. Although great progress has been made over the last two decades, it is still a challenging process especially in regions of complex terrain such as the western U.S. It is also extremely difficult to make direct use of radar precipitation data in quantitative hydrologic forecasting models. To improve the understanding of rainfall estimation and distributions in the NOAA Hydrometeorology Testbed in northern California (HMT-West), extensive evaluation of radar and gauge QPE products has been performed using a set of independent rain gauge data. This study focuses on the rainfall evaluation in the Russian River Basin. The statistical properties of the different gridded QPE products will be compared quantitatively. The main emphasis of this study will be on the analysis of uncertainties of the radar and gauge rainfall products that are subject to various sources of error. The spatial variation analysis of the radar estimates is performed by measuring the statistical distribution of the radar base data such as reflectivity and by the comparison with a rain gauge cluster. The application of mean field bias values to the radar rainfall data will also be described. The uncertainty analysis of the gauge rainfall will be focused on the comparison of traditional kriging and conditional bias penalized kriging (Seo 2012) methods. This comparison is performed with the retrospective Multisensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) system installed at the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory. The independent gauge set will again be used as the verification tool for the newly generated rainfall products.

  16. Russians as People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Wright

    This analysis of the Russian character in various aspects of Soviet society in its daily activities focuses on the cultural rather than the political. Included in the study are sections on: (1) hibernation and awakening; (2) the Russian scene; (3) being a Russian; (4) Russian society--mass and minority; (5) manners, morals, and taste; and (6)…

  17. Geology and ground water in Russian River Valley areas and in Round, Laytonville, and Little Lake Valleys, Sonoma and Mendocino Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardwell, G.T.

    1965-01-01

    This report describes the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground water in seven valley areas along the course of the Russian River in Sonoma and Mendocino Counties, Calif., and in three valleys in the upper drainage reach of the Eel River in Mendocino County. Except for the westward-trending lower Russian River valley, the remaining valley areas along the Russian River (Healdsburg, Alexander, Cloverdale, Sanel, Ukiah, and Potter Valleys) lie in northwest-trending structurally controlled depressions formed in marine rocks of Jurassic and Cretaceous age. The principal aquifer in all the valleys is the alluvium of Recent age, which includes highly permeable channel deposits of gravel and sand. Water for domestic, irrigation, industrial, and other uses is developed by (1) direct diversion from the Russian River and its tributaries, (2) withdrawal of ground water and river water from shallow wells near the river, and (3) withdrawals of ground water from wells in alluvial deposits at varying distances from the river. Surface water in the Russian River and most tributaries is of good chemical quality. The water is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type and contains 75,200 parts per million of dissolved solids. Ground water is also of good chemical quality throughout most of the drainage basin, but the concentration of dissolved solids (100-300 parts per million) is somewhat higher than that in the surface water. Round, Laytonville, and Little Lake Valleys are in central and northern Mendocino County in the drainage basin of the northwestward flowing Eel River. In Round Valley the alluvium of Recent age yields water of good chemical quality in large quantities. Yields are lower and the chemical quality poorer in Laytonville Valley. Ground water in Little Lake Valley is relatively undeveloped. Selected descriptions of wells, drillers' logs, chemical analyses, and hydrographs showing water-level fluctuations are included in the report. Accompanying maps show the

  18. Fractal Dimension of the Hydrographic Pattern of Three Large Rivers in the Mediterranean Morphoclimatic System: Geomorphologic Interpretation of Russian (USA), Ebro (Spain) and Volturno (Italy) Fluvial Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donadio, Carlo; Magdaleno, Fernando; Mazzarella, Adriano; Mathias Kondolf, G.

    2015-07-01

    By applying fractal geometry analysis to the drainage network of three large watercourses in America and Europe, we have calculated for the first time their fractal dimension. The aim is to interpret the geomorphologic characteristics to better understand the morphoevolutionary processes of these fluvial morphotypes; to identify and discriminate geomorphic phenomena responsible for any difference or convergence of a fractal dimension; to classify hydrographic patterns, and finally to compare the fractal degree with some geomorphic-quantitative indexes. The analyzed catchment of Russian (California, USA), Ebro (Spain), and Volturno (Italy) rivers are situated in Mediterranean-climate regions sensu Köppen, but with different geologic context and tectonic styles. Results show fractal dimensions ranging from 1.08 to 1.50. According to the geological setting and geomorphic indexes of these basins, the lower fractal degree indicates a prevailing tectonics, active or not, while the higher degree indicates the stronger erosion processes on inherited landscapes.

  19. Physical activity: exploring views of older Russian-speaking slavic immigrants.

    PubMed

    Purath, Janet; Van Son, Catherine; Corbett, Cynthia F

    2011-01-01

    Many of the 1.3 million Russian-speaking immigrants in the US have chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and depression. They engage in physical activity less often than other groups, and little is known about their views of physical activity. This qualitative study explored physical activity attitudes, beliefs, motivators, and barriers among older Russian-speaking immigrants. In four focus group interviews, 23 participants discussed physical activity. "Movement is life" was a theme throughout all interviews. Walking was the most frequently mentioned activity. Increased energy and decreased pain were described as health benefits. Motivators for physical activity were maintaining function, improved health, and the support of God and family. Barriers included poor health and environmental safety concerns. Participants suggested community walking groups and church-supported programs as useful methods to promote physical activity. Future research includes developing culturally appropriate interventions that utilize physical activity to prevent and manage chronic illness with ethnic minority older adults.

  20. Activities for Teaching Russian and Soviet Studies in the High School. Updated Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Robert A., Ed.; Vaillant, Janet G., Ed.

    These teacher-developed activities help the student to gain a greater awareness of the richness of Russian history and the Soviet past. New materials have been added from the original version and much has been updated. The volume is not a full curriculum but can be integrated into existing study of the world region. The book is divided into five…

  1. Rivers of milk and honey--an exploration of nurturing the self in a Russian context.

    PubMed

    Bortuleva, Elena

    2014-09-01

    This paper is an exploration of the relationship between nurturing in all its contexts--among them, the nursing couple and the therapeutic relationship--and the evolution of an individual self. The ideas are illustrated by a case vignette of a Russian patient. An attempt is made to show that when the self as an integral unity of body and soul is addressed in the analytic setting, 'nutritional dreams' emerge as expressions of the self-in-action. Certain psycholinguistic features of the Russian cultural context are described which suggest a link of meaning between development of the self and secure parenting. This linguistic association may facilitate the process of self-centering. PMID:25155676

  2. Rivers of milk and honey--an exploration of nurturing the self in a Russian context.

    PubMed

    Bortuleva, Elena

    2014-09-01

    This paper is an exploration of the relationship between nurturing in all its contexts--among them, the nursing couple and the therapeutic relationship--and the evolution of an individual self. The ideas are illustrated by a case vignette of a Russian patient. An attempt is made to show that when the self as an integral unity of body and soul is addressed in the analytic setting, 'nutritional dreams' emerge as expressions of the self-in-action. Certain psycholinguistic features of the Russian cultural context are described which suggest a link of meaning between development of the self and secure parenting. This linguistic association may facilitate the process of self-centering.

  3. Ferroaxinites from the Feather River area, northern California, and from the McGrath and Russian Mission quadrangles, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hietanen, Anna; Erd, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    In the Feather River area, California, and in the McGrath quadrangle, Alaska, axinite-bearing veins occur as fracture fillings along or near the fault zones, suggesting that boron was introduced along the fractures. An unusual occurrence of axinite as a possible primary constituent of a plutonic rock is in the Russian Mission quadrangle, Alaska. The four analyzed axinites from these widely different localities and from different host rocks are surprisingly similar in chemistry and optics. All are ferroaxinites, having high iron and low manganese and magnesium contents. The number of calcium ions is very close to two, which is in agreement with the idealized formula Ca2 (Fe,Mn,Mg)Al2BSi4O15(OH). The indices of refraction increase slightly with increasing FeO:MgO ratio over the small range studied.

  4. Questions and Answers for Ken Thomas' "Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Russian and Gemini Spacesuits" Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Kenneth Thomas will discuss the Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Russian & Gemini spacesuits. While the United States and Russia adapted to existing launch- and reentry-type suits to allow the first human ventures into the vacuum of space, there were differences in execution and capabilities. Mr. Thomas will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this approach compared to exclusively intravehicular or extra-vehicular suit systems.

  5. Human activities impact on mountain river channels (case study of Kamchatka peninsula rivers)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakova, Aleksandra S.

    2010-05-01

    Human-induced driving factors along with natural environmental changes greatly impact on fluvial regime of rivers. On mountain and semi-mountain territories these processes are developed in the most complicated manner due to man-made activities diversity throughout river basins. Besides these processes are significantly enhanced because of the disastrous natural processes (like volcanic and mud-flow activity) frequent occurrences in mountainous regions. On of the most striking example on the matter is Kamchatka peninsula which is located at the North-West part of Russian Federation. This paper contributes to the study of human activities impact on fluvial systems in this volcanic mountain region. Human effects on rivers directly alter channel morphology and deformations, dynamics of water and sediment movement, aquatic communities or indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water and sediment into the channel. In case study of Kamchatka peninsula human activities affect fluvial systems through engineering works including construction of bridges, dams and channel diversions and placer mining. These processes are characterized by spatial heterogeneity because of irregular population distribution. Due to specific natural conditions of the peninsula the most populated areas are the valleys of big rivers (rivers Kamchatka, Avacha, Bistraya (Bolshaya), etc) within piedmont and plain regions. These rivers are characterized by very unstable channels. Both with man-made activities this determines wide range of fluvial system changes. Firstly bridges construction leads to island and logjam formation directly near their piers and intensification of channels patterns shifts. Furthermore rivers of the peninsula are distinguished for high water flow velocities and water rate. Incorrect bridge constructions both with significant channel deformations lead to the destructions of the bridges themselves due to intensive bank erosion. Secondly, intensive water flow

  6. Physical Activity: Exploring Views of Older Russian-Speaking Slavic Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Purath, Janet; Van Son, Catherine; Corbett, Cynthia F.

    2011-01-01

    Many of the 1.3 million Russian-speaking immigrants in the US have chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and depression. They engage in physical activity less often than other groups, and little is known about their views of physical activity. This qualitative study explored physical activity attitudes, beliefs, motivators, and barriers among older Russian-speaking immigrants. In four focus group interviews, 23 participants discussed physical activity. “Movement is life” was a theme throughout all interviews. Walking was the most frequently mentioned activity. Increased energy and decreased pain were described as health benefits. Motivators for physical activity were maintaining function, improved health, and the support of God and family. Barriers included poor health and environmental safety concerns. Participants suggested community walking groups and church-supported programs as useful methods to promote physical activity. Future research includes developing culturally appropriate interventions that utilize physical activity to prevent and manage chronic illness with ethnic minority older adults. PMID:22135733

  7. Use of carboxylated microspheres to assess transport potential of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts at the Russian River water supply facility, Sonoma County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metge, D.W.; Harvey, R.W.; Anders, R.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Seymour, D.; Jasperse, J.

    2007-01-01

    Carboxylated microspheres were employed as surrogates to assess the transport potential of Cryptosporidium parvumoocysts during forced- and natural-gradient tests conducted in July and October 2004. The tests involved poorly-sorted, near-surface sediments where groundwater is pumped from an alluvial aquifer underlying the Russian River, Sonoma County, CA. In an off channel infiltration basin and within the river, a mixture (2-, 3-, and 5- ??m diameters) of fluorescently-labeled carboxylated microspheres and bromide tracers were used in two injection and recovery test to assess sediment removal efficiency for the microspheres. Bottom sediments varied considerably in their filtration efficiency for Cryptosporidium.

  8. Heat as a Tracer to Examine Hydraulic Conductance Near the RussianRiver Bank Filtration Facility, Sonoma County, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Constantz, Jim; Su, Grace; Hatch, Christine

    2004-08-01

    Both the measurement of temperature and the simulation of heat and water transport have benefited from significant recent advances in data acquisition and computer resources. This has afforded the opportunity for routine use of heat as a tracer in a variety of hydrological regimes. Heat is particularly well suited for investigations of stream/groundwater exchanges. Dynamic temperature patterns between the stream and underlying sediments are typical, due to large stream surface area to volume ratios relative to other surface water bodies. Heat is a naturally occurring tracer, free from (real or perceived) issues of contamination associated with use of chemical tracers in stream environments. The use of heat as a tracer relies on the measurement of temperature gradients, and temperature is an extremely robust parameter to monitor. Temperature data is immediately available as opposed to chemical tracers, which often require significant laboratory analysis. In this work, we report on the progress in the use of heat as a tracer to determine the hydraulic conductance of the streambed along the middle reaches of the Russian River, located west of Santa Rosa, CA. The general hydrological setting is described and the unique matter in which the water resources are managed in an environment of increasing population, a rapid shift to agricultural crops requiring more irrigation, and a series of fishery related mandates.

  9. Typology of historical sources and the reconstruction of long-term historical changes of riverine fish: a case study of the Austrian Danube and northern Russian rivers.

    PubMed

    Haidvogl, Gertrud; Lajus, Dmitry; Pont, Didier; Schmid, Martin; Jungwirth, Mathias; Lajus, Julia

    2014-10-01

    Historical data are widely used in river ecology to define reference conditions or to investigate the evolution of aquatic systems. Most studies rely on printed documents from the 19th century, thus missing pre-industrial states and human impacts. This article discusses historical sources that can be used to reconstruct the development of riverine fish communities from the Late Middle Ages until the mid-20th century. Based on the studies of the Austrian Danube and northern Russian rivers, we propose a classification scheme of printed and archival sources and describe their fish ecological contents. Five types of sources were identified using the origin of sources as the first criterion: (i) early scientific surveys, (ii) fishery sources, (iii) fish trading sources, (iv) fish consumption sources and (v) cultural representations of fish. Except for early scientific surveys, all these sources were produced within economic and administrative contexts. They did not aim to report about historical fish communities, but do contain information about commercial fish and their exploitation. All historical data need further analysis for a fish ecological interpretation. Three case studies from the investigated Austrian and Russian rivers demonstrate the use of different source types and underline the necessity for a combination of different sources and a methodology combining different disciplinary approaches. Using a large variety of historical sources to reconstruct the development of past fish ecological conditions can support future river management by going beyond the usual approach of static historical reference conditions.

  10. Typology of historical sources and the reconstruction of long-term historical changes of riverine fish: a case study of the Austrian Danube and northern Russian rivers.

    PubMed

    Haidvogl, Gertrud; Lajus, Dmitry; Pont, Didier; Schmid, Martin; Jungwirth, Mathias; Lajus, Julia

    2014-10-01

    Historical data are widely used in river ecology to define reference conditions or to investigate the evolution of aquatic systems. Most studies rely on printed documents from the 19th century, thus missing pre-industrial states and human impacts. This article discusses historical sources that can be used to reconstruct the development of riverine fish communities from the Late Middle Ages until the mid-20th century. Based on the studies of the Austrian Danube and northern Russian rivers, we propose a classification scheme of printed and archival sources and describe their fish ecological contents. Five types of sources were identified using the origin of sources as the first criterion: (i) early scientific surveys, (ii) fishery sources, (iii) fish trading sources, (iv) fish consumption sources and (v) cultural representations of fish. Except for early scientific surveys, all these sources were produced within economic and administrative contexts. They did not aim to report about historical fish communities, but do contain information about commercial fish and their exploitation. All historical data need further analysis for a fish ecological interpretation. Three case studies from the investigated Austrian and Russian rivers demonstrate the use of different source types and underline the necessity for a combination of different sources and a methodology combining different disciplinary approaches. Using a large variety of historical sources to reconstruct the development of past fish ecological conditions can support future river management by going beyond the usual approach of static historical reference conditions. PMID:25284959

  11. Typology of historical sources and the reconstruction of long-term historical changes of riverine fish: a case study of the Austrian Danube and northern Russian rivers

    PubMed Central

    Haidvogl, Gertrud; Lajus, Dmitry; Pont, Didier; Schmid, Martin; Jungwirth, Mathias; Lajus, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Historical data are widely used in river ecology to define reference conditions or to investigate the evolution of aquatic systems. Most studies rely on printed documents from the 19th century, thus missing pre-industrial states and human impacts. This article discusses historical sources that can be used to reconstruct the development of riverine fish communities from the Late Middle Ages until the mid-20th century. Based on the studies of the Austrian Danube and northern Russian rivers, we propose a classification scheme of printed and archival sources and describe their fish ecological contents. Five types of sources were identified using the origin of sources as the first criterion: (i) early scientific surveys, (ii) fishery sources, (iii) fish trading sources, (iv) fish consumption sources and (v) cultural representations of fish. Except for early scientific surveys, all these sources were produced within economic and administrative contexts. They did not aim to report about historical fish communities, but do contain information about commercial fish and their exploitation. All historical data need further analysis for a fish ecological interpretation. Three case studies from the investigated Austrian and Russian rivers demonstrate the use of different source types and underline the necessity for a combination of different sources and a methodology combining different disciplinary approaches. Using a large variety of historical sources to reconstruct the development of past fish ecological conditions can support future river management by going beyond the usual approach of static historical reference conditions. PMID:25284959

  12. Applying GOES-derived fog frequency indices to water balance modeling for the Russian River Watershed, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torregrosa, A.; Flint, L. E.; Flint, A. L.; Peters, J.; Combs, C.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal fog modifies the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic properties of California watersheds with the greatest impact to ecosystem functioning during arid summer months. Lowered maximum temperatures resulting from inland penetration of marine fog are probably adequate to capture fog effects on thermal land surface characteristics however the hydrologic impact from lowered rates of evapotranspiration due to shade, fog drip, increased relative humidity, and other factors associated with fog events are more difficult to gauge. Fog products, such as those derived from National Weather Service Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imagery, provide high frequency (up to 15 min) views of fog and low cloud cover and can potentially improve water balance models. Even slight improvements in water balance calculations can benefit urban water managers and agricultural irrigation. The high frequency of GOES output provides the opportunity to explore options for integrating fog frequency data into water balance models. This pilot project compares GOES-derived fog frequency intervals (6, 12 and 24 hour) to explore the most useful for water balance models and to develop model-relevant relationships between climatic and water balance variables. Seasonal diurnal thermal differences, plant ecophysiological processes, and phenology suggest that a day/night differentiation on a monthly basis may be adequate. To explore this hypothesis, we examined discharge data from stream gages and outputs from the USGS Basin Characterization Model for runoff, recharge, potential evapotranspiration, and actual evapotranspiration for the Russian River Watershed under low, medium, and high fog event conditions derived from hourly GOES imagery (1999-2009). We also differentiated fog events into daytime and nighttime versus a 24-hour compilation on a daily, monthly, and seasonal basis. Our data suggest that a daily time-step is required to adequately incorporate the hydrologic effect of

  13. A Russian record of a Middle Ordovician meteorite shower: Extraterrestrial chromite at Lynna River, St. Petersburg region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindskog, Anders; Schmitz, Birger; Cronholm, Anders; Dronov, Andrei

    2012-08-01

    Numerous fossil meteorites and high concentrations of sediment-dispersed extraterrestrial chromite (EC) grains with ordinary chondritic composition have previously been documented from 467 ± 1.6 Ma Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) strata. These finds probably reflect a temporarily enhanced influx of L-chondritic matter, following the disruption of the L-chondrite parent body in the asteroid belt 470 ± 6 Ma. In this study, a Volkhovian-Kundan limestone/marl succession at Lynna River, northwestern Russia, has been searched for EC grains (>63 μm). Eight samples, forming two separate sample sets, were collected. Five samples from strata around the Asaphus expansus-A. raniceps trilobite Zone boundary, in the lower-middle Kundan, yielded a total of 496 EC grains in 65.5 kg of rock (average 7.6 EC grains kg-1, but up to 10.2 grains kg-1). These are extremely high concentrations, three orders of magnitude higher than "background" levels in similar condensed sediment from other periods. EC grains are typically about 50 times more abundant than terrestrial chrome spinel in the samples and about as common as terrestrial ilmenite. Three stratigraphically lower lying samples, close to the A. lepidurus-A. expansus trilobite Zone boundary, at the Volkhov-Kunda boundary, yielded only two EC grains in 38.2 kg of rock (0.05 grains kg-1). The lack of commonly occurring EC grains in the lower interval probably reflects that these strata formed before the disruption of the L-chondrite parent body. The great similarity in EC chemical composition between this and other comparable studies indicates that all or most EC grains in these Russian mid-Ordovician strata share a common source--the L-chondrite parent body.

  14. ALWAYS A RIVER - ACTIVITY BOOKLET

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cincinnati has the privilege of being a part of a very special celebration this summer. We are one of several cities that will welcome a floating barge exhibition entitled "Always a River", between July 15 and 22,1991. Once aboard the barge you will enter the magic and mystery ...

  15. Liaison activities with the Institute of Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences: FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, C.H.; Elovich, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    The Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences is conducting a program of fundamental and applied research into the chemistry of the actinides and technetium in alkaline media such as are present in the Hanford Site underground waste storage tanks. This work is being coordinated and the results disseminated through a technical liaison maintained at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The technical liaison is performing laboratory studies on plutonium chemistry in alkaline media. The activities at the Institute of Physical Chemistry and through the liaison are pursued to improve understanding of the chemical behavior of key long-lived radioactive elements under current operating and proposed tank waste processing conditions. Both activities are supported by the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program under the Office of Science and Technology of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. Water temperature, streamflow, and ground-water elevation in and adjacent to the Russian river between Hopland and Guerneville, California from 1998-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Marisa H.; Hatch, Christine

    2003-01-01

    Temperature, water level elevation, stage height, and river discharge data for this report were collected in and adjacent to the Russian River from Hopland to Guerneville, CA over a four-year period from 1998 to 2002 to establish baselines for long-term water quality, water supply and habitat. Data files presented in this report were collected by the USGS and the Sonoma County Water Agency's Engineering Resource and Planning, and Natural Resource Divisions. Temperature data were collected in single-channel submersible microloggers or temperature data were collected simultaneously with water-elevation data in dual-channel down-hole data loggers. Stream stage and streamflow data were collected at USGS stream gaging stations located near Hopland, Healdsburg, and Guerneville over a 130 km reach of the Russian River. During the period of record stream flow ranged from 3 to 1458 m3/s. Stream temperature ranged from 8 to 29 oC while groundwater temperature ranged from 10 to 38 oC. Stream stage varied 5 m seasonly, while ground-water level varied 19 m over the same time scale.

  17. Activity Theories and the Ontology of Psychology: Learning from Danish and Russian Experiences.

    PubMed

    Mammen, Jens; Mironenko, Irina

    2015-12-01

    Psychology has permanent problems of theoretical coherence and practical, analytic and critical efficiency. It is claimed that Activity Theory (AT) with roots in a long European philosophical tradition and continued in Russian AT is a first step to remedy this. A Danish version of AT may have a key to exceed some, mostly implicit, ontological restrictions in traditional AT and free it from an embracement of functionalism and mechanicism, rooted in Renaissance Physics. The analysis goes back to Aristotle's understanding of the freely moving animal in its ecology and introduces some dualities in the encounter between subject and object which replace the dualistic dichotomies traditionally splitting Psychology in Naturwissenschaft vs. Geisteswissenshaft. This also implies a "Copernican turn" of Cartesian dualism. The perspectives are to give place for a phenomenology of meaning without cutting human psyche out of Nature and to open Psychology to its domain.

  18. Activity Theories and the Ontology of Psychology: Learning from Danish and Russian Experiences.

    PubMed

    Mammen, Jens; Mironenko, Irina

    2015-12-01

    Psychology has permanent problems of theoretical coherence and practical, analytic and critical efficiency. It is claimed that Activity Theory (AT) with roots in a long European philosophical tradition and continued in Russian AT is a first step to remedy this. A Danish version of AT may have a key to exceed some, mostly implicit, ontological restrictions in traditional AT and free it from an embracement of functionalism and mechanicism, rooted in Renaissance Physics. The analysis goes back to Aristotle's understanding of the freely moving animal in its ecology and introduces some dualities in the encounter between subject and object which replace the dualistic dichotomies traditionally splitting Psychology in Naturwissenschaft vs. Geisteswissenshaft. This also implies a "Copernican turn" of Cartesian dualism. The perspectives are to give place for a phenomenology of meaning without cutting human psyche out of Nature and to open Psychology to its domain. PMID:26001990

  19. Geomagnetic activity during 10 - 11 solar cycles that has been observed by old Russian observatories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seredyn, Tomasz; Wysokinski, Arkadiusz; Kobylinski, Zbigniew; Bialy, Jerzy

    2016-07-01

    A good knowledge of solar-terrestrial relations during past solar activity cycles could give the appropriate tools for a correct space weather forecast. The paper focuses on the analysis of the historical collections of the ground based magnetic observations and their operational indices from the period of two sunspot solar cycles 10 - 11, period 1856 - 1878 (Bartels rotations 324 - 635). We use hourly observations of H and D geomagnetic field components registered at Russian stations: St. Petersburg - Pavlovsk, Barnaul, Ekaterinburg, Nertshinsk, Sitka, and compare them to the data obtained from the Helsinki observatory. We compare directly these records and also calculated from the data of the every above mentioned station IHV indices introduced by Svalgaard (2003), which have been used for further comparisons in epochs of assumed different polarity of the heliospheric magnetic field. We used also local index C9 derived by Zosimovich (1981) from St. Petersburg - Pavlovsk data. Solar activity is represented by sunspot numbers. The correlative and continuous wavelet analyses are applied for estimation of the correctness of records from different magnetic stations. We have specially regard to magnetic storms in the investigated period and the special Carrington event of 1-2 Sep 1859. Generally studied magnetic time series correctly show variability of the geomagnetic activity. Geomagnetic activity presents some delay in relation to solar one as it is seen especially during descending and minimum phase of the even 11-year cycle. This pattern looks similarly in the case of 16 - 17 solar cycles.

  20. Trace metals in estuaries in the Russian Far East and China: case studies from the Amur River and the Changjiang.

    PubMed

    Shulkin, Vladimir; Zhang, Jing

    2014-11-15

    This paper compares the distributions of dissolved and particulate forms of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the estuaries of the largest rivers in East Asia: the Amur River and the Changjiang (Yangtze River). High suspended solid concentrations, elevated pH, and relatively low dissolved trace metal concentrations are characteristics of the Changjiang. Elevated dissolved Fe and Mn concentrations, neutral pH, and relatively low suspended solid concentrations are characteristics of the Amur River. The transfer of dissolved Fe to suspended forms is typical in the Amur River estuary, though Cd and Mn tend to mobilize to solution, and Cu and Ni are diluted in the estuarine system. Metal concentrations in suspended matter in the Amur River estuary are controlled by the ratio of terrigenous riverine material, enriched in Al and Fe, and marine biogenic particles, enriched in Cu, Mn, Cd, and in some cases Ni. The increase in dissolved forms of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb compared with river end-member is unique to the Changjiang estuary. Particle-solution interactions are not reflected in bulk suspended-solid metal concentrations in the Changjiang estuary due to the dominance of particulate forms of these metals. Cd is an exception in the Changjiang estuary, where the increase in dissolved Cd is of comparable magnitude to the decrease in particulate Cd. Despite runoff in the Amur River being lower than that in the Changjiang, the fluxes of dissolved Mn, Zn and Fe in the Amur River exceed those in the Changjiang. Dissolved Ni, and Cd fluxes are near equal in both estuaries, but dissolved Cu is lower in the Amur River estuary. The hydrological and physico-chemical river characteristics are dominated at the assessment of river influence on the adjoining coastal sea areas despite differences in estuarine processes.

  1. [Prospective planning of activity of the Medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation for 2016-2020].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ya; Kalachev, O V; Redkin, E E; Bershev, M A; Murzo, A V

    2016-04-01

    The article reflects the characteristics of the Plan of activities of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation for 2016-2020--an important long-term planning document of the Armed Forces. It stressed the need for synchronization of activities for chain of command and deadline. Presented structure of the Medical Service Plan Military District operations (fleet) military medical organization. The attention is focused on the content of its sections. For example, a military hospital layouts presented an action plan and a schedule of events. Reflecting the requirements of the Minister of Defense for the development and adjustment plans, indicators of their performance. PMID:27416714

  2. [Prospective planning of activity of the Medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation for 2016-2020].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ya; Kalachev, O V; Redkin, E E; Bershev, M A; Murzo, A V

    2016-04-01

    The article reflects the characteristics of the Plan of activities of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation for 2016-2020--an important long-term planning document of the Armed Forces. It stressed the need for synchronization of activities for chain of command and deadline. Presented structure of the Medical Service Plan Military District operations (fleet) military medical organization. The attention is focused on the content of its sections. For example, a military hospital layouts presented an action plan and a schedule of events. Reflecting the requirements of the Minister of Defense for the development and adjustment plans, indicators of their performance.

  3. Microbial activity and biogeochemical cycling in first-order Russian Arctic streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoades, R. E.; Lynch, L. M.; Ortega, J. C.; Holmes, R. M.; Mann, P. J.; Vonk, J. E.; Schade, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Global climate change is strongly impacting Arctic ecosystems and is predicted to lead to thawing of permafrost soils. These soils are rich in organic matter and other nutrients and influence biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Small arctic streams are likely to be the first aquatic ecosystems to receive materials exported as soils warm. These first-order streams are characterized by strong interactions between the water column and stream bottom and have the potential to affect nutrient flux. Previous studies suggest that phosphorous availability limits biological productivity in many first-order arctic streams, however, they remain understudied, particularly in the Russian Arctic. Our objective was to assess microbial activity and biogeochemical cycling among arctic streams. We used three approaches to meet our objectives, including a survey of 9 streams, intensive longitudinal sampling in 5 streams, and nutrient pulse addition experiments in 4 streams, designed to assess the potential for limitation by N or P. We measured pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, NH4, SRP, DOC, and TDN at all sampling sites. We also conducted biological oxygen demand (BOD) incubations designed to assess DOC lability, and correlated these measurements with background nutrient concentrations. We found a strong positive linear correlation between BOD and phosphate concentration, suggesting P limitation of production and/or consumption of labile DOC. To complement ambient stream measurements, we conducted whole stream nutrient addition experiments to calculate N and P uptake lengths, which we then used to infer whether N or P is more likely to limit biological processes, and the degree of coupling between N and P cycling. Results from the nutrient addition experiments suggest both N and P limitation among streams depending on stream location and characteristics. In addition, these experiments suggest a significant, but complex interaction between N and P cycles

  4. Late Pleistocene Terraces in River Valleys of the Central Russian Plain: Morphology, Structure and History of Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matlakhova, Ekaterina; Panin, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    Morphology and sedimentary composition of low terraces of the Seim (the middle Dnieper catchment) and Khoper (the middle Don catchment) rivers were studied in the field (DGPS topographic profiling, hand and mechanical coring, examination of natural exposures) and in laboratory (grain size analysis, spore-pollen composition, 14C and OSL dating, microscopic study of quartz grains). Archaeological data have also been taken into account. It was found that Late Pleistocene river terraces were subject to complex reworking after the alluvial sedimentation had finished. Terraces may therefore contain sediments of different origin and terrace levels may vary according to the post-alluvial reworking. To establish terrace sedimentation mechanisms we supplemented lithological data collected in the field with quartz grains morphoscopy technique - microscopic study of quartz grains surfaces. The results exhibit wide participation of aeolian and slope wash sediments in terrace deposits, deep aeolian reworking of terrace alluvium during LGM that could be possible due to ground water lowering because of deep pre-LGM incision of rivers. The main difficulty in interpretation of morphoscopic results is that aeolian signals are sometimes not clear due to short duration of wind action over alluvial sands. River incision was detected within the interval since 50-60 to 25-30 ka BP (cal). High runoff increase is proposed as the reason of this incision, which is illustrated by formation of "big meanders" (macromeanders) in river valleys. There were probably several time spans of high runoff divided by low runoff intervals. By the time of LGM rivers had already been incised down to the modern river levels or deeper. The cryoaridic LGM time (20-23 ka BP cal) makes the most pronounced low runoff interval. After LGM, the last high runoff epoch started, which is dated to 13-18(19) ka BP (cal). Numerous now relict macromeanders were formed in river valleys at that time and considerable portions

  5. Effects of human activities on the ecological processes of river biofilms in a highly urbanized river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, R.; Li, M.

    2013-12-01

    Many anthropogenic disturbances and their effects of aquatic ecosystem are difficult to quantify in urbanized rivers. In past, specific taxa analysis of community structure was a common approach in river health monitoring studies. However, it is still difficult to understand stream ecosystem integrity without considering ecosystem processes. The complex species composition and metabolism of a river biofilm have the capacity to interact and/or modulate their surrounding environment. Because of their short life cycles, species richness, and worldwide distribution, structure and function of river biofilm communities are sensitive to change in environmental conditions. Therefore, biofilms are widely used as early warning systems of water pollution for water quality monitoring studies. In this study, we used river biofilms as a bioindicator by examining their extracellular enzyme activities and photosynthesis efficiency to understand human activities on the ecological processes of river ecosystem in a highly urbanized river. We sampled four sites along the Keelung River, Taiwan, based on different intensities of anthropogenic disturbances including water pollution index, population densities, land use types and types of stream habitats. Two study sites are heavily influenced by human activities and the others are not. The activities of extracellular enzymes within the biofilm play an important function for organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling. We measured seven extracellular enzyme activities (β-d-glucosidase, phosphatase, leucine-aminopeptidase, sulfatase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and esterase) to examine specific enzyme activity changes at four study sites monthly. In addition, relative proportion of each extracellular enzyme activity on total enzyme activities was calculated in order to examine the relationship between functional biofilm profiles and different urban intensities. Among four study sites, leucine-aminopeptidase and esterase

  6. Russian Resource Materials Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Viveca

    This guide provides the teacher of Russian with helpful background material and activities on the geography of the Soviet Union and the history of Russia as well as its customs, traditions, literary selections, songs, foods, and festivals. In addition to these topics, the introductory chapter outlines a philosophy for teaching and learning Russian…

  7. Environmental conditions in the Rudnaya River watershed--a compilation of Soviet and post-Soviet era sampling around a lead smelter in the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Kachur, Anatoly N; Arzhanova, Valentina S; Yelpatyevsky, Pavel V; von Braun, Margrit C; von Lindern, Ian H

    2003-02-15

    The Rudnaya River valley in the Russian Far East contains a rich reserve of lead, zinc and boron and has been mined for nearly 100 years. Environmental contamination related to the area's mines and lead smelter was studied for over 30 years during the Soviet era, by members of the Pacific Geographic Institute (PGI). Due to government restrictions, much of the sampling focused on contamination of the river, the air, forests, vegetation, agricultural products and soil. Source-specific samples, such as stack emissions from the smelter, and blood lead levels from the residents and smelter workers could not be obtained or were classified as State secrets. However, the data do describe the extent and severity of the environmental contamination and related public health concerns. Water discharged from the smelter averages 2900 m(3)/day (containing 100 kg of lead (Pb) and 20 kg of arsenic (As)) and leachate from area mine dumps and other industrial processes contaminates the Rudnaya River. Annual air emissions include 85 tonnes of particulates (containing 50 tonnes of Pb and 0.5 tonnes of As) and 250000 m(3) of gases high in sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)). Vegetative stress is severe and much of this area is denuded. Pb and other metals in agricultural products suggest local produce may be dangerous for human consumption, although it is a major food source for the community. Public and occupational health indicators of basophilic stippling, respiratory disease and hair lead levels further suggest the severity of the problem. Although, descriptions of complete methodologies and procedures are often lacking, these data describe how sampling was conducted during the Soviet era and document a site with severe heavy metals contamination, especially lead, and the likelihood of related public health problems. They are relevant today as investigators employ state-of-the-art-sampling techniques and explore cleanup options under a new

  8. Contrasting lipid biomarker composition of terrestrial organic matter exported from across the Eurasian Arctic by the five great Russian Arctic rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dongen, Bart E.; Semiletov, Igor; Weijers, Johan W. H.; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2008-03-01

    Surface sediments outside the great Russian Arctic rivers (GRARs; Ob, Yenisey, Lena, Indigirka, and Kolyma) were investigated for their lipid biomarker composition to elucidate compositional distinctions of the exported organic matter (OM) across this continent-scale climosequence of the Siberian Arctic. The lipid biomarker composition is dominantly terrestrial (high molecular weight (HMW) n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkanes; branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs), β-sitosterol, other sterols, and triterpenoids) with only minor marine contributions (e.g., the ratio of terrigenous-to-aquatic n-alkanes was 17-80, the TOC/TN ratio was 10-16, and the branched and isoprenoid tetraether (BIT) index >0.88). There is a large contribution of C23 and C25 homologues relative to other long-chained n-alkanes, suggesting substantial contribution of probably Sphagnum-derived OM. The C23 and C25 contribution decreases eastward, signaling either a decrease in the potential contribution of Sphagnum or a shift within the n-alkane distribution of Sphagnum species or increased aeolian input, due to more arid conditions in the east. Other distinctions in molecular OM composition across the climosequence include increased concentrations of both HMW n-alkanoic acids and β-sitosterol relative to HMW n-alkanes in the eastern sediments. This suggests that the OM exported by the eastern GRARs is, despite their higher bulk radiocarbon ages, less degraded, which is consistent with increasing permafrost and a shorter annual thaw period in eastern Siberia. Taken together, this benchmark study of the current composition of terrestrially exported OM suggests distinguishing continent-scale trends in molecular composition of the OM across the west-east set of GRARs, which reflects both differences in vegetation and climate. If the climate in the eastern Russian Arctic region becomes more like the current state in the western part, these results would predict a greater degree of

  9. Growth rate of the preserved continental crust: II. Constraints from Hf and O isotopes in detrital zircons from Greater Russian Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Christina Yan; Campbell, Ian H.; Stepanov, Aleksandr S.; Allen, Charlotte M.; Burtsev, Igor N.

    2011-03-01

    Detrital zircons from the Ob, Yenisey, Lena, Amur, Volga, Dnieper, Don and Pechora rivers have been analyzed for U-Th-Pb, O and Lu-Hf isotopes to constrain the growth rate of the preserved continental crust in Greater Russia. Four major periods of zircon crystallization, 0.1-0.55, 0.95-1.3, 1.45-2.0 and 2.5-2.9 Ga, were resolved from a compilation of 1366 zircon U/Pb ages. The Archean zircons have δ18O values lying between 4.53‰ and 7.33‰, whereas Proterozoic and Phanerozoic zircons have a larger range of δ18O values in each of the recognized U/Pb time intervals with maximum δ18O values up to 12‰. We interpret the zircons with δ18O between 4.5‰ and 6.5‰ to have been derived from a magmatic precursor that contains little or no sedimentary component. The variable δ18O values of the zircons were used to constrain the 176Lu/ 177Hf ratios of the crustal source region of the zircons, which, in turn, were used to calculate Hf model ages (T DMV). The crustal incubation time, the time difference between primitive crust formation (dated by T DMV) and crustal melting (dated by zircon U/Pb age), varies between 300 to 1000 Myr for the majority of analyzed zircon grains, but can be up to 2500 Myr. The average T DMV Hf model age weighted by the fraction of zircons in the river load is 2.12 Ga, which is in reasonable agreement with the area-weighted average of 2.25 Ga. The T DMV Hf model age crustal growth curve for zircons with mantle-like δ18O values (4.5-6.5‰), weighted by area, shows that growth of the Great Russian continental crust started at 4.2 Ga, and that there are two principal periods of crustal growth, 3.6-3.3 Ga and 0.8-0.6 Ga, which are separated by an interval of low but more or less continuous growth. An alternative interpretation, in which the average 176Lu/ 177Hf ratio (0.0115) of the continental crust is used for the Paleoproterozoic zircons from the Lena River, lowers the average T DMV age of these grains by about 500 Myr and delays the onset

  10. Rivers at Risk: An Activity Based Study Guide for the Colorado River Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samples, Bob, Ed.

    This activity guide is intended to increase student awareness and understanding about the Colorado River Basin. Each activity includes objectives, procedures, materials list, related activities, questions for students, and related information. The activities are varied to appeal to a wide range of learning styles and modalities and are…

  11. Liaison activities with the institute of physical chemistry, Russian academy of sciences: FY 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, C.H.

    1996-09-23

    The task ``IPC/RAS Liaison and Tank Waste Testing`` is a program being conducted in fiscal year (FY) 1996 with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology, EM-53 Efficient Separations and Processing (ESP) Crosscutting Program, under the technical task plan RLA6C342. The principal investigator is Cal Delegard of the Westinghouse Hanford Company. The task involves a technical liaison with the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IPC/RAS) and their DOE-supported investigations into the fundamental and applied chemistry of the transuranium elements (primarily neptunium, plutonium, and americium) and technetium in alkaline media. The task has three purposes: 1. Providing technical information and technical direction to the IPC/RAS. 2. Disseminating IPC/RAS data and information to the DOE technical community. 3. Verifying IPC/RAS results through laboratory testing and comparison with published data. This report fulfills the milestone ``Provide End-of-Year Report to Focus Area,`` due September 30, 1996.

  12. Joint U.S./Russian studies of population exposures resulting from nuclear production activities in the southern Urals.

    PubMed

    Napier, Bruce A

    2014-02-01

    of cohorts with their chronic, low dose-rate radiation exposure. The 26,000 workers at Mayak were highly exposed to external gamma and inhaled plutonium. A cohort of individuals raised as children in Ozersk is under evaluation for their exposures to radioiodine. The Techa River Cohort consists of over 30,000 people who were born before the start of exposure in 1949 and lived along the Techa River. The Techa River Offspring Cohort consists of ~21,000 persons born to one or more exposed parents of this group, many who also lived along the contaminated river. The EURT Cohort consists of ~18,000 people who were evacuated from the EURT soon after the 1957 explosion and another 8,000 who remained. These groups together are the focus of dose reconstruction and epidemiological studies funded by the United States, Russia, and the European Union to address the question, "Are doses delivered at low dose rates as effective in producing health effects as the same doses delivered at high dose rates?"Introduction of Joint U.S. and Russian Studies of Population Exposures (Video 2:13, http://links.lww.com/HP/A28).

  13. Joint U.S./Russian studies of population exposures resulting from nuclear production activities in the southern Urals.

    PubMed

    Napier, Bruce A

    2014-02-01

    of cohorts with their chronic, low dose-rate radiation exposure. The 26,000 workers at Mayak were highly exposed to external gamma and inhaled plutonium. A cohort of individuals raised as children in Ozersk is under evaluation for their exposures to radioiodine. The Techa River Cohort consists of over 30,000 people who were born before the start of exposure in 1949 and lived along the Techa River. The Techa River Offspring Cohort consists of ~21,000 persons born to one or more exposed parents of this group, many who also lived along the contaminated river. The EURT Cohort consists of ~18,000 people who were evacuated from the EURT soon after the 1957 explosion and another 8,000 who remained. These groups together are the focus of dose reconstruction and epidemiological studies funded by the United States, Russia, and the European Union to address the question, "Are doses delivered at low dose rates as effective in producing health effects as the same doses delivered at high dose rates?"Introduction of Joint U.S. and Russian Studies of Population Exposures (Video 2:13, http://links.lww.com/HP/A28). PMID:24378505

  14. 75 FR 17382 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... Federal Register (74 FR 58248) for the take of marine mammals incidental to Estuary water level management... notice (74 FR 58248). In summary, harbor seals are the most abundant marine mammal found at the mouth of... published on November 12, 2009 (74 FR 58248). During the 30-day public comment period, six members of...

  15. Russian Arctic

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  A Summer View of Russia's Lena Delta and Olenek River     View ... and the thousands of lakes, channels, and rivers of the Lena Delta into a fertile wetland, and when the usual blanket of thick snow had ...

  16. Russian roulette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Following a recent collision, fire, series of computer and power failures, and other mishaps on the Russian space station, Mir, the U.S. Congress held a hearing on September 18 to question the safety of American astronauts staying aboard the aging spacecraft.“There has been sufficient evidence put before this hearing to raise doubts about the safety of continued American long-term presence on the Mir,” said House Science Committee Chairman Rep. James Sensenbrenner (R-Wisc.) at the hearing.

  17. Reading Russian-English Homographs in Sentence Contexts: Evidence from ERPs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouravlev, Olessia; Jared, Debra

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated whether Russian--English bilinguals activate knowledge of Russian when reading English sentences. Russian and English share only a few letters, but there are some interlingual homographs (e.g., POT, which means "mouth" in Russian). Critical sentences were written such that the Russian meaning of the…

  18. Status of Activities on Rehabilitation Of Radioactively Contaminated Facilities and the Site of Russian Research Center ''Kurchatov Institute''

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, V. G.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Melkov, E. S; Ryazantsev, E. P.; Dikarev, V. S.; Gorodetsky, G. G.; Zverkov, Yu. A.; Kuznetsov, V. V.; Kuznetsova, T. I.

    2003-02-25

    This paper describes the program, the status, and the course of activities on rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated facilities and the territory of temporary radioactive waste (radwaste) disposal at the Russian Research Center ''Kurchatov Institute'' (RRC KI) in Moscow as performed in 2001-2002. The accumulation of significant amounts of radwaste at RRC KI territory is shown to be the inevitable result of Institute's activity performed in the days of former USSR nuclear weapons project and multiple initial nuclear power projects (performed from 1950's to early 1970's). A characterization of RRC KI temporary radwaste disposal site is given. Described is the system of radiation control and monitoring as implemented on this site. A potential hazard of adverse impacts on the environment and population of the nearby housing area is noted, which is due to possible spread of the radioactive plume by subsoil waters. A description of the concept and project of the RRC KI temporary radwaste disposal site is presented. Specific nature of the activities planned and performed stems from the nearness of housing area. This paper describes main stages of the planned activities for rehabilitation, their expected terms and sources of funding, as well as current status of the project advancement. Outlined are the problems faced in the performance and planning of works. The latter include: diagnostics of the concrete-grouted repositories, dust-suppression technologies, packaging of the fragmented ILW and HLW, soil clean-up, radioactive plume spread prevention, broad radiation monitoring of the work zone and environment in the performance of rehabilitation works. Noted is the intention of RRC KI to establish cooperation with foreign, first of all, the U.S. partners for the solution of problems mentioned above.

  19. Simulation of climate change in San Francisco Bay Basins, California: Case studies in the Russian River Valley and Santa Cruz Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of ongoing changes in climate, hydrologic and ecologic effects are being seen across the western United States. A regional study of how climate change affects water resources and habitats in the San Francisco Bay area relied on historical climate data and future projections of climate, which were downscaled to fine spatial scales for application to a regional water-balance model. Changes in climate, potential evapotranspiration, recharge, runoff, and climatic water deficit were modeled for the Bay Area. In addition, detailed studies in the Russian River Valley and Santa Cruz Mountains, which are on the northern and southern extremes of the Bay Area, respectively, were carried out in collaboration with local water agencies. Resource managers depend on science-based projections to inform planning exercises that result in competent adaptation to ongoing and future changes in water supply and environmental conditions. Results indicated large spatial variability in climate change and the hydrologic response across the region; although there is warming under all projections, potential change in precipitation by the end of the 21st century differed according to model. Hydrologic models predicted reduced early and late wet season runoff for the end of the century for both wetter and drier future climate projections, which could result in an extended dry season. In fact, summers are projected to be longer and drier in the future than in the past regardless of precipitation trends. While water supply could be subject to increased variability (that is, reduced reliability) due to greater variability in precipitation, water demand is likely to steadily increase because of increased evapotranspiration rates and climatic water deficit during the extended summers. Extended dry season conditions and the potential for drought, combined with unprecedented increases in precipitation, could serve as additional stressors on water quality and habitat. By focusing on the

  20. Savannah River Site prioritization of transition activities

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.H.

    1993-11-01

    Effective management of SRS conversion from primarily a production facility to other missions (or Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D)) requires a systematic and consistent method of prioritizing the transition activities. This report discusses the design of a prioritizing method developed to achieve systematic and consistent methods of prioritizing these activities.

  1. [The main results of expert activities in the forensic biological departments of the bureau of forensic medical expertise of the Russian Federation for 2009].

    PubMed

    Gusarov, A A

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the main results of expert activities in the forensic biological departments of the Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise of the Russian Federation for 2009. Analysis of expert data is supplemented by the comparison of the efficacy of the methods applied for the purpose of forensic medical studies. The information about the staff composition, material and technical support of the forensic biological departments is presented. A number of drawbacks have been revealed in the work of the forensic biological departments; recommendations are proposed for the improvement of their activities.

  2. Significance, Present Status and Perspectives of the Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity Monitoring by the Russian Arctic Magnetometer Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshichev, O. A.; Janzhura, A. S.; Takahashi, K.

    2010-12-01

    The Roshydromet magnetometer network in Russian Arctica includes the following stations: Amderma, Dickson, Cape Chelyuskin, Tiksi, Pevek, Lovozero, Heiss Island, Vieze Island, Izvestia Island. Vitality of the first 5 of them, providing the data for derivation AE/AL/AU indices, was supported during the previous years by the International project Rapidmag (Russian Auroral and Polar Ionospheric Disturbance Magnetometers). In last two years the Roshydromet network in Arctica was subjected to reconstruction. Renovation includes construction of new polar station buildings, deployment of the satellite communication system at stations, and arrangement of new acquisition system for magnetometers. The reconstruction should ensure on-line transmission of the current magnetic data from the Arctic network to AARI and analysis of these data in the near-real time. The present state of affairs and further perspectives are discussed. Examples are given, which show that run of the AL and AU indices, derived with allowance of data from Russian Arctic stations and without this information, can be principally different in case of the strong saw-tooth magnetic substorms.

  3. 76 FR 58533 - Powder River Regional Coal Team Activities; Notice of Public Meeting in Casper, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Bureau of Land Management Powder River Regional Coal Team Activities; Notice of Public Meeting in Casper... River Regional Coal Team (RCT) has scheduled a public meeting for October 26, 2011, to review coal management activities in the Powder River Coal Production Region. DATES: The RCT meeting will begin at 9...

  4. River Elongation as a Proxy for Lateral Channel Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, J. W.

    2009-12-01

    Lateral channel movement is a process that is tightly linked to both channel hydraulics and sediment transport, strongly influences floodplain ecology, and also has great relevance for banktop property owners. The correlation between channel migration rate and channel curvature usually causes meandering river channels to elongate as they migrate laterally. Over the long term, the increase in sinuosity is compensated by a rapid decrease in sinuosity where and when river bends shorten through cutoff processes. However, the elongation for most meander bends in systems free to migrate across wide floodplains often occurs relatively uniformly throughout the system. Consequently, the rate of elongation of individual river bends, integrated across a river reach, offers a simple mechanism for characterizing the reach’s lateral activity. Spatial series of accumulated elongation can also be used to delineate reaches with similar properties. We use aerial imagery pairs to compare rates of lateral channel centerline shifting with channel centerline elongation for reaches many bends long along eight different rivers with widths ranging from 12 to 584 m. Except where bends translate downstream without changing form, elongation rates are closely linked to lateral shifting. In several cases, a change in elongation rate corresponds closely with a change in channel width, discharge, and/or bed material. For reaches free to migrate across a wide, unconfined floodplain and where lateral migration measurements are likely of high quality, the average ratio between the reach average migration rate normalized by channel width and the rate of sinuosity increase (excluding bends that experienced a cutoff between imagery dates) is approximately 5.6. Since elongation rate measurements can be made accurately even from photos that are poorly aligned, the relationship between sinuosity increase and lateral migration potentially provides a means of bypassing time-consuming georeferencing

  5. Modeling the effect of active layer deepening on stocks of soil organic carbon in the Pechora River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, P.; Hugelius, G.; Marchenko, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigates how much of the estimated mass of surface permafrost (1 m deep) soil organic carbon stored in soils of the northern Pechora River Basin (Russian Arctic) could be affected due to active layer deepening for the time period 1980 to 2099. The study estimates how much of the upper permafrost soil organic carbon (1-100 cm depth range) will be affected by active layer deepening due to climate warming, on what timescale the deepening will take place and if the estimated changes differ depending on the extent of permafrost in the region. A model developed in a Geographic Information System combines datasets from The Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database (Hugelius, in press), field data of soil organic carbon content (SOCC) in different permafrost soil horizons in the Usa basin (Hugelius et al., 2011) and data of recent (observed) and future (projected) active layer depth from a spatially distributed permafrost dynamics model in the Pechora River Basin (GIPL2 model; Marchenko et al., 2008). For the simulation of permafrost dynamics we used output from the regional climate model HIRHAM5 with the physical parameterization of ECHAM5 with a doubling gradual increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration by the end of the current century (Stendel et al., 2010). According to this specific climate scenario, projections of future changes in permafrost suggest that by the end of the 21st century, permafrost in the Russian North may be actively thawing at many locations of the Pechora River watershed. The results show that in 1980, 75% of the available 0-100 cm Gelisol SOCC is affected by seasonal thawing (Figure 1). In 2050 the proportion is increased to 86% and by 2090 almost the whole study area has an active layer deeper than 1 meter (98%). This indicates an increase from approximately 0.64% to 0.84% of the total 1-100 cm soil organic carbon mass in the northern permafrost region. The change is more gradual in the isolated and the sporadic permafrost zones

  6. Active overbank deposition during the last century, South River, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzuto, Jim; Skalak, Katherine; Pearson, Adam; Benthem, Adam

    2016-03-01

    regional synthesis of floodplain deposition rates since European settlement. Floodplain sedimentation rates were high following European settlement, with published estimates ranging from 50 to 200 cm/100 years. Sedimentation rates decreased by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries; but despite these lower sedimentation rates, floodplains continue to store a significant fraction of total suspended sediment load. Many floodplains of the mid-Atlantic region are active landforms fully connected to the rivers that flow within them and should not be considered terraces isolated from contemporary fluvial processes by post-settlement aggradation.

  7. Russian Language Analysis Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serianni, Barbara; Rethwisch, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the result of a language analysis research project focused on the Russian Language. The study included a diverse literature review that included published materials as well as online sources in addition to an interview with a native Russian speaker residing in the United States. Areas of study include the origin and history of the…

  8. Russian Supplementary Dialogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Ashgabat (Turkmenistan).

    This manual is designed for the Russian language training of Peace Corps volunteers serving in Turkmenistan, and focuses on daily communication skills needed in that context. It consists of nine topical lessons, each containing several brief dialogues targeting specific language competencies, and exercises. Text is entirely in Russian, except for…

  9. Russian Teaching Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Betsy

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes two Russian teaching contracts, rhetorically comparing purpose and audience, culture, gender, and the role of the individual versus the state. Uses anecdotal episodes as a framework for examining Russian culture and analyzing university teaching contracts, concluding that the contracts are not only brief and factual but also reflect a…

  10. Past, present, and future concepts in large river ecology: How rivers function and how human activities influence river processes

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.L.; Richardson, W.B.; Naimo, T.J.

    1995-03-01

    This article reviews the current concepts on how flowing water, or lotic, systems function and suggest ways to expand these concepts to increase understanding of large river systems. Topics covered include the following: past and present approaches to physical and biological concepts of stream organization; the river-continuum concept; the flood-pulse concept; deficiencies of the current hypotheses (linear versis hierachical, physical verses biological control, equilibrium versus disequilibrium); future directions for large river research. 63 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Research on Russian National Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Na, Zhuo

    2008-01-01

    The special geographical location Russia lies in creates the unique character of the Russian nation. Based on the dual nature of the Russian national character, the Russian geographical environment and the analysis of its social structure, this text tries to explore the reasons of the dual nature of Russian national character.

  12. Morphological redescription and DNA barcoding of Linevitshia prima Makarchenko, 1987 (Diptera: Chironomidae: Diamesinae) from Amur River basin (Russian Far East), with notes on systematics of the genus.

    PubMed

    Makarchenko, Eugenyi A; Semenchenko, Alexander A

    2014-10-10

    Additions and corrections to the diagnosis of the genus Linevitshia for male adult, pupa and larva are given, and systematic position of the genus is discussed. Illustrated redescription of adult male and first description of 4th instar larva of L. prima Makarchenko from Amur River basin are provided. Comparison of data based on a new material with those of L. yezoensis Endo showed that the latter name is a junior synonym of L. prima. The species-specificity of L. prima COI sequences is analyzed and the sequences are presented as diagnostic characters-molecular markers of L. prima.

  13. Factors fragmenting the Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.

    1993-10-06

    This paper examines the factors that threaten the future of the Russian Federation (RF). The observations are based on a study that focused on eight republics: Mordova, Udmurtia, Tatarstan, Mari El, Bashkortostan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Buryatia, and Altay Republic. These republics were selected for their geographic and economic significance to the RF. Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Udmurtia, and Mari El are located on important supply routes, such as the Volga River and the trans-Siberian railroad. Some of these republics are relatively wealthy, with natural resources such as oil (e.g., Tatarstan and Bashkortostan), and all eight republics play significant roles in the military-industrial complex. The importance of these republics to the RF contrasts to the relative insignificance of the independence-minded Northern Caucasus area. The author chose not to examine the Northern Caucasus region (except Kabardino-Balkaria) because these republics may have only a minor impact on the rest of the RF if they secede. Their impact would be minimized because they lie on the frontiers of the RF. Many Russians believe that {open_quotes}it might be best to let such a troublesome area secede.{close_quotes}

  14. Quantum Russian roulette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Alexandre G. M.; da Silva, Ladário

    2013-01-01

    We quantize the gamble known as Russian roulette and we study it in two versions for two- and three-persons when: (i) players use a fully loaded quantum gun; (ii) the quantum gun has only one quantum bullet.

