Science.gov

Sample records for activities science concepts

  1. Activities for Teaching K-6 Math/Science Concepts. Classroom Activities Series - Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Walter A.; Farrell, Margaret A.

    This book is a revised edition of one of the products of a project, "Teaching Mathematics and Science Concepts, K-6, funded by the New York State Education Department. The project was a collaborative effort by mathematics and science education faculty at the State University of New York at Albany and representatives of eight school districts in…

  2. The Reinforcement of First Grade Science Concepts with the Use of Motor Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prager, Iris J.

    In order to test the theory that selected first-grade science concepts could be successfully reinforced with the use of motor activities, 52 first-graders were exposed to certain experimental procedures. Two separate classes of 25 students (group A) and 27 students (group B) underwent a pretest. Both classes were then taught through traditional…

  3. The Effects of Computer-Aided Concept Cartoons and Outdoor Science Activities on Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Güliz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to create an awareness of light pollution on seventh grade students via computer aided concept cartoon applications and outdoor science activities and to help them develop solutions; and to determine student opinions on the practices carried out. The study was carried out at a middle school in Mugla province of Aegean…

  4. The Effect of Science Activities on Concept Acquisition of Age 5-6 Children Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogru, Mustafa; Seker, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Present research aims to determine the effect of science activities on concept development of preschool period age 5-6 children groups. Parallel to research objective, qualitative research pattern has been the selected method. Study group comprises of collectively 48 children from 5-6 age group attending to a private education institution in city…

  5. DSMS science operations concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connally, M. J.; Kuiper, T. B.

    2001-01-01

    The Deep Space Mission System (DSMS) Science Operations Concept describes the vision for enabling the use of the DSMS, particularly the Deep Space Network (DSN) for direct science observations in the areas of radio astronomy, planetary radar, radio science and VLBI.

  6. Analyzing Science Activities in Force and Motion Concepts: A Design of an Immersion Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayar, Mehmet C.; Aydeniz, Mehmet; Yalvac, Bugrahan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the science activities offered at 7th grade in the Turkish science and technology curriculum along with addressing the curriculum's original intent. We refer to several science education researchers' ideas, including Chinn & Malhotra's (Science Education, 86:175--218, 2002) theoretical framework and…

  7. From Concept-to-Flight: An Active Active Fluid Loop Based Thermal Control System for Mars Science Laboratory Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gajanana C.; Bhandari, Pradeep; Bame, David; Karlmann, Paul; Mastropietro, A. J.; Liu, Yuanming; Miller, Jennifer; Pauken, Michael; Lyra, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, which was launched on November 26, 2011, incorporates a novel active thermal control system to keep the sensitive electronics and science instruments at safe operating and survival temperatures. While the diurnal temperature variations on the Mars surface range from -120 C to +30 C, the sensitive equipment are kept within -40 C to +50 C. The active thermal control system is based on a single-phase mechanically pumped fluid loop (MPFL) system which removes or recovers excess waste heat and manages it to maintain the sensitive equipment inside the rover at safe temperatures. This paper will describe the entire process of developing this active thermal control system for the MSL rover from concept to flight implementation. The development of the rover thermal control system during its architecture, design, fabrication, integration, testing, and launch is described.

  8. Science Art: Projects and Activities That Teach Science Concepts and Develop Process Skills. Grades 2-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schecter, Deborah

    The activities in this collection are designed to help teachers bring the worlds of science and art into the classroom. Each activity is both a hands-on science investigation and an art experience. As students create satisfying art projects, they utilize science skills such as observing, predicting, investigating, and communicating. The projects…

  9. Space Station medical sciences concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. A. (Editor); Johnson, P. C., Jr. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Current life sciences concepts relating to Space Station are presented including the following: research, extravehicular activity, biobehavioral considerations, medical care, maintenance of dental health, maintaining health through physical conditioning and countermeasures, protection from radiation, atmospheric contamination control, atmospheric composition, noise pollution, food supply and service, clothing and furnishings, and educational program possibilities. Information on the current status of Soviet Space Stations is contained.

  10. Learning about Chemistry Concepts. Superific Science Book VIII. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Lorraine

    Based on the idea that active participation stimulates the processes by which learning takes place, this document provides teachers and students with a variety of information and learning activities dealing with chemistry. Basic concepts about chemistry are presented through the use of laboratory experiments, demonstrations, worksheet exercises…

  11. SCIENCE BRIEF: ADVANCED CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on advanced concepts will evaluate and demonstrate the application of innovative infrastructure designs, management procedures and operational approaches. Advanced concepts go beyond simple asset management. The infusion of these advanced concepts into established wastew...

  12. Science Club--A Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Claas; Issak, Nicole; Tesch, Katharina; Zehne, Carolin

    2016-01-01

    The following article presents a concept of a science club which was developed by two master's students as a part of their thesis and which has been developed and improved ever since. The extra-curricular concept emphasises pupils' individuality through focusing on problem based leaning, station learning, and mixed age groups. Having joined the…

  13. Using Food to Demonstrate Earth Science Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, J.; Francek, M.

    2001-12-01

    One way to better engage K-16 students with the earth sciences is through classroom demonstrations with food. We summarize references from journals and the world wide web that use food to illustrate earth science concepts. Examples of how edible substances have been used include using candy bars to demonstrate weathering concepts, ice cream to mimic glaciers, and grapes to demonstrate evaporation. We also categorize these demonstrations into geology, weather, space science, and oceanography categories. We further categorize the topics by grade level, web versus traditional print format, amount of time necessary to prepare a lesson plan, and whether the activity is better used as a demonstration or hands on activity.

  14. A pragmatic conception of science: Implications for science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessoms, Deidre Bates

    In this dissertation, I examine various philosophical conceptions of the nature of science---its goals, methods and products---and link those views to how science is taught. While the review begins in the 1600s, the focus is primarily on logical positivism. The logical positivist view of science prevailed for much of the twentieth century and has greatly influenced how science is taught. The review section culminates with current conceptions of science from the fields of philosophy, sociology, feminist studies and radical studies of science. These various conceptions of the nature of science are linked to how science is currently taught, at the K--12 level and at the university. In particular, the logical positivist conception has influenced the teaching of science by emphasizing the products of science (factual knowledge and theories) over the processes of science (the social methods of knowledge production). As a result of viewing science as the logical positivists did, teachers primarily focus on science as unchanging factual knowledge, at the expense of examining the social and cultural aspects of scientific practices. I develop a pragmatic conception of the method of science as reflective thinking that we effectively use in our everyday lives. Linking that conception with the aims that John Dewey outlined for schools in a democratic society points the way towards certain goals and methods for teaching science. Therefore, I explore the type of science teaching that might result when viewing science as a pragmatic activity conducted in a democracy. Teaching of this sort would involve students in working together on shared problems that arise in the context of daily life. For science students at the university, this would include participating in and critiquing scientific research in active research laboratories. Implementing this view of science teaching might result in modifications in the practices and goals of science. Lastly, the experiences of a group of

  15. Space Resources for Teachers, Space Science, A Guide Outlining Understandings, Fundamental Concepts, and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Malcolm

    This instructional and resource guide is designed so that it may be used in the secondary school or in the first two years of college to present a series of units in space science, or to supplement existing science and mathematics courses. The guide consists of six units: (1) measurement, distance, and size in astronomy, (2) atoms, spectra, and…

  16. Geostationary earth science platform concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herardian, M. M.

    1989-01-01

    The new concepts are presented for the Geostationary Earth Science Platform. Bus and payload arrangements, with instrument locations on the payload module and basic payload dimensions, are depicted and compared for each concept. The Titan 4 SRMU (with solid rocket motor upgrage) launch vehicle is described and compared to the standard Titan 4. The upgraded Titan 4 is capable of launching a 13,500 lb payload to GEO. The launch configuration showing each concept packaged within the 16 ft diameter payload envelope is presented. This presentation is represented by viewgraph only.

  17. Educational Concepts in Library Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derr, Richard L.

    1980-01-01

    Uses techniques from analytic philosophy of education to clarify key concepts in library education, such as "training,""education,""knowing," and "teaching." Implications of the viewing of professional programs in library science as training programs rather than education are discussed, and references are provided. (Author/BK)

  18. The Influence of an Activity-Based Explicit Approach on the Turkish Prospective Science Teachers' Conceptions of the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Suat; Bayrakceken, Samih

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an activity-based explicit nature of science (NOS) instruction undertaken in the context of a "Science, Technology and Society" course on the prospective science teachers' (PSTs') understandings of NOS. In this course, social science based inquiry activities were used to as a context to lead…

  19. Collaborative Science Activities and the Social Construction of Understanding of Physical Science Concepts by Pre-service Teachers in Fiji.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Neil; Lucas, Keith B.; Watters, James J.

    1999-01-01

    Finds that collaborative group work among pre-service elementary teachers stimulated increased levels of discussion and fostered deeper conceptual understanding than did traditional instructional methods. Discusses implications for science education in Fiji and similar places. (Contains 37 references.) (Author/WRM)

  20. SUMMARY REPORT OF THE WORKSHOP ON STRUCTURE ACTIVITY CONCEPTS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The theoretical and practical considerations in the application of structure-activity relationships (SAR) to chemical hazard assessment have been the subject of much research and debate. In order to focus this research on producing the most cost-effective methods of chemical eval...

  1. It's More Fun than It Sounds--Enhancing Science Concepts through Hands-on Activities for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guha, Smita

    2012-01-01

    To teach young children, teachers choose topics in science that children are curious about. Children's inquisitive nature is reflected through the activities as they make repetitive sounds to find the cause and effect relationship. Teachers can make best use of those invaluable moments by incorporating those activities into science lessons on…

  2. BASALT 1: Extravehicular Activity Science Operations Concepts under Communication Latency and Bandwidth Constraints at Craters of the Moon, Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Beaton, Kara; Miller, Matthew J.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.

    2017-01-01

    An over-arching goal of the multi-year Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains (BASALT) project is to iteratively develop, implement, and evaluate concepts of operations (ConOps) and supporting capabilities intended to enable and enhance human exploration of Mars. Geological and biological scientific fieldwork is being conducted during four total deployments at two high-fidelity Mars analogs, all within simulated Mars mission conditions that are based on current architectural assumptions for Mars exploration missions. Specific capabilities being evaluated include the use of mobile science platforms, extravehicular informatics, communication and navigation packages, advanced science mission planning tools, and scientifically-relevant instrument packages to achieve the project goals. This paper describes the planning, execution, and results of the first field deployment, referred to as BASALT 1, which consisted of a series of 12 simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs) on the lava terrains of Craters of the Moon, Idaho. Scientific objectives of the EVAs related to determination of how microbial communities and habitability correlate with the physical and geochemical characteristics of chemically-altered basalt environments. The concept of operations (ConOps) and capabilities deployed and tested during BASALT 1 were based on extensive data from previous NASA trade studies and analog testing, and the primary research question was whether those ConOps and capabilities would work acceptably when performing real (non-simulated) biological and geological scientific exploration under four different communication scenarios. Specifically, communication latencies of 5 and 15 minutes one-way light time (OWLT) were tested; these delays fall within the range of 4 to 22 minute OWLT delays that would be experienced during a Mars mission. Science operations were also conducted under low bandwidth conditions (0.512 Mb/s uplink, 1.54 Mb/s downlink), representing a

  3. Computer Science Concept Inventories: Past and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, C.; Zingaro, D.; Porter, L.; Webb, K. C.; Lee, C. B.; Clancy, M.

    2014-01-01

    Concept Inventories (CIs) are assessments designed to measure student learning of core concepts. CIs have become well known for their major impact on pedagogical techniques in other sciences, especially physics. Presently, there are no widely used, validated CIs for computer science. However, considerable groundwork has been performed in the form…

  4. Aerospace-Related Life Science Concepts for Use in Life Science Classes Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mary H.; Rademacher, Jean

    The purpose of this guide is to provide the teacher of secondary school life science classes with resource materials for activities to familiarize students with recent discoveries in bioastronautics. Each section introduces a life science concept and a related aerospace concept, gives background information, suggested activities, and an annotated…

  5. Preservice; Nigerian Science Teachers' Conceptions of Integrated Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oludipe, Bimbola; Oludipe, Daniel I.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to critically examine the conceptions students in the integrated science major and non-integrated science major have about integrated science. Participants were 187 student-teachers enrolled in a University of Education in South-West Nigeria. They all did integrated science at the Junior Secondary School (JSS)…

  6. Television Entertainment and Viewers' Conceptions of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerbner, George; And Others

    This study of the role of television in the presentation and cultivation of public conceptions of science and technology investigated these issues: (1) the types of representation and information about scientists, science, and technology that are embedded in television programs; (2) types of images and beliefs about science that television tends…

  7. Using Concept Maps in Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Concept mapping is a pedagogical technique that was developed in the 1970s and is being used in K-12 and postsecondary education. Although it has shown excellent results in other fields, it is still rare in political science. In this research note, I discuss the implementation and testing of concept mapping in my Advanced Introduction to…

  8. Prospective Science Teachers' Conceptions about Astronomical Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Küçüközer, Hüseyin

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify prospective science teachers' conceptions on basic astronomical phenomena. A questionnaire consisting of nine open-ended questions was administered to 327 prospective science teachers. The questionnaire was constructed after extensive review of the literature and took into consideration the reported…

  9. Changing Conceptions of Activation Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Philip D.

    1981-01-01

    Provides background material which relates to the concept of activation energy, fundamental in the study of chemical kinetics. Compares the related concepts of the Arrhenius activation energy, the activation energy at absolute zero, the enthalpy of activation, and the threshold energy. (CS)

  10. Mars Science Laboratory at Work, Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory, a mobile robot for investigating Mars' past or present ability to sustain microbial life, is in development for a launch opportunity in 2009. This picture is an artist's concept portraying what the advanced rover would look like when examining a rock outcrop on Mars. The arm extending from the front of the rover is designed both to position some of the rover's instruments close to selected targets and also to collect samples for onboard analysis by other instruments.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  11. Learning Computer Science Concepts with Scratch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meerbaum-Salant, Orni; Armoni, Michal; Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2013-01-01

    Scratch is a visual programming environment that is widely used by young people. We investigated if Scratch can be used to teach concepts of computer science (CS). We developed learning materials for middle-school students that were designed according to the constructionist philosophy of Scratch and evaluated them in a few schools during two…

  12. The Concept of Situation in Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cool, Colleen

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on the concept of situation in information science. Highlights include situation, context, and interaction with information; cognitive sociology and social interaction theory; situated action; the theory of situation awareness; person-in-situation model; and situation environments. (Contains 126…

  13. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-01-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of…

  14. The Whole Cosmos. Catalog of Science Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abruscato, Joe; Hassard, Jack

    Based on the notion that science begins and ends with the natural curiosity that young people have about themselves and the world, this book provides teachers and parents with many options for science exploration. Concepts are developed through science activities, creative arts activities, puzzles and games, and short biographies of individuals…

  15. Multiple instrument distributed aperture sensor (MIDAS) science payload concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, David M.; Duncan, Alan L.; Pitman, Joe T.; Sigler, Robert D.; Kendrick, Richard L.; Chilese, John F.; Smith, Eric H.

    2004-10-01

    We describe the Multiple Instrument Distributed Aperture Sensor (MIDAS) concept, an innovative approach to future planetary science mission remote sensing that enables order of magnitude increased science return. MIDAS provides a large-aperture, wide-field, diffraction-limited telescope at a fraction of the cost, mass and volume of conventional space telescopes, by integrating advanced optical interferometry technologies. All telescope optical assemblies are integrated into MIDAS as the primary remote sensing science payload, thereby reducing the cost, resources, complexity, I&T and risks of a set of back-end science instruments (SI's) tailored to a specific mission. MIDAS interfaces to multiple science instruments, enabling sequential and concurrent functional modes, thereby expanding the potential planetary science return many fold. Passive imaging modes with MIDAS enable remote sensing at diffraction-limited resolution sequentially by each science instrument, or at lower resolution by multiple science instruments acting concurrently on the image, such as in different wavebands. Our MIDAS concept inherently provides nanometer-resolution hyperspectral passive imaging without the need for any moving parts in the science instruments. For planetary science missions, the MIDAS optical design provides high-resolution imaging for long dwell times at high altitudes, thereby enabling real-time, wide-area remote sensing of dynamic surface characteristics. In its active remote sensing modes, using an integrated solid-state laser source, MIDAS enables LIDAR, vibrometry, surface illumination, and various active or ablative spectroscopies. Our concept is scalable to apertures well over 10m, achieved by autonomous deployments or manned assembly in space. MIDAS is a proven candidate for future planetary science missions, enabled by our continued investments in focused MIDAS technology development areas. In this paper we present the opto-mechanical design for a 1.5m MIDAS point

  16. Come Fly with Me! Exploring Science 7-9 through Aviation/Aerospace Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housel, David C.; Housel, Doreen K. M.

    This guide contains 67 activities dealing with various aerospace/aviation education concepts. The activities are presented in units related to physical science, earth science, and life science. In addition, there is a section related to student involvement in the space shuttle programs. The physical science unit (activities 1-23) focuses on the…

  17. Evaluation of Online Teacher and Student Materials for the Framework for K-12 Science Education Science and Engineering Crosscutting Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The National Research Council developed and published the "Framework for K-12 Science Education," a new set of concepts that many states were planning on adopting. Part of this new endeavor included a set of science and engineering crosscutting concepts to be incorporated into science materials and activities, a first in science…

  18. Learning computer science concepts with Scratch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerbaum-Salant, Orni; Armoni, Michal; (Moti) Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2013-09-01

    Scratch is a visual programming environment that is widely used by young people. We investigated if Scratch can be used to teach concepts of computer science (CS). We developed learning materials for middle-school students that were designed according to the constructionist philosophy of Scratch and evaluated them in a few schools during two years. Tests were constructed based upon a novel combination of the revised Bloom taxonomy and the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome taxonomy. These instruments were augmented with qualitative tools, such as observations and interviews. The results showed that students could successfully learn important concepts of CS, although there were problems with some concepts such as repeated execution, variables, and concurrency. We believe that these problems can be overcome by modifications to the teaching process that we suggest.

  19. Science World Activities Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, Madison.

    This document consists of three sections. Section I contains 19 activities developed by master teachers for the Science World '84 summer science program. These activities focus on studies involving airplane controls, trash bag kites, computers, meteorology, compass orienteering, soils, aquatic ecosystems, bogs, and others. Objectives, materials…

  20. Academic Self-Concept: Modeling and Measuring for Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Graham

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the author developed a model to describe academic self-concept (ASC) in science and validated an instrument for its measurement. Unlike previous models of science ASC, which envisage science as a homogenous single global construct, this model took a multidimensional view by conceiving science self-concept as possessing distinctive…

  1. Remote sensing science - new concepts and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gerstl, S.A.; Cooke, B.J.; Henderson, B.G.; Love, S.P.; Zardecki, A.

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The science and technology of satellite remote sensing is an emerging interdisciplinary field that is growing rapidly with many global and regional applications requiring quantitative sensing of earth`s surface features as well as its atmosphere from space. It is possible today to resolve structures on the earth`s surface as small as one meter from space. If this high spatial resolution is coupled with high spectral resolution, instant object identification can also be achieved. To interpret these spectral signatures correctly, it is necessary to perform a computational correction on the satellite imagery that removes the distorting effects of the atmosphere. This project studied such new concepts and applied innovative new approaches in remote sensing science.

  2. The concept verification testing of materials science payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, C. S.; Johnston, M. H.; Whitaker, A.

    1976-01-01

    The concept Verification Testing (CVT) project at the Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama, is a developmental activity that supports Shuttle Payload Projects such as Spacelab. It provides an operational 1-g environment for testing NASA and other agency experiment and support systems concepts that may be used in shuttle. A dedicated Materials Science Payload was tested in the General Purpose Laboratory to assess the requirements of a space processing payload on a Spacelab type facility. Physical and functional integration of the experiments into the facility was studied, and the impact of the experiments on the facility (and vice versa) was evaluated. A follow-up test designated CVT Test IVA was also held. The purpose of this test was to repeat Test IV experiments with a crew composed of selected and trained scientists. These personnel were not required to have prior knowledge of the materials science disciplines, but were required to have a basic knowledge of science and the scientific method.

  3. WFIRST Project Science Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The WFIRST Project is a joint effort between GSFC and JPL. The project scientists and engineers are working with the community Science Definition Team to define the requirements and initial design of the mission. The objective is to design an observatory that meets the WFIRST science goals of the Astr02010 Decadal Survey for minimum cost. This talk will be a report of recent project activities including requirements flowdown, detector array development, science simulations, mission costing and science outreach. Details of the interim mission design relevant to scientific capabilities will be presented.

  4. Mars 2020 Science Rover: Science Goals and Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustard, John F.; Beaty, D.; Bass, D.

    2013-10-01

    The Mars 2020 Science Definition Team (SDT), chartered in January 2013 by NASA, formulated a spacecraft mission concept for a science-focused, highly mobile rover to explore and investigate in detail a site on Mars that likely was once habitable. The mission, based on the Mars Science Laboratory landing and rover systems, would address, within a cost- and time-constrained framework, four objectives: (A) Explore an astrobiologically relevant ancient environment on Mars to decipher its geological processes and history, including the assessment of past habitability; (B) Assess the biosignature preservation potential within the selected geological environment and search for potential biosignatures; (C) Demonstrate significant technical progress towards the future return of scientifically selected, well-documented samples to Earth; and (D) provide an opportunity for contributed instruments from Human Exploration or Space Technology Programs. The SDT addressed the four mission objectives and six additional charter-specified tasks independently while specifically looking for synergy among them. Objectives A and B are each ends unto themselves, while Objective A is also the means by which samples are selected for objective B, and together they motivate and inform Objective C. The SDT also found that Objective D goals are well aligned with A through C. Critically, Objectives A, B, and C as an ensemble brought the SDT to the conclusion that exploration oriented toward both astrobiology and the preparation of a returnable cache of scientifically selected, well documented surface samples is the only acceptable mission concept. Importantly the SDT concluded that the measurements needed to attain these objectives were essentially identical, consisting of six types of field measurements: 1) context imaging 2) context mineralogy, 3) fine-scale imaging, 4) fine-scale mineralogy, 5) fine-scale elemental chemistry, and 6) organic matter detection. The mission concept fully addresses

  5. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-08-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of each lesson were analysed to identify individual student's emotions. Results from two representative students are presented as case studies. Using a theoretical perspective drawn from theories of emotions founded in sociology, two assertions emerged. First, during the demonstration activity, students experienced the emotions of wonder and surprise; second, during a laboratory activity, students experienced the intense positive emotions of happiness/joy. Characteristics of these activities that contributed to students' positive experiences are highlighted. The study found that choosing activities that evoked strong positive emotional experiences, focused students' attention on the phenomenon they were learning, and the activities were recalled positively. Furthermore, such positive experiences may contribute to students' interest and engagement in science and longer term memorability. Finally, implications for science teachers and pre-service teacher education are suggested.