  15. Russian Education: Historical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John C.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the evaluation of Russian educational concepts through six historical periods; stresses the significance of social, philosophical, political, and psychological factors that have affected Soviet educational policies used to instill Communist values. (JD)

  16. Russian Contract Procurement Document

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G

    2010-03-29

    This contract supports the enhancement of physical protection or nuclear material control and accounting systems at institutes or enterprises of the newly independent states under the material protection control and accounting (MPC&A) program. The contract is entered into pursuant to the MPC&A Program, a gratuitous technical assistance program, in accordance with the bilateral Agreements between the Russian Federation and the United States of America concerning the Safe and Secure Transportation, Storage and Destruction of Weapons and the Prevention of Weapons Proliferation of June 1992, as extended and amended by Protocol signed of June 1999, Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation regarding Cooperation in the Area of Nuclear Materials Physical Protection, Control and Accounting of October 1999 and the Russian Federation law of May 1999 on the taxation exemption of gratuitous technical assistance with Russian Federation under registration No.DOE001000.

  17. Station Tour: Russian Segment

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams concludes her tour of the International Space Station with a visit to the Russian segment, which includes Zarya, the first segment of the station launched in 1...

  18. Characterization of the Radiation Shielding Properties of U.S. and Russian Extravehicular Activity Suits. Chapter 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    2003-01-01

    Reported herein are results from the Eril Research, Inc. (ERI) participation in the JSC-sponsored study characterizing the radiation shielding properties of the two types of space suit that astronauts are wearing during the EVA on-orbit assembly of ISS. Measurements using passive detectors were carried out to assess the shielding properties of the U.S. EMU Suit and the Russian Orlan-M suit during irradiations of the suits and a tissue-equivalent phantom to monoenergetic proton and electron beams at LLUMC. During irradiations of 6 MeV electrons and 60 MeV protons, absorbed dose as a function of depth was measured using TLDs exposed behind swatches of the two suit materials and inside the two EVA helmets. Considerable reduction in electron dose was measured behind all suit materials in exposures to 6 MeV electrons. Slowing of the proton beam in the suit materials led to an increase in dose measured in exposures to 60 MeV protons. During 232 MeV proton irradiations, measurements were made with TLDs and CR-39 PNTDs at five organ locations inside a tissue-equivalent phantom, exposed both with and without the two EVA suits. The EVA helmets produce a 13% to 27% reduction in total dose and a 0% to 25% reduction in dose equivalent when compared to measurements made in the phantom head alone. Differences in dose and dose equivalent between the suit and non-suit irradiations for the lower portions of the two EVA suits tended to be smaller. Proton-induced target fragmentation was found to be a significant source of increased dose equivalent, especially within the two EVA helmets, and average quality factor inside the EMU and Orlan-M helmets was 2% to 14% greater than that measured in the bare phantom head.

  19. The sediment-starved Yellow River Delta as remotely controlled by human activities in the river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Bi, N.

    2015-12-01

    Human presented significant disturbances on the natural processes of land-ocean interactions in context of global change. Here we illustrate how the signals of human activities in the river basin have been transferred to the coastal ocean along the hydrological pathway and remotely controlled the Yellow River Delta. Dam-orientated water and sediment regulation scheme (WSRS) has resulted in effective erosion of the lower channel and mitigation of siltation within the reservoirs. However, significant impacts have been identified on the delta morphology and coastal ecosystem ten years after the WSRS, which was unexpected at the beginning of engineering efforts. The coarser sediment derived from the channel erosion during the first phase of WSRS was directly contributed to the rapid accretion of present river mouth, whereas the delta was starved and declined due to insufficient sediment supply and regime shift of sediment transport. The fine-grained sediment exported from the Xiaolangdi Reservoir during the second phase of WSRS seemed to be a critical carrier for the nutrients and pollutants. The human-altered hydrological cycle, enhanced delivery of nutrient and pollutants and the changing estuarine environment present unpredictable impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem in the delta region. These confirm that humans are modifying the river-coast system in ways that go well beyond climate change, and an integrated management of the river-coast continuum is crucially important for the sustainability of the river-delta system.

  20. Russian observations of the 1874 Venus transit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadaev, A. N.

    This paper is based on the archival materials rarely published elsewhere. It concerns the times of preparing and realising of Venus transit observations in 1874. Russian Academy of Sciences had organised 27 observational stations distributed from Japan and Ussuri region of Russia through Siberia to Caspian Sea and Upper Egypt. Pulkovo observatory was in charge of the completing the expeditions and training the observers. Epochal works of the geographical co-ordinates determinations of reference points preceded to the activities of astronomical expeditions. These works embraced the territories of the whole Siberia from Kazan on Volga to Vladivostok and Nikolaevsk on the coast of Japanese Sea and Sea of Okhotsk. Now it is restored the picture of overcoming the unusual difficulties because of bad roads at that time and poor arrangement of river transport. Astronomers during long travelling to their stations met the same difficulties. The results of the Venus transit observations are discussed. Attention is paid to some physical phenomena accompanying Venus transits especially to the Black Drop effect. As a cause of this phenomenon is proposed the interaction of two factors - the limb darkening and the absorption of the Sun's light by the thick atmosphere of Venus.

  1. Joint US/Russian Studies of Population Exposures Resulting from Nuclear Production Activities in the Southern Urals

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in 1948, the Soviet Union initiated a program for production of nuclear materials for a weapons program. The first facility for production of plutonium was constructed in the central portion of the country east of the southern Ural Mountains, about halfway between the major industrial cities of Ekaterinburg and Chelyabinsk. The facility now known as the Mayak Production Association and its associated town, now known as Ozersk, were built to irradiate uranium in reactors, separate the resulting plutonium in reprocessing plants, and prepare plutonium metal. The rush to production, coupled with inexperience in handling radioactive materials, lead to large radiation exposures, not only to the workers in the facilities, but also to the surrounding public. Fuel processing started with no controls on releases, and fuel dissolution and accidents in reactors resulted in release of about 37 PBq (1015 Bq) of 131I between 1948 and 1967. Designed disposals of low- and intermediate-level liquid radioactive wastes, and accidental releases via cooling water from tank farms of high-level liquid radioactive wastes, into the small Techa River caused significant contamination and exposures to residents of numerous small riverside villages downstream of the site. Discovery of the magnitude of the aquatic contamination in late 1951 caused revisions to the waste handling regimes, but not before over 200 PBq of radionuclides (with large contributions of 90Sr and 137Cs) were released. Liquid wastes were diverted to tiny Lake Karachay (which today holds over 4 EBq); cooling water was stopped in the tank farms. In 1957, one of the tanks in the tank farm overheated and exploded; over 70 PBq, disproportionately 90Sr, was blown over a large area to the northeast of the site; a large area was contaminated and many villages evacuated. This area today is known as the East Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT). Each of these releases was significant; together they have created a group of cohorts

  2. Adolescent Russian roulette deaths.

    PubMed

    Collins, Kim A

    2010-03-01

    Adolescence, between the ages of 10 and 19 years, is a unique period both physically and emotionally. During this time of life, individuals are known to experiment and engage in risky behavior, sometimes with unforeseen morbidity and mortality. We also see suicide emerge as a manner of death in this age group. The most common method is gunshot wound and sometimes in the form of Russian roulette. Few studies have looked at deaths by Russian roulette, the victims, and scenarios. In particular, no study examines the adolescent victim of Russian roulette. To better understand and classify this entity, adolescent Russian roulette autopsy cases over a 20-year period were examined looking at the victims, scenarios, autopsy findings, cause and manner of death, and the weapons. All victims were males, ages 13 to 19 years, with a Black-to-White ratio of 1:1. No victim had a previous psychiatric history. Toxicology was positive for alcohol and/or marijuana in 50% of the victims. Friends were present when the victim shot himself which occurred in the home the majority of the time. In all but 1 case, premeditation of the game was involved as the victim provided the weapon for the roulette. The cause of death was gunshot wound to the head (6 to the right side, 1 to the mouth, 1 to the forehead), and the manner of death was suicide in 6 cases and accident in 2 cases. A review of the literature discusses the adolescent victim, suicide, and Russian roulette.

  3. The Russian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dluzhnevskaya, O. B.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Kilpio, A. A.; Kilpio, E. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Sat, L. A.

    The Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO) will be an integral component of the International Virtual Observatory (IVO). The RVO has the main goal of integrating resources of astronomical data accumulated in Russian observatories and institutions (databases, archives, digitized glass libraries, bibliographic data, a remote access system to information and technical resources of telescopes etc.), and providing transparent access for scientific and educational purposes to the distributed information and data services that comprise its content. Another goal of the RVO is to provide Russian astronomers with on-line access to the rich volumes of data and metadata that have been, and will continue to be, produced by astronomical survey projects. Centre for Astronomical Data (CAD), among other Russian institutions, has had the greatest experience in collecting and distributing astronomical data for more than 20 years. Some hundreds of catalogs and journal tables are currently available from the CAD repository. More recently, mirrors of main astronomical data resources (VizieR, ADS, etc) are now maintained in CAD. Besides, CAD accumulates and makes available for the astronomical community information on principal Russian astronomical resources.

  4. Professional Values and Stereotypes of Russian Educational Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Lev; Bamberg, Jerry

    1998-01-01

    Results of a questionnaire completed by 282 heads of Russian schools suggest that their problems in mastering foreign models of management stem from differences in the general logic of activity of Russian and Western educational managers, differences that are caused by differences in "external orders" toward schools. (SLD)

  5. Lecturers' Perception of Research Activities for Knowledge Production in Universities in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchendu, C. C.; Osim, R. O.; Odigwe, F. N.; Alade, F. N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined lecturers' perception of research activities for knowledge production in universities in Cross River State, Nigeria. Two hypotheses were isolated to give direction to this investigation. 240 university lecturers were sampled from a population of 1,868 from the two universities in Cross River State, using stratified random…

  6. Fluvial Record of Active Deformation Along the Canyon River Fault in the Wynoochee River Valley, WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delano, J.; Amos, C. B.; Loveless, J. P.; Rittenour, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Ongoing uplift of the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State represents unknown contributions from Cascadia subduction zone processes, including earthquakes, interseismic deformation, aseismic slow slip events, and north-south shortening of the North American plate focused on upper plate faults. The relationship between upper plate faults and Cascadia subduction is poorly understood, as is the seismic hazard posed by these structures to the greater Puget Sound region. The Wynoochee River is a south-flowing drainage in the southern Olympic Mountains bisected by a previously uncharacterized section of the Canyon River reverse fault. In this study we utilize high-resolution aerial lidar and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of offset fluvial terraces to determine the kinematics and slip rate of the Canyon River fault over the late Quaternary. In combination with surficial geologic mapping and differential GPS surveys of terrace straths observed in the field, we also determine incision rates along the Wynoochee River from OSL dates. Our mapping reveals eight generations of fluvial and glaciofluvial terraces, with twenty-one pending ages from OSL sampling of fluvial sands intercalated with outwash and river gravels. Additionally, we compare our slip rate results with a boundary element model, estimating the stress on the Canyon River fault over the recent decades, as constrained by GPS data from the Cascadia subduction zone. Preliminary results indicate that the Canyon River fault is a long-lived feature with south-side-up and left-lateral displacement. Taken together, our results enable comparison of deformation rates constrained by short-term, geodetic data with those acting over longer-term geologic time scales.

  7. Prague as the Centre of Russian Educational Emigration: Czechoslovakia's Educational Policy for Russian Emigrants (1918-1938)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mchitarjan, Irina

    2009-01-01

    This article looks at the role played by the Czechoslovakian Republic in the establishment and maintenance of the "Russian education system in exile" in Europe during the 1920s and 1930s. No other country supported the educational activities of the Russian emigrants as generously as Czechoslovakia. Thanks to this extensive and targeted support, a…

  8. Studying Russian and Soviet History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Abraham, Ed.

    These essays were written to assist teachers in the task of making Russian history intelligible to young U.S. students. In "An Approach to Russian History," Edward Keenan proposes that students need to gain a better understanding of how Russians perceive themselves and their history. In "Pre-Petrine Russia," Andrzej S. Kaminski focuses on the…

  9. Soviet Standardization of Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Morton

    1961-01-01

    After a brief history of influences on the standardization of Russian since the Revolution, the descriptive and normalizing role of specific reference works of grammar, phonetics, vocabulary, and morphology is discussed. Concluding remarks point out a problem caused by a lack of coordination of standardization efforts and the mounting demands for…

  10. Three Early Russian Bibliographers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholden, Marianna Tax

    1974-01-01

    Introduces three early Russian contributors to bibliography: Novikov, Sopikov, and Anastasevich, who worked at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th centuries. Their lives and main bibliographic works are viewed in the contexts of Russia in their time and Western European bibliography. (JB)

  11. English Loanwords in Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Morton

    1959-01-01

    This introductory survey describes the English contribution to the vocabulary of modern Russian. The author presents an analysis of English loanwords based on the etymologies of Vasmer and Lexin, by subject classification (amusements, clothing, economics, food, nautical terminology, and technology). Separate commentary on sporting terms, where…

  12. Grain sorting in the morphological active layer of a braided river physical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, P.; Ashmore, P.; Gardner, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    A physical scale model of a gravel-bed braided river was used to measure vertical grain size sorting in the morphological active layer aggregated over the width of the river. This vertical sorting is important for analyzing braided river sedimentology, for numerical modeling of braided river morphodynamics, and for measuring and predicting bedload transport rate. We define the morphological active layer as the bed material between the maximum and minimum bed elevations at a point over extended time periods sufficient for braiding processes to rework the river bed. The vertical extent of the active layer was measured using 40 hourly high-resolution DEMs (digital elevation models) of the model river bed. An image texture algorithm was used to map bed material grain size of each DEM. Analysis of the 40 DEMs and texture maps provides data on the geometry of the morphological active layer and variation in grain size in three dimensions. By normalizing active layer thickness and dividing into 10 sublayers, we show that all grain sizes occur with almost equal frequency in all sublayers. Occurrence of patches and strings of coarser (or finer) material relates to preservation of particular morpho-textural features within the active layer. For numerical modeling and bedload prediction, a morphological active layer that is fully mixed with respect to grain size is a reliable approximation.

  13. Grain sorting in the morphological active layer of a braided river physical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, P.; Ashmore, P.; Gardner, J. T.

    2015-07-01

    A physical scale model of a gravel-bed braided river was used to measure vertical grain size sorting in the morphological active layer aggregated over the width of the river. This vertical sorting is important for analyzing braided river sedimentology, for numerical modeling of braided river morpho-dynamics and for measuring and predicting bed load transport rate. We define the morphological active layer as the bed material between the maximum and minimum bed elevations at a point over extended time periods sufficient for braiding processes to re-work the river bed. The vertical extent of the active layer was measured using 40 hourly high-resolution DEMs of the model river bed. An image texture algorithm was used to map bed material grain size of each DEM. Analysis of the 40 DEMs and texture maps provides data on the geometry of the morphological active layer and variation in grain size in three-dimensions. Normalizing active layer thickness and dividing into 10 sub-layers we show that all grain sizes occur with almost equal frequency in all sub-layers. Occurrence of patches and strings of coarser (or finer) material relates to preservation of particular morpho-textural features within the active layer. For numerical modeling and bed load prediction a morphological active layer that is fully mixed with respect to grain size is a reliable approximation.

  14. USGS Activities at Lake Roosevelt and the Upper Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Cynthia; Turney, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    Lake Roosevelt (Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake) is the impoundment of the upper Columbia River behind Grand Coulee Dam, and is the largest reservoir within the Bureau of Reclamation's Columbia Basin Project (CBP). The reservoir is located in northeastern Washington, and stretches 151 miles from Grand Coulee Dam north to the Canadian border. The 15-20 miles of the Columbia River downstream of the border are riverine and are under small backwater effects from the dam. Grand Coulee Dam is located on the mainstem of the Columbia River about 90 miles northwest of Spokane. Since the late 1980s, trace-element contamination has been known to be widely present in Lake Roosevelt. Trace elements of concern include arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc. Contaminated sediment carried by the Columbia River is the primary source of the widespread occurrence of trace-element enrichment present in Lake Roosevelt. In 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a preliminary assessment of environmental contamination of the Lake Roosevelt area (also referred to as Upper Columbia River, UCR site, or UCR/LR site) and has subsequently begun remedial investigations of the UCR site.

  15. Labor Migration by Russian Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Man'shin, R. V.; Timoshenko, O. V.; Pis'mennaia, E. E.

    2009-01-01

    Russia's young people have become active participants in processes of migration. After the fall of the USSR, young people began to travel outside Russia in substantially greater numbers. At the present time, young Russians can be found in all kinds of regions and countries of the world. They are getting an education in foreign universities and…

  16. [Medical support of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation: results of activity and tasks for 2016].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ya

    2016-01-01

    The author gives an analysis of activity of the medical service of the Armed Forces in 2015 concerning development of normative legal basis for the military health care, improvement of the level of operational and mobilization readiness of subunits of army group, and military-medical institutions, improvement of effectiveness of treatment and evacuation measures, health resort treatment, medical stuff training optimization, sanitary-and-epidemiologic support, material and technical support improvement, adoption of advanced scientific achievements focusing on medical care delivery to army group, active development and increase in medical information systems, telehealth. system. The author gives data characterizing state and level of development of medical service of the Armed Forces and its dynamics. Main tasks and parameters of development of the service in 2016 and up to 2020 are formulated. PMID:27120950

  17. Analysis of photosynthetic activity in the most polluted stretch of river Ganga.

    PubMed

    Tare, Vinod; Yadav, Ajay Veer Singh; Bose, Purnendu

    2003-01-01

    As a result of the increasing anthropogenic activities in the gangetic plain, Ganga water quantity as well as quality has declined over the years. A major effort to clean Ganga, named Ganga Action Plan (GAP) was instituted by the Government of India in 1984. The emphasis in GAP was on the reduction of organic load on the river through interception, diversion and treatment of wastewater reaching the river, thus maintaining the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and dissolved oxygen (DO) levels of river within the acceptable limits. A major criticism of GAP is that the significance of river ecology has not been addressed adequately during its conception and implementation. One of the important aspects from this perspective is the photosynthetic activity in the river Ganga. It has been postulated that photosynthetic activity plays an important role in maintaining high levels of DO in Ganga, and as a result the river can assimilate high organic loads without appreciable depletion in dissolved oxygen levels. Objective of the present study was to assess the photosynthetic activity and oxygen production rates in the river and correlate these values with various water quality parameters. Most polluted stretch of Ganga, which is known as the Kannauj-Kanpur stretch was chosen for this study. Based on the results of the study, it was concluded that despite implementation of phase I of GAP, and consequent diversion and reduction of organic loading to the river, both BOD and DO levels in the river has increased in the entire Kannauj-Kanpur stretch, except at Jajmau, where anaerobically treated effluent is discharged to the river. The nitrogen levels have also increased in the entire Kannauj-Kanpur stretch. Dissolved oxygen (DO) and alkalinity in the river water vary diurnally at all sites. Chlorophyll-a levels and oxygen production rates due to photosynthesis appear to be positively influenced by phosphate levels in the river water. Chlorophyll-a levels appear to be negatively

  18. Bioanalytical and instrumental analysis of estrogenic activities in drinking water sources from Yangtze River Delta.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xinxin; Shi, Wei; Cao, Fu; Hu, Guanjiu; Hao, Yingqun; Wei, Si; Wang, Xinru; Yu, Hongxia

    2013-02-01

    The estrogenic activities of source water from Yangtze River, Huaihe River, Taihu Lake and groundwater in Yangtze River Delta in the dry and wet season were determined by use of reporter gene assays based on African green monkey kidney (CV-1) cell lines. Higher estrogenic activities were observed in the dry season, and the estrogenic potentials in water samples from Taihu Lake were greater than other river basins. None of the samples from groundwater showed estrogen receptor (ER) agonist activity. The 17β-Estradiol (E2) equivalents (EEQs) of water samples in the dry season ranged from 9.41×10(-1) to 1.20×10(1) ng E2 L(-1). In the wet season, EEQs of all the water samples were below the detection limit as 9.00×10(-1) ng E2 L(-1) except for one sample from Huaihe River. The highest contribution of E2 was detected in Yangtze River as 99% of estrogenic activity. Nonylphenol (NP, 100% detection rate) and octylphenol (OP, 100% detection rate) might also be responsible for the estrogenic activities in water sources. Potential health risk induced by the estrogenic chemicals in source water may be posed to the residents through water drinking.

  19. A summary of activities of the US/Soviet-Russian joint working group on space biology and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doarn, Charles R.; Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.; Tverskaya, Galina; Orlov, Oleg I.; Ilyin, Eugene A.; Souza, Kenneth A.

    2010-10-01

    The very foundation of cooperation between the United States (US) and Russia (former Soviet Union) in space exploration is a direct result of the mutual desire for scientific understanding and the creation of a collaborative mechanism—the Joint Working Group (JWG) on Space Biology and Medicine. From the dawn of the space age, it has been the quest of humankind to understand its place in the universe. While nations can and do solve problems independently, it takes nations, working together, to accomplish great things. The formation of the JWG provided an opportunity for the opening of a series of productive relationships between the superpowers, the US and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR); and served as a justification for continued relationship for medical assistance in spaceflight, and to showcase Earth benefits from space medicine research. This relationship has been played out on an international scale with the construction and operation of the International Space Station. The fundamental reason for this successful endeavor is a direct result of the spirit and perseverance of the men and women who have worked diligently side-by-side to promote science and move our understanding of space forward. This manuscript provides a historical perspective of the JWG; how it came about; its evolution; what it accomplished; and what impact it has had and continues to have in the 21st century with regard to human spaceflight and space life sciences research. It captures the spirit of this group, which has been in continuous existence for over 40 years, and provides a never before reported summary of its activities.

  20. MFO activity and contaminant analysis of overwintering juvenile chinook salmon in the Fraser River

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.; Glickman, B.; Addison, R.; Gordon, R.; Martens, D.

    1995-12-31

    Various organic contaminants, including some PAHs, PCBs and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, induce liver cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP 1A1) and its associated enzyme activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase; EROD). In this study, analysis of carcasses for dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and PCBs were compared to liver MFO activity. Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were sampled in March, 1994 at a reference site on the Nechako River free from the influence of industrial activity and at sites near Prince George, Stoner, Longbar and Soda Creek on the Fraser River, and on the Thompson River. Fish from the Nechako site had the lowest MFO activities, accompanied by the lowest whole body dioxin and furan concentrations. Fish from Longbar, Soda Creek and the Thompson River had the highest MFO activities. Fish from Prince George contained the highest dioxin concentrations, but furans and mono-ortho substituted PCBs were highest at the Soda Creek and Thompson sites. MFO activity correlated most strongly with PCB concentrations. The results of this study suggest that liver MFO activity in O. tshawytscha could be employed as one biological index of environmental quality in the Fraser River.

  1. U.S.-Russian experts NATO collaborative research grant exchange visit meeting on excess Pu ceramics formulations and characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L.J., LLNL

    1998-11-24

    This document contains the agenda and meeting notes. Topics of discussion included US Pu disposition ceramics activities, Russian experience and proposals in Pu ceramics, and development of possible Russian ceramic proposals or collaborations.

  2. Russian electrometallurgy: Achievements, problems, prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utochkin, Yu. I.; Semin, A. E.

    2011-12-01

    The changes in the Russian metallurgy, in particular, electric furnace steelmaking, having occurred in the recent years are analyzed. The main increase in the steelmaking output is due to putting into operation of new electric furnaces in new miniworks and enterprises equipped earlier with open-hearth furnaces. Reaching the rated capacity of a furnace in Russia substantially lags behind foreign enterprises. Only 30-35% of the Russian market of corrosion-resistant steel are provided by Russian metal.

  3. Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    Gathering the efficient information on water pollution of transboundary river systems remains the crucial task in international water management, environmental pollution control and prevention health problems. Countries, located in the low parts of the river basins, depend on the water strategy and water use in the adjacent countries, located upstream. Surface water pollution is considered to be the most serious problem, facing the above-mentioned countries. Large efforts in terms of field measurement campaigns and (numerical) transport modeling are then typically needed for relevant pollution prediction and prevention. Russian rivers take inflow from 8 neighboring countries. Among them there are 2 developing economies - People Republic of China and Mongolia, which are located in water-scarce areas and thus solve their water-related problems through the consumption of international water. Negative change of water runoff and water quality in the foreign part of transboundary river is appeared inside Russian territory with more or less delay. The transboundary river system of Selenga is particularly challenging, being the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Selenga River contributes about 50 % of the total inflow into Baikal. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the water quality of the river system. Absence of the single monitoring system and predictive tools for pollutants transport in river system requires large efforts in understanding sources of water pollution and implemented data on the relevant numerical systems for the pollution prediction and prevention. Special investigations in the Selenga river basin (Mongolia and Russia) were done to assess hot spots and understand state-of-the art in sediment load, water chemistry and hydrobiology of transboundary systems

  4. [Characteristic of mortality in the Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Iu I; Sidorovich, Iu V

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to estimate the overall mortality in the Russian Federation and to elucidate the structure and characteristics of violent and non-violent mortality in this country. The study is largely based on the materials of reports on the activities of local bureaus of forensic medical expertise for the period from 2003 to 2008; in addition, the data from the official demographic and statistical yearbooks issued by the Russian State Statistical Committee (Goskomstat) in 2008-2009 were used. It is shown that cardiovascular pathology appears to be currently the leading cause of general mortality in the Russian Federation. A substantial fraction in the structure of general mortality is constituted by mechanical injuries most of which are inflicted in car accidents. More than half of the fatal cases caused by external factors and around one third of the deaths from cardiovascular diseases are associated with alcohol intoxication. Statistical treatment of the results of analysis conducted in the present study provided materials for the development of recommendations designed to improve the demographic situation in the Russian Federation. PMID:21516803

  5. 75 FR 78228 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Columbia River Crossing Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... authorization to take marine mammals incidental to bridge construction and demolition activities at the Columbia... (MMPA), NMFS is announcing receipt of CRC's request for the development and implementation of... activities: Replacement of the existing Columbia River bridges with two new structures; Widening of...

  6. SPECIAL ACTIVITIES SUPPLEMENTAL TO AND RELATED TO THE ART PROGRAM AT DEEP RIVER OUTDOOR EDUCATION CENTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary City Public School System, IN.

    A CURRICULUM GUIDE DEALING WITH VARIOUS SUBJECT AREAS WAS PREPARED FOR POSSIBLE STUDY ACTIVITIES THAT WOULD USE THE LEARNING RESOURCES AVAILABLE AT THE DEEP RIVER OUTDOOR EDUCATION CENTER IN GARY, INDIANA. ACTIVITIES GUIDES ARE PRESENTED FOR (1) ART ACTITIVIES RELATED TO DESIGN, COLOR, LANDSCAPE REPRESENTATION, PAPER CONSTRUCTION, DRAWING, PRINT…

  7. Biological Ocean Margins Program. Active Microbes Responding to Inputs from the Orinoco River Plume. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jorge E. Corredor

    2013-01-28

    The overall goal of the proposed work is to identify the active members of the heterotrophic community involved in C and N cycling in the perimeter of the Orinoco River Plume (ORP), assess their spatial distribution, quantify their metabolic activity, and correlate these parameters to plume properties such as salinity, organic matter content and phytoplankton biomass.

  8. Russian eruption warning systems for aviation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, C.; Girina, O.; Senyukov, S.; Rybin, A.; Osiensky, J.; Izbekov, P.; Ferguson, G.

    2009-01-01

    More than 65 potentially active volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kurile Islands pose a substantial threat to aircraft on the Northern Pacific (NOPAC), Russian Trans-East (RTE), and Pacific Organized Track System (PACOTS) air routes. The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) monitors and reports on volcanic hazards to aviation for Kamchatka and the north Kuriles. KVERT scientists utilize real-time seismic data, daily satellite views of the region, real-time video, and pilot and field reports of activity to track and alert the aviation industry of hazardous activity. Most Kurile Island volcanoes are monitored by the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) based in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. SVERT uses daily moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images to look for volcanic activity along this 1,250-km chain of islands. Neither operation is staffed 24 h per day. In addition, the vast majority of Russian volcanoes are not monitored seismically in real-time. Other challenges include multiple time-zones and language differences that hamper communication among volcanologists and meteorologists in the US, Japan, and Russia who share the responsibility to issue official warnings. Rapid, consistent verification of explosive eruptions and determination of cloud heights remain significant technical challenges. Despite these difficulties, in more than a decade of frequent eruptive activity in Kamchatka and the northern Kuriles, no damaging encounters with volcanic ash from Russian eruptions have been recorded. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  9. Tracking small mountainous river derived terrestrial organic carbon across the active margin marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childress, L. B.; Blair, N. E.; Orpin, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Active margins are particularly efficient in the burial of organic carbon due to the close proximity of highland sources to marine sediment sinks and high sediment transport rates. Compared with passive margins, active margins are dominated by small mountainous river systems, and play a unique role in marine and global carbon cycles. Small mountainous rivers drain only approximately 20% of land, but deliver approximately 40% of the fluvial sediment to the global ocean. Unlike large passive margin systems where riverine organic carbon is efficiently incinerated on continental shelves, small mountainous river dominated systems are highly effective in the burial and preservation of organic carbon due to the rapid and episodic delivery of organic carbon sourced from vegetation, soil, and rock. To investigate the erosion, transport, and burial of organic carbon in active margin small mountainous river systems we use the Waipaoa River, New Zealand. The Waipaoa River, and adjacent marine depositional environment, is a system of interest due to a large sediment yield (6800 tons km-2 yr-1) and extensive characterization. Previous studies have considered the biogeochemistry of the watershed and tracked the transport of terrestrially derived sediment and organics to the continental shelf and slope by biogeochemical proxies including stable carbon isotopes, lignin phenols, n-alkanes, and n-fatty acids. In this work we expand the spatial extent of investigation to include deep sea sediments of the Hikurangi Trough. Located in approximately 3000 m water depth 120 km from the mouth of the Waipaoa River, the Hikurangi Trough is the southern extension of the Tonga-Kermadec-Hikurangi subduction system. Piston core sediments collected by the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA, NZ) in the Hikurangi Trough indicate the presence of terrestrially derived material (lignin phenols), and suggest a continuum of deposition, resuspension, and transport across the margin

  10. Sinuosity change of the Po River near Cremona (Northern Italy) - a result of neotectonic activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovszki, Judit; Timár, Gábor

    2010-05-01

    In the map sheets of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire, Lombardia, Parma, Modena and Venice also can be seen (Timár et al., 2006). This area was surveyed between 1818 and 1829. In these map sheets, we can also follow the river Po from Vaccarizza to the delta. This river reach is about 350 km long. This river reach was digitized and sinuosity values were calculated with different window sizes, and displayed in a spectrum-like diagram (sinuosity spectra; after van Balen et al., 2008). At Cremona, a significante sinuosity change were identified. The sinuosity increasing, and we have high sinuosity values. In the summarizing geological map of Italy (Compagnoni and Calluzzo, 2004), at this place, a tectonic line was identified. So probably this fault line invokes the sinuosity change on the river. The vertical movements indicated on the maps are just the opposite like they would be according to the flume experiments of Ouchi (1985). In the case of the Po River at Cremona, the decrease of the channel slope results higher sinuosity. The reason is that the rate of the slope and water discharge is higher than it is required by the self-organized meandering and the river parameters fell to the range of the unorganized meandering (cf. Timár, 2003). Another possible explanation could be that the northern tributary, the Adda River has significant sediment load that lowers the sinuosity of the trunk river at the confluence. Compagnoni, B., Galluzzo, F. (eds., 2004): Geological Map of Italy. Agenzia per la Protezione dell'Ambiente per I Servizi Tecnici - Dipartimento Difesa del Suolo, Servizio Geologico d'Italia, Rome-Florence-Genoa. Map, scale=1:1250000, especially printed for the 32nd International Geological Congress. Ouchi, S. (1985): Response of alluvial rivers to slow active tectonic movement. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 96: 504-515. Timár, G. (2003): Controls on channel sinuosity changes: a case study of the Tisza River, the Great Hungarian Plain. Quaternary

  11. Significance of active growth faulting on marsh accretion processes in the lower Pearl River, Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeager, Kevin M.; Brunner, Charlotte A.; Kulp, Mark A.; Fischer, Dane; Feagin, Rusty A.; Schindler, Kimberly J.; Prouhet, Jeremiah; Bera, Gopal

    2012-06-01

    Neotectonic processes influence marsh accretion in the lower Pearl River valley. Active growth faults are suggested by groupings of ponded river channel sections, transverse and linear river channel sections, and down- and across-valley contrasts in channel sinuosity. Seismic profiles identified several likely, fault-induced structural anomalies, two of which parallel the axes of surface distributary networks. Lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of six cores from across a suspected fault in the West Middle River, combined with 14C-based age control, yielded evidence of vertical offsets, indicating that this river section is on the plane of a growth fault. These data were used to estimate fault slip rates over two time intervals, 1.2 mm/y over the last 1300 yr, and 0.2 mm yr- 1 over the last 3700 yr, and delineated a sinusoidal pattern of deformation moving distally from the fault, which we interpret as resulting from fault-propagation folding. Higher rates of sediment accumulation (of the order of cm yr- 1 from 210Pbxs and 137Cs activity data) on the down-thrown side are consistent with sedimentary response to increased accommodation space, and mass-based sediment accumulation rates (g cm- 2 yr- 1) exhibit a pattern inverse of that shown by fault-driven sinusoidal deformation. We contend that near-surface growth faults are critically important to driving accretion rates and marsh response to sea-level rise.

  12. International Field School on Permafrost: Yenisei, Russian Federation - 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyland, K. E.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Grebenets, V. I.

    2013-12-01

    The International Field School on Permafrost was established in Russia as part of International Polar Year activities. The first course was offered in 2007 in Northwestern Siberia and attracted students from Russia, Germany, and the United States. Over the past seven years undergraduate and graduate students representing eight different countries in North America, Europe, and Asia have participated in the field school. This annual summer field course visits different regions of the Russian Arctic each year, but the three course foci remain consistent, which are to make in depth examinations of, 1) natural permafrost characteristics and conditions, 2) field techniques and applications, and 3) engineering practices and construction on permafrost. During these field courses students participate in excursions to local museums and exhibitions, meet with representatives from local administrations, mining and construction industries, and learn field techniques for complex permafrost investigations, including landscape and soil descriptions, temperature monitoring, active-layer measurements, cryostratigraphy, and more. During these courses students attend an evening lecture series by their professors and also give presentations on various regionally oriented topics of interest, such as the local geology, climate, or historical development of the region. This presentation will relate this summer's (July 2013) field course which took place in the Yenisei River region of central Siberia. The course took place along a bioclimatic transect from south to north along the Yenisei River and featured extended stays in the cities of Igarka and Noril'sk. This year's students (undergraduate, masters, and one PhD student) represented universities in the United States, Canada, and the Russian Federation. The organization of this course was accomplished through the cooperation of The George Washington University's Department of Geography and the Lomonosov Moscow State University

  13. Russian Orthography and Learning to Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerek, Eugenia; Niemi, Pekka

    2009-01-01

    The unique structure of Russian orthography may influence the organization and acquisition of reading skills in Russian. The present review examines phonemic-graphemic correspondences in Russian orthography and discusses its grain-size units and possible difficulties for beginning readers and writers. Russian orthography is governed by a…

  14. Change in biochemical and morphological characteristics of Lonicera caerulea in tectonically active zone of the Dzhazator River Valley (Altai Mountains)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyarskikh, I. G.; Khudyaev, S. A.; Platonova, S. G.; Kolotukhin, S. P.; Shitov, A. V.; Kukushkina, T. A.; Chankina, O. V.

    2012-12-01

    Local geophysical and geochemical anomalies affect the polymorphism of taste variations, berry shape, and content of some biologically active substances in Lonicera caerulea leaves in the tectonically active Altai Mountains (Dzhazator River basin).

  15. Assessment of activation products in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.

    1996-07-01

    This document assesses the impact of radioactive activation products released from SRS facilities since the first reactor became operational late in 1953. The isotopes reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS: {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 60}C, and {sup 65}Zn. Release pathways, emission control features, and annual releases to the aqueous and atmospheric environments are discussed. No single incident has resulted in a major acute release of activation products to the environment. The releases were the result of normal operations of the reactors and separations facilities. Releases declined over the years as better controls were established and production was reduced. The overall radiological impact of SRS activation product atmospheric releases from 1954 through 1994 on the offsite maximally exposed individual can be characterized by a total dose of 0.76 mrem. During the same period, such an individual received a total dose of 14,400 mrem from non-SRS sources of ionizing radiation present in the environment. SRS activation product aqueous releases between 1954 and 1994 resulted in a total dose of 54 mrem to the offsite maximally exposed individual. The impact of SRS activation product releases on offsite populations also has been evaluated.

  16. IMPACTS OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON THE SEDIMENT REGIME OF THE HANJIANG RIVER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.

    2009-12-01

    , seasonal, monthly and daily sediment load, and the relationships between water quantity and sediment load were analyzed and compared. The results revealed: the Danjiangkou reservoir imposed significant effects to the river sediment regime and the impacts varied with the distance between the target reservoir and the study site; deforestation resulted in an increase in annual, wet seasonal and dry seasonal sediment load; the trapping of sediment in reservoirs together with soil and water conservation caused a significant reduction in annual, seasonal, monthly and daily sediment load downstream; the reservoir operation mode of “retain high floods in wet seasons” altered the distribution of monthly and daily sediment load downstream, i.e. the percentages of sediment load in high flow months decreasing and the ones in low flow months increasing, and caused an reduction in the percentages of high daily sediment concentration and sediment load downstream; the relationship between water and sediment significantly changed. The output of this paper could provide reference for the assessment of the impacts of human activities on the long-term health and stability of the Hanjiang River ecosystem.

  17. The River Network, Active Tectonics and the Mexican Subduction Zone, Southwest Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaidzik, K.; Ramirez-Herrera, M. T.; Kostoglodov, V.; Basili, R.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers, their profiles and network reflect the integration of multiple processes and forces that are part of the fundamental controls on the relief structure of mountain belts. The motivation of this study is to understand active tectonic processes in the forearc region of subduction zones, by distinguishing evidence of active deformation using the river network and topography. To this end, morphotectonic and structural studies have been conducted on fifteen drainage basins on the mountain front, parallel to the Mexican subduction zone, where the Cocos plate underthrusts the North American plate. The southwest - northeast Cocos plate subduction stress regime initiated ca. 20 MA. NE-SW to NNE-SSW normal faults as well as sub-latitudinal to NW-SE strike-slip faults (both dextral and sinistral) constitute the majority of mesofaults recorded in the field within the studied drainage basins. Occasionally dextral N-S strike-slip faults also occur. The stress tensor reconstruction suggests two main evolution stages of these faults: 1) the older is dominated by a NW-SE to WNW-ESE extensional regime and 2) the younger is a transcurrent regime, with NNE-SSW σ1 axis. The drainage pattern is strongly controlled by tectonic features, whereas lithology is only a subordinate factor, with only one exception (Petatlán river). Generally, major rivers flow from north to south mainly through NE-SW and NNE-SSW normal faults, and/or sub-longitudinal dextral (also locally sinistral) strike-slip faults. In the central and eastern part of the studied area, rivers also follow NW-SE structures, which are generally normal or sinistral strike-slip faults (rarely reverse). In most cases, local deflections of the river main courses are related to sub-latitudinal strike-slip faults, both dextral and sinistral. Within the current stress field related to the active Cocos subduction, both normal and strike-slip fault sets could be reactivated. Our analysis suggests that strike-slip faults, mainly

  18. The Impact of Human Activities on Microbial Quality of Rivers in the Vhembe District, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Traoré, Afsatou N.; Mulaudzi, Khodani; Chari, Gamuchirai J.E.; Foord, Stefan H.; Mudau, Lutendo S.; Barnard, Tobias G.; Potgieter, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Water quality testing is dictated by microbial agents found at the time of sampling in reference to their acceptable risk levels. Human activities might contaminate valuable water resources and add to the microbial load present in water bodies. Therefore, the effects of human activities on the microbial quality of rivers collected from twelve catchments in the Vhembe District in South Africa were investigated, with samples analyzed for total coliform (TC) and Eschericha coli (E. coli) contents. Methods: Physical parameters and various human activities were recorded for each sampling site. The Quanti-Tray® method was adopted for the assessment of TC and E. coli contents in the rivers over a two-year period. A multiplex polymerase chain (PCR) method was used to characterize the strains of E. coli found. Results: The microbial quality of the rivers was poor with both TC and E. coli contents found to be over acceptable limits set by the South African Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS). No significant difference (p > 0.05) was detected between TC and E. coli risks in dry and wet seasons. All six pathogenic E. coli strains were identified and Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), atypical Enteropathogenic E. coli (a-EPEC) and Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) were the most prevalent E. coli strains detected (respectively, 87%, 86% and 83%). Conclusions: The study indicated that contamination in the majority of sampling sites, due to human activities such as car wash, animal grazing and farming, poses health risks to communities using the rivers for various domestic chores. It is therefore recommended that more education by the respective departments is done to avert pollution of rivers and prevent health risks to the communities in the Vhembe District. PMID:27529265

  19. Computer-Focused Russian Bilingual Instructional Program, 1988-89. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berney, Tomi D.; Gritzer, Glenn

    In its fourth year, the computer-Focused Russian Bilingual Instructional Program provided instructional and support activities to 276 Russian-speaking students, most of whom are limited English proficient, at 4 public and 2 private high schools in Brooklyn. Instructional activities varied by site. Public school students took English as a Second…

  20. Extension Russian: A Few Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Irene J.

    1974-01-01

    Presents observations on the teaching of Russian in an evening extension course and four teaching techniques which involve variety in lesson planning, flexibility in presentation, a relaxed atmosphere and encouragement. (LG)

  1. Inside the Russian Soyuz Spacecraft

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of NASA: Behind the Scenes, take a tour inside the Russian Soyuz, the vehicle which takes the expedition crews back and forth to the International Space Station. Astronaut Mike Finc...

  2. Geolocating Russian sources for Arctic black carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn

    2014-08-01

    To design and implement an effective emission control strategy for black carbon (BC), the locations and strength of BC sources must be identified. Lack of accurate source information from the Russian Federation has created difficulty for a range of research and policy activities in the Arctic because Russia occupies the largest landmass in the Arctic Circle. A project was initiated to resolve emission sources of BC in the Russian Federation by using the Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF). It used atmospheric BC data from two Arctic sampling stations at Alert Nunavut, Canada, and Tiksi Bay, Russia. The geographical regions of BC emission sources in Russia were identified and summarized as follows: (1) a region surrounding Moscow, (2) regions in Eurasia stretching along the Ural Mountains from the White Sea to the Black Sea, and (3) a number of scattered areas from western Siberia to the Russian Far East. Particulate potassium ions, non-marine sulfate, and vanadium were used to assist in resolving the source types: forest fire/biomass burning, coal-fired power plant, and oil combustion. Correlating these maps with the BC map helped to resolve source regions of BC emissions and connect them to their corresponding source types. The results imply that a region south of Moscow and another north of the Ural Mountains could be significant BC sources, but none of the grid cells in these regions could be linked to forest fires, oil combustion, or coal-fired power plants based on these three markers.

  3. Bacterial abundance, activity, and viability in the eutrophic River Warnow, northeast Germany.

    PubMed

    Freese, H M; Karsten, U; Schumann, R

    2006-01-01

    The River Warnow is the drinking water source for the city of Rostock. Its eutrophic status is accompanied by high amounts of bacteria, which may reach up to 24 x 10(6) cells mL(-1) as recorded during a seasonal study in 2002. Because the river is eutrophic and also heavily loaded with organic matter, this burden is a problem for drinking water purification, as it must be removed completely to not trigger new bacterial growth in the pipeline network. Therefore, restoration measures in the river have to be planned, and bacteria have to be favored as decomposers. That includes the investigation of the physiological state of bacteria in situ. Viable and active cells in the lower reaches of River Warnow were estimated using a broad set of methods. Intact bacteria were investigated by the LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability kit, containing a mixture of permeant and impermeant nucleic acid stains. Cells with ribosomes were visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization with the EUB338 oligonucleotide probe. Intact cells and ribosome-containing bacteria represented 24% of total numbers stained by 4'6,-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) or 66 and 62%, respectively, in relation to all bacteria visualized by the LIVE/DEAD kit. Both fractions were considered as viable, although the fraction of RIB + bacteria is most likely underestimated by the protocol applied. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyltetrazolium chloride (CTC) was applied to mark respiring bacteria. The esterase substrate CellTracker Green 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate showed cells with intracellular hydrolytic activity. Whereas 1.5% of DAPI-stained bacteria were observed as respiring, 3.8% exhibited intracellular hydrolytic activity on average. If these active fractions were calculated as the percentages of intact cells, much higher fractions of 5.4% were respiring and 16% hydrolytic. Temperature was a main factor influencing total and viable cell numbers simultaneously. The results confirm that there are different

  4. Impact of former uranium mining activities on the floodplains of the Mulde River, Saxony, Germany.

    PubMed

    Bister, S; Birkhan, J; Lüllau, T; Bunka, M; Solle, A; Stieghorst, C; Riebe, B; Michel, R; Walther, C

    2015-06-01

    The Mulde River drains the former uranium mining areas in Saxony (Germany), which has led to a large-scale contamination of the river and the adjacent floodplain soils with radionuclides of the uranium decay series. The objective of the investigation is to quantify the long-term effect of former uranium mining activities on a river system. All of the investigated environmental compartments (water, sediment, soil) still reveal an impact from the former uranium mining and milling activities. The contamination of water has decreased considerably during the last 20 years due to the operation of water treatment facilities. The uranium content of the sediments decreased as well (on average by a factor of 5.6), most likely caused by displacement of contaminated material during flood events. Currently, the impact of the mining activities is most obvious in soils. For some of the plots activity concentrations of >200 Bq/kg of soil were detected for uranium-238. Alluvial soils used as grassland were found to be contaminated to a higher degree than those used as cropland.

  5. Impact of former uranium mining activities on the floodplains of the Mulde River, Saxony, Germany.

    PubMed

    Bister, S; Birkhan, J; Lüllau, T; Bunka, M; Solle, A; Stieghorst, C; Riebe, B; Michel, R; Walther, C

    2015-06-01

    The Mulde River drains the former uranium mining areas in Saxony (Germany), which has led to a large-scale contamination of the river and the adjacent floodplain soils with radionuclides of the uranium decay series. The objective of the investigation is to quantify the long-term effect of former uranium mining activities on a river system. All of the investigated environmental compartments (water, sediment, soil) still reveal an impact from the former uranium mining and milling activities. The contamination of water has decreased considerably during the last 20 years due to the operation of water treatment facilities. The uranium content of the sediments decreased as well (on average by a factor of 5.6), most likely caused by displacement of contaminated material during flood events. Currently, the impact of the mining activities is most obvious in soils. For some of the plots activity concentrations of >200 Bq/kg of soil were detected for uranium-238. Alluvial soils used as grassland were found to be contaminated to a higher degree than those used as cropland. PMID:25791900

  6. Sediment Microbial Enzyme Activity as an Indicator of Nutrient Limitation in the Great Rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) of microbial assemblages in river sediments at 447 sites along the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers with sediment and water chemistry, atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfate, and catchment land uses. The sites re...

  7. Active Uplift At The Taiwan Belt Front Revealed By River Profiles:the Hsiaomei Anticline Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R.-F.; Angelier, J.; Hu, J.-C.; Deffontaines, B.; Tsai, H.

    A river profile may reveal tectonic deformation through comparison with a smoothed theoretical function based on simple assumptions, provided that its relationships with the erosion-accumulation phenomena have been deciphered. The Taiwan orogeny re- sults from the collision between the Luzon volcanic arc of the Philippine Sea plate and the Chinese continental margin of the Eurasian plate. As an active collision zone between the Luzon arc and the China continental margin, the Taiwan mountain belt, particularly its south-central part, is undergoing strong crustal shortening and rapid uplift. In the central part of the island, rock uplift rates are matched by erosion rates calculated from sediment yields and exhumation rates. In the foothills of southwestern Taiwan we focus on the longitudinal profiles of twelve rivers near Chiayi area. Based on the fit with mathematical functions, we characterize a significant positive anomaly in terms of shape, amplitude and location. River data from 1/5,000 topographic maps were used to define a set of parameters related to the classical exponential equation of the longitudinal profiles. We obtained an accepted fit for a set of 5-7 parameters of the polynomial exponent, that is, a degree 4-6. The anomaly is spatially consistent and does not show correlation with variations in erosional-depositional phenomena, including variations in lithology of the rock formations. The anomaly thus reflects tectonic uplift, in good agreement with other sources of information, including the GPS data that indicate active E-W shortening of about 1 cm/yr in this area. The posi- tive anomaly detected in ten river profiles diminishes and vanishes in the northernmost and southernmost river profiles. It reflects continuing folding and uplift within an ellip- tic area elongated N-S, which corresponds to the present-day growth of the Hsiaomei anticline at the front of Taiwan belt.

  8. The influence of particle size on radionuclide activity concentrations in Tejo River sediments.

    PubMed

    Madruga, M J; Silva, L; Gomes, A R; Libânio, A; Reis, M

    2014-06-01

    Sediment samples from Tejo River were analyzed for (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (137)Cs and (40)K by HPGe gamma spectrometry. The activity concentration data were statistically analyzed. The activity concentrations values were in the range of about two orders of magnitude for each radionuclide. The influence of the particle size on the radionuclide concentrations was observed. The different environmental origins of the radionuclides (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (137)Cs and (40)K, in the sediments were demonstrated through correlation analysis. Cluster analysis showed a close relationship between (228)Ra and (226)Ra and a different behavior for (40)K. The data obtained in this study provides useful information on the background radioactivity of the studied area and can be further used for radiological mapping of the Tejo River. PMID:24561724

  9. The influence of particle size on radionuclide activity concentrations in Tejo River sediments.

    PubMed

    Madruga, M J; Silva, L; Gomes, A R; Libânio, A; Reis, M

    2014-06-01

    Sediment samples from Tejo River were analyzed for (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (137)Cs and (40)K by HPGe gamma spectrometry. The activity concentration data were statistically analyzed. The activity concentrations values were in the range of about two orders of magnitude for each radionuclide. The influence of the particle size on the radionuclide concentrations was observed. The different environmental origins of the radionuclides (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (137)Cs and (40)K, in the sediments were demonstrated through correlation analysis. Cluster analysis showed a close relationship between (228)Ra and (226)Ra and a different behavior for (40)K. The data obtained in this study provides useful information on the background radioactivity of the studied area and can be further used for radiological mapping of the Tejo River.

  10. Office of River Protection Advanced Low-Activity Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A. A.; Peeler, D. K.; Kim, D. S.; Vienna, J. D.; Piepel, G. F.; Schweiger, M. J.

    2015-11-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated and leads an integrated Advanced Waste Glass (AWG) program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product performance requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation for making key decisions regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities in the context of an optimized River Protection Project (RPP) flowsheet. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key product performance and process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste vitrification facilities. These activities will be conducted with the objective of improving the overall RPP mission by enhancing flexibility and reducing cost and schedule.

  11. Sediment Microbial Enzyme Activity as an Indicator of Nutrient Limitation in the Great Rivers of the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three conclusions are evident from our comparison of approaches for estimating nutrient limitation in these large floodplain rivers: 1) water chemistry and enzymes indicate that P-limitation is more prevalent than N-limitation; 2) the Ohio River reaches are more extensively P-lim...

  12. Evaluating Russian space nuclear reactor technology for United States applications

    SciTech Connect

    Polansky, G.F.; Schmidt, G.L.; Voss, S.S.; Reynolds, E.L.

    1994-08-01

    Space nuclear power and nuclear electric propulsion are considered important technologies for planetary exploration, as well as selected earth orbit applications. The Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) was intended to provide an early flight demonstration of these technologies at relatively low cost through extensive use of existing Russian technology. The key element of Russian technology employed in the program was the Topaz II reactor. Refocusing of the activities of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), combined with budgetary pressures, forced the cancellation of the NEPSTP at the end of the 1993 fiscal year. The NEPSTP was faced with many unique flight qualification issues. In general, the launch of a spacecraft employing a nuclear reactor power system complicates many spacecraft qualification activities. However, the NEPSTP activities were further complicated because the reactor power system was a Russian design. Therefore, this program considered not only the unique flight qualification issues associated with space nuclear power, but also with differences between Russian and United States flight qualification procedures. This paper presents an overview of the NEPSTP. The program goals, the proposed mission, the spacecraft, and the Topaz II space nuclear power system are described. The subject of flight qualification is examined and the inherent difficulties of qualifying a space reactor are described. The differences between United States and Russian flight qualification procedures are explored. A plan is then described that was developed to determine an appropriate flight qualification program for the Topaz II reactor to support a possible NEPSTP launch.

  13. Variable enzymatic activity of prokaryotes under different hydrological settings in a river floodplain of the Danube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieczko, Anna; Meisterl, Karin; Peduzzi, Peter

    2013-04-01

    This study tackles the role of different hydrological settings in a river-floodplain for organic matter processing by bacteria. Sampling locations in the Danube river-floodplain near Vienna (Austria) were chosen in a way that they represent a gradient of connectivity to the main river. We focused on the influence of variable hydrological connectivity and retention on microbial substrate utilization in the different subsystems of this river-floodplain section. We investigated extracellular enzymatic activity (EEA) both associated with particles (PA) and in the ambient water (FL). The activity of six enzymes was assessed: enzymes involved in the metabolism of carbon (β-d-glucosidase, α-d-glucosidase, β-d-xylosidase, cellobiohydrolase), peptide (endopeptidase [Endo]) and for degradation of refractory lignin material (phenol oxidase [PhOx]). We hypothesized that the degree of connectivity and water exchange in floodplain lakes influences prokaryotic enzymatic activity and productivity both on particles and in the surrounding water. The strong correlation between endopeptidase and phenol oxidase of the FL fraction in all locations suggests a tight coupling of enzymes responsible for utilization of labile and refractory material. Our results indicate that particle-associated bacterial growth in frequently flooded locations was supported by allochthonous carbon derived from polysaccharide hydrolysis, whereas in isolated locations, bacterial biomass was fuelled with carbon obtained largely from lignin utilization. This implies that prolonged residence time in isolated locations allows more refractory material to be utilized. Most of the enzymes (PA and FL) did not show clear dependencies on the degree of connectivity. However, phenol oxidase displayed an interesting pattern: activity of PhOx in ambient water decreased, whereas PA PhOx increased, together with the degree of connectivity. The study also demonstrates enhanced metabolism of the PA bacterial community and a

  14. Thyroid hormone disrupting activities associated with phthalate esters in water sources from Yangtze River Delta.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Zhang, Feng-Xian; Hu, Guan-Jiu; Hao, Ying-Qun; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Hong-Ling; Wei, Si; Wang, Xin-Ru; Giesy, John P; Yu, Hong-Xia

    2012-07-01

    Thyroid hormone disrupting compounds in water sources is a concern. Thyroid hormone (TH) agonist and antagonist activities of water sources from the Yangtze River, Huaihe River, Taihu Lake and ground water in the Yangtze River Delta region were evaluated by use of a TH reporter gene assay based on the green monkey kidney fibroblast (CV-1). While weak TH receptor (TR) agonist potency was observed in only one of 15 water sources, antagonist potency was present in most of the water sources. TR antagonist equivalents could be explained by the presence of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), with concentrations ranging from 2.8×10(1) to 1.6×10(3) μg DBP /L (ATR-EQ(50)s). None of the ground waters exhibited TH agonist potencies while all of the samples from Taihu Lake displayed notable TR antagonist potencies. To identify the responsible thyroid active compounds, instrumental analysis was conducted to measure a list of potential thyroid-disrupting chemicals, including organochlorine (OC) pesticides and phthalate esters. Combining the results of the instrumental analysis with those of the bioassay, DBP was determined to account for 17% to 144% of ATR-EQ(50)s in water sources. Furthermore, ATR-EQ(20-80) ranges for TR antagonist activities indicated that samples from locations WX-1 and WX-2 posed the greatest health concern and the associated uncertainty may warrant further investigation.

  15. Natural resource management activities at the Savannah River Site. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) reviews the environmental consequences of ongoing natural resource management activities on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Appendix A contains the Natural Resources Management Plant (NRMP). While several SRS organizations have primary responsibilities for different elements of the plan, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Savannah River Forest Station (SRFS) is responsible for most elements. Of the river scenarios defined in 1985, the High-Intensity Management alternative established the upper bound of environmental consequences; it represents a more intense level of resource management than that being performed under current resource management activities. This alternative established compliance mechanisms for several natural resource-related requirements and maximum practical timber harvesting. Similarly, the Low-Intensity Management alternative established the lower bound of environmental consequences and represents a less intense level of resource management than that being performed under current resource management activities. This alternative also established compliance mechanisms, but defined a passively managed natural area. The Proposed Action of this EA describes the current level of multiple-natural resource management. This EA reviews the proposed action, and the high and low intensity alternative scenarios.

  16. Mobile Melt-Dilute Treatment for Russian Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, H.

    2002-09-17

    Treatment of spent Russian fuel using a Melt-Dilute (MD) process is proposed to consolidate fuel assemblies into a form that is proliferation resistant and provides critically safety under storage and disposal configurations. Russian fuel elements contain a variety of fuel meat and cladding materials. The Melt-Dilute treatment process was initially developed for aluminum-based fuels so additional development is needed for several cladding and fuel meat combinations in the Russian fuel inventory (e.g. zirconium-clad, uranium-zirconium alloy fuel). A Mobile Melt-Dilute facility (MMD) is being proposed for treatment of spent fuels at reactor site storage locations in Russia; thereby, avoiding the costs of building separate treatment facilities at each site and avoiding shipment of enriched fuel assemblies over the road. The MMD facility concept is based on laboratory tests conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), and modular pilot-scale facilities constructed at the Savannah River Site for treatment of US spent fuel. SRTC laboratory tests have shown the feasibility of operating a Melt-Dilute treatment process with either a closed system or a filtered off-gas system. The proposed Mobile Melt-Dilute process is presented in this paper.

  17. A joint Russian-American field test at the Chelyabinsk-65 (Mayak) Site: Test description and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenberg, H.; Tsang, C.F.; Frangos, W.

    1995-05-01

    In September 1994, a Russian-American team conducted hydrogeological, geochemical, geophysical, and radiometric measurements in the territory of the Mayak Production Association. The primary purpose of these operations was to examine the groundwater plume moving from Lake Karachai toward the river. Activities encompassed isolation of hydrologic intervals in two wells and production of water from these intervals, to compare isolated versus open-well sampling methods; surface and soil-water sampling, accompanying radiometric measurements and subsequent chemical analyses; and electrical resistivity profiling in areas of expected contrasting resistivity. Preliminary results indicate that (1) {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs are present in small concentrations in water of the Mishelyak River, (2) analyses of water samples collected by a downhole sampler and of water produced from packed-off intervals agree within limits of laboratory accuracy, attesting to the efficacy of the sampling methods presently used by the Russian workers; and (3) strong contrasts occur between the electrical resistivities of soil and bedrock. Further collaborative work is strongly recommended, and should include more detailed isolation of intervals in wells by multi-packer installations, to better determine the geochemical and hydrological characteristics of the Karachai-Mishelyak system; deployment of a broader soil-water and soil sampling array; a more detailed examination of the distribution and concentration of radionuclides by high-resolution field gamma spectrometry; and a detailing of the area`s electrical resistivity setting, using a mobile electromagnetic measurement system.

  18. [The directions of activity of the medical service on prophylaxis and early revealing of tuberculosis in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Khalimov, Iu Sh; Beznosik, R V; Shitov, Iu N; Dantsev, V V; Muchaidze, R D

    2012-07-01

    The basic directions of system of antituberculous actions in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation includes: 1) non-admission of citizens, sick of tuberculosis, on military service; 2) allocation of group of persons with the raised risk of tuberculosis among all military servicemen, dispensary dynamic supervision over them and carrying out of chemoprophylaxis; 3) revealing of tuberculosis among military servicemen at preventive medical inspections (including fluorography), and also in case of reference for medical aid with the symptoms specifying on possibility of tuberculosis; 4) carrying out antiepidemic actions in military unit, in case of revealing patient, sick of tuberculosis, well-timed, qualitatively and in full. The major stage of antituberculous actions is a profound medical examination of young reinforcement (recruits under service call and under the contract) after the arrival in army. Preventive actions in group of persons with the raised risk of tuberculosis also are a priority for the medical service of military unit. Final desinfection, controllable emergency chemoprophylaxis and extraordinary fluorography of contact persons under epidemic indications are crucial important for decrease of morbidity in the army focuses of tuberculosis.

  19. Famous Russian brains: historical attempts to understand intelligence.

    PubMed

    Vein, Alla A; Maat-Schieman, Marion L C

    2008-02-01

    Russian scientists are certainly among those who contributed actively to the search for the neuroanatomical basis of exceptional mental capacity and talent. Research into brain anatomy was one of the topics of special interest in various Russian universities. A number of independent reports on the study of famous Russian brains appeared both in Russia and abroad. Collecting and mapping brains of elite Russians in a structured manner began in Moscow in 1924 with the brain of V. I. Lenin. In 1928, the Moscow Brain Research Institute was founded, the collection of which includes the brains of several prominent Russian neuroscientists, including V. M. Bekhterev, G. I. Rossolimo, L. S. Vygotsky and I. P. Pavlov. The fact that the brain of two of the most outstanding scholars of Russian neurology and psychiatry, A. Ya. Kozhevnikov (1836-1902) and S. S. Korsakov (1854-1900), have been studied is largely unknown. A report of the results of this study was published by A. A. Kaputsin in 1925 providing a detailed neuroanatomical assessment of the brains. A considerable weight, a predominance of the left hemisphere and a particularly complex convolution of the frontal and parietal lobes of both brains were reported, the assumption being that these brain parameters can serve as an indicator of mental capacity. The names Kozhevnikov and Korsakov are among those most cherished by Russian neuroscientists; they are also familiar to Western colleagues. The (re)discovery of the records of the brain autopsies is meaningful, maybe not so much from a neuroanatomical point of view as from a historical perspective. PMID:18182419

  20. Trace metals in sediments of a Mediterranean estuary affected by human activities (Acheloos river estuary, Greece).

    PubMed

    Dassenakis, M; Degaita, A; Scoullos, M

    1995-05-19

    Trace metals were studied in the sediments of the ecologically, economically and scientifically important estuary of the Acheloos river, in western Greece. Human activities (dams, agriculture, traffic, etc.) influence the estuarine system of Acheloos and in combination with the hydrological, mineralogical and morphological characteristics of the estuary affect the chemical behaviour and the distribution patterns of trace metals in its sediments. The large scale disturbance of the system is imminent in the near future as it is planned to divert approximately 50% of the river water. A study of the distribution patterns of trace metals revealed that in the estuary there are zones with different metal levels. The concentrations of most metals (Al, Fe, Cu, Ni, Zn) are elevated in three of these zones (upstream, sill, seawards). A different behaviour was observed for Mn due to its association with carbonates that were observed in significant concentrations throughout the estuarine zone. A sequential extraction procedure, applied to the sediments, indicated low percentages of easily exchangeable metals, increased mobility of Cu and Zn and increased association of Ni, Cr and Fe with the aluminosilicate lattice. Although the river is not considered to be heavily polluted, some metals have shown an enrichment in the surface sediments as a result of general anthropogenic activities not derived from point sources.

  1. In Brief: Russian volcano warnings reinstated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-04-01

    The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) is again issuing warnings for aviation during periods of activity by Kamchatkan volcanoes. KVERT had stopped issuing warnings on 1 March due to a loss of funding by the Federal Unitary Enterprise State Air Traffic Management Corporation of Russia (see Eos 88(12), 2007). The funding for this work has now resumed. KVERT is a collaborative project of scientists from the Russian Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, the Kamchatka Experimental and Methodical Seismological Department, and the Alaska Volcano Observatory.

  2. Russian Prime Minister Calls the Station Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin called the International Space Station from the Russian Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia, on Jan. 11, 2011. Putin also offered his condolences to ISS ...

  3. Geomorphic impacts of active tectonics on a river course, the case of Klissoura gorge, central Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsanakas, Konstantinos; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Karymbalis, Efthimios

    2014-05-01

    The delicate balance of the natural processes within the river systems can be easily tipped making them very sensitive to changes occurring on the earth surface. Fluvial systems are therefore profoundly influenced by endogenic processes such as active tectonics as well as global sea level fluctuations following the climatic variations during the Quaternary. This study deals with the geomorphological evolution of the broader area of the abandoned gorge of Klissoura which is located in central Greece. This 130 m deep and roughly 3 km long gorge is a characteristic example of an old drainage course preserved on the footwall blocks of two normal faults which confine both outlets of the deeply incised valley. The gorge has formed by a river that once had a N-S flow direction discharging into the Gulf of Patras. Acheloos River and the much smaller Ermitza Remma Stream are the two recent primary watercourses which drain the area close to the abandoned gorge. Both the dimensions and morphological characteristics of the abandoned deep valley indicate that the gorge has formed by a large river with high discharge in order to incise into the limestone bedrock. In order to investigate the tectonic constrains and determine the geomorphic and climatic processes that compelled the lower reaches of Acheloos River to abandon the gorge and find an outlet following its present course a GIS based analysis at a scale of 1:50.000 was applied in the drainage basin of Acheloos River. Additionally, to reconstruct the palaeolandscape and the earth surface processes, a detailed morphometric and geomorphic analysis of the abandoned gorge was also performed at a scale of 1:5.000 coupled with field observations and stratigraphic analysis of the deposits outcropping on the valley sides within the gorge as well as on both outlets. The geomorphic analysis led to the conclusion that the primary course of the gorge abandonment and diversion and reverse of the drainage is the uplift of the footwall

  4. Thiaminase activity and life history investigations in American Shad in the Columbia river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetzel, Lisa A.; Parsley, Michael J; van der Leeuw, Bjorn K.; Larsen, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima fry were successfully transplanted from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast in 1871 and have subsequently proliferated. The Columbia River population is in the millions, yet few investigations have been conducted to better understand their life history, population dynamics, or potential impacts on other species. In 2007 and 2008 we captured American shad from the Columbia River to assess levels of thiaminase activity and to characterize some aspects of American shad life history. Thiaminase levels in age-0 and adult fish were high and ranged from 4,113-20,874 pmol/g/min. Ages of spawning American shad ranged from 3-7 years and iteroparity was approximately 33-36% in the spawning population. Males were typically younger and smaller and had a higher degree of iteroparity than females

  5. River sinuosity changes as indicators of the possible neotectonic activity - a case study on the Danube River between Paks (Hungary) and Beograd (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovszki, Judit

    2010-05-01

    The meandering, pre-regulation river planforms of the Danube River, between Paks (Hungary) and Beograd (Serbia) was digitized from the map sheets of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire (Timár et al., 2006). These maps were surveyed before or simultaneously with the river control works, so it is possible to follow the natural riverbeds, the natural changing of the meandering structure. The sinuosity values were calculated with different window sizes, and displayed in a spectrum-like diagram (sinuosity spectra; after van Balen et al., 2008). The channel sinuosity of this river is analyzed in order to draw conclusions on the neotectonic activity of the western part of the Great Hungarian Plain. Several points of sinuosity change were identified. To prove that these are of neotectonic origin, a neotectonic map and seismic sections crossing the study area, were also analyzed. Significant sinuosity changes (low to high or high to low), spatially correlated to linear features identified in seismic survey sections or in tectonic maps (Horváth et al., 2006), indicate their neotectonic activity (Ouchi, 1985; Timár, 2003; Zámolyi et al., 2010). Upstream of the Hungarian-Serbian border, the Duna (Danube) has anabranching planform, the Baracskai-Duna is the main anabranch. There is a fault on the neotectonic map, crossing both rivers, and cause the decreasing of the sinuosity. The vertical activity of the structural line, which is more or less parallel to the international border, is verified by the sinuosity change. The direction of the change (from high to low sinuosity values) correlates with the normal fault character, shown on the map. Another significant sinuosity change occurs downstream of the Drava River confluence. The explanation of this change can be of two kinds. First, there is a known tectonic feature along the Drava River, with dextral faulting. The sinuosity increase could indicate a small active vertical component of this structural line

  6. Russian Soyuz in Launch Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Soyuz TM-31 launch vehicle is shown in the vertical position for its launch from Baikonur, carrying the first resident crew to the International Space Station. The Russian Soyuz launch vehicle is an expendable spacecraft that evolved out of the original Class A (Sputnik). From the early 1960s until today, the Soyuz launch vehicle has been the backbone of Russia's marned and unmanned space launch fleet. Today, the Soyuz launch vehicle is marketed internationally by a joint Russian/French consortium called STARSEM. As of August 2001, there have been ten Soyuz missions under the STARSEM banner.

  7. Suppression of aromatase activity in populations of bream (Abramis brama) from the river Elbe, Germany.

    PubMed

    Hecker, Markus; Sanderson, J Thomas; Karbe, Ludwig

    2007-01-01

    Aromatase activity was determined in brain and gonads of wild bream collected along the river Elbe, Germany, and correlated with other endocrine and reproductive endpoints such as plasma sex steroid concentrations, secondary sex characteristics (STI), plasma vitellogenin, gonad size (GSI), and maturation stages of germ cells (MS) that were reported for the same fish in a previous study. Furthermore, regional patterns of aromatase activity were correlated to a number of environmental factors such as exposure to environmental contaminants and parasitism. While aromatase activity was not detectable in the gonads of male and female fish with the assay used, fish of both genders revealed relatively great brain enzyme activities. As for most of the endocrine and reproductive parameters, with the exception of plasma testosterone (T), aromatase activities were significantly less in fish from a river stretch characterized by elevated exposures to organic contaminants and metals. Brain aromatase activity was positively and significantly correlated with plasma estradiol (E2) and MS in females, and showed a similar trend with plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) and STI in males. No comparable trend occurred for T. This decrease of the reproductively relevant hormones 11KT and E2 may be indicative of a disruption of the last step in sex hormone synthesis, a hypothesis that was supported for E2 by the strong (R2=0.78, p<0.05) linear regression between aromatase activity and E2 in female bream. It is also hypothesized that the effects on brain aromatase activity were likely to be related to the disruption of other reproductive parameters including sexual maturity and expression of secondary sex characteristics. Although a number of factors such as exposure to pollutants and prevalence of the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis correlated with the suppression of aromatase activity, the exact causes for the regional decrease in brain aromatase activity remain unclear due to inconsistencies

  8. Processing of Contrastiveness by Heritage Russian Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekerina, Irina A.; Trueswell, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments in the Visual World paradigm compared how monolingual Russian (Experiment 1) and heritage Russian-English bilingual (Experiment 2) listeners process contrastiveness online in Russian. Materials were color adjective-noun phrases embedded into the split-constituent construction Krasnuju polozite zvezdovku..."Red put…

  9. Teaching Russian Culture: Concepts of Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dianne

    Russian culture is very much influenced by its huge land area, peculiar topography, and harsh climate. To understand Russian culture one must know how Russians perceive nature. This paper discusses how this concept may be conveyed to U.S. middle school students through poetry. Poems about nature can provide students an opportunity to understand…

  10. Russian Loanword Adaptation in Persian; Optimal Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambuziya, Aliye Kord Zafaranlu; Hashemi, Eftekhar Sadat

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed some of the phonological rules of Russian loanword adaptation in Persian, on the view of Optimal Theory (OT) (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004). It is the first study of phonological process on Russian loanwords adaptation in Persian. By gathering about 50 current Russian loanwords, we selected some of them to analyze. We…

  11. Social and Racial Correlates of Russian Roulette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven; Wasserman, Ira

    2008-01-01

    The epidemiology of a neglected form of suicidal behavior, Russian roulette, is addressed. Also tested is an explanation of racial differences based on the opportunity theory of deviant behavior related to the availability of revolvers, necessary weapons with which to play Russian roulette. Data refer to 15 cases of Russian roulette found through…

  12. Occurrence and distribution of antibiotics in coastal water of the Bohai Bay, China: impacts of river discharge and aquaculture activities.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shichun; Xu, Weihai; Zhang, Ruijie; Tang, Jianhui; Chen, Yingjun; Zhang, Gan

    2011-10-01

    The presence of 21 antibiotics in six different groups was investigated in coastal water of the Bohai Bay. Meantime, to illuminate the potential effects caused by the river discharge and aquaculture activities, wastewater from three breeding plants and surface water from six rivers flowing into the Bohai Bay were also analyzed for the selected antibiotics. The result revealed that measured antibiotics in the North Bobai Bay were generally higher than those in the South, highlighting the remarkable effects of high density of human activities on the exposure of antibiotics in environment. The antibiotics found in the six rivers were generally higher than those in the Bohai Bay reflecting the important antibiotics source of river discharge. This study reveals that the high consumption of some antibiotics in aquaculture activities may pose high ecological risk to the bay.

  13. EVA Suit 2000: a joint European/Russian space suit design.

    PubMed

    Moller, P; Loewens, R; Abramov, I P; Albats, E A

    1995-07-01

    A feasibility study in 1992 showed the benefits of a common European Russian space suit development, EVA Suit 2000, replacing the Russian space suit Orlan-DMA and the planned European Hermes EVA space suit at the turn of the century. This EVA Suit 2000 is a joint development initiated by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Russian Space Agency (RKA). The main objectives of this development program are: first utilization aboard the Russian Space Station MIR-2; performance improvement with respect to current operational suits; development cost reduction. Russian experience gained with the present extravehicular activity (EVA) suit on the MIR Space Station and extensive application of European Technologies will be needed to achieve these ambitious goals. This paper presents the current status of the development activities, the space suit system design and concentrates in more detail on life support aspects. Specific subjects addressed will include the overall life support conceptual architecture, design features, crew comfort and operational considerations.

  14. From headwaters to coast: influence of human activities on water quality of the Potomac River Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Suzanne B.; Rice, Karen C.; Bricker, Owen P.

    2014-01-01

    The natural aging process of Chesapeake Bay and its tributary estuaries has been accelerated by human activities around the shoreline and within the watershed, increasing sediment and nutrient loads delivered to the bay. Riverine nutrients cause algal growth in the bay leading to reductions in light penetration with consequent declines in sea grass growth, smothering of bottom-dwelling organisms, and decreases in bottom-water dissolved oxygen as algal blooms decay. Historically, bay waters were filtered by oysters, but declines in oyster populations from overfishing and disease have led to higher concentrations of fine-sediment particles and phytoplankton in the water column. Assessments of water and biological resource quality in Chesapeake Bay and tributaries, such as the Potomac River, show a continual degraded state. In this paper, we pay tribute to Owen Bricker’s comprehensive, holistic scientific perspective using an approach that examines the connection between watershed and estuary. We evaluated nitrogen inputs from Potomac River headwaters, nutrient-related conditions within the estuary, and considered the use of shellfish aquaculture as an in-the-water nutrient management measure. Data from headwaters, nontidal, and estuarine portions of the Potomac River watershed and estuary were analyzed to examine the contribution from different parts of the watershed to total nitrogen loads to the estuary. An eutrophication model was applied to these data to evaluate eutrophication status and changes since the early 1990s and for comparison to regional and national conditions. A farm-scale aquaculture model was applied and results scaled to the estuary to determine the potential for shellfish (oyster) aquaculture to mediate eutrophication impacts. Results showed that (1) the contribution to nitrogen loads from headwater streams is small (about 2 %) of total inputs to the Potomac River Estuary; (2) eutrophic conditions in the Potomac River Estuary have improved in

  15. DIVERSE ACTIVE WELL NEUTRON COINCIDENCE COUNTER UTILITY AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Dewberry, R; Saleem Salaymeh, S

    2007-01-08

    In this paper we describe use of the Aquila active well neutron coincidence counter for nuclear material assays of {sup 235}U in multiple analytical techniques at Savannah River Site (SRS), at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and at Argonne West National Laboratory (AWNL). The uses include as a portable passive neutron counter for field measurements searching for evidence of {sup 252}Cf deposits and storage; as a portable active neutron counter using an external activation source for field measurements searching for trace {sup 235}U deposits and holdup; for verification measurements of U-Al reactor fuel elements; for verification measurements of uranium metal; and for verification measurements of process waste of impure uranium in a challenging cement matrix. The wide variety of uses described demonstrate utility of the technique for neutron coincidence verification measurements over the dynamic ranges of 100 g-5000 g for U metal, 200 g-1300 g for U-Al, and 8 g-35 g for process waste. In addition to demonstrating use of the instrument in both the passive and active modes, we also demonstrate its use in both the fast and thermal neutron modes.

  16. Linking rapid erosion of the Mekong River delta to human activities.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Edward J; Brunier, Guillaume; Besset, Manon; Goichot, Marc; Dussouillez, Philippe; Nguyen, Van Lap

    2015-01-01

    As international concern for the survival of deltas grows, the Mekong River delta, the world's third largest delta, densely populated, considered as Southeast Asia's most important food basket, and rich in biodiversity at the world scale, is also increasingly affected by human activities and exposed to subsidence and coastal erosion. Several dams have been constructed upstream of the delta and many more are now planned. We quantify from high-resolution SPOT 5 satellite images large-scale shoreline erosion and land loss between 2003 and 2012 that now affect over 50% of the once strongly advancing >600 km-long delta shoreline. Erosion, with no identified change in the river's discharge and in wave and wind conditions over this recent period, is consistent with: (1) a reported significant decrease in coastal surface suspended sediment from the Mekong that may be linked to dam retention of its sediment, (2) large-scale commercial sand mining in the river and delta channels, and (3) subsidence due to groundwater extraction. Shoreline erosion is already responsible for displacement of coastal populations. It is an additional hazard to the integrity of this Asian mega delta now considered particularly vulnerable to accelerated subsidence and sea-level rise, and will be exacerbated by future hydropower dams. PMID:26446752

  17. Linking rapid erosion of the Mekong River delta to human activities.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Edward J; Brunier, Guillaume; Besset, Manon; Goichot, Marc; Dussouillez, Philippe; Nguyen, Van Lap

    2015-10-08

    As international concern for the survival of deltas grows, the Mekong River delta, the world's third largest delta, densely populated, considered as Southeast Asia's most important food basket, and rich in biodiversity at the world scale, is also increasingly affected by human activities and exposed to subsidence and coastal erosion. Several dams have been constructed upstream of the delta and many more are now planned. We quantify from high-resolution SPOT 5 satellite images large-scale shoreline erosion and land loss between 2003 and 2012 that now affect over 50% of the once strongly advancing >600 km-long delta shoreline. Erosion, with no identified change in the river's discharge and in wave and wind conditions over this recent period, is consistent with: (1) a reported significant decrease in coastal surface suspended sediment from the Mekong that may be linked to dam retention of its sediment, (2) large-scale commercial sand mining in the river and delta channels, and (3) subsidence due to groundwater extraction. Shoreline erosion is already responsible for displacement of coastal populations. It is an additional hazard to the integrity of this Asian mega delta now considered particularly vulnerable to accelerated subsidence and sea-level rise, and will be exacerbated by future hydropower dams.

  18. Soil and water pollution derived from anthropogenic activities in the Porsuk River Basin, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuce, Galip; Pinarbasi, Arzu; Ozcelik, Sakir; Ugurluoglu, Didem

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the degree of the influence of contaminant sources on both the surface (Porsuk River) and groundwater in the Eskisehir plain, (Turkey) and to determine the changes in groundwater quality after the sewage system was started in 1998. For this purpose surface and groundwater samples were collected from various locations in the Eskisehir plain between May and October, 2001. The Porsuk River is already polluted in the upstream wastewater and by industries such as Nitrogen Fertilizer Factory, Sugar-beet Factory, and Magnesite Factory located around the city of Kutahya. This high-contaminated water forms an eutrophic environment which generates high phosphorus and nitrogen in downstream flow. Agricultural and industrial activities in the Eskisehir plain are an additional source of the pollution of the Porsuk River. The study revealed that some trace elements, Pb, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Cd, are present in high concentrations both in the surface and groundwater besides extremely high quantities of phosphorus, nitrogen and sulfide compounds. In addition, analyses of samples also indicated that there are no considerable contaminations in terms of local pesticides. High concentration of Cd, N and S are found in the groundwater. On the basis of a detailed analysis of the groundwater in the Eskisehir plain, it is concluded that groundwater is not suitable for drinking according to Turkish standards, European Union Standards (EU) and World Health Organization (WHO).

  19. Effects of logging activities on ecological water quality indicators in the Berasau River, Johor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nor Zaiha, A; Mohd Ismid, M S; Salmiati; Shahrul Azri, M S

    2015-08-01

    Influence of deforestation on biodiversity of aquatic organisms was investigated in a stream in the Ulu Sedili Forest Reserve. The stream was monitored five (5) times from December 2011 until December 2012 with 2-month intervals. Sampling of benthic communities was carried out using rectangular dip net while water quality study using a YSI ProPlus meter and the rest were done in the laboratory. Physicochemical parameters and water quality index (WQI) calculation showed no significant difference among the investigated events. WQI classified the Berasau River between Class II (good) to III (moderate) of river water quality. In total, 603 individuals representing 25 taxa that were recorded with Decapods from genus Macrobrabchium were widely distributed. Several intolerant taxa, especially Ephemeroptera and Odonata, were also observed in this river. According to Pearson's correlation analysis, the richness and diversity indices were generally influenced by water quality parameters represented by WQI (P < 0.01). In conclusion, logging activities have strong attributes for variation in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage.

  20. Emerging and priority contaminants with endocrine active potentials in sediments and fish from the River Po (Italy).

    PubMed

    Luigi, Viganò; Giuseppe, Mascolo; Claudio, Roscioli

    2015-09-01

    There is a substantial lack of information on most priority pollutants, related contamination trends, and (eco)toxicological risks for the major Italian watercourse, the River Po. Targeting substances of various uses and origins, this study provides the first systematic data for the River Po on a wide set of priority and emerging chemicals, all characterized by endocrine-active potentials. Flame retardants, natural and synthetic hormones, surfactants, personal care products, legacy pollutants, and other chemicals have been investigated in sediments from the River Po and its tributary, the River Lambro, as well as in four fish species from the final section of the main river. With few exceptions, all chemicals investigated could be tracked in the sediments of the main Italian river for tens or hundreds of kilometres downstream from the Lambro tributary. Nevertheless, the results indicate that most of these contaminants, i.e., TBBPA, TCBPA, TBBPA-bis, DBDPE, HBCD, BPA, OP, TCS, TCC, AHTN, HHCB, and DDT, individually pose a negligible risk to the River Po. In contrast, PBDE, PCB, natural and synthetic estrogens, and to a much lower extent NP, were found at levels of concern either to aquatic life or human health. Adverse biological effects and prohibition of fish consumption deserve research attention and management initiatives, also considering the transport of contaminated sediments to transitional and coastal environments of the Italian river. PMID:25956513

  1. Data Acquisition System for Russian Arctic Magnetometer Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzhura, A.; Troshichev, O. A.; Takahashi, K.

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring of magnetic activity in the auroral zone is very essential for space weather problem. The big part of northern auroral zone lies in the Russian sector of Arctica. The Russian auroral zone stations are located far from the proper infrastructure and communications, and getting the data from the stations is complicated and nontrivial task. To resolve this problem a new acquisition system for magnetometers was implemented and developed in last few years, with the magnetic data transmission in real time that is important for many forecasting purpose. The system, based on microprocessor modules, is very reliable in hush climatic conditions. The information from the magnetic sensors transmits to AARI data center by satellite communication system and is presented at AARI web pages. This equipment upgrading of Russian polar magnetometer network is supported by the international RapidMag program.

  2. Impact of human activities on the quality of river water: The case of Evrotas River catchment basin, Greece.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, M O; Markantonatos, P G; Bacalis, N C

    1995-04-01

    The impact of point (domestic and industrial effluents) and non-point (agricultural land runoff) pollution sources on the quality of the receiving waters of the Evrotas River (Laconia, Greece) was investigated during a monitoring study from August 1991 to August 1992. The part of the river which was located near the city of Sparta was seasonally influenced by the discharge of effluents from orange juice plants (operating during winter) and by the discharge of septage for the emptying of cesspools which are serving part of the city. The low dilution of incoming pollutants (septage) during the low water flow in summer lead to the decreasing self-purification capacity of the river and the development of septicity conditions in some of its parts. In the vicinity of intensively cultivated areas, the high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus which were detected in the river water during winter and spring may be partly attributed to the leaching of the applied fertilizers because of nirogen mobilization and soil erosion, following the season's precipitations. The protection of the Evrotas River water Quality must therefore include adequate treatment of the septage produced in the area, as well as the construction of wastewater treatment plants for the major industries of the area. The non-point pollution could be controlled by the restoration of the Evrotas riparian vegetation, together with a more rational use of fertilizers in the area. PMID:24202273

  3. Russian roulette with a knife.

    PubMed

    Frazer, M; Rosenberg, S

    1983-01-01

    The following case report describes an accidental stabbing that occurred on Halloween. The unwitting victim, while preparing for a holiday charade, stabbed himself with an ornamental dagger. By placing himself in a potentially hazardous situation, the victim's behavior entailed risk taking. The psychological implications of such risk taking are complex, and may be compared to such behaviors as russian roulette, gambling, and parasuicide.

  4. Atlanta Public Schools Russian Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Billie Davis; And Others

    This guide for teachers of Russian outlines course objectives and general educational goals. Contents include information on: (1) philosophy and long-range goals, (2) student recruitment, (3) program counseling, (4) English in the classroom, (5) grammar, (6) articulation, (7) independent study, (8) grouping for student-centered work, (9) reading…

  5. Identity Options in Russian Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shardakova, Marya; Pavlenko, Aneta

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces a new analytical approach to the study of identity options offered in foreign and second language textbooks. This approach, grounded in poststructuralist theory and critical discourse analysis, is applied to 2 popular beginning Russian textbooks. Two sets of identity options are examined in the study: imagined learners…

  6. Russian program of planetary missions.

    PubMed

    Galeev, A A

    1996-01-01

    In the area of Solar System Exploration most of recently proposed mission oriented to the studies of Mars. Except MARS-96 and possibly MARS SAMPLE RETURN missions other Mars missions use Molnija class launchers. All Russian missions heavily involve international partners.

  7. Launch of Russian reactor postponed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-05

    Astronomers and weapons scientists seemed heated on a collision course a few months ago over the military's plans to send a Russian nuclear reactor into space. But an agreement reached in late January has prevented a pile-up, at least for 6 months. The astronomers, led by Donald Lamb of the University of Chicago, were objecting to plans by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) to launch Topaz 2, an experimental Russian nuclear reactor, arguing that rogue particles from it might ruin sensitive gamma ray experiments. The reactor is designed to propel itself in space with a jet of xenon ions. One worry was that leaking gamma rays and positrons, which can travel in the earth's magnetic field and pop up in the darndest places, might cause false signals in gamma ray monitors (Science, 18 December 1992, p. 1878). The worry has abated now that SDI officials will postpone choosing a rocket and mission altitutde for Topaz 2 for 6 months, while experts study how its emissions at various altitudes might affect instruments aboard the Gamma Ray Observatory and other satellites. In effect, the SDIO has agreed to an environmental impact study for space, following an unusual meeting organized by former Russian space official Roald Sagdeev at the University of Maryland on 19 January. There the Russian designers of Topaz 2, its new owners at the SDIO, and critics in the astronomy community achieved common ground: that more study was needed.

  8. Causes and systematics of inundations of the Krasnodar territory on the Russian Black Sea coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeevsky, Nikolay; Magritsky, Dmitry V.; Koltermann, Klaus Peter; Krylenko, Inna; Toropov, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    thawing snow. Annually up to 25 floods have been observed. The principal reason of such distribution is the increase of extreme rainfall in the warm season. Orographic features of the coast and detailed features of rainfall only cover a small number of local river basins and a limited area. The geographical correlation of individual rainfall and subsequent floods ceases to be statistically significant for distances over 40-60 km. The annual flow cycle is mainly determined by two seasons, winter/spring and summer, with strong and weak flows, respectively; almost 71 % of all catastrophic and exceptional inundations took place in July-August (71 %) and in October-November (29 %). The characteristic features of dangerous floods are their rapid formation and propagation, a significant increase of water level (up to 5-7 m and more) and the multiple increase of water discharges in comparison with low flow period. Analysis of the interannual changes of the number of inundations at the Black Sea coast of the Krasnodar territory has shown some increase of the number of inundations in the period from the early 1970s until the early years of the twenty-first century. Quantitative assessments of risk, hazard and damage for the population and economic activities from accidental inundations in the valleys of the Black Sea coast rivers show that economic and social losses from inundations at the Black Sea coast of the Krasnodar territory are some of the highest in the Russian Federation. The basic conclusion from recent inundations is the need to consider not only the lower reaches and mouths of the Black Sea coast rivers where the main part of the social and economic development of the coast is concentrated, but also whole river basins and catchments. Further, an analysis of the efficiency of the measures applied at the coast to mitigate inundations and their after-effects is provided.

  9. Quantifying the transition from fluvial- to wave-dominance for river deltas with multiple active channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienhuis, J.; Ashton, A. D.; Giosan, L.

    2012-12-01

    The plan-view morphologies of fluvial- and wave-dominated deltas are clearly distinctive, but transitional forms are numerous. A quantitative, process-based description of this transition remains unexplored, particularly for river deltas with multiple active channels. Previous studies focused on general attributes of the fluvial and marine environment, such as the balance between wave energy and river discharge. Here, we propose that the transition between fluvial and wave dominance is directly related to the magnitude of the fluvial bedload flux to the nearshore region versus the alongshore sediment transport capacity of waves removing sediment away from the mouth. In the case of a single-channel delta, this balance can be computed for a given distribution of waves approaching shore. Fluvial dominance occurs when fluvial sediment input exceeds the wave-sustained maximum alongshore sediment transport for all potential shoreline orientations both up- and downdrift of the river mouth. However, deltaic channels have the tendency to bifurcate with increasing fluvial strength. Initial bifurcation splits the fluvial sediment flux among individual channels, while the potential sediment transport by waves remains constant for both river mouths. At higher bifurcation orders, multiple channels interact with each other alongshore, a situation more complicated than the single channel case and one that cannot be simple addressed analytically. We apply a model of plan-view shoreline evolution to simulate the evolution of a deltaic environment with multiple active channels. A highly simplified fluvial domain is represented by deposition of sediment where channels meet the coast. We investigate two scenarios of fluvial delivery. The first scenario deposits fluvial sediment alongshore on a self-similar predefined network of channels. We analyze the effects of different network geometrical parameters, such as bifurcation length, bifurcation angle, and sediment partitioning. In the

  10. Russians Work on Aft Portion of Zarya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this photograph, Russians are working on the aft portion of the United States-funded, Russian-built Functional Cargo Bay (FGB) also known as Zarya (Russian for sunrise). Built at Khrunichev, the FGB began pre-launch testing shortly after this photo was taken. Launched by a Russian Proton rocket from the Baikonu Cosmodrome on November 20, 1998, Zarya was the first element of the International Space Station (ISS) followed by the U.S. Unity Node. The aft docking mechanism, Pirs, on the far right with ventilation ducting rurning through it, will be docked with the third Station element, the Russian Service Module, or Zvezda.

  11. Russian perspectives: The past shapes the present

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, R.P.

    1994-11-01

    This document contains an outline of a speech given to a group of professionals at Pacific Northwest Laboratory which was intended to give an unbiased view of Soviet perceptions. Topics discussed include: The new mission of US and Soviet labs and institutions to develop products and dedicate research to post cold war threat, historical prospectives of Russia, Russian military roles and missions, ideology of Russian politics, evils of capitalism, Russian civil war, communism, world war II, Russian losses during the war, the cold war, reasons why America should care what happens in Russia, the internal threat against a market-based economy, the US should help, and the Russian people and their attitudes.

  12. Late Holocene dune activity in the Eastern Platte River Valley, Nebraska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, P. R.; Joeckel, R. M.; Young, A. R.; Horn, J.

    2009-02-01

    Large-scale dune activity in the Nebraska Sand Hills and elsewhere on the western Great Plains has been linked to prehistoric "megadroughts" that triggered the activation of regional dune fields. The effect of megadroughts on the smaller dune fields east of the Nebraska Sand Hills has never been assessed, however. This study focuses on the Duncan dune field near the confluence of the Loup and Platte rivers in eastern Nebraska. Seventeen optically stimulated luminescence age estimates were obtained and reveal two periods of dune activation that occurred between 4.4 to 3.4 ka and 0.8 to 0.5 ka. Significantly, both periods chronologically overlap large-scale dune activity identified in the Nebraska Sand Hills. Geochemical evidence indicates that the Duncan dunes received sand not only from the terrace underlying them, but also from the Loup River. These data link dune activity in the Duncan area, at least indirectly, to increased sediment supply from streams that drain the Sand Hills during megadroughts, implying the activation of the dunes occurred as an indirect response to regional megadroughts. Calculations of dune migration rates, however, argue in favor of local, drought-driven hydrologic changes as a causative factor in dune activation, in other words, a direct effect of megadroughts. Whether the impact was direct or indirect, it is highly likely that the repeated reactivation of the Duncan dunes resulted in some way from regional, large-magnitude droughts. Other paleoclimate proxies from the Great Plains tend to support this conclusion. We conclude that the megadroughts that have been identified in the Sand Hills and other Great Plains dune fields were indeed regional events with far-reaching effects.

  13. Russian Traditions in the System of Student Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gostev, A. N.; Demchenko, T. S.

    2014-01-01

    The traditions of higher education in Russia dealing with elements of student government have been weakened in recent years, but recent research shows support among Russian students for greater involvement in activities related to their lives as students. This article concludes that in order to improve student government today it will be necessary…

  14. Observations of the Behavior and Distribution of Fish in Relation to the Columbia River Navigation Channel and Channel Maintenance Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Johnson, R. L.; Mueller, Robert P.; Weiland, Mark A.; Johnson, P. N.

    2001-10-19

    This report is a compilation of 7 studies conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers between 1995 and 1998 which used hydroacoustic methods to study the behavior of migrating salmon in response to navigation channel maintenance activities in the lower Columbia River near river mile 45. Differences between daytime and nighttime behavior and fish densities were noted. Comparisons were made of fish distribution across the river (in the channel, channel margin or near shore) and fish depth upstream and downstream of dikes, dredges, and pile driving areas.

  15. River Runoff Sensitivity in Eastern Siberia to Global Climate Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiadi, A. G.; Milyukova, I. P.; Kashutina, E.

    2008-12-01

    21st century can bring much more significant river runoff changes in plain part of Lena river basin compared with the 20th. The both scenarios suggest quite a significant change in the character of the annual stream-flow distribution in middle of XXI. The scenarios give, in essence, the similar pattern of changes in the wave of spring-summer high water. The onset of the flood can be shifted one month backward, as compared with the current situation. The main contribution to the river runoff change in the mid-21st century can be made by the increase in atmospheric precipitation and air temperature, while the scenario changes in the active layer depth are not to make a perceptible impact. This study was supported by NASA grant NNG06GH41G and the Russian Fund on Basic Research grant 07- 05-12085-ofi.

  16. Wind River watershed restoration: Annual report of U.S. Geological Survey activities November 2010 – October 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Munz, Carrie S.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes work completed by U.S. Geological Survey’s Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) in the Wind River subbasin during November 2010 through October 2011 under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contract 40481. The primary focus of USGS activities during this contract was on tagging of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags, and working toward a network of instream PIT tag detection systems to monitor movements and life histories of these fish.

  17. Engineering application of activated alumina adsorption dams for emergency treatment of arsenic-contaminated rivers.

    PubMed

    Dou, Junfeng; Qin, Wei; Ding, Aizhong; Xie, En; Zheng, Lei; Ding, Wencheng

    2015-01-01

    A batch of lab-based adsorption experiments were performed to investigate the arsenic (As) removal efficacy by activated alumina. Four factors including contact time, pH, initial As concentration and different coexisting ions were examined. The adsorbent made of activated alumina (AA) with particles of 2-4 mm diameter showed a high As removal efficiency and the As concentrations of the samples were below 0.05 mg/L when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was operated above 5 min. The As concentrations of the samples could remain below 0.05 mg/L for 30 days. A series of AA adsorption dams coupled with several other supporting adsorption techniques were employed for As-contaminated river restoration. The engineering project functioned well, and the effluent As concentration was below 0.05 mg/L when the influent was between 0.2 and 0.7 mg/L, which met the discharge requirement of the Surface Water Quality Standards criteria III in China. The results demonstrated that AA adsorption dams could be applied for emergency treatments of small- or medium-sized rivers contaminated with As. PMID:25926343

  18. Engineering application of activated alumina adsorption dams for emergency treatment of arsenic-contaminated rivers.

    PubMed

    Dou, Junfeng; Qin, Wei; Ding, Aizhong; Xie, En; Zheng, Lei; Ding, Wencheng

    2015-01-01

    A batch of lab-based adsorption experiments were performed to investigate the arsenic (As) removal efficacy by activated alumina. Four factors including contact time, pH, initial As concentration and different coexisting ions were examined. The adsorbent made of activated alumina (AA) with particles of 2-4 mm diameter showed a high As removal efficiency and the As concentrations of the samples were below 0.05 mg/L when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was operated above 5 min. The As concentrations of the samples could remain below 0.05 mg/L for 30 days. A series of AA adsorption dams coupled with several other supporting adsorption techniques were employed for As-contaminated river restoration. The engineering project functioned well, and the effluent As concentration was below 0.05 mg/L when the influent was between 0.2 and 0.7 mg/L, which met the discharge requirement of the Surface Water Quality Standards criteria III in China. The results demonstrated that AA adsorption dams could be applied for emergency treatments of small- or medium-sized rivers contaminated with As.

  19. Water quality of selected fluvial lakes in the context of the Elbe River pollution and anthropogenic activities in the floodplain.

    PubMed

    Chalupová, Dagmar; Havlíková, Petra; Janský, Bohumír

    2012-10-01

    The paper evaluates the status of selected fluvial lakes situated in the central part of the Elbe River and the impact of anthropogenic activities including comparison with the Elbe River water quality on them. To achieve the goals of the project, eight researched lakes differed from each other in the intensity of communication with the river, morphometric parameters and in the possibility of anthropogenic contamination (industrial, agricultural and municipal) were chosen. Besides observing the hydrological regime, the research was focused on physical and chemical parameters of water. To sum up, the lakes communicating above ground with the river showed similarities in several parameters, e.g. organic load or conductivity was nearly at the same level, which was lower than in the separated ones. Although the values of nitrates were higher in the river, their content did not reach such concentrations even in the connected lakes because of their more stagnant character. In general, although the Elbe River has a significant effect on water quality of researched lakes, especially in the case of lakes with a restricted communication with the river, their water quality is a result of local conditions, e.g. possibility of contamination by sewage waters, land use in the vicinity, etc.

  20. Changes in the long-term hydrological regimes and the impacts of human activities in the main Wei River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Huang, Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Lei; Chen, Keyu; Yu, Qijun

    2016-03-01

    Under the combined influence of climate changes and human activities, the hydrological regime of the Wei River shows remarkable variations which have caused many issues in the Wei River in recent decades, such as a lack of freshwater, water pollution, disastrous flooding and channel sedimentation. Hence, hydrological regime changes and potential human-induced impacts have been drawing increasing attention from local government and hydrologists. This study investigates hydrological regime changes in the natural and measured runoff series at four hydrological stations on the main Wei River and quantifies features of their long-term change by analysing their historical annual and seasonal runoff data using several approaches, i.e., continuous wavelet transform, cross-wavelet, wavelet coherence, trend-free pre-whitening Mann-Kendall test and detrended fluctuation analysis. By contrasting two different analysis results between natural and measured river runoff series, the impacts of human activities on the long-term hydrological regime were investigated via the changes of spatio-temporal distribution in dominant periods, the trends and long-range memory of river runoff. The results show : (a) that periodic properties of the streamflow changes are the result of climate, referring to precipitation changes in particular, while human activities play a minor role; (b) a significant decreasing trend can be observed in the natural streamflow series along the entire main stream of the Wei River and the more serious decrease emerging in measured flow should result from human-induced influences in recent decades; and (c) continuous decreasing streamflow in the Wei River will trigger serious shortages of freshwater in the future, which may challenge the sustainability and safety of water resources development in the river basin, and should be paid great attention before 2020.

  1. A systematic overview of the coincidences of river sinuosity changes and tectonically active structures in the Pannonian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovszki, Judit; Székely, Balázs; Timár, Gábor

    2012-12-01

    As tectonic movements change the valley slope (low-gradient reaches of valleys, in sedimentary basins), the alluvial rivers, as sensitive indicators, respond to these changes, by varying their courses to accommodate this forcing. In our study sinuosity values, a commonly used characteristic parameter to detect river pattern changes, were studied for the major rivers in the Pannonian Basin in order to reveal neotectonic influence on their planform shape. Our study area comprises the entire Pannonian Basin (330,000 km2) located in eastern Central-Europe, bounded by the Alps, Carpathians and Dinarides. The studied rivers were mostly in their natural meandering state before the main river regulations of the 19th century. The last quasi-natural, non-regulated river planforms were surveyed somewhat earlier, during the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire. Using the digitized river sections of that survey, the sinuosities of the rivers were calculated with different sample section sizes ranging from 5 km to 80 km. Depending on the bank-full discharge, also a 'most representative' section size is given, which can be connected to the neotectonic activity. In total, the meandering reaches of 28 rivers were studied; their combined length is 7406 km. The places where the river sinuosity changed were compared to the structural lines of the "Atlas of the present-day geodynamics of the Pannonian Basin" (Horváth et al., 2006). 36 junctions along 26 structural lines were identified where the fault lines of this neotectonic map crossed the rivers. Across these points the mean sinuosity changed. Depending on the direction of the relative vertical movements, the sinuosity values increased or decreased. There were some points, where the sinuosity changed in an opposite way. Along these sections, the rivers belong to the range of unorganized meandering or there are lithological margins. Assuming that the rivers indicate on-going faulting accurately, some places were found

  2. The Modernization of Russian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filippov, V. M.

    2005-01-01

    These days many people are trying to assess what has been done in the past few years. The country is looking into the future and trying to map out the most optimal paths of its development. In this article, the author examines the main paths of development in the field of Russian Education. It is necessary to keep in mind the multi-plane character…

  3. Russian Arctic battles pipeline leak

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, R.

    1995-05-12

    An estimated 100,000 barrels of oil have leaked from a corroded pipeline in northern Russia`s Komi Republic since last August. The oil threatens salmon fisheries and marshlands used for grazing cattle and raindeer. This article discusses the spill in relation to other large spills and the possible ecological damage. Russian authorities, first reluctant to come to grips with the spill, are changing their attitudes, a position essential to gaining access to threatened regions for important monitoring studies.

  4. Histopathology investigation on the Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis) populations captured from the rivers impacted by mining activities.

    PubMed

    Jordanova, Maja; Rebok, Katerina; Dragun, Zrinka; Ramani, Sheriban; Ivanova, Lozenka; Kostov, Vasil; Valić, Damir; Krasnići, Nesrete; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Kapetanović, Damir

    2016-07-01

    Many natural freshwater ecosystems, especially in the north eastern Macedonia, are polluted with heavy metals, which are released by active mines. Long-term exposure to high levels of dissolved metals might result in increased metal bioaccumulation in organs of aquatic organisms, and consequently might cause various sub-toxic and toxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess the health of Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis) inhabiting mining impacted rivers Zletovska and Kriva, in comparison with chub from the reference Bregalnica River. It was done by use of indicators of tissue damage (histopathology of liver and gonads) and general indicators of exposure to environmental stressors (condition factor, organo-somatic indices and external/internal macroscopic lesions). Histological assessment of gonads revealed good reproductive health in all three rivers, indicating high tolerance of gonads to contaminant exposure. Contrary, several external/internal lesions were more pronounced in chub from severely metal contaminated Zletovska River. Prevalence of hepatic lesions was also higher in mining impacted rivers (in Kriva, 70%; in Zletovska, 59%) compared to Bregalnica River (38%). The spectrum of histological lesions observed in chub liver varied from non-specific minor degenerative conditions, such as lymphocyte infiltration, fibrosis, parasites, granulomas and lipidosis, to extensive and/or more severe changes such as bile duct proliferation, necrosis, megalocytosis, light-dark hepatocytes and hepatocytes regeneration. The results of histopathological investigation for all three rivers showed clear signs of water contamination, especially prominent in mining influenced rivers. More research efforts should be devoted to study of environmental conditions and metal contamination in the mining impacted rivers worldwide, especially of their effects on health of local ichthyofauna. PMID:26986024

  5. Histopathology investigation on the Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis) populations captured from the rivers impacted by mining activities.

    PubMed

    Jordanova, Maja; Rebok, Katerina; Dragun, Zrinka; Ramani, Sheriban; Ivanova, Lozenka; Kostov, Vasil; Valić, Damir; Krasnići, Nesrete; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Kapetanović, Damir

    2016-07-01

    Many natural freshwater ecosystems, especially in the north eastern Macedonia, are polluted with heavy metals, which are released by active mines. Long-term exposure to high levels of dissolved metals might result in increased metal bioaccumulation in organs of aquatic organisms, and consequently might cause various sub-toxic and toxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess the health of Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis) inhabiting mining impacted rivers Zletovska and Kriva, in comparison with chub from the reference Bregalnica River. It was done by use of indicators of tissue damage (histopathology of liver and gonads) and general indicators of exposure to environmental stressors (condition factor, organo-somatic indices and external/internal macroscopic lesions). Histological assessment of gonads revealed good reproductive health in all three rivers, indicating high tolerance of gonads to contaminant exposure. Contrary, several external/internal lesions were more pronounced in chub from severely metal contaminated Zletovska River. Prevalence of hepatic lesions was also higher in mining impacted rivers (in Kriva, 70%; in Zletovska, 59%) compared to Bregalnica River (38%). The spectrum of histological lesions observed in chub liver varied from non-specific minor degenerative conditions, such as lymphocyte infiltration, fibrosis, parasites, granulomas and lipidosis, to extensive and/or more severe changes such as bile duct proliferation, necrosis, megalocytosis, light-dark hepatocytes and hepatocytes regeneration. The results of histopathological investigation for all three rivers showed clear signs of water contamination, especially prominent in mining influenced rivers. More research efforts should be devoted to study of environmental conditions and metal contamination in the mining impacted rivers worldwide, especially of their effects on health of local ichthyofauna.

  6. A Survey of Landslide Activity in the Columbia River Gorge from InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, X.; Schmidt, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Columbia River Gorge contains several large landslide complexes that have exhibited historical movement, both catastrophic and slow moving. Monitoring the kinematics of active movement helps to characterize the ongoing natural hazard. In this study, we document the status of several large landslide complexes along the Columbia River Gorge. We use synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from multiple satellites (ERS, ENVISAT and ALOS) to reveal the spatial-temporal movement of slow-moving landslides over two decades, 1992-2011. To increase the spatial extent of the signal we developed a new InSAR time-series method based on pixel coherence and derived the time series of the landslides. We also investigate the ability of Persistent Scatterer InSAR to better illuminate active movement. While many historical landslide complexes show minimal or non-existent movement, we measure significant creep on the Redbluff landslide, which is part of the Cascade Landslide Complex near the Bonneville Dam. The InSAR time-series data reveal approximately 25 cm of line-of-sight movement from 5 years of ALOS observations, which translates into greater than 60 cm of downslope movement. The Redbluff landslide is seasonally activated, with accelerated movement observed during the early winter of each year. However, the amplitude of the seasonal signal is variable from year-to-year. To assess the triggering mechanisms, we compared the deformation time series data with local precipitation data. The deformation correlates well with precipitation, implying the slow movement is controlled by rainfall that infiltrates to the base of the slide. A preliminary comparison with the bare earth 2m-resolution digital elevation model from LiDAR reveals that the overall deformation pattern and the active perimeter is highly correlated with the morphology of the landslide.

  7. Hydroecological monitoring in the headwaters of the Volga River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzovlev, Viacheslav V.; Zhenikov, Yuri N.; Zhenikov, Kyrill Y.; Shaporenko, Sergey I.; Haun, Stefan; Füreder, Leopold; Schletterer, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Europe's largest river, the Volga (3551 km), has experienced multiple stressors from human activities (i.e. the Volga Basin comprises about 40 % of the Russian population, 45 % of the country's industry and more than 50 % of its agriculture). During the research expedition "Upper Volga 2005" an assessment of hydrological, limnochemical and biological parameters was carried out by scientists from the Russian Federation and from Austria. The extensive sampling in 2005 showed that the free-flowing section of the Volga River, located upstream of Tver, represents conditions which are either reference or least disturbed - thus it can be considered as a refugial system for freshwater biota of the European lowlands. Subsequently three stretches in the headwaters of the Volga River (Rzhev, Staritsa, Tver) were selected for the monitoring programme "REFCOND_VOLGA", which is in operation since 2006. These locations correspond also with the sampling sites of ROSHYDROMET, i.e. at Tver physic-chemical samples are taken monthly and at Rzhev samples are taken in the main hydrological periods. The laboratory ship "ROSHYDROMET 11" conducted monthly cruises between Tver and Kalyazin (Ivankovskoye and Uglichskoye reservoirs on Volga) in the headwaters during the navigation period (May - October). This also includes measurements with ADCP, which further allow the analyses of the spatial distribution of the suspended solids within cross sections. In addition sediment fluxes were derived by using the acoustic backscatter signal strength from the acoustic current Doppler profiler (ADCP). We exemplify at the monitoring sites the spatial distribution of different sediments, i.e. choriotope types, according the longitudinal profile of the river. We show that it is highly influenced by morphodynamics in the different river sections and this corresponds with the zoobenthos fauna accordingly. This interdisciplinary approach, including sediment conditions, limnochemistry, hydrology and

  8. Russian RBMK reactor design information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document concerns the systems, design, and operations of the graphite-moderated, boiling, water-cooled, channel-type (RBMK) reactors located in the former Soviet Union (FSU). The Russian Academy of Sciences Nuclear Safety Institute (NSI) in Moscow, Russia, researched specific technical questions that were formulated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and provided detailed technical answers to those questions. The Russian response was prepared in English by NSI in a question-and-answer format. This report presents the results of that technical exchange in the context they were received from the NSI organization. Pacific Northwest Laboratory is generating this document to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) community in responding to requests from FSU states, which are seeking Western technological and financial assistance to improve the safety systems of the Russian-designed reactors. This report expands upon information that was previously available to the United States through bilateral information exchanges, international nuclear society meetings, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reactor safety programs, and Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE) reports. The response to the PNL questions have not been edited or reviewed for technical consistency or accuracy by PNL staff or other US organizations, but are provided for use by the DOE community in the form they were received.

  9. [Susmann Galant (1896-1978). A Russian-Swiss supporter and opponent of Sigmund Freud].

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The scientific activity of this Russian psychiatrist is depicted in a short biography. His ambivalent attitude to Freud's dream theory is emphasized. At the end of his medical career he became full professor of psychiatry at Khabarovsk.

  10. Modeling The Water Table In The Middle Rio Grande River Riparian Corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasheh, O. Z.; Neale, C. M.

    2007-12-01

    The Middle Rio Grande River (MRGR) is the main source of fresh water for the state of New Mexico. An arid area with low water resources created a situation where water is extensively diverted or stored to supply the high demand for municipalities and agricultural activities. The extensive water diversions over the last few decades has affected the composition of the native riparian vegetation such as cottonwood and coyote willow and enhanced the spread of invasive species harmful to the river system such as Tamarisk and Russian Olives. The river aquatic system has also been badly affected. The need to study the river hydrological processes and their relation with its health is important to preserve the river ecosystem. The water table within the riparian zone is intrinsically connected to the flows in the river. Large withdrawals of water by Tamarisk affect the surface flows, which coupled with the large diversions for irrigation result in a complicated river management problem. In this paper we describe the methodology used to spatially model the water table depth between the river and the adjacent drains parallel to the river. Water table readings are used to check the model. Evapotranspiration by the riparian vegetation is estimated and included in the soil moisture balance. The model runs as an application in ArcGIS. Spatial layers include soils and riparian vegetation maps obtained from the classification of airborne high resolution multispectral imagery.

  11. Fish Invasions in the World's River Systems: When Natural Processes Are Blurred by Human Activities

    PubMed Central

    Leprieur, Fabien; Beauchard, Olivier; Blanchet, Simon; Oberdorff, Thierry; Brosse, Sébastien

    2008-01-01

    Because species invasions are a principal driver of the human-induced biodiversity crisis, the identification of the major determinants of global invasions is a prerequisite for adopting sound conservation policies. Three major hypotheses, which are not necessarily mutually exclusive, have been proposed to explain the establishment of non-native species: the “human activity” hypothesis, which argues that human activities facilitate the establishment of non-native species by disturbing natural landscapes and by increasing propagule pressure; the “biotic resistance” hypothesis, predicting that species-rich communities will readily impede the establishment of non-native species; and the “biotic acceptance” hypothesis, predicting that environmentally suitable habitats for native species are also suitable for non-native species. We tested these hypotheses and report here a global map of fish invasions (i.e., the number of non-native fish species established per river basin) using an original worldwide dataset of freshwater fish occurrences, environmental variables, and human activity indicators for 1,055 river basins covering more than 80% of Earth's surface. First, we identified six major invasion hotspots where non-native species represent more than a quarter of the total number of species. According to the World Conservation Union, these areas are also characterised by the highest proportion of threatened fish species. Second, we show that the human activity indicators account for most of the global variation in non-native species richness, which is highly consistent with the “human activity” hypothesis. In contrast, our results do not provide support for either the “biotic acceptance” or the “biotic resistance” hypothesis. We show that the biogeography of fish invasions matches the geography of human impact at the global scale, which means that natural processes are blurred by human activities in driving fish invasions in the world's river

  12. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S H CANYON FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, Lindsay; Fuller, Kenneth

    2013-07-09

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) H Canyon Facility is the only large scale, heavily shielded, nuclear chemical separations plant still in operation in the U.S. The facility's operations historically recovered uranium-235 (U-235) and neptunium-237 (Np-237) from aluminum-clad, enriched-uranium fuel tubes from Site nuclear reactors and other domestic and foreign research reactors. Today the facility, in conjunction with HB Line, is working to provide the initial feed material to the Mixed Oxide Facility also located on SRS. Many additional campaigns are also in the planning process. Furthermore, the facility has started to integrate collaborative research and development (R&D) projects into its schedule. H Canyon can serve as the appropriate testing location for many technologies focused on monitoring the back end of the fuel cycle, due to the nature of the facility and continued operation. H Canyon, in collaboration with the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), has been working with several groups in the DOE complex to conduct testing demonstrations of novel technologies at the facility. The purpose of conducting these demonstrations at H Canyon will be to demonstrate the capabilities of the emerging technologies in an operational environment. This paper will summarize R&D testing activities currently taking place in H Canyon and discuss the possibilities for future collaborations.