  6. Nuclear Concepts & Technological Issues Institute: Teacher Activity Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Candace C., Ed.; Lunetta, Lois W., Ed.

    For many summers the Radiation Science and Engineering Center at Pennsylvania State University has been the site of a Nuclear Concepts and Technological Issues Institute for secondary school science teachers. As a culminating activity of the institute teachers develop lesson plans, laboratory experiments, demonstrations, or other activities and…

  7. Measuring Science Concept Attainment of Elementary School Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelker, Alan M.; Harris, Margaret L.

    Test items were developed for assessing the mastery of 30 selected science concepts on classification. These concepts were drawn from the areas of physical, biological, and earth sciences. A schema of twelve test items was developed for each concept. Procedures used in the construction and revision of these test items are described. The tests were…

  8. Thinking Connections: Concept Maps for Life Science. Book B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burggraf, Frederick

    The concept maps contained in this book (for grades 7-12) span 35 topics in life science. Topics were chosen using the National Science Education Standards as a guide. The practice exercise in concept mapping is included to give students an idea of what the tasks ahead will be in content rich maps. Two levels of concept maps are included for each…

  9. Exploring Prospective Teachers' Worldviews and Conceptions of Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shiang-Yao; Lederman, Norman G.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the relationship, if any, between an individual's culturally based worldviews and conceptions of nature of science. In addition, the implications of this relationship (or lack of relationship) for science teaching and learning are discussed. Participants were 54 Taiwanese prospective science teachers. Their conceptions of…

  10. Ambartsumyan's concept of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachikian, E. Ye.

    2010-01-01

    As Victor Ambartsumyan, himself, noted, the concept of active galactic nuclei occupies a special place among his scientific ideas. It was proposed more than half a century ago and was recognized by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences as revolutionary, on a copernican scale. However, by no means all of its propositions were accepted at once by large parts of the astronomy community. Nevertheless, as the American astrophysicist A. R. Sandage has written, “today, not one astronomer would deny the mystery surrounding the nuclei of galaxies or that the first to recognize the rich reward held in this treasury was Viktor Ambartsumian.” The purpose of this article is to acquaint the reader with the major stages in the formation and development of the concept of active galactic nuclei and with some of the work on this topic done at the Byurakan and other astrophysical observatories throughout the world.

  11. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of the junior high science curriculum. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

  12. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of earth science experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further study; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

  13. The concept of nature in Islamic science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarman, Wendi

    2016-02-01

    Science teaching is basically value laden activities. One of the values tells that science is not related to any religion. This secular value is reflected to science teaching in many places, including religious country like Indonesia. However, we argue that in Indonesia science teaching should not be secular as in the Western country since one of the basic aim of National Education according to the Indonesian constitution Undang-Undang Dasar 1945, is to inculcate faith and god-fearing to One God Almighty. As we know, Indonesia is a Moslem country and has many Islamic schools in it too. Thus, it is important to design a science teaching framework base on Islamic teaching to fulfill the basic aim of National Education This paper discusses concept of nature, the key term in science, based on Islamic view that may used as a framework to develop Islamic science teaching. In Islam, science has a strong relation to religion since nature reflects the existence of the Creator. This concept is derived from the analysis of several verses from Qur'an as the main source of Islamic teaching. There are several principle can be derived from this analysis. Firstly, visible world is not the only world, but there is also the unseen world. Secondly, the nature is not merely matter that doesn't have any sacred value, but it is the indication or symbol of God existence and His Nature. Thirdly, The Qur'an and the nature are both Books of Allah that contain messages of Him, so they are complementary to each other

  14. The comparative effect of individually-generated vs. collaboratively-generated computer-based concept mapping on science concept learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, So Young

    Using a quasi-experimental design, the researcher investigated the comparative effects of individually-generated and collaboratively-generated computer-based concept mapping on middle school science concept learning. Qualitative data were analyzed to explain quantitative findings. One hundred sixty-one students (74 boys and 87 girls) in eight, seventh grade science classes at a middle school in Southeast Texas completed the entire study. Using prior science performance scores to assure equivalence of student achievement across groups, the researcher assigned the teacher's classes to one of the three experimental groups. The independent variable, group, consisted of three levels: 40 students in a control group, 59 students trained to individually generate concept maps on computers, and 62 students trained to collaboratively generate concept maps on computers. The dependent variables were science concept learning as demonstrated by comprehension test scores, and quality of concept maps created by students in experimental groups as demonstrated by rubric scores. Students in the experimental groups received concept mapping training and used their newly acquired concept mapping skills to individually or collaboratively construct computer-based concept maps during study time. The control group, the individually-generated concept mapping group, and the collaboratively-generated concept mapping group had equivalent learning experiences for 50 minutes during five days, excepting that students in a control group worked independently without concept mapping activities, students in the individual group worked individually to construct concept maps, and students in the collaborative group worked collaboratively to construct concept maps during their study time. Both collaboratively and individually generated computer-based concept mapping had a positive effect on seventh grade middle school science concept learning but neither strategy was more effective than the other. However

  15. Investigating and Changing Elementary School Learners' Conceptions in "Sciences".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciascai, Liliana; Chic, Vasile; Pop, Adina

    2002-01-01

    Identifies certain conceptions regarding the science content studied by students aged 9-11 years and develops a strategy for altering these conceptions. Reviews research on misconceptions and defines action research. (DDR)

  16. Transforming Science and Learning Concepts of Physics Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Fernando; Lopez, Angel; Gallegos, Leticia; Barojas, Jorge

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the influence that science and learning concepts have when teachers are submitted to assessment in an academic program. Reports changes shown by teachers in their epistemological and learning conceptions during the process of instruction. (Author/CCM)

  17. Investigating the Nature of Third Grade Students' Experiences with Concept Maps to Support Learning of Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    To support and improve effective science teaching, educators need methods to reveal student understandings and misconceptions of science concepts and to offer all students an opportunity to reflect on their own knowledge construction and organization. Students can benefit by engaging in scientific activities in which they build personal…

  18. Selected Science Activities in Consumer Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagness, Richard L.; Sagness, Rebecca L.

    This publication has been designed for use by teachers wishing to incorporate consumer education activities into their science program. Each activity is classified by grade level most appropriate for use, area of consumer education involved, specific topic, and consumer education concept involved. Activities are designated as suitable for grades…

  19. On performing concepts during science lectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzer-Ardenghi, Lilian; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2007-01-01

    When lecturing, teachers make use of both verbal and nonverbal communication. What is called teaching, therefore, involves not only the words and sentences a teacher utters and writes on the board during a lesson, but also all the hands/arms gestures, body movements, and facial expressions a teacher performs in the classroom. All of these communicative modalities constitute resources that are made available to students for making sense of and learning from lectures. Yet in the literature on teaching science, these other means of communication are little investigated and understood - and, correspondingly, they are undertheorized. The purpose of this position paper is to argue for a different view of concepts in lectures: they are performed simultaneously drawing on and producing multiple resources that are different expressions of the same holistic meaning unit. To support our point, we provide examples from a database of 26 lectures in a 12th-grade biology class, where the human body was the main topic of study. We analyze how different types of resources - including verbal and nonverbal discourse and various material artifacts - interact during lectures. We provide evidence for the unified production of these various sense-making resources during teaching to constitute a meaning unit, and we emphasize particularly the use of gestures and body orientations inside this meaning unit. We suggest that proper analyses of meaning units need to take into account not only language and diagrams but also a lecturer's pointing and depicting gestures, body positions, and the relationships between these different modalities. Scientific knowledge (conceptions) exists in the concurrent display of all sense-making resources, which we, following Vygotsky, understand as forming a unit (identity) of nonidentical entities.

  20. "Contributions of Piaget to Science Education." Science Education. Science Curriculum Concept Paper #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This paper discusses the implications of Piaget's theory to science education. The first section of the paper, "What Science Teachers Need To Know: Scientific Knowledge and Its Source," describes three sources of students' knowledge and corresponding educational practices. The second section, "Functions of Intelligence," discusses the concept of…

  1. Concepts in Activities and Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeno, James G.

    2012-01-01

    The articles in this special issue make valuable contributions toward a scientific understanding of concepts that is broader than the traditional view that has focused on categorizing by individuals. I propose considering concepts for categorization as a special case of concepts. At their clearest, they can be referred to as "formal concepts," or…

  2. Turkish Science Student Teachers' Conceptions on the States of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Abdullah; Altuk, Yasemin Gödek

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine science students teachers' conceptions on the concepts related to "the matter and the states of the matter". 112 Turkish science student teachers participated at this research. A questionnaire consisting of thirteen open-ended items was designed to collect the data. The questionnaire aimed to reveal the…

  3. Concept Mapping as a Study Strategy in Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Charles R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Concept mapping leads students away from rote learning and toward true understanding of concepts and their relationships. Several sample and student maps on earth science topics are presented and discussed. Applications for science instructors, students, researchers, and teacher educators are also considered. (DH)

  4. Assessing Understanding of the Energy Concept in Different Science Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Mihwa; Liu, Xiufeng

    2016-01-01

    Energy is one of the most central and richly connected ideas across all science disciplines. The purpose of this study was to develop a measurement instrument for assessing students' understanding of the energy concept within and across different science disciplines. To achieve this goal, the Inter-Disciplinary Energy concept Assessment (IDEA) was…

  5. Thinking Science: Classroom Activities in Secondary Science. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adey, Philip; And Others

    This teacher's guide is part of a program of activities that help secondary-level students develop the complex thinking skills needed to succeed in science. This program can be used with current curriculum materials. It is designed to help students integrate ideas and develop concepts that demonstrate higher level thinking. A rich environment of…

  6. How Did a Science Camp Affect Children's Conceptions of Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metin, Duygu; Leblebicioglu, Gulsen

    2011-01-01

    Science explores nature and the most authentic way of introducing science is creating learning environments in the nature and let children make their own discoveries in the nature as real scientists. Science camps would be an opportunity for this kind of science education. This study introduces a science camp and reports findings regarding its…

  7. Academic Self-Concept: Modeling and Measuring for Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Graham

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the author developed a model to describe academic self-concept (ASC) in science and validated an instrument for its measurement. Unlike previous models of science ASC, which envisage science as a homogenous single global construct, this model took a multidimensional view by conceiving science self-concept as possessing distinctive facets including conceptual and procedural elements. In the first part of the study, data were collected from 1,483 students attending eight secondary schools in England, through the use of a newly devised Secondary Self-Concept Science Instrument, and structural equation modeling was employed to test and validate a model. In the second part of the study, the data were analysed within the new self-concept framework to examine learners' ASC profiles across the domains of science, with particular attention paid to age- and gender-related differences. The study found that the proposed science self-concept model exhibited robust measures of fit and construct validity, which were shown to be invariant across gender and age subgroups. The self-concept profiles were heterogeneous in nature with the component relating to self-concept in physics, being surprisingly positive in comparison to other aspects of science. This outcome is in stark contrast to data reported elsewhere and raises important issues about the nature of young learners' self-conceptions about science. The paper concludes with an analysis of the potential utility of the self-concept measurement instrument as a pedagogical device for science educators and learners of science.

  8. Concepts for Biologically Active Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Kastin, Abba J.; Pan, Weihong

    2012-01-01

    Here we review a unique aspect of CNS research on biologically active peptides that started against a background of prevalent dogmas but ended by exerting considerable influence on the field. During the course of refuting some doctrines, we introduced several concepts that were unconventional and paradigm-shifting at the time. We showed that (1) hypothalamic peptides can act ‘up’ on the brain as well as ‘down’ on the pituitary, (2) peripheral peptides can affect the brain, (3) peptides can cross the blood-brain barrier, (4) the actions of peptides can persist longer than their half-lives in blood, (5) perinatal administration of peptides can exert actions persisting into adulthood, (6) a single peptide can have more than one action, (7) dose-response relationships of peptides need not be linear, (8) the brain produces antiopiate as well as opiate peptides, (9) there is a selective high affinity endogenous peptide ligand for the mu-opiate receptor, (10) a peptide’s name does not restrict its effects, and (11) astrocytes assume an active role in response to metabolic disturbance and hyperleptinemia. The evolving questions in our laboratories reflect the diligent effort of the neuropeptide community to identify the roles of peptides in the CNS. The next decade is expected to see greater progress in the following areas: (a) interactions of peptides with other molecules in the CNS; (b) peptide involvement in cell-cell interactions; and (c) peptides in neuropsychiatric, autoimmune, and neurodegenerative diseases. The development of peptidomics and gene silencing approaches will expedite the formation of many new concepts in a new era. PMID:20726835

  9. Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Conceptions of Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buaraphan, Khajornsak

    2011-01-01

    Understanding of NOS (nature of science) appears as a prerequisite of a scientifically literate person. Promoting adequate understanding of NOS in pre-service physics teachers is, therefore, an important task of science educators. Before doing that, science educators must have information concerning their pre-service teachers' conceptions of NOS.…

  10. Program on Public Conceptions of Science, Newsletter 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelanski, Vivien, Ed.

    This newsletter deals with public conceptions of science. Included is a "Survey on Public Attitudes toward Science: Some Key Questions." This inventory, with topic areas, specific questions, and dates of surveys may be useful for research on changing patterns of public understanding of science. Other articles are: "An Annotated, Selected Checklist…

  11. Comparing Children's and Student Teachers' Ideas about Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Karen; Beggs, Jim; Murphy, Colette

    2006-01-01

    Children and teachers may not think in the same way about particular science concepts. Such parallel lines of thought can compound children's confusion and misunderstanding as they learn science at primary school. The situation could be more acute when student teachers are teaching science, because of their limited experience of considering…

  12. Papermaking as a Science Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetters, Marcia K.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a simple procedure for making paper and provides some suggestions for extending and modifying the activity. The activity is correlated to the National Science Standards and Benchmarks for Science Literacy. (SAH)

  13. The self-concept of chiropractic students as science students

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Robert F.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To determine the self-concepts of chiropractic students as science students and if any personal variable affect their self-concepts. Participants Students in their first trimester and eighth trimester at the Los Angeles College of Chiropractic during the 1993 academic year (n=158). Methods Peterson-Yaakobi Q-Sort, National Assessment of Educational Progress, two-tailed T-test, one way analysis of variance and Spearman-rho correlation. Results The majority of students have positive self- concepts as science students and although there was a difference between the 2 trimesters, it was not significant. As a group they generally had less exposure to science compared to undergraduates from a selected science program. Variables of socio-economic status, undergraduate major, and highest completed level of education did not statistically affect their self-concept. Conclusion Chiropractic students had the self-concept that enables them to subscribe to the philosophical foundations of science and better engage in basic sciences and, later, science-based clinical research. Knowledge of this self- concept can be used in the development of a more rigorous basic science curricula and clinical research programs at chiropractic colleges with the ultimate goal of providing a more firm scientifically based foundation for the profession. PMID:19674649

  14. Minority Preservice Teachers' Conceptions of Teaching Science: Sources of Science Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2013-01-01

    This study explores five minority preservice teachers' conceptions of teaching science and identifies the sources of their strategies for helping students learn science. Perspectives from the literature on conceptions of teaching science and on the role constructs used to describe and distinguish minority preservice teachers from their mainstream…

  15. Proving or Improving Science Learning? Understanding High School Students' Conceptions of Science Assessment in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Min-Hsien; Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Classroom assessment is a critical aspect of teaching and learning. In this paper, Taiwanese high school students' conceptions of science assessment and the relationship between their conceptions of science assessment and of science learning were investigated. The study used both qualitative and quantitative methods. First, 60 students were…

  16. Explorers of the Universe: Metacognitive Tools for Learning Science Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, Marino C.

    1998-01-01

    Much of school learning consists of rote memorization of facts with little emphasis on meaningful interpretations. Knowledge construction is reduced to factual knowledge production with little regard for critical thinking, problem solving, or clarifying misconceptions. An important role of a middle and secondary teacher when teaching science is to aid students' ability to reflect upon what they know about a given topic and make available strategies that will enhance their understanding of text and science experiments. Developing metacognition, the ability to monitor one's own knowledge about a topic of study and to activate appropriate strategies, enhances students' learning when faced with reading, writing and problem solving situations. Two instructional strategies that can involve students in developing metacognitive awareness are hierarchical concept mapping, and Vee diagrams. Concept maps enable students to organize their ideas and reveal visually these ideas to others. A Vee diagram is a structured visual means of relating the methodological aspects of an activity to its underlying conceptual aspect in ways that aid learners in meaningful understanding of scientific investigations.

  17. Young Children's Conceptions of Science and Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tiffany R.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores young children's images of science and scientists, their sources for scientific knowledge, and the nature of their science-related experiences. A cross-sectional design was used to study how students' ideas differ over the first three years of elementary school. A modified version of the Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST) and a…

  18. Individualization: An Emergent Concept in Science Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Clifford; Appel, Marilyn

    These proceedings include abstracts of the formal papers presented during a conference in Philadelphia on December 8 and 9, 1967. The conference, sponsored by Research for Better Schools, Inc., was concerned with individualization of science instruction, particularly in elementary schools. Thirty-three scientists and science educators from various…

  19. Females in Science: A Contradictory Concept?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Background: the belief that women and science, including mathematics and medicine, are incompatible has had a long and complex history and still often works to exclude women from and/or marginalise them in science. Purpose: this article will seek to explore gender and educational achievement through investigating how such gendered presumptions…

  20. [Conception of the history of science in the interpretation of Bogdan Suchodolski].

    PubMed

    Lietz, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    In the article is presented the conception of the history of science in the interpretation of Bogdan Suchodolski. Having described the conception of the history of science created by George Sarton (1884-1956), whose thought was influenced by positivistic philosophy of August Comte, the idea of the history of science of Johan Nordstr6m (1891-1967), who was inspired by the system of Wilhelm Dilthey, and the materialistic conception of the history of science, which was represented, among others, by John Desmond Bernal (1901-1971), the author is making an attempt at revealing to what extent Bogdan Suchodolski was inspired by the above-mentioned visions of the history of science. Having defined the history of science as the history of scientific activity of people and their consciousness formed by the activity, Bogdan Suchodolski applied in the field of his own conception of the history of science the ideas that were put forward by German thinkers and philosophers, and were connected with a way of understanding culture as the constant development of national awareness, which can be exemplified with different dimensions of culture. Undoubtedly, identifying the history of Polish science with constitutive element of the history of national culture and paying attention to the conceptions tending not only to explaining, but also understanding phenomena, B. Suchodolski was influenced by Alfred Vierkandt's and Wilhelm Dilthey's thought. The present article includes several reflections on the conception of the history of science, which was created by B. Suchodolski. Among others, we can find here detailed information on how B. Suchodolski understood: the history of science, its subject, aim and methodology; its status in modern social consciousness and as the history of truth; relations between history of science and theory of science and scientific policy, history of science and the problem of unity and diversity of scientific thinking, history of science and ideas, history of

  1. Science Application of Area and Ratio Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, Virginia M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes using area and ratio concepts to examine why some animals, or people wearing different types of shoes, sink into the surface on which they are standing. Students compute "sinking values" to explain these differences. (Contains 2 figures.)

  2. Preservice elementary teachers' alternative conceptions of science and their self-efficacy beliefs about science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koc, Isil

    The present study was conducted to investigate the extent to which preservice elementary teachers held alternative conceptions in fundamental elementary science concepts from earth/space science, life science, and physical science along with their self-efficacy beliefs about science teaching and to determine the relationship between these two issues. Eighty-six preservice elementary education majors enrolled in the four sections of the course titled "07E:162 Methods Elementary School Science" offered in the Science Education Center, College of Education, the University of Iowa during the 2005-2006 academic year participated in this study. Twelve preservice elementary teachers participated in follow-up interviews. Data were collected through the use of Alternative Conceptions in Science Instrument constructed by Schoon and Boone (1998), Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI-B) constructed by Enochs and Riggs (1990), a participant information form, and through utilization of interviews. The results from the alternative conception instrument indicated that the majority of preservice elementary teachers held a number of alternative conceptions with most being in the physical sciences followed by earth/space, and then life science. Various sources of alternative conceptions emerged during the interview sessions. Participants mainly cited science teachers, science textbooks, and previous science experiences as sources of their alternative conceptions. On the other hand, the analysis of the self-efficacy instrument and follow-up interviews revealed generally positive self-efficacy beliefs. Findings from the study also confirmed that science courses completed in high school and college do not seem to have influenced participants' number and types of alternative conceptions regarding earth/space science, life science, and physical science and self-efficacy beliefs about science teaching. The results also indicate that participants with the lowest number of

  3. NAS Panel endorses science center concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Science and technology centers, as proposed by President Ronald Reagan in his January 1987 State of the Union message, could make “significant contributions to science and to the nation's economic competitiveness,” according to a new report by a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) panel. What will be necessary to realize these contributions, the panel cautioned, are proper management, adequate resources, and, “above all, the selection of programs for which the centers are the most effective form of organization.”NSF plans to support science and technology centers, beginning October 1, 1988, which is the start of fiscal year 1988. NSF requested guidance from the NAS panel in implementing the program. Although other government agencies will participate in the program, NSF will play the primary role.

  4. The Nature of Science in Science Curricula: Methods and Concepts of Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Sílvia; Morais, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    The article shows methods and concepts of analysis of the nature of science in science curricula through an exemplary study made in Portugal. The study analyses the extent to which the message transmitted by the Natural Science curriculum for Portuguese middle school considers the nature of science. It is epistemologically and sociologically…

  5. Alternative Conceptions in Biology-Related Topics of Integrated Science Teachers and Implications for Teacher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Se Yuen; Yip, Din Yan; Chung, Choi Man

    1999-06-01

    This paper reports a study of the alternative conceptions held by junior secondary science teachers enrolled in an in-service teacher training program. The subjects completed a written instrument which probed their understanding of biological concepts in the integrated science curriculum. The subjects, particularly the nonbiology graduates, were found to show serious misunderstanding in concepts concerning diversity of life, photosynthesis and respiration, reproduction, and detecting the environment. This finding supports the assertion that our science teachers, being graduates in specific areas, are inadequately prepared to teach a broad and balanced junior science curriculum. To strengthen the subject matter knowledge and pedagogical skills of prospective and practicing junior science teachers, a number of provisions are suggested for teacher training programs, undergraduate science courses, and school-based activities.

  6. Investigating Science Literacy: Students' Conceptions of Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romine, James; Buxner, S.; Impey, C. D.; Nieberding, M. N.; Antonellis, J. C.; Collaborations of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS)

    2014-01-01

    This study is part of a larger investigation of students' science literacy in which we have been collecting survey data from undergraduate students enrolled in introductory science courses from 1980-2013. The overall survey asks students questions about basic topics in science and technology. We present results from the analysis of students' open-ended responses to the question "What is radiation?" Our findings show that a substantial number of students' perceptions of radiation are focused on the dangers of radiation and less on the applications. A large fraction of students correctly identified radiation as energy or light, although they expressed the misconception that only part of the electromagnetic spectrum counted as radiation. Overall, students expressed a number of misconceptions about the sources and uses of radiation although over 80% know that radiation can occur naturally or be man made. We present how these findings relate to other large trends from the survey. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  7. Empirical Foundation of Central Concepts for Computer Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zendler, Andreas; Spannagel, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The design of computer science curricula should rely on central concepts of the discipline rather than on technical short-term developments. Several authors have proposed lists of basic concepts or fundamental ideas in the past. However, these catalogs were based on subjective decisions without any empirical support. This article describes the…

  8. Future Science Teachers' Understandings of Diffusion and Osmosis Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomazic, Iztok; Vidic, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    The concepts of diffusion and osmosis cross the disciplinary boundaries of physics, chemistry and biology. They are important for understanding how biological systems function. Since future (pre-service) science teachers in Slovenia encounter both concepts at physics, chemistry and biology courses during their studies, we assessed the first-,…

  9. Concept Mapping Revisited: Nurturing Children's Writing Skills in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Concept mapping has long been used an assessment tool by educators to illustrate students' conceptual development of a topic over time. In this article, we chronicle the use of concept maps in a language arts environment. Focusing on a literacy tutoring program for struggling readers/writers centered on hands-on science experiments, we explain how…

  10. A Method for Investigating Concept Understanding in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, R. J.; Gilbert, J. K.

    1980-01-01

    Reports findings of a study using an "interview about instances" technique for investigating students' concept understanding in science. Trial interviews (N=50) involving students aged 7-18 years were conducted in relation to the concepts "work" and "electric current." (CS)

  11. Professional Development of Elementary and Science Teachers in a Summer Science Camp: Changing Nature of Science Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaman, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    Many countries all over the world have recently integrated nature of science (NOS) concepts into their science education standards. Providing professional support to teachers about NOS concepts is crucially important for successful implementation of the standards. For this purpose, a summer science camp was offered to elementary and science…

  12. Applying Gadamer's Concept of Disposition to Science and Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borda, Emily J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I recall previous arguments for a hermeneutic approach to science and claim that such an approach necessitates attention to the development of dispositions. I undertake an analysis of Hans-Georg Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics to identify and describe dispositions relevant to a hermeneutic approach to science. I then apply…

  13. Non-Determinism: An Abstract Concept in Computer Science Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armoni, Michal; Gal-Ezer, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Non-determinism is one of the most important, yet abstract, recurring concepts of Computer Science. It plays an important role in Computer Science areas such as formal language theory, computability theory, distributed computing, and operating systems. We conducted a series of studies on the perception of non-determinism. In the current research,…

  14. Conceptions of Evolution among Science Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, T. Ryan; Ellis, Cameron A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have assessed whether and to what degree students (grade-schoolers to undergraduates), teachers, and the public in general accept and understand evolution. However, very little information has been available about the level of understanding of students pursuing an advanced postgraduate degree in science. The study discussed in this…

  15. Science and the Concept of Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Margaret, Ed.; And Others

    The contents of this book, an outgrowth of a symposium held at the meetings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Washington on December 30, 1966, are organized in three sections. Section one, "Behavior-Genetic Analyses and Their Relevance to the Construct of Race," includes the following essays: "The Construct Race and the…

  16. Developing Science Concepts through Story-Telling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banister, Fiona; Ryan, Charly

    2001-01-01

    Reports on the use of story-telling to develop children's ideas about the water-cycle. Shows that children remember abstract science ideas better when taught in a story format and that they can distinguish the real from the anthropomorphic. (Author/MM)

  17. Applying Gadamer's concept of disposition to science and science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borda, Emily J.

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, I recall previous arguments for a hermeneutic approach to science and claim that such an approach necessitates attention to the development of dispositions. I undertake an analysis of Hans-Georg Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics to identify and describe dispositions relevant to a hermeneutic approach to science. I then apply elements of Gadamer’s theory of education to the problem of fostering appropriate dispositions in science classrooms. In doing so, I offer a few suggestions for the cultivation and assessment of these dispositions in K-12 and college classrooms.

  18. The Development of Science Concept in Turkey and Effects of Constructivism on 2004 Primary Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Öztürk, Faruk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the development of science concept in Turkey. It is seen that the historical process of science concept in Turkey has developed within two stages. The first setting is the later stages of the Ottoman State and the Republican Era, at which time positivism was prevalent as noted in the objectives of the national…

  19. An Identification of Life Science Concepts in Selected Secondary School Science Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, John A.

    1982-01-01

    The primary concern was the extent to which life science concepts occurred in selected secondary-school life science textbooks. Ecology concepts were the most widely and evenly distributed in junior high textbooks, and physiology terms were the most frequently occurring for senior high books. (MP)

  20. Guide to Science Concepts. Developing Science Curriculum for High Ability Learners K-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Beverly

    Intended to aid teachers of high ability elementary students in understanding the key components and generalizations that are critical to specific science concepts, this document contains eight papers addressing broad concepts common to many branches of science and teaching principles. A paper on the nature of the scientific process precedes six…

  1. Secondary Physical Science Teachers' Conceptions of Science Teaching in a Context of Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Dale L.; Booth, Shirley

    2015-05-01

    Pre-service teachers enter initial teacher education programmes with conceptions of teaching gleaned from their own schooling. These conceptions, which include teachers' beliefs, may be resistant to change, which is a challenge in contexts where teacher educators hope that teachers will teach in ways different from their own schooling. Conceptions of teaching found in different cultural and disciplinary contexts have contextual differences but have resonances with the results of research into teacher beliefs. Our sample of eight South African secondary physical science teachers was schooled in a system which encouraged knowledge transmission, but they were prepared in their initial teacher education for a learner-centred approach. After they had taught for a few years, we explored their conceptions of science teaching, using phenomenographic interviews. Four conceptions emerged inductively from the analysis: transferring science knowledge from mind to mind; transferring problematic science knowledge from mind to mind; creating space for learning science knowledge and creating space for learning problematic science knowledge. Internally these conceptions are constituted by three dimensions of variation: the nature of the science knowledge to be learnt, the role of the students and the role of the teacher. Media and practical work play different roles in the external horizon of these conceptions. These conceptions reflect the disciplinary context as well as the emphases of the sample's initial teacher education programme. This suggests that initial teacher education can significantly shape teachers' conceptions of teaching.

  2. Relating Concepts and Applications through Structured Active Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Leonard

    The central research question in this study was whether structured active learning affects the abilities of science and engineering undergraduates to relate abstract concepts and realistic applications more than a relatively traditional instructional method. More specifically, the research was designed to determine whether differences in the…

  3. Kindergarteners' Concept Development in Science and Literacy Learning through Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffit, Char Adelia

    2013-01-01

    The notion that "real work" is somehow different from authentic and engaging discovery is troublesome. (Passman, 2001, p.196). This qualitative case study examined science concept and literacy learning along with engagement of the students in a Kindergarten class in which science and literacy instruction was integrated through…

  4. Turkish Preservice Elementary Science Teachers' Conceptions of Learning Science and Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs: Is There a Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahcivan, Eralp; Kapucu, Serkan

    2014-01-01

    This study has been conducted to investigate conceptions of learning science (COLS) and personal science teaching efficacy belief (PSTE) of Turkish preservice elementary science teachers (PSTs) and to explore the relationship between these variables. Two instruments COLS questionnaire and PSTE subscale of Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs…

  5. Playing with Science: An Investigation of Young Children's Science Conceptions and Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolleck, Lori; Hershberger, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the conceptions and misconceptions of young children (ages 3-8) related to science concepts, skills, and phenomena. These conceptions and misconceptions were investigated within the framework of the Pennsylvania Early Learning Standards for Pre-Kindergarten and the Pennsylvania Standards for…

  6. Family Science Activities for Adult Basic and Literacy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Action Southwest, Waynesburg, PA.

    A staff development project created a series of family science activities to be used in adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) and family literacy programs and a training guide for staff and volunteers. The training guide provides background principles and concepts for science activities. The activities identify materials and indicate ways the…

  7. Concepts and Applications of Science I, 122933 Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, John; McCollum, Bettie Lou

    This document outlines the first part of a two-part senior high school general science course designed to familiarize students with elementary chemistry, basic fundamentals and principles of matter and energy, earth structure and movement, introductory astronomy, and interpretation of data. Included are listings of adopted texts, performance…

  8. Exploring teacher's perceptions of concept mapping as a teaching strategy in science: An action research approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks Krpan, Catherine Anne

    In order to promote science literacy in the classroom, students need opportunities in which they can personalize their understanding of the concepts they are learning. Current literature supports the use of concept maps in enabling students to make personal connections in their learning of science. Because they involve creating explicit connections between concepts, concept maps can assist students in developing metacognitive strategies and assist educators in identifying misconceptions in students' thinking. The literature also notes that concept maps can improve student achievement and recall. Much of the current literature focuses primarily on concept mapping at the secondary and university levels, with limited focus on the elementary panel. The research rarely considers teachers' thoughts and ideas about the concept mapping process. In order to effectively explore concept mapping from the perspective of elementary teachers, I felt that an action research approach would be appropriate. Action research enabled educators to debate issues about concept mapping and test out ideas in their classrooms. It also afforded the participants opportunities to explore their own thinking, reflect on their personal journeys as educators and play an active role in their professional development. In an effort to explore concept mapping from the perspective of elementary educators, an action research group of 5 educators and myself was established and met regularly from September 1999 until June 2000. All of the educators taught in the Toronto area. These teachers were interested in exploring how concept mapping could be used as a learning tool in their science classrooms. In summary, this study explores the journey of five educators and myself as we engaged in collaborative action research. This study sets out to: (1) Explore how educators believe concept mapping can facilitate teaching and student learning in the science classroom. (2) Explore how educators implement concept

  9. . . . And Action! Using Science Skits to Evaluate Students' Understanding of Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershberger, Kimber; Kur, Judith; Haefner, Leigh

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this article believe that giving students opportunities to talk about and represent science concepts helps them develop deeper, more integrated understandings, while providing teachers with rich, alternative methods of assessment. They provide Science units and instructional approaches that are consistent with science and…

  10. Thai Pre-Service Science Teachers' Conceptions of the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buaraphan, Khajornsak; Sung-ong, Sunun

    2009-01-01

    The conceptions of the nature of science (NOS), particularly scientific knowledge, scientific method, scientists' work, and scientific enterprise, of 113 Thai pre-service science teachers were was captured by the Myths of Science Questionnaire (MOSQ) in the first semester of the 2008 academic year. The data was quantitatively and qualitatively…

  11. Thai In-Service Science Teachers' Conceptions of the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buaraphan, Khajornsak

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the Nature of Science (NOS) serves as one of the desirable characteristics of science teachers. The current study attempted to explore 101 Thai in-service science teachers' conceptions of the NOS, particularly scientific knowledge, the scientific method, scientists' work, and scientific enterprise, by using the Myths of Science…

  12. Threshold concepts as barriers to understanding climate science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, P.

    2013-12-01

    Whilst the scientific case for current climate change is compelling, the consequences of climate change have largely failed to permeate through to individuals. This lack of public awareness of the science and the potential impacts could be considered a key obstacle to action. The possible reasons for such limited success centre on the issue that climate change is a complex subject, and that a wide ranging academic, political and social research literature on the science and wider implications of climate change has failed to communicate the key issues in an accessible way. These failures to adequately communicate both the science and the social science of climate change at a number of levels results in ';communication gaps' that act as fundamental barriers to both understanding and engagement with the issue. Meyer and Land (2003) suggest that learners can find certain ideas and concepts within a discipline difficult to understand and these act as a barrier to deeper understanding of a subject. To move beyond these threshold concepts, they suggest that the expert needs to support the learner through a range of learning experiences that allows the development of learning strategies particular to the individual. Meyer and Land's research into these threshold concepts has been situated within Economics, but has been suggested to be more widely applicable though there has been no attempt to either define or evaluate threshold concepts to climate change science. By identifying whether common threshold concepts exist specifically in climate science for cohorts of either formal or informal learners, scientists will be better able to support the public in understanding these concepts by changing how the knowledge is communicated to help overcome these barriers to learning. This paper reports on the findings of a study that examined the role of threshold concepts as barriers to understanding climate science in a UK University and considers its implications for wider

  13. Science Rationale for the Io Volcano Observer (IVO) Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, Alfred; Turtle, Elizabeth

    2012-07-01

    The Io Volcano Observer (IVO) mission can explore the rich array of interconnected orbital, geophysical, atmospheric, and plasma phenomena surrounding the most volcanically active world in the Solar System. Io is the only place in the Solar System (including Earth) where we can watch very large-scale silicate volcanic processes in action, and it provides unique insight into high-temperature and high effusion-rate volcanic processes that were important in the early histories of the terrestrial planets. Io is also the best target at which to study tidal heating, which greatly expands the habitable zones of planetary systems. Moreover, the coupled orbital-tidal evolution is key to understanding the thermal histories of Europa and Ganymede. Io is always inside the intense radiation belt of Jupiter, so a radiation-mitigation strategy has been developed. An inclined orbit that passes Io at high velocity (˜19 km/s) near its perijove point keeps the total ionizing dose to ˜10 krad (behind 2.5 mm or 100 mils Al) per encounter. Nevertheless, the dose rate is high near Io so some science instruments have special design considerations to minimize noise. The IVO spacecraft must be agile enough (rapid turning and settling) for high-stability targeted observations during close encounters. The inclined orbit provides nearly pole-to-pole flybys of Io, which enables some of the highest-priority Io science such as understanding the polar heat flow and electrical conductivity of Io's mantle (which may contain a magma ocean). Key science instruments include narrow- and wide-angle cameras, magnetometers, a thermal mapper, neutral mass spectrometers, and plasma ion analyzers. NASA's 2011 Decadal Survey for planetary science identified an Io mission similar to IVO as one of seven options for the next two New Frontiers mission opportunities. The Galileo (GLL) mission and payload were designed prior to the Voyager 1 flyby and discovery of Io's active volcanism, so they were not designed

  14. [Secondary Career Education Activities: Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford City Schools, VA.

    The guide is one of a series developed in a pilot project to integrate career education concepts with subject matter in secondary grades. The units are designed to reveal career orientation aspects of traditional topics within five major subject areas: English, social studies, mathematics, science, and health and physical education. The lesson…

  15. Science conceptions and connections: How third graders engage in inquiry to learn science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, Susan Hemphill

    In this teacher-research study, I explore the process of inquiring to learn science from the perspective of third graders. As a teacher-researcher, this study was conducted in my third grade classroom over the course of a year. I used qualitative research methods to construct five ethnographic case studies of my students. The study focused on (1) third graders' conceptions of science and being scientists. It examined how these conceptions changed (or did not change) throughout the year, and (2) the connections that these students made (or did not make) between science and reading, writing, talking, and listening. Student interviews, observations, and written documentation, as well as my own reflective journal, informed the case studies. The data suggests that these third graders' conceptions of being a scientist are directly related to their definitions of science. These third graders compare their actions to their conceptions of science to determine if they are a scientist. In addition, the data reveals that these students' reading, writing, talking, and listening experiences influence their science conceptions. In particular, I identify three variables, context, definition, and relationships that interact to contribute (or distract) from these third graders' thinking about themselves as scientists. The context in which science is explored plays an important role in these third graders' conceptions. The places where science is performed and who conceives the original ideas to be tested are important conditions. These third graders' definition of science and the relationships they construct within the curriculum and each other also influence their conceptions of being scientists. Overall, this study finds that these third graders use the processes of reading, writing, talking, and listening to enhance their science understanding. It also points to the importance of having the students engage in scientific inquiry both in and out of the classroom. This research

  16. Preservice elementary teachers' alternative conceptions in science and attitudes toward teaching science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Paige Lilley

    The improved preparation of preservice elementary teachers in university education programs is a specific target of current attempts to reform science education. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which preservice elementary teachers held twelve alternative conceptions in earth/space, life, and physical science along with their attitudes toward teaching science and to determine the relationship between the number of alternative conceptions held and attitudes toward teaching science. The study also explored whether specific types of conceptions are associated with positive or negative attitudes toward teaching science. One hundred and eighty four preservice elementary teachers at various universities in Louisiana completed a demographic information form, an assessment of alternative conceptions, and an attitude survey on the first day of a science methods course. Over 75% of the participants held alternative conceptions regarding sun-earth relationships during the day and in the summer, the cause of lunar phases, the application of inertia to a moving airplane, and the effect of rust on the mass of a nail. Participants' attitudes toward teaching science were favorable overall and on the "need for science" and "time required to prepare and teach science" subcomponents. In comparison, the means for the "comfort/discomfort" and "handling science equipment" subcomponents were closer to neutral. Correlation coefficients showed an inverse relationship between the number of alternative conceptions held by the total sample on the "basic need American students have for science" subcomponent as well as three items on the attitude scale and an inverse relationship between the number of alternative conceptions held by participants with the highest number of alternative conceptions (8 or more) and their overall attitudes toward teaching science, their attitude toward the basic need students have for science, their feelings about the time required to prepare

  17. At the Elbows of Scientists: Shaping Science Teachers' Conceptions and Enactment of Inquiry-Based Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2014-12-01

    This study stemmed from concerns among researchers that reform efforts grounded in promoting inquiry as the basis for teaching science have not achieved the desired changes in American science classrooms. Many science teachers assume that they are employing inquiry-based strategies when they use cookbook investigations with highly structured step-by-step instructions. Additionally, most science teachers equate hands-on activities with classroom inquiry and, as such, repeatedly use prepackaged, disconnected activities to break the monotony of direct instruction. Despite participation in numerous professional development activities, many science teachers continue to hold misconceptions about inquiry that influence the way they design and enact instruction. To date, there is very limited research exploring the role of inquiry-based professional development in facilitating desired changes in science teachers' conceptions of inquiry. This qualitative study of five high school science teachers explores the ways in which authentic inquiry experiences with a team of scientists in Panama shaped their conceptions and reported enactments of inquiry-based instruction. Our findings suggest that professional development experiences engaging science teachers in authentic research with scientists have the potential to change teachers' naïve conceptions of inquiry, provided that necessary supports are provided for reflection and lesson design.

  18. Kindergarteners' concept development in science and literacy learning through Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffit, Char Adelia

    The notion that "real work" is somehow different from authentic and engaging discovery is troublesome. (Passman, 2001, p.196) This qualitative case study examined science concept and literacy learning along with engagement of the students in a Kindergarten class in which science and literacy instruction was integrated through Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI). CORI is an instructional framework created to increase reading engagement by teaching reading comprehension strategies along with science concepts (Guthrie, et al., 1996). This study explored CORI at the Kindergarten level to examine how this curriculum framework engaged young learners in science concept and literacy learning. The study was grounded in the belief that concept learning can be engaging and motivating (Csikszentmihalyi, 1978). Data analysis resulted in five metaphors that show how the students took on multiple identities while engaged in learning concepts during CORI. Students took on the following identities: learner as docent, learner as explorer, learner as researcher, learner as author, and learner as expert. Prior to this study, the lowest grade level that CORI had been researched was 3rd grade. The present study examined the benefits of utilizing CORI with early literacy at the Kindergarten level and contributes to the body of CORI research demonstrating the potential of utilizing CORI at lower grade levels.

  19. Science Activities in Energy: Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 14 activities relating to energy conservation. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a simple card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  20. Developing a concept of hope from a human science perspective.