  13. Linking rapid erosion of the Mekong River delta to human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Edward J.; Brunier, Guillaume; Besset, Manon; Goichot, Marc; Dussouillez, Philippe; Nguyen, Van Lap

    2015-10-01

    As international concern for the survival of deltas grows, the Mekong River delta, the world’s third largest delta, densely populated, considered as Southeast Asia’s most important food basket, and rich in biodiversity at the world scale, is also increasingly affected by human activities and exposed to subsidence and coastal erosion. Several dams have been constructed upstream of the delta and many more are now planned. We quantify from high-resolution SPOT 5 satellite images large-scale shoreline erosion and land loss between 2003 and 2012 that now affect over 50% of the once strongly advancing >600 km-long delta shoreline. Erosion, with no identified change in the river’s discharge and in wave and wind conditions over this recent period, is consistent with: (1) a reported significant decrease in coastal surface suspended sediment from the Mekong that may be linked to dam retention of its sediment, (2) large-scale commercial sand mining in the river and delta channels, and (3) subsidence due to groundwater extraction. Shoreline erosion is already responsible for displacement of coastal populations. It is an additional hazard to the integrity of this Asian mega delta now considered particularly vulnerable to accelerated subsidence and sea-level rise, and will be exacerbated by future hydropower dams.

  14. Terrestrial Loads of Mercury in a River Catchment Impacted by Former Mercury Mining Activity - GIS Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocman, D.; Horvat, M.

    2010-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) mining activities in Idrija, Slovenia, have resulted in significant contamination to surrounding local environments. Due to the abundant precipitation, steep slopes and highly erodible underlying lithology, this region is especially prone to erosion. Hence, even today, due to the lack of proper remediation actions, Hg contaminated soils, Hg-laden material and tailings continue to supply Hg to the local river system and consequently to the Gulf of Trieste in N Adriatic. In addition, significant amounts of elemental Hg from these areas are emitted to the atmosphere. In this contribution, environmental modeling of mercury in the Idrijca River catchment (640 km2) as a tool for sound remediation planning will be discussed. Based on the experimental results, a mass-balance model of sources, sinks and mercury transport process on the catchment scale was developed within the GIS environment. The model is based upon mercury mass-balance calculations as a combination of different approaches (WCS mercury tool and Erosion Potential Model coupled with newly developed GIS emission model) adopted for site specific conditions. In this way, accounting for Hg entering and leaving the catchment, its mass flows, flux rates, and turnover times were identified. Moreover, spatial distribution and significance of most polluted sites that need to be properly managed were assessed. The developed model can be used as an efficient tool for remediation interventions planning as well as to check the effects of management choices which would minimize the uncertainties in the process of decision making.

  15. Linking rapid erosion of the Mekong River delta to human activities

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Edward J.; Brunier, Guillaume; Besset, Manon; Goichot, Marc; Dussouillez, Philippe; Nguyen, Van Lap

    2015-01-01

    As international concern for the survival of deltas grows, the Mekong River delta, the world’s third largest delta, densely populated, considered as Southeast Asia’s most important food basket, and rich in biodiversity at the world scale, is also increasingly affected by human activities and exposed to subsidence and coastal erosion. Several dams have been constructed upstream of the delta and many more are now planned. We quantify from high-resolution SPOT 5 satellite images large-scale shoreline erosion and land loss between 2003 and 2012 that now affect over 50% of the once strongly advancing >600 km-long delta shoreline. Erosion, with no identified change in the river’s discharge and in wave and wind conditions over this recent period, is consistent with: (1) a reported significant decrease in coastal surface suspended sediment from the Mekong that may be linked to dam retention of its sediment, (2) large-scale commercial sand mining in the river and delta channels, and (3) subsidence due to groundwater extraction. Shoreline erosion is already responsible for displacement of coastal populations. It is an additional hazard to the integrity of this Asian mega delta now considered particularly vulnerable to accelerated subsidence and sea-level rise, and will be exacerbated by future hydropower dams. PMID:26446752

  16. The River Talks: An Ecocritical "Korero" about Ecological Performance, Community Activism and "Slow Violence"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthewman, Sasha; Mullen, Molly; Patuwai, Tamati

    2015-01-01

    On 27 February 2013, Mad Ave staged "The River Talks," a collation of linked performances in and on the banks of the Omaru River in Glen Innes, Auckland, New Zealand. The event brought together artistic and discursive works that challenged a view of this local river as always and forever degraded. An example of committed ecological…

  17. Nutrient Chemistry and Microbial Activity in the Upper Mississippi River Basin: Stoichiometry and Downstream Patterns

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrients, carbon, and silica have been used to track changes in water quality in the major rivers of the world. Most studies focus on the mouths of rivers and adjacent coastal waters. Studies on the Mississippi River have concluded that N enrichment and stable or declining Si co...

  18. Masculinization of female mosquitofish in Kraft mill effluent-contaminated Fenholloway River water is associated with androgen receptor agonist activity.

    PubMed

    Parks, L G; Lambright, C S; Orlando, E F; Guillette, L J; Ankley, G T; Gray, L E

    2001-08-01

    Female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis holbrooki) downstream from Kraft paper mills in Florida display masculinization of the anal fin, an androgen-dependent trait. The current investigation was designed to determine if water contaminated with pulp-mill effluent (PME) from the Fenholloway River in Florida displayed androgenic activity in vitro and to relate this activity to the reproductive status of female mosquitofish taken from this river. We tested water samples for androgenic activity from a reference site upstream of a Kraft pulp and paper mill on the Fenholloway River, from 3 sites downstream from the mill, and from another reference site on the Econfina River, also in Florida, where there is no paper mill. We also examined anal fin ray morphology in mosquitofish from these rivers for evidence of masculinization. Eighty percent of the female mosquitofish from the Fenholloway River were partially masculinized while another 10% were completely masculinized, based upon the numbers of segments in the longest anal fin ray (18.0 +/- 0.4 vs. 28.1 +/- 0.9 [p < 0.001]) in the Econfina River vs. the Fenholloway River, respectively). In a COS whole cell-binding assay, all 3 PME samples displayed affinity for human androgen receptor (hAR) (p < 0.001). In addition, PME induced androgen-dependent gene expression in CV-1 cells (cotransfected with pCMV hAR and MMTV luciferase reporter), which was inhibited by about 50% by coadministration of hydroxyflutamide (1 microM), an AR antagonist. Water samples collected upstream of the Kraft mill or from the Econfina River did not bind hAR or induce luciferase expression. When CV-1 cells were transfected with human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR) rather than hAR, PME failed to significantly induce MMTV-luciferase expression. Further evidence of the androgenicity was observed using a COS cell AR nuclear-translocalization assay. PME bound hAR and induced translocalization of AR into the nucleus. In contrast, AR remained perinuclear when

  19. ISS Update: Russian Spacesuits and Spacewalks

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Marc Ciupitu, EVA Flight and Increment Manager, about the Russian Orlan spacesuits that cosmonauts wear during spacewalks. Marc also discusses wha...

  20. Comparing effects of active and passive restoration on the Middle Fork John Day River, NE Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, P. F.; Goslin, M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2000, cattle grazing has been eliminated on over 14 km of the upper Middle Fork John Day. Starting in 2008, active restoration (log structures with dug pools, woody vegetation planting, and modifications to increase channel-floodplain hydrologic connectivity) was implemented on nearly 6 km within the cattle exclosure length. Implementation of active and passive restoration strategies in the same and adjacent reaches allows comparison of these two approaches. We have been monitoring these reaches since 2008. Unexpectedly in response to grazing exclosure, a native sedge, Carex nudata (torrent sedge), has exploded in population. C. nudata grows in the active channel, anchoring itself tightly to the gravel-cobble river bed with a dense root network. As a result, C. nudata has changed erosion and sedimentation patterns including bank erosion, channel bed scour, and island formation. We present data on fish cover increases due to C. nudata and log structures, and on channel complexity before and after restoration. Both active and passive restorations are increasing channel complexity and juvenile fish cover, although in different ways. Fish cover provided by active and passive restoration are similar in area but different in depth and position, with C. nudata fish cover generally shallower and partly mid-channel. Residual pool depth is larger in log structure pools than in C. nudata scour pools, but C. nudata pools are more numerous in some reaches. By producing frequent, small scour features and small islands, it can be argued that C. nudata is increasing hydraulic complexity more than the large, meander-bend pools at log structures, but this is hard to quantify. C. nudata has also stabilized active bars, perhaps changing the bedload sediment budget. Positive habitat benefits of active restoration appear to be greater in the short term, but over the long term (20 years or more) effects of C. nudata may be comparable or greater.

  1. Some Features of the Distribution of Professional Databases on CD-ROM in the Russian Information Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanov, Nickolay

    In spite of some problems and difficulties, the Russian information market of professional CD-ROM products is developing actively. This paper describes and analyzes practical experience in distributing professional CD-ROM databases in the Russian market, and some of its characteristic features. Analysis has shown that among the main consumers of…

  2. An assessment of endocrine activity in Australian rivers using chemical and in vitro analyses.

    PubMed

    Scott, Philip D; Bartkow, Michael; Blockwell, Stephen J; Coleman, Heather M; Khan, Stuart J; Lim, Richard; McDonald, James A; Nice, Helen; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Pettigrove, Vincent; Tremblay, Louis A; Warne, Michael St J; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2014-11-01

    Studies on endocrine disruption in Australia have mainly focused on wastewater effluents. Limited knowledge exists regarding the relative contribution of different potential sources of endocrine active compounds (EACs) to the aquatic environment (e.g., pesticide run-off, animal farming operations, urban stormwater, industrial inputs). In this study, 73 river sites across mainland Australia were sampled quarterly for 1 year. Concentrations of 14 known EACs including natural and synthetic hormones and industrial compounds were quantified by chemical analysis. EACs were detected in 88 % of samples (250 of 285) with limits of quantification (LOQ) ranging from 0.05 to 20 ng/l. Bisphenol A (BPA; LOQ = 20 ng/l) was the most frequently detected EAC (66 %) and its predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) was exceeded 24 times. The most common hormone was estrone, detected in 28 % of samples (LOQ = 1 ng/l), and the PNEC was also exceeded 24 times. 17α-Ethinylestradiol (LOQ = 0.05 ng/l) was detected in 10 % of samples at concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.17 ng/l. It was detected in many samples with no wastewater influence, and the PNEC was exceeded 13 times. In parallel to the chemical analysis, endocrine activity was assessed using a battery of CALUX bioassays. Estrogenic activity was detected in 19 % (53 of 285) of samples (LOQ = 0.1 ng/l 17β-estradiol equivalent; EEQ). Seven samples exhibited estrogenic activity (1-6.5 ng/l EEQ) greater than the PNEC for 17β-estradiol. Anti-progestagenic activity was detected in 16 % of samples (LOQ = 8 ng/l mifepristone equivalents; MifEQ), but the causative compounds are unknown. With several compounds and endocrine activity exceeding PNEC values, there is potential risk to the Australian freshwater ecosystems.

  3. [Medical support of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation: the results of the activities and the main tasks for 2015].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ia

    2015-01-01

    Presented the directions of activity of the medical service in the past year, including improving the legal framework, the optimization of medical management software, improving combat and mobilization readiness of units of the army, the optimization of therapeutic and preventive activities, implementation of innovative technologies, increasing mobility of units and subunits, their level of equipping with modern samples of property, training of qualified personnel, intensify research and etc. Analyzed and formulated directions of development of military medicine in 2015, including improvement of combat and mobilization readiness of the management body, military and medical organizations and departments, improving the legal framework of the military health care, holding among the troops interventions for the prevention morbidity of personnel by pneumonia and meningitis, work with commanders at all levels to ensure the preservation and strengthening of health of servicemen, improving of the system of early and active detection of diseases in the military, providing a guaranteed level of care to all contingent Ministry of Defense, improving the quality and accessibility of sanatorium treatment, maintaining constant readiness of medical special forces to carry out tasks for the purpose, improvement of professional training of personnel of the medical service, providing qualitative preparation of government medical service to participate in the training of troops, implementation of unexpected problems, equipping of army medical service with modern medical equipment finishing of the construction and renovation of military medical organizations facilities, improvement of social protection of personnel and many others.

  4. [Medical support of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation: the results of the activities and the main tasks for 2015].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ia

    2015-01-01

    Presented the directions of activity of the medical service in the past year, including improving the legal framework, the optimization of medical management software, improving combat and mobilization readiness of units of the army, the optimization of therapeutic and preventive activities, implementation of innovative technologies, increasing mobility of units and subunits, their level of equipping with modern samples of property, training of qualified personnel, intensify research and etc. Analyzed and formulated directions of development of military medicine in 2015, including improvement of combat and mobilization readiness of the management body, military and medical organizations and departments, improving the legal framework of the military health care, holding among the troops interventions for the prevention morbidity of personnel by pneumonia and meningitis, work with commanders at all levels to ensure the preservation and strengthening of health of servicemen, improving of the system of early and active detection of diseases in the military, providing a guaranteed level of care to all contingent Ministry of Defense, improving the quality and accessibility of sanatorium treatment, maintaining constant readiness of medical special forces to carry out tasks for the purpose, improvement of professional training of personnel of the medical service, providing qualitative preparation of government medical service to participate in the training of troops, implementation of unexpected problems, equipping of army medical service with modern medical equipment finishing of the construction and renovation of military medical organizations facilities, improvement of social protection of personnel and many others. PMID:25916032

  5. Review of historical monitoring data on Techa River contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorobiova, M. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Burmistrov, D. S.; Safronova, N. G.; Kozheurov, V. P.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, B. A.; Neta, P. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The Mayak Production Association was the first Russian site for the production and separation of plutonium. The extensive increase in plutonium production during 1948-1955, as well as the absence of reliable waste-management technology, resulted in significant releases of liquid radioactive effluent into the rather small Techa River. This resulted in chronic external and internal exposure of about 30,000 residents of riverside communities; these residents form the cohort of an epidemiologic investigation. Analysis of the available historical monitoring data indicates that the following reliable data sets can be used for reconstruction of doses received during the early periods of operation of the Mayak Production Association: Temporal pattern of specific beta activity of river water for several sites in the upper Techa region since July 1951; average annual values of specific beta activity of river water and bottom sediments as a function of downstream distance for the whole river since 1951; external gamma-exposure rates near the shoreline as a function of downstream distance for the whole Techa River since 1952; and external gamma-exposure rate as a function of distance from the shoreline for several sites in the upper and middle Techa since 1951.

  6. The new Russian law on psychiatric care.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, D

    1994-01-01

    On July 2, 1992, President Boris Yeltsin signed into effect a law that has the potential for advancing human rights of psychiatric clients in the Russian Federation. The author provides a comparative analysis of the U.S. and Russian psychiatric laws, demonstrating a striking similarity of the laws in terms of substance and scope.

  7. Russian Media Education Researches: 1950-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzed the development of Russian media education researches from 1950 to 2010 years. The list of theses of the Russian authors on the subject of Media Education is about 180 titles since 1950. Nearly 70 of them have been defended for the recent 10 years. From 1950 till 1959 six theses were defended, from 1960 till 1969--15; from…

  8. Legal Portion in Russian Inheritance Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inshina, Roza; Murzalimova, Lyudmila

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the right to inherit as one of the basic human rights guaranteed by the Constitution of the Russian Federation. The state has set rules according to which after a person's death, his or her property is inherited by other persons. The Russian civil legislation establishes the institution of legal portions that is…

  9. Aspects of the Teaching of Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Robert L.

    The process of learning Russian should be no more difficult than the process of learning other languages although it may take somewhat longer. The phonetic system should not present major difficulties with respect to individual sounds, but intonation may be difficult because Russian pitch patterns represent different intentions and emotions than…

  10. Russian Literature: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

    An annotated bibliography of general and specialized reference works for Russian and Soviet literature is intended for both students and researchers. English language and Russian language sources in the McGill University (Canada) libraries are included. Subject headings include guides (to the literature and to archival resources), encyclopedias,…

  11. Syllabus for Use in Russian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cernonok, Jevgenij

    This syllabus outlines a two semester course to accompany the basic textbook: THE EPIC OF RUSSIAN LITERATURE by Marc Slonim. An introduction to the guide gives a brief summary of the history of Russian literature and objectives of the course are stated, defining concepts and understandings to be developed. In addition, teaching techniques are…

  12. Syllabus for Use in Imperial Russian History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husum, Carol

    This syllabus is an outline of a one semester course in Imperial Russia designed to emphasize the relationship between Russia's past and her present. Course content begins with the founding of the first Russian state and continues to the fall of the Romanovs in 1917. In addition, some topics are suggested for investigation of Russian history in…

  13. The Russian Culture Course: Some Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Gilbert F.

    1981-01-01

    Presents statistical data from a survey of Russian culture courses taught at institutions that offer Russian language instruction. Includes data on total number, length, and language of instruction, which, while substantiating the widespread assumption of a culture course explosion, point to the large proportion of courses that are taught in…

  14. Lexical Inferencing in Reading L2 Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes how intermediate-level first language English readers of Russian as a second language deploy lexical inferencing and other strategies when reading informational texts. Fifth-semester students of Russian performed think-alouds while reading two texts; one written for the general adult reader, and the other meant for school-age…

  15. Methane oxidation activity and diversity of aerobic methanotrophs in pH-neutral and semi-neutral thermal springs of the Kunashir Island, Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Kizilova, A K; Sukhacheva, M V; Pimenov, N V; Yurkov, A M; Kravchenko, I K

    2014-03-01

    Aerobic methane oxidation has been mostly studied in environments with moderate to low temperatures. However, the process also occurs in terrestrial thermal springs, where little research on the subject has been done to date. The potential activity of methane oxidation and diversity of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria were studied in sediments of thermal springs with various chemical and physical properties, sampled across the Kunashir Island, the Kuriles archipelago. Activity was measured by means of the radioisotope tracer technique utilizing (14)C-labeled methane. Biodiversity assessments were based on the particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) gene, which is found in all known thermophilic and thermotolerant methanotrophs. We demonstrated the possibility of methane oxidation in springs with temperature exceeding 74 °C, and the most intensive methane uptake was shown in springs with temperatures about 46 °C. PmoA was detected in 19 out of 30 springs investigated and the number of pmoA gene copies varied between 10(4) and 10(6) copies per ml of sediment. Phylogenetic analysis of PmoA sequences revealed the presence of methanotrophs from both the Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria. Our results suggest that methanotrophs inhabiting thermal springs with temperature exceeding 50 °C may represent novel thermophilic and thermotolerant species of the genera Methylocystis and Methylothermus, as well as previously undescribed Gammaproteobacteria. PMID:24343375

  16. Sediment infilling and wetland formation dynamics in an active crevasse splay of the Mississippi River delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, Donald R.; White, David A.; Lynch, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Crevasse splay environments provide a mesocosm for evaluating wetland formation and maintenance processes on a decadal time scale. Site elevation, water levels, vertical accretion, elevation change, shallow subsidence, and plant biomass were measured at five habitats along an elevation gradient to evaluate wetland formation and development in Brant Pass Splay; an active crevasse splay of the Balize delta of the Mississippi River. The processes of vertical development (vertical accretion, elevation change, and shallow subsidence) were measured with the surface elevation table–marker horizon method. There were three distinct stages to the accrual of elevation capital and wetland formation in the splay: sediment infilling, vegetative colonization, and development of a mature wetland community. Accretion, elevation gain, and shallow subsidence all decreased by an order of magnitude from the open water (lowest elevation) to the forest (highest elevation) habitats. Vegetative colonization occurred within the first growing season following emergence of the mud surface. An explosively high rate of below-ground production quickly stabilized the loosely consolidated sub-aerial sediments. After emergent vegetation colonization, vertical development slowed and maintenance of marsh elevation was driven both by sediment trapping by the vegetation and accumulation of plant organic matter in the soil. Continued vertical development and survival of the marsh then depended on the health and productivity of the plant community. The process of delta wetland formation is both complex and nonlinear. Determining the dynamics of wetland formation will help in understanding the processes driving the past building of the delta and in developing models for restoring degraded wetlands in the Mississippi River delta and other deltas around the world.

  17. Sediment infilling and wetland formation dynamics in an active crevasse splay of the Mississippi River delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahoon, Donald R.; White, David A.; Lynch, James C.

    2011-08-01

    Crevasse splay environments provide a mesocosm for evaluating wetland formation and maintenance processes on a decadal time scale. Site elevation, water levels, vertical accretion, elevation change, shallow subsidence, and plant biomass were measured at five habitats along an elevation gradient to evaluate wetland formation and development in Brant Pass Splay; an active crevasse splay of the Balize delta of the Mississippi River. The processes of vertical development (vertical accretion, elevation change, and shallow subsidence) were measured with the surface elevation table-marker horizon method. There were three distinct stages to the accrual of elevation capital and wetland formation in the splay: sediment infilling, vegetative colonization, and development of a mature wetland community. Accretion, elevation gain, and shallow subsidence all decreased by an order of magnitude from the open water (lowest elevation) to the forest (highest elevation) habitats. Vegetative colonization occurred within the first growing season following emergence of the mud surface. An explosively high rate of below-ground production quickly stabilized the loosely consolidated sub-aerial sediments. After emergent vegetation colonization, vertical development slowed and maintenance of marsh elevation was driven both by sediment trapping by the vegetation and accumulation of plant organic matter in the soil. Continued vertical development and survival of the marsh then depended on the health and productivity of the plant community. The process of delta wetland formation is both complex and nonlinear. Determining the dynamics of wetland formation will help in understanding the processes driving the past building of the delta and in developing models for restoring degraded wetlands in the Mississippi River delta and other deltas around the world.

  18. Social and racial correlates of Russian roulette.

    PubMed

    Stack, Steven; Wasserman, Ira

    2008-08-01

    The epidemiology of a neglected form of suicidal behavior, Russian roulette, is addressed. Also tested is an explanation of racial differences based on the opportunity theory of deviant behavior related to the availability of revolvers, necessary weapons with which to play Russian roulette. Data refer to 15 cases of Russian roulette found through a search of the medical examiner's suicide files (N = 1,412) and 75 matched controls who suicided by a gunshot to the head. The results support an opportunity perspective: 80% of the Russian roulette victims were African American compared to 30.7% of the controls. Further, among the controls, Blacks were three times more likely than Whites to use revolvers in suicides, a pattern indicating Blacks' greater access to revolvers. Russian roulette victims were entirely male, significantly younger, and less apt to be married than the control group.

  19. The Russian/American Fuel Cell Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Sylwester, A.; Baker, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1996-12-31

    The United States and Russia discovered a mutual interest in fuel cell development during a series of workshops designed to teach entrepreneurial skills to Russian nuclear weapon scientists and engineers to aid them in converting their skill to peaceful applications. The proposal for a Russian/American Fuel Cell Consortium was initiated at the third workshop held in Livermore, CA, in May 1994. Representatives from U.S. fuel cell industries, U.S. research institutes, Russian institutes and ministries, and U.S. national laboratories attended, including those from GAZPROM, the Russian natural gas company. GASPROM needs to provide power for telemetry, cathodic corrosion protection of gas lines, and gas line pumping power in remote areas, and estimates that it needs approximately seventy thousand 1.5 to 15 KW plants to do so. Since the workshop, several direct working relationships have developed between the Russian Nuclear Weapon Institutes and the U.S. fuel cell industry.

  20. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of minor and trace elements in food in the Russian region that suffered from the Chernobyl disaster.

    PubMed

    Zaichick, Vladimir

    2002-09-01

    The control of food quality, using the analysis of essential and toxic element contents, assumes an urgent importance within the regions that suffered from the Chernobyl disaster. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to study contents of 17 chemical elements (calcium, chlorine, cobalt, chromium, cesium, iron, mercury, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, rubidium, antimony, scandium, selenium, strontium, and zinc) in foods within the south and southwest territories of the Kaluga Region that was exposed to radionuclide contamination. The radionuclide contamination ranges up to 15 Ci/km2 there. Flesh and meat products, dairy products, bread, vegetables, legumes, roots, fruits, and mushrooms were analyzed. The concentration of essential and toxic elements in the different foods were in the normal ranges. PMID:12362793

  1. Office of River Protection Advanced Low-Activity Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, David K.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Piepel, Gregory F.

    2015-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated and leads an integrated Advanced Waste Glass (AWG) program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product performance requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation for making key decisions regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities in the context of an optimized River Protection Project (RPP) flowsheet. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key product performance and process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste vitrification facilities. These activities will be conducted with the objective of improving the overall RPP mission by enhancing flexibility and reducing cost and schedule. The purpose of this advanced LAW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-term, mid-term, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced LAW glasses, property-composition models and their uncertainties, and an advanced glass algorithm to support WTP facility operations, including both Direct Feed LAW and full pretreatment flowsheets. Data are needed to develop, validate, and implement 1) new glass property-composition models and 2) a new glass formulation algorithm. Hence, this plan integrates specific studies associated with increasing the Na2O and SO3/halide concentrations in glass, because these components will ultimately dictate waste loadings for LAW vitrification. Of equal importance is the development of an efficient and economic strategy for 99Tc management. Specific and detailed studies are being implemented to understand the fate of Tc throughout

  2. Diel patterns and temporal trends in spawning activities of Robust Redhorse and River Redhorse in Georgia, assessed using passive acoustic monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Straight, Carrie A.; Jackson, C. Rhett; Freeman, Byron J.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    The conservation of imperiled species depends upon understanding threats to the species at each stage of its life history. In the case of many imperiled migratory fishes, understanding how timing and environmental influences affect reproductive behavior could provide managers with information critical for species conservation. We used passive acoustic recorders to document spawning activities for two large-bodied catostomids (Robust Redhorse Moxostoma robustum in the Savannah and Broad rivers, Georgia, and River Redhorse M. carinatum in the Coosawattee River, Georgia) in relation to time of day, water temperature, discharge variation, moonlight, and weather. Robust Redhorse spawning activities in the Savannah and Broad rivers were more frequent at night or in the early morning (0100–0400 hours and 0800–1000 hours, respectively) and less frequent near midday (1300 hours). Spawning attempts in the Savannah and Broad rivers increased over a 3–4-d period and then declined. River Redhorse spawning activities in the Coosawattee River peaked on the first day of recording and declined over four subsequent days; diel patterns were less discernible, although moon illumination was positively associated with spawning rates, which was also observed for Robust Redhorses in the Savannah River. Spawning activity in the Savannah and Broad rivers was negatively associated with water temperature, and spawning activity increased in association with cloud cover in the Savannah River. A large variation in discharge was only measured in the flow-regulated Savannah River and was not associated with spawning attempts. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show diel and multiday patterns in spawning activities for anyMoxostoma species. These patterns and relationships between the environment and spawning activities could provide important information for the management of these species downstream of hydropower facilities.

  3. Active salt deformation and rapid, transient incision along the Colorado River near Moab, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochems, Andrew P.; Pederson, Joel L.

    2015-04-01

    In certain settings, erosion is driven by and balanced with tectonic uplift, but the evolution of many landscapes is dominated by other factors such as geologic substrate, drainage history, and transient incision. The Colorado Plateau is an example where these controls are debated and where salt deformation is hypothesized to be locally active and driven by differential unloading, although this is unconfirmed and unquantified in most places. We use luminescence-dated Colorado River terraces upstream of Moab, Utah, to quantify rates of salt-driven subsidence and uplift at the local scale. Active deformation in the study area is also supported by patterns of concavity along tributary drainages crossing salt structures. Subsidence in Professor Valley at a time-averaged rate of ~500 m/Myr (meters/million years) is superimposed upon rapid bedrock incision rates that increase from ~600 to ~900 m/Myr upstream through the study area. Such high rates are unexpected given the absence of sources of regional tectonic uplift here. Instead, the incision rate pattern across the greater area is consistent with a transient signal, perhaps still from ancient drainage integration through Grand Canyon far downstream, and then amplified by unloading at both the broad regional scale and at the local canyon scale.

  4. Multibeam Mapping of Active Slope Instability Features: Examples from the Fraser River and Squamish River Deltas, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, P. R.

    2004-12-01

    Multibeam mapping of the coastal waters of British Columbia has immensly improved our ability to identify and assess submarine landslide and tsunami hazard. This paper will present analysis of high-resolution images of slope instability features from two delta slopes where recent slope failure can be documented through repetitive multibeam mapping and/or comparison with previous single-beam hydrographic soundings. Numerous mass movement features characterize the slope of the Fraser River delta, all the recent features being located at the mouths of distributary channels. Engineering works have maintained the main channel in a fixed position since the 1930's, contributing to over-steepening of the slope and development of a network of submarine channels. Repetitive multibeam mapping shows that recent slope failures have occurred in numerous locations around the main channel lobe, some at the head of a large submarine channel system and others as isolated small failures that form the headwalls of small submarine channels. The scalloped morphology and association with channels, together with volume estimates derived from repetitive multibeam mapping, indicate that these features result from shallow, small volume liquefaction failures. Smaller scale, shallow slides are present on the very shallow water slope area adjacent to the channels, raising the possibility of groundwater seepage as an influence on slope stability. The slide masses from these failures are rapidly transformed into gravity flows that carve the submarine channels. Slides and channels of a similar scale are found at the mouth of a secondary distributary channel and an abandoned distributary channel. The multibeam imagery allows discrimination between recent slide features and relict features, the latter showing infilling or reworking by bottom currents. An area of undulatory seafloor, located on the flank of the main distributary channel lobe, has been cited as a possible creep displacement feature

  5. Mercury pollution on district of Dimembe river system North Sulawesi, Indonesia, due to traditional gold mining activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayhuan, D.; Atteng, O.; Dondokambey, A.; Randuk, M.

    2003-05-01

    Mercury contamination caused by the amalgamation of gold in small scale gold mining is a environmental problem. Small-scale gold mining (SSGM) is common in mineral endowed developing countries. It offers an important means of livehood and has served as a safety net in times of natural calamities or economic distress. In north Sulawesi Province alone, approximately 22,000 small-scale gold miners were active in 1998, and produced an estimated 10 tonnes of gold bullion. Activities of traditional / illegal gold mining (PETI) in Dimembe of district, which is located in Minahasa Regency, North Sulawesi Province. The major environmental concern associated with PETI in mercury pollution from processing of gold-bearing ore. In both the inorganic and organic forms, mercury is one of the most toxic substances to humans. One of the environmental pollution is water pollution on district of Dimembe river system that is probably caused by the use of mercury (Hg) in processing mine ore. This mercury is used in an iron rolling vessel, wllich is called tromol. Mercury concentration at employed in this operation reaches 1 kg out of 30 kg ore. Sampling stage was conducted at Warat river, downstream Taiawaan river, Merut river and Kadumut river on late April 2002 by BAPEDALDA team together with Health Laboratory staff. Material which were sampled was water. Sampling methods carried out were bottle sample immersed about 10 cm below the water surface. The analysis method used was mercury analyzer. The analysis result show that total concentration of mercury range from 1. 69 to 25. 54 ppb. This concentration is closed to Water Quality Standard IV Class that is 0.005 mg/L (Regulation Government No. 82/2001). The result of this research indicate that the district of Dimembe river system in the gold mining area have been contaminated by mercury.

  6. Response of the turbidity maximum zone in the Yangtze River Estuary due to human activities during the dry season.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaofeng; Shen, Zhenyao; Yang, Ye

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between a river and the sea results in a turbidity maximum zone (TMZ) within the estuary, which has a great impact on the local ecosystem. In the Yangtze River Estuary, the magnitude and extent of the TMZ vary with water discharge. In this study, the cumulative human activity altered the water discharge regime from the river to the estuary. In the post-Three Gorges Dam (TGD) period, water discharge increased by 35.10 % at Datong in February compared with that in the pre-TGD period. The effects of water discharge variation on the characteristics of the TMZ were analyzed during spring and neap tidal periods using the three-dimensional environmental fluid dynamic code (EFDC) model. The area of the TMZ decreased by 3.11 and 17.39 % during neap and spring tides, respectively. In addition, the upper limit of the TMZ moved 11.68 km seaward during neap tide, whereas the upper limit of the TMZ in the upstream and downstream areas moved seaward 9.65 and 2.34 km, respectively, during spring tide. These findings suggest that the area and location of the TMZ are more sensitive to upstream runoff during spring tide than during neap tide. These changes in the TMZ will impact the biochemical processes in the Yangtze River Estuary. In the foreseeable future, the distribution characteristic of TMZ will inevitably change due to variations in the Yangtze River discharge resulting from new human activities (i.e., new dams), which are being constructed upstream in the Yangtze River system.

  7. Response of the turbidity maximum zone in the Yangtze River Estuary due to human activities during the dry season.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaofeng; Shen, Zhenyao; Yang, Ye

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between a river and the sea results in a turbidity maximum zone (TMZ) within the estuary, which has a great impact on the local ecosystem. In the Yangtze River Estuary, the magnitude and extent of the TMZ vary with water discharge. In this study, the cumulative human activity altered the water discharge regime from the river to the estuary. In the post-Three Gorges Dam (TGD) period, water discharge increased by 35.10 % at Datong in February compared with that in the pre-TGD period. The effects of water discharge variation on the characteristics of the TMZ were analyzed during spring and neap tidal periods using the three-dimensional environmental fluid dynamic code (EFDC) model. The area of the TMZ decreased by 3.11 and 17.39 % during neap and spring tides, respectively. In addition, the upper limit of the TMZ moved 11.68 km seaward during neap tide, whereas the upper limit of the TMZ in the upstream and downstream areas moved seaward 9.65 and 2.34 km, respectively, during spring tide. These findings suggest that the area and location of the TMZ are more sensitive to upstream runoff during spring tide than during neap tide. These changes in the TMZ will impact the biochemical processes in the Yangtze River Estuary. In the foreseeable future, the distribution characteristic of TMZ will inevitably change due to variations in the Yangtze River discharge resulting from new human activities (i.e., new dams), which are being constructed upstream in the Yangtze River system. PMID:27287491

  8. 78 FR 23951 - Powder River Regional Coal Team Activities: Notice of Public Meeting in Casper, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... LBA II Tract is adjacent to the Spring Creek Mine located in Big Horn County, Montana. The RCT will... Data Adequacy Standards for the Powder River Coal Region. 6. Update on BLM land use planning efforts in... concern in the Powder River Coal Production Region. Any party interested in providing comments or...

  9. A roundup of SMOS validation activities at the HOBE site in the Skjern River Catchment, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bircher, Simone; Richaume, Philippe; Mialon, Arnaud; Berthon, Lucie; Kerr, Yann H.; Jensen, Karsten H.

    2013-04-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission (SMOS) delivers global surface soil moisture data at high temporal resolution which is of high relevance for water management, weather and climate predictions as well as hazard analysis. In order to estimate the quality and caveats of the SMOS data at different processing levels (e.g. L1C geolocated brightness temperatures TB, L2 soil moisture SM and optical thickness TAU, L3 spatio-temporal synthesis of TB, SM and TAU), product validation in various climatic regions is a crucial issue. In the framework of the Danish Hydrological Observatory (HOBE) one such validation site has been established in the Skjern River Catchment, Denmark. The catchment is one of Europe's northernmost intensely cultivated region with environmental features related to this latitude such as very sandy soils with large organic deposits under natural vegetation and region-specific land cover such as heathland. The area is of pronounced flatness and located at a short distance to the coast line in two directions. During fall 2009, a soil moisture and soil temperature network with 30 stations has been installed to provide continuous in-situ soil moisture data feasible for upscaling and comparison with SMOS data at large scale. One SMOS pixel (44x44 km2) to be validated was chosen by maximizing its coverage of the Skjern River Catchment and minimizing the open water fraction. Prevailing environmental conditions and their respective fractions were considered for the selection of suitable network locations. To further support validation activities an airborne campaign with the passive L-band microwave radiometer EMIRAD-2, was carried out within the chosen SMOS pixel in spring 2010 to directly acquire soil moisture data at intermediate scale (few kilometers spatial resolution). Concurrent with ascending SMOS overpasses, four flights were conducted with simultaneous ground sampling of surface soil moisture and auxiliary parameters within three 2x2 km

  10. [THE PRESENT STATE OF EPIZOOTOLOGICAL MONITORING OF THE NATURAL FOCI OF INFECTIONS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION].

    PubMed

    Trankvilevsky, D V; Tsarenko, V A; Zhukov, V I

    2016-01-01

    The facilities of the Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare play a leading role in epizootological monitoring. The specialists (zoologists and entomologists) of Hygiene and Epidemiology Centers do basic work in the subjects of the Russian Federation. The data obtained in the participation of different ministries and departments are used to analyze the results of monitoring. The latter is one of the important steps in the management of the epidemic, process in natural focal infections. In recent years, there has been an unjustified reduction in the volume of studies in the natural foci. This negatively affects the reliability of estimates and predictions of the epidemic activity of the natural foci of infections. Ensuring the national, security of the Russian Federation, epidemiological surveillance, and control of its natural foci requires staffing and appropriate professional training in the zoological and entomological subdivisions of the Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare. PMID:27405210

  11. [THE PRESENT STATE OF EPIZOOTOLOGICAL MONITORING OF THE NATURAL FOCI OF INFECTIONS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION].

    PubMed

    Trankvilevsky, D V; Tsarenko, V A; Zhukov, V I

    2016-01-01

    The facilities of the Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare play a leading role in epizootological monitoring. The specialists (zoologists and entomologists) of Hygiene and Epidemiology Centers do basic work in the subjects of the Russian Federation. The data obtained in the participation of different ministries and departments are used to analyze the results of monitoring. The latter is one of the important steps in the management of the epidemic, process in natural focal infections. In recent years, there has been an unjustified reduction in the volume of studies in the natural foci. This negatively affects the reliability of estimates and predictions of the epidemic activity of the natural foci of infections. Ensuring the national, security of the Russian Federation, epidemiological surveillance, and control of its natural foci requires staffing and appropriate professional training in the zoological and entomological subdivisions of the Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare.

  12. Identification of estrogen-like effects and biologically active compounds in river water using bioassays and chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung Min; Kim, Ha Ryong; Park, Hye Kyung; Choi, Kyunghee; Ryu, Jisung; Shin, Ho Sang; Park, Jang-Su; Lee, Jung Sick; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2009-10-15

    The Nackdong River is the longest river in South Korea and passes through major cities that have several industrial complexes, including chemical, electric, and petrochemical complexes, and municipal characteristics such as apartment complexes. Along the river, the Gumi region has an electric industrial complex and an apartment complex that may be possible point sources of xenoestrogens such as phenolic compounds. To identify the causative chemicals for estrogenic activity in the river water of this region, bioassay-directed chemical analysis was performed. All samples from six sampling sites (an upstream point: S1; hot spot points: S2-1, S2-2, and S2-3; and downstream points: S3, and S4) showed estrogenic activity in the E-screen assay, with bio-EEQs (17beta-E(2)-equivalent quantities) ranging from 25.35-677.15 pg/L. Samples from S2-2, the sampling point downstream of the junction of stream water, and domestic and industrial wastewater, contained the highest estrogenic activity. Since the bio-EEQ of the organic acid fraction (F2) of the S2-2 sample had the highest activity (823.25 pg-EEQ/L) and F2 may contain phenolic compounds, GC-MS analyses for phenolic xenoestrogens were conducted with the organic acid fractions of the river water samples. Six estrogenic phenolic chemicals, 4-NP, BPA, 4-t-OP, 4-t-BP, 4-n-OP, and 4-n-HTP, were detected, with the highest concentrations (I-EEQ) found in S2-2 (231.80 pg/L). Among these phenolic chemicals, 4-NP was the most potent estrogen (bio-EEF; 8.12 x1 0(-5)) and acted as a full agonist. Furthermore, 4-NP was present at levels (2.0 microg/L in S2-2) that can induce VTG induction in fish (>1 microg/L). In addition, we confirmed that river water (S2-2) significantly increased serum VTG levels in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) in a fish exposure experiment under laboratory conditions. Therefore, phenolic xenoestrogens, especially 4-NP, may be the main causative compounds responsible for the estrogenic effect on the Nackdong

  13. Wolbachia-Induced Neutrophil Activation in a Mouse Model of Ocular Onchocerciasis (River Blindness)

    PubMed Central

    Gillette-Ferguson, Illona; Hise, Amy G.; McGarry, Helen F.; Turner, Joseph; Esposito, Andrew; Sun, Yan; Diaconu, Eugenia; Taylor, Mark J.; Pearlman, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria are abundant in the filarial nematodes that cause onchocerciasis (river blindness), including the larvae (microfilariae) that migrate into the cornea. Using a mouse model of ocular onchocerciasis, we recently demonstrated that it is these endosymbiotic bacteria rather than the nematodes per se that induce neutrophil infiltration to the corneal stroma and loss of corneal clarity (Saint Andre et al., Science 295:1892-1895, 2002). To better understand the role of Wolbachia organisms in the pathogenesis of this disease, we examined the fate of these bacteria in the cornea by immunoelectron microscopy. Microfilariae harboring Wolbachia organisms were injected into mouse corneas, and bacteria were detected with antibody to Wolbachia surface protein. Within 18 h of injection, neutrophils completely surrounded the nematodes and were in close proximity to Wolbachia organisms. Wolbachia surface protein labeling was also prominent in neutrophil phagosomes, indicating neutrophil ingestion of Wolbachia organisms. Furthermore, the presence of numerous electron-dense granules around the phagosomes indicated that neutrophils were activated. To determine if Wolbachia organisms directly activate neutrophils, peritoneal neutrophils were incubated with either parasite extracts containing Wolbachia organisms, parasite extracts depleted of Wolbachia organisms (by antibiotic treatment of worms), or Wolbachia organisms isolated from filarial nematodes. After 18 h of incubation, we found that isolated Wolbachia organisms stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and CXC chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein 2 and KC by neutrophils in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, these cytokines were induced by filarial extracts containing Wolbachia organisms but not by Wolbachia-depleted extracts. Taken together, these findings indicate that neutrophil activation is an important mechanism by which Wolbachia organisms contribute to the pathogenesis of

  14. Annual budget of Gd and related Rare Earth Elements in a river basin heavily disturbed by anthropogenic activities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hissler, Christophe; Stille, Peter; Guignard, Cédric; François Iffly, Jean; Pfister, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    The real environmental impact of micropollutants in river systems can be difficult to assess, essentially due to uncertainties in the estimation of the relative significance of both anthropogenic and natural sources. The natural geochemical background is characterized by important variations at global, regional or local scales. Moreover, elements currently considered to be undisturbed by human activities and used as tracers of continental crust derived material have become more and more involved in industrial or agricultural processes. The global production of lanthanides (REE), used in industry, medicine and agriculture, for instance, has increased exponentially from a few tons in 1950 to projected 185 kt in 2015. Consequently, these new anthropogenic contributions impact the natural cycle of the REE. Gd and related REE are now worldwide recognized as emergent micropollutants in river systems. Nevertheless, there is still a gap concerning their temporal dynamics in rivers and especially the quantification of both the anthropogenic and natural contributions in surface water. The acquisition of such quantitative information is of primordial interest because elements from both origins may present different bioavailability and toxicity levels. Working at the river basin scale allows for quantifying micropollutant fluxes. For this reason, we monitored water quality and discharge of the Alzette River (Luxembourg, Europe) over two complete hydrological cycles (2010-2013). The substantial contamination, is principally due to the steel industry in the basin, which has been active from 1875 until now, and to the related increase of urban areas. The particulate and dissolved fractions of river water were monitored using a multitracer approach (standard parameters for water quality including REE concentrations, Pb, Sr, Nd radiogenic isotopes) with two sampling setups (bi-weekly and flood event based sampling). This extensive sampling design allowed quantifying the annual

  15. Decommissioning an Active Historical Reactor Facility at the Savannah River Site - 13453

    SciTech Connect

    Bergren, Christopher L.; Long, J. Tony; Blankenship, John K.; Adams, Karen M.

    2013-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is an 802 square-kilometer United States Department of Energy (US DOE) nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina, where Management and Operations are performed by Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS). In 2004, DOE recognized SRS as structure within the Cold War Historic District of national, state and local significance composed of the first generation of facilities constructed and operated from 1950 through 1989 to produce plutonium and tritium for our nation's defense. DOE agreed to manage the SRS 105-C Reactor Facility as a potentially historic property due to its significance in supporting the U.S. Cold War Mission and for potential for future interpretation. This reactor has five primary areas within it, including a Disassembly Basin (DB) that received irradiated materials from the reactor, cooled them and prepared the components for loading and transport to a Separation Canyon for processing. The 6,317 square meter area was divided into numerous work/storage areas. The walls between the individual basin compartments have narrow vertical openings called 'slots' that permit the transfer of material from one section to another. Data indicated there was over 830 curies of radioactivity associated with the basin sediments and approximately 9.1 M liters of contaminated water, not including a large quantity of activated reactor equipment, scrap metal, and debris on the basin floor. The need for an action was identified in 2010 to reduce risks to personnel in the facility and to eliminate the possible release of contaminants into the environment. The release of DB water could potentially migrate to the aquifer and contaminate groundwater. DOE, its regulators [U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)-Region 4 and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC)] and the SC Historical Preservation Office (SHPO) agreed/concurred to perform a non-time critical removal

  16. Analysis of impacts of climate variability and human activity on streamflow for a river basin in northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongfang; Guan, Dexin; Jin, Changjie; Wang, Anzhi; Wu, Jiabing; Yuan, Fenghui

    2011-11-01

    SummaryHydrological processes in river systems have been changing under the impacts of both climate variability and human activities. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall statistic was used to identify change trends and points in the annual streamflow in the Hun-Tai River basin in northeast China. The identifications were based on streamflow records from six hydrological stations during 1961-2006, and the purpose was to analyze the change characteristics of the hydrological processes. The results indicated that all hydrological stations presented downward trends in annual streamflows. Abrupt changes in the annual streamflow occurred around 1978 in the Hun River basin, and around 1998 in the Taizi River basin. The impact of climate variability on the mean annual streamflow was also analyzed based on the relationships among streamflow, precipitation, and potential evapotranspiration. Precipitation and meteorological data from 22 rainfall stations and 10 weather stations within the basin were employed in the analysis. Daily potential evapotranspiration was calculated using the Penman-Monteith equation. Climate variability was estimated to account for 43% of the reduction in the annual streamflow, and human activities accounted for about 57%.

  17. Topography, river network and recent fault activity at the margins of the Central Main Ethiopian Rift (East Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molin, Paola; Corti, Giacomo; Sembroni, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Along its length, the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) in East Africa records a transition from early fault-dominated morphology in the South to axial magma assisted-rifting typical of continental break-up in the North. It is one of the few locations on Earth offering a complete picture of the evolution of continental rifting and thus provides a unique opportunity to directly analyze how the drainage network reorganize under extensional tectonic forcing. In this paper we present a new analysis of the river network and relative landforms - complemented with a summary of recent geological data - at both rift margins of the Central MER, a key sector of the rift capturing the phase of drainage reorganization between incipient and mature rifting. This analysis shows that hydrography is strongly influenced by recent tectonics. Rectangular drainage patterns, windgaps, and lacustrine/swampy areas formed by structural dams document that the rivers are in continuous competition with fault activity. The irregular longitudinal profiles (with knickpoints/knickzones in correspondence with faults) also suggest that rivers are in a transient state of disequilibrium related to recent tectonic activity at rift margins, in agreement with previous geological and seismological data. A more regional analysis extended to the adjoining Northern and Southern MER indicates that rifting evolves from initial stages characterized by margins poorly incised by rivers with gentle channel gradients (except in correspondence with faults), to mature phases in which rift margins are highly incised by a well organized fluvial network composed by concave and steep rivers. Our regional analysis also indicates a stronger and/or more recent tectonic activity at the rift margins proceeding to the south, in line with previous models of rift development.

  18. Topography, river network and recent fault activity at the margins of the Central Main Ethiopian Rift (East Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molin, Paola; Corti, Giacomo

    2015-11-01

    Along its length, the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) in East Africa records a transition from early fault-dominated morphology in the South to axial magma assisted-rifting typical of continental break-up in the North. It is one of the few locations on Earth offering a complete picture of the evolution of continental rifting and thus provides a unique opportunity to directly analyze how the drainage network reorganizes under extensional tectonic forcing. In this paper we present a new analysis of the river network and relative landforms-complemented with a summary of recent geological data-at both rift margins of the Central MER, a key sector of the rift capturing the phase of drainage reorganization between incipient and mature rifting. This analysis shows that hydrography is strongly influenced by recent tectonics. Rectangular drainage patterns, windgaps, and lacustrine/swampy areas formed by structural dams document that the rivers are in continuous competition with fault activity. The irregular longitudinal profiles (with knickpoints/knickzones in correspondence with faults) also suggest that rivers are in a transient state of disequilibrium related to recent tectonic activity at rift margins, in agreement with previous geological and seismological data. A more regional analysis extended to the adjoining Northern and Southern MER indicates that rifting evolves from initial stages characterized by margins poorly incised by rivers with gentle channel gradients (except in correspondence with faults), to mature phases in which rift margins are highly incised by a well organized fluvial network composed by concave and steep rivers. Our regional analysis also indicates a stronger and/or more recent tectonic activity at the rift margins proceeding to the south, in line with previous models of rift development.

  19. Russian Virtual Observatory: data sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, O.; Dluzhnevskaya, O.; Bakanas, E.; Kilpio, E.; Kniazev, A.; Kovaleva, D.; Mironov, A.; Pakhomov, Yu.; Ryabchikova, T.; Rykhlova, L.; Sachkov, M.; Sazonov, S.; Zhukov, A.

    The purpose of this review is to analyze main directions of creation and functioning of major data sources developed by Russian astronomers or with their participation and to compare them with the worldwide trends in these fields. We discuss astronomical space missions of the past, present, and future (Astron, INTEGRAL, WSO-UV, Spectrum Roentgen Gamma, Lyra-B), high-quality photometric atlases and catalogues, and spectroscopic data sources, primarily VALD and the global VAMDC framework for the maintenance and distribution of atomic and molecular data. We describe collection, analysis, and dissemination of astronomical data on minor bodies of the Solar System and on variable stars. Also described is the project joining data for all observational types of binary and multiple stars, Binary star DataBase (BDB).

  20. Violence on the Russian & American Media Screen and Youth Audience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    The comparison of the Russian and American experience regarding media violence, standards for rating Russian media programs, and a course of study on media violence for students will have a significant impact upon Russian society, will raise Russian societal and governmental attention to the infringement of the Rights of the Child on the Russian…

  1. 31 CFR 540.304 - Government of the Russian Federation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government of the Russian Federation...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.304 Government of the Russian Federation. (a) The term Government of the Russian Federation means the Government of the Russian Federation,...

  2. 31 CFR 540.304 - Government of the Russian Federation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Government of the Russian Federation...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.304 Government of the Russian Federation. (a) The term Government of the Russian Federation means the Government of the Russian Federation,...

  3. Alternate particle removal technologies for the Airborne Activity Confinement System at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Brockmann, J.E.; Adkins, C.L.J.; Gelbard, F. )

    1991-09-01

    This report presents a review of the filtration technologies available for the removal of particulate material from a gas stream. It was undertaken to identify alternate filtration technologies that may be employed in the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) at the Savannah River Plant. This report is organized into six sections: (1) a discussion of the aerosol source term and its definition, (2) a short discussion of particle and gaseous contaminant removal mechanisms, (3) a brief overview of particle removal technologies, (4) a discussion of the existing AACS and its potential shortcomings, (5) an enumeration of issues to be addressed in upgrading the AACS, and, (6) a detailed discussion of the identified technologies. The purpose of this report is to identity available options to the existing particle removal system. This system is in continuous operation during routine operation of the reactor. As will be seen, there are a number of options and the selection of any technology or combination of technologies will depend on the design aerosol source term (yet to be appropriately defined) as well as the flow requirements and configuration. This report does not select a specific technology. It focuses on particulate removal and qualitatively on the removal of radio-iodine and mist elimination. Candidate technologies have been selected from industrial and nuclear gas cleaning applications.

  4. Reconstructing recent landslide activity in relation to rainfall in the Llobregat River basin, Eastern Pyrenees, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corominas, Jordi; Moya, José

    1999-10-01

    A chronology of recent landslides in the upper basin of the Llobregat River, Eastern Pyrenees, has been reconstructed from technical reports, field reconnaissance and dendrogeomorphological analysis. The precipitation conditions responsible for triggering and reactivating landslides have been deduced by analysis of rainfall records from two rain gauges located in the area. Two different rainfall patterns relate to landslide occurrence: (i) Without antecedent rainfall, high intensity and short duration rains trigger mostly debris flows and shallow slides developed in colluvium and weathered rocks. A rainfall threshold of around 190 mm in 24 h initiates failures whereas more than 300 mm in 24-48 h are needed to cause widespread shallow landsliding; (ii) with antecedent rain, moderate intensity precipitation of at least, 40 mm in 24 h reactivates mudslides and both rotational and translational slides affecting clayey and silty-clayey formations. In this case, several weeks and 200 mm of precipitation are needed to cause landslide reactivation. Dendrochronological analysis shows that landslide activity in the Eastern Pyrenees was relatively low between 1926 and 1959 but has since increased significantly with reactivation now occurring about every 3 years.

  5. The Russian Orthodox Church as moral norm entrepreneur

    PubMed Central

    Stoeckl, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Conflicts over religious symbols in the public sphere, gay marriage, abortion or gender equality have shown their disruptive potential across many societies in the world. They have also become the subject of political and legal debates in international institutions. These conflicts emerge out of different worldviews and normative conceptions of the good, and they are frequently framed in terms of competing interpretations of human rights. One newcomer voice in conflicts over rights and values in the international sphere is the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC), which in recent years has become an active promoter of ‘traditional values’ both inside Russia and internationally. This article studies the ideational prerequisites and dynamics of Russian Orthodox ‘norm protagonism’ in the international arena. PMID:27660397

  6. The Russian Orthodox Church as moral norm entrepreneur

    PubMed Central

    Stoeckl, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Conflicts over religious symbols in the public sphere, gay marriage, abortion or gender equality have shown their disruptive potential across many societies in the world. They have also become the subject of political and legal debates in international institutions. These conflicts emerge out of different worldviews and normative conceptions of the good, and they are frequently framed in terms of competing interpretations of human rights. One newcomer voice in conflicts over rights and values in the international sphere is the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC), which in recent years has become an active promoter of ‘traditional values’ both inside Russia and internationally. This article studies the ideational prerequisites and dynamics of Russian Orthodox ‘norm protagonism’ in the international arena.

  7. SUPPLEMENTAL COLUMBIA RIVER PROTECTION ACTIVITIES AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE 2008 TECHNICAL REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B; Dawn S. Kaback, D; Eugene L. LeBoeuf, E; Joe Rossabi, J; Karen L. Skubal, K; David L. Cocke, D; Paul C. Deutsch, P

    2008-09-30

    Beginning in 2006, the US Department of Energy (DOE) supported nine applied research projects to improve the protection of the Columbia River and mitigate the impacts of Hanford Site groundwater. These projects were funded through a supplemental Congressional budget allocation, and are now in various stages of completion in accordance with the research plans. The DOE Office of Environmental Management Groundwater and Soil Cleanup Technologies (EM-22) sponsored a technical peer review meeting for these projects in Richland WA, July 28-31, 2008. The overall objective of the peer review is to provide information to support DOE decisions about the status and potential future application of the various technologies. The charge for the peer review panel was to develop recommendations for each of the nine 'technologies'. Team members for the July 2008 review were Brian Looney, Gene LeBoeuf, Dawn Kaback, Karen Skubal, Joe Rossabi, Paul Deutsch, and David Cocke. Previous project reviews were held in May 2007 and March-May of 2006. The team used the following four rating categories for projects: (a) Incorporate the technology/strategy in ongoing and future EM activities; (b) Finish existing scope of applied research and determine potential for EM activities when research program is finished; (c) Discontinue current development activities and do not incorporate technology/strategy into ongoing and future EM activities unless a significant and compelling change in potential viability is documented; and (d) Supplement original funded work to obtain the data needed to support a DOE decision to incorporate the technology into ongoing and future EM activities. The supplemental funding portfolio included two projects that addressed strontium, five projects that addressed chromium, one project that addressed uranium and one project that addressed carbon tetrachloride. The projects ranged from in situ treatment methods for immobilizing contaminants using chemical-based methods such

  8. Determination of estrogenic activity in the river Chienti (Marche Region, Italy) by using in vivo and in vitro bioassays.