    PubMed

    Wang, C E

    2000-07-01

    This article explores concept development from a human science perspective and uses concept inventing, a method described by Parse, for developing the concept of hope as inspired by the Taiwanese folk song "Mending a Torn Fish Net." The synthesized definition is hope is resolute picturing of the possibilities amid the restrictions-opportunities of communion-aloneness while creatively metamorphosing. This definition is explicitly connected to the three principles of Parse's theory of human becoming. Reflections on research and practice are provided. PMID:11847805

  1. A Scooter Inquiry: An Integrated Science, Mathematics, and Technology Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Do-Yong; O'Brien, George; Eraso, Mario; McClintock, Edwin

    2002-01-01

    Describes an inquiry-based scooter activity in which students learn the mathematical concepts of measurement and proportionality and the science concepts of force, motion, velocity, and acceleration while using their problem solving skills. Explains strengths and weaknesses of the activity and includes suggestions for assessment. (YDS)

  2. Investigating Undergraduate Science Students’ Conceptions and Misconceptions of Ocean Acidification

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, Kathryn I.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research exploring ocean acidification has grown significantly in past decades. However, little science education research has investigated the extent to which undergraduate science students understand this topic. Of all undergraduate students, one might predict science students to be best able to understand ocean acidification. What conceptions and misconceptions of ocean acidification do these students hold? How does their awareness and knowledge compare across disciplines? Undergraduate biology, chemistry/biochemistry, and environmental studies students, and science faculty for comparison, were assessed on their awareness and understanding. Results revealed low awareness and understanding of ocean acidification among students compared with faculty. Compared with biology or chemistry/biochemistry students, more environmental studies students demonstrated awareness of ocean acidification and identified the key role of carbon dioxide. Novel misconceptions were also identified. These findings raise the question of whether undergraduate science students are prepared to navigate socioenvironmental issues such as ocean acidification. PMID:26163563

  3. Investigating Undergraduate Science Students' Conceptions and Misconceptions of Ocean Acidification.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Kathryn I; Tanner, Kimberly D

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research exploring ocean acidification has grown significantly in past decades. However, little science education research has investigated the extent to which undergraduate science students understand this topic. Of all undergraduate students, one might predict science students to be best able to understand ocean acidification. What conceptions and misconceptions of ocean acidification do these students hold? How does their awareness and knowledge compare across disciplines? Undergraduate biology, chemistry/biochemistry, and environmental studies students, and science faculty for comparison, were assessed on their awareness and understanding. Results revealed low awareness and understanding of ocean acidification among students compared with faculty. Compared with biology or chemistry/biochemistry students, more environmental studies students demonstrated awareness of ocean acidification and identified the key role of carbon dioxide. Novel misconceptions were also identified. These findings raise the question of whether undergraduate science students are prepared to navigate socioenvironmental issues such as ocean acidification. PMID:26163563

  4. The Progression of Prospective Teachers' Conceptions of School Science Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin del Pozo, Rosa; Porlan, Rafael; Rivero, Ana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to describe the progression in the conceptions of prospective primary teachers about school science content while they were participating in three teacher education courses following the same constructivist oriented strategy. The participants' written output was analyzed in various categories--selection of…

  5. Understanding Primary Science: Ideas, Concepts and Explanations. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenham, Martin

    2005-01-01

    This book has been written to help teachers develop the background knowledge and understanding needed to teach science effectively at primary level. It is intended principally as a resource in attempting to set out facts, develop concepts, and explain theories which primary teachers may find it useful to know and understand in order to plan…

  6. Vague Concepts in the Educational Sciences: Implications for Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blikstad-Balas, Marte

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that many key theoretical concepts and core areas of study in the educational sciences are couched in paradigmatically vague terms. The shared features of vague terms and two different readings of vagueness are discussed. "Practice", which is widely used both as a theoretical and an empirical term in the field of…

  7. Relation of Technology, Science, Self-Concept, Interest, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ingeborg

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the relation of technology, science, self-concept, interest, and gender. For nearly 20 years the topic of "women and technology" has played an important role in discussions about gender equality in Germany. The very first project for promoting females started in 1978 under the title "Women in Male…

  8. Career Activities in Science: Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleep, Gerald; And Others

    The curriculum guide attempts to assemble select activities that represent skills related to careers in science. These learning activities are designed to give junior and senior high school students opportunities to explore concepts and processes in many science-related careers. The broad areas covered are biology, chemistry, physics, and earth…

  9. Planetary Science Education - Workshop Concepts for Classrooms and Internships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musiol, S.; Rosenberg, H.; Rohwer, G.; Balthasar, H.; van Gasselt, S.

    2014-12-01

    In Germany, education in astronomy and planetary sciences is limited to very few schools or universities and is actively pursued by only selected research groups. Our group is situated at the Freie Universität Berlin and we are actively involved in space missions such as Mars Express, Cassini in the Saturnian system, and DAWN at Vesta and Ceres. In order to enhance communication and establish a broader basis for building up knowledge on our solar-system neighborhood, we started to offer educational outreach in the form of workshops for groups of up to 20 students from primary/middle schools to high schools. Small group sizes guarantee practical, interactive, and dialog-based working environments as well as a high level of motivation. Several topical workshops have been designed which are targeted at different age groups and which consider different educational background settings. One workshop called "Impact craters on planets and moons" provides a group-oriented setting in which 3-4 students analyze spacecraft images showing diverse shapes of impact craters on planetary surfaces. It is targeted not only at promoting knowledge about processes on planetary surfaces but it also stimulates visual interpretation skills, 3D viewing and reading of map data. A second workshop "We plan a manned mission to Mars" aims at fostering practical team work by designing simple space mission scenarios which are solved within a team by collaboration and responsibility. A practical outdoor activity called "Everything rotates around the Sun" targets at developing a perception of absolute - but in particular relative - sizes, scales and dimensions of objects in our solar system. Yet another workshop "Craters, volcanoes and co. - become a geologist on Mars" was offered at the annual national "Girls' Day" aiming at motivating primary to middle school girls to deal with topics in classical natural sciences. Small groups investigated and interpreted geomorphologic features in image data of

  10. Outreach Activities for Plasma Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, M.; Bannan, K.; Delooper, J.; Eastman, T.; Sweet, P.; Smith, T.

    1997-11-01

    The need for communication beyond experts from subfields of scientific inquiry has been long identified. In response to this need, new outreach activities for plasma science have begun to take shape and grow. One example of this increase in activity is the formation of the Coalition for Plasma Science. The focus of the Coalition's efforts is to enhance the understanding and support for plasma science in the scientific community, the education community, business and the general public. One of the Coalition's first activities was to coordinate the assembly of an eight panel exhibit entitled "Plasmas: Science and Technology for the 21st Century". The formation of the Coalition and the display will be described and some possible future activities will be outlined.

  11. Earth Science Literacy: Big Ideas and Supporting Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladue, N. D.; Wysession, M.; Budd, D. A.; Campbell, K.; Conklin, M.; Lewis, G.; Raynolds, R.; Ridky, R. W.; Ross, R. M.; Taber, J.; Tewksbury, B.; Tuddenham, P.

    2008-12-01

    The Earth Science Literacy Initiative seeks to create community consensus regarding what every person should know about earth science. This NSF-sponsored, inter-agency effort complements the Ocean, Climate, and Atmospheric Science Literacy Principles. The Earth Science Literacy draft document contains the Big Ideas and Supporting Concepts that underlie the research fields funded through the NSF-EAR division. The draft document is written for a high school graduate reading level. Community feedback on this draft is essential to the creation of a robust document that can effectively communicate current scientific understanding of the earth sciences. The draft document has eight Big Ideas which follow the themes of (1)Earth's history, (2) Earth's complex interacting systems, (3) the evolving geosphere, (4) water-related processes, (5) Earth's controls on the evolution of life, (6) Earth's resources, (7) natural hazards and human risks, and (8) human impacts on the Earth. Supporting concepts provide the related detail necessary to understand the Big Ideas. The Earth Science Literacy document has a decidedly anthropomorphic bias with three of the Big Ideas (resources, hazards and human impacts) relating directly to human interactions with the Earth. This human bias is justified by the increasing significance of Earth science-related topics such as increasing population, climate change, and scarcity of resources. Literacy documents from the ocean, atmosphere and climate communities have already had large impacts and the same is expected for the earth science literacy framework. The document will provide a foundation for future K-12 educational standards and K-16 textbooks, provide the basis for the displays and programs of informal education venues, and provide guidance for future governmental agency decisions in the earth sciences.

  12. The ability of children to generalize selected science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Kemal Bin; Lowell, Walter E.

    The study investigated the ability of primary and elementary school subjects to generalize two science concepts, Insect and Animal with and without instruction in the form of a mental set. It also examined the effects of age, IQ, and sex on the ability of the children to generalize these concepts. Two instruments measuring the ability to generalize the concepts Insect and Animal were developed. The results indicate that of the independent variables investigated, age and mental set significantly affected the ability to generalize the concepts Insect and Animal. It was found that the younger children's concepts were least developed and with age these concepts became more developed and more conceptual in nature. The ability to use information given in a mental set was found to be a function of age. The children in this study were more able to generalize the concept Insect than the concept Animal. The results suggest that children with age and instruction axe better able to master less general concepts than more geaeral ones. In addition, the study demonstrated that children are able to improve their learning of general concepts provided a great number and variety of instances and noninstances of the concept are used in the instruction.It was also found that the younger children were more perceptually bound than the older children. The younger children were unable to overcome the pull of perceptual attractiveness that the noninstances held for them despite instruction. The results suggest that teachers of such children should be aware of the conceptual level of the content being taught to such children to ensure appropriate and meaningful learning takes place.

  13. Science Teachers' Conceptions of Nature of Science: The Case of Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkar, Md. Mahbub Alam; Gomes, Jui Judith

    2010-01-01

    This study explored Bangladeshi science teachers' conceptions of nature of science (NOS) with a particular focus on the nature of (a) scientific knowledge, (b) scientific inquiry and (c) scientific enterprise. The tentative, inferential, subjective and creative NOS, in addition to the myths of the scientific method and experimentation, the nature…

  14. Understanding of Earth and Space Science Concepts: Strategies for Concept-Building in Elementary Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

    2009-01-01

    This research is concerned with preservice teacher understanding of six earth and space science concepts that are often taught in elementary school: the reason for seasons, phases of the moon, why the wind blows, the rock cycle, soil formation, and earthquakes. Specifically, this study examines the effect of readings, hands-on learning stations,…

  15. Toward using games to teach fundamental computer science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgington, Jeffrey Michael

    Video and computer games have become an important area of study in the field of education. Games have been designed to teach mathematics, physics, raise social awareness, teach history and geography, and train soldiers in the military. Recent work has created computer games for teaching computer programming and understanding basic algorithms. We present an investigation where computer games are used to teach two fundamental computer science concepts: boolean expressions and recursion. The games are intended to teach the concepts and not how to implement them in a programming language. For this investigation, two computer games were created. One is designed to teach basic boolean expressions and operators and the other to teach fundamental concepts of recursion. We describe the design and implementation of both games. We evaluate the effectiveness of these games using before and after surveys. The surveys were designed to ascertain basic understanding, attitudes and beliefs regarding the concepts. The boolean game was evaluated with local high school students and students in a college level introductory computer science course. The recursion game was evaluated with students in a college level introductory computer science course. We present the analysis of the collected survey information for both games. This analysis shows a significant positive change in student attitude towards recursion and modest gains in student learning outcomes for both topics.

  16. Modeling Activities in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Kathy

    2014-05-01

    Students usually find science to be quite abstract. This is especially true of disciplines like Earth Science where it is difficult for the students to conduct and design hands-on experiments in areas such as Plate Tectonics that would allow them to develop predictive models. In the United States the new Next Generation Science Standards explicitly requires students to experience the science disciplines via modeling based activities. This poster presentation will discuss an activity that demonstrates how modeling, plate tectonics and student discourse converge in the earth science classroom. The activities featured on the poster will include using cardboard and shaving cream to demonstrate convergent plate boundaries, a Milky Way candy bar to demonstrate divergent boundaries and silly putty to demonstrate a strike slip boundary. I will discuss how students report back to the group about the findings from the lab and the techniques that can be used to heighten the student discourse. The activities outlined in this poster were originally designed for a middle school Earth Science class by Suzi Shoemaker for a graduate thesis at Arizona State University.

  17. Utah Science Activities, Update 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Utah Water Science Center

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a bureau of the U.S. Department of the Interior, serves the Nation by providing reliable scientific information to describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life. The USGS has become a world leader in the natural sciences thanks to our scientific excellence and responsiveness to society's needs. This newsletter describes some of the current and recently completed USGS earth-science activities in Utah. As an unbiased, multi-disciplinary science organization that focuses on biology, geography, geology, and water, we are dedicated to the timely, relevant, and impartial study of the landscape, our natural resources, and the natural hazards that threaten us. Learn more about our goals and priorities for the coming decade in the USGS Science Strategy at http://www.usgs.gov/science_strategy/ .

  18. Understanding of earth and space science concepts: Strategies for concept building in elementary teacher preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulunuz, Nermin

    Research on conceptual change provides strong evidence that not only children but also many adults have incorrect or incomplete understanding of science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with preservice and inservice teachers' understanding of six earth and space science concepts commonly taught in elementary school: reasons for seasons, phases of the moon, reasons for the wind, the rock cycle, soil formation, and earthquakes. The first part of the study determined and compared the level of conceptual understanding held by both groups on topics they will need to teach in the Georgia Performance Standards [GPS]. The second part focused on whether readings or hands-on learning stations, in some cases combined with concept mapping, improves preservice teachers' understanding of these concepts. The third part described the application of conceptual change strategies of one group of preservice teachers during their field placements. The overall sample was two cohorts of preservice teachers, one cohort of preservice teachers from an alternative initial certification program, and two masters' cohorts consisting of inservice teachers. Four data sources were: a six item open-ended survey, concept maps, the field assignments, and the researcher's field notes. Rubrics were used to score answers to each survey question. Concept map scores were calculated based on the criteria developed by Novak and Gowin (1984). The first part of the study shows that both preservice and inservice teachers have low conceptual understanding of the earth science concepts taught in elementary school. Independent samples t-tests results indicate that both groups have similar understanding about these concepts. A two way ANOVA with repeated measures analysis demonstrated that readings and learning stations are both successful in building preservice teacher's understanding and that benefits from the hands-on learning stations approached statistical significance. A paired samples t

  19. Science-based occupations and the science curriculum: Concepts of evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikenhead, Glen S.

    2005-03-01

    What science-related knowledge is actually used by nurses in their day-to-day clinical reasoning when attending patients? The study investigated the knowledge-in-use of six acute-care nurses in a hospital surgical unit. It was found that the nurses mainly drew upon their professional knowledge of nursing and upon their procedural understanding that included a common core of concepts of evidence (concepts implicitly applied to the evaluation of data and the evaluation of evidence - the focus of this research). This core included validity triangulation, normalcy range, accuracy, and a general predilection for direct sensual access to a phenomenon over indirect machine-managed access. A cluster of emotion-related concepts of evidence (e.g. cultural sensitivity) was also discovered. These results add to a compendium of concepts of evidence published in the literature. Only a small proportion of nurses (one of the six nurses in the study) used canonical science content in their clinical reasoning, a result consistent with other research. This study also confirms earlier research on employees in science-rich workplaces in general, and on professional development programs for nurses specifically: canonical science content found in a typical science curriculum (e.g. high school physics) does not appear relevant to many nurses' knowledge-in-use. These findings support a curriculum policy that gives emphasis to students learning how to learn science content as required by an authentic everyday or workplace context, and to students learning concepts of evidence.

  20. Using Soils to Teach Basic Concepts in Science and Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindbo, David L.; Kozlowski, Deborah; Robinson, Clay; Chapman, Susan

    2014-05-01

    Teaching primary and secondary school students (K-12) about science and art, although absolutely critical, can be difficult. Teachers have specific standards or subject matters that they are required to cover and often soils and soil science is not included in that list. We have struggled with ways to bring soil science information to the larger audience as the direct approach meets with resistance due to the time commitments to other standards. Our approach now is to use soils as a media or vehicle to teach key concepts in broad subject areas. We have developed several lesson plans in science, geography, math and art that focus on a concept but use soils to convey it. For example students make "mini" monoliths of a state soil. During this exercise students need to use skills in geography to find where their state soil occurs in their state and in the country. They need to understand colors in order to choose the correct colors to use to make their monolith. Finally, they must understand how scales work in order to make the monolith accurate in terms of horizon depths. Throughout the exercise discussion on my certain colors occur in the soil can be discussed. This discussion can lead to a qualitative understanding of chemistry and biology. This presentation will demonstrate this lesson and several others that have been developed and available through the Soil Science Society of America's K12 Education Committee.

  1. Radio Science Concepts and Approaches for Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Asmar, S. W.; Castillo, J. C.; Folkner, W. M.; Konopliv, A. S.; Marouf, E. A.; Rappaport, N. J.; Schubert, G.; Spilker, T. R.; Tyler, G. L.

    2003-01-01

    Radio Science experiments have been conducted on most deep space missions leading to numerous scientific discoveries. A set of concepts and approaches are proposed for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) to apply Radio Science tools to investigate the interior structures of the Galilean Satellites and address key questions on their thermal and dynamical evolution. Measurements are identified that utilize the spacecraft's telecommunication system. Additional instruments can augment these measurements in order to leverage observational synergies. Experiments are also offered for the purpose of investigating the atmospheres and surfaces of the satellites.

  2. The Role of Drawing in Young Children's Construction of Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ni

    2012-01-01

    It has been observed that many young children like making marks on paper and that they enjoy the activity. It is also known that children's drawings are vehicles for expression and communication. Therefore, it would be logical and reasonable for teachers to incorporate children's drawings into building science concepts. To demonstrate how drawings…

  3. Rockets: Physical science teacher's guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Carla R. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This guide begins with background information sections on the history of rocketry, scientific principles, and practical rocketry. The sections on scientific principles and practical rocketry are based on Isaac Newton's three laws of motion. These laws explain why rockets work and how to make them more efficient. The background sections are followed with a series of physical science activities that demonstrate the basic science of rocketry. Each activity is designed to be simple and take advantage of inexpensive materials. Construction diagrams, materials and tools lists, and instructions are included. A brief discussion elaborates on the concepts covered in the activities and is followed with teaching notes and discussion questions. The guide concludes with a glossary of terms, suggested reading list, NASA educational resources, and an evaluation questionnaire with a mailer.

  4. Assessment of teachers' ability to integrate science concepts into secondary agriculture programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scales, Jason A.

    For the past two decades, the idea of integrating more science concepts into the agricultural education curriculum has been gaining support. The purposes of this study were two fold: (1) To assess the knowledge base and interest levels among agriculture instructors in teaching concepts related to science; (2) To assess how such a change in the curriculum would impact current agricultural education programs. The sample was derived from the population of agriculture instructors teaching in Missouri secondary schools. For this descriptive correlational research, an instrument was developed to assess the instructors' perceived level of competence to teach selected science grade level expectations (GLE) and their relationship to the agricultural education curriculum and programs. A second instrument, solicited from the American Board for Certification in Teacher Excellence, was used to assess the general biological science knowledge of the teachers. Agriculture instructors perceive that they are competent to teach and integrate science GLEs into the agriculture curriculum. However, their scores on the examination of knowledge of biological science brings into question their competence to teach this subject matter. Teachers believe integrating science into the agriculture curriculum will benefit their program and their students; however, they unsure if their classes should count for science credit or if FFA programs and activities are a good match for a more science-based curriculum.

  5. Earth Science Activities: A Guide to Effective Elementary School Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanis, Ira B.; Yasso, Warren E.

    The primary emphasis of this book is on new or revised earth science activities that promote concept development rather than mere verification of concepts learned by passive means. Chapter 2 describes philosophies, strategies, methods, and techniques to guide preservice and inservice teachers, school building administrators, and curriculum…

  6. Alternative Planetary Science Conceptions Exhibited by College-Educated Americans: Results from Questionnaires and the Geoscience Concept Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, S. W.; Libarkin, J. C.

    2007-03-01

    Alternative planetary science conceptions have been revealed through college student testing and questionnaires. Students exhibit non-scientific conceptions about the planets, and many of these ideas persist even after college-level instruction.

  7. Leveraging Cognitive Science Underpinnings to Enhance NGSS Astronomy Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Stephanie; Slater, Timothy F.

    2014-06-01

    National-scale science education reform efforts have been hampered by highly fragmented frameworks and standards that vary considerably from one state to the next. In an effort to improve the quality of science education across the nation’s K-12 schools, the 2013 Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) have been designed to guide states in specifying the learning targets and performance expectations of all K-12 students. The NGSS is designed to reflect the 2011 Framework for K-12 Science Education developed by the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences. As teachers, curriculum developers, and assessment experts begin to implement the NGSS in specific geographical and socio-economic contexts, moving beyond an examination of common student misconceptions and reasoning difficulties to delineate the specific cognitive sources of those difficulties, and the specific interventions that can serve as countermeasures, should be a fruitful next step. While astronomy education researchers have already documented challenges in teaching system processes that operate with the space system, solar system, and interconnected Earth science systems, we are far from a thorough understanding of student thinking in astronomy. Many of these ideas can be better taught-and tested-by carefully examining the underlying cognitive science including learners’ difficulties with spatial thinking and the prescribed astronomy and space science concepts. The NGSS may prove to be useful as a framework for next steps in the cognitive science within astronomy, and this work may benefit from deliberate collaborations between education researchers, curriculum developers, and those who engage in teacher professional development.

  8. Outcomes of nature of science instruction along a context continuum: preservice secondary science teachers' conceptions and instructional intentions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Randy L.; Mulvey, Bridget K.; Maeng, Jennifer L.

    2016-02-01

    This investigation examined outcomes associated with nature of science (NOS) instruction along a science-content context continuum on the development of secondary preservice science teachers' conceptions of and plans to teach NOS, moving beyond the common dichotomy of contextualized versus noncontextualized instruction. Participants comprised six teacher cohorts (n = 70) enrolled in a two-year Master of Teaching program. Participants were explicitly taught current NOS conceptions using activities that incorporated varied degrees of contextualization and were informed by conceptual change principles during the first program year. Participants' pre- and post-instruction conceptions were assessed using VNOS-C questionnaire written responses and follow-up interviews. Participants' views were classified by degree of alignment (non, partially, or fully aligned) with current NOS conceptions. Interview transcripts were analyzed using analytic induction to verify/refine VNOS responses and to identify patterns in NOS instructional plans and rationales. Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were run to assess possible statistical significance of pre- to post-instruction changes. Participants' responses shifted markedly toward more aligned NOS conceptions post-instruction, with substantial and statistically significant gains for each assessed tenet (all p-values <.001). All participants planned future NOS instruction and most expressed a sophisticated rationale for this choice, including that NOS supported the teaching of key concepts such as evolution. These results indicate that teaching and scaffolding NOS lessons along a context continuum can be effective in eliciting desired changes in preservice teachers' NOS conceptions and instructional intentions within the confines of the science methods course. Future research will examine post-methods course and post-program NOS instruction.

  9. Activities in Planetary Geology for the Physical and Earth Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Alli, Richard, Ed.; Greely, Ronald, Ed.

    The activities in this guide deal with concepts in planetary geology, but they can be generalized to illustrate broad problems in the earth sciences. They are designed to supplement or introduce topics usually encountered in earth science courses. The exercises, organized into independent units which can be presented in any order, are appropriate…

  10. Science Activities for Teachers and Families To Explore with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, S. Wali; Freilich, Mark B.; Taylor, Satomi Izumi

    1998-01-01

    Describes science activities for preschool through primary-grade children, focusing on goals of science education, science processes, and characteristics of high-quality science activities. Notes that hands-on activities explore scientific concepts such as volume, gravity, heat conductivity, and condensation. (KB)

  11. Science Data Center concepts for moderate-sized NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, R.; Han, D.; Pedelty, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the approaches taken by the NASA Science Data Operations Center to the concepts for two future NASA moderate-sized missions, the Orbiting Solar Laboratory (OSL) and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The OSL space science mission will be a free-flying spacecraft with a complement of science instruments, placed in a high-inclination, sun synchronous orbit to allow continuous study of the sun for extended periods. The TRMM is planned to be a free-flying satellite for measuring tropical rainfall and its variations. Both missions will produce 'standard' data products for the benefit of their communities, and both depend upon their own scientific community to provide algorithms for generating the standard data products.

  12. Mars Science Laboratory Using Laser Instrument, Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This artist's conception of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory portrays use of the rover's ChemCam instrument to identify the chemical composition of a rock sample on the surface of Mars.

    ChemCam is innovative for planetary exploration in using a technique referred to as laser breakdown spectroscopy to determine the chemical composition of samples from distances of up to about 8 meters (25 feet) away. ChemCam is led by a team at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements in Toulouse, France.

    Mars Science Laboratory, a mobile robot for investigating Mars' past or present ability to sustain microbial life, is in development at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory for a launch opportunity in 2009. The mission is managed by JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  13. Primary Bilingual Science Activities Handbook, Grades K-2, Spanish/English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Santa Irizarry; Best, Nancy Dougherty

    This handbook consists of 60 science activities, 20 each for kindergarten, grade 1, and grade 2. Each activity has five parts: (1) a science concept; (2) behavioral objectives; (3) motivational activity; (4) suggested class activity; and (5) questions. Activities are selected from the biological, earth, and physical sciences. The handbook is…

  14. Mission and science activity scheduling language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry G.

    1993-01-01

    To support the distributed and complex operational scheduling required for future National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) missions, a formal, textual language, the Scheduling Applications Interface Language (SAIL), has been developed. Increased geographic dispersion of investigators is leading to distributed mission and science activity planning, scheduling, and operations. SAIL is an innovation which supports the effective and efficient communication of scheduling information among physically dispersed applications in distributed scheduling environments. SAIL offers a clear, concise, unambiguous expression of scheduling information in a readable, hardware independent format. The language concept, syntax, and semantics incorporate language features found useful during five years of research and prototyping with scheduling languages in physically distributed environments. SAIL allows concise specification of mission and science activity plans in a format which promotes repetition and reuse.

  15. Marine Science Activities, Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for grade 6 students. The unit is divided into the following sections: (1) Pagoo (story of a hermit crab); (2) introduction to marine environments; (3) salt water environment; (4) sea water investigations; (5)…

  16. Marine Science Activities, Grade Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for second grade students. The unit, focusing on awareness of living/non-living factors shaping life of the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: physical characteristics of oceans; fish; sea anemone;…

  17. Munazza's story: Understanding science teaching and conceptions of the nature of science in Pakistan through a life history study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halai, Nelofer

    activity. I believe this inquiry is significant because it has led to a better understanding of a science teacher's practice and her conceptions of the nature of science in a school in Pakistan. Moreover, the study has utilized research methods that advocates a more equitable researcher-researched relationship.

  18. Information in Our World: Conceptions of Information and Problems of Method in Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Lai

    2012-01-01

    Many concepts of information have been proposed and discussed in library and information science. These concepts of information can be broadly categorized as empirical and situational information. Unlike nomenclatures in many sciences, however, the concept of information in library and information science does not bear a generally accepted…

  19. Analysis of Saudi Arabian middle and high school science teachers' conceptions of the nature of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almazroa, Hiya Mohammed

    This study was conducted to explore Saudi middle and high school science teachers' conceptions of the Nature of Science (NOS). It also detected the effects of gender, science content major, and years of teaching experience on teachers' conceptions of the NOS. The study included a sample of 786 science teachers (137 male and 649 female) who were teaching in middle and high schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in the 1995-1996 academic year. The study was conducted using a translated version of the Nature of Science Scale (NOSS) developed by Kimball (1967). The scale contains 29 items ranging from "agree" to "disagree", and the scoring of the items ranged from 29 to 87. The lowest score is 29 (1 x 29) and the highest score possible on the test is 87 (3 x 29 items). The data collected was statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The study revealed that Saudi science teachers as a group hold numerous misconceptions about the NOS with a significant difference in understanding the NOS between the male and female teachers. The study also showed that teachers with a major in physics held more adequate views than did teachers with other majors. In addition, novice teachers were found to have more adequate conceptions of the NOS than did experienced teachers.

  20. Analytic Concepts and the Relation Between Content and Process in Science Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edward L.

    The interrelation of science content and process is discussed in terms of analytic and systemic concepts. Analytic concepts identify the type or form of systemic concepts found in particular disciplines. In terms of analytic concepts, science processes such as observation, deduction, and prediction can be identified and defined as operations…

  1. Preservice Teachers' Classroom Practice and Their Conceptions of the Nature of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellado, Vicente

    1997-01-01

    Describes research conducted with student teachers of elementary and secondary science education. Analyzes and compares the preservice teachers' conceptions of science with their classroom practices when teaching a science lesson. Results indicate that there is no correspondence between student teacher conceptions of the nature of science and…

  2. Geostationary orbit Earth science platform concepts for global change monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Jeffery T.; Campbell, Thomas G.; Davis, William T.; Garn, Paul A.; King, Charles B.; Jackson, Cheryl C.

    1991-01-01

    Functionality of a geostationary spacecraft to support Earth science regional process research is identified. Most regional process studies require high spatial and temporal resolution. These high temporal resolutions are on the order of 30 minutes and may be achievable with instruments positioned in a geostationary orbit. A complement of typical existing or near term instruments are identified to take advantage of this altitude. This set of instruments is listed, and the requirements these instruments impose on a spacecraft are discussed. A brief description of the geostationary spacecraft concepts which support these instruments is presented.

  3. The Classroom Practice of Preservice Teachers and Their Conceptions of Teaching and Learning Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellado, Vicente

    1998-01-01

    Describes research conducted with student teachers (N=4) in primary and secondary science education. Compares and analyzes conceptions of the teaching and learning of science with classroom practice when teaching science lessons. Contains 101 references. (DDR)

  4. Teach Life Science Concepts--with Picture Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that young children need help translating scientific theory into experiences that involve their senses. Provides age-appropriate, literature-based activities for exploring concepts and vocabulary in the areas of plant life cycles, animal life cycles, ocean ecology, and human growth development. Suggests specific works of children's…

  5. Correlation of Students' Brain Types to Their Conceptions of Learning Science and Approaches to Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jiyeon; Jeon, Dongryul

    2015-01-01

    The systemizing and empathizing brain type represent two contrasted students' characteristics. The present study investigated differences in the conceptions and approaches to learning science between the systemizing and empathizing brain type students. The instruments are questionnaires on the systematizing and empathizing, questionnaires on the…

  6. Teaching science for conceptual change: Toward a proposed taxonomy of diagnostic teaching strategies to gauge students' personal science conceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, Richard Edwin, III

    Science instruction aims to ensure that students properly construct scientific knowledge so that each individual may play a role as a science literate citizen or as part of the science workforce (National Research Council, 1996, 2000). Students enter the classroom with a wide range of personal conceptions regarding science phenomena, often at variance with prevailing scientific views (Duschl, Hamilton, & Grandy, 1992; Hewson, 1992). The extensive misconceptions research literature emphasizes the importance of diagnosing students' initial understandings in order to gauge the accuracy and depth of what each student knows prior to instruction and then to use that information to adapt the teaching to address student needs. (Ausubel, 1968; Carey, 2000; Driver et al., 1985; Karplus & Thier, 1967; Mintzes, Wandersee, & Novak, 1998; Osborne & Freyberg, 1985; Project 2061, 1993; Strike & Posner, 1982, 1992; Vygotsky, 1934/1987). To gain such insight, teachers diagnose not only the content of the students' personal conceptions but also the thinking processes that produced them (Strike and Posner, 1992). Indeed, when teachers design opportunities for students to express their understanding, there is strong evidence that such diagnostic assessment also enhances science teaching and learning (Black & William, 1998). The functional knowledge of effective science teaching practice resides in the professional practitioners at the front lines---the science teachers in the classroom. Nevertheless, how teachers actually engage in the practice of diagnosis is not well documented. To help fill this gap, the researcher conducted a study of 16 sixth grade science classrooms in four Los Angeles area middle schools. Diagnostic teaching strategies were observed in action and then followed up by interviews with each teacher. Results showed that teachers use strategies that vary by the complexity of active student involvement, including pretests, strategic questions, interactive discussion

  7. The Nature of Science in Science Curricula: Methods and concepts of analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Sílvia; Morais, Ana M.

    2013-11-01

    The article shows methods and concepts of analysis of the nature of science in science curricula through an exemplary study made in Portugal. The study analyses the extent to which the message transmitted by the Natural Science curriculum for Portuguese middle school considers the nature of science. It is epistemologically and sociologically grounded with particular emphasis on Bernstein's theory of pedagogic discourse and Ziman's conceptualization of science construction. The study used a mixed methodology and followed a dialectical process between the theoretical and the empirical. The results show that the nature of science has a low status in the curriculum with the exception of the external sociological dimension of science. Intra-disciplinary relations between scientific and metascientific knowledge are mostly absent. Recontextualization processes occurred between the two main parts of the curriculum. These results are discussed and their consequences in terms of scientific learning are explored. The mode of analysis used in the study has the potential of highlighting the level of a science curriculum, in terms of specific aspects of the nature of science.

  8. The life of concepts: Georges Canguilhem and the history of science.

    PubMed

    Schmidgen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Twelve years after his famous Essay on Some Problems Concerning the Normal and the Pathological (1943), the philosopher Georges Canguilhem (1904-1995) published a book-length study on the history of a single biological concept. Within France, his Formation of the Reflex Concept in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (1955) contributed significantly to defining the "French style" of writing on the history of science. Outside of France, the book passed largely unnoticed. This paper re-reads Canguilhem's study of the reflex concept with respect to its historiographical and epistemological implications. Canguilhem defines concepts as complex and dynamic entities combining terms, definitions, and phenomena. As a consequence, the historiography of science becomes a rather complex task. It has to take into account textual and contextual aspects that develop independently of individual authors. In addition, Canguilhem stresses the connection between conceptual activities and other functions of organic individuals in their respective environments. As a result, biological concepts become tied to a biology of conceptual thinking, analogical reasoning, and technological practice. The paper argues that this seemingly circular structure is a major feature in Canguilhem's philosophical approach to the history of the biological sciences. PMID:25515359

  9. Determination of concept technology - the ontology of the concept as a component of the knowledge development in caring science.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Eila-Sisko; Nordman, Tina; Eriksson, Katie

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the ontology of the concept of technology from the perspective of caring science. The aim is to increase knowledge of the concept in caring science and to answer the research question concerning what the concept of technology is in caring science. In literature, the concept of technology is used diversely referring it to caring technology, nursing technology, wellbeing technology, information technology, telenursing and technology in care named by a specific device or an area of nursing or medicine. The definition of the concept of technology and its ontology has not been determined from the viewpoint of caring science. Eriksson's model of concept determination provides a method to explore the ontology of the concept. This includes an etymological and semantic analysis as well as a determination of essence and basic category of the concept. The results showed that the concept of technology is multidimensional. It has evolved and altered over the centuries. The origin of the concept formulated from the Greek word 'techne', which has wider ontological dimensions. It is universal, it can be taught and it depends on the substance. Subsequently, the concept was introduced an ethical dimension, and it also developed more to the direction of engineering, mechanics and technical know-how. The semantic analysis revealed synonyms of the concept: art, equipment and knowledge. These introduced concepts such as craft, skill, treatment, engineering, science, study method and way. The nuances of the concept framed its nature. On the one hand, it stands out as practical and advanced, but on the other hand, it is difficult and conventional. The knowledge gained in this study will help to understand the phenomenon of technology in caring science. PMID:24506411

  10. Design concepts for the Centrifuge Facility Life Sciences Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Sidney C.; Horkachuck, Michael J.; Mckeown, Kellie A.

    1989-01-01

    The Life Sciences Glovebox will provide the bioisolated environment to support on-orbit operations involving non-human live specimens and samples for human life sceinces experiments. It will be part of the Centrifuge Facility, in which animal and plant specimens are housed in bioisolated Habitat modules and transported to the Glovebox as part of the experiment protocols supported by the crew. At the Glovebox, up to two crew members and two habitat modules must be accommodated to provide flexibility and support optimal operations. This paper will present several innovative design concepts that attempt to satisfy the basic Glovebox requirements. These concepts were evaluated for ergonomics and ease of operations using computer modeling and full-scale mockups. The more promising ideas were presented to scientists and astronauts for their evaluation. Their comments, and the results from other evaluations are presented. Based on the evaluations, the authors recommend designs and features that will help optimize crew performance and facilitate science accommodations, and specify problem areas that require further study.

  11. Concept Development and Transfer in Context-Based Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, John K.; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Pilot, Albert

    2011-04-01

    'Context-based courses' are increasingly used in an address to the major challenges that science education currently faces: lack of clear purpose, content overload, incoherent learning by students, lack of relevance to students, and lack of transfer of learning to new contexts. In this paper, four criteria for the design of context-based courses that would be successful in meeting these challenges are rehearsed. It is concluded that only a model based on 'context as social circumstances' would meet the four criteria for success. From this, the notion of concept development is presented based on the idea of the production of coherent mental maps. The notion of transfer is discussed in terms of how such mental maps may be useful for understanding other contexts. The definitions of concept development and transfer give a clearer view of how exemplars of existing context-based approaches may be analysed to show their degree of facilitation of worthwhile science education. Research questions to be addressed in such analyses are presented.

  12. Control concepts for active magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegwart, Roland; Vischer, D.; Larsonneur, R.; Herzog, R.; Traxler, Alfons; Bleuler, H.; Schweitzer, G.

    1992-01-01

    Active Magnetic Bearings (AMB) are becoming increasingly significant for various industrial applications. Examples are turbo-compressors, centrifuges, high speed milling and grinding spindles, vibration isolation, linear guides, magnetically levitated trains, vacuum and space applications. Thanks to the rapid progress and drastic cost reduction in power- and micro-electronics, the number of AMB applications is growing very rapidly. Industrial uses of AMBs leads to new requirements for AMB-actuators, sensor systems, and rotor dynamics. Especially desirable are new and better control concepts to meet demand such as low cost AMB, high stiffness, high performance, high robustness, high damping up to several kHz, vibration isolation, force-free rotation, and unbalance cancellation. This paper surveys various control concepts for AMBs and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. Theoretical and experimental results are presented.

  13. Concepts of Connectivity and Human Epileptic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, Louis; Daunizeau, Jean; Walker, Matthew C.

    2011-01-01

    This review attempts to place the concept of connectivity from increasingly sophisticated neuroimaging data analysis methodologies within the field of epilepsy research. We introduce the more principled connectivity terminology developed recently in neuroimaging and review some of the key concepts related to the characterization of propagation of epileptic activity using what may be called traditional correlation-based studies based on EEG. We then show how essentially similar methodologies, and more recently models addressing causality, have been used to characterize whole-brain and regional networks using functional MRI data. Following a discussion of our current understanding of the neuronal system aspects of the onset and propagation of epileptic discharges and seizures, we discuss the most advanced and ambitious framework to attempt to fully characterize epileptic networks based on neuroimaging data. PMID:21472027

  14. Relational Analysis of College Science-Major Students' Epistemological Beliefs Toward Science and Conceptions of Learning Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2010-11-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest among educational researchers in exploring the relationships between learners' epistemological beliefs and their conceptions of learning. This study was conducted to investigate these relationships particularly in the domain of science. The participants in this study included 407 Taiwanese college science-major students. All of them responded to two major questionnaires, one assessing their scientific epistemological beliefs (SEBs) and the other one probing their conceptions of learning science (COLS). The SEB questionnaire included four factors: "certainty," "source," "development," and "justification" of science knowledge. The COLS survey consisted of six factors in a hierarchical order, that is, learning science as "memorizing," "preparing for tests," "calculating and practicing," "increasing one's knowledge," "application," and "understanding and seeing in a new way." The students' confidence and interest toward learning science were also assessed by additional questionnaire items. Stepwise regression analyses, in general, showed coherence between students' SEBs and their COLS, indicating that the sophistication of SEBs was consistent with less agreement with lower-level COLS (such as "memorizing" and "preparing for tests") as well as more agreement with higher-level COLS (such as "understanding and seeing in a new way"). However, the SEB's "justification" factor was positively related to almost all of COLS factors from the lower-level to higher-level. This study finally found that among all of the SEB and COLS factors, the "preparing for tests" factor in COLS was the solely significant variable for predicting students' interest in science and confidence toward learning science.

  15. Biofield Science and Healing: History, Terminology, and Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Muehsam, David; Hammerschlag, Richard; Jain, Shamini

    2015-01-01

    Biofield science is an emerging field of study that aims to provide a scientific foundation for understanding the complex homeodynamic regulation of living systems. By furthering our scientific knowledge of the biofield, we arrive at a better understanding of the foundations of biology as well as the phenomena that have been described as “energy medicine.” Energy medicine, the application of extremely low-level signals to the body, including energy healer interventions and bio-electromagnetic device-based therapies, is incomprehensible from the dominant biomedical paradigm of “life as chemistry.” The biofield or biological field, a complex organizing energy field engaged in the generation, maintenance, and regulation of biological homeodynamics, is a useful concept that provides the rudiments of a scientific foundation for energy medicine and thereby advances the research and practice of it. An overview on the biofield is presented in this paper, with a focus on the history of the concept, related terminology, key scientific concepts, and the value of the biofield perspective for informing future research. PMID:26665037

  16. Biofield Science and Healing: History, Terminology, and Concepts.

    PubMed

    Rubik, Beverly; Muehsam, David; Hammerschlag, Richard; Jain, Shamini

    2015-11-01

    Biofield science is an emerging field of study that aims to provide a scientific foundation for understanding the complex homeodynamic regulation of living systems. By furthering our scientific knowledge of the biofield, we arrive at a better understanding of the foundations of biology as well as the phenomena that have been described as "energy medicine." Energy medicine, the application of extremely low-level signals to the body, including energy healer interventions and bio-electromagnetic device-based therapies, is incomprehensible from the dominant biomedical paradigm of "life as chemistry." The biofield or biological field, a complex organizing energy field engaged in the generation, maintenance, and regulation of biological homeodynamics, is a useful concept that provides the rudiments of a scientific foundation for energy medicine and thereby advances the research and practice of it. An overview on the biofield is presented in this paper, with a focus on the history of the concept, related terminology, key scientific concepts, and the value of the biofield perspective for informing future research. PMID:26665037

  17. Teaching Nature of Science to Preservice Science Teachers: A Phenomenographic Study of Chinese Teacher Educators' Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Zhi Hong; Wong, Siu Ling; Zhan, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from the phenomenographic perspective, this study investigated Chinese science teacher educators' conceptions of teaching nature of science (NOS) to preservice science teachers through two semi-structured interviews. The subjects were twenty-four science teacher educators in the developed regions in China. Five key dimensions emerged…

  18. The Effect of Background Experience and an Advance Organizer on the Attainment of Certain Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdaragh, Mary Kathleen

    This study examined the effects of an advance organizer and background experience in science on the attainment of science concepts. Ninth-grade earth science students (N=90) were given the Dubbins Earth Science Test (DEST) and a Science Background Experience Inventory (SBEI) developed by the author. They were then placed into high, medium, and low…

  19. S.E.A. Lab. Science Experiments and Activities. Marine Science for High School Students in Chemistry, Biology and Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kathy, Ed.