    PubMed

    Cocci, Paolo; Palermo, Francesco Alessandro; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Miano, Antonino; Mosconi, Gilberto

    2016-05-01

    Environmental estrogen-like compounds (i.e. xenoestrogens) are a variety of pollutants, ranging from synthetic to natural occurring molecules, that are found in surface and waste waters over a wide range of concentrations. In aquatic environment, the overall estrogenic activity is often due to the presence of a mixture of chemicals and their degraded products which can induce synergistic effects. Current strategies for monitoring estrogen-like chemicals are based on the use of a battery of in vivo and in vitro ecotoxicological tests. In this regard, the aim of the present work was to carry out a bio-monitoring study for testing estrogenicity of the Chienti river (Marche Region, Italy) by using both an E-screen and a vitellogenin (Vtg) induction assay in juvenile goldfish. Three sites were used for analysis, localized at the mouth (sampling point 1), in the middle (sampling point 2) and at the origin (sampling point 3) of Chienti river. For most of the water samples (i.e. samples collected at sampling points 2 and 3), clear estrogenic activity was detected in the E-screen assay suggesting different proliferation activities in function of the collecting site. In contrast, the Vtg ELISA demonstrated that water samples collected from each sampling point were estrogenic. Overall, we showed for the first time that the estrogenic activities in water samples from the Chienti river were significant in both in vivo and in vitro; we also observed a different sensitivity between bioassays. PMID:27155408

  9. Russian psychology at the turn of the 21st century and post-Soviet reforms in the humanities disciplines.

    PubMed

    Vassilieva, Julia

    2010-05-01

    The author traces the changes in Russian psychology in the past 25 years and links these changes to the earlier Russian legacy of Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) and Aleksei N. Leontiev (1903-1979). The move into the 21st century coincided for Russian psychology as well as for the Russian society at large with the reforms of perestroika, leading to greater openness in the academic sphere. In particular, Russian psychology was able to connect in a more free and fundamental way with its own heritage and with various developments around the world. The author discusses how these factors affected continuity and innovation with regard to the 2 dominant theoretical perspectives in Russian psychology--the cultural-historical theory of Vygotsky and the theory of activity, initially developed by Leontiev. The author argues that while there are now original and substantial shifts within Russian psychology--namely toward the new paradigm characterized by various researchers as "organic psychology," "nonclassical psychology," or even "post-non-classical" psychology--the issues of agency and meaning, which were central for the previous generation of Russian psychologists, such as Vygotsky, Leontiev, Luria, Zaporozhets, Rubinstein, and others, continue to inform the development of the discipline in the 21st century. PMID:20533768

  10. Effect of laundry activities on in-stream concentrations of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in a small rural South African river.

    PubMed

    Gordon, A K; Muller, W J; Gysman, N; Marshall, S J; Sparham, C J; O'Connor, S M; Whelan, M J

    2009-07-15

    In many parts of the world clothes are washed near to or in rivers and streams. Little information is available on resulting concentrations of detergent ingredients or on any potential effects caused. In this study, the fate of a commonly used anionic surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) was investigated in a reach of the Balfour River (Eastern Cape Province, South Africa) which was regularly used as a site for laundry activity. Samples of river water were collected upstream of the main washing site and at a number of locations downstream on several occasions in winter and summer. Sediment samples were also collected and analysed. In addition, a household survey was conducted to ascertain the amount of detergent used and the distribution of washing practices. The results of the survey suggested that the use of riverside locations for laundry activities was seasonal. Most washing tended to be done at home during the winter with riverside sites used more frequently during the summer months. The monitoring data showed that LAS concentrations in water were very variable. They were occasionally high in the immediate vicinity of the laundry site (up to 342 microg L(-1)) but were generally very low (<11 microg L(-1)) at downstream monitoring stations, suggesting that LAS was rapidly dissipated by a combination of degradation, hydrodynamic dispersion and dilution. Concentrations in the immediate vicinity of the washing site were lower than expected on the basis of the household survey because most waste water was disposed of on the river bank rather than directly in the river. No ecological effects are expected from LAS emissions at this site.

  11. Feeding activity and spawning time of striped bass in the Colorado River Inlet, Lake Powell, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persons, William R.; Bulkly, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    Striped bass, Morone saxatilis, from Lake Powell, Utah spawned in or near the mixing zone of the reservoir and the Colorado River in 1980 and 1981. The fish did not move through Cataract Canyon rapids just above the reservoir in either year. Of 321 adult striped bass stomachs examined, 30% contained food and 28% contained threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense. No stomachs contained native threatened or endangered Colorado River fishes.

  12. Robotics and Automation Activities at the Savannah River Site: A Site Report for SUBWOG 39F

    SciTech Connect

    Teese, G.D.

    1995-09-28

    The Savannah River Site has successfully used robots, teleoperators, and remote video to reduce exposure to ionizing radiation, improve worker safety, and improve the quality of operations. Previous reports have described the use of mobile teleoperators in coping with a high level liquid waste spill, the removal of highly contaminated equipment, and the inspection of nuclear reactor vessels. This report will cover recent applications at the Savannah River, as well as systems which SRS has delivered to other DOE site customers.

  13. EVA 2000: a European/Russian space suit concept.

    PubMed

    Skoog, A I; Abramov, I P

    1995-07-01

    For the European manned space activities an EVA space suit system was being developed in the frame of the Hermes Space Vehicle Programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The space suit was to serve the needs for all relevant extravehicular activities for the Hermes Columbus operations planned to begin in 2004. For the present Russian manned space programme the relevant EVAs are performed by the Orlan-DMA semi-rigid space suit. The origin of its development reaches back to the 1970s and has since been adapted to cover the needs for extravehicular activities on Salyut and MIR until today. The latest modification of the space suit, which guaranteed its completely self-contained operation, was made in 1988. However, Russian specialists considered it necessary to start developing an EVA space suit of a new generation, which would have improved performance and would cover the needs by the turn of the century and into the beginning of the next century. Potentially these two suit developments could have a lot in common based on similarities in present concepts. As future manned space activities become more and more an international effort, a safe and reliable interoperability of the different space suit systems is required. Based on the results of the Munich Minister Conference in 1991, the European Space Agency and the Russian Space Agency agreed to initiate a requirements analysis and conceptual design study to determine the feasibility of a joint space suit development, EVA 2000. The design philosophy for the EVA 2000 study was oriented on a space suit system design of: space suit commonality and interoperability; increased crew productivity and safety; increase in useful life and reduced maintainability; reduced development and production cost. The EVA 2000 feasibility study was performed in 1992, and with the positive conclusions for EVA 2000, this approach became the new joint European Russian EVA Suit 2000 Development Programme. This paper gives an overview of

  14. CHALLENGES POSED BY RETIRED RUSSIAN NUCLEAR SUBMARINES

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, Dieter; Kroken, Ingjerd; Latyshev, Eduard; Griffith, Andrew

    2003-02-27

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the challenges posed by retired Russian nuclear submarines, review current U.S. and International efforts and provide an assessment of the success of these efforts.

  15. Russian Roulette: From Sputnik to Global Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrard, John C.

    1978-01-01

    Problems in the educational system involving poor verbal and mathematics skills of students are discussed. The "back to basics" movement is advocated. The Russian instructional program at the University of Virginia is described. (SW)

  16. Russian Fires and Pakistani Floods Linked

    NASA Video Gallery

    Beginning in mid-July and stretching through mid-August, a persistent Omega-shaped blocking high over western Russian and Kazakhstan produced abnormally warm temperatures (indicated by the yellow a...

  17. Comparison with Russian analyses of meteor impact

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-06-01

    The inversion model for meteor impacts is used to discuss Russian analyses and compare principal results. For common input parameters, the models produce consistent estimates of impactor parameters. Directions for future research are discussed and prioritized.

  18. Effects of Human Activities on Submarine Topography in Lingding Bay of the Pearl River Estuary During the Last Decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WU, Z. Y.; Saito, Y.; Milliman, J. D.; Zhao, D.; Zhou, J.

    2015-12-01

    Estuaries have been the site of intensive human activities. During the past century, decreased fluvial water and sediment discharge, increasing land reclamation, changing climate, and rising sea level have had an ever-increasing impact on river deltas, particularly those deltas bordering Southeast Asia. Using six stages of navigational and bathymetric chart data from 1906 to 2013 and 2 years (2012,2013) single-beam bathymetric data, together with more than 50 years of fluvial discharge data, we document the impact of human activities on the Pearl River Delta and its estuary at Lingding Bay. Between 1906 and 2010, land reclamation decreased the bay's water area by ~300 km2 (>17%), mostly at the expense of the shrinking intertidal and shallow subtidal mudflats. Before 1980, the estuary was mainly governed by natural processes with slight net deposition, whereas after 1980 dredging in the estuary and large port engineering projects changed the estuarine topography by shallowing the shoals and deepening the troughs. From 1955 to 2010, the water volume of Lingding Bay decreased by 536 × 106 m3 for a net decrease of 9.7 × 106 m3 a year, which indicates that approximately 9.7 Mt/yr of sediment was deposited in Lingding Bay during that period. In 2012 and 2013, large-scale human activities within Lingding Bay included continued dredging plus a surge of sand excavation that changed local water depths by ±5 m/yr, far exceeding the range of natural topographic evolution in the estuary. The impacts of various human activities have significantly changed submarine topography in Lingding Bay of the complex Pearl River Estuary. With continuing economic expansion in the Pearl River Delta, Lingding Bay should continue to shrink in both area and water volume.

  19. Occurrence and distribution of antibiotics in the Beibu Gulf, China: impacts of river discharge and aquaculture activities.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qian; Zhang, Ruijie; Wang, Yinghui; Pan, Xiaohui; Tang, Jianhui; Zhang, Gan

    2012-07-01

    The occurrence and distribution of eleven selected antibiotics belonging to three groups were investigated in the Beibu Gulf. In addition, the potential effects of water discharged from four rivers and aquaculture activities were analyzed. Erythromycin-H₂O, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim were the most frequently detected compounds, with mean concentrations ranging from 0.51 to 6.30 ng L⁻¹. The concentrations of the rivers were generally higher than those of the gulf, implying that river discharge has an important effect on the Beibu Gulf. The concentrations of erythromycin-H₂O, sulfamethoxazole and sulfadimidine in the vicinity of aquaculture activities were higher, suggesting that a higher intensity of aquaculture activities could contribute to increasing levels of antibiotics in the environment. According to MEC (measured environmental concentration)/PNEC (predicted no-effect concentration), erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole and clarithromycin may present possible environmental risk to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Synechococcus leopoliensis and P. subcapitata, respectively; therefore, attention should be given to the long-term ecological effects caused by the continuous discharge of antibiotics in the Beibu Gulf.

  20. [Response of active nitrogen to salinity in a soil from the Yellow River Delta].

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Qiu, Shao-Jun; Chen, Yin-Ping; Zhao, Xi-Men; Liu, Jing-Tao; Lu, Zhao-Hu

    2014-06-01

    Soil salinity can inhibit the processes of nitrogen cycle, and the active nitrogen is the important indicator to reflect the turnover of nitrogen. A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the effect of soil salinity on the active nitrogen in a soil of the Yellow River Delta incubated aerobically under 25 degrees C for 45 days. Four levels of salinity (S1: 0.1%, S2: 0.5%, S3: 0.9%, S4: 1.3%) were imposed using NaCl (mass fraction), and glucose with or without NH4Cl were added to the soils. NO3(-) -N, NH4(+) -N, total soluble nitrogen (TSN) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) were monitored. Results showed that NO3(-)-N was significantly higher in the low salinity soil (S1, S2) than in the high salinity soil (S3, S4) under the control and with NH4Cl addition, and especially the difference was larger with NH4Cl addition. Comparing with the control, NO3(-) -N was increased significantly in S1 and S2. NO3(-) -N was decreased significantly with glucose addition, and there was no difference among the four salinity soils during the whole incubation period. NH4(+) -N was significantly higher in the high salinity soil (S3, S4) than in the low salinity soil (S1, S2), and it was increased particularly in S4 after day 5. With the addition of NH4Cl, NH4(+) -N was increased in S3 and S4. MBN was higher in the low salinity soil than in the high salinity soil, and it was not increased with NH4Cl addition, though TSN was increased. With glucose addition, MBN was increased by 89.9% - 130.9% in the low salinity soil (S1, S2) and 36.9% - 79.5% in the high salinity soil (S3, S4). It was suggested that soil salinity had influence on N transformation, and high salinity inhibited the transformation and assimilation of N by microorganism. The addition of C depressed the effect of salinity, and improved the microbial activity. The application of organic matter is an effective measure to improve N transformation in saline soils.

  1. Russian Navy Fresh Fuel MPC and A Training

    SciTech Connect

    Forehand, Harry M.; O'Shell, Parker; Opanassiouk, Yuri R.; Rexroth, Paul E.; Shmelev, Vladimir; Sukhoruchkin, Vladimir K.

    1999-07-06

    The goal of the Russian Navy Fuels Program is to incorporate nuclear fuel that is in the custody of the Russian Navy into a materials protection, control and accounting program. In addition to applying MPC and A upgrades to existing facilities, a program is underway to train site personnel in MPC and A activities. The goal is to assure that the upgraded facilities are managed, operated and maintained in an effective, sustainable manner. Training includes both the conceptual and necessary operational aspects of the systems and equipment. The project began with a Needs Assessment to identify priorities and objectives of required training. This led to the creation of a series of classes developed by Kurchatov Institute. One course was developed to allow attendees to get a general understanding of goals and objectives of nuclear MPC and A systems in the context of the Russian Navy. A follow-on course provided the detailed skills necessary for the performance of specialized duties. Parallel sessions with hands-on exercises provided the specific training needed for different personnel requirements. The courses were presented at KI facilities in Moscow. This paper reviews the work to date and future plans for this program.

  2. [Disease control on the Russian fleet in XVIII century].

    PubMed

    Kostiuk, A V

    2014-03-01

    Disease control in domestic fleet in XVIII century was a part of government measures concerning protection of the territory of the Russian Empire from the penetration of dangerous infectious diseases. Understanding the role fleet could play in the spread of infection, the government sought to prevent its entry from the sea. Following this task, in the early 20-s of XVIII century on islands of the Gulf Seskar and Wolf organized sanitary quarantine stations where ships from unfavorable in relation to the epidemic areas stayed before they pester the Russian shore. Eventually when the Black Sea Fleet was created, similar items appeared in Ochakov, Sevastopol, Feodosia, Yalta and Kerch. In XVIII century health legislation was supplemented by a number of regulations relating to the activities of the fleet. In particular, during the reign of Peter I epidemic rules were composed, which, as it became known, lasted for about sixty years. In 1786, the band released a set of quarantine rules designed to streamline the work of sanitary and quarantine stations. Important for protection against the penetration of Russian borders infectious diseases had timely warning of epidemics broke out abroad. Cooperating with European countries in the prevention and control of communicable diseases, Russia has successfully developed methods antiepidemic protection.

  3. Therapeutic Efficacy and Macrofilaricidal Activity of Doxycycline for the Treatment of River Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Martin; Specht, Sabine; Churcher, Thomas S.; Hoerauf, Achim; Taylor, Mark J.; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Background. Onchocerca volvulus and lymphatic filariae, causing river blindness and elephantiasis, depend on endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria for growth, development, fertility, and survival. Clinical trials have shown that doxycycline treatment eliminates Wolbachia, causing long-term sterilization of adult female filariae and effecting potent macrofilaricidal activity. The continual reinfection by drug-naive worms that occurs in these trial settings dilutes observable anti-Wolbachia and antifilarial effects, making it difficult to estimate therapeutic efficacy and compare different doxycycline regimens, evaluated at different times after treatment. Methods. A meta-analytical modeling framework is developed to link all usable data collected from clinical trials measuring the Wolbachia status and viability of individual female adult worms collected at various times after treatment with 4, 5, or 6 weeks of daily 100 or 200 mg oral doxycycline. The framework is used to estimate efficacy parameters that are not directly measurable as trial outcomes. Results. The estimated efficacy of doxycycline (the maximum proportional reduction in the percentage of adult female O. volvulus positive for Wolbachia) is 91%–94% on average, irrespective of the treatment regimen. Efficacy is >95% in the majority of trial participants. The life span of Wolbachia-depleted worms is reduced by 70%–80%, from approximately 10 years to 2–3 years. Conclusions. The efficacy parameters are pertinent to the prospects of using doxycycline on a “test and treat” basis for onchocerciasis control and confirm doxycycline as a potent macrofilaricidal therapy. The modeling approach is more generally relevant to the design and evaluation of clinical trials for antifilarial drugs conducted in endemic settings. PMID:25537873

  4. Corrosion Control during Closure Activities at the Savannah River Site - 13514

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, Bruce J.; Subramanian, Karthik H.; Martin, Keisha B.

    2013-07-01

    Liquid radioactive wastes from the Savannah River Site (SRS) separation process are stored in large underground carbon steel tanks. Until the waste is removed from storage, transferred, and processed, the materials and structures of the tanks must maintain a confinement function by providing a barrier to the environment and by maintaining acceptable structural stability during normal service and design basis events (e.g., earthquake conditions). A corrosion control program is in place to ensure that degradation of the steel does not impact the structural and leak integrity functions of these waste tanks. The SRS is currently retrieving waste from older waste tanks and processing the waste through the vitrification for long term stabilization. The retrieval processes prepare the tanks for ultimate closure (i.e., grouting) by removing sludge by mechanical and/or sluicing methods, dissolving salt cake by adding water, and chemical cleaning of the residual sludge with oxalic acid. Each of these retrieval methods will result in waste chemistry that does not meet the requirements of the current corrosion control program. Given the short-term exposure and limited remaining service life for the tanks in which retrievals are being performed, an assessment of the need for corrosion controls in these tanks was performed. The assessment reviewed the corrosion rates in the more aggressive environments and the postulated loads on the structure during the closure activities. The assessment concluded that the current corrosion control program may be suspended for a short period of time while final retrieval of the waste is performed. (authors)

  5. Detection and evaluation of endocrine-disruption activity in water samples from Portuguese rivers.

    PubMed

    Quirós, Laia; Céspedes, Raquel; Lacorte, Sílvia; Viana, Paula; Raldúa, Demetrio; Barceló, Damià; Piña, Benjamin

    2005-02-01

    Water samples (n = 183) from Portuguese rivers were tested for the presence of endocrine disruptors using the recombinant yeast assay (RYA) combined with chemical identification of compounds having endocrine-disruption properties by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Ten selected locations were sampled monthly for a period of 20 months, from April 2001 to December 2002. More than 90% of samples showed either no detectable or low levels of estrogenicity (<0.1 ng/L of estradiol equivalents). The remaining samples (17 in total, 9.3%) showed estrogenicity values ranging from 0.1 to 1.7 ng/L of estradiol equivalents; only two samples showed values greater than 1 ng/L of estradiol equivalents. Most highly estrogenic samples (13 of 17 samples) originated in five sampling sites clustered in two zones near Porto and Lisbon. Chemical analysis detected alkylphenolic compounds (octyl- and nonylphenol plus nonylphenol ethoxylates) in all samples, albeit at concentrations less than 1 microg/L for each compound in 80% of samples. Total analyte concentration exceeded 10 microg/L in only 10 samples, with all but one of those originating from only two sampling sites. In these two locations, a good correlation was observed between the concentrations of octylphenol, nonylphenol, and to a lesser extent, bisphenol A in the samples and their estrogenicity values as calculated by RYA. We conclude that estrogenic activity can be explained by alkylphenol contamination in only these sites; for the remainder, we propose that pesticides and urban waste may be the main factors responsible for estrogenic contamination. PMID:15719999

  6. Occurrence of selected estrogenic compounds and estrogenic activity in surface water and sediment of Langat River (Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Lui, Tang Seok; Hamin, Nur'Aqilah; Razak, Siti Quistina Noorain Abdul; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2016-07-01

    The occurrence and estrogenic activities of steroid estrogens, such as the natural estrone (E1), 17β estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3), as well as the synthetic 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), were investigated in eight sampling points along the Langat River (Malaysia). Surface water samples were collected at 0.5 m and surface sediment 0-5 cm from the river surface. Instrument analysis of steroid estrogens was determined by UPLC-ESI-MS with an ultra-performance liquid chromatograph (Perkin Elmer FX15) coupled to a Q Trap function mass spectrophotometer (model 3200: AB Sciex). Steroid estrogen concentrations were higher in the Langat River sediments than those in its surface water. In surface water, E1 was not detected in any sampling point, E2 was only detected in two midstream sampling points (range 0-0.004 ng/L), E3 in three sampling points (range 0-0.002 ng/L), and EE2 in four sampling points (range 0-0.02 ng/L). E1 and E2 were detected in sediments from all sampling points, E3 in five sampling points, while EE2 only in one midstream sample (3.29E-4 ng/g). Sewage treatment plants, farming waste, and agricultural activities particularly present midstream and downstream were identified as potential sources of estrogens. Estrogenic activity expressed as estradiol equivalents (EEQs) was below 1 ng/L in all samples for both surface water and sediment, indicating therefore a low potential estrogenic risk to the aquatic environment. Although the health risks are still uncertain for drinking water consumers exposed to low levels of steroid estrogen concentrations, Langat River water is unacceptable for direct drinking purposes without treatment. Further studies of endocrine disruptors in Malaysian waters are highly recommended.

  7. Occurrence of selected estrogenic compounds and estrogenic activity in surface water and sediment of Langat River (Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Lui, Tang Seok; Hamin, Nur'Aqilah; Razak, Siti Quistina Noorain Abdul; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2016-07-01

    The occurrence and estrogenic activities of steroid estrogens, such as the natural estrone (E1), 17β estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3), as well as the synthetic 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), were investigated in eight sampling points along the Langat River (Malaysia). Surface water samples were collected at 0.5 m and surface sediment 0-5 cm from the river surface. Instrument analysis of steroid estrogens was determined by UPLC-ESI-MS with an ultra-performance liquid chromatograph (Perkin Elmer FX15) coupled to a Q Trap function mass spectrophotometer (model 3200: AB Sciex). Steroid estrogen concentrations were higher in the Langat River sediments than those in its surface water. In surface water, E1 was not detected in any sampling point, E2 was only detected in two midstream sampling points (range 0-0.004 ng/L), E3 in three sampling points (range 0-0.002 ng/L), and EE2 in four sampling points (range 0-0.02 ng/L). E1 and E2 were detected in sediments from all sampling points, E3 in five sampling points, while EE2 only in one midstream sample (3.29E-4 ng/g). Sewage treatment plants, farming waste, and agricultural activities particularly present midstream and downstream were identified as potential sources of estrogens. Estrogenic activity expressed as estradiol equivalents (EEQs) was below 1 ng/L in all samples for both surface water and sediment, indicating therefore a low potential estrogenic risk to the aquatic environment. Although the health risks are still uncertain for drinking water consumers exposed to low levels of steroid estrogen concentrations, Langat River water is unacceptable for direct drinking purposes without treatment. Further studies of endocrine disruptors in Malaysian waters are highly recommended. PMID:27353134

  8. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 21 and 22 and 27 and 28 and in a straight line to the peak of Chalk Hill on the Healdsburg map. (33) Proceed west from the peak of Chalk Hill in a straight line to the point where Brooks Creek...

  9. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 21 and 22 and 27 and 28 and in a straight line to the peak of Chalk Hill on the Healdsburg map. (33) Proceed west from the peak of Chalk Hill in a straight line to the point where Brooks Creek...

  10. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 21 and 22 and 27 and 28 and in a straight line to the peak of Chalk Hill on the Healdsburg map. (33) Proceed west from the peak of Chalk Hill in a straight line to the point where Brooks Creek...

  11. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Creek Road, to its intersection with Franz Valley Road, a light-duty road to the north of Porter Creek... along Franz Vally Road to the northerly most crossing of Franz Creek. (24) Proceed west along Franz...) Proceed west in a straight line from hill top 447′ elv. to the point where Alexander Valley Road...

  12. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Creek Road, to its intersection with Franz Valley Road, a light-duty road to the north of Porter Creek... along Franz Vally Road to the northerly most crossing of Franz Creek. (24) Proceed west along Franz...) Proceed west in a straight line from hill top 447′ elv. to the point where Alexander Valley Road...

  13. A NEW RUSSIAN WASTE MANAGEMENT INSTALLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Andrew; Engxy, Thor; Endregard, Monica; Schwab, Patrick; Nazarian, Ashot; Krumrine, Paul; Backe, Steinar; Gorin, Stephen; Evans, Brent

    2003-02-27

    The Polyarninsky Shipyard (sometimes called Navy Yard No. 10 or the Shkval Shipyard) has been designated as the recipient for Solid Radioactive Waste (SRW) management facilities under the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) Program. The existing SRW storage site at this shipyard is filled to capacity, which is forcing the shipyard to reduce its submarine dismantlement activities. The Polyarninsky Shipyard Waste Management Installation is planned as a combination of several AMEC projects. It will have several elements, including a set of hydraulic metal cutting tools, containers for transport and storage, the Mobile Pretreatment Facility (MPF) for Solid Radioactive Waste, the PICASSO system for radiation monitoring, and a Waste Storage Facility. Hydraulically operated cutting tools can cut many metal items via shearing so that dusts or particulates are not generated. The AMEC Program procured a cutting tool system, consisting of a motor and hydraulic pumping unit, a 38-mm conduit-cutting tool, a 100- mm pipe-cutting tool, and a spreading tool all mounted on a wheeled cart. The vendor modified the tool system for extremely cold conditions and Russian electrical standards, then delivered the tool system to the Polyarninsky shipyard. A new container for transportation and storage of SRW and been designed and fabricated. The first 400 of these containers have been delivered to the Northern Fleet of the Russian Navy for use at the Polyarninsky Shipyard Waste Management Installation. These containers are cylindrical in shape and can hold seven standard 200-liter drums. They are the first containers ever certified in Russia for the offsite transport of military SRW. These containers can be transported by truck, rail, barge, or ship. The MPF will be the focal point of the Polyarninsky Shipyard Waste Management Installation and a key element in meeting the nuclear submarine dismantlement and waste processing needs of the Russian Federation. It will receive raw

  14. Risk Assessment Update: Russian Segment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric; Lear, Dana; Hyde, James; Bjorkman, Michael; Hoffman, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    BUMPER-II version 1.95j source code was provided to RSC-E- and Khrunichev at January 2012 MMOD TIM in Moscow. MEMCxP and ORDEM 3.0 environments implemented as external data files. NASA provided a sample ORDEM 3.0 g."key" & "daf" environment file set for demonstration and benchmarking BUMPER -II v1.95j installation at the Jan-12 TIM. ORDEM 3.0 has been completed and is currently in beta testing. NASA will provide a preliminary set of ORDEM 3.0 ".key" & ".daf" environment files for the years 2012 through 2028. Bumper output files produced using the new ORDEM 3.0 data files are intended for internal use only, not for requirements verification. Output files will contain these words ORDEM FILE DESCRIPTION = PRELIMINARY VERSION: not for production. The projectile density term in many BUMPER-II ballistic limit equations will need to be updated. Cube demo scripts and output files delivered at the Jan-12 TIM have been updated for the new ORDEM 3.0 data files. Risk assessment results based on ORDEM 3.0 and MEM will be presented for the Russian Segment (RS) of ISS.

  15. Russian Docking Module is lowered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Russian-built Docking Module (DM) is lowered for installation into the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis while the spaceplane is in Orbiter Processing Facility bay 2. The module will fly as a primary payload on the second Space Shuttle/Mir space station docking mission, STS-74, which is now scheduled for liftoff in the fall of 1995. During the mission, the module will first be attached with the orbiter's robot arm to the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) in the payload bay of the orbiter Atlantis and then be docked with the Mir. When Atlantis undocks from the Mir, it will leave the new docking module permanently attached to the space station for use during future Shuttle Mir docking missions. The new module will simplify future Shuttle linkups with Mir by improving orbiter clearances when it serves as a bridge between the two space vehicles. The white structures attached to the module's sides are solar panels that will be attached to the Mir after the conclusion of the STS-74 mission.

  16. In vitro assessment of thyroid hormone disrupting activities in drinking water sources along the Yangtze River.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xinxin; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Fengxian; Cao, Fu; Hu, Guanjiu; Hao, Yingqun; Wei, Si; Wang, Xinru; Yu, Hongxia

    2013-02-01

    The thyroid hormone disrupting activities of drinking water sources from the lower reaches of Yangtze River were examined using a reporter gene assay based on African green monkey kidney fibroblast (CV-1) cells. None of the eleven tested samples showed thyroid receptor (TR) agonist activity. Nine water samples exhibited TR antagonist activities with the equivalents referring to Di-n-butyl phthalate (DNBP) (TR antagonist activity equivalents, ATR-EQ(50)s) ranging from 6.92 × 10(1) to 2.85 × 10(2) μg DNBP/L. The ATR-EQ(50)s and TR antagonist equivalent ranges (ATR-EQ(30-80) ranges) for TR antagonist activities indicated that the water sample from site WX-8 posed the greatest health risks. The ATR-EQ(80)s of the water samples ranging from 1.56 × 10(3) to 6.14 × 10(3) μg DNBP/L were higher than the NOEC of DNBP. The results from instrumental analysis showed that DNBP might be responsible for the TR antagonist activities in these water samples. Water sources along Yangtze River had thyroid hormone disrupting potential.

  17. Effect of gold mining activities on water turbidity and river sediment discharge: comparison of two nearby river basin in French Guiana, using remote sensing and field measurements data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjorie, Gallay; Jean-Michel, Martinez; Alain, Laraque; Max, Sarrazin; Jean-Claude, Doudou; Antoine, Gardel; Vincent, Vantrepotte; Franck, Chow-Toun

    2016-04-01

    The Maroni and Oyapock rivers are two nearby basin in French Guiana, South America. The Maroni river drains a basin of 66 000 km² between French Guiana and Surinam. The Oyapock river basin covers 28 000 km² over French Guiana and Brazil. The Both over the Guyana shield presenting very lowest erosion rates. For both rivers, Suspended Sediment Concentration and remote sensing reflectance have been determined, during 3 fields sampling campaigns, using TriOs RAMSES radiometers operating in the 350-900 nm spectral range. Field data are compared with MODIS spaceborne sensors onboard calibration Terra and Aqua satellites. For the first time over the Maroni river, we show that it is possible to monitored from space both Surface Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSSC) and the Turbidity (R²=0,81), making possible to evaluate water quality long term. Combining fields and satellite derived SSSC measurements, we detected an increase of median SSSC (20 to 30 mg/l)and sediment budget in the Maroni river and a stability for the Oyapock river (10 mg/l), since 2000. Almost, relationship between SSSC and river water discharge was investigated for both rivers and for the 2000-2015 period. We show that SSSC and Maroni river discharge present decreasing correlation over the period of study. For the Oyapock River, SSSC and river discharge show good relationship over the period of study. Analysis of land-use change in the Maroni catchment showed an important increase of areas affected by gold mining which explain the observed modification of the Maroni River Suspended Sediment budget.

  18. Role of active floodplains for nutrient retention in the river Rhine.

    PubMed

    Olde Venterink, H; Wiegman, F; Van der Lee, G E M; Vermaat, J E

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the importance of floodplains for nutrient retention in two distributaries of the river Rhine (Waal and IJssel) by monitoring N and P retention in a body of water during downstream transport. We hypothesized that (i) retention of P is much larger than retention of N and (ii) nutrient retention increases with an increasing amount of the discharge flowing through floodplains (QF). The second hypothesis was tested by comparing retention between the rivers Waal (low QF) and IJssel (high QF), as well as at different discharges. Total nitrogen (TN) did not decrease significantly during downstream transport in both rivers, whereas 20 to 45% of total phosphorus (TP) disappeared during transport in the river IJssel. This difference between N and P retention-supporting the first hypothesis-was probably caused by differences in sedimentation through a much lower proportion of N adsorbed to particles than of P (2-3% of N vs. 50-70% of P). Phosphorus retention was only observed in the IJssel and not in the Waal, and absolute P retention (g P s(-1) km(-1)) in the IJssel increased with increasing QF. The second hypothesis was, nevertheless, not fully supported, because the percentage P retention (% of P load) decreased (instead of increased) with increasing QF. The percentage P retention increased with decreasing river depth and flow velocity; it seemed related to the efficiency of sediment trapping.

  19. Screening of endocrine disruption activity in sediments from the Uruguay River.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Rivera, Noelia; Eguren, Gabriela; Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Munkittrick, Kelly R

    2014-08-01

    Sediment constitutes an important sink of endocrine disruptor compounds; however, the potential of sediments to act as a source of endocrine disruptors should be more extensively investigated. The main objective of this study was to determine whether exposure of immature common carp to Uruguay River sediments undergo physiological and endocrine alterations. The lower Uruguay River watershed supports intensive agricultural and forest production, receives municipal sewage discharge and industrial effluent, and a new large pulp mill was constructed in 2006. A 30-day semi-static assay was performed using sediments from four sites along the Uruguay River and compared with an unexposed group in dechlorinated water as a negative control. We focused on two upstream and two downstream sites of a new elemental chlorine free pulp mill. The results showed that plasma vitellogenin levels increased in fish along the river and significant differences were found between the exposed and unexposed groups. Condition factor and gonadosomatic index were not different; however, a significant difference in hepatosomatic index was observed in fish exposed to sediment from an industrial site. A significant reduction in primary spermatocyte accumulation was observed in the exposed group compared with that in the control group, and some individuals exposed to sediments from industrial sites presented with testis-ova. Our results suggest that Uruguay River sediments act as an important source of estrogenic compounds that could be responsible for the alterations observed. Future studies are needed to identify the causal agents and determine exposure routes.

  20. Russian Scientific-Educational Project: Kazan-GeoNa-2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A.; Alibekova, N.

    2012-09-01

    For the further successful development of educational and scientific - educational activity of the Russian Federation, the Republic Tatarstan, Kazan is offered the national project - the International Center of the Science and the Internet of Technologies. "GeoNa" (Geometry of Nature - "GeoNa" is developed - wisdom, enthusiasm, pride, grandeur), which includes a modern complex of conference halls (up to 4 thousand places), the Center the Internet of Technologies, 3D Planetarium - development of the Moon, PhysicsLand, an active museum of natural sciences, an oceanarium, training a complex «Spheres of Knowledge», botanical and landscape oases.

  1. Active and passive sampling for the assessment of hydrophilic organic contaminants in a river basin-ecotoxicological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Terzopoulou, Evangelia; Voutsa, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    This study presents a complementary approach for the evaluation of water quality in a river basin by employing active and passive sampling. Thirty-eight hydrophilic organic compounds (HpOCs) (organohalogen herbicides, organophosphorous pesticides, carbamate, triazine, urea, pharmaceuticals, phenols, and industrial chemicals) were studied in grab water samples and in passive samplers POCIS collected along Strymonas River, Northern Greece, at three sampling campaigns during the year 2013. Almost all the target compounds were detected at the periods of high rainfall intensity and/or low flow rate. The most frequently detected compounds were aminocarb, carbaryl, chlorfenviphos, chloropropham, 2,4-D, diflubenzuron, diuron, isoproturon, metolachlor, and salicylic acid. Bisphenol A and nonylphenol were also occasionally detected. The use of POCIS allowed the detection of more micropollutants than active sampling. Low discrepancy between the concentrations obtained from both samplings was observed, at least for compounds with >50 % detection frequency; thus, POCIS could be a valuable tool for the selection and monitoring of the most relevant HpOCs in the river basin. Results showed relatively low risk from the presence of HpOCs; however, the potential risk associated with micropollutants such as carbaryl, dinoseb, diuron, fenthion, isoproturon, metolachlor, nonylphenol, and salicylic acid should not be neglected. PMID:26573318

  2. Biological dosimetry in Russian and Italian astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, O.; Durante, M.; Gialanella, G.; Grossi, G.; Pugliese, M.; Scampoli, P.; Snigiryova, G.; Obe, G.

    Large uncertainties are associated with estimates of equivalent dose and cancer risk for crews of longterm space missions. Biological dosimetry in astronauts is emerging as a useful technique to compare predictions based on quality factors and risk coefficients with actual measurements of biological damage in-flight. In the present study, chromosomal aberrations were analyzed in one Italian and eight Russian cosmonauts following missions of different duration on the MIR and the international space station (ISS). We used the technique of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to visualize translocations in chromosomes 1 and 2. In some cases, an increase in chromosome damage was observed after flight, but no correlation could be found between chromosome damage and flight history, in terms of number of flights at the time of sampling, duration in space and extra-vehicular activity. Blood samples from one of the cosmonauts were exposed in vitro to 6 MeV X-rays both before and after the flight. An enhancement in radiosensitivity induced by the spaceflight was observed.

  3. Biological dosimetry in Russian and Italian astronauts.

    PubMed

    Greco, O; Durante, M; Gialanella, G; Grossi, G; Pugliese, M; Scampoli, P; Snigiryova, G; Obe, G

    2003-01-01

    Large uncertainties are associated with estimates of equivalent dose and cancer risk for crews of long-term space missions. Biological dosimetry in astronauts is emerging as a useful technique to compare predictions based on quality factors and risk coefficients with actual measurements of biological damage in-flight. In the present study, chromosomal aberrations were analyzed in one Italian and eight Russian cosmonauts following missions of different duration on the MIR and the international space station (ISS). We used the technique of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to visualize translocations in chromosomes 1 and 2. In some cases, an increase in chromosome damage was observed after flight, but no correlation could be found between chromosome damage and flight history, in terms of number of flights at the time of sampling, duration in space and extra-vehicular activity. Blood samples from one of the cosmonauts were exposed in vitro to 6 MeV X-rays both before and after the flight. An enhancement in radiosensitivity induced by the spaceflight was observed. PMID:12971404

  4. History and current condition of Russian psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Valery N; Gurovich, Isaak

    2012-08-01

    Russian psychiatry has a dramatic history, and until now has been at a transitional stage of development. It is facing problems not only common in world psychiatry, but also specific to eastern Europe, in particular Russia. Starting from the beginning of the 1990s, considerable changes have occurred in psychiatry, especially after 1992 when the law on psychiatric care and guarantees of citizens' rights in its provision was adopted. It became the ideological and legislative basis for reforms. However, there are definite obstacles to structural reforms in psychiatry. They are unfavourable technical conditions in many psychiatric clinics, hypercentralization of psychiatric services, shortage of clinical psychologists and social workers in psychiatry, some difficulties in cooperation between psychiatric and general medical institutions. Economic difficulties in the transition period of Russia's social development prevent the overcoming of these problems. They are being actively discussed and some of them are being gradually solved, e.g. the organization of team work in mental health services, the increasing number of specialists on social work, and the involvement of non-government organizations in psychosocial rehabilitation. PMID:22950772

  5. Reading L2 Russian: The Challenges of the Russian-English Dictionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, William J.

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study examines when and how students use Russian-English dictionaries while reading informational texts in Russian and what success they have with word lookup. The study uses introspective verbal protocols (i.e., think-alouds) to follow how readers construct meaning from two texts while reading them for a limited time first…

  6. Russian Advanced Course: A Short History of the Development of Russian Language and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this volume is to acquaint the student with the historical development of the Russian language and literature. Samples of the original works with English translations and lists of recommended readings are provided. Contents include a review of Russian literature by century, samples of the short story "Samizdat," and major…

  7. Characteristics of suspended sediment and river discharge during the beginning of snowmelt in volcanically active mountainous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouri, Goro; Ros, Faizah Che; Chalov, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    To better understand instream suspended sediment delivery and transformation processes, we conducted field measurements and laboratory experiments to study the natural function of spatial and temporal variation, sediment particles, stable isotopes, particle size, and aspect ratio from tributary to mainstream flows of the Sukhaya Elizovskaya River catchment at the beginning of and during snowmelt. The Sukhaya Elizovskaya River is located in the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia and is surrounded by active volcanic territory. The study area has a range of hydrological features that determine the extreme amounts of washed sediments. Sediment transported to the river channels in volcanic mountainous terrain is believed to be strongly influenced by climate conditions, particularly when heavy precipitation and warmer climate trigger mudflows in association with the melting snow. The high porosity of the channel bottom material also leads to interactions with the surface water, causing temporal variability in the daily fluctuations in water and sediment flow. Field measurements revealed that suspended sediment behaviour and fluxes decreased along the mainstream Sukhaya Elizovskaya River from inflows from a tributary catchment located in the volcanic mountain range. In laboratory experiments, water samples collected from tributaries were mixed with those from the mainstream flow of the Sukhaya Elizovskaya River to examine the cause of debris flow and characteristics of suspended sediment in the mainstream. These findings and the geological conditions of the tributary catchments studied led us to conclude that halloysite minerals likely comprise the majority of suspended sediments and play a significant role in phosphate adsorption. The experimental results were upscaled and verified using field measurements. Our results indicate that the characteristics of suspended sediment and river discharge in the Sukhaya Elizovskaya River can be attributed primarily to the beginning of

  8. TVA sediment-disturbing activities within the Watts Bar Reservoir and Melton Hill Reservoir areas of the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The objectives of Task 5 were to review: (1) the extent of dredging, construction, and other sediment-disturbing activities conducted by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in potentially contaminated areas of Watts Bar Reservoir; and (2) the disposition of the materials from these activities. This memorandum is the final report for Task 5. This memorandum describes major activities in the Watts Bar Reservoir and Melton Hill Reservoir areas of the Clinch River that possibly resulted in significant disturbance of potentially contaminated sediments. TVA records from the construction of Watts Bar Dam, Kingston Fossil Plant, and Melton Hill Dam were reviewed to facilitate qualitative description of the effect of these activities in disturbing potentially contaminated sediments. The critical period for these activities in disturbing contaminated sediments was during or after 1956 when the peak releases of radioactive contaminants occurred from the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  9. Bio-enhanced activated carbon filter with immobilized microorganisms for removing organic pollutants in the Songhua River.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu-Nan; Li, Wei-Guang; Zhang, Duo-Ying; Wang, Guang-Zhi

    2010-01-01

    Five dominant microorganisms including four kinds of Pseudomonas and one kind of Bacillus were isolated from the Songhua River. The organic pollutants removal potential and community composition of these five dominant microorganisms immobilized on activated carbon filter, which is called the bio-enhanced activated carbon filter (BEAC), were investigated to compare with the naturally formed biological activated carbon (BAC) filter. Songhua River was used as the raw water. The pilot scale test results showed the biomass in the BEAC filter increased initially and then stabilized after 45 d of operation with an average value of 192 nmolPO(4)/g carbon. The corresponding biological activity reached 1,368 ng ATP/g carbon. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) results showed that the BEAC filter degraded the toxic organic substances more effectively than the BAC filter, especially for halogenated hydrocarbons and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed the eco-system of five dominant microorganisms did not change in the BEAC filter even on 180 d of operation. Two of the five dominant microorganisms, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas balearica, had high biological activity and were more adaptable to the surface of the carbon media than the other three dominant microorganisms. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) photograph showed a large quantity of microorganisms developed on the BEAC filter. The toxicity test using Deltatox Bioassay Technology Analyzer indicated that the dominant microorganisms were safe to be applied in drinking water treatment process.

  10. Dynamics of Mediterranean late Quaternary fluvial activity: An example from the River Ebro (north Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria-Jáuregui, Ángel; González-Amuchástegui, María José; Mauz, Barbara; Lang, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Late Pleistocene and Holocene fluvial evolution of the upper River Ebro (Miranda basin, north Spain) is analysed using geomorphological, sedimentological, and optical dating techniques. Maximum regional crustal uplift of 0.98 m/ka approximately helped preserve a suite of terraces in the Miranda basin: 5 river terraces (T1-5) were identified and their formation attributed to MIS 6 (T1), MIS 5d (T2), MIS 4 (T3), MIS 2 (T4), MIS 1 (T5). Alluvium deposited in terraces T1, T2, T3, and T4 is well-sorted, clast-supported gravels; whereas the T5 deposit is exclusively composed of silt. Gravels were deposited during cold and dry periods when reduced vegetation cover on hillslopes increased sediment supply to the trunk river. Silt was deposited in overbank settings under warmer and wetter climate conditions when vegetation cover stabilised hillslopes and restricted sediment supply. It also resulted in lower peak discharge and reduced flow velocities over vegetated floodplains. The chronological sequence of terraces indicates that incision occurred during climatic transitions. We conclude that the upper River Ebro responded to fluctuations in sediment supply and discharge controlled by late Quaternary climate cycles.

  11. AZO DYES ARE MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS TO THE MUTAGENIC ACTIVITY DETECTED IN THE CRISTAIS RIVER WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine if compounds from a dye processing plant were contributing to the mutagenicity repeatedly found in the Cristais River, Sao Paulo, Brazil, we chemically characterized the treated industrial effluent, raw and treated water, and the sludge produced by a Drinking Water T...

  12. THE CONTRIBUTION OF AZO DYES TO THE MUTAGENIC ACTIVITY OF THE CRISTAIS RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    To verify if compounds within the discharge of a dye processing plant were contributing to the mutagenicity repeatedly found in the Cristais River, Sao Paulo, Brazil, we chemically characterized the treated industrial effluent, raw and treated water, and the sludge produced by a ...

  13. Inhibition of bacterial and phytoplanktonic metabolic activity in the lower River Rhine by ditallowdimethylammonium chloride.

    PubMed Central

    Tubbing, D M; Admiraal, W

    1991-01-01

    The effects of a quaternary ammonium compound, ditallowdimethylammonium chloride (DTDMAC), on natural populations of bacteria and phytoplankton from the lower River Rhine were examined to estimate their sensitivity to the discharges of cationic surfactants in the river basin. In short-term experiments, significant decreases in the growth rate of bacterioplankton and in the photosynthetic rate of phytoplankton were observed at a nominal concentration of 0.03 to 0.1 mg of DTDMAC liter-1. Nitrification was measured with an ion-selective electrode and by the rate of acid production in ammonium-spiked river water and was found to be only sensitive to the addition of concentrations higher than 1 mg of DTDMAC liter-1. This does not support an earlier suggestion that ammonium-oxidizing bacteria are specifically sensitive to quaternary ammonium compounds. The effect of DTDMAC on thymidine incorporation was shown to depend strongly on the concentration of suspended material, which varied with the sampling date. This effect was also quantified in experimental manipulations with Rhine water. Calculations on the partitioning of DTDMAC between water and suspended matter confirmed the role of suspended solids and showed that an increase of the dissolved DTDMAC concentration in Rhine water by circa 0.01 mg liter-1 leads to a slight inhibition of the growth of heterotrophic bacteria. It is concluded that a total concentration of circa 0.01 mg of DTDMAC liter-1 measured in the River Rhine is likely to have biological consequences. PMID:1785934

  14. [The genetic history of long-term Russian resident populations of polar northeastern Siberia based on mitochondrial DNA variability].

    PubMed

    Sukernik, R I; Volod'ko, N V; Mazunin, I O; El'tsov, N P; Starikovskaia, E B

    2010-11-01

    The mtDNA variation has been studied in representatives of the Russkoe Ust'e (n = 30), Kolyma (n = 31), and Markovo (n = 26) ethnic subgroups originating from Russian military men, hunters, and fishers who married local Yukaghir women and settled at the Arctic Ocean coast and on the Anadyr' River more than 350 years ago. The mtDNA haplotypes characteristic of indigenous Siberian peoples have been demonstrated to form the basis of the mitochondrial gene pool of long-term Russian resident populations of the region. Only one of 30 identified haplotypes belonging to 11 haplogroups (H2a) is characteristic of European populations. The C and D haplogroups are the most diverse. The analysis has revealed the characteristics of the population structure of the long-term Russian resident populations and allowed them to be interpreted in terms of recent historical and environmental processes.

  15. PAHs in sediment cores at main river estuaries of Chaohu Lake: implication for the change of local anthropogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chen; Wu, Yaketon; Zhang, Shuo; Wu, Liang-Liang; Liang, Xiao-Guo; Chen, Tian-Hu; Zhu, Cheng-Zhu; Sojinu, Samuel O; Wang, Ji-Zhong

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in four sediment cores collected from the main river estuaries of Chaohu Lake, one of the severely polluted lakes in China. The results indicate that elevated concentrations of total PAHs (Σ28PAH) were found in the samples from the estuary of Nanfei River (ENF), considering BaP-based total toxicity equivalent (TEQ-BaP) and toxic unit (TU) results; there are potential adverse environmental implications. The total organic carbon (TOC) played an important role on the accumulation of PAHs at ENF and the estuary of Tongyang River (ETY). The predominant PAHs are high molecular weight (HMW) homologous for all samples; as a result, industrial wastewater from a steel company is expectedly the key source of PAHs in ENF, while coke consumption would be the important source of PAHs at other three sampling sites. Vertical distribution of PAHs in the sediment cores could be explained by the local social and economic activities. Furthermore, a minor variation of PAH composition in the sediment core could be justified by the stable structure of energy consumption in the Anhui Province. These results justify the need for further enhancement of industrial wastewater treatment and development of renewable energies which are the key factors on the control of PAH pollution in China.

  16. Potential contribution of ecosystem services associated with altered management activities in the Wabash River watershed to sustainable water management in the Ohio River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ohio River (OR) is an important river in North America. It has many different functions for use by humans and wildlife. Water quality of the OR main stem is 50% impaired. The impairment originates from point sources located on the shores of the OR, from non-point sources and ...

  17. Distribution and abundance of saltcedar and Russian olive in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagler, Pamela L.; Glenn, Edward P.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past century, two introduced Eurasian trees, saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) have become wide spread on western United States of American (U.S.) rivers. This paper reviews the literature on the following five key areas related to their distribution and abundance in the western United States: (1) the history of introduction, planting, and spread of saltcedar and Russian olive; (2) their current distribution; (3) their current abundance; (4) factors controlling their current distribution and abundance; and (5) models that have been developed to predict their future distribution and abundance. Saltcedar and Russian olive are now the third and fourth most frequently occurring woody riparian plants and the second and fifth most abundant species (out of 42 native and non-native species) along rivers in the western United States. Currently there is not a precise estimate of the areas that these species occupy in the entire West. Climatic variables are important determinants of their distribution and abundance. For example, saltcedar is limited by its sensitivity to hard freezes, whereas Russian olive appears to have a chilling requirement for bud break and seed germination, and can presumably survive colder winter temperatures. Either species can be dominant, co-dominant or sub-dominant relative to native species on a given river system. A number of environmental factors such as water availability, soil salinity, degree of stream flow regulation, and fire frequency can influence the abundance of these species relative to native species. Numerous studies suggest that both species have spread on western rivers primarily through a replacement process, whereby stress-tolerant species have moved into expanded niches that are no longer suitable for mesic native pioneer species. Better maps of current distribution and rigorous monitoring of distributional changes though time can help to resolve differences in predictions of potential

  18. AUTOMATED RADIOLOGICAL MONITORING AT A RUSSIAN MINISTRY OF DEFENCE NAVAL SITE.

    SciTech Connect

    MOSKOWITZ,P.D.; POMERVILLE,J.; GAVRILOV,S.; KISSELEV,V.; DANIYLAN,V.; BELIKOV,A.; EGORKIN,A.; SOKOLOVSKI,Y.; ENDREGARD,M.; KROSSHAVN,M.; SUNDLING,C.V.; YOKSTAD,H.

    2001-02-25

    The Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) Program is a cooperative effort between the military establishments of the Kingdom of Norway, the Russian Federation, and the US. This paper discusses joint activities conducted over the past year among Norwegian, Russian, and US technical experts on a project to develop, demonstrate and implement automated radiological monitoring at Russian Navy facilities engaged in the dismantlement of nuclear-powered strategic ballistic missile launching submarines. Radiological monitoring is needed at these facilities to help protect workers engaged in the dismantlement program and the public living within the footprint of routine and accidental radiation exposure areas. By providing remote stand-alone monitoring, the Russian Navy will achieve added protection due to the defense-in-depth strategy afforded by local (at the site), regional (Kola) and national-level (Moscow) oversight. The system being implemented at the Polyaminsky Russian Naval Shipyard was developed from a working model tested at the Russian Institute for Nuclear Safety, Moscow, Russia. It includes Russian manufactured terrestrial and underwater gamma detectors, smart controllers for graded sampling, radio-modems for offsite transmission of the data, and a data fusion/display system: The data fusion/display system is derived from the Norwegian Picasso AMEC Environmental Monitoring software package. This computer package allows monitoring personnel to review the real-time and historical status of monitoring at specific sites and objects and to establish new monitoring protocols as required, for example, in an off-normal accident situation. Plans are being developed to implement the use of this system at most RF Naval sites handling spent nuclear fuel.

  19. AUTOMATED RADIOLOGICAL MONITORING AT A RUSSIAN MINISTRY OF DEFENSE NAVAL SITE.

    SciTech Connect

    MOSKOWITZ,P.D.; POMERVILLE,J.; GAVRILOV,S.; KISSELEV,V.; DANIYLAN,V.; BELIKOV,A.; EGORKIN,A.; SOKOLOVSKI,Y.; ENDREGARD,M.; KROSSHAVN,M.; SUNDLING,C.V.; YOKSTAD,H.

    2001-02-25

    The Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) Program is a cooperative effort between the military establishments of the Kingdom of Norway, the Russian Federation, and the US. This paper discusses joint activities conducted over the past year among Norwegian, Russian, and US technical experts on a project to develop, demonstrate and implement automated radiological monitoring at Russian Navy facilities engaged in the dismantlement of nuclear-powered strategic ballistic missile launching submarines. Radiological monitoring is needed at these facilities to help protect workers engaged in the dismantlement program and the public living within the footprint of routine and accidental radiation exposure areas. By providing remote stand-alone monitoring, the Russian Navy will achieve added protection due to the defense-in-depth strategy afforded by local (at the site), regional (Kola) and national-level (Moscow) oversight. The system being implemented at the Polyaminsky Russian Naval Shipyard was developed from a working model tested at the Russian Institute for Nuclear Safety, Moscow, Russia. It includes Russian manufactured terrestrial and underwater gamma detectors, smart controllers for graded sampling, radio-modems for offsite transmission of the data, and a data fusion/display system: The data fusion/display system is derived from the Norwegian Picasso AMEC Environmental Monitoring software package. This computer package allows monitoring personnel to review the real-time and historical status of monitoring at specific sites and objects and to establish new monitoring protocols as required, for example, in an off-normal accident situation. Plans are being developed to implement the use of this system at most RF Naval sites handling spent nuclear fuel.

  20. River solute fluxes reflecting active hydrothermal chemical weathering of the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurwitz, S.; Evans, William C.; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2010-01-01

    In the past few decades numerous studies have quantified the load of dissolved solids in large rivers to determine chemical weathering rates in orogenic belts and volcanic areas, mainly motivated by the notion that over timescales greater than ~100kyr, silicate hydrolysis may be the dominant sink for atmospheric CO2, thus creating a feedback between climate and weathering. Here, we report the results of a detailed study during water year 2007 (October 1, 2006 to September 30, 2007) in the major rivers of the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field (YPVF) which hosts Earth's largest "restless" caldera and over 10,000 thermal features. The chemical compositions of rivers that drain thermal areas in the YPVF differ significantly from the compositions of rivers that drain non-thermal areas. There are large seasonal variations in river chemistry and solute flux, which increases with increasing water discharge. The river chemistry and discharge data collected periodically over an entire year allow us to constrain the annual solute fluxes and to distinguish between low-temperature weathering and hydrothermal flux components. The TDS flux from Yellowstone Caldera in water year 2007 was 93t/km2/year. Extensive magma degassing and hydrothermal interaction with rocks accounts for at least 82% of this TDS flux, 83% of the cation flux and 72% of the HCO3- flux. The low-temperature chemical weathering rate (17t/km2/year), calculated on the assumption that all the Cl- is of thermal origin, could include a component from low-temperature hydrolysis reactions induced by CO2 ascending from depth rather than by atmospheric CO2. Although this uncertainty remains, the calculated low-temperature weathering rate of the young rhyolitic rocks in the Yellowstone Caldera is comparable to the world average of large watersheds that drain also more soluble carbonates and evaporates but is slightly lower than calculated rates in other, less-silicic volcanic regions. Long-term average fluxes at

  1. Radioactive Legacy of the Russian Pacific Fleet Operations. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, K. L.; Novikov, V.M.; Parker, F.L.; Sivintsev, Y.U.

    2003-03-25

    There have been extensive studies of the current and potential environmental impact of Russian Northern fleet activities. However, despite the fact that the total number of ships in both fleets are comparable, there have been very few studies published in the open literature of the impact of the Pacific fleet. This study of the Pacific fleet's impact on neighboring countries was undertaken to partially remedy this lack of analysis. This study is focused on an evaluation of the inventory of major sources of radioactive material associated with the decommissioning of nuclear submarines, and an evaluation of releases to the atmosphere and their long-range (>100km) transboundary transport.

  2. US/Russian affirmation process of the Russian fissile material container design

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.E.; Nunley, S.M.; Chalfant, G.

    1998-05-10

    The US government agreed to provide the Russian Federation with containers to support the dismantlement of Russian nuclear weapons as part of the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction program. In February 1996, the ``affirmation`` of the Russian Fissile Material container design was completed. The ``affirmation`` process allowed a joint program between the Russian and US governments to proceed without the exchange of sensitive weapons specific information. The Russian Fissile Material container program is an integral part of the Cooperative Threat Reduction program wherein the US government provides assistance to the states of the Former Soviet Union for dismantlement of their nuclear stockpile. The Cooperative Threat Reduction program is managed by the US Defense Special Weapons Agency. Sandia National Laboratories was selected as the design agency and technical point of contact for the Russian Federation. The Department of Energy, which certifies containers for weapons shipments in the US, provided an independent assessment of the Sandia designed container to assure that it met the requirements of the August 31, 1993 AT-4OOR Container Requirements [Sandia National Laboratories, 1993] document which was agreed to by representatives of the US and Russian Federation. The ``affirmation`` process was undertaken in lieu of a certification process. This process was a formal review by the US Department of Energy of Sandia`s design and testing of the Russian Fissile Material container. The affirmation was intended to provide the Russian Federation with assurance that the container met the negotiated requirements including specific sections of IAEA Safety Series 6 [IAEA, 1985]. The process stopped short of a certification process that would have required weapons specific design information.