    A series of science experiments and activities designed for secondary school students taking biology, chemistry, physics, physical science or marine science courses are outlined. Each of the three major sections--chemistry, biology, and physics--addresses concepts that are generally covered in those courses but incorporates aspects of marine…

  20. The Commonalities and Dissonances between High-School Students' and Their Science Teachers' Conceptions of Science Learning and Conceptions of Science Assessment: A Taiwanese Sample Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to concurrently investigate Taiwanese high-school students' and their science teachers' conceptions of learning science (COLS) and conceptions of science assessment (COSA). A total of 1,048 Taiwanese high-school students and their 59 science teachers were invited to fill out two questionnaires assessing…

  1. Relational Analysis of College Science-Major Students' Epistemological Beliefs toward Science and Conceptions of Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest among educational researchers in exploring the relationships between learners' epistemological beliefs and their conceptions of learning. This study was conducted to investigate these relationships particularly in the domain of science. The participants in this study included 407 Taiwanese…

  2. Research Methodologies in Science Education - Assessing Students' Alternative Conceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libarkin, Julie C.; Kurdziel, Josepha P.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the issues related to students' alternative conceptions, how these conceptions affect student learning, identification of these conceptions, and teaching methods able to transform students' conceptions into scientific understanding. Includes 20 references. (YDS)

  3. Edible Earth and Space Science Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D.; Shupla, C.

    2014-07-01

    In this workshop we describe using Earth and Space Science demonstrations with edible ingredients to increase student interest. We show how to use chocolate, candy, cookies, popcorn, bagels, pastries, Pringles, marshmallows, whipped cream, and Starburst candy for activities such as: plate tectonics, the interior structure of the Earth and Mars, radioactivity/radioactive dating of rocks and stars, formation of the planets, lunar phases, convection, comets, black holes, curvature of space, dark energy, and the expansion of the Universe. In addition to creating an experience that will help students remember specific concepts, edible activities can be used as a formative assessment, providing students with the opportunity to create something that demonstrates their understanding of the model. The students often eat the demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool for all ages, and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  4. Science Teaching and Learning Activities and Students' Engagement in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampden-Thompson, Gillian; Bennett, Judith

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to describe the variation in students' reports of engagement in science across science teaching and learning activities. In addition, this study examines student and school characteristics that may be associated with students' levels of engagement in science. Data are drawn from the Programme for International Student Assessment 2006 study. The analysis employs a quantitative approach that includes descriptive and inferential statistics to examine three measures of student engagement for a nationally representative sample of approximately 12,000 15-year-old students in the UK. The main results indicate that there is an association between students' motivation towards science, enjoyment of science and future orientation towards science, and the frequency in which various teaching and learning activities take place in the classroom. Understanding student engagement in science and the factors that influence it is essential in addressing the issue of uptake of science after compulsory schooling.

  5. The Problem of Terminology in the Study of Student Conceptions in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abimbola, I. O.

    1988-01-01

    Identifies and discusses the epistemological roots of various terms that have been used to describe student conceptions in the literature with a view to suggest which term science eductors should adopt. Argues that "alternative conceptions" is preferable to "alternative frameworks" for use in describing student conceptions in science. (CW)

  6. Do Elementary Science Methods Textbooks Facilitate the Understanding of Magnet Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2000-01-01

    Examines elementary science methods textbooks to determine how magnet concepts are presented. Focuses on the organization, sequence of concepts, and potential misconceptions, and includes types of investigations. Analyzed 11 elementary science methods textbooks in detail and found great variation in the magnet concepts presented, general omission…

  7. Teaching Concepts of Natural Sciences to Foreigners through Content-Based Instruction: The Adjunct Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satilmis, Yilmaz; Yakup, Doganay; Selim, Guvercin; Aybarsha, Islam

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates three models of content-based instruction in teaching concepts and terms of natural sciences in order to increase the efficiency of teaching these kinds of concepts in realization and to prove that the content-based instruction is a teaching strategy that helps students understand concepts of natural sciences. Content-based…

  8. Exploring Seventh-Grade Students' and Pre-Service Science Teachers' Misconceptions in Astronomical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korur, Fikret

    2015-01-01

    Pre-service science teachers' conceptual understanding of astronomical concepts and their misconceptions in these concepts is crucial to study since they will teach these subjects in middle schools after becoming teachers. This study aimed to explore both seventh-grade students' and the science teachers' understanding of astronomical concepts and…

  9. Children's Trade Books: Do They Affect the Development of Science Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Diana C.; Snipes, Christy

    The purpose of this research study was to explore the effects of children's trade books on the development of science concepts. The two objectives of this exploratory study were to determine whether children's ideas about specific science concepts change when trade books containing information about those concepts are read to them, and…

  10. Using concept maps to explore preservice teachers' perceptions of science content knowledge, teaching practices, and reflective processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somers, Judy L.

    This qualitative study examined seven preservice teachers' perceptions of their science content knowledge, teaching practices, and reflective processes through the use of the metacognitive strategy of concept maps. Included in the paper is a review of literature in the areas of preservice teachers' perceptions of teaching, concept development, concept mapping, science content understanding, and reflective process as a part of metacognition. The key questions addressed include the use of concept maps to indicate organization and understanding of science content, mapping strategies to indicate perceptions of teaching practice, and the influence of concept maps on reflective process. There is also a comparison of preservice teachers' perceptions of concept map usage with the purposes and practices of maps as described by experienced teachers. Data were collected primarily through interviews, observations, a pre and post concept mapping activity, and an analysis of those concept maps using a rubric developed for this study. Findings showed that concept map usage clarified students' understanding of the organization and relationships within content area and that the process of creating the concept maps increased participants' understanding of the selected content. The participants felt that the visual element of concept mapping was an important factor in improving content understanding. These participants saw benefit in using concept maps as planning tools and as instructional tools. They did not recognize the use of concept maps as assessment tools. When the participants were able to find personal relevance in and through their concept maps they were better able to be reflective about the process. The experienced teachers discussed student understanding and skill development as the primary purpose of concept map usage, while they were able to use concept maps to accomplish multiple purposes in practice.

  11. Using Children's Literature to Teach Standard-Based Science Concepts in Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Flevares, Lucia M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the benefits and limitations of using children's literature in introducing science concepts to young children. The manuscript also provides an overview of preschool science standards of 12 states and presents lists of appropriate children's literature suitable to use in teaching science concepts targeted in those preschool…

  12. Developing Mathematical Concepts with Microcomputer Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Karen

    1983-01-01

    Material covers: (1) What Is a Mathematical Concept; (2) How are Mathematical Concepts Developed; (3) How Can Computers Help Children Learn Concepts; (4) Using Software; (5) Writing Programs; and (6) What Must We Do. Using software and writing programs are two very different experiences, but both can enhance concept development processes. (MP)

  13. Nuclear Science Teaching Aids and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodburn, John H.

    This publication is a sourcebook for science teachers. It provides guides for basic laboratory work in nuclear energy, suggesting various teacher and student demonstrations. Ideas for science clubs, science fairs, and project research seminars are presented. Problem-solving activities for both science and mathematics classes are included, as well…

  14. An Integrated Concept on Earth and Environmental Sciences Postgraduate Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosfeld, Klaus; Lohmann, Gerrit; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Burrows, John; Sprengel, Claudia; Bijma, Jelle

    2010-05-01

    disciplines to cooperate and exchange views on the common theme of ‘linking data and modelling', leading to a better understanding of local processes within a global context. Computational and conceptual models of the Earth system provide the ability to investigate different scenarios in biogeochemistry, such as the carbon cycle, the structure of marine sediments, and isotope distribution in climate components. Training and education, especially in time-series and data analysis, is a common key component for all participants. The Helmholtz Graduate School for Polar and Marine Research (POLMAR) (polmar.awi.de), beyond the aforementioned programmes in further cooperation with the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, the University of Potsdam, Bremerhaven University of Applied Science and the Institute for Marine Resources (IMARE), provides a consistent framework for education and qualification for PhD students in general. Developing all categories of skills needed for analysing complex climate and environmental systems and the development of integrated solutions in a supportive network of collaborating research institutions fosters outstanding career options. Structured scientific training and supervision supported by a broad range of transferable skills development courses is indicative for the entire concept. This structured and integrated educational concept provides a strong basis for qualifying the next generation of excellent scientists for the challenging questions in Earth System Science and Polar and Marine Research.

  15. The Science Operations Concept for the ExoMars 2016 Trace Gas Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frew, D.

    2014-04-01

    The ExoMars 2016 Science Operations Centre (SOC) based at the European Space Astronomy Centre is responsible for coordinating the science planning activities for the Trace Gas Orbiter. Science planning will involve all members of the ExoMars 2016 science ground segment (SGS), namely the SOC at ESAC, the Russian SOC at IKI, the orbiter instrument teams and the science management of the 2016 mission represented by the science working team (SWT) that is chaired by the project scientist. The science operations concept for the mission builds on the legacy inherited from previous ESA planetary missions, in particular from Mars Express for the core plan validation aspects and from the Smart-1 lunar mission for the opportunity analysis and longterm planning approach. Further concept drivers have been derived from the ExoMars 2016 mission profile in the areas of orbit predictability, instrument design and the usage of TGO as a relay for surface assets including the ExoMars 2018 rover. This paper will give an over view of the entire uplink planning process as it is conducted over 3 distinct planning cycles. The Long Term Plan (LTP) establishes the baseline science plan and demonstrates the operational feasibility of meeting the mission science goals formulated by the science working team (SWT) at science management level. The LTP has a planning horizon of 6 months. Each month of the baseline science plan is refined with the instrument teams within the Medium Term Plan (MTP) to converge on a frozen attitude request and resource envelopes for all of the observations in the plan. During the Short Term Planning cycle the SOC will iterate with the teams to finalise the commanding for all of the observations in the plan for the coming week. The description of the uplink planning process will focus on two key areas that are common to all of the planning cycles mentioned above: • Science Plan Abstraction: Interacting with the science plan at the appropriate level of abstraction to

  16. Conceptions of learning science among high school students in Taiwan: a phenomenographic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chin-Chung

    Educators and psychologists have evidence that students' conceptions of learning have a profound influence on the learning process, and thus are related to learning outcomes. The purpose of this paper was to explore the conceptions of learning science held by 120 Taiwanese high school students. The interview data gathered from these students, analysed by a phenomenographic method, revealed seven categories of conceptions of learning science, including: learning science as memorizing, preparing for tests, calculating and practising tutorial problems, the increase of knowledge, applying, understanding, and seeing in a new way. The educational contexts or curricular programmes in which these high school students enrolled also played a role in their conceptions of learning science. This study finally proposed a framework to describe the variations of the conceptions of learning science, consisting of the following features: the forms of knowledge acquisition, motivational orientations, and standards of evaluating learning outcomes. How to change students' unfruitful conceptions of learning science was also discussed.

  17. Student Engagement with Artefacts and Scientific Ideas in a Laboratory and a Concept-Mapping Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikael Hamza, Karim; Wickman, Per-Olof

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to use a comparative approach to scrutinize the common assumption that certain school science activities are theoretical and therefore particularly suited for engaging students with scientific ideas, whereas others are practical and, thus, not equally conducive to engagement with scientific ideas. We compared two school science activities, one (laboratory work) that is commonly regarded as focusing attention on artefacts that may distract students from central science concepts and the other (concept mapping) that is thought to make students focus directly on these concepts. We observed students in either a laboratory activity about real galvanic cells or a concept-mapping activity about idealized galvanic cells. We used a practical epistemology analysis to compare the two activities regarding students' actions towards scientific ideas and artefacts. The comparison revealed that the two activities, despite their alleged differences along the theory-practice scale, primarily resulted in similar student actions. For instance, in both activities, students interacted extensively with artefacts and, to a lesser extent, with scientific ideas. However, only occasionally did students establish any explicit continuity between artefacts and scientific ideas. The findings indicate that some of the problems commonly considered to be unique for school science practical work may indeed be a feature of school science activities more generally.

  18. Evolution of the probiotic concept from conception to validation and acceptance in medical science.

    PubMed

    Dobrogosz, Walter J; Peacock, Trent J; Hassan, Hosni M

    2010-01-01

    Two pioneering achievements by Ilya Ilyich Metchnikoff were recorded in 1908. Most notable was his Nobel Prize in Medicine for discovering the innate cellular immune response to an infectious challenge. Of lesser note was his recommendation, "...to absorb large quantities of microbes, as a general belief is that microbes are harmful. This belief is erroneous. There are many useful microbes, amongst which the lactic bacilli have an honorable place." While his discovery of the inflammatory response was rapidly incorporated into our understanding of cellular immunity, his recommendation "to absorb large quantities of microbes," on the other hand, languished for decades in limbos of indifference, skepticism, and disbelief. The present chapter is a synopsis of salient discoveries made during the past 100 years, which gradually displaced these skepticisms, validated his concept of "useful microbes," and propelled his "lactic bacilli" into the mainstream of modern medical science, practice, and therapy. PMID:20602986

  19. Changing Preservice Science Teachers' Views of Nature of Science: Why Some Conceptions May be More Easily Altered than Others

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesci, Gunkut; Schwartz, Renee'S.

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess preservice teachers' views of Nature of Science (NOS), identify aspects that were challenging for conceptual change, and explore reasons why. This study particularly focused on why and how some concepts of NOS may be more easily altered than others. Fourteen preservice science teachers enrolled in a NOS and Science Inquiry course participated in this study. Data were collected by using a pre/post format with the Views of Nature of Science questionnaire (VNOS-270), the Views of Scientific Inquiry questionnaire (VOSI-270), follow-up interviews, and classroom artifacts. The results indicated that most students initially held naïve views about certain aspects of NOS like tentativeness and subjectivity. By the end of the semester, almost all students dramatically improved their understanding about almost all aspects of NOS. However, several students still struggled with certain aspects like the differences between scientific theory and law, tentativeness, and socio-cultural embeddedness. Results suggested that instructional, motivational, and socio-cultural factors may influence if and how students changed their views about targeted NOS aspects. Students thought that classroom activities, discussions, and readings were most helpful to improve their views about NOS. The findings from the research have the potential to translate as practical advice for teachers, science educators, and future researchers.

  20. Microgravity: Teacher's Guide with Activities for Physical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Wargo, Michael J.

    This teacher's guide to microgravity contains 16 student science activities with full background information to facilitate an understanding of the concepts of microgravity for teachers and students. Topics covered in the background sections include the definitions of gravity and microgravity, creating microgravity, the fluid state, combustion…

  1. Promoting Creative Thinking and Expression of Science Concepts among Elementary Teacher Candidates through Science Content Movie Creation and Showcasing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hechter, Richard P.; Guy, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the phases of design and use of video editing technology as a medium for creatively expressing science content knowledge in an elementary science methods course. Teacher candidates communicated their understanding of standards-based core science concepts through the creation of original digital movies. The movies were assigned…

  2. How Often Do Early Childhood Teachers Teach Science Concepts? Determinants of the Frequency of Science Teaching in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saçkes, Mesut

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore how often teachers of young children teach science concepts in kindergarten and examine the factors that influence the frequency of science teaching in early years. A theoretical model of the determinants of the frequency of science teaching in kindergarten was developed and tested using a…

  3. Thai and Bangladeshi In-Service Science Teachers' Conceptions of Nature of Science: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buaraphan, Khajornsak; Abedin Forhad, Ziaul

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of nature of science (NOS) serves as one of the desirable characteristics of science teachers. The current study explored 55 Thai and 110 Bangladeshi in-service secondary science teachers' conceptions of NOS regarding scientific knowledge, scientific method, scientists' work, and scientific enterprise, by using the Myths of…

  4. Outcomes of Nature of Science Instruction along a Context Continuum: Preservice Secondary Science Teachers' Conceptions and Instructional Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Randy L.; Mulvey, Bridget K.; Maeng, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    This investigation examined outcomes associated with nature of science (NOS) instruction along a science-content context continuum on the development of secondary preservice science teachers' conceptions of and plans to teach NOS, moving beyond the common dichotomy of contextualized versus noncontextualized instruction. Participants comprised six…

  5. Concept Mapping Assessment of Media Assisted Learning in Interdisciplinary Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaal, Steffen; Bogner, Franz X.; Girwidz, Raimund

    2010-05-01

    Acquisition of conceptual knowledge is a central aim in science education. In this study we monitored an interdisciplinary hypermedia assisted learning unit on hibernation and thermodynamics based on cooperative learning. We used concept mapping for the assessment, applying a pre-test/post-test design. In our study, 106 9th graders cooperated by working in pairs ( n = 53) for six lessons. As an interdisciplinary learning activity in such complex knowledge domains has to combine many different aspects, we focused on long-term knowledge. Learners working cooperatively in dyads constructed computer-supported concept maps which were analysed by specific software. The data analysis encompassed structural aspects of the knowledge corresponding to a target reference map. After the learning unit, the results showed the acquisition of higher-order domain-specific knowledge structures which indicates successful interdisciplinary learning through the hypermedia learning environment. The benefit of using a computer-assisted concept mapping assessment for research in science education, and in science classrooms is considered.

  6. Alternative conceptions in science and science teaching efficacy: Remediating preservice teachers' alternative conceptions and their effect on science teaching efficacy and reflective judgment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Scott Michael

    groups as a whole. Reflective Judgment stage scores were correlated with gains in personal science teaching efficacy, attitude toward science, and openness to constructivist learning environments. Qualitative data was explored to further identify emergent patterns in student beliefs and attitudes. Online threaded discussions documenting student thinking, their science experiences, class discussions and lab activities, along with participant observations by the author comprised the qualitative component of the study.

  7. Attitudes Toward Selected Concepts Among Junior High Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Ronald D.; Brown, Dean R.

    1970-01-01

    Reports use of semantic differential instrument to measure junior high school science teachers attitudes toward education, science, evolution, religion, high school teachers, and college teachers. (BR)

  8. Conceptions of Teaching Science Held by Novice Teachers in an Alternative Certification Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koballa, Thomas R.; Glynn, Shawn M.; Upson, Leslie

    2005-12-01

    Case studies to investigate the conceptions of teaching science held by three novice teachers participating in an alternative secondary science teacher certification program were conducted, along with the relationships between their conceptions of science teaching and their science teaching practice. Data used to build the cases included the participants' responses to two surveys and transcripts of audiotaped interviews with the participants and their university supervisors who observed them teach. Findings revealed that novice teachers hold ideal and working conceptions of teaching science, the novices' conceptions can serve as referents for their classroom practice, and the conceptions of teaching science held by the novice teachers were resistant to change, even in the face of well-intentioned instruction.

  9. Science and Reconnaissance from the Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring Europa's Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Senske, David; Prockter, Louise; Paczkowski, Brian; Vance, Steve; Goldstein, Barry; Magner, Thomas; Cooke, Brian

    2015-04-01

    Europa is recognized by the Planetary Science De-cadal Survey as a prime candidate to search for a pre-sent-day habitable environment in our solar system. As such, NASA has pursued a series of studies, facilitated by a Europa Science Definition Team (SDT), to define a strategy to best advance our scientific understanding of this icy world with the science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. (In June of 2014, the SDT completed its task of identifying the overarching science objectives and investigations.) Working in concert with a technical team, a set of mission archi-tectures were evaluated to determine the best way to achieve the SDT defined science objectives. The fa-vored architecture would consist of a spacecraft in Ju-piter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, con-centrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. In-novative mission design would use gravitational per-turbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of Europa's sur-face, with nominally 45 close flybys, typically at alti-tudes from 25 to 100 km. This concept has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa SDT recommended three science ob-jectives for the Europa Clipper: Ice Shell and Ocean: Characterize the ice shell and any subsurface water, including their heterogeneity, ocean properties, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange; Composition: Understand the habitability of Europa's ocean through composition and chemistry; and Geology: Understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and characterize high science interest localities. The Europa SDT also considered implications of the Hubble Space Telescope detection of possible plumes at Europa. To feed forward to potential subsequent future ex-ploration that could be enabled by a lander, it was deemed that the Europa Clipper mission concept should provide the

  10. Mars Science Laboratory with Arm Extended, Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory, a mobile robot for investigating Mars' past or present ability to sustain microbial life, is in development for a launch opportunity in 2009. This picture is an artist's concept portraying what the advanced rover would look like in Martian terrain, from a side aft angle.

    The arm extending from the front of the rover is designed both to position some of the rover's instruments onto selected rocks or soil targets and also to collect samples for analysis by other instruments. Near the base of the arm is a sample preparation and handling system designed to grind samples, such as rock cores or small pebbles, and distribute the material to analytical instruments.

    The mast, rising to about 2.1 meters (6.9 feet) above ground level, supports two remote-sensing instruments: the Mast Camera for stereo color viewing of surrounding terrain and material collected by the arm, and the ChemCam for analyzing the types of atoms in material that laser pulses have vaporized from rocks or soil targets up to about 9 meters (30 feet) away.

  11. Science Objectives of the FOXSI Small Explorer Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Albert Y.; Christe, Steven; Alaoui, Meriem; Allred, Joel C.; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Battaglia, Marina; Camilo Buitrago-Casas, Juan; Caspi, Amir; Dennis, Brian R.; Drake, James; Fleishman, Gregory D.; Gary, Dale E.; Glesener, Lindsay; Grefenstette, Brian; Hannah, Iain; Holman, Gordon D.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Inglis, Andrew R.; Ireland, Jack; Ishikawa, Shin-Nosuke; Jeffrey, Natasha; Klimchuk, James A.; Kontar, Eduard; Krucker, Sam; Longcope, Dana; Musset, Sophie; Nita, Gelu M.; Ramsey, Brian; Ryan, Daniel; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Vilmer, Nicole; White, Stephen M.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen

    2016-05-01

    Impulsive particle acceleration and plasma heating at the Sun, from the largest solar eruptive events to the smallest flares, are related to fundamental processes throughout the Universe. While there have been significant advances in our understanding of impulsive energy release since the advent of RHESSI observations, there is a clear need for new X-ray observations that can capture the full range of emission in flares (e.g., faint coronal sources near bright chromospheric sources), follow the intricate evolution of energy release and changes in morphology, and search for the signatures of impulsive energy release in even the quiescent Sun. The FOXSI Small Explorer (SMEX) mission concept combines state-of-the-art grazing-incidence focusing optics with pixelated solid-state detectors to provide direct imaging of hard X-rays for the first time on a solar observatory. We present the science objectives of FOXSI and how its capabilities will address and resolve open questions regarding impulsive energy release at the Sun. These questions include: What are the time scales of the processes that accelerate electrons? How do flare-accelerated electrons escape into the heliosphere? What is the energy input of accelerated electrons into the chromosphere, and how is super-heated coronal plasma produced?

  12. The Concepts of Science in Japanese and Western Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawasaki, Ken

    1996-01-01

    Uses structural linguistics to offer an impartial frame of reference to analyze science education in the non-Western world. Outlines the associative relation proposed by Saussure and investigates how it works in science education. Examines the problems peculiar to science education in Japan and argues that science education should be identified…

  13. Active Ways to Teach Health Concepts in the Elementary Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This article provides three movement-based activities for teaching health concepts to elementary school students. Two activities focus on nutrition concepts and the other focuses on teaching body systems. Diagrams are provided to show the setup of activities, as well as links for accessing materials to help implement the activities.

  14. Activities for Science: Cooperative Learning Lessons (Challenging).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasmine, Grace; Jasmine, Julia

    This book is designed to help advanced elementary students learn science skills while actively engaged in cooperative activities based on the earth sciences and natural disasters. The first section explains how to make cooperative learning a part of the curriculum and includes an overview, instructions and activities to bring cooperative learning…

  15. Exploring Relations Among Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas About Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Diana C.; Kaya, Sibel

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers' ideas about evolution, their understanding of basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and dinosaurs and plate tectonics. Accepting the theory of evolution was positively correlated with correctly answering the three other questions related to the age of Earth. Furthermore, participants who rejected evolution scored significantly lower on a test of basic science concepts than did participants who held accurate views on human evolution. Study results revealed no apparent association between completion of advanced college science courses and acceptance of evolutionary theory or understanding of science concepts. Implications for elementary science teacher education were discussed.

  16. Remote Sensing Space Science With The Multiple Instrument Distributed Aperture Sensor (MIDAS) Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitman, J.; Duncan, A.; Stubbs, D.; Sigler, R.; Kendrick, R.; Smith, E.; Mason, J.; Delory, G.; Lipps, J. H.; Manga, M.; Graham, J.; dePater, I.; Rieboldt, S.; Bierhaus, E.; Dalton, J. B.; Fienup, J.; Yu, J.

    2004-11-01

    The science capabilities and features of an innovative and revolutionary approach to remote sensing imaging systems aimed at increasing the return on future planetary science missions like JIMO many fold are described. Our concept, called Multiple Instrument Distributed Aperture Sensor (MIDAS), provides a large-aperture, wide-field, diffraction-limited telescope at a fraction of the cost, mass and volume of conventional space telescopes, by integrating advanced optical imaging interferometer technologies into a multi-functional remote sensing science payload. MIDAS acts as a single front-end actively controlled telescope array for use on common missions, reducing the cost and resources needed for back-end science instruments (SIs) tailored to a specific mission. MIDAS enables either sequential or concurrent SI operations in all functional modes. Passive imaging remote sensing is at diffraction-limited resolution sequentially by each SI, or at somewhat lower resolution by multiple SIs acting concurrently on the image. MIDAS inherently provides nanometer-resolution hyperspectral passive imaging without the need for any moving parts in the SI's. Our optical design features high-resolution imaging for long dwell times at high altitudes, 1m GSD from the 5000km extent of spiral orbits on JIMO, thereby enabling regional remote sensing of dynamic planet surface processes, as well as ultra-high resolution of 2cm GSD from a 100km JIMO science orbit that enables orbital searches for signs of life processes on the planet surface. In its active remote sensing modes, using an integrated solid-state laser source, MIDAS enables LIDAR, vibrometry, surface illumination, and active spectroscopy. The combination of MIDAS passive and active modes, as sequential or concurrent SI operations, increases potential return on space science missions many fold. For example, on a mission to the icy moons of Jupiter, MIDAS enhances detailed imaging of the geology and glaciology of the surface

  17. What Are the Roles that Children's Drawings Play in Inquiry of Science Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ni

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the roles that drawing played in the process of children's acquisition of science concepts. Seventy pre-service teachers through four semesters from a Midwest University in the USA developed lesson plans on science concepts and then taught them to 70 young children ages 4-7, respectively. This experience was…

  18. Basic Concepts in the Methodology of the Social Sciences. HSRC Studies in Research Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouton, Johann, Ed.; Marais, H. C.

    Considerations of validity that are central to all disciplines in the social sciences are discussed, and concepts that are an essential part of the intellectual equipment of the social sciences researcher are systematically analyzed. Fundamental methodological concepts underlying decisions made in the research process are highlighted to encourage…

  19. South Korean and the US Secondary School Science Teachers' Conceptions of Creativity and Teaching for Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Miyoung; Kang, Nam-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    This study examined science teachers' conceptions of creativity in science education, pedagogical ideas, and contextual factors perceived as constraints on teaching for creativity and any differences in the conceptions of teachers from South Korea and the United States. Participants in the study consisted of 44 South Korean and 21 US secondary…

  20. Effective Self-Regulated Science Learning through Multimedia-Enriched Skeleton Concept Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maree, Ton J.; van Bruggen, Jan M.; Jochems, Wim M. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study combines work on concept mapping with scripted collaborative learning. Purpose: The objective was to examine the effects of self-regulated science learning through scripting students' argumentative interactions during collaborative "multimedia-enriched skeleton concept mapping" on meaningful science learning and retention.…

  1. The Conservation of Energy Concept in Ninth Grade General Science, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockley, William; And Others

    Discussed is an instructional approach, "concept-distillation," which involves experiences, games, and puzzles that have the "distilled essence" of the basic concepts of the physical sciences. This approach is designed to impart a vivid and dramatic meaning and structure of the sciences for transfer in scientific thinking. The materials consist of…

  2. Attainment of Selected Earth Science Concepts by Texas High School Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Mavis M.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether high school seniors (N=492) had attained each of five selected earth science concepts and if said attainment was influenced by the number of science courses completed. A 72-item, multiple-choice format test (12 items for each concept) was developed and piloted previous to this study to measure…

  3. Different Conceptions of the Nature of Science among Preservice Elementary Teachers of Two Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Do-Yong; Lee, Yong Bok

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the differences of the nature of science (NOS) conceptions portrayed by preservice teachers in Korea (N = 42) and the United States (N = 50). We conducted a survey of preservice elementary science teachers' NOS conceptions followed by interviews in both countries to further investigate their viewpoints. The NOS domains of this…

  4. Space Adaptation of Active Mirror Segment Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Gregory H.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a three year effort by Blue Line Engineering Co. to advance the state of segmented mirror systems in several separate but related areas. The initial set of tasks were designed to address the issues of system level architecture, digital processing system, cluster level support structures, and advanced mirror fabrication concepts. Later in the project new tasks were added to provide support to the existing segmented mirror testbed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the form of upgrades to the 36 subaperture wavefront sensor. Still later, tasks were added to build and install a new system processor based on the results of the new system architecture. The project was successful in achieving a number of important results. These include the following most notable accomplishments: 1) The creation of a new modular digital processing system that is extremely capable and may be applied to a wide range of segmented mirror systems as well as many classes of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) control systems such as active structures or industrial automation. 2) A new graphical user interface was created for operation of segmented mirror systems. 3) The development of a high bit rate serial data loop that permits bi-directional flow of data to and from as many as 39 segments daisy-chained to form a single cluster of segments. 4) Upgrade of the 36 subaperture Hartmann type Wave Front Sensor (WFS) of the Phased Array Mirror, Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) testbed at MSFC resulting in a 40 to 5OX improvement in SNR which in turn enabled NASA personnel to achieve many significant strides in improved closed-loop system operation in 1998. 5) A new system level processor was built and delivered to MSFC for use with the PAMELA testbed. This new system featured a new graphical user interface to replace the obsolete and non-supported menu system originally delivered with the PAMELA system. The hardware featured Blue Line's new stackable

  5. The Effect of Physical Activity on Science Competence and Attitude towards Science Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkenborg, Ann Maria

    This study examines the effect of physical activity on science instruction. To combat the implications of physical inactivity, schools need to be willing to consider all possible opportunities for students to engage in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Integrating physical activity with traditional classroom content is one instructional method to consider. Researchers have typically focused on integration with English/language arts (ELA) and mathematics. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of physical activity on science competence and attitude towards science. Fifty-three third grade children participated in this investigation; one group received science instruction with a physical activity intervention while the other group received traditional science instruction. Participants in both groups completed a modified version of What I Really Think of Science attitude scale (Pell & Jarvis, 2001) and a physical science test of competence prior to and following the intervention. Children were videotaped during science instruction and their movement coded to measure the proportion of time spent in MVPA. Results revealed that children in the intervention group demonstrated greater MVPA during the instructional period. A moderate to large effect size (partial eta squared = .091) was seen in the intervention group science competence post-test indicating greater understanding of force, motion, work, and simple machines concepts than that of the control group who were less physically active. There was no statistically significant attitude difference between the intervention and control groups post-test, (F(1,51) = .375, p = .543). These results provide evidence that integration can effectively present physical science content and have a positive impact on the number of minutes of health-enhancing physical activity in a school day.

  6. Concept Map Structure, Gender and Teaching Methods: An Investigation of Students' Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstner, Sabine; Bogner, Franz X.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study deals with the application of concept mapping to the teaching and learning of a science topic with secondary school students in Germany. Purpose: The main research questions were: (1) Do different teaching approaches affect concept map structure or students' learning success? (2) Is the structure of concept maps influenced…

  7. Teaching the Nature of Science through the Concept of Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byoung-Sug; McKinney, Mary

    2007-01-01

    By virtue of its connection with scientific literacy, the nature of science has been considered essential subject matter for the science curriculum. With this in mind, seventh-grade students were introduced to three aspects of the nature of science: (1) the distinction between observation and inference, (2) the subjective, and (3) the tentative…

  8. Investigating Undergraduate Science Students' Conceptions and Misconceptions of Ocean Acidification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Kathryn I.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research exploring ocean acidification has grown significantly in past decades. However, little science education research has investigated the extent to which undergraduate science students understand this topic. Of all undergraduate students, one might predict science students to be best able to understand ocean acidification. What…

  9. Teachers' Conceptions about Their Understanding of Societal Science Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Isabel P.

    Teachers' scientific knowledge about societal science issues must be one of the prerequisites for the process of science teaching. Innovation in science teaching and its implications for students' scientific literacy depends on the understanding that teachers bring with them into the classroom. The purpose of this study was to investigate how…

  10. Investigating inquiry beliefs and nature of science (NOS) conceptions of science teachers as revealed through online learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atar, Hakan Yavuz

    teachers NOS conceptions. Developing desired understanding of nature of science conceptions and having an adequate experience with inquiry learning is especially important for science teachers because science education literature suggests that the development of teachers' nature of science conceptions is influenced by their experiences with inquiry science (Akerson et. al. 2000) and implementation of science lessons reflect teachers' NOS conceptions (Abd-EL-Khalick & Boujaoude, 1997; Matson & Parsons, 1998; Rosenthal, 1993; Trowbridge, Bybee & Powell, 2000; Turner & Sullenger, 1999). Furthermore, the impediments to successful integration of inquiry based science instruction from teachers' perspective are particularly important, as they are the implementers of inquiry based science education reform. The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between the teachers' NOS conceptions and their inquiry beliefs and practices in their classrooms and how this relationship impedes or contributes to the implementation of inquiry based science education reform efforts. The participants of this study were in-service teachers who were accepted into the online Masters Program in science education program at a southern university. Three online courses offered in the summer semester of 2005 constituted the research setting of this study: (1) Special Problems in the Teaching of Secondary School Science: Nature of Science & Science Teaching, (2) Curriculum in Science Education, and (3) Colloquium. Multiple data sources were used for data triangulation (Miles & Huberman, 1984; Yin, 1994) in order to understand the relationship between participants' NOS views and their conceptions and beliefs about inquiry-based science teaching. The study revealed that the relationship between the teachers' NOS conceptions and their inquiry beliefs and practices is far from being simple and linear. Data suggests that the teachers' sophistication of NOS conceptions influence their perception of

  11. Energy Activities for Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, David; And Others

    This document is a collection of six energy education activities for junior high school science. Its purpose is to help promote knowledge about energy, provide laboratory experiences, provoke inquiry, and relate energy to society through the science curriculum. The six activities are designed to take one to three class periods. Two of the…

  12. Great Activities for Great Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Esther B.

    1993-01-01

    Presents hands-on spring science activities to help elementary students think and act like scientists. Students use the scientific process to make connections between life, physical, and earth science. Activities look at insects, flowers, trees, the sun, and the earth's rotation around the sun. (SM)

  13. Teaching for Understanding in Science: Student Conceptions Research, and Changing Views of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tytler, Russell

    2002-01-01

    Reports on the Victorian Science in Schools Research Project (VSSRP) which was developed to help teachers support student learning of science content. Reviews research on student learning of science concepts and traces changes over the last two decades. (Contains 46 references.) (Author/YDS)

  14. Undergraduate Students' Earth Science Learning: Relationships among Conceptions, Approaches, and Learning Self-Efficacy in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Kuan-Ming; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2016-01-01

    In the area of science education research, studies have attempted to investigate conceptions of learning, approaches to learning, and self-efficacy, mainly focusing on science in general or on specific subjects such as biology, physics, and chemistry. However, few empirical studies have probed students' earth science learning. This study aimed to…

  15. Teachers' and Students' Conceptions of Good Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yung, Benny Hin Wai; Zhu, Yan; Wong, Siu Ling; Cheng, Man Wai; Lo, Fei Yin

    2013-01-01

    Capitalizing on the comments made by teachers on videos of exemplary science teaching, a video-based survey instrument on the topic of "Density" was developed and used to investigate the conceptions of good science teaching held by 110 teachers and 4,024 year 7 students in Hong Kong. Six dimensions of good science teaching are identified…

  16. Creating Aliens: The Ultimate Life Sciences Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltramo, Dan

    2001-01-01

    Describes a seven-week project completed by the author's eighth-grade science students (as they studied "the chemistry of living things") in which they designed an alien and its world using the scientific concepts that they learned in class. Compares class presentations using PowerPoint software to presentations using posterboard. (SR)

  17. Exploring Relations among Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas about Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Diana C.; Kaya, Sibel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers' ideas about evolution, their understanding of basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and…

  18. Scientific Epistemic Beliefs, Conceptions of Learning Science and Self-Efficacy of Learning Science among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chin-Chung; Ho, Hsin Ning Jessie; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Lin, Hung-Ming

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among Taiwanese high school students' scientific epistemic beliefs, conceptions of learning science, and self-efficacy of learning science. The questionnaire responses gathered from 377 high school students in Taiwan were utilized to elicit such relationships. The analysis of the structural equation model…

  19. Activity Sourcebook for Earth Science. Science Education Information Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Victor J., Ed.

    Designed to provide teachers of earth science with activities and information that will assist them in keeping their curricula up to date, this publication contains activities grouped into six chapters. Chapter titles are: (1) Weather and Climate, (2) Oceans, (3) The Earth and Its Surface, (4) Plate Tectonics, (5) Uses of Space Photography, and…

  20. Interdisciplinary Teaching in a Water Educational Training Science Program: Its Impact on Science Concept Knowledge, Writing Performance, and Interest in Science and Writing of Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore-Hart, Margaret A.; Liggit, Peggy; Daisey, Peggy

    This paper presents a study investigating the effects of the Water Education Training (WET) program on students' performance in science. The WET Program is an after school program using an interdisciplinary approach which has three main objectives: improving science concept knowledge, writing performance, and attitudes toward science and writing.…

  1. The Ability of Children to Generalize Selected Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Kemal Bin; Lowell, Walter E.

    1981-01-01

    Reports results of a study to assess ability of children from different age groups (N=144) to generalize two hierarchically related concepts (Insect and Animal) with and without instruction in the form of a mental set. Also examined effects of age, I.Q., and sex on ability to generalize these concepts. (Author/JN)

  2. Systems in Science: Modeling Using Three Artificial Intelligence Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Karr, Charles L.; Smith, Coralee; Sunal, Dennis W.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary course focusing on modeling scientific systems. Investigates elementary education majors' applications of three artificial intelligence concepts used in modeling scientific systems before and after the course. Reveals a great increase in understanding of concepts presented but inconsistent application. (Author/KHR)

  3. The concepts of science in Japanese and Western education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Ken

    1996-01-01

    Using structural linguistics, the present article offers an impartial frame of reference to analyze science education in the non-Western world. In Japan, science education has been free from epistemological reflection because Japan regards science only as effective technology for modernization. By not taking account of the world-view aspect of science, Japan can treat science as not self-referential. Issues of science education are then rather simple; they are only concerned with the question of ‘how to’, and answers to this question are judged according to the efficiency achieved for modernization. Science, however, is a way of seeing ‘nature’. This word is generally translated into Japanese as ‘shizen’ which has a totally different connotation and therefore does not lead to an understanding of the Western scientific spirit. Saussure's approach to language is used to expose the consequences of the misinterpretations that spring from this situation. In order to minimize or prevent these misinterpretations, it is emphasized that science education should be identified with foreign language education in the non-Western world.

  4. Implementing Concepts of Pharmaceutical Engineering into High School Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Howard; Hirsch, Linda S.; Simon, Laurent; Burr-Alexander, Levelle; Dave, Rajesh

    2009-01-01

    The Research Experience for Teachers was designed to help high school science teachers develop skills and knowledge in research, science and engineering with a focus on the area of pharmaceutical particulate and composite systems. The experience included time for the development of instructional modules for classroom teaching. Results of the…

  5. The concept of intentionality in human science nursing theories.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, F Beryl

    2005-04-01

    Nursing as a human science focuses on life and health as humanly experienced. Intentionality is a philosophical idea of particular significance to nursing as a human science, particularly within Parse's theory of human becoming and Watson's theory of human caring. These two theorists' interpretations of intentionality are explored in relation to their respective theories and the implications for research and practice. PMID:15802739

  6. Informatics with Systems Science and Cybernetics--Concepts and Definitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelson, Kjell

    This dictionary defines information science, computer science, systems theory, and cybernetic terms in English and provides the Swedish translation of each term. An index of Swedish terms refers the user to the page where the English equivalent and definition appear. Most of the 38 references listed are in English. (RAA)

  7. Science Activities in Energy: Chemical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 15 activities relating to chemical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  8. Science Activities in Energy: Electrical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 16 activities relating to electrical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined in a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  9. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 12 activities relating to solar energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's supplement…

  10. Remote sensing space science enabled by the multiple instrument distributed aperture sensor (MIDAS) concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitman, Joseph T.; Duncan, Alan; Stubbs, David; Sigler, Robert D.; Kendrick, Richard L.; Smith, Eric H.; Mason, James E.; Delory, Gregory; Lipps, Jere H.; Manga, Michael; Graham, James R.; de Pater, Imke; Reiboldt, Sarah; Bierhaus, Edward; Dalton, James B.; Fienup, James R.; Yu, Jeffrey W.

    2004-11-01

    The science capabilities and features of an innovative and revolutionary approach to remote sensing imaging systems aimed at increasing the return on future planetary science missions many fold are described. Our concept, called Multiple Instrument Distributed Aperture Sensor (MIDAS), provides a large-aperture, wide-field, diffraction-limited telescope at a fraction of the cost, mass and volume of conventional space telescopes, by integrating advanced optical imaging interferometer technologies into a multi-functional remote sensing science payload. MIDAS acts as a single front-end actively controlled telescope array for use on common missions, reducing the cost, resources, complexity, and risks of developing a set of back-end science instruments (SIs) tailored to each specific mission. By interfacing to multiple science instruments, MIDAS enables either sequential or concurrent SI operations in all functional modes. Passive imaging modes enable remote sensing at diffraction-limited resolution sequentially by each SI, as well as at somewhat lower resolution by multiple SIs acting concurrently on the image, such as in different wavebands. MIDAS inherently provides nanometer-resolution hyperspectral passive imaging without the need for any moving parts in the SI's. Our optical design features high-resolution imaging for long dwell times at high altitudes, <1m GSD from the 5000km extent of spiral orbits, thereby enabling regional remote sensing of dynamic planet surface processes, as well as ultra-high resolution of 2cm GSD from a 100km science orbit that enable orbital searches for signs of life processes on the planet surface. In its active remote sensing modes, using an integrated solid-state laser source, MIDAS enables LIDAR, vibrometry, surface illumination, ablation, laser spectroscopy and optical laser communications. The powerful combination of MIDAS passive and active modes, each with sequential or concurrent SI operations, increases potential science return

  11. Two-year study relating adolescents' self-concept and gender role perceptions to achievement and attitudes toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handley, Herbert M.; Morse, Linda W.

    To assess the developmental relationship of perceptions of self-concept and gender role identification with adolescents' attitudes and achievement in science, a two-year longitudinal study was conducted. A battery of instruments assessing 16 dimensions of self-concept/gender role identifications was employed to predict students' achievement and attitudes toward science. Specific behaviors studied included self-concept in school and science and mathematics, attitudes toward appropriate gender roles in science activities and careers, and self-perceptions of masculine and feminine traits. One hundred and fifty-five adolescents, enrolled, respectively, in the seventh and eighth grades, participated in the study. Through Fisher z transformations of correlation coefficients, differences in relationships between these two sets of variables were studied for males and females during the two years. Results indicated that students' self-concepts/gender role perceptions were related to both achievement and attitudes toward science, but more related to attitudes than achievement. These relationships became more pronounced for students as they matured from seventh to eighth graders.

  12. An investigation of Taiwanese high school students' science learning self-efficacy in relation to their conceptions of learning science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-11-01

    Background: Past studies have shown significant associations between students' conceptions of learning science and their science learning self-efficacy. However, in most of the studies, students' science learning self-efficacy has often been measured by a singular scale. Purpose: Extending the findings of these studies, the present study adopted a multi-dimensional instrument to assess Taiwanese high school students' science learning self-efficacy and investigate the relationships with their conceptions of learning science. Sample: A total of 488 Taiwanese high school students (265 male and 223 female) were invited to participate in this survey. Design and method: All the participants responded to the Conceptions of Learning Science (COLS) questionnaire regarding 'Memorizing', 'Testing', 'Calculating and practicing', 'Increase of knowledge', 'Applying' and 'Understanding and seeing in a new way' and the Science Learning Self-Efficacy (SLSE) instrument, including 'Conceptual understanding', 'Higher-Order cognitive skills', 'Practical work', 'Everyday application' and 'Science communication'. Results: The path analysis results derived from the structural equation modeling method indicated that, of all five SLSE dimensions, the 'Understanding and seeing in a new way' COLS displayed as a positive predictor, while the 'Testing' COLS was a significant negative predictor. The 'Applying' COLS item can only positively contribute to the SLSE dimensions of 'Higher-Order thinking skills', 'Everyday application' and 'Science Communication'. Conclusions: In general, students in strong agreement with learning science as understanding and seeing in a new way or the application of learned scientific knowledge are prone to possess higher confidence in learning science. However, students who consider learning science in terms of preparing for tests and examinations tend to hold lower science learning self-efficacy.