  3. Using SuperPILOT for Creating the Russian Characters Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamantova-Abbas, Vera

    1986-01-01

    Examines the possibility of creating the Russian character set using a "programerless" authoring language, SuperPILOT, which allows a teacher or a learner to produce and use the Russian alphabet with no programing skills. (Author/CB)

  4. Kurs po Stilistike Russkogo Jazyka (A Course on Russian Stylistics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukanovich, E. P.

    1975-01-01

    Outlines basic goals, techniques, and materials for a college level course in Russian language stylistics. The use of literature readings, composition writing, stylistics levels of both spoken and written language, and synonym equivalence are discussed. (Text is in Russian.) (DH)

  5. Russian Soyuz Moves to Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Soyuz TM-31 launch vehicle, which carried the first resident crew to the International Space Station, moves toward the launch pad at the Baikonur complex in Kazakhstan. The Russian Soyuz launch vehicle is an expendable spacecraft that evolved out of the original Class A (Sputnik). From the early 1960' until today, the Soyuz launch vehicle has been the backbone of Russia's marned and unmanned space launch fleet. Today, the Soyuz launch vehicle is marketed internationally by a joint Russian/French consortium called STARSEM. As of August 2001, there have been ten Soyuz missions under the STARSEM banner.

  6. SUPPLEMENTAL COLUMBIA RIVER PROTECTION ACTIVITIES AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE: 2006 TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B; Dawn Kaback; Gene Leboeuf; Jason Mulvihill-Kuntz; Lynn Lefkoff

    2006-12-20

    Prompted by a $10 million Congressional allocation to identify supplemental actions to protect the Columbia River from groundwater contamination beneath the Hanford Reservation, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Office of Clean-up Technology identified twenty-three potential technical projects and then down-selected ten of these for further evaluation. An independent expert peer review was conducted for the ten down-selected proposals. The review panel consisted of twenty-three recognized subject matter experts that broadly represented academia, industry, and federal laboratories. Of the initial ten proposals reviewed, one was given unconditional support, six were given conditional support, and three were not supported as proposed. Three additional proposals were then submitted by DOE for review--these proposals were structured, in part, to respond to the initial round of technical peer review comments. Peer reviews of these additional proposals provided conditional support. For those proposals that received conditional support, DOE requested specific implementation and work plans and assessed whether the plans adequately addressed the technical conditions identified by the review panel. The final list of technology proposals receiving support, or conditional support, primarily focused on understanding and reducing the potential impacts of uranium, chromium, and strontium from facilities adjacent to the Columbia River, with a secondary focus on understanding and limiting the future Columbia River impacts from the large carbon tetrachloride groundwater plume underlying and downgradient of the Hanford Central Plateau facilities. The results and recommendations of the peer reviews informed the final DOE project selections and supported implementation of the selected projects to protect the Columbia River and address groundwater contamination at Hanford.

  7. Evaluation and characterization of thyroid-disrupting activities in soil samples along the Second Songhua River, China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dongdong; Wang, Yafei; Wang, Jinsheng; Teng, Yanguo; Li, Na; Li, Jian

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a recombinant thyroid receptor (TR) gene yeast assay combined with Monte Carlo simulation were used to evaluate and characterize soil samples collected from Jilin (China) along the Second Songhua River, for their ant/agonist effect on TR. No TR agonistic activity was found in soils, but many soil samples exhibited TR antagonistic activities, and the bioassay-derived amiodarone hydrochloride equivalents, which was calculated based on Monte Carlo simulation, ranged from not detected (N.D.) to 35.5μg/g. Hydrophilic substance fractions were determined to be the contributors to TR antagonistic activity in these soil samples. Our results indicate that the novel calculation method is effective for the quantification and characterization of TR antagonists in soil samples, and these data could provide useful information for future management and remediation efforts for contaminated soils. PMID:27526021

  8. Evaluation and characterization of thyroid-disrupting activities in soil samples along the Second Songhua River, China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dongdong; Wang, Yafei; Wang, Jinsheng; Teng, Yanguo; Li, Na; Li, Jian

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a recombinant thyroid receptor (TR) gene yeast assay combined with Monte Carlo simulation were used to evaluate and characterize soil samples collected from Jilin (China) along the Second Songhua River, for their ant/agonist effect on TR. No TR agonistic activity was found in soils, but many soil samples exhibited TR antagonistic activities, and the bioassay-derived amiodarone hydrochloride equivalents, which was calculated based on Monte Carlo simulation, ranged from not detected (N.D.) to 35.5μg/g. Hydrophilic substance fractions were determined to be the contributors to TR antagonistic activity in these soil samples. Our results indicate that the novel calculation method is effective for the quantification and characterization of TR antagonists in soil samples, and these data could provide useful information for future management and remediation efforts for contaminated soils.

  9. Source water changes and energy extraction activities in the Monongahela River, 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jessica M; Van Briesen, Jeanne M

    2013-01-01

    Fossil fuel wastewaters disposed of to surface waters used as sources for potable water supply have the potential to affect finished drinking water quality since these produced waters contain high concentrations of constituents that are of concern to drinking water providers (including dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, and bromide). A 3-year field study in the Monongahela River was conducted to determine how constituent concentrations and associated loads changed in the river basin, and whether these changes were caused by surface discharges associated with shale gas extraction. Low flow during the dry summer of 2010 contributed to increases in bromide concentrations at drinking water intakes; however, similar low flow conditions in summer of 2012 did not, indicating bromide loads discharged to the river decreased from 2010 to 2012. Analysis of bromide to chloride ratios as an indicator of fossil fuel associated wastewaters showed significant increases in Br/Cl at drinking water intakes over the first year of the study (2009-2010). This indicator ratio declined in the final year of the study (2011-2012), likely associated with a voluntary decrease in the use of surface-discharging treatment plants for shale gas wastewater disposal. Predictions of future concentrations based on historical flow data are also presented. PMID:24099363

  10. National Heliogeophysical Complex of the Russian Academy of Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, Mikhail

    For the purpose of moving to a whole new level of experimental research in solar-terrestrial physics in Russian science, ISTP SB RAS in cooperation with many domestic and foreign organizations and relying on high technologies has been building up the National Heliogeophysical Complex (NHGC) containing several radically new devices: 1. Large solar telescope - coronagraph with 3-meter mirror (LST-3). 2. Multiwave radioheliograph for the frequency range 3-24 GHz. 3. Radiophysical complex for ionospheric and atmospheric research. 4. Network of coherent high-frequency radars. 5. Lidar optical complex for atmospheric and ionospheric research. The objective of NHGC is a complex and coordinated study of physical phenomena and processes in the Sun-Earth system. The objective of LST-3 is to study the fine structure of solar magnetism determining major effects of activity, luminosity variability, physical parameters of the solar atmosphere and corona. The multiwave radioheliograph will enable us, first, to considerably improve coronal magnetography, the key question for methods of forecasting flares and coronal mass ejections, and, second, to acquire unique data on the nature of energy-release processes in these structures. The radiophysical complex is designed to investigate processes in the ionosphere-atmosphere system and includes a new-generation IS/MST radar, heating facility, Norilsk-Irkutsk meridional chain of stations equipped with radiophysical, optical, and magnetometric instruments. The objective of the Russian network of coherent high-frequency radars is to investigate ionospheric-magnetospheric processes over northern Russia with high temporal and spatial resolution and to form the Russian segment of the international radar network SuperDARN. The lidar optical complex combining active laser systems and passive optical instruments is designed to study profile characteristics of physical parameters and composition of the middle and upper atmosphere formed under the

  11. First data on the uranium content in water of the Yenisei River basin in the area affected by the operation of Rosatom plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolsunovskii, A. Ya.; Zhizhaev, A. M.; Saprykin, A. I.; Degermendzhi, A. G.; Rubailo, A. I.

    2011-07-01

    This study is devoted to investigating the content of uranium isotopes in water of the Yenisei River and its tributaries within the territories affected by the operation of Rosatom plants (mining chemical combine, and electrochemical plant). Long-term monitoring of the 238U content by mass spectrometry carried out in two institutes of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences first revealed the multiple excess of 238U over the background content in different areas of the Yenisei River basin, such as the region of the Yenisei River near the effluents of the mining and chemical combine (MCC), and the territories of the Bol'shaya Tel' and Kan rivers. In these regions, the 238U content in water reaches 2.1-4.0 μg/l, which exceeds its content upstream from the MCC (0.3-0.6 μg/l) by almost an order of magnitude. The studies of the isotopic composition of uranium in water samples, which were carried out at the Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, showed the presence of a technogenic isotope of uranium 236U in the samples from the Bolshaya Tel' River and revealed the deviation of the isotope ratio 238U/235U (167 ± 3 and 177 ± 3) from the equilibrium natural ratio (238U/235U = 138). These facts attest to the technogenic origin of part of the uranium in water of the Bol'shaya Tel' River connected with the activity of MCC. The excess uranium content in the Kan River requires additional studies to ascertain the fraction of uranium of technogenic origin connected with the activity of the electrochemical plant (ECP) (Fig. 1, Table 4).

  12. Teachers' Language: L1 Attrition in Russian-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isurin, Ludmila

    2007-01-01

    The present study reports on the evidence of first language (L1) attrition in a population that may appear to be the most resistant to L1 changes. Russian monolinguals (n=3) and Russian-English bilinguals (n=10) participated in the study. The bilinguals were graduate students teaching Russian as a foreign language at a U.S. university. The data…

  13. Assessing grooming behavior of Russian honey bees toward Varroa destructor.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The grooming behavior of Russian bees was compared to Italian bees. Overall, Russian bees had significantly lower numbers of mites than the Italian bees with a mean of 1,937 ± 366 and 5,088 ± 733 mites, respectively. This low mite population in the Russian colonies was probably due to the increased ...

  14. Russian Civic Education and Social Studies Education at Purdue University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Lynn R.; Rapoport, Anatoli

    2005-01-01

    There are three distinct Russian civic education programs at Purdue University (the Civics Mosaic program, the Training of Professors for Civic Education program, and the Russian Maymester program). The programs are loosely joined together by a civic education purpose, but remain distinct in the nature of their participants--Russian and American…

  15. Evaluation of the Ecotoxicity of Sediments from Yangtze River Estuary and Contribution of Priority PAHs to Ah Receptor-Mediated Activities

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Chen, Ling; Shao, Ying; Zhang, Lili; Floehr, Tilman; Xiao, Hongxia; Yan, Yan; Eichbaum, Kathrin; Hollert, Henner; Wu, Lingling

    2014-01-01

    In this study, in vitro bioassays were performed to assess the ecotoxicological potential of sediments from Yangtze River estuary. The cytotoxicity and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated toxicity of sediment extracts with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver cells were determined by neutral red retention and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase assays. The cytotoxicity and AhR-mediated activity of sediments from the Yangtze River estuary ranged from low level to moderate level compared with the ecotoxicity of sediments from other river systems. However, Yangtze River releases approximately 14 times greater water discharge compared with Rhine, a major river in Europe. Thus, the absolute pollution mass transfer of Yangtze River may be detrimental to the environmental quality of estuary and East China Sea. Effect-directed analysis was applied to identify substances causing high dioxin-like activities. To identify unknown substances contributing to dioxin-like potencies of whole extracts, we fractionated crude extracts by open column chromatography. Non-polar paraffinic components (F1), weakly and moderately polar components (F2), and highly polar substances (F3) were separated from each crude extract of sediments. F2 showed the highest dioxin-like activities. Based on the results of mass balance calculation of chemical toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs), our conclusion is that priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons indicated a low portion of bio-TEQs ranging from 1% to 10% of crude extracts. Further studies should be conducted to identify unknown pollutants. PMID:25111307

  16. [Effect of hydrochemistry characteristics under impact of human activity: a case study in the upper reaches of the Xijiang River basin].

    PubMed

    Yu, Shil; Sun, Ping-an; Du, Wen-yue; He, Shi-yi; Li, Rui

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, observation and sampling were taken three times a month in a hydrological year for three typical sections of the middle and upper reaches of the Xijiang River basin, based on the data of hydrochemistry and flow, the article mainly discusses the evolution process of hydrochemistry in river under natural process and impact of human activity. Hydrochemical characteristics of 116. samples were analyzed in the study area. The hydrochemistry type in the middle and upper reaches of the Xijiang River basin belonged to HCO3- -Ca2+ type, and the chemical weathering type mainly came from carbonate rock weathering. Ca2+ and HCO3- were the main cations and anions, which reflected that hydrochemical characteristics of river in karst area mainly affected by the dissolution of carbonate rock. Na, Mg2, Ca2+ and Cl- mainly affected by natural conditions, the impact of human activity was little. K+, NO3-, SO4(2-) and HCO3- were affected by human activity in different degrees, and it showed different influence ways. This study had an important significance for the change of river hydrochemistry, water quality characteristics, and the effect on substance transported fluxes in the downstream of Pearl River and water quality protection in South China Monsoon Area.

  17. Evaluation of the ecotoxicity of sediments from Yangtze river estuary and contribution of priority PAHs to ah receptor--mediated activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Chen, Ling; Shao, Ying; Zhang, Lili; Floehr, Tilman; Xiao, Hongxia; Yan, Yan; Eichbaum, Kathrin; Hollert, Henner; Wu, Lingling

    2014-01-01

    In this study, in vitro bioassays were performed to assess the ecotoxicological potential of sediments from Yangtze River estuary. The cytotoxicity and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated toxicity of sediment extracts with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver cells were determined by neutral red retention and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase assays. The cytotoxicity and AhR-mediated activity of sediments from the Yangtze River estuary ranged from low level to moderate level compared with the ecotoxicity of sediments from other river systems. However, Yangtze River releases approximately 14 times greater water discharge compared with Rhine, a major river in Europe. Thus, the absolute pollution mass transfer of Yangtze River may be detrimental to the environmental quality of estuary and East China Sea. Effect-directed analysis was applied to identify substances causing high dioxin-like activities. To identify unknown substances contributing to dioxin-like potencies of whole extracts, we fractionated crude extracts by open column chromatography. Non-polar paraffinic components (F1), weakly and moderately polar components (F2), and highly polar substances (F3) were separated from each crude extract of sediments. F2 showed the highest dioxin-like activities. Based on the results of mass balance calculation of chemical toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs), our conclusion is that priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons indicated a low portion of bio-TEQs ranging from 1% to 10% of crude extracts. Further studies should be conducted to identify unknown pollutants.

  18. First-year dam removal activities in the Elwha River - dam removal, sediment dispersal, and fish relocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duda, J. J.; McMillan, J. R.; Moses, R.; McHenry, M.; Pess, G. R.; Brenkman, S.; Peters, R.; Zimmerman, M.; Warrick, J. A.; Curran, C. A.; Magirl, C. S.; Beirne, M.; Rubin, S.

    2012-12-01

    After years of anticipation, volumes of Environmental Impact Statements, unprecedented mitigation projects, and the multifaceted collection of pre-dam removal data, the deconstruction phase of the Elwha River restoration project officially began on September 17th, 2011. With their simultaneous decommissioning, the removal of the 64 m tall Glines Canyon Dam and 33 m tall Elwha Dam represents one of the largest such projects of its kind in North America. The nearly 19 million m3 of sediment residing in the dammed reservoirs is being eroded by the river in one of the largest controlled releases of sediment into a river and marine waters in recorded history. The release of sediment and the halting of deconstruction and reservoir draw down activities during "fish windows" are largely determining a deconstruction schedule expected to last about 2 years. High suspended sediment concentrations, modeled to exceed 10,000 mg/L during the highest flows and to exceed 500 mg/L for 39% of the time in year 4 of the project (15% is the recorded background level entering the upper reservoir), could last for up to 3-5 years following dam removal depending on hydrological conditions. Anadromous fish, including three federally listed species (Puget Sound Chinook salmon, steelhead, and bull trout), reside in the river downstream of the Elwha dam for part of their life cycle. All five species of Pacific salmon and steelhead, either locally extirpated (sockeye) or persisting below the impassable Elwha Dam in degraded spawning and rearing habitat, are expected to recolonize the watershed to degrees that will vary spatially and temporally due to life history characteristics and levels of human intervention. During the first year of dam removal, adult coho salmon and steelhead were relocated from areas of high turbidity downstream of the Elwha Dam site to two tributaries upstream, where some of them successfully spawned. Additionally, steelhead were observed to naturally migrate past the

  19. Deflated rims along the Xiangshui River on the Xiliaohe Plain, Northeast China: A case of active fluvial-aeolian interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guang; Zhang, Guifang; You, Li; Wang, Yong; Yang, Lin; Yang, Ji; Zhou, Liang; Yuan, Minghuan; Zou, Xueyong; Cheng, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Riverine source-bordering sand dunes, as a result of active fluvial-aeolian interactions, are a pronounced feature on the semiarid Xiliaohe Plain, Northeast China. By means of satellite imagery analysis, and both field survey and observation, this paper presents a new type of riverine source-bordering sand dunes - deflated rims, on the downwind margins of the Xiangshui River. They largely result from the deflation of escarpments on the downwind side of valley by local prevailing winds of NW direction, not from the reworking of point bars on floodplain by wind. In general, a rim is primarily composed of three distinct zones: 1) the upwind frontal escarpment zone with variable plan-form shape, gradient and relief, which is formed by either active lateral erosion by river or significant erosion by wind and transient slope runoff; 2) the deflation zone with gentle slopes of 8-18° and small-scale aeolian bedforms, i.e. ripples of fine sand, ridges of coarse sand; and 3) the downwind dynamic deposition zone with distinctive bedforms with variable superficial texture and slip faces. The sand mass on rims derives overwhelmingly from underlying loose late Quaternary sediments, is sufficient and sustainable by successive retreats of the escarpment, and is gradually transported downwind by pulse motions of bedforms, coupled with high wind events. Essentially, deflated rims are a starting point and the incipient phase of mature riverine dunefields. The superimposed bedforms on rims are fundamentally governed by windflow dynamics, sand sediments and antecedent bedform, exhibiting in turn the manner and intensity of rim development. Consequently, the upwind river valley and downwind deflated rim can jointly stimulate marked wave-like motion of both windflow and aeolian bedforms at different scales, especially when high wind events occur. This study sheds some light on the understanding of the origin and development of riverine source-bordering dunefields, and offers new

  20. [On the interaction between State Forensic Medical Centers of the Russian Ministry of Defense and territorial organs of the Russian Federal Service on Surveillance for Consumer Rights (Roszdravnadzor): topical problems and possibilities for their solution].

    PubMed

    Pinchuk, P V

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is focused on the consideration of topical problems pertaining to the interaction between state forensic medical centers of the Russian Ministry of Defense (SFMF MD RF) and territorial organs of the Russian Federal Service on Surveillance for Consumer Rights (Roszdravnadzor) in the framework of unscheduled inspections of the organization and conduction of forensic medical expertise. Such inspections not infrequently give rise to conflicts between the administration of SFMF ND RF and commissions of territorial organs of Roszdravnadzor. The principal source of such conflicts is the representatives of Roszdavnadzor frequently fail to observe the requirements envisaged by the normative legal acts of the Russian Federation regulating activities of this state agency and the laws of the Russian Federation governing action management in the field of forensic medical expertise. The main causes behind the conflicts and their consequences are discussed, recommendations are proposed to resolve them. PMID:21938943

  1. Observations of limited secondary effects to benthic invertebrates and macrophytes with activated carbon amendment in river sediments.

    PubMed

    Beckingham, Barbara; Buys, David; Vandewalker, Heather; Ghosh, Upal

    2013-07-01

    Amendment of activated carbon to sediments has been shown to effectively reduce the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic contaminants, but concerns have been raised about the potential toxicological impacts of administering a strong sorbent into sediments. The present study provides a summary of several investigations carried out as part of a pilot-scale study in a river to understand the secondary effects of activated carbon added to reduce the bioavailability of sediment-associated polychlorinated biphenyls. While some previous laboratory amendment studies have found reduced lipid content in freshwater worms exposed to activated carbon-treated sediments, the authors did not observe an impact with fine-granular activated carbon-amended sediments aged in the field. Benthic community studies did not find differences between control and activated carbon-treated field sites over 3 yr of postapplication monitoring. Laboratory studies with submerged aquatic plants indicated reduced growth in sediments amended with ≥5% activated carbon, which was attributed to volume dilution of nutritional sediment or bulk density changes and was also observed when the sediment was amended with biochar and inert perlite. Since in situ sorbent amendment is likely to be implemented in depositional sediment environments, potential negative impacts will likely be short-term if the treated site is slowly covered with new sediment over time. Overall suitability of activated carbon amendment for a site will depend on balancing ecosystem and human health benefits from contaminant bioavailability reduction with any potential negative impacts expected under field conditions. PMID:23554105

  2. Observations of limited secondary effects to benthic invertebrates and macrophytes with activated carbon amendment in river sediments.

    PubMed

    Beckingham, Barbara; Buys, David; Vandewalker, Heather; Ghosh, Upal

    2013-07-01

    Amendment of activated carbon to sediments has been shown to effectively reduce the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic contaminants, but concerns have been raised about the potential toxicological impacts of administering a strong sorbent into sediments. The present study provides a summary of several investigations carried out as part of a pilot-scale study in a river to understand the secondary effects of activated carbon added to reduce the bioavailability of sediment-associated polychlorinated biphenyls. While some previous laboratory amendment studies have found reduced lipid content in freshwater worms exposed to activated carbon-treated sediments, the authors did not observe an impact with fine-granular activated carbon-amended sediments aged in the field. Benthic community studies did not find differences between control and activated carbon-treated field sites over 3 yr of postapplication monitoring. Laboratory studies with submerged aquatic plants indicated reduced growth in sediments amended with ≥5% activated carbon, which was attributed to volume dilution of nutritional sediment or bulk density changes and was also observed when the sediment was amended with biochar and inert perlite. Since in situ sorbent amendment is likely to be implemented in depositional sediment environments, potential negative impacts will likely be short-term if the treated site is slowly covered with new sediment over time. Overall suitability of activated carbon amendment for a site will depend on balancing ecosystem and human health benefits from contaminant bioavailability reduction with any potential negative impacts expected under field conditions.

  3. [About development of All-Russian Service for Disaster Medicine at the present stage].

    PubMed

    Goncharov, S F; Fisun, A Ia; Bobiĭ, B V

    2013-10-01

    The information about foundation, development and main areas of activity of All-Russian Service for Disaster Medicine is given. Almost 20 years professional staff members help to save lives and health of people injured in emergency situations in Russia and other countries. There are 81 territorial centers for disaster medicine. The main center is All-Russian center for disaster medicine Zaschita. Its organizational structure, performance indexes including development of information and communication technology, telehealth, organization of firs-aid in a traffic collision are considered. The main ways of improvement of the whole service for disaster medicine including service for disaster medicine of Ministry of Defense are shown.

  4. Integrated analysis of risks in terms of Russian Arctic zone sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolsunovskaya, Y.; Bolsunovskaya, L.; Sentsov, A.; Scherbinina, N.

    2015-11-01

    The sustainable development of the Russian Arctic zone is characterized by unique hydrocarbon and mineral resource potential and the key spheres of regional development are negatively affected by various risks. The present article addresses the issue concerning a longterm development strategy for the Arctic region growth, which is beyond the existing traditional approach. It examines a complex range of environmental, social, political, and industrial problems caused by the increasing industrial activities. The negative impact of the revealed risks has been specified. The model of the Russian Arctic zone sustainable development has been proposed.

  5. Development of Russian Regulatory Basis for License Renewal/Life Extension of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Pachner, Jaroslav; Kaliberda, Inna V.

    2002-07-01

    By 2010, fifteen Russian nuclear power plant (NPP) units will reach the end of their scheduled service life of 30 years. An extension of NPP operation beyond the scheduled service life, which is provided for by the Russian safety standard OPB-88/97, requires a renewal of the plant operating license by the regulatory organization Gosatomnadzor (GAN). This paper presents an overview of an IAEA project aimed at assisting GAN in the development of a set of regulatory guidelines for NPP license renewal/life extension 1. The overview includes a description of the Russian regulatory strategy for life extension of NPPs and IAEA activities to facilitate drafting and application of the regulatory guidelines using international experience. (authors)

  6. Russian Higher Education: Who Can Afford It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gounko, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The article explores the issue of access and equity in the Russian higher education system by examining recent government initiatives. While recently introduced measures such as the Unified State Examination and student loan project are designed to aid students and expand participation, they alone cannot ensure equitable access to higher education…

  7. The Impact of Globalization on Russian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinagatullin Birsk, Ilghiz M.

    2003-01-01

    The notion of globalization, which Andrutchenko (2001) defines as a "consequence of the development of human civilization," and the way it is related to the issues of education are being discussed widely today among Russian educational and scientific circles, education policymakers, scholars, educators, as well as school and university students.…

  8. Ethnicity and Culture in Russian Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dmitriyev, G. D.

    This paper presents a brief overview of education in the Soviet Union during the Marxist era and states that one result of the Communist system collapse in 1991 was that it became imperative to democratize Russian society and schooling. The paper notes the need to reevaluate the legacy of "international upbringing" along the line of true humanism,…

  9. Decomposition of Prefixed Words in Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanina, Nina

    2011-01-01

    I examined the nature of morphological decomposition in a series of masked-priming experiments with Russian prefixed nouns. In Experiments 1A and 1B, I tested 3 types of prime-target pairs in which the prime was a morphologically simple word, and a facilitation was found when the prime and the target were truly morphologically related (e.g.,…

  10. On the Reform of Russian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mironov, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    The "modernization" of Russian education is linked to the functioning of the entire social system of Russia, and reforms are proving difficult and contradictory. The use of the Unified State Examination in Russia, plus participation in the Bologna process, is causing concern about the ability of education to meet the needs of the…

  11. N-person quantum Russian roulette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraçkiewicz, Piotr; Schmidt, Alexandre G. M.

    2014-05-01

    We generalize the concept of quantum Russian roulette introduced in Schmidt and da Silva (2013). Our model coincides with the previous one in the case of the game with two players and gives the suitable quantum description for any finite number of players. As an example, we provide a detailed study of the three and four-person case.

  12. A Hierarchy of Russian Writing Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengramt, Sandra F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines the implications of the ACTFL Provisional Proficiency Guidelines for the writing curriculum. Argues that the functions identified in the guidelines should be practices in writing as well as in speech. Discusses error correction techniques and presents examples of writing assignments in Russian that elicit advanced-level functions. (SED)

  13. Word Order in Russian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmelman, Vadim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the results of an investigation of word order in Russian Sign Language (RSL) are presented. A small corpus of narratives based on comic strips by nine native signers was analyzed and a picture-description experiment (based on Volterra et al. 1984) was conducted with six native signers. The results are the following: the most frequent…

  14. The New Generation Russian VLBI Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkelstein, Andrey; Ipatov, Alexander; Smolentsev, Sergey; Mardyshkin, Vyacheslav; Fedotov, Leonid; Surkis, Igor; Ivanov, Dmitrij; Gayazov, Iskander

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with a new project of the Russian VLBI Network dedicated for Universal Time determinations in quasi on-line mode. The basic principles of the network design and location of antennas are explained. Variants of constructing receiving devices, digital data acquisition system, and phase calibration system are specially considered. The frequency ranges and expected values of noise temperature are given.

  15. New Ideologies in Postcommunist Russian Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisovskaya, Elena; Karpov, Vyacheslav

    1999-01-01

    Explores patterns of recent ideological changes in the content of 12 Russian secondary school textbooks in the social sciences and humanities. Shows that textbook content has shifted from a consistent representation of key dogmas of Marxism-Leninism toward a contradictory combination of the ideological symbols of nationalism, Westernism, and…

  16. Russian Science and Education: Problems and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebedev, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Higher education in Russia is not able to provide the science personnel and research that the country needs for its future economic well-being. Urgent changes are needed to improve the situation, not least among them being significant increases in the salaries of scientists, bringing Russian science into line with world standards of scientific…

  17. Ethical Datives in Russian and Macedonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akanova, Dana Khalelovna

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the phenomenon of ethical datives (EDs) in two Slavic languages, Russian and Macedonian. EDs are defined through a pragmatic lens as discourse licensed perspective markers in which a dative form expresses a speaker's decision to signal someone's emotional attitude--real or perceived--toward the action. Owing to…

  18. A Program for Teaching Russian Verb Prefixation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schupbach, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    In this five- to ten-hour presentation, intermediate and advanced students of Russian learn how prefixation affects all types of motion in terms of displacement, transitivity, and perfectivity. The features of the prefix are detailed. Throughout, changes in government (subject, object, and prepositional complements) are explained in relation to…

  19. Russian: United States Environmental Restoration Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Russian - United States Environmental Restoration Workshop, held in Washington, D.C., and Richland, Washington, from April 5 through 18, 1993, was the first extended collaborative information exchange between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Russian scientists at the site level. In addition to the Russian scientists, workshop participants included scientists and staff from DOE, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), the US Environmental Training Institute (USETI), universities, and the private sector. The first week (April 5 through 10) of the workshop took place in Washington, D.C., where the Russian and US participants were presented with a US perspective on environmental restoration and remediation issues from representatives in DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The second week (April 11 through 18) occurred in Richland, Washington, where the participants were presented with site-specific environmental restoration and remediation issues related to Hanford Site cleanup. This report is a compilation of the presentations, discussions, and experiences shared during the second week of the workshop in Richland, Washington.

  20. Russian mission Venera-D - new conception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasova, L. V.; Zelenyi, L. M.; Korablev, O. I.; Khartov, V. V.; Pichkhadze, K. M.; Vorontsov, V. A.; Marov, M. Y.; Elkin, K. S.; Sanko, N. F.; Voron, V. V.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Gavrik, A. L.; Khavroshkin, O. B.; Tuchin, A. N.; Skalsky, A.

    2011-10-01

    The mission Venera-D is included in the Russian Federal Space Program (2006-2015), being in phase A now. The aim of the mission is investigation of the surface, atmosphere and plasma environment of Venus to understand the formation and evolution of the planet and its atmosphere.

  1. Development of Listening Proficiency in Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Richard M.; Leaver, Betty Lou

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Listening Comprehension Exercise Network, a system that allows for the sharing of listening exercises in Russian via computer networks. The network, which could be emulated in other languages, alleviates the problem of time spent on developing essentially "throw-away" exercises. (21 references) (Author/CB)

  2. A New Generation of Russian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisauskene, M.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study examining the values, life stereotypes, and models of behavior of the so-called "next generation" of the Russian youth. The study was titled "From Secondary School Graduate to College Student to Graduate" and was carried out in seven higher educational institutions and two secondary specialized…

  3. Welcome Aboard Starship MIR: Mission Is Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullickson, Janice

    2009-01-01

    Six years ago Project Starship MIR, the Russian language "shuttle," launched at Turnagain Elementary, one of the Anchorage School District's 65 elementary schools. The MIR "peace" mission originated with encouragement from the local business community to prepare students for Alaska's future economic, social and political ties with neighboring…

  4. Russian scientists decry savage job cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2016-09-01

    More than 100 scientists in Russia have signed an open letter to the country's president, Vladimir Putin, protesting over a lack of funding for research and reforms that they say have left Russian science mired in a chronic state of crisis.

  5. A Note on "Predicative Words" in Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Marcus

    1961-01-01

    The problem of determining the grammatical status of predicate words in Russian is examined in this article. The contrast between the morphological heterogeneity and the seemingly uniform function of predicative forms has led to the postulation of a new part of speech described as the "category of state". However, the status of predicate words as…

  6. Russian for Business: Typewriting and Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Thomas E.

    This textbook was designed for undergraduate students who are interested in a basic study of Russian typewriting with particular emphasis on the following business documents: the memorandum, applications, statements, declarations, business letters, receipts, calculations, agreements, inquiries, references, certificates, basic documents used for…

  7. Russians and Americans Gather to Talk Psychobiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Constance

    1978-01-01

    Reports on the first Soviet-American meeting on psychology held in April, 1978 at the University of California at Irvine. The meeting was attended by 10 Soviets and about 30 Americans. The big difference between the two groups was that the Americans had small theories and lots of data, and the Russians had large theories and much less data. (BB)

  8. Specific Extreme Behaviors of Postinstitutionalized Russian Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Brandi N.; McCall, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior problems reported by parents on the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) were studied in 316 children adopted from social-emotionally depriving Russian institutions as a function of age at adoption (18-month cutoff), age at assessment (6-11 and 12-18 years), and gender. Children adopted after 18 months had higher problem…

  9. Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

  10. Teaching Russian Studies, 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winpenny, Patricia; Cadwell, Katherine Weeks; Cadwell, Louise; Harrison, Ryan; Starbird, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    This book is for those who want to teach about the life, history, language or culture of Russia and the former Soviet Union. Students will learn about the states of the former Soviet Union and the current political structure of Russia. Information is drawn from interviews with Russian children, traditional folktales, maps, original Russian…

  11. NDVI patterns as indicator of morphodynamic activity in the middle Paraná River floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Z. Y.; Minotti, P. G.; Ramonell, C. G.; Schivo, F.; Kandus, P.

    2016-01-01

    This work assesses the performance of a 2000-2014 NDVI-MODIS time-series to identify areas of the Paraná River floodplain associated with different morphodynamic areas and hence ecological behavior. From classification procedures we obtained six NDVI patterns (P1 to P6) differing in their mean values, standard deviation, and seasonality. The NDVI patterns are evidence of different situations in terms of elevation, flood dynamics, and vegetation physiognomies: P1 represents water bodies, P2 to P4 cover frequently flooded lowlands colonized by marshy vegetation, and P5 and P6 are placed on middle and high elevations that are less flooded and also are covered by tall vegetation (grassland and forest). Instead of differences among the six NDVI patterns, they showed a spatial arrangement that allowed the identification of two parallel belts; belt I, formed by P2 to P4, is placed close to the Paraná River and its connected branches; while belt II, formed by P5 and mainly P6, appears on the marginal floodplain far away from the main channels. The spatial arrangement of the two belts is similar to limits followed by the morphodynamic areas of the Paraná fluvial system. More than 60% of the surface covered by P2 and P5 corresponds to low morphodynamic areas while nearly 70% of P6 matches with high morphodynamic areas. Through their annual and interannual behavior, spatial arrangement, and relationship with morphodynamic areas, the NDVI patterns allow the interpretation of lateral organization of the Paraná River floodplain. This paper exploits the potential of time-series of NDVI to understand, from a synoptic point of view, the floodplain dynamics by capturing the seasonal and interannual variability of vegetation physiognomies and hydrosedimentological regime along and across the floodplain.

  12. Channel Morphology and Bed Sediment Characteristics Before and After Habitat Enhancement Activities in the Uridil Property, Platte River, Nebraska, Water Years 2005-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinzel, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Fluvial geomorphic data were collected by the United States Geological Survey from July 2005 to June 2008 (a time period within water years 2005 to 2008) to monitor the effects of habitat enhancement activities conducted in the Platte River Whooping Crane Maintenance Trust's Uridil Property, located along the Platte River, Nebraska. The activities involved the removal of vegetation and sand from the tops of high permanent islands and the placement of the sand into the active river channel. This strategy was intended to enhance habitat for migratory water birds by lowering the elevations of the high islands, thereby eliminating a visual obstruction for roosting birds. It was also thought that the bare sand on the lowered island surfaces could serve as potential habitat for nesting water birds. Lastly, the project supplied a local source of sediment to the river to test the hypothesis that this material could contribute to the formation of lower sandbars and potential nesting sites downstream. Topographic surveys on the islands and along river transects were used to quantify the volume of removed sand and track the storage and movement of the introduced sand downstream. Sediment samples were also collected to map the spatial distribution of river bed sediment sizes before and after the management activities. While the project lowered the elevation of high islands, observations of the sand addition indicated the relatively fine-grained sand that was placed in the active river channel was rapidly transported by the flowing water. Topographic measurements made 3 months after the sand addition along transects in the area of sediment addition showed net aggradation over measurements made in 2005. In the year following the sand addition, 2007, elevated river flows from local rain events generally were accompanied by net degradation along transects within the area of sediment addition. In the spring of 2008, a large magnitude flow event of approximately 360 cubic meters per

  13. Radiation Measurements on the Russian MIR Orbital Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.

    1999-01-01

    The Russian Mir orbital station was launched into an orbit with a 51.65 deg inclination in March 1986. It has operated continuously in the altitude range of 380 to 460 km. Almost immediately, cosmonauts began to carry out missions to the station. To date, there have been some 25 Russian missions. As part of the NASA Mir Program, a comprehensive set of radiation measurements were made to map the radiation in all of the Mir module. Numerous radiation measurements have been made on the Mir station throughout its lifetime. However, the comparison of these measurements have been difficult because of different sensitivities of detectors, some active and some passive, differing self shielding and in most cases unknown location shielding. In spite of these complications, very significant progress in the knowledge of the radiation environment onboard the Mir station has been made. These results are directly applicable to expected radiation environment on the International Space Station. In this paper, we describe the combined results from all seven NASA Mir missions. We show: (1) the absorbed dose rate from trapped particles is well correlated with the atmospheric density computed nearly 400 days earlier than the time of observation, (2) developed a relationship between the absorbed dose rate from galactic cosmic rays to the deceleration potential derived using the Climax neutron monitor rate, giving a tool to predict GCR dose rates to +/- 15% nearly 90 days prior to observations, (3) describe the drift of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) with time, (4) compare the predictions of the dose rates as a function of time from the November 6-8, 1998 solar particle event with observations, (5) compare measurements made with NASA Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) with the ESA DOSTEL device, the Hungarian Pille system, and the Russian R-16 dosimeter. Implications of these measurements for the ISS will be discussed.

  14. Responses of surface runoff to climate change and human activities in the arid region of central Asia: a case study in the Tarim River basin, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changchun; Chen, Yaning; Chen, Yapeng; Zhao, Ruifeng; Ding, Hui

    2013-04-01

    Based on hydrological and climatic data and land use/cover change data covering the period from 1957 to 2009, this paper investigates the hydrological responses to climate change and to human activities in the arid Tarim River basin (TRB). The results show that the surface runoff of three headstreams (Aksu River, Yarkant River and Hotan River) of the Tarim River exhibited a significant increasing trend since 1960s and entered an even higher-runoff stage in 1994. In the contrary, the surface runoff of Tarim mainstream displayed a persistent decreasing trend since 1960s. The increasing trend of surface runoff in the headstreams can be attributed to the combined effects of both temperature and precipitation changes during the past five decades. But, the decreasing trend of surface runoff in the mainstream and the observed alterations of the temporal and spatial distribution patterns were mainly due to the adverse impacts of human activities. Specifically, increasingly intensified water consumption for irrigation and the associated massive constructions of water conservancy projects were responsible for the decreasing trend of runoff in the mainstream. And, the decreasing trend has been severely jeopardizing the ecological security in the lower reaches. It is now unequivocally clear that water-use conflicts among different sectors and water-use competitions between upper and lower reaches are approaching to dangerous levels in TRB that is thus crying for implementing an integrated river basin management scheme. PMID:23377191

  15. Responses of surface runoff to climate change and human activities in the arid region of central Asia: a case study in the Tarim River basin, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changchun; Chen, Yaning; Chen, Yapeng; Zhao, Ruifeng; Ding, Hui

    2013-04-01

    Based on hydrological and climatic data and land use/cover change data covering the period from 1957 to 2009, this paper investigates the hydrological responses to climate change and to human activities in the arid Tarim River basin (TRB). The results show that the surface runoff of three headstreams (Aksu River, Yarkant River and Hotan River) of the Tarim River exhibited a significant increasing trend since 1960s and entered an even higher-runoff stage in 1994. In the contrary, the surface runoff of Tarim mainstream displayed a persistent decreasing trend since 1960s. The increasing trend of surface runoff in the headstreams can be attributed to the combined effects of both temperature and precipitation changes during the past five decades. But, the decreasing trend of surface runoff in the mainstream and the observed alterations of the temporal and spatial distribution patterns were mainly due to the adverse impacts of human activities. Specifically, increasingly intensified water consumption for irrigation and the associated massive constructions of water conservancy projects were responsible for the decreasing trend of runoff in the mainstream. And, the decreasing trend has been severely jeopardizing the ecological security in the lower reaches. It is now unequivocally clear that water-use conflicts among different sectors and water-use competitions between upper and lower reaches are approaching to dangerous levels in TRB that is thus crying for implementing an integrated river basin management scheme.

  16. Proceedings of the joint Russian-American hydrogeology seminar

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, C.F.; Mironenko, V.; Pozdniakov, S.

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogeology research has been very active in both Russia and the US because of the concerns for migration of radioactive and chemical contaminants in soils and geologic formations, as well as for water problems related to mining and other industrial operations. Russian hydrogeologists have developed various analysis and field testing techniques, sometimes in parallel with US counterparts. These Proceedings come out of a Seminar held to bring together a small group (about 15) of active Russian researchers in geologic flow and transport associated with the disposal of radioactive and chemical wastes either on the soils or through deep injection wells, with a corresponding group (about 25) of American hydrogeologists. The meeting was intentionally kept small to enable informal, detailed and in-depth discussions on hydrogeological issues of common interest. Out of this interaction, the authors hope that, firstly, they will have learned from each other and secondly, that research collaborations will be established where there is the opportunity. This proceedings presents the summaries and viewgraphs from the presentations. What cannot be conveyed here is the warm and cooperative atmosphere of these interactions, both inside and outside the formal sessions, which may well lead to future collaborations.

  17. Results of the fourth joint U.S.-Russian Bering and Chukchi Seas expedition (BERPAC)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is important to monitor the status of arctic oceans especially in terms of the impact human activities are making on these sensitive ecosystems. This is a compilation of research findings from a joint US/Russian expedition to the Bering and Chukchi seas that focuses on the significance of long-t...

  18. Some Aspects of the Implementation of the Principle of Transparency in Russian Universities: Research, Experience, Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egorov, Evgeny Evgenievich; Lebedev?, Tatiana Evgenievna; Bulganina, Svetlana Viktorovna; Vasilyeva, Lyudmila Ivanovna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify achieved successes, existing gaps and possible prospects of implementing the principle of transparency by Russian universities. It was focused upon the information transparency of educational activities from the perspective of legal requirements and interests of applicants and university students. The analysis…

  19. Tolerance as Understood by Young Russian and German Volunteers in Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikorskaia, L. E.

    2008-01-01

    In 2006 the author and her colleagues carried out the sociological survey "Tolerance in Volunteer Social Work." They sought to determine the attitudes that young Russian and German volunteers of social work have when it comes to tolerance as a concept, a trait of personality, a principle of life and activity. They studied the various forms and…

  20. HTO and OBT activity concentrations in soil at the historical atmospheric HT release site (Chalk River Laboratories).

    PubMed

    Kim, S B; Bredlaw, M; Korolevych, V Y

    2012-01-01

    Tritium is routinely released by the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) nuclear facilities. Three International HT release experiments have been conducted at the CRL site in the past. The site has not been disturbed since the last historical atmospheric testing in 1994 and presents an opportunity to assess the retention of tritium in soil. This study is devoted to the measurement of HTO and OBT activity concentration profiles in the subsurface 25 cm of soil. In terms of soil HTO, there is no evidence from the past HT release experiments that HTO was retained. The HTO activity concentration in the soil pore water appears similar to concentrations found in background areas in Ontario. In contrast, OBT activity concentrations in soil at the same site were significantly higher than HTO activity concentrations in soil. Elevated OBT appears to reside in the top layer of the soil (0-5 cm). In addition, OBT activity concentrations in the top soil layer did not fluctuate much with season, again, quite in contrast with soil HTO. This result suggests that OBT activity concentrations retained the signature of the historical tritium releases.

  1. Characterization of estrogenic receptor agonists and evaluation of estrogenic activity in the sediments of Liaohe River protected areas.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xin; Wang, Chunyong; Zhang, Haijun; Zhang, Yun; Gui, Shaofeng

    2015-11-15

    Estrogenic activity of 12 sediment samples from Liaohe River protected areas was evaluated by the recombinant yeast bioassays. The bioassay-derived 17β-estradiol equivalents of crude extracts (Bio-EEQcrudes) were between 52.2 and 207.6pg/g dry weight. The most concerned estrogenic receptor (ER) agonists including estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), 4-nonylphenols (4-NP), bisphenol A (BPA), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined. The concentrations of E1, E2, E3, EE2, BPA, andΣ10OCPs ranged up to 203.3pg/g, 185.8pg/g, 237.7pg/g, 188.5pg/g, 51.0ng/g, and 3.6ng/g, respectively. Taken together with polarity-based fractionation, in vitro bioassay and chemical analysis, it indicated that E1, E2, and EE2 were the predominant ER agonists and were mainly from the discharge of domestic wastewater and breeding wastewater. Meanwhile, this study showed that the establishment of protected areas had not obviously reduced the ecological risk caused by ER agonists in Liaohe River protected areas sediments. PMID:26388445

  2. Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils affected by mining activities around the Ganxi River in Chenzhou, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Sun, Jing; Yang, Zhaoguang; Wang, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Heavy metal contamination attracted a wide spread attention due to their strong toxicity and persistence. The Ganxi River, located in Chenzhou City, Southern China, has been severely polluted by lead/zinc ore mining activities. This work investigated the heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils around the Ganxi River. The total concentrations of heavy metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The potential risk associated with the heavy metals in soil was assessed by Nemerow comprehensive index and potential ecological risk index. In both methods, the study area was rated as very high risk. Multivariate statistical methods including Pearson's correlation analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and principal component analysis were employed to evaluate the relationships between heavy metals, as well as the correlation between heavy metals and pH, to identify the metal sources. Three distinct clusters have been observed by hierarchical cluster analysis. In principal component analysis, a total of two components were extracted to explain over 90% of the total variance, both of which were associated with anthropogenic sources. PMID:26547321

  3. Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils affected by mining activities around the Ganxi River in Chenzhou, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Sun, Jing; Yang, Zhaoguang; Wang, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Heavy metal contamination attracted a wide spread attention due to their strong toxicity and persistence. The Ganxi River, located in Chenzhou City, Southern China, has been severely polluted by lead/zinc ore mining activities. This work investigated the heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils around the Ganxi River. The total concentrations of heavy metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The potential risk associated with the heavy metals in soil was assessed by Nemerow comprehensive index and potential ecological risk index. In both methods, the study area was rated as very high risk. Multivariate statistical methods including Pearson's correlation analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and principal component analysis were employed to evaluate the relationships between heavy metals, as well as the correlation between heavy metals and pH, to identify the metal sources. Three distinct clusters have been observed by hierarchical cluster analysis. In principal component analysis, a total of two components were extracted to explain over 90% of the total variance, both of which were associated with anthropogenic sources.

  4. A GRADED APPROACH TO FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODELING TO SUPPORT DECOMMISSIONING ACTIVITIES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE, AIKEN SC

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K; Patricia Lee, P; Gregory Flach, G

    2007-06-07

    A graded approach to flow and transport modeling has been used as a cost effective solution to evaluating potential groundwater risk in support of Deactivation and Decommissioning activities at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. This approach incorporates both simple spreadsheet calculations and complex numerical modeling to evaluate the threat to human health posed by contaminants leaching from decommissioned concrete building slabs. Simple spread sheet calculations were used to produce generic slab concentration limits for a suite of radiological and non-radiological contaminants for a chemical separations area at Savannah River Site. These limits, which are based upon the United States Environmental Protection Agency Soil Screening guidance, were used to eliminate most building slabs from further risk assessment. Of the more than 58 facilities located in the area, to date only one slab has been found to have a contaminant concentration in excess of the area specific slab limit. For this slab, a more rigorous numerical modeling effort was undertaken reducing the conservatisms inherent in the spreadsheet calculations. Using the more sophisticated numerical model, it was possible to show that the remaining contaminant of concern would not likely impact groundwater above drinking water standards.

  5. Geochemical characterization and biomonitoring of reclaimed soils in the Po River Delta (Northern Italy): implications for the agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    Di Giuseppe, Dario; Bianchini, Gianluca; Vittori Antisari, Livia; Martucci, Annalisa; Natali, Claudio; Beccaluva, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    This geochemical study is focused on the easternmost part of the Po River alluvial plain in Northern Italy, which is interested by widespread agricultural activities, investigating a reclaimed sector of the Province of Ferrara, known as "Valle del Mezzano" (Mezzano Low Land, hereafter reported as MLL) characterized by peat-rich soils. The chemical-mineralogical characterization of these reclaimed soils is important to compare the local geochemical backgrounds with those recorded in other sectors of the River Po plain and to monitor if the observed concentration exceeds critical thresholds. The reported analyses include (a) measurement of the soil salinity, (b) nutrient evaluation, (c) major and trace element concentrations carried out on bulk soils, (d) tests of metal extraction with both aqua regia and EDTA to highlight the distinct elemental mobility and (e) phyto-toxicological measurement of heavy metal concentrations in plants (Lactuca sativa acephala) grown on the studied soils. The results indicate (1) high soil salinity, often with drastic increase of sodium and chloride along the soil profiles, (2) high nitrogen content (in part related to anthropogenic activities) on superficial horizons and nitrate decrease along the soil profiles and (3) comparative enrichments in heavy metals with respect to other soils of the province, which indicate that peat deposits are effective in trapping metals from anthropogenic sources. This, in turn, implies potential geochemical risks for the agricultural activities. In this regard, specific concerns are related to the high nickel and arsenic content of MLL soils due to the mobility of these elements and their attitude to be taken up by plants.

  6. Russian Planetary Program: Phobos and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galimov, E. M.; Marov, M. Ya.; Politshuk, G. M.; Zeleniy, L. M.

    2006-08-01

    Planetary exploration is a cornerstone of space science and technology development. Russia has a great legacy of the world recognized former space missions to the Moon and planets. Strategy of the Russian Federal Space Agency and the Russian Academy of Sciences planetary program for the coming decade is focused on space vehicle of new generation. The basic concept of this spacecraft development is the modern technology utilization, significant cost reduction and meeting objectives of the important science return. The bottom line is the use of middle class Soyuz-type launcher, which places the principal constraint on mass of the vehicle and mission profile. Flexibility in the design of space vehicle, including a possibility of SEP technology utilization, facilitates its adaptability for extended program of the solar system exploration. As the first step, the project is optimized around sample return mission from satellite of Mars Phobos ("Phobos-Grunt" or PSR) which is in the list of the Russian Federal Space Program for 2006 to 2015. It is to be launched in 2009 and completed in 2012. The experience gained from the former Russian "Phobos 88" serves as a clue to provide an important basis for the mission concept enabling solution of many problems of the project design and its implementation. There is a challenge to return relic matter from such small body like Phobos for the ground labs comprehensive study. The payload is also targeted for in-flight and extended remote sensing and in situ measurements using the capable instrument packages. The project is addressed as a milestone in the Russian program of the solar system study, with a potential for future ambitious missions to asteroids and comets pooling international efforts. Also endorsed by the Russian Federal Space Program is "Luna-Glob" mission to the Moon tentatively scheduled for 2011. The goal is to advance lunar science with the well instrumented orbiter, lander, and the network of penetrators. Return back

  7. Nuclear safety research collaborations between the U.S. and Russian Federation International Nuclear Safety Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D. J.; Braun, J. C.; Klickman, A. E.; Bougaenko, S. E.; Kabonov, L. P.; Kraev, A. G.

    2000-05-05

    The Russian Federation Ministry for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (USDOE) have formed International Nuclear Safety Centers to collaborate on nuclear safety research. USDOE established the US Center (ISINSC) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in October 1995. MINATOM established the Russian Center (RINSC) at the Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE) in Moscow in July 1996. In April 1998 the Russian center became a semi-independent, autonomous organization under MINATOM. The goals of the center are to: Cooperate in the development of technologies associated with nuclear safety in nuclear power engineering; Be international centers for the collection of information important for safety and technical improvements in nuclear power engineering; and Maintain a base for fundamental knowledge needed to design nuclear reactors. The strategic approach is being used to accomplish these goals is for the two centers to work together to use the resources and the talents of the scientists associated with the US Center and the Russian Center to do collaborative research to improve the safety of Russian-designed nuclear reactors. The two centers started conducting joint research and development projects in January 1997. Since that time the following ten joint projects have been initiated: INSC databases--web server and computing center; Coupled codes--Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic; Severe accident management for Soviet-designed reactors; Transient management and advanced control; Survey of relevant nuclear safety research facilities in the Russian Federation; Computer code validation for transient analysis of VVER and RBMK reactors; Advanced structural analysis; Development of a nuclear safety research and development plan for MINATOM; Properties and applications of heavy liquid metal coolants; and Material properties measurement and assessment. Currently, there is activity in eight of these projects. Details on each of these

  8. Germination and establishment of the native plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides Marshall subsp. monilifera) and the exotic Russian-olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Auble, Gregor T.; Scott, Michael L.

    1995-01-01

    Russian-olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) is a small Eurasian tree that has escaped from cultivation and become naturalized, primarily along watercourses throughout the western United States. We examined germination and establishment of Russian-olive and plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides), the principal native riparian tree of the Great Plains, under a range of experimental moisture and light conditions. The fewest seedings established under the driest conditions; seedling biomass was predictably lower in the shade; root-to-shoot ratios were higher for cottonwood, higher in the sun, and higher under drier conditions. Several interactions were also significant. The timing of germination and mortality varied between plains cottonwood and Russian-olive: cottonwood germinated in mid-June in all treatments in a single pulse with subsequent mortality; the timing and amount of Russian-olive germination differed substantially across treatments with little net mortality. Differences in life-history traits of these species, including seed size, viability, and dispersal, help explain treatment differences. Russian-olive will likely remain an important component of riparian communities along both unregulated and regulated western rivers because it succeeds under conditions optimal for cottonwood establishment and under many conditions unfavorable for cottonwood. Furthermore, many western states still encourage planting of Russian-olive, and control techniques tend to be labor-intensive and expensive.

  9. Nuclear Safeguards and Security Education at Russian Universities

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Goodey, Kent O.; Butler, Gilbert W.; Duncan, Cristen L.

    2008-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is assisting key Russian universities in developing safeguards and security degree programs to prepare the next generation of specialists who will be responsible for protecting nuclear material from illicit use. These programs include course and laboratory work in nuclear material measurements, vulnerability analysis, exterior and interior sensors, and legal aspects of nuclear nonproliferation. Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) has graduated nine classes of master’s students, most of who are working in government agencies, research organizations, or pursuing their PhD. With DOE support, MEPhI has also established a 5½-year engineering degree program in safeguards and security. This is a hands-on degree that more closely meets the needs of nuclear facilities. The first class graduated in February 2007, marking a major milestone in Russian nonproliferation education. A second engineering degree program has been established at Tomsk Polytechnic University and is designed to reach those students east of the Ural Mountains, where many nuclear facilities are located. The first class will graduate in February 2009. This paper describes current development of these education programs, new initiatives, and sustainability efforts to ensure their continued viability after DOE support ends. The paper also describes general nonproliferation education activities supported by DOE that complement the more technical safeguards and security education programs.

  10. SOLIDIFICATION TESTING FOR A HIGH ACTIVITY WASTESTREAM FROM THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE USING GROUT AND GAMMA RADIATION SHEILDING MATERIALS - 10017

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, H.

    2009-11-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tasked MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) with evaluating grouts that include gamma radiation shielding materials to solidify surrogates of liquid aqueous radioactive wastes from across the DOE Complex. The Savannah River Site (SRS) identified a High Activity Waste (HAW) that will be treated and solidified at the Waste Solidification Building (WSB) for surrogate grout testing. The HAW, which is produced at the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), is an acidic aqueous wastestream generated by the alkaline treatment process and the aqueous purification process. The HAW surrogate was solidified using Portland cement with and without the inclusion of different gamma radiation shielding materials to determine the shielding material that is the most effective to attenuate gamma radiation for this application.

  11. Past, present, and future concepts in large river ecology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, B.L.; Richardson, W.B.; Naimo, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    How rivers function and how human activities influence river processes. Many important questions are likely to require natural experiments or large-scale manipulations that compare rivers or river reaches.

  12. Sets of Reports and Articles Regarding Cement Wastes Forms Containing Alpha Emitters that are Potentially Useful for Development of Russian Federation Waste Treatment Processes for Solidification of Weapons Plutonium MOX Fuel Fabrication Wastes for

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J

    2003-06-12

    This is a set of nine reports and articles that were kindly provided by Dr. Christine A. Langton from the Savannah River Site (SRS) to L. J. Jardine LLNL in June 2003. The reports discuss cement waste forms and primarily focus on gas generation in cement waste forms from alpha particle decays. However other items such as various cement compositions, cement product performance test results and some cement process parameters are also included. This set of documents was put into this Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) releasable report for the sole purpose to provide a set of documents to Russian technical experts now beginning to study cement waste treatment processes for wastes from an excess weapons plutonium MOX fuel fabrication facility. The intent is to provide these reports for use at a US RF Experts Technical Meeting on: the Management of Wastes from MOX Fuel Fabrication Facilities, in Moscow July 9-11, 2003. The Russian experts should find these reports to be very useful for their technical and economic feasibility studies and the supporting R&D activities required to develop acceptable waste treatment processes for use in Russia as part of the ongoing Joint US RF Plutonium Disposition Activities.

  13. Occurrence of Endocrine Active Compounds and Biological Responses in the Mississippi River - Study Design and Data, June through August 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Kathy E.; Yaeger, Christine S.; Jahns, Nathan D.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2008-01-01

    Concern that selected chemicals in the environment may act as endocrine active compounds in aquatic ecosystems is widespread; however, few studies have examined the occurrence of endocrine active compounds and identified biological markers of endocrine disruption such as intersex occurrence in fish longitudinally in a river system. This report presents environmental data collected and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency and St. Cloud State University as part of an integrated biological and chemical study of endocrine disruption in fish in the Mississippi River. Data were collected from water, bed sediment, and fish at 43 sites along the river from the headwaters at Lake Itasca to 14 miles downstream from Brownsville, Minnesota during June through August 2006. Twenty-four individual compounds were detected in water samples, with cholesterol, atrazine, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide, metolachlor, and hexahydrohexamethylcyclopentabenzopyran detected most frequently (in at least 10 percent of the samples). The number of compounds detected in water per site ranged from 0 to 8. Forty individual compounds were detected in bed-sediment samples. The most commonly detected compounds (in at least 50 percent of the samples) were indole, beta-sitosterol, cholesterol, beta-stigmastanol, 3-methyl-1H-indole, p-cresol, pyrene, phenol, fluoranthene, 3-beta coprostanol, benzo[a]pyrene, acetophenone, and 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene. The total number of detections in bed sediment (at a site) ranged from 3 to 31. The compounds NP1EO, NP2EO, and 4-nonylphenol were detected in greater than 10 percent of the samples. Most (80 percent) female fish collected had measurable concentrations of vitellogenin. Vitellogenin also was detected in 62, 63, and 33 percent of male carp, smallmouth bass, and redhorse, respectively. The one male walleye sample plasma sample analyzed had a vitellogenin detection. Vitellogenin concentrations were lower in male fish (not

  14. ALL RUSSIAN INSTITUTE FOR SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION (VINITI) OF THE RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

    PubMed Central

    Markusova, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to overview the leading information processing domain in Russia and Eastern Europe, namely All Russian Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (VINITI ) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Russian science structure is different from that in the Western Europe and the US. The main aim of VINITI is to collect, process and disseminate scientific information on various fields of science and technology, published in 70 countries in 40 languages, selected from books, journals, conference proceedings, and patents. A special attention is given to the journal selection and depositing manuscripts (a kind of grey literature), an important source for Russian research. VINITI has created the largest database containing about 30 million records dating back to 1980. About 80,000-100,000 new records are added monthly. VINITI publishes the Journal Abstract (JA) on 19 fields of science, including medicine, containing about a million publications annually. Two thirds of these records are foreign and 36.7% – Russian sources. PMID:23322964

  15. All Russian institute for scientific and technical information (viniti) of the Russian academy of sciences.

    PubMed

    Markusova, Valentina

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the paper is to overview the leading information processing domain in Russia and Eastern Europe, namely All Russian Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (VINITI ) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Russian science structure is different from that in the Western Europe and the US. The main aim of VINITI is to collect, process and disseminate scientific information on various fields of science and technology, published in 70 countries in 40 languages, selected from books, journals, conference proceedings, and patents. A special attention is given to the journal selection and depositing manuscripts (a kind of grey literature), an important source for Russian research. VINITI has created the largest database containing about 30 million records dating back to 1980. About 80,000-100,000 new records are added monthly. VINITI publishes the Journal Abstract (JA) on 19 fields of science, including medicine, containing about a million publications annually. Two thirds of these records are foreign and 36.7% - Russian sources.

  16. [Comparison of the estrogenic activity of organic compounds in source water and finished water from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake in certain areas of Jiangsu Province].

    PubMed

    Jin, Tao; Lü, Xue-Min; Zeng, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Bing-Bing; Ma, Kun-Peng; Jiang, Pu; Tang, Fei

    2013-04-01

    A total of 43 source water and finished water samples were collected from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake in WX and SZ areas of Jiangsu Province from October 2010 to March 2012. The XAD-2 resin was applied to absorb the organic compounds in each water sample respectively. After the procedure of elution, concentration and drying, nonvolatile organic compounds (NVOCs) were obtained. The recombinant yeast estrogen screen test was then applied to evaluate the estrogenic activities of NVOCs in each water sample. The results showed that all of the source water collected from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake possessed estrogenic activities. The EEQ values of source water from Taihu Lake were 0.04-2.07 ng x L(-1), and the volume of EC(25-E2) were 9.06-31.62 mL; the EEQ values of source water from Yangtze River were 0.69-1.15 ng x L(-1), and the volume of EC(25-E2) were 9.06-31.62 mL. The samples from Taihu Lake in SZ area had higher estrogenic activities than the samples collected from WX area. No estrogenic activity was detected in 58.3% of the finished water samples after the treatment in water plants. The water plants which collected source water from the Yangtze River and from Taihu Lake reduced the estrogenic activities by 80.3% -100% and 55.5% -100%, respectively. PMID:23798113

  17. Computation Of The Residual Radionuclide Activity Within Three Natural Waterways At The Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R. A.; Phifer, M. A.

    2014-01-07

    In 2010 a Composite Analysis (CA) of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Savannah River Site (SRS) was completed. This investigation evaluated the dose impact of the anticipated SRS End State residual sources of radionuclides to offsite members of the public. Doses were assessed at the locations where SRS site streams discharge into the Savannah River at the perimeter of the SRS. Although the model developed to perform this computation indicated that the dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/yr (30 mrem/yr), associated with CA, was not approached at the Points of Assessment (POAs), a significant contribution to the total computed dose was derived from the radionuclides (primarily Cs-137) bound-up in the soil and sediment of the drainage corridors of several SRS streams. DOE’s Low Level Waste Federal Review Group (LFRG) reviewed the 2010 CA and identified several items to be addressed in the SRS Maintenance Program. One of the items recognized Cs-137 in the Lower Three Runs (LTR) Integrator Operable Unit (IOU), as a significant CA dose driver. The item made the recommendation that SRS update the estimated radionuclide inventory, including Cs-137, in the LTR IOU. That initial work has been completed and its radionuclide inventory refined. There are five additional streams at SRS and the next phase of the response to the LFRG concern was to obtain a more accurate inventory and distribution of radionuclides in three of those streams, Fourmile Branch (FMB), Pen Branch (PB) and Steel Creek (SC). Each of these streams is designated as an IOU, which are defined for the purpose of this investigation as the surface water bodies and associated wetlands, including the channel sediment, floodplain sed/soil, and related biota. If present, radionuclides associated with IOUs are adsorbed to the streambed sediment and soils of the shallow floodplains that lie immediately adjacent to stream channels. The scope of this effort included the evaluation of any previous sampling and

  18. Russian anthropogenic black carbon: Emission reconstruction and Arctic black carbon simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Storey, John M.; Romanov, Alexander; Hodson, Elke L.; Cresko, Joe; Morozova, Irina; Ignatieva, Yulia; Cabaniss, John

    2015-10-02

    Development of reliable source emission inventories is needed to advance the understanding of the origin of Arctic haze using chemical transport modeling. This paper develops a regional anthropogenic black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the Russian Federation, the largest country by land area in the Arctic Council. Activity data from combination of local Russia information and international resources, emission factors based on either Russian documents or adjusted values for local conditions, and other emission source data are used to approximate the BC emissions. Emissions are gridded at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° and developed into a monthly temporal profile.more » Total anthropogenic BC emission of Russia in 2010 is estimated to be around 224 Gg. Gas flaring, a commonly ignored black carbon source, contributes a significant fraction of 36.2% to Russia's total anthropogenic BC emissions. Other sectors, i.e., residential, transportation, industry, and power plants, contribute 25.0%, 20.3%, 13.1%, and 5.4%, respectively. Three major BC hot spot regions are identified: the European part of Russia, the southern central part of Russia where human population densities are relatively high, and the Urals Federal District where Russia's major oil and gas fields are located but with sparse human population. BC simulations are conducted using the hemispheric version of Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model with emission inputs from a global emission database EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research)-HTAPv2 (Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution) and EDGAR-HTAPv2 with its Russian part replaced by the newly developed Russian BC emissions, respectively. The simulation using the new Russian BC emission inventory could improve 30–65% of absorption aerosol optical depth measured at the AERONET sites in Russia throughout the whole year as compared to that using the default HTAPv2 emissions. At the four ground monitoring sites (Zeppelin, Barrow, Alert

  19. Russian anthropogenic black carbon: Emission reconstruction and Arctic black carbon simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Storey, John M.; Romanov, Alexander; Hodson, Elke L.; Cresko, Joe; Ignatieva, Yulia; Cabaniss, John

    2015-10-02

    Development of reliable source emission inventories is needed to advance the understanding of the origin of Arctic haze using chemical transport modeling. This paper develops a regional anthropogenic black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the Russian Federation, the largest country by land area in the Arctic Council. Activity data from combination of local Russia information and international resources, emission factors based on either Russian documents or adjusted values for local conditions, and other emission source data are used to approximate the BC emissions. Emissions are gridded at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° and developed into a monthly temporal profile. Total anthropogenic BC emission of Russia in 2010 is estimated to be around 224 Gg. Gas flaring, a commonly ignored black carbon source, contributes a significant fraction of 36.2% to Russia's total anthropogenic BC emissions. Other sectors, i.e., residential, transportation, industry, and power plants, contribute 25.0%, 20.3%, 13.1%, and 5.4%, respectively. Three major BC hot spot regions are identified: the European part of Russia, the southern central part of Russia where human population densities are relatively high, and the Urals Federal District where Russia's major oil and gas fields are located but with sparse human population. BC simulations are conducted using the hemispheric version of Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model with emission inputs from a global emission database EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research)-HTAPv2 (Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution) and EDGAR-HTAPv2 with its Russian part replaced by the newly developed Russian BC emissions, respectively. The simulation using the new Russian BC emission inventory could improve 30–65% of absorption aerosol optical depth measured at the AERONET sites in Russia throughout the whole year as compared to that using the default HTAPv2 emissions. At the four ground monitoring sites (Zeppelin, Barrow, Alert, and

  20. Russian anthropogenic black carbon: Emission reconstruction and Arctic black carbon simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Storey, John M.; Romanov, Alexander; Hodson, Elke L.; Cresko, Joe; Morozova, Irina; Ignatieva, Yulia; Cabaniss, John

    2015-11-01

    Development of reliable source emission inventories is particularly needed to advance the understanding of the origin of Arctic haze using chemical transport modeling. This study develops a regional anthropogenic black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the Russian Federation, the largest country by land area in the Arctic Council. Activity data from combination of local Russia information and international resources, emission factors based on either Russian documents or adjusted values for local conditions, and other emission source data are used to approximate the BC emissions. Emissions are gridded at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° and developed into a monthly temporal profile. Total anthropogenic BC emission of Russia in 2010 is estimated to be around 224 Gg. Gas flaring, a commonly ignored black carbon source, contributes a significant fraction of 36.2% to Russia's total anthropogenic BC emissions. Other sectors, i.e., residential, transportation, industry, and power plants, contribute 25.0%, 20.3%, 13.1%, and 5.4%, respectively. Three major BC hot spot regions are identified: the European part of Russia, the southern central part of Russia where human population densities are relatively high, and the Urals Federal District where Russia's major oil and gas fields are located but with sparse human population. BC simulations are conducted using the hemispheric version of Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model with emission inputs from a global emission database EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research)-HTAPv2 (Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution) and EDGAR-HTAPv2 with its Russian part replaced by the newly developed Russian BC emissions, respectively. The simulation using the new Russian BC emission inventory could improve 30-65% of absorption aerosol optical depth measured at the AERONET sites in Russia throughout the whole year as compared to that using the default HTAPv2 emissions. At the four ground monitoring sites (Zeppelin, Barrow

  1. Robotics Programming Competition Spheres, Russian Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovski, Andrei; Kukushkina, Natalia; Biryukova, Natalia

    2016-07-01

    Spheres" such name was done to Russian part of the Zero Robotics project which is a student competition devoted to programming of SPHERES (SPHERES - Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites are the experimental robotics devices which are capable of rotation and translation in all directions, http://ssl.mit.edu/spheres/), which perform different operations on the board of International Space Station. Competition takes place online on http://zerorobotics.mit.edu. The main goal is to develop a program for SPHERES to solve an annual challenge. The end of the tournament is the real competition in microgravity on the board of ISS with a live broadcast. The Russian part of the tournament has only two years history but the problems, organization and specific are useful for the other educational projects especially for the international ones. We introduce the history of the competition, its scientific and educational goals in Russia and describe the participation of Russian teams in 2014 and 2015 tournaments. Also we discuss the organizational problems.

  2. Russian federal program on transportation development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inozemtsev, Vladimir G.

    2002-04-01

    The transportation infrastructure of the Russia is a vast network of automotive ways, railroads, waterways, pipelines and supporting transportation infrastructures. All kinds of modern transportation use high-level technology. It is necessary to apply last scientific achievements for transportation safety and service feature improvements. Scientific and engineering developments of the Russian transportation have been decreased during the last ten years due to economical problems in our country. Russian government, Federal Ministries, and scientific organizations understand inadmissibility of the transportation lag. Therefore, the Federal Program named 'Updating of the Russian transportation system' has been accepted. To provide a modern stage of the transportation system development based on last science achievement it will spend many scientific and industrial resources. Therefore, it is difficult to overestimate development and using of photonic systems for all kinds of the transportation. The First Conference on Photonics for Transportation (1999) was devoted to the state of the art of photonic system application for on ground and aerospace vehicles, navigation, inspection, observation and monitoring equipments for transportation, and novel photonic elements. After that novel approaches on photonics and its applications for transportation have been in Russia.

  3. On the Use of Hydrological Models and Satellite Data to Study the Water Budget of River Basins Affected by Human Activities: Examples from the Garonne Basin of France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Eric; Gascoin, Simon; Grusson, Youen; Murgue, Clément; Bardeau, Mélanie; Anctil, François; Ferrant, Sylvain; Lardy, Romain; Le Moigne, Patrick; Leenhardt, Delphine; Rivalland, Vincent; Sánchez Pérez, José-Miguel; Sauvage, Sabine; Therond, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    Natural and anthropogenic forcing factors and their changes significantly impact water resources in many river basins around the world. Information on such changes can be derived from fine scale in situ and satellite observations, used in combination with hydrological models. The latter need to account for hydrological changes caused by human activities to correctly estimate the actual water resource. In this study, we consider the catchment area of the Garonne river (in France) to investigate the capabilities of space-based observations and up-to-date hydrological modeling in estimating water resources of a river basin modified by human activities and a changing climate. Using the ISBA-MODCOU and SWAT hydrological models, we find that the water resources of the Garonne basin display a negative climate trend since 1960. The snow component of the two models is validated using the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer snow cover extent climatology. Crop sowing dates based on remote sensing studies are also considered in the validation procedure. Use of this dataset improves the simulated evapotranspiration and river discharge amounts when compared to conventional data. Finally, we investigate the benefit of using the MAELIA multi-agent model that accounts for a realistic agricultural and management scenario. Among other results, we find that changes in crop systems have significant impacts on water uptake for agriculture. This work constitutes a basis for the construction of a future modeling framework of the sociological and hydrological system of the Garonne river region.

  4. Occurrence and fate of pharmaceutically active compounds in the environment, a case study: Höje River in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bendz, David; Paxéus, Nicklas A; Ginn, Timothy R; Loge, Frank J

    2005-07-15

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in the environment lately have been acknowledged to constitute a health risk for humans and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Human and veterinary applications are the main sources of PhACs in the environment and the major pathways are excretion and discharge to the environment through sewage treatment plants (STPs). In this study, the occurrence and fate of selected human PhACs belonging to different therapeutic classes (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, lipid regulators, anti-epileptics, antibiotics and beta-blockers) were investigated in a small river in the very south of Sweden. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the impact of a high and rather constant load in sewage influent on downstream concentrations and whether substances that are metabolized to a high degree in humans also show a low persistency in a natural aquatic environment. Water samples were collected from the influent and effluent of the STP, in a series of dammed reservoirs leading to discharge into the Höje River in Sweden, and at several locations in the river downstream of the outfall. After enrichment by solid-phase extraction, the compounds were analyzed using GC-MS (methylated derivatives) or LC-MS/MS. In addition to the targeted pharmaceuticals, GC-MS analysis of the samples revealed the presence of other sewage-related pollutants (triclosan, caffeine, flame-retardants, antioxidants) and these results where included for comparison. Removal efficiencies were calculated in the STP and found to display a wide range with numerous species surviving treatment at greater than half their influent concentrations, including diclofenac, the anti-epileptic carbamazepine, a beta-blocker (propanolol), and antibiotics trimetoprim and sulfamethoxazole. Low removals were also observed for Tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate (flame retardant), BHT-aldehyde (oxidation product of BHT) and synthetic musk (HHCB). The concentrations of chloride (Cl(-)) and

  5. Wild Estonian and Russian sea trout (Salmo trutta) in Finnish coastal sea trout catches: results of genetic mixed-stock analysis.

    PubMed

    Koljonen, Marja-Liisa; Gross, Riho; Koskiniemi, Jarmo

    2014-12-01

    For responsible fisheries management of threatened species, it is essential to know the composition of catches and the extent to which fisheries exploit weak wild populations. The threatened Estonian, Finnish and Russian sea trout populations in the Gulf of Finland are targets of mixed-stock fisheries. The fish may originate from rivers with varying production capacities, from different countries, and they may also have either a wild or hatchery origin. In order to resolve the composition of Finnish coastal sea trout catches, we created a standardized baseline dataset of 15 DNA microsatellite loci for 59 sea trout populations around the Gulf of Finland and tested its resolution for mixed-stock analysis of 1372 captured fish. The baseline dataset provided sufficient resolution for reliable mixture analysis at regional group level, and also for most of the individual rivers stocks. The majority (76-80%) of the total catch originated from Finnish sea trout populations, 6-9% came from Russian and 12-15% from Estonian populations. Nearly all Finnish trout in the catch were of hatchery origin, while the Russian and Estonian trout were mostly of wild origin. The proportion of fish in the Finnish catches that originated from rivers with natural production was at least one fifth (22%, 19-23%). Two different spotting patterns were observed among the captured trout, with a small and sparsely spotted form being markedly more common among individuals of Russian (28%) and Estonian origin (22%) than among fish assigned to a Finnish origin (0.7%).

  6. (In)Complete Acquisition of Aspect in Second Language and Heritage Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhaylova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation compares the knowledge of Russian Verbal Aspect in two types of learners enrolled in college level Russian courses: foreign language learners of Russian whose native language is English and heritage language speakers of Russian whose dominant language at the time of study is English. Russian Aspect is known to be problematic both…

  7. Russian Pulsating Mixer Pump. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2002-03-01

    This sludge mixing/mobilization system was developed in Russia. A prototype system was evaluated by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) and Industry and University Programs (INDP). The Russian Pulsating Mixer Pump showed promise for mixing highly viscous sludges. This project is to refine the system design (especially the control subsystem) and manufacture the system in Russia in accordance with quality standards required for deployment in radioactive waste storage tanks. Specifications and requirements are being developed by the TFA and INDP. The requirements may call for two or three of the sludge mixing systems to be delivered to Oak Ridge. DOE-Oak Ridge and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory will deploy the pulsating mixing pump system in their Gunite Tanks. These tanks are being emptied and cleaned prior to closure. Oak Ridge has deployed a number of innovative technologies in these efforts. If successful at Oak Ridge, the pulsating mixing pump system has potential application at several other DOE sites, including Savannah River, Hanford, and Idaho.

  8. Social Contexts of Development in Natural Outdoor Environments: Children's Motor Activities, Personal Challenges and Peer Interactions at the River and the Creek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Cara; Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of spending time outdoors on young children's physical and socioemotional development. We observed preschoolers' activities in two naturally provisioned outdoor environments over the course of one year. Eleven preschoolers were videotaped continuously for 16 days at a local river and 9 days at a creek adjacent to…

  9. Western values and the Russian energy weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingues, Bennett K.

    This thesis explores the competition between Russia and the West for the oil and gas resources of the Caspian Sea region, an area where far more is at stake than simply acquisition of new energy supplies. Ultimately, the "winner" of the competition for Caspian Sea energy resources will determine whether Russia will become the primary energy supplier for Europe in the future, or whether there will be alternative, non-Russian energy routes from East to West. The thesis uses a qualitative approach, drawing on scholarly books and articles, current affairs publications, energy firm websites, and other sources to compare the ethical aspects of the strategies used by Russia and the West, to determine whose strategy has been more successful, and to analyze what this means for the political, economic, and security future of Europe. As this thesis demonstrates, Russia recognizes the importance of energy as both an economic and foreign policy tool. To secure access to the resources of the Caspian Sea region, Russia has used bribery and strongman tactics to secure arrangements and contracts favorable to Russian interests. When a country does not capitulate to these tactics, Russia applies other measures to influence these countries' policies. This thesis draws on two recent examples, Ukraine and Georgia, to demonstrate how Russia has used its position as a supplier of energy resources to influence countries to adopt policies complementary to Russian interests, or to punish them for failing to do so. The effectiveness of these Russian tactics is an important precedent for the countries of the Caspian Sea region to keep in mind as they make decisions that will determine their economic and political future for decades to come. In contrast, the western strategy of promoting quality products and services, while ensuring safety and conducting business according to western ethical norms, has been less successful than western firms originally envisioned. Undoubtedly western firms have

  10. Active biomonitoring with Corbicula for USEPA priority pollutant and metal sources in the Anacostia River (DC, Maryland, USA).

    PubMed

    Phelps, Harriette L

    2016-07-01

    The freshwater Anacostia River watershed (Maryland, DC, USA) was surveyed for the sources of bioavailable US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Priority Pollutants and toxic metals by active biomontoring (ABM) using the freshwater Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea. The Anacostia River is a 456 km(2) tributary of the tidal freshwater Potomac River that includes the city of Washington, DC where edible fish are highly contaminated with PCBs and chlordane. From 1999 to 2011, Corbicula were collected for ABM from a Potomac reference site and translocated in cages placed at 45 sites in the tidal and nontidal Anacostia watershed. Minimum clam mortality and maximum contaminant bioaccumulation was with 2-week translocation. The clam tissues (28-50) were combined at sites and analyzed by TestAmerica for 66 USEPA Priority Pollutants plus technical chlordane, benz(e) pyrene, and 6 metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb). Tissue contaminants reflected water, not sediment, levels. To compare sites, all contaminant data above detection or reference were grouped as total metals (TMET), total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH), total PCB congeners (TPCB), total pesticides (TPEST), and total technical chlordane (TCHL). Tidal Anacostia ABM found highest TPAH and TCHL upstream at Bladensburg Marina (MD) except for TCHL at site PP near the confluence. Five nontidal MD subtributaries (94% of flow) had 17 sites with bioavailable TPAH, TPCB, or TCHL 2 to 3 times higher than found at the toxic-sediment "hotspots" near Washington. The only TMET noted was Fe at 1 site. TPAH in MD subtributaries was highest near industrial parks and Metro stations. A naphthalene spill was detected in Watts Branch. TPCB (low molecular weight) originated upstream at 1 industrial park. Total technical chlordane (80% of TPEST) was 2 to 5 times the US Food and Drug Administration action in 4 nontidal tributaries where heptachlor indicated legacy chlordane dumpsites. Total technical chlordane fell to reference

  11. Shift of extreme spring streamflow on the Belorussian rivers and its association with changes of cyclonic activity over Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partasenok, Irina; Chekan, Gregory

    2014-05-01

    The intra-annual distribution of precipitation is the most variable component of the water resources of Belarus. This distribution is controlled by extratropical cyclones from the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean that bring most of precipitation to the nation. That's why the aim of our study was to quantify major characteristics of these cyclones and to estimate effects of their passing through the Belorussian territory on regional water budget including floods and low water conditions. We documented the long-term fluctuations of streamflow and occurrence of extreme phenomena on the rivers of Belarus during the post-World War II period. It was established that annual water budget of the nation vary from year to year without systematic tendencies. At the same time, analysis of intra-annual distribution of streamflow reveals significant changes since the 1970s: increase of winter and decrease of spring runoff. As a result, the frequency of extreme spring floods has decreased. These changes in water regime are associated with climatic anomalies caused by large-scale alterations in atmospheric circulation, specifically in trajectories of cyclones. As a manifestation of these circulation changes, we observe increase of the surface air temperatures, more frequent cold season thaws, redistribution of seasonal precipitation totals, and decrease of the fraction of frozen precipitation in the shoulder seasons. Analysis of cyclonic activity over Belarus during the past 60 years in the cold season (December through February) shows the largest number of cyclones in 1950-1970. During this period, the largest number of spring floods caused by snowmelt on the rivers of Belarus was reported. Since 1970, we observe a decrease in the total number of cyclones but also an increasing strength (deepening) of the remaining cyclones in the cold season. That has led to some precipitation increase. During the last four decades, more frequent zonal air movement in the atmosphere and

  12. Coverage of Russian psychological contributions in American psychology textbooks.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova-Howell, Maria; Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Internationalizing psychology is an important component of current globalization trends. American textbooks on the history of psychology and introductory psychology were surveyed for the presence of historical and contemporary important Russian psychologists to assess the current status of Russian-American crossfertilization. Of a list of 97 important Russian psychologists, as determined by the editors of the Russian journal Methodology and History in Psychology, less than 22% are mentioned in the reviewed texts. The most common names were Pavlov, Luria, and Vygotsky. As the internet is arguably the single most important factor affecting the increase of international communication and dissemination of knowledge, we also searched for these 97 names on various websites, most notably Wikipedia and Google. Forty-one internet sites contained some amount of biographical information about Russian psychologists. On Wikipedia, 14 Russian psychologists had articles documenting biographical information. We also developed a rubric to determine the amount of information available on the internet for these psychologists and compared Wikipedia's mean score with various other websites. Wikipedia pages on average had a significantly higher score than the rest of the internet. Recommendations to improve Russian coverage in America are provided and include: (1) developing pages on Wikipedia and other virtual venues highlighting Russian contributions, (2) soliciting articles for US journals from Russian psychologists, and (3) incorporating Russian contributions in introductory and historical textbooks. We provide a partial bibliography of Russian contributions that can be used by authors of such textbooks. We would like to thank Dr Viktor Fedorovich Petrenko and Dr Igor Nikolaevich Karitsky from the journal Methodology and History of Psychology for supplying the names of the Russian psychologists. We would also like to express our appreciation to Robert García for reviewing and

  13. Volcanic history of the Colorado River extensional corridor: Active or passive rifting

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, K.A. )

    1993-04-01

    Magmatism and extension began nearly simultaneously in the Colorado River extensional corridor (CREC) between 34 and 35[degree] N. Initial eruptions of basanite at 23--19.5 Ma were low-volume but spanned a region now twice as wide as the 100-km-wide corridor. Extensional tilting of this age was local. A large flux of calc-alkaline basalt, andesite, dacite, and rhyolite was erupted at 22--18.5 Ma. They accumulated to average thicknesses of [approximately]1 km in the early CREC basin, and were accompanied by extensional tilting. Dike swarms, necks, and plutons represent intrusive equivalents. Plutons concentrate in the central belt of metamorphic core complexes, the most highly extended areas. Massive eruption at 18.5 Ma of the rhyolitic Peach Springs Tuff marked an ensuing lowered rate of volcanic output, a change to bimodal volcanism, much tilting and extension, and deposition of thick (to [approximately]2 km) synextensional clastic sediments 18--14 Ms. By 14--12 Ma, extensional tilting had largely ceased, and eruptions were sparse and basaltic only, as they have been since. Basalt compositions reveal changing patterns of trace-element composition that bear on sources. The early basanites have OIB-like compositions on spidergram plots, suggesting origin from the asthenosphere as would be expected from initiation of rifting driven by hot mantle upwelling. Basalts 20--12 Ma show low concentrations of Nb and Ta as in subduction-related arc magmas. Post-extensional basalts erupted 15--10 Ma exhibit a transition back toward primitive compositions seen in Quaternary alkalic basalts.

  14. Reach-scale channel sensitivity to multiple human activities and natural events: Lower Santa Clara River, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, Peter W.; Dusterhoff, Scott R.; Sears, William A.

    2013-05-01

    Understanding the cumulative impact of natural and human influences on the sensitivity of channel morphodynamics, a relative measure between the drivers for change and the magnitude of channel response, requires an approach that accommodates spatial and temporal variability in the suite of primary stressors. Multiple historical data sources were assembled to provide a reach-scale analysis of the lower Santa Clara River (LSCR) in Ventura County, California, USA. Sediment supply is naturally high due to tectonic activity, earthquake-generated landslides, wildfires, and high magnitude flow events during El Niño years. Somewhat typically for the region, the catchment has been subject to four reasonably distinct land use and resource management combinations since European-American settlement. When combined with analysis of channel morphological response (quantifiable since ca. 1930), reach-scale and temporal differences in channel sensitivity become apparent. Downstream reaches have incised on average 2.4 m and become narrower by almost 50% with changes focused in a period of highly sensitive response after about 1950 followed by forced insensitivity caused by structural flood embankments and a significant grade control structure. In contrast, the middle reaches have been responsive but are morphologically resilient, and the upstream reaches show a mildly sensitive aggradational trend. Superimposing the natural and human drivers for change reveals that large scale stressors (related to ranching and irrigation) have been replaced over time by a suite of stressors operating at multiple spatial scales. Lower reaches have been sensitive primarily to 'local' scale impacts (urban growth, flood control, and aggregate mining) whereas, upstream, catchment-scale influences still prevail (including flow regulation and climate-driven sediment supply factors). These factors illustrate the complexity inherent to cumulative impact assessment in fluvial systems, provide evidence for a

  15. Impact of climate variability and anthropogenic activity on streamflow in the Three Rivers Headwater Region, Tibetan Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chong; Li, Daiqing; Gao, Yanni; Liu, Wenfeng; Zhang, Linbo

    2016-05-01

    Under the impacts of climate variability and human activities, there is violent fluctuation for streamflow in the large basins in China. Therefore, it is crucial to separate the impacts of climate variability and human activities on streamflow fluctuation for better water resources planning and management. In this study, the Three Rivers Headwater Region (TRHR) was chosen as the study area. Long-term hydrological data for the TRHR were collected in order to investigate the changes in annual runoff during the period of 1956-2012. The nonparametric Mann-Kendall test, moving t test, Pettitt test, Mann-Kendall-Sneyers test, and the cumulative anomaly curve were used to identify trends and change points in the hydro-meteorological variables. Change point in runoff was identified in the three basins, which respectively occurred around the years 1989 and 1993, dividing the long-term runoff series into a natural period and a human-induced period. Then, the hydrologic sensitivity analysis method was employed to evaluate the effects of climate variability and human activities on mean annual runoff for the human-induced period based on precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. In the human-induced period, climate variability was the main factor that increased (reduced) runoff in LRB and YARB (YRB) with contribution of more than 90 %, while the increasing (decreasing) percentage due to human activities only accounted for less than 10 %, showing that runoff in the TRHR is more sensitive to climate variability than human activities. The intra-annual distribution of runoff shifted gradually from a double peak pattern to a single peak pattern, which was mainly influenced by atmospheric circulation in the summer and autumn. The inter-annual variation in runoff was jointly controlled by the East Asian monsoon, the westerly, and Tibetan Plateau monsoons.

  16. Floodplain architecture of an actively meandering river (the Ploučnice River, the Czech Republic) as revealed by the distribution of pollution and electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matys Grygar, T.; Elznicová, J.; Tůmová, Š.; Faměra, M.; Balogh, M.; Kiss, T.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the floodplain architecture of the Ploučnice River, a naturally meandering river in the Czech Republic, using manual drill coring, the element analysis of sediments, and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The Ploučnice River has received diffuse pollution since the early twentieth century (mainly Pb) followed by a prominent, temporally well-defined pollution pulse from uranium mining in the 1970s and 1980s (mainly U and 226Ra). The pollution created a chemostratigraphic (temporal) framework for overbank fines. We used geographical information systems (GIS) to describe the channel's dynamics and visualise fluvial landforms. We sampled and analysed the finest floodplain sediments in the top 1 to 2 m of the floodplain fill (silty and sandy deposits), and we used ERT to visualise bodies of coarser and deeper strata at depths down to ~ 3 m. Several limits of ERT imaging have been found by a comparison of the resistivity domains with lithological descriptions of the cores: several decimetre-thick strata were not revealed (they are below the spatial resolution of that method), and humidity affected the results that were obtained in the topmost strata. The space for deposition of fluvial sediments in the Ploučnice River is being created by (1) natural lateral shifts in the channel (up to 0.5 m/year); (2) meander loop development and cutoffs at the timescale of decades to centuries and spatial scale of up to ~ 1/4 of the floodplain width; and (3) more substantial reorganisation of the channel structure by avulsions, probably at the timescale of centuries. These processes continuously create space for the deposition of overbank fines on the top of former point bars and in swales and abandoned channels. As a consequence of the speed of the channel shifts, at least 80% of the fine-grained top of the floodplain fill (overbank fines) was reworked over approximately three centuries.

  17. Climate change and zoonotic infections in the Russian Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Revich, Boris; Tokarevich, Nikolai; Parkinson, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change in the Russian Arctic is more pronounced than in any other part of the country. Between 1955 and 2000, the annual average air temperature in the Russian North increased by 1.2°C. During the same period, the mean temperature of upper layer of permafrost increased by 3°C. Climate change in Russian Arctic increases the risks of the emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases. This review presents data on morbidity rates among people, domestic animals and wildlife in the Russian Arctic, focusing on the potential climate related emergence of such diseases as tick-borne encephalitis, tularemia, brucellosis, leptospirosis, rabies, and anthrax. PMID:22868189

  18. US/Russian MPC{ampersand}A program at the VNIITF Institute, Chelyabinsk 70

    SciTech Connect

    Teryohin, V.; Tsygankov, G.; Churikov, Y,

    1997-09-22

    The All Russian Institute of Technical Physics (VNIITF) is one of the major sites in the nuclear weapons complex in Russia. The site contains a number of research facilities which use nuclear material as well as assembly, disassembly, and testing of prototypes (pilot samples) of nuclear weapons. Chelyabinsk-70 (C-70) also has ties to the major nuclear materials production facilities in the Urals region of Russia. Under the U.S./Russian Materials Protection Control and Accounting (MPC&A) cooperative program, enhanced safeguards systems are being implemented, initially at a reactor test area that contains two pulse reactors and a nuclear material storage facility. Current year projects include site-wide improvements and next year, expansion of work into other facilities at the site. C-70 has developed an extensive computerized system that integrates the physical security alarm station with elements of the nuclear material control system. Under the MPC&A program, the existing systems have been augmented with Russian and US technologies. Additional facilities were added in 1997 to broaden the impact of the MPC&A program at the site. The integrated MPC&A system will be demonstrated to US and Russian audiences when completed in the spring, 1998. This paper describes the on-going activities and describe the cooperative effort between the Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Sandia, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Brookhaven US Department of Energy National Laboratories in support of VNIITF.

  19. The Role of the Russian Methodological and Training Center in providing Nondestructive Assay Technical Assistance to Russian Enterprises

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanov, Sergey; Bezhunov, Gennady; Ryazanov, Boris; Talanov, Vladimir; Thomas, Gerald D.; Dickman, Deborah A.

    2009-10-07

    The Russian Methodological and Training center (RMTC) was initially created to provide not only personnel training in the areas of nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A), but also methodological and technical assistance to the Russian government and nuclear facilities. The goal of the assistance was to promote enhancement of Russian MC&A infrastructure and modernize the MC&A systems at individual enterprises and facilities.

  20. Effects of river otter activity on terrestrial plants in trophically altered Yellowstone Lake.

    PubMed

    Crait, Jamie R; Ben-David, Merav

    2007-04-01

    Animals that deposit aquatically derived nutrients on terrestrial landscapes link food webs and affect a variety of in situ processes. This phenomenon, however, is poorly documented in freshwater habitats, especially where species introductions have drastically changed an ecosystem's trophic structure. In this study, we used stable isotopes to document water-to-land nutrient transport by river otters (Lontra canadensis) around Yellowstone Lake, an ecosystem recently altered by nonnative species invasions. We then investigated the effects of otter fertilization on plant growth and prevalence at latrine (scent-marking) sites and evaluated how the recent changes to the lake's food web could influence these plant responses. Values of delta15N were higher on latrines compared to non-latrine sites in five of seven sample plant taxa. Additionally, latrine grasses had higher percentage N than those from non-latrines. Foliar delta15N positively related to fecal deposition rate for some plants, indicating that increased otter scent-marking led to a rise in these N values. Logistic regression models indicated that otters selected for well-shaded latrines with access to foraging. Atypical latrines, misclassified as non-latrines by the regression models, had values of delta15N similar to correctly classified latrines, suggesting that site effects alone cannot explain elevated N values at otter latrine sites. No difference in plant diversity or percent cover of N-fixing taxa occurred between latrine and nonlatrine sites, though specific genera did differ between site types. Measurements of shoot lengths indicated increased growth of some latrine currants (Ribes sp.). In Yellowstone Lake, a twofold reduction in otter numbers could result in an even greater decline in nutrient deposition at latrines, as otters may become less social in a system with decreased prey availability. Our results highlight the role of animals in linking aquatic and terrestrial habitats in inland

  1. Association of plutonium with sediments from the Ob and Yenisey Rivers and Estuaries.

    PubMed

    Skipperud, Lindis; Brown, Justin; Fifield, L Keith; Oughton, Deborah H; Salbu, Brit

    2009-04-01

    The present study applied sequential extraction techniques to investigate the binding and mobility of plutonium (Pu) in sediments from the rivers and estuaries of the Ob and Yenisey. As a study site, the Ob and Yenisey are particularly interesting as both rivers have weapons-grade Pu sources in their catchment areas, including the Russian Pu production and reprocessing plants at Mayak, Tomsk-7 and Krashnoyarsk, and the Semipalantinsk nuclear weapons testing site in Kazakhstan. Plutonium activity and (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratios were determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Sequential extractions showed that between 47 and 80% of the Pu in Yenisey River sediments and 35-53% of the Pu in soils around the Techa River are mobilized with weak oxidising agents, which can indicate that Pu is bound to organic material. In contrast, Pu in Ob and Yenisey Estuarine sediments was more strongly bound, with 60-100% being found in the HNO(3)-extractable fraction. This change in speciation could reflect either that Pu bound to organic material in the Techa and Yenisey River sediments becomes more fixed to the sediments with time, or that organic-bound Pu is mobilized and released to the water when the sediments encounter the more saline water of the Ob and Yenisey estuaries. In general, (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratios were relatively consistent between different extraction fractions, although, in whole sediments, an increase in ratio was observed with distance from the source. This reflects the increased influence of weapon fallout from catchment runoff within the river systems, as compared to the weapons-grade sources close to the production and reprocessing plants. Knowledge of Pu speciation in the Ob and Yenisey Rivers, and the processes controlling its behaviour in estuarine systems, can improve predictions of its transfer and subsequent environmental impact to Arctic Seas. PMID:19157655

  2. Satellite Observation Highlights of the 2010 Russian Wildfires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Douglass, Anne R.; Duncan, Bryan N.; daSilva, Arlindo; Torres, Omar

    2010-01-01

    From late-July through mid-August 2010, wildfires raged in western Russia. The resulting thick smoke and biomass burning products were transported over the highly populated Moscow city and surrounding regions, seriously impairing visibility and affecting human health. We demonstrate the uniqueness of the 2010 Russian wildfires by using satellite observations from NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms. Over Moscow and the region of major fire activity to the southeast, we calculate unprecedented increases in the MODIS fire count record of 178 %, an order of magnitude increase in the MODIS fire radiative power (308%) and OMI absorbing aerosols (255%), and a 58% increase in AIRS total carbon monoxide (CO). The exceptionally high levels of CO are shown to be of comparable strength to the 2006 El Nino wildfires over Indonesia. Both events record CO values exceeding 30x10(exp 7) molec/ square cm.

  3. Accumulation of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and activities of cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase in crabs (Eriocheir japonicus) from Japanese rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizuka, Mayumi; Iwata, Hisato; Kazusaka, Akio; Fujita, Shoichi; Sakiyama, Takanori; Fukushima, Minoru

    1998-08-01

    The hepatopancreases of freshwater crabs (Eriocheir japonicus) collected from three Japanese rivers were analyzed for planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST)-dependent enzyme activities in the crab hepatopancreas were also measured to examine their potential as biomarkers for the contaminants. Crabs from the Tone River, which runs through industrial, agricultural, and urban areas, have the highest concentrations of HAHs (4,100 pg/g fat weight), followed by those from the Barato River (2,430--2,970 pg/g fat weight), whereas crabs from the Shiribetsu River were relatively less contaminated (1,350--1,800 pg/g fat weight). Identification and numerous PCDD and PCDF congeners in crabs from the Barato and Shiribetsu Rivers were notably contaminated with 1,3,6,8- and 1,3,7,9-TeCDD congeners, which suggests that a possible source was chlornitrofen, which has been extensively used in paddy fields as a herbicide. Calculation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) showed that the causal contaminants of higher TEQs in crabs from the Tone River (94.7 TEQ picograms per gram fat weight) were PCDDs and PCDFs, although the most important contributor to the total TEQs was coplanar PCBs (49.95%). The crab hepatopancreas appeared to have abilities to transfer glutathione to 1-chloro-2,4-nitrobenzene (CDNB) and 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene (DCNB). The crabs with the highest TEQ levels showed the highest GST activities.

  4. Alkaline phosphatase activity in Zostera noltii hornem. and its contribution to the release of phosphate in the palmones river estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, I.; Pérez-Llorens, J. L.; Fernández, J. A.; Niell, F. X.

    Alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) was studied in Zostera noltii Hornem., a sea-grass collected in the Palmones river estuary (southern Spain). The higher activity was found in the leaves, with minor contributions in the stem and the underground parts of the plant. The enzymatic activity showed a two-phase kinetic versus substrate concentration between 5 μM and 25 mM. The influence of some environmental factors important in nature (temperature, pH, salinity, photon irradiance and external phosphate) on the enzymatic activity is discussed. Over an ecophysiological range of these factors, maximum APA was found at 30 0C (22·6 μmol pNP released g dry wt-1 h-1), pH 8·8 (35·6 μmol pNP g dry wt-1 h-1) and salinity 43·8 (27·8 pmol pNP g dry wt-1 h-1). With regard to light, APA and phosphate uptake in shoots were light-saturated and showed similar values for maximum velocity and half-saturation constant. In the range of phosphate concentration tested (0 20 μM), APA was independent of the external phosphate concentration. Finally, as Z. noltii incorporated only 16% of the phosphate hydrolysed from the model phosphomonoester used in the assay, the significance of Z. noltii population in the enzymatic release of phosphate to the estuary was estimated. A minimum of 8·4 nM Pi liberated per day and a maximum of 99·8 nM Pi day-1 was found.

  5. Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Zostera noltii Hornem. and its Contribution to the Release of Phosphate in the Palmones River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, I.; Pérez-Llorens, J. L.; Fernández, J. A.; Niell, F. X.

    Alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) was studied in Zostera noltii Hornem., a sea-grass collected in the Palmones river estuary (southern Spain). The higher activity was found in the leaves, with minor contributions in the stem and the underground parts of the plant. The enzymatic activity showed a two-phase kinetic versus substrate concentration between 5 μM and 25 mM. The influence of some environmental factors important in nature (temperature, pH, salinity, photon irradiance and external phosphate) on the enzymatic activity is discussed. Over an ecophysiological range of these factors, maximum APA was found at 30 °C (22·6 μmol pNP released g dry wt -1 h -1), pH 8·8 (35·6 μmol pNP g dry wt -1 h -1) and salinity 43·8 (27·8 μmol pNP g dry wt -1 h -1). With regard to light, APA and phosphate uptake in shoots were light-saturated and showed similar values for maximum velocity and half-saturation constant. In the range of phosphate concentration tested (0-20 μM), APA was independent of the external phosphate concentration. Finally, as Z. noltii incorporated only 16% of the phosphate hydrolysed from the model phosphomonoester used in the assay, the significance of Z. noltii population in the enzymatic release of phosphate to the estuary was estimated. A minimum of 8·4 nM Pi liberated per day and a maximum of 99·8 nM Pi day -1 was found.

  6. Alkaline phosphatase activity in Zostera noltii hornem. and its contribution to the release of phosphate in the palmones river estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, I.; Pérez-Llorens, J. L.; Fernández, J. A.; Niell, F. X.

    Alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) was studied in Zostera noltii Hornem., a sea-grass collected in the Palmones river estuary (southern Spain). The higher activity was found in the leaves, with minor contributions in the stem and the underground parts of the plant. The enzymatic activity showed a two-phase kinetic versus substrate concentration between 5 μM and 25 mM. The influence of some environmental factors important in nature (temperature, pH, salinity, photon irradiance and external phosphate) on the enzymatic activity is discussed. Over an ecophysiological range of these factors, maximum APA was found at 30 0C (22·6 μmol pNP released g dry wt -1 h -1), pH 8·8 (35·6 μmol pNP g dry wt -1 h -1) and salinity 43·8 (27·8 pmol pNP g dry wt -1 h -1). With regard to light, APA and phosphate uptake in shoots were light-saturated and showed similar values for maximum velocity and half-saturation constant. In the range of phosphate concentration tested (0-20 μM), APA was independent of the external phosphate concentration. Finally, as Z. noltii incorporated only 16% of the phosphate hydrolysed from the model phosphomonoester used in the assay, the significance of Z. noltii population in the enzymatic release of phosphate to the estuary was estimated. A minimum of 8·4 nM Pi liberated per day and a maximum of 99·8 nM Pi day -1 was found.

  7. Preliminary observations of autumn feeding of USDA-ARS Russian honey bees to enhance performance during almond pollination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    populous than Italian colonies and thus have less flight activity. We attempted to increase bee populations by feeding two pounds of bee-collected pollen in November to Russian and Italian colonies (n=16 each) and comparing these to unfed colonies. Flight activity of colonies in the four treatment...

  8. Russian Language Testing and Integrated Examination for Foreign Citizens in Russia: Legislation Background and Legal Regulation Specific Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolzhikova, Anzhela

    2015-01-01

    The Russian Federation faces active law-making and legislative activities aimed at providing legal grounds for qualifying educational level of foreign nationals entering the country with the purpose to work and apply for citizenship. The article deals with the current legislation and regulations in their relationship with each other, their impact…

  9. Coupling hydrologic and hydraulic modelling for reliable flood risk mitigation activities in the Upper-Medium Tiber River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berni, N.; Brocca, L.; Giustarini, L.; Pandolfo, C.; Stelluti, M.; Melone, F.; Moramarco, T.

    2009-04-01

    In view of the recent and serious flood events occurred in latest years in Italy, the interest towards accurate methodology for the evaluation of flood prone areas is continually increasing. In particular, this issue is related to urbanization planning activities, civil protection actions (e.g. hydraulic risk warning systems), and the assessment of hydraulic engineering structures behaviour during severe hydrometeorological conditions. In Italy, following the publishing in the late 90's of many laws and regulations concerning hydraulic risk assessment matters, a widespread flooding areas mapping have been carried out (Italian Basin Authorities "PAI" plans). In case of limited availability of historical peak flow data, the flood prone areas estimation was based on the application of hydrologic and hydraulic modelling separately. Moreover, the recent directive 2007/60/EC on the assessment and management of flood risks requires from each member state: preliminary flood risk assessment (within December 2011), flood hazard maps and flood risk maps (within December 2013), flood risk management plans (within December 2015). In order to prevent and control flood events in medium-small river basins (e.g. Upper Tiber River basin, Central Italy), the use of hydrologic models coupled with hydraulic ones can be a valuable tool also for real time applications, such as flood risk mitigation and warning activities of the Italian National Warning System Network (composed by regional "Functional Centres" coordinated by the National Civil Protection Department). In this context, two significant flood events occurred in November 2005 and December 2008 in the Umbria Region territory were considered. In this area a hydrometeorological network, characterized by a high temporal and spatial resolution, is operating in real time. Different coupled models were considered to reproduce the selected events, in order to test and compare their reliability and efficiency. Specifically, two semi

  10. Russian and Soviet forensic psychiatry: troubled and troubling.

    PubMed

    Healey, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Russian forensic psychiatry is defined by its troubled and troubling relationship to an unstable state, a state that was not a continuous entity during the modern era. From the mid-nineteenth century, Russia as a nation-state struggled to reform, collapsed, re-constituted itself in a bloody civil war, metastasized into a violent "totalitarian" regime, reformed and stagnated under "mature socialism" and then embraced capitalism and "managed democracy" at the end of the twentieth century. These upheavals had indelible effects on policing and the administration of justice, and on psychiatry's relationship with them. In Russia, physicians specializing in medicine of the mind had to cope with rapid and radical changes of legal and institutional forms, and sometimes, of the state itself. Despite this challenging environment, psychiatrists showed themselves to be active professionals seeking to guide the transformations that inevitably touched their work. In the second half of the nineteenth century debates about the role of psychiatry in criminal justice took place against a backdrop of increasingly alarming terrorist activity, and call for revolution. While German influence, with its preference for hereditarianism, was strong, Russian psychiatry was inclined toward social and environmental explanations of crime. When revolution came in 1917, the new communist regime quickly institutionalized forensic psychiatry. In the aftermath of revolution, the institutionalization of forensic psychiatry "advanced" with each turn of the state's transformation, with profound consequences for practitioners' independence and ethical probity. The abuses of Soviet psychiatry under Stalin and more intensively after his death in the 1960s-80s remain under-researched and key archives are still classified. The return to democracy since the late 1980s has seen mixed results for fresh attempts to reform both the justice system and forensic psychiatric practice.

  11. Russian and Soviet forensic psychiatry: troubled and troubling.

    PubMed

    Healey, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Russian forensic psychiatry is defined by its troubled and troubling relationship to an unstable state, a state that was not a continuous entity during the modern era. From the mid-nineteenth century, Russia as a nation-state struggled to reform, collapsed, re-constituted itself in a bloody civil war, metastasized into a violent "totalitarian" regime, reformed and stagnated under "mature socialism" and then embraced capitalism and "managed democracy" at the end of the twentieth century. These upheavals had indelible effects on policing and the administration of justice, and on psychiatry's relationship with them. In Russia, physicians specializing in medicine of the mind had to cope with rapid and radical changes of legal and institutional forms, and sometimes, of the state itself. Despite this challenging environment, psychiatrists showed themselves to be active professionals seeking to guide the transformations that inevitably touched their work. In the second half of the nineteenth century debates about the role of psychiatry in criminal justice took place against a backdrop of increasingly alarming terrorist activity, and call for revolution. While German influence, with its preference for hereditarianism, was strong, Russian psychiatry was inclined toward social and environmental explanations of crime. When revolution came in 1917, the new communist regime quickly institutionalized forensic psychiatry. In the aftermath of revolution, the institutionalization of forensic psychiatry "advanced" with each turn of the state's transformation, with profound consequences for practitioners' independence and ethical probity. The abuses of Soviet psychiatry under Stalin and more intensively after his death in the 1960s-80s remain under-researched and key archives are still classified. The return to democracy since the late 1980s has seen mixed results for fresh attempts to reform both the justice system and forensic psychiatric practice. PMID:24128434

  12. Hepatic monooxygenase induction and promutagen activation in channel catfish from a contaminated river basin

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, G.W.; Shane, B.S.; Henry, C.B.

    1988-12-01

    To better understand the etiology of cancer in fish from polluted waters, the impact of environmental contaminants on xenobiotic metabolism of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) from a highly polluted water body, Devil's Swamp in southeastern Louisiana, has been investigated. Fish from Devil's Swamp bioaccumulated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides (CHI), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in fat tissue, the latter exceeding 7000 ppb. Reference catfish from the University farm, Ben Hur, were virtually devoid of PAH, CHI, and PCB. Liver microsomal enzymes (MFO) from Devil's Swamp fish were markedly induced. The specific content of cytochromes P450 and b5 and the specific activities of NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase were two to three times higher than those of Ben Hur fish. Consistent with this induction, a 9000g supernatant from Devil's Swamp but not Ben Hur fish activated 2-aminofluorene and benzo(a)pyrene (BP) to mutagens in the Ames test. BP metabolism by Devil's Swamp fish liver microsomes was inhibited to a greater extent by alpha-naphthoflavone than was BP metabolism by Ben Hur fish microsomes. This finding indicates that the induced activity in the Devil's Swamp fish liver was the result of P450 isozymes characteristic of PAH/PCB induction. Thus, exposure of fish to environmental pollutants can alter MFO leading to enhanced metabolic activation of promutagens to mutagens.

  13. Microsomal enzyme activities in beluga whales from the Mackenzie River Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Lockhart, L.; Metner, D.; Muir, D.; Delorme, P.; Dahlke, L.

    1995-12-31

    On two occasions the authors have obtained samples of liver from freshly killed beluga whales harvested by Inuit hunters. The first samples were obtained from whales trapped in the Husky Lakes; with the onset of winter, ice restricted these whales to small breathing holes where they were taken by hunters. They were found to be starving, with body weights about 200 kg less than those expected for whales of their length. Liver mixed-function oxygenase activities, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, correlated closely with blubber residues of polychlorinated biphenyls. A second group of whales was taken in the summer hunt in Kugmallit Bay and showed no sign of starvation. The enzyme activities in these whales had weaker statistical relationships to PCB residues. These observations suggested that mobilization of blubber by the starving whales may have released PCBs to act pharmacologically. The authors could not test this hypothesis directly on whales, but an experiment was carried out on laboratory fish to try to examine it. Arctic char were given low dosages of PCB congener 126 and then maintained on diets of full normal ration, half-ration and quarter-ration over a period of 48 weeks, with sub-sampling at intervals. Fish receiving less than maintenance rations responded with decreases in body fat and increases in EROD activities. These laboratory results suggest that correlations between enzymatic activities and PCBs in the starving whales may indeed have been the result of the loss of blubber and concomitant release of PCBs.

  14. The Russians Are Coming, the Russians are Dead: Myth and Historical Consciousness in Two Contact Narratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruppert, James

    This research paper examines hidden cultural patterns establishing the expression of historical thought in Native Alaskan narratives which describe first contact with Russians. Historical consciousness in oral contact stories is always mythic in form, as well as in content. Native American oral cultures understood new events by "troping," or…

  15. Mississippi River. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchberg, Wendy

    Based on novels and books about the Mississippi River, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that the Mississippi River has made its mark on America's geography, commerce, and literature; and that booktalks provide a summary, explains what kind of reader the book will appeal to, and may also contain a oral…

  16. Widespread occurrence of neuro-active pharmaceuticals and metabolites in 24 Minnesota rivers and wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Writer, Jeffrey H; Ferrer, Imma; Barber, Larry B; Thurman, E Michael

    2013-09-01

    Concentrations of 17 neuro-active pharmaceuticals and their major metabolites (bupropion, hydroxy-bupropion, erythro-hydrobupropion, threo-hydrobupropion, carbamazepine, 10,11,-dihydro-10,11,-dihydroxycarbamazepine, 10-hydroxy-carbamazepine, citalopram, N-desmethyl-citalopram, fluoxetine, norfluoxetine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, 2-N-glucuronide-lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, venlafaxine and O-desmethyl-venlafaxine), were measured in treated wastewater and receiving surface waters from 24 locations across Minnesota, USA. The analysis of upstream and downstream sampling sites indicated that the wastewater treatment plants were the major source of the neuro-active pharmaceuticals and associated metabolites in surface waters of Minnesota. Concentrations of parent compound and the associated metabolite varied substantially between treatment plants (concentrations±standard deviation of the parent compound relative to its major metabolite) as illustrated by the following examples; bupropion and hydrobupropion 700±1000 ng L(-1), 2100±1700 ng L(-1), carbamazepine and 10-hydroxy-carbamazepine 480±380 ng L(-1), 360±400 ng L(-1), venlafaxine and O-desmethyl-venlafaxine 1400±1300 ng L(-1), 1800±2300 ng L(-1). Metabolites of the neuro-active compounds were commonly found at higher or comparable concentrations to the parent compounds in wastewater effluent and the receiving surface water. Neuro-active pharmaceuticals and associated metabolites were detected only sporadically in samples upstream from the effluent outfall. Metabolite to parent ratios were used to evaluate transformation, and we determined that ratios in wastewater were much lower than those reported in urine, indicating that the metabolites are relatively more labile than the parent compounds in the treatment plants and in receiving waters. The widespread occurrence of neuro-active pharmaceuticals and metabolites in Minnesota effluents and surface waters indicate that this is likely a global environmental issue

  17. Widespread occurrence of neuro-active pharmaceuticals and metabolites in 24 Minnesota rivers and wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Writer, Jeffrey H; Ferrer, Imma; Barber, Larry B; Thurman, E Michael

    2013-09-01

    Concentrations of 17 neuro-active pharmaceuticals and their major metabolites (bupropion, hydroxy-bupropion, erythro-hydrobupropion, threo-hydrobupropion, carbamazepine, 10,11,-dihydro-10,11,-dihydroxycarbamazepine, 10-hydroxy-carbamazepine, citalopram, N-desmethyl-citalopram, fluoxetine, norfluoxetine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, 2-N-glucuronide-lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, venlafaxine and O-desmethyl-venlafaxine), were measured in treated wastewater and receiving surface waters from 24 locations across Minnesota, USA. The analysis of upstream and downstream sampling sites indicated that the wastewater treatment plants were the major source of the neuro-active pharmaceuticals and associated metabolites in surface waters of Minnesota. Concentrations of parent compound and the associated metabolite varied substantially between treatment plants (concentrations±standard deviation of the parent compound relative to its major metabolite) as illustrated by the following examples; bupropion and hydrobupropion 700±1000 ng L(-1), 2100±1700 ng L(-1), carbamazepine and 10-hydroxy-carbamazepine 480±380 ng L(-1), 360±400 ng L(-1), venlafaxine and O-desmethyl-venlafaxine 1400±1300 ng L(-1), 1800±2300 ng L(-1). Metabolites of the neuro-active compounds were commonly found at higher or comparable concentrations to the parent compounds in wastewater effluent and the receiving surface water. Neuro-active pharmaceuticals and associated metabolites were detected only sporadically in samples upstream from the effluent outfall. Metabolite to parent ratios were used to evaluate transformation, and we determined that ratios in wastewater were much lower than those reported in urine, indicating that the metabolites are relatively more labile than the parent compounds in the treatment plants and in receiving waters. The widespread occurrence of neuro-active pharmaceuticals and metabolites in Minnesota effluents and surface waters indicate that this is likely a global environmental issue

  18. The Detroit River: Effects of contaminants and human activities on aquatic plants and animals and their habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Kenaga, David

    1991-01-01

    Despite the extensive urbanization of its watershed, the Detroit River still supports diverse fish and wildlife populations. Conflicting uses of the river for waste disposal, water withdrawals, shipping, recreation, and fishing require innovative management. Chemicals added by man to the Detroit River have adversely affected the health and habitats of the river's plants and animals. In 1985, as part of an Upper Great Lakes Connecting Channels Study sponsored by Environment Canada and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, researchers exposed healthy bacteria, plankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, fish, and birds to Detroit River sediments and sediment porewater. Negative impacts included genetic mutations in bacteria; death of macroinvertebrates; accumulation of contaminants in insects, clams, fish, and ducks; and tumor formation in fish. Field surveys showed areas of the river bottom that were otherwise suitable for habitation by a variety of plants and animals were contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons and heavy metals and occupied only by pollution-tolerant worms. Destruction of shoreline wetlands and disposal of sewage and toxic substances in the Detroit River have reduced habitat and conflict with basic biological processes, including the sustained production of fish and wildlife. Current regulations do not adequately control pollution loadings. However, remedial actions are being formulated by the U.S. and Canada to restore degraded benthic habitats and eliminate discharges of toxic contaminants into the Detroit River.

  19. pCO2 and enzymatic activity in a river floodplain system of the Danube under different hydrological settings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieczko, Anna; Demeter, Katalin; Mayr, Magdalena; Meisterl, Karin; Peduzzi, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Surface waters may serve as either sinks or sources of CO2. In contrast to rivers, which are typically sources of CO2 to the atmosphere, the role of fringing floodplains in CO2 flux is largely understudied. This study was conducted in a river-floodplain system near Vienna (Austria). The sampling focused on changing hydrological situations, particularly on two distinct flood events: a typical 1-year flood in 2012 and an extraordinary 100-year flood in 2013. One objective was to determine partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in floodplain lakes with different degree of connectivity to the main channel, and compare the impact of these two types of floods. Another aim was to decipher which fraction of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool contributed to pCO2 by linking pCO2 with optical properties of DOM and extracellular enzymatic activity (EEA) of microbes. The EEA is a valuable tool, especially for assessing the non-chromophoric but rapidly utilized DOM-fraction during floods. In 2012 and 2013, the floodplain lakes were dominated by supersaturated pCO2 conditions, which indicates that they served as CO2 sources. Surprisingly, there were no significant differences in pCO2 between the two types of flood. Our findings imply that the extent of the flood had minor impact on pCO2, but the general occurrence of a flood appears to be important. During the flood in 2013 significantly more dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (p<0.05) was introduced into the floodplain. The optical measurements pointed towards more refractory DOM, with higher molecular weight and humic content during the flood in 2013 compared to 2012. However there were no significant differences in EEA between the two floods. Few days after beginning of the floods in 2012 and 2013, an increase in activity of carbon-acquiring enzymes (EEA-C) was observed. We also found positive correlations of pCO2with EEA-C both in 2012 (r=0.86, p<0.01) and in 2013 (r=0.73, p<0.05). The above findings imply that some fraction of DOM

  20. Detection of pharmaceutically active compounds in the rivers and tap water of the Madrid Region (Spain) and potential ecotoxicological risk.

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, Y; González Alonso, S; Rodríguez-Gil, J L; Gil, A; Catalá, M

    2011-09-01

    Concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in the order of ng L(-1) to μg L(-1) have been reported worldwide in waste, fluvial and even drinking water, raising concern about the efficacy of the currently employed waste water treatments in the elimination of this kind of compounds. Despite ranking 29th in terms of population, Spain is currently the 8th country on pharmaceutical prescription with an expense of 14×10(9) euros in 2008. In this context, the aim of this study was to determine the presence of 33 pharmaceutically active compounds in specific points of the main rivers of the Madrid Region (MR) as well as tap water samples from the metropolitan area of Madrid. Additionally, a screening level risk characterization by means of the Hazard Quotient (HQ) method was applied. A total of 25 pharmaceutical compounds and metabolites were detected in the 10 sampling points downstream the outlet of the major STPs of the MR. The highest concentrations were detected for the anticonvulsant carbamazepine and the stimulant caffeine. Concentrations for most of the analyzed compounds exceed levels previously reported in the literature. Moreover, we report the highest concentration of the cytostatic ifosfamide, detected for the first time in Spain in surface water. Preliminary risk characterization shows that a total of 16 compounds represent at least a low potential hazard based on their scored HQs, with five of them present in a concentration that exceeds the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC). Toxic Units calculation indicates that for all the selected sampling points high hazard is anticipated from the presence of the analyzed compounds in the measured concentrations (TUs>10). Caffeine and cotinine were detected in all (10) the analyzed tap water samples. Carbamazepine and nicotine were detected in six and venlafaxine in two samples. No studies venlafaxine in drinking water have been reported. These results clearly pinpoint the need for water

  1. Detection of pharmaceutically active compounds in the rivers and tap water of the Madrid Region (Spain) and potential ecotoxicological risk.

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, Y; González Alonso, S; Rodríguez-Gil, J L; Gil, A; Catalá, M

    2011-09-01

    Concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in the order of ng L(-1) to μg L(-1) have been reported worldwide in waste, fluvial and even drinking water, raising concern about the efficacy of the currently employed waste water treatments in the elimination of this kind of compounds. Despite ranking 29th in terms of population, Spain is currently the 8th country on pharmaceutical prescription with an expense of 14×10(9) euros in 2008. In this context, the aim of this study was to determine the presence of 33 pharmaceutically active compounds in specific points of the main rivers of the Madrid Region (MR) as well as tap water samples from the metropolitan area of Madrid. Additionally, a screening level risk characterization by means of the Hazard Quotient (HQ) method was applied. A total of 25 pharmaceutical compounds and metabolites were detected in the 10 sampling points downstream the outlet of the major STPs of the MR. The highest concentrations were detected for the anticonvulsant carbamazepine and the stimulant caffeine. Concentrations for most of the analyzed compounds exceed levels previously reported in the literature. Moreover, we report the highest concentration of the cytostatic ifosfamide, detected for the first time in Spain in surface water. Preliminary risk characterization shows that a total of 16 compounds represent at least a low potential hazard based on their scored HQs, with five of them present in a concentration that exceeds the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC). Toxic Units calculation indicates that for all the selected sampling points high hazard is anticipated from the presence of the analyzed compounds in the measured concentrations (TUs>10). Caffeine and cotinine were detected in all (10) the analyzed tap water samples. Carbamazepine and nicotine were detected in six and venlafaxine in two samples. No studies venlafaxine in drinking water have been reported. These results clearly pinpoint the need for water

  2. Spinal NMDA receptor activation constrains inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation in Charles River Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, K. A.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced spinal synaptic inputs to phrenic motor neurons elicit a unique form of spinal plasticity known as inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF). iPMF requires tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) activity within spinal segments containing the phrenic motor nucleus to stabilize early, transient increases in phrenic burst amplitude into long-lasting iPMF. Here we tested the hypothesis that spinal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation constrains long-lasting iPMF in some rat substrains. Phrenic motor output was recorded in anesthetized, ventilated Harlan (HSD) and Charles River (CRSD) Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to a 30-min central neural apnea. HSD rats expressed a robust, long-lasting (>60 min) increase in phrenic burst amplitude (i.e., long-lasting iPMF) when respiratory neural activity was restored. By contrast, CRSD rats expressed an attenuated, transient (∼15 min) iPMF. Spinal NMDAR inhibition with DL-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV) before neural apnea or shortly (4 min) prior to the resumption of respiratory neural activity revealed long-lasting iPMF in CRSD rats that was phenotypically similar to that in HSD rats. By contrast, APV did not alter iPMF expression in HSD rats. Spinal TNF-α or aPKC inhibition impaired long-lasting iPMF enabled by NMDAR inhibition in CRSD rats, suggesting that similar mechanisms give rise to long-lasting iPMF in CRSD rats with NMDAR inhibition as those giving rise to long-lasting iPMF in HSD rats. These results suggest that NMDAR activation can impose constraints on TNF-α-induced aPKC activation after neural apnea, impairing stabilization of transient iPMF into long-lasting iPMF. These data may have important implications for understanding differential responses to reduced respiratory neural activity in a heterogeneous human population. PMID:25103979

  3. Russian vaccines against especially dangerous bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Feodorova, Valentina A; Sayapina, Lidiya V; Corbel, Michael J; Motin, Vladimir L

    2014-01-01

    In response to the epidemiological situation, live attenuated or killed vaccines against anthrax, brucellosis, cholera, glanders, plague and tularemia were developed and used for immunization of at-risk populations in the Former Soviet Union. Certain of these vaccines have been updated and currently they are used on a selective basis, mainly for high risk occupations, in the Russian Federation. Except for anthrax and cholera these vaccines currently are the only licensed products available for protection against the most dangerous bacterial pathogens. Development of improved formulations and new products is ongoing. PMID:26038506

  4. Default contagion risks in Russian interbank market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonidov, A. V.; Rumyantsev, E. L.

    2016-06-01

    Systemic risks of default contagion in the Russian interbank market are investigated. The analysis is based on considering the bow-tie structure of the weighted oriented graph describing the structure of the interbank loans. A probabilistic model of interbank contagion explicitly taking into account the empirical bow-tie structure reflecting functionality of the corresponding nodes (borrowers, lenders, borrowers and lenders simultaneously), degree distributions and disassortativity of the interbank network under consideration based on empirical data is developed. The characteristics of contagion-related systemic risk calculated with this model are shown to be in agreement with those of explicit stress tests.

  5. US, Russian intelligence agencies offer proliferation assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfsthal, J.B.

    1993-03-01

    The CIA outlined for the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee (February 24, 1993) the prospects for the spread of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and ballistic missiles in the aftermath of the Cold War. The testimony came less than one month after the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service released an 118-page report that also stressed the importance of preventing proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. CIA testimony and the FIS report both provided details on several states of proliferation concern, including North Korea, Iran, India, and Pakistan.

  6. USF/Russian dosimetry on STS-57

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The major purpose of this experiment was to conduct an international comparison of passive dosimetry methods in space. Two APD's were flown in the charged particle directional spectrometer (CPDS)/tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) locker on the space shuttle during the STS-57 mission. Due to placement, the shielding and radiation environment of the APD's were nearly the same and the dosimeters distributed in the two boxes can be considered equally exposed. The dosimeter types included plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD's), thermoluminescent detectors (TLD), nuclear emulsions, and thermal/resonance neutron detectors (TRND's). The USF dosimeters included PNTD's, TLD's, and TRND's, while the Russian dosimeters included PNTD's, TLD's, and nuclear emulsions.

  7. Environmental state of aquatic systems in the Selenga River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    The transboundary river system of Selenga is the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal (about 50 % of the total inflow) which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the environmental state of the river aquatic system. The main source of industrial waste in the Republic of Buryatia (Russia) is mining and in Mongolia it is mainly gold mining. Our study aimed to determine the present pollutant levels and main features of their spatial distribution in water, suspended matter, bottom sediments and water plants in the Selenga basin. The results are based on materials of the 2011 (July-August) field campaign carried out both in Russian and Mongolian part of the basin. The study revealed rather high levels of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo in the Selenga River water which often are higher than maximum permissible concentrations for water fishery in Russia. In Russian part of the basin most contrast distribution is found for W and Mo, which is caused by mineral deposits in this area. The study showed that Mo and Zn migrate mainly in dissolved form, since more than 70% of Fe, Al, and Mn are bound to the suspended solids. Suspended sediments in general are enriched by As, Cd and Pb in relation to the lithosphere averages. Compared to the background values rather high contents of Mo, Cd, and Mn were found in suspended matter of Selenga lower Ulan-Ude town. Transboundary transport of heavy metals from Mongolia is going both in dissolved and suspended forms. From Mongolia in diluted form Selenga brings a significant amount of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo. Suspended solids are slightly enriched with Pb, Cu, and Mn, in higher concentration - Mo. The study of the Selenga River delta allowed determining biogeochemical specialization of the region: aquatic plants accumulate Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, and to

  8. A tribute to Peter A. Rona: A Russian Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagalevich, Anatoly; Lutz, Richard A.

    2015-11-01

    In July 1985 Peter Rona led a cruise of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ship Researcher as part of the NOAA Vents Program and discovered, for the first time, black smokers, massive sulfide deposits and vent biota in the Atlantic Ocean. The site of the venting phenomena was the Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse (TAG) Hydrothermal Field on the east wall of the rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 26°08‧N; 44°50‧W (Rona, 1985; Rona et al., 1986). In 1986, Peter and an international research team carried out multidisciplnary investigations of both active and inactive hydrothermal zones of the TAG field using the R/V Atlantis and DSV Alvin, discovering two new species of shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata and Chorocaris chacei) (Williams and Rona, 1986) and a hexagonal-shaped form (Paleodictyon nodosum) thought to be extinct (Rona et al., 2009). In 1991 a Russian crew aboard the R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh, with two deep-diving, human-occupied submersibles (Mir-1 and Mir-2) (Fig. 1), had the honor of having Peter Rona and a Canadian IMAX film crew from the Stephen Low Company on board to visit the TAG hydrothermal vent field. This was the first of many deep-sea interactions between Russian deep-sea scientists and their colleagues from both the U.S. and Canada. This expedition to the TAG site was part of a major Russian undersea program aimed at exploring extreme deep-sea environments; between 1988 and 2005, the Mir submersibles visited hydrothermal vents and cold seep areas in 20 deep-sea regions throughout the world's oceans (Sagalevich, 2002). Images of several of these areas (the TAG, Snake Pit, Lost City and 9°50‧N vent fields) were obtained using an IMAX camera system emplaced for the first time within the spheres of the Mir submersibles and DSV Alvin in conjunction with the filming of science documentaries (e.g., "Volcanoes of the Deep Sea") produced by the Stephen Low Company in conjunction with Emory Kristof of National Geographic and

  9. Influence of mining activities in the North of Potosi, Bolivia on the water quality of the Chayanta River, and its consequences.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Jenny C; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2007-09-01

    Mining activity in the North of Potosi (Siglo XX mine, Ingenio Catavi-Siglo XX, Pucro mine and Colquechaca mine) produces minewater containing high concentrations of heavy metals such as As (0.02-34 mg/l), Cd (45-11,600 microg/l), Cu (0.35-32 mg/l), Fe (42-1,010 mg/l), Pb(33-3,130 microg/l), Ni(20-4,320 microg/l), and Zn (1.1-485 mg/l), that exceed considerably the limit values. The rivers in the North of Potosi (Katiri and Pongoma) that do not receive minewater contain clear water with rather low heavy metal concentrations. These rivers and also other rivers contaminated with minewater, are tributaries of the Chayanta River that transports water with a high concentration of heavy metals such as As (6-24 microg/l), Cd (260-2,620 microg/l), Cu (205-812 microg/l), Pb(10-21 microg/l) and Ni(110-332 microg/l). These elements result from mining activity, as indicated by a comparison with rivers not contaminated by minewater discharges. Water of the Chayanta River, used all year long by the population of Quila Quila, (a village situated at about 75 km from the mining centers), for the irrigation of crops such as potato, maize and broad bean, contains heavy metal concentrations exceeding for several elements the guidelines for irrigation. As drinking water the population of Quila Quila consumes spring water with a generally acceptable heavy metal concentration, as well as infiltrated water of Chayanta River (which is also used in animal drinking troughs) with a high concentration of Cd (23-63 microg/l), exceeding the limit value for drinking water. The metal concentration is significantly lower in the infiltrated water than in the water of Chayanta River. Some technological solutions are suggested to improve the quality of the water used. Surveys carried out on inhabitants of the region, showed that many people present health problems, probably to be attributed to the bad quality of the water they consume and use for irrigation.

  10. Widespread occurrence of neuro-active pharmaceuticals and metabolites in 24 Minnesota rivers and wastewaters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Writer, Jeffrey; Ferrer, Imma; Barber, Larry B.; Thurman, E. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of 17 neuro-active pharmaceuticals and their major metabolites (bupropion, hydroxy-bupropion, erythro-hydrobupropion, threo-hydrobupropion, carbamazepine, 10,11,-dihydro-10,11,-dihydroxycarbamazepine, 10-hydroxy-carbamazepine, citalopram, N-desmethyl-citalopram, fluoxetine, norfluoxetine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, 2-N-glucuronide-lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, venlafaxine and O-desmethyl-venlafaxine), were measured in treated wastewater and receiving surface waters from 24 locations across Minnesota, USA. The analysis of upstream and downstream sampling sites indicated that the wastewater treatment plants were the major source of the neuro-active pharmaceuticals and associated metabolites in surface waters of Minnesota. Concentrations of parent compound and the associated metabolite varied substantially between treatment plants (concentrations ± standard deviation of the parent compound relative to its major metabolite) as illustrated by the following examples; bupropion and hydrobupropion 700 ± 1000 ng L−1, 2100 ± 1700 ng L−1, carbamazepine and 10-hydroxy-carbamazepine 480 ± 380 ng L−1, 360 ± 400 ng L−1, venlafaxine and O-desmethyl-venlafaxine 1400 ± 1300 ng L−1, 1800 ± 2300 ng L−1. Metabolites of the neuro-active compounds were commonly found at higher or comparable concentrations to the parent compounds in wastewater effluent and the receiving surface water. Neuro-active pharmaceuticals and associated metabolites were detected only sporadically in samples upstream from the effluent outfall. Metabolite to parent ratios were used to evaluate transformation, and we determined that ratios in wastewater were much lower than those reported in urine, indicating that the metabolites are relatively more labile than the parent compounds in the treatment plants and in receiving waters. The widespread occurrence of neuro-active pharmaceuticals and metabolites in Minnesota effluents and surface waters indicate that

  11. Migration of the Ganga River and development of cliffs in the Varanasi region, India during the late Quaternary: Role of active tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, U. K.; Srivastava, P.; Singh, I. B.

    2012-10-01

    The lithofacies constitution of unconsolidated sediments exposed in Ramnagar cliff indicates sedimentation in sinuous channels, associated flood plain areas and ponds that were developed within the Ganga River valley. The Khadar surface represents a raised river valley terrace into which the main river channel along with its narrow floodplain is incised. Ramnagar cliff section has revealed a variety of deformation structures that indicate repeated tectonic activity in the area. Important tectonic features exposed by the cliff section are reverse faults, folds, cracks filled with sparry calcite and soft sediment structures indicating liquefaction of sediments affected by faulting and folding. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of sediments and field relationships of tectonic elements indicate that the Ganga River migrated near to Varanasi 40 ka following a tectonic event in the area. Since then, it meandered freely within its valley until 7 ka when another tectonic event took place and Ramnagar cliff was raised to its present heights. The cliff surface was degraded by gulling activity for about 4000 years before it was occupied by man at around 3000 years BP.

  12. U.S./Russian cooperative efforts to enhance nuclear MPC&A at VNIITF, (Chelyabinsk-70)

    SciTech Connect

    Abramson, B; Apt, K; Blasy, J; Bukin, D; Churikov, Y; Eras, A; Magda, E; Neymotin, L; Schultz, F; Slankas, T; Tsygankov, G; Zuev, V

    1998-09-01

    The All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Technical Physics (VNIITF) is one of the major sites in the nuclear weapons complex in Russia. The site contains a number of research facilities which use nuclear material as well as assembly, disassembly, and testing of prototypes (pilot samples) of nuclear weapons. VNIITF also has ties to the major nuclear materials production facilities in the Urals region of Russia. The objective of the U.S./Russian Materials Protection Control and Accounting (MPC&A) cooperative program between the US Department of Energy and Russia's Ministry of Atomic Eneryy, at VNIITF is to improve the protection and accountability of nuclear material at VNIITF. Enhanced safeguards systems have been implemented at a reactor test area called the Pulse Research Reactor Facility (PRR) in Area 20. The area contains three pulse reactors with associated storage areas. The integrated MPC&A system at the PRR was demonstrated to US and Russian audiences in May, 1998. Expansion of work into several new facilities is underway both in Area 20 and at other locations. These include processing and production facilities some of which are considered sensitive facilities, by the Russian side. Methods have been developed to assure that work is done as agreed without actually having access to the buildings. C-70 has developed an extensive computerized system which integrates the physical security alarm station with elements of the nuclear material control system. Under the MPC&A program, the existing systems have been augmented with Russian and US technologies. This paper will describe the work completed at the PRR, and the on-going activities and cooperative effort between the Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Sandia, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Brookhaven US Department of Energy National Laboratories in support of VNIITF.

  13. [Health assessment of river ecosystem in Haihe River Basin, China].

    PubMed

    Hao, Li-Xia; Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding

    2014-10-01

    With the development of economy, the health of river ecosystem is severely threatened because of the increasing effects of human activities on river ecosystem. In this paper, the authors assessed the river ecosystem health in aspects of chemical integrity and biological integrity, using the criterion in water quality, nutrient, and benthic macroinvertebrates of 73 samples in Haihe River Basin. The research showed that the health condition of river ecosystem in Haihe River Basin was bad overall since the health situation of 72. 6% of the samples was "extremely bad". At the same time, the health situation in Haihe River Basin exhibited obvious regional gathering effect. We also found that the river water quality was closely related to human activities, and the eutrophication trend of water body was evident in Haihe River Basin. The biodiversity of the benthic animal was low and lack of clean species in the basin. The indicators such as ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were the key factors that affected the river ecosystem health in Haihe River Basin, so the government should start to curb the deterioration of river ecosystem health by controlling these nutrients indicators. For river ecosystem health assessment, the multi-factors comprehensive evaluation method was superior to single-factor method.

  14. [Relationships of soil organic carbon with its active and non-active components under different land use types in the middle reaches of Heihe River, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-Hua; Li, Guo-Dong; Wang, Yan-Song; Nan, Zhong-Ren; Zhao, Li-Ping

    2012-12-01

    Taking the seven typical land use types (paddy field, dry land, medium coverage grassland, saline-alkali field, bare land, desert, and sandlot) in the middle reaches of Heihe River as test objects, this paper studied the relationships of soil organic carbon content with its components. In the 0-100 cm soil profile, the contents of soil total organic carbon (TOC) , active organic carbon (AOC), and non-active organic carbon (NOC) decreased with increasing depth. The soil TOC, AOC, and NOC contents differed with land use type. Land use change induced the increase or decrease of soil organic carbon content. The tillage in paddy field was an available way to increase the contents of soil TOC, AOC, and NOC. After land use change, soil NOC rather than AOC contributed more to soil TOC content. For the same land use types, soil AOC and NOC contents increased together with increasing soil TOC content, and the NOC content increased faster than the AOC content. The soil TOC content corresponding to the crossing point of the variation trend lines of soil AOC and NOC contents could be considered as the boundary point of TOC accumulation or loss, and the saturation capacities of soil AOC and NOC could be obtained by the variation trend lines of the AOC and NOC.

  15. Activity measurements of the radionuclide 99mTc for the VNIIM, Russian Federation and ENEA-INMRI, Italy, in the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m and KCRV update in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michottea, C.; Nonisa, M.; Alekseevb, I. V.; Kharitonovb, I. A.; Tereshchenkob, E. E.; Zanevskiyb, A. V.; Capognic, M.; De Felicec, P.; Fazioc, A.; Carconic, P.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, comparisons of activity measurements of 99mTc using the Transfer Instrument of the International Reference System (SIRTI) took place at the VNIIM (Russian Federation) and at the ENEA-INMRI (Italy), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m. Ampoules containing about 32 kBq of 99mTc solutions were measured in the SIRTI for three half-lives. There are now nine results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m comparison. This comparison is linked to the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison and the key comparison reference value (KCRV) of the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m has been updated to include eligible results from BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR or the SIRTI and the KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  16. The war of the mushrooms: A Russian folktale revisited

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are numerous versions of a Russian folktale, War of the Mushrooms. The tale is indexed in standard folkloristic references as tale type 297B. Unfortunately, it is not included in the best known collection of Russian folktales translated into English, that of Alexander Afanesiev. It was first r...

  17. Visionary Hopes and Technocratic Fallacies in Russian Education. Essay Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark S.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews two books that seek to define the nature and direction of Russian educational reform: "School Reform between 'yesterday' and 'tomorrow'" (Eduard D. Dneprov, Russian Minister of Education, 1990-92) and "Russia: Education in the Transition" (Stephen P. Heyneman of the World Bank). Criticizes their unrealistic assumptions about politics,…

  18. The Sociocultural Factors of Russian Stagnation and Modernization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapin, N. I.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the results of six Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Surveys, "The Values and Interests of the Population of Russia" (1990, 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006, and 2010), conducted by the Center for the Study of Sociocultural Changes at the Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences, provides evidence that two stages in the…

  19. Modernization of Russian Higher Education: Exploring Paths of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gounko, Tatiana; Smale, William

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the changes in Russian higher education policies and the role of international organizations--the World Bank and OECD--in promoting education reforms in this country. General and specific recommendations offered by the World Bank and the OECD expert teams to improve Russian higher education are analysed to determine if any…

  20. Palatalization and Intrinsic Prosodic Vowel Features in Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordin, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    The presented study is aimed at investigating the interaction of palatalization and intrinsic prosodic features of the vowel in CVC (consonant+vowel+consonant) syllables in Russian. The universal nature of intrinsic prosodic vowel features was confirmed with the data from the Russian language. It was found that palatalization of the consonants…

  1. Teaching Sport Education to Russian Students: An Ecological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinelnikov, Oleg; Hastie, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Given Russian students' general lack of group work and opportunities to develop student responsibility in their prior schooling experiences, the purpose of this study was to examine how a group of Russian high school students responds to novel demands of participation in a sport education season. Forty-two students from two ninth-grade physical…

  2. Russian Pedagogical Thinking on the Eve of October 1917.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikol' skaia, A. A.

    1996-01-01

    Surveys some of the more prominent views on education during the final years of tsarist Russia. Russian pedagogical thinking was largely influenced by progressive educational theories popular in the United States and Europe. Discusses the views and efforts of major Russian educational theorists at the time. (MJP)

  3. Ideas of Differentiated Instruction in Russian/Soviet Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil'bukh, Iu. Z.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a historical summary of Russian pedagogical thought concerning cognitive style and different learning strategies. As early as 1832 Russian educators were questioning the rigid standardized teaching strategies applied to all students. Identifies leading theorists in this movement and briefly discusses their contributions. (MJP)

  4. Phonotactic Constraints: Implications for Models of Oral Reading in Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulicheva, Anastasia; Coltheart, Max; Saunders, Steven; Perry, Conrad

    2016-01-01

    The present article investigates how phonotactic rules constrain oral reading in the Russian language. The pronunciation of letters in Russian is regular and consistent, but it is subject to substantial phonotactic influence: the position of a phoneme and its phonological context within a word can alter its pronunciation. In Part 1 of the article,…

  5. Peculiarities of Teaching the Russian Language to Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamalova, Lera A.; Zakirova, Venera G.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this study is due to migration processes in Russia, the emergence in Russian schools of migrant children. School practice shows that the education of migrant children the Russian language has its own specifics related to the problems of bilingualism (bilingualism), ethnic identification, insufficient knowledge of the Russian…

  6. Remarks on the Pragmatics of the "Inalienable Dative" in Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, James S.

    1986-01-01

    Linguistic expressions involving body parts (and other entities) belonging to an "interested person" often have unique grammatical properties, e.g., the dative case in Russian. The notion called Inalienable Possession (IP) is used to account for such properties. Semantic and pragmatic analyses account for some of the properties of IP in Russian.…

  7. Theory vs. Taxonomy: On Teaching 'Syntactically Irregular' Verbs in Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plewes, S. Frank

    This paper suggests methods for teaching the Russian verbs that govern what are loosely termed "objects" in oblique cases. The case government of such verbs is not necessarily an individual irregularity. Definite patterns emerge, both morphological and semantic, to facilitate grouping these verbs into classes. Russian verbs requiring genitive…

  8. The Meaning of the Perfective Aspect in Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrell, James

    1951-01-01

    Descriptions of the perfective aspect in Russian taken from Miklosich, Saxmatov, Peskovsky, Fortunatov, and Karcevskij serve as background reading to the author's discussion of the problem. He explores three basic questions: (1) Is aspect a Russian problem in grammar or lexicography; (2) What is the nature of the correlation between the perfective…

  9. Russian Language Course for Peace Corps Trainees in Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobov, Valery A.; And Others

    This guide is designed for Russian language training of Peace Corps workers in Russia, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of seven instructional units. An introductory section gives an overview of the Russian language, Cyrillic alphabet, phonology, and morphology. The first instructional unit is intended as a…

  10. Teaching Russian Via Distance Learning, the EdNet Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zsiray, Stephen W., Jr.; And Others

    In Utah, the statewide distance education network (EdNet) enables students from five rural and suburban high schools to learn Russian and earn college credits. Courses in Russian are offered through a partnership involving the Cache County School District, Utah State University, and the Utah State Office of Education. Classes are taught on one…

  11. Analysis of the Russian Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Lychuk, Taras; Evans, Meredydd; Halverson, Mark A.; Roshchanka, Volha

    2012-12-01

    This report provides analysis of the Russian energy efficiency market for the building sector from the perspective of U.S. businesses interested in exporting relevant technologies, products and experience to Russia. We aim to help U.S. energy efficiency and environmental technologies businesses to better understand the Russian building market to plan their market strategy.

  12. Personality Development and Problem Behavior in Russian Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Akhmetova, Olga A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore child and adolescent personality in the Russian culture, addressing gender and age differences, and to examine personality and family effects on children's Internalizing and Externalizing problems. Parents of 1,640 Russian children aged 3-18 years completed the Inventory of Child Individual Differences…

  13. NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS APPLICATIONS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE USING AN ISOTOPIC NEUTRON SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Diprete, D; C Diprete, C; Raymond Sigg, R

    2006-08-14

    NAA using {sup 252}Cf is used to address important areas of applied interest at SRS. Sensitivity needs for many of the applications are not severe; analyses are accomplished using a 21 mg {sup 252}Cf NAA facility. Because NAA allows analysis of bulk samples, it offers strong advantages for samples in difficult-to-digest matrices when its sensitivity is sufficient. Following radiochemical separation with stable carrier addition, chemical yields for a number methods are determined by neutron activation of the stable carrier. In some of the cases where no suitable stable carriers exist, the source has been used to generate radioactive tracers to yield separations.

  14. The water fluxes of the Yellow River to the sea in the past 50 years, in response to climate change and human activities.

    PubMed

    Jiongxin, Xu

    2005-05-01

    Since the 1970s, the water fluxes to the sea of the Yellow River have declined significantly. Based on data of precipitation, air temperature, the measured and "natural" river flow, the water diversion and consumption, and the areas of erosion and sediment control measures over the drainage basin, water fluxes to the sea of the Yellow River are studied in relation with the influences of changing climate and human activities. The Yellow River basin can be divided into different water source areas; multiple regression indicates that the variation in precipitation over different water source areas has different effect on water fluxes to the sea. In the period between 1970 and 1997, averaged air temperature over the whole Yellow River increased by about 1.0 degree C, from 16.5 degrees C to 17.5 degrees C, a factor that is negatively correlated with the water yield of the Yellow River. Water diversion and consumption has sharply increased and resulted in a significant decline in the water fluxes to the sea. Since the 1960s, erosion and sediment control measures have been practiced over the drainage basin. This factor, to a lesser degree, is also responsible for the decrease in water fluxes to the sea. A multiple regression equation has been established to estimate the change in water fluxes to the sea caused by the changes in precipitation, air temperature, water diversion and consumption, erosion, and sediment control measures, indicating that the contribution of water diversion and consumption to the variation in annual water flux to the sea is 41.3%, that of precipitation is 40.8%, that of temperature is 11.4%, and that of erosion and sediment control measures is 6.5%. PMID:15924206

  15. A graded approach to flow and transport modeling to support decommissioning activities at the Savannah river site.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Kenneth L; Lee, Patricia L; Flach, Gregory P

    2008-05-01

    A graded approach to flow and transport modeling has been used as a cost effective solution to evaluating potential groundwater risk in support of Deactivation and Decommissioning activities at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. This approach balances modeling complexity with potential risk and has been successfully used at SRS to reduce costs and accelerate schedule without compromising human health or the environment. The approach incorporates both simple spreadsheet calculations (i.e., screening models) and complex numerical modeling to evaluate the threat to human health posed by contaminants leaching from decommissioned concrete building slabs. Simple spreadsheet calculations were used to produce generic slab concentration limits for a suite of radiological and non-radiological contaminants for a chemical separations area at SRS. These limits, which are based upon the United States Environmental Protection Agency Soil Screening Guidance, were used to eliminate most building slabs from further risk assessment, thereby limiting the time and associated cost of the more rigorous assessment to higher risk facilities. Of the more than 58 facilities located in the area, to date only one slab has been found to have a contaminant concentration in excess of the area specific slab limit. For this slab, a more rigorous numerical modeling effort was undertaken which eliminated some of the simplifying and conservative assumptions inherent in the spreadsheet calculations. Results from the more sophisticated numerical model show that the remaining contaminant of concern would not likely impact groundwater above drinking water standards. PMID:18403957

  16. Risk assessment of surface water and groundwater pollution through agricultural activity on the catchment area of the Shelek River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubairov, Bulat; Dautova, Assel

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural activity in rural areas of Kazakhstan can create a potential risk of surface and groundwater pollution. In our contribution, we will focus on the risk assessment of surface water and groundwater pollution in the catchment area of the Shelek River basin in southeast Kazakhstan. Since soviet time, in the research area an intensive cultivation of tobacco was performed which means to use a big amount of pesticides during the growing-process. Therefore, this research was conducted in order to receive reliable data for management decisions justification and for practical testing of approach which is recommended by WHO for drinking water supply based on risks mapping. For our study, the soil and water samples from tobacco fields, artesian spring, and surface water source were taken for analysis on pesticides content. The samples were investigated in laboratory of Centre of Sanitary and Epidemiological Expertise of Almaty city (CSEE) according to approved methods from the national standards which are accepted in Kazakhstan. For the first time, in artesian spring small amount of nitrate pollution was found whose groundwater is one of the drinking water supplies of the region.

  17. Lessons learned from four years of actively using River Forecast Center Ensemble Streamflow Predictions to inform reservoir management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polebitski, A.; Palmer, R.; Meaker, B.

    2012-12-01

    The National Weather Service's River Forecast Centers (RFCs), located throughout the US, produce operational streamflow forecasts for short term application and long-term lead forecasts at selected locations. These forecasts are targeted for a variety of users, including water supply management, flood control, hydropower production, navigation, and recreation. This presentation highlights the challenges and successes associated with the use of RFC produced ensemble streamflow predictions (ESP) in generating system operations forecasts over the past four years for Snohomish County Public Utility District #1's (SnoPUD) Henry Jackson hydropower system. This research documents a multiyear collaboration between SnoPUD and academic researchers. The collaboration began with a proof of concept study in 2007 and evolved into a weekly decision support activity that has been ongoing since 2008 ( documented in Alemu et al. 2010). The Alemu et al. paper demonstrates the usefulness of ESP forecasts in hydropower operations decision making. This paper focuses on the value of forecasts and a decision support system (DSS) in improving skills in operating reservoir systems. During the application period, the model provided weekly guidance on meeting operational objectives and a probabilistic approach to quantifying system vulnerability during critical periods such as floods and drought. The ESP forecasts and the DSS were heavily used during periods of uncertainty and less so during periods of high system constraint or low system risk.

  18. Transplanted zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) as active biomonitors in an effluent-dominated river.

    PubMed

    Smolders, Roel; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny

    2002-09-01

    For over 20 years, mussels have been recommended as one of the most suitable biomonitoring organisms for aquatic ecosystems. Though the common mussel (Mytilus edulis) is frequently used for biomonitoring estuarine and marine ecosystems, no freshwater species is promoted for similar monitoring networks. Recently, however, the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been proposed as a suitable monitoring organism in freshwater ecosystems. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of transplanted zebra mussels as active biomonitors in an effluent-dominated stream. Results showed that for these purposes, an exposure period of at least a few weeks is required to detect any significant changes in condition status or scope for growth. Wet-tissue-weight:dry-tissue-weight ratio was the most sensitive measure to quantify effects of field exposure on physiological fitness. In case of scope for growth (SfG), energy intake was the factor determining the overall energy budget of the mussels. Based on the dilution rates of the two different effluents present, effluent 2 had the most important effect on the condition status of the exposed organisms. Overall, we conclude that the use of transplanted mussels is a sensitive and easily applicable active biomonitor that can be used to assess water quality, pollution, and subsequent recovery through self-purification in field situations.

  19. Decomposition of prefixed words in Russian.

    PubMed

    Kazanina, Nina

    2011-11-01

    I examined the nature of morphological decomposition in a series of masked-priming experiments with Russian prefixed nouns. In Experiments 1A and 1B, I tested 3 types of prime-target pairs in which the prime was a morphologically simple word, and a facilitation was found when the prime and the target were truly morphologically related (e.g., narost [outgrowth] and rost [growth] are morphologically related via the prefix na- [on]) or apparently morphologically related (e.g., priton [den] and ton [tone] seem to be morphologically related via the prefix pri- [toward], but this relation is false) but not when the relation was purely orthographic (e.g., kumir [idol] and mir [peace]; ku- is not an existing prefix of Russian). These results suggest that all orthographic forms that can be exhaustively parsed into a prefix and a stem are decomposed into (apparent) constituent morphemes during their retrieval from the lexicon. This early segmentation process is driven by morpho-orthographic but not by morphosemantic considerations and applies even for derived forms that are more frequent than their stem. PMID:21767057

  20. Overview of Russian HEU transparency issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kempf, C.R.; Bieniawski, A.

    1993-09-01

    The U.S. has signed an agreement with the Russian Federation for the purchase of 500 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) taken from dismantled nuclear weapons. The HEU will be blended down to low-enriched uranium and will be transported to the U.S. to be used by fuel fabricators to make fuel for commercial nuclear power plants. Both the U.S. and Russia have been preparing to institute transparency measures to provide assurance that nonproliferation and arms control objectives specified in the agreement are met. This paper provides background information on the original agreement and on subsequent negotiations with the Russians, as well as discussion of technical aspects of developing transparency measures suited to the facilities and processes which are expected to be involved. Transparency has been defined as those agreed-upon measures which build confidence that arms control and non-proliferation objectives shared by the parties are met. Transparency is a departure from exhaustive, detailed arms control verification regimes of past agreements, which were based on a presumption of detecting transgressions as opposed to confirming compliance.

  1. Atmospheric and Climate Aspects of Russian Regions Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golitsyn, G. S.; Dubovsky, S. V.; Ginzburg, A. S.; Mokhov, I. I.; Khomyakov, P. M.

    Russia is one of the first countries created the national program of sustainable devel- opment. The Presidential Decree SOn the national strategy of the Russian Federation & cedil;in the environment protection and sustainable developmentT was issued by in 1994. Atmospheric and climate aspects play very important roles in the sustainable devel- opment at the regional level in Russia as well as at national one. Last year Russian Academy of Sciences in collaboration with some leaders of the local Russian au- thorities started the Project SSustainable development of Russia and its regionsT. In & cedil; this project the problems of Russian socio-economical development are considered together with regional atmospheric and climate changes, environmental and natural resources, population, urbanization, energetic and new technology development, and so on. The main problems of Russian regions socio-economical development related to global and local climate changes, environmental and natural resources, urbanization will be discussed.

  2. ESA's gamma-ray astronomy mission's Russian launch confirmed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-11-01

    The Agreement, signed in Moscow on 18 November 1997 by ESA's Director General Antonio Rodotà, and his Russian counterpart Yuri Koptev, also assures a place for Russian astronomers in Integral's science team supervising the instrumental and astonomical aspects of the mission. The Agreement is the culmination of five years of study and negotiation that began when scientists and engineers were first defining Integral, even before its selection in 1993 as a medium-size mission to be included in ESA's science programme. In April 2001, the four-stage Proton rocket will put Integral's mass of nearly 4 tonnes into a very high orbit. Orbiting the Earth every 48 hours, never approaching closer than 46 000 kilometres, Integral will avoid the Earth's radiation belts and will be capable of observing the Universe for 24 hours a day. Integral's mission team has managed to reduce costs substantially through the use of an adapted version of the service module (bus) of ESA's XMM X-ray astronomy spacecraft, due for launch in 1999. NASA will take part in the mission too, with ground stations in its Deep Space Network helping to maintain 24-hour operation. With astronomical instruments provided by teams led by European scientists, Integral will be a thoroughly international mission under ESA leadership. Instruments of advanced design will make Integral the first gamma-ray astronomical mission to provide sharp images of gamma-ray sources in the cosmos and accurate measurement of gamme-ray energies. It will far surpass the recent Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (NASA, 1991) and Granat (Russia, 1989). These in turn were big improvements on ESA's COS-B (1975), which pioneered gamma-ray astronomy twenty years ago. ESA returns to this branch of space astronomy at a time of high excitement. Gamma-ray astronomy offers special insights into some of the most violent events in the Universe, including gamma-ray bursts and activity close to black holes.

  3. Effect of radioactive pollution on the biodiversity of marine benthic ecosystems of the Russian Arctic shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, Denis K.; Galtsova, Valentina V.

    2012-07-01

    This study is the result of many years of research on the ecology of the marine benthos of Russian Arctic seas. We used samples collected at various locations from the Russian continental shelf during 1993-2009 as the basis of our study. Our main aim was to analyze the spatial distribution of taxonomic and quantitative characteristics of the meiobenthos (small bottom-dwelling animals, 0.1-3.0 mm in size). Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the factors determining the spatial distribution of meiobenthic organisms under natural conditions, and conditions impacted upon by human activity, were salinity, water depth, hydrocarbons, heavy metals and radiocaesium volumetric activity. The possible use of the meiobenthos as a tool for environmental impact assessment is proposed and discussed on the level of higher taxa.

  4. Wind River subbasin restoration: Annual report of U.S. Geological Survey activities January 2014 through December 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating restoration efforts is of interest to many managers and agencies so that funding and time are allocated for best results. The evaluation of various life-histories of Lower Columbia River steelhead within the Wind River subbasin provides information to better track populations, and more effectively direct habitat restoration and water allocation planning. Increasingly detailed Viable Salmonid Population information (Crawford and Rumsey 2009), such as that provided by PIT-tagging and instream PTISs networks like those we build and operate in the Wind River subbasin, provide data to better inform policy and management, as life-history strategies and production bottlenecks are identified and understood.

  5. Mississippi River Flood of 2011 and the Activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway: Observations and Modeling of a Levee Breach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, R. R.; Koenig, T. A.; McDonald, R. R.; Nelson, J. M.; Simoes, F. J.

    2011-12-01

    During 2011, record flooding has occurred in many parts of the central United States. As the flooding reached record levels for the Mississippi-Ohio River confluence at Cairo, Illinois, the 61 kilometer long and 8 kilometer wide Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway (Floodway) was activated to provide a lowering of upstream water levels through a controlled demolition of approximately 3,300 meters of levee at 10:00 PM on May 2, 2011. Prior to activation of the Floodway, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed 38 self-contained stage sensors throughout the Floodway to capture the change in water elevation through time at various locations. From April 29, 2011 to May 24, 2011, daily streamflow measurements were made upstream of the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, within the Floodway opening and outlets, and on the Mississippi River downstream of the Floodway opening. Additionally, velocity and bathymetric data were collected immediately downstream of the Floodway opening at Birds Point to characterize scour in the Floodway. The data provide a unique look at the impact of a controlled levee breach on river flows and hydraulics. The activation of the Floodway lowered the water level at Cairo, Illinois by 0.44 meters in the first 14 hours, while increasing the streamflow of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers in vicinity of Cairo, Illinois by 9,200 cubic meters per second. On May 2, prior to the activation of the Floodway, the measured combined streamflow of the upper Mississippi and Ohio Rivers at Cairo, Illinois was 52,900 cubic meters per second with the Ohio River contributing 27,700 cubic meters per second. Following the controlled breach of the Birds Point levee (immediately downstream of Cairo, Illinois on the right descending bank) the night of May 2, 2011, the measured combined streamflow at Cairo, Illinois on May 3, 2011 increased to 62,100 cubic meters per second with the Ohio River increasing to 38,100 cubic meters per second, an increase of 10

  6. Measurement equivalence of four psychological questionnaires in native-born Germans, Russian-speaking immigrants, and native-born Russians.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Oliver; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert; Bachmann, Viktoria

    2013-07-01

    Psychological constructs depend on cultural context. It is therefore important to show the equivalence of measurement instruments in cross-cultural research. There is evidence that in Russian-speaking immigrants, cultural and language issues are important in health care. We examined measurement equivalence of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), the Hamburg Self-Care Questionnaire (HamSCQ), and the questionnaire on communication preferences of patients with chronic illness (KOPRA) in native-born Germans, Russian-speaking immigrants living in Germany, and native-born Russians living in the former Soviet Union (FSU). All four questionnaires fulfilled requirements of measurement equivalence in confirmatory factor analyses and analyses of differential item functioning. The Russian translations can be used in Russian-speaking immigrants and native-born Russians. This offers further possibilities for cross-cultural research and for an improvement in health care research in Russian-speaking immigrants in Germany. The most pronounced differences occurred in the KOPRA, which point to differences in German and Russian health care systems.

  7. Russian Orthodox Culture or Russian Orthodox Teaching? Reflections on the Textbooks in Religious Education in Contemporary Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shnirelman, Victor A.

    2012-01-01

    A new textbook in religious education is analysed, first, in comparison to earlier ones, and, second, with respect to its content and goals. The aim of the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) is threefold--to educate into religion, to foster the ethnic Russian identity and to make youngsters loyal to the state. Actually, the state rather than society is…

  8. The "Quasar" Network Observations in e-VLBI Mode Within the Russian Domestic VLBI Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkelstein, Andrey; Ipatov, Alexander; Kaidanovsky, Michael; Bezrukov, Ilia; Mikhailov, Andrey; Salnikov, Alexander; Surkis, Igor; Skurikhina, Elena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the Russian VLBI "Quasar" Network is to carry out astrometrical and geodynamical investigations. Since 2006 purely domestic observational programs with data processing at the IAA correlator have been carried out. To maintain these geodynamical programs e-VLBI technology is being developed and tested. This paper describes the IAA activity of developing a real-time VLBI system using high-speed digital communication links.

  9. State of Georgia`s environmental and emergency preparedness activities for the Savannah River Site. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, G.W.

    1994-05-01

    This quarterly report discusses activities and accomplishments of the EPD as part of Georgia`s environmental and emergency preparedness activities for the Savannah River Site. The EPD has assisted the Georgia Emergency Management Authority (GEMA) in accomplishing a number of ongoing tasks such as annual reviews, training, response capability, and radiation assessment capability. The report also outlines EPD progress and activities in the area of environmental monitoring including; surface water discharges, public drinking water, ground water monitoring, air monitoring, crops and milk, and direct radiation on soil and vegetation.

  10. Seasonal variation of pharmaceutically active compounds in surface (Tagus River) and tap water (Central Spain).

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, Y; Alonso, S González; Rodríguez-Gil, J L; Castaño, A; Montero, J C; Criado-Alvarez, J J; Mirón, I J; Catalá, M

    2013-03-01

    Numerous studies have shown the presence of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in different environmental compartments, for example, in surface water or wastewater ranging from nanograms per litre to micrograms per litre. Likewise, some recent studies have pointed to seasonal variability, thus indicating that PhAcs concentrations in the aquatic environment may depend on the time of year. This work intended to find out (1) whether Tagus fluvial and drinking water were polluted with different groups of PhACs and (2) if their concentrations differed between winter and summer seasons. From the 58 substances analysed, 41 were found belonging to the main therapeutic groups. Statistical differences were seen for antibacterials, antidepressants, anxiolytics, antiepileptics, and cardiovascular drugs, with higher concentrations being detected in winter than in summer. These results might indicate that the PhACs analysed in this study undergo lower environmental degradation in winter than in summer. In order to confirm these initial results, a continuous monitoring should be performed especially on those PhACs that either because of an elevated consumption or an intrinsic chemical persistence are poorly degraded during winter months due to low temperatures and solar irradiation. It is especially important to identify which of these specific PhACs are in order to recommend their substitution by equally effective and safe substances but also environmentally friendly. PMID:22847337

  11. Monitoring of river water for free cyanide pollution from mining activity in Papua New Guinea and attenuation of cyanide by biochar.

    PubMed

    Sawaraba, Ian; Rao, B K Rajashekhar

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide (CN) pollution was reported in the downstream areas of Watut and Markham Rivers due to effluent discharges from gold mining and processing activities of Hidden Valley mines in Morobe province of Papua New Guinea. We monitored free cyanide levels in Watut and Markham River waters randomly three times in years for 2 years (2012 and 2013). Besides, a short-term static laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the potential of river sediment to attenuate externally added cyanide, with and without the presence of biochar material. Results indicated that the free cyanide content ranged between 0.17 and 1.32 μg L(-1) in the river waters. The free cyanide content were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) greater in June (0.87 μg L(-1)) and May (0.77 μg L(-1)) months of 2012 and 2013, respectively, than the rest of the months. However, free cyanide levels in all four monitoring sites across three sampling intervals were lower than 0.20 mg L(-1) which is the maximum contaminant level (MCL) permitted according to US Environmental Protection Agency. Under laboratory conditions, the biochar-impregnated sediment showed ∼3 times more attenuation capacity for cyanide than non-amended sediment, thus indicating possibility of using biochar to cleanse cyanide from spills or other sources of pollution.

  12. English/Russian and Russian/English glossary of physical protection terms

    SciTech Connect

    Soo Hoo, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    This glossary was prepared in fulfillment of the Glossary Preparation Task identified in the Program Plan for providing Assistance to the Russian Federation in Nuclear Material Control and Accounting and Physical Protection. The Program Plan is part of the Cooperative Threat Reduction Program as provided for under House Resolution (H.R.) 3807 (Title II, as referenced under Public Law (P.L.) 102-229. The terms in this glossary were derived from physical protection training material prepared at Sandia. The training material, and thus refinements to the glossary, has undergone years of development in presentation to both domestic and international audiences. Also, Russian Colleagues and interpreters have reviewed the translations for accuracy.

  13. Ural River benthic communities response on the chemical spill

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, A.G.

    1995-12-31

    The Ural River is the second river of the North Caspian basin, on the north-west border of the Kazakhstan and Russian. The middle flow of the Ural River is limited by the dam of Iriklin water reservoirs (about 80 km up from Orsk town, Orenburg district) to the mouth of Barbastay River (about 45 km down from Ural`sk town). On 13--17 November 1991, after an industrial incident in Orsk oil refinery enterprise effluent polluted the Ural River. An assessment of the Middle flow Ural River benthic communities by oil and phenols spill response is described. The paper is based on a study of the short-term response of benthic biocenosises compared with natural transformation of the community structure before pollution.

  14. Global threat reduction initiative Russian nuclear material removal progress

    SciTech Connect

    Cummins, Kelly

    2008-07-15

    In December 1999 representatives from the United States, the Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started discussing a program to return to Russia Soviet- or Russian-supplied highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel stored at the Russian-designed research reactors outside Russia. Trilateral discussions among the United States, Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have identified more than 20 research reactors in 17 countries that have Soviet- or Russian-supplied HEU fuel. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program is an important aspect of the U.S. Government's commitment to cooperate with the other nations to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons and weapons-usable proliferation-attractive nuclear materials. To date, 496 kilograms of Russian-origin HEU have been shipped to Russia from Serbia, Latvia, Libya, Uzbekistan, Romania, Bulgaria, Poland, Germany, and the Czech Republic. The pilot spent fuel shipment from Uzbekistan to Russia was completed in April 2006. (author)

  15. Phonotactic constraints: Implications for models of oral reading in Russian.

    PubMed

    Ulicheva, Anastasia; Coltheart, Max; Saunders, Steven; Perry, Conrad

    2016-04-01

    The present article investigates how phonotactic rules constrain oral reading in the Russian language. The pronunciation of letters in Russian is regular and consistent, but it is subject to substantial phonotactic influence: the position of a phoneme and its phonological context within a word can alter its pronunciation. In Part 1 of the article, we analyze the orthography-to-phonology and phonology-to-phonology (i.e., phonotactic) relationships in Russian monosyllabic words. In Part 2 of the article, we report empirical data from an oral word reading task that show an effect of phonotactic dependencies on skilled reading in Russian: humans are slower when reading words where letter-phoneme correspondences are highly constrained by phonotactic rules compared with those where there are few or no such constraints present. A further question of interest in this article is how computational models of oral reading deal with the phonotactics of the Russian language. To answer this question, in Part 3, we report simulations from the Russian dual-route cascaded model (DRC) and the Russian connectionist dual-process model (CDP++) and assess the performance of the 2 models by testing them against human data.

  16. Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act Science Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Brown, Curtis A.; Merritt, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The primary intent of this document is to provide the science assessment called for under The Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-320; the Act). A secondary purpose is to provide a common background for applicants for prospective demonstration projects, should funds be appropriated for this second phase of the Act. This document synthesizes the state-of-the-science on the following topics: the distribution and abundance (extent) of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) in the Western United States, potential for water savings associated with controlling saltcedar and Russian olive and the associated restoration of occupied sites, considerations related to wildlife use of saltcedar and Russian olive habitat or restored habitats, methods to control saltcedar and Russian olive, possible utilization of dead biomass following removal of saltcedar and Russian olive, and approaches and challenges associated with revegetation or restoration following control efforts. A concluding chapter discusses possible long-term management strategies, needs for additional study, potentially useful field demonstration projects, and a planning process for on-the-ground projects involving removal of saltcedar and Russian olive.

  17. Public health assessment--Russian Federation, 1992.

    PubMed

    1992-02-14

    On December 25, 1991, the Russian Federation became an independent republic, and on January 2, 1992, restrictions on retail prices of most commodities were removed. From January 16 through February 6, a multidisciplinary team from the U.S. Food and Humanitarian Assistance Bureau (FHA) conducted an assessment of the needs for humanitarian and technical assistance, focusing on three regions in the southern Ural Mountains-Yekaterinburg, Perm, and Cheliabinsk-and three regions in south-central Siberia-Kusbas, Tomsk, and Novosibirsk. The FHA assessment included observations of health facilities, vaccine- and drug-storage centers, and disease-control programs; review of health data at central, regional, and district epidemiology stations; and collection of food-price and income data through interviews with administrative authorities and surveys of markets and private homes. This report summarizes findings from the assessment.

  18. USF/Russian dosimetry on STS-57

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The major purpose of this experiment was to conduct an international comparison of passive dosimetry methods in space. Two APD`s were flown in the charged particle directional spectrometer (CPDS)/tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) locker on the space shuttle during the STS-57 mission. Due to placement, the shielding and radiation environment of the APD`s were nearly the same and the dosimeters distributed in the two boxes can be considered equally exposed. The dosimeter types included plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD`s), thermoluminescent detectors (TLD), nuclear emulsions, and thermal/resonance neutron detectors (TRND`s). The USF dosimeters included PNTD`s, TLD`s, and TRND`s, while the Russian dosimeters included PNTD`s, TLD`s, and nuclear emulsions.

  19. Russian risk assessment methods and approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorack, M.A.; Carlson, D.D.; Smith, R.E.

    1996-07-01

    One of the benefits resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union is the increased dialogue currently taking place between American and Russian nuclear weapons scientists in various technical arenas. One of these arenas currently being investigated involves collaborative studies which illustrate how risk assessment is perceived and utilized in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The collaborative studies indicate that, while similarities exist with respect to some methodologies, the assumptions and approaches in performing risk assessments were, and still are, somewhat different in the FSU as opposed to that in the US. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the present knowledge of risk assessment methodologies and philosophies within the two largest nuclear weapons laboratories of the Former Soviet Union, Arzamas-16 and Chelyabinsk-70. Furthermore, This paper will address the relative progress of new risk assessment methodologies, such as Fuzzy Logic, within the framework of current risk assessment methods at these two institutes.

  20. Russian astronomical ephemeris editions and software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glebova, N.; Lukashova, M.; Netsvetaeva, G.; Sveshnikov, M.; Skripnichenko, V.

    2015-08-01

    Institute of Applied Astronomy has published "The Astronomical Yearbook", "The Nautical Astronomical Yearbook", "The Nautical Astronomical Almanac" biennial. Ephemerides are calculated according to resolutions of GA IAU of 2000-2006. The EPM domestic theory of movement of the Solar system bodies is used in Russian astronomical ephemeris editions and software since 2009 according to the recommendations of the conference CTNS-2007. Along with printing the astronomical software are elaborated. "The Personal Astronomical Yearbook" (PersAY) allows the user to solve tasks of calculation of ephemerides for any moment in various time scales, and for any position of the observer on a terrestrial surface. System of the removed access the "Scturman" is developed also intended to solve some the navigating tasks.