  13. Common Alternative Astronomical Conceptions Encountered in Junior Secondary Science Classes: Why Is This So?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danaia, Lena; McKinnon, David H.

    This article investigates students' conceptions of certain astronomical phenomena. The 1,920 participants were drawn from junior secondary science classes in four Australian educational jurisdictions. Participants completed a modified version of the Astronomy Diagnostic Test to elicit information about their knowledge and understanding of certain astronomical phenomena and to identify any alternative conceptions that they held. Results showed that students exhibited many alternative conceptions about concepts that they should have covered in elementary school or in the first year of high school. Discussion centers on the extent to which school science takes account of the important construct of pedagogical content knowledge.

  14. An Overview of the Jupiter Europa Orbiter Concept's Europa Science Phase Orbit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, Robert E.; Ludwinski, Jan M.; Petropoulos, Anastassios E.; Clark, Karla B.; Pappalardo, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), the proposed NASA element of the proposed joint NASA-ESA Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), could launch in February 2020 and conceivably arrive at Jupiter in December of 2025. The concept is to perform a multi-year study of Europa and the Jupiter system, including 30 months of Jupiter system science and a comprehensive Europa orbit phase of 9 months. This paper provides an overview of the JEO concept and describes the Europa Science phase orbit design and the related science priorities, model pay-load and operations scenarios needed to conduct the Europa Science phase. This overview is for planning and discussion purposes only.

  15. Science and Reconnaissance from the Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring Europa's Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senske, D.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Prockter, L. M.; Paczkowski, B.; Vance, S.; Goldstein, B.; Magner, T. J.; Cooke, B.

    2014-12-01

    Europa is a prime candidate to search for a present-day habitable environment in our solar system. As such, NASA has engaged a Science Definition Team (SDT) to define a strategy to advance our scientific understanding of this icy world with the goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. A mission architecture is defined where a spacecraft in Jupiter orbit would make many close flybys of Europa, concentrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. The spacecraft trajectory would permit ~45 flybys at a variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of Europa's surface. This concept is known as the Europa Clipper. The SDT recommended three science objectives for the Europa Clipper: Ice Shell and Ocean--Characterize the ice shell and any subsurface water, including their heterogeneity, ocean properties, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange; Composition--Understand the habitability of Europa's ocean through composition and chemistry; Geology--Understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and characterize high science interest localities. The SDT also considered implications of the recent HST detection of plumes at Europa. To feed forward to potential future exploration that could be enabled by a lander, it was deemed that the Clipper should provide the capability to perform reconnaissance. In consultation with NASA Headquarters, the SDT developed a reconnaissance goal: Characterize Scientifically Compelling Sites, and Hazards, for a Potential Future Landed Mission to Europa. This leads to two objectives: Site Safety--Assess the distribution of surface hazards, the load-bearing capacity of the surface, the structure of the subsurface, and the regolith thickness; Science Value--Assess the composition of surface materials, the geologic context of the surface, the potential for geological activity, the proximity of near surface water, and the potential for active

  16. Schoolyard Science: 101 Easy and Inexpensive Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Thomas R.; Travis, Holly J.

    2011-01-01

    With 101 easy and inexpensive activities to do on school grounds, "Schoolyard Science" can help students develop their observation and inquiry skills as well as an appreciation of their outdoor environment. Covering topics such as lower plants, gardens, insects and other invertebrates, energy, and Earth science, Thomas Lord and Holly Travis…

  17. Advanced Concepts, Technologies and Flight Experiments for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, Barry D.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has established a tradition of excellence in scientific research and leading-edge system developments, which have contributed to improved scientific understanding of our Earth system. Specifically, LaRC advances knowledge of atmospheric processes to enable proactive climate prediction and, in that role, develops first-of-a-kind atmospheric sensing capabilities that permit a variety of new measurements to be made within a constrained enterprise budget. These advances are enabled by the timely development and infusion of new, state-of-the-art (SOA), active and passive instrument and sensor technologies. In addition, LaRC's center-of-excellence in structures and materials is being applied to the technological challenges of reducing measurement system size, mass, and cost through the development and use of space-durable materials; lightweight, multi-functional structures; and large deployable/inflatable structures. NASA Langley is engaged in advancing these technologies across the full range of readiness levels from concept, to components, to prototypes, to flight experiments, and on to actual science mission infusion. The purpose of this paper is to describe current activities and capabilities, recent achievements, and future plans of the integrated science, engineering, and technology team at Langley Research Center who are working to enable the future of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.

  18. Relationships between middle school students' science concept structure interrelatedness competence and selected cognitive and affective tendencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harty, Harold; Hamrick, Linda; Samuel, K. V.

    An investigation was conducted to determine the relationships between Concept Structure Interrelatedness Competence (ConSIC) and 10 predictor variables of which 6 comprised a cognitive cluster and 4 made up an affective set. Data were collected from 105 middle school students and treated by way of stepwise multiple regression, linear multiple regression, and product-moment correlation techniques. The findings revealed that previous experience with concept structure interrelatedness and verbal scholastic aptitude accounted for the greatest amount of variance in predicting ConSIC. Significant positive correlations were also found between ConSIC and science achievement-course grades, scholastic aptitude-verbal, scholastic aptitude-quantitative, previous experience with concept structure interrelatedness, and self-concept of science ability. Positive significant correlations also surfaced among all of the affective variables (attitudes toward science, interest in science, science curiosity, and self-concept of science ability). Implications have been discussed in terms of classroom science teaching, science content analysis, curriculum design, and content selection.

  19. [Fernbank Science Center Environmental Activities].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Lewis

    This document is a compilation of environmental activities related directly to the environment in Georgia. A description of the physiographic characteristics of Georgia is presented upon which the activities that follow are based. These activities include soil, stream and forest investigations; meteorology activities; and plant and animal studies.…

  20. Acid Rain: Activities for Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eric; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Seven complete secondary/college level acid rain activities are provided. Activities include overview; background information and societal implications; major concepts; student objectives; vocabulary/material lists; procedures; instructional strategies; and questions/discussion and extension suggestions. Activities consider effects of acid rain on…

  1. Attention Science Teachers: Classroom Activities with Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAZWRAP, The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program.

    This collection of 10 activities is designed to give students a better grasp of concepts relating to groundwater, aquifers, and hydrology. Activities can be conducted as a demonstration (especially for younger students) or as a laboratory activity for students in higher grades. The guide contains an introduction for teachers and students, a…

  2. From isosuperatoms to isosupermolecules: new concepts in cluster science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liren; Li, Pai; Yuan, Lan-Feng; Cheng, Longjiu; Yang, Jinlong

    2016-06-01

    As an extension of the superatom concept, a new concept ``isosuperatom'' is proposed, reflecting the physical phenomenon that a superatom cluster can take multiple geometrical structures with their electronic structures topologically invariant. The icosahedral and cuboctahedral Au135+ units in the Au25(SCH2CH2Ph)18-, Au23(SC6H11)16- and Au24(SAdm)16 nanoclusters are found to be examples of this concept. Furthermore, two isosuperatoms can combine to form a supermolecule. For example, the structure of the {Ag32(DPPE)5(SC6H4CF3)24}2- nanocluster can be understood well in terms of a Ag2212+ supermolecule formed by two Ag138+ isosuperatoms. On the next level of complexity, various combinations of isosuperatoms can lead to supermolecules with different geometrical structures but similar electronic structures, i.e., ``isosupermolecules''. We take two synthesized nanoclusters Au20(PPhpy2)10Cl42+ and Au30S(StBu)18 to illustrate two Au206+ isosupermolecules. The proposed concepts of isosuperatom and isosupermolecule significantly enrich the superatom concept, give a new framework for understanding a wide range of nanoclusters, and open a new door for designing assembled materials.As an extension of the superatom concept, a new concept ``isosuperatom'' is proposed, reflecting the physical phenomenon that a superatom cluster can take multiple geometrical structures with their electronic structures topologically invariant. The icosahedral and cuboctahedral Au135+ units in the Au25(SCH2CH2Ph)18-, Au23(SC6H11)16- and Au24(SAdm)16 nanoclusters are found to be examples of this concept. Furthermore, two isosuperatoms can combine to form a supermolecule. For example, the structure of the {Ag32(DPPE)5(SC6H4CF3)24}2- nanocluster can be understood well in terms of a Ag2212+ supermolecule formed by two Ag138+ isosuperatoms. On the next level of complexity, various combinations of isosuperatoms can lead to supermolecules with different geometrical structures but similar electronic

  3. Adapting Concepts from Systems Biology to Develop Systems Exposure Event Networks for Exposure Science Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systems exposure science has emerged from the traditional environmental exposure assessment framework and incorporates new concepts that link sources of human exposure to internal dose and metabolic processes. Because many human environmental studies are designed for retrospectiv...

  4. Learning the Electric Field Concept as Oriented Research Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furio, C.; Guisasola, J.; Almudi, J. M.; Ceberio, M.

    2003-01-01

    This work is grounded in a constructivistic conception of the learning of science, more particularly on the model known as teaching-learning as oriented research. In accordance with this theoretical basis we have developed an empirical research project to investigate the teaching of electrostatics in high schools. The designs developed have…

  5. Relationships among affective factors and preferred engagement in science-related activities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huann-Shyang; Lawrenz, Frances; Lin, Shu-Fen; Hong, Zuway-R

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated how affective factors impact participation in science learning using structural equation modeling. Using a dataset from Taiwan, a model was obtained that showed the relationships among science-related interest, enjoyment, self-efficacy, self-concept, competency, leisure time engagement, and future interest in science. The paths relating to engagement and future interest were much stronger for interest and enjoyment than for self-efficacy and self-concept. There was no significant path between science competency and future science interest or engagement. The results suggest that the affective and cognitive pathways to scientific competency are divergent and that they might be differentially activated by different contexts and activities. This indicates that school science educators might wish to reconsider the merit of overemphasizing achievement in comparison to interest. Finally, the results suggest that the development of science competency per se may not be the best way to ensure public engagement and understanding of science. PMID:24151085

  6. Engineering Concepts: The Interplay between Concept Formation and Modeling Practices in Bioengineering Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nersessian, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    As much research has demonstrated, novel scientific concepts do not arise fully formed in the head of a scientist but are created in problem-solving processes, which can extend for considerable periods and even span generations of scientists. To understand concept formation and conceptual change it is important to investigate these processes in…

  7. [Teaching science: realism, anti-realism and the construction of the concept of oxygen].

    PubMed

    Silva, Marcos Rodrigues da

    2013-06-01

    Research on science education has indicated the importance of discussing the nature of science. One way to encourage a more realistic view of the nature of science would be for teachers to adopt a philosophical attitude with respect to unobservable concepts. Concepts already abandoned by scientific theory - such as phlogiston - are normally described as having been discarded because they did not represent empirical knowledge. However, at the time the concept of phlogiston was used, it was part of a theoretical framework that explained and justified it. This article defends the idea that the adoption of philosophical approaches to scientific concepts needs to be supplemented by knowledge of the history of the concept. PMID:23739804

  8. Science Activities for School Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quint, Walter C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes ways in which physics-learning activity packets can be used by high school students participating in trips organized by other departments. Provides an example of physics activities incorporated into an airplane trip to Disney World. (CS)

  9. From isosuperatoms to isosupermolecules: new concepts in cluster science.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liren; Li, Pai; Yuan, Lan-Feng; Cheng, Longjiu; Yang, Jinlong

    2016-07-01

    As an extension of the superatom concept, a new concept "isosuperatom" is proposed, reflecting the physical phenomenon that a superatom cluster can take multiple geometrical structures with their electronic structures topologically invariant. The icosahedral and cuboctahedral Au13(5+) units in the Au25(SCH2CH2Ph)18(-), Au23(SC6H11)16(-) and Au24(SAdm)16 nanoclusters are found to be examples of this concept. Furthermore, two isosuperatoms can combine to form a supermolecule. For example, the structure of the {Ag32(DPPE)5(SC6H4CF3)24}(2-) nanocluster can be understood well in terms of a Ag22(12+) supermolecule formed by two Ag13(8+) isosuperatoms. On the next level of complexity, various combinations of isosuperatoms can lead to supermolecules with different geometrical structures but similar electronic structures, i.e., "isosupermolecules". We take two synthesized nanoclusters Au20(PPhpy2)10Cl4(2+) and Au30S(StBu)18 to illustrate two Au20(6+) isosupermolecules. The proposed concepts of isosuperatom and isosupermolecule significantly enrich the superatom concept, give a new framework for understanding a wide range of nanoclusters, and open a new door for designing assembled materials. PMID:27296898

  10. Science Activities in Energy: Wind Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 12 activities related to wind energy for elementary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question. Topics include: (1) At what time of day is there enough wind to make electricity where you live?; (2) Where is the windiest spot on your schoolground?; and…

  11. Individualized Instruction in Science, Introductory Physical Science, Learning Activity Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczma, R. M.

    Learning Activity Packages (LAP) mostly relating to the Introductory Physical Science Text are presented in this manual for use in sampling a new type of instruction. The total of 14 topics are incorporated into five units: (1) introduction to individualized learning; (2) observation versus interpretation; (3) quantity of matter; (4) introduction…

  12. Hard-To-Teach Science Concepts: A Framework to Support Learners, Grades 3-5. Hard-to-Teach Science Concepts Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koba, Susan B.

    2011-01-01

    Authors Susan Koba and Carol Mitchell introduce teachers of grades 3-5 to their conceptual framework for successful instruction of hard-to-teach science concepts. Their methodology comprises four steps: (1) engage students about their preconceptions and address their thinking; (2) target lessons to be learned; (3) determine appropriate strategies;…

  13. Creative Concept Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David S.

    2002-01-01

    Recommends the use of concept mapping in science teaching and proposes that it be presented as a creative activity. Includes a sample lesson plan of a potato stamp concept mapping activity for astronomy. (DDR)

  14. An exploration of worldview and conceptions of nature of science among science teachers at a private Christian high school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kits, Kara M.

    Both worldview and conceptions of nature of science (NOS) are important components in teaching and learning science. However, few empirical studies have examined the interplay between both of these components for teachers or students. Therefore, this study examines the possible relationship between worldview and conceptions of nature of science for secondary science teachers who currently teach at a Christian school. Qualitative methodologies developed a rich description of the worldview beliefs and conceptions of NOS for teachers in this study. Eight secondary science teachers employed at a private Christian school participated in the study. A Views of Nature of Science (VNOS) questionnaire and follow-up interviews elicited participants' conceptions of NOS. A semi-structured interview and Test of Preferred Explanations (TOPE) questionnaire elicited participants' worldview beliefs regarding nature and the natural world and causality. Participants communicated understandings of NOS that ranged from uninformed to informed in various aspects. In addition, while their worldview beliefs and conceptions of NOS reflected their faith beliefs, participants did not have a less informed view of NOS than other science teachers in previous studies. In fact, for several aspects of NOS, these participants articulated more informed conceptions of NOS than participants in previous studies. For these participants, faith did not appear to interfere with their ability to think scientifically in regards to their worldview beliefs regarding nature and causality. Rather, faith was incorporated into a scientifically compatible worldview regarding nature and causality that is not much different from other teachers. Other than the fact that these science teachers integrated their faith beliefs into some of their responses regarding worldview and NOS, these teachers did not appear to be much different from other science teachers. That is, there was no predictable pattern between worldview

  15. A study of elementary teachers' conceptions of nature of science and their beliefs about the developmental appropriateness and importance of nature of science throughout a professional development program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adibelli, Elif

    This qualitative study aimed to explore the changes in elementary science teachers' conceptions of nature of science (NOS) and their beliefs about the developmental appropriateness and importance of NOS after participating in an academic, year-long professional development program (PDP) as well as the factors facilitating these changes. The PDP consisted of two phases. In the first phase, the participants received NOS training designed with an explicit-reflective instructional approach. In the second phase, the participants implemented several NOS training activities in their classrooms. Four elementary science teachers who volunteered and completed all components of the PDP (i.e., the NOS training and the NOS teaching) comprised the participants of the present study. A multiple-embedded case study design was employed to explore the changes in the elementary science teachers' conceptions of NOS and their beliefs about the developmental appropriateness and importance of NOS. The study data were collected from multiple sources. The primary data sources included (a) Views of Nature of Science Elementary School Version 2 (VNOS-D2) questionnaire (Lederman & Khishfe, 2002), (b) Ideas about Science for Early Elementary (K-4) Students questionnaire (Sweeney, 2010), and (c) follow-up semi-structured interviews. The secondary data sources included videotaping of meetings with teachers, reflective field notes, and artifacts produced by teachers and their students. Data were analyzed using Yin's (1994, 2003) analytic tactics of pattern matching, explanation building, and cross-case synthesis. The findings of the study revealed that the elementary science teachers showed gradual, but substantial changes in their conceptions, and beliefs about the developmental appropriateness and importance of the NOS aspects over the course of participation in the PDP. Moreover, the participants identified nine components in the PDP that facilitated these changes in their conceptions, and

  16. Technology Knowledge: High School Science Teachers' Conceptions of the Nature of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waight, Noemi

    2014-01-01

    In-depth interviews guided by video elicitations examined 30 high school science teachers' conceptions of technology and by extension how these conceptions reflected dimensions of nature of technology. Altogether, 64% of the teachers characterized their schools and departments as aggressive-moderate adopters with generous access and support…

  17. The Role of Cognitive Organizers in the Facilitation of Concept Learning in Elementary School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Richard William

    Studied was the effect of advance organizers, as defined by Ausubel, on the learning of concepts in science. Sixth grade classes studied two sequences of major concept-centered learning tasks developed by the investigator. The first had 12 lessons about energy forms and transformations; the second had five about photosynthesis and respiration as…

  18. Introduction of the Concepts of Plate Tectonics into Secondary-School Earth Science Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William Harold

    1992-01-01

    Secondary school earth-science textbooks in print from 1960 through 1979 were examined to determine how rapidly concepts of plate tectonics were incorporated into those texts during the period when scientists' views about these concepts were evolving most rapidly. Suggests that delays were probably due to an unwillingness to engage in speculation…

  19. An Investigation of Concept Mapping to Improve the Reading Comprehension of Science Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated how well 74 6th-grade science students represented text structures from a 900-word textbook chapter on soil conservation, given a concept map template with four superordinate terms and 24 unsorted concepts. Findings suggest students were more successful at classifying pre-selected terms under given superordinate categories…

  20. Concept Mapping Effects on Science Content Comprehension of Low-Achieving Inner-City Seventh Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guastello, E. Francine; Beasley, T. Mark; Sinatra, Richard C.

    2000-01-01

    Low-achieving seventh-grade students were assigned to two science intervention groups, a read-and-discuss teacher-directed method group and a group in which a model of concept mapping that connected major and minor concepts followed the lesson. Results indicate that using graphic representations was more effective than the traditional approach.…

  1. Influence of Particle Theory Conceptions on Pre-Service Science Teachers' Understanding of Osmosis and Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlHarbi, Nawaf N. S.; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Won, Mihye

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the understanding of diffusion, osmosis and particle theory of matter concepts among 192 pre-service science teachers in Saudi Arabia using a 17-item two-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test. The data analysis showed that the pre-service teachers' understanding of osmosis and diffusion concepts was mildly correlated with…

  2. Does Constructivist Approach Applicable through Concept Maps to Achieve Meaningful Learning in Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jena, Ananta Kumar

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the application of constructivist approach through individual and cooperative modes of spider and hierarchical concept maps to achieve meaningful learning on science concepts (e.g. acids, bases & salts, physical and chemical changes). The main research questions were: Q (1): is there any difference in individual and…

  3. An Investigation of Two Profiles within Conceptions of Learning Science: An Examination of Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Che-Li; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Liang, Jyh-Chong

    2012-01-01

    Conceptions of learning are drawn from an individuals' learning experiences, which are theoretically built upon the phenomenographic research method. Seven conceptions of learning in the domain of science are identified: "memorizing," "testing," "calculating and practicing," "increase of knowledge," "application," "understanding," and "seeing in a…

  4. The Positive and Negative Effects of Science Concept Tests on Student Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Barufaldi, James P.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the phenomenon of testing effect during science concept assessments, including the mechanism behind it and its impact upon a learner's conceptual understanding. The participants consisted of 208 high school students, in either the 11th or 12th grade. Three types of tests (traditional multiple-choice test, correct concept test,…

  5. Combustion and Energy Transfer Experiments: A Laboratory Model for Linking Core Concepts across the Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreto, Jose C.; Dubetz, Terry A.; Schmidt, Diane L.; Isern, Sharon; Beatty, Thomas; Brown, David W.; Gillman, Edward; Alberte, Randall S.; Egiebor, Nosa O.

    2007-01-01

    Core concepts can be integrated throughout lower-division science and engineering courses by using a series of related, cross-referenced laboratory experiments. Starting with butane combustion in chemistry, the authors expanded the underlying core concepts of energy transfer into laboratories designed for biology, physics, and engineering. This…

  6. Seventh Grade Students' Perceptions of Using Concept Cartoons in Science and Technology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ören, Fatma Sasmaz; Meriç, Gülçin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the efficiency of use of concept cartoons in elementary school 7th grade students Science and Technology course according to students' perceptions. In terms of this aim, the unit of "Force and Motion" has been taught by concept cartoons and at the end of this period, semi-structured interviews were…

  7. Seventh Grade Students' Perceptions of Using Concept Cartoons in Science and Technology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasmaz Ören, Fatma; Meriç, Gülçin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the efficiency of use of concept cartoons in elementary school 7th grade students Science and Technology course according to students' perceptions. In terms of this aim, the unit of "Force and Motion" has been taught by concept cartoons and at the end of this period, semi-structured interviews…

  8. Use of Concept Profile Analysis to Identify Difficulties in Solving Science Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorodetsky, Malka; Hoz, Ron

    1980-01-01

    Proposed is a new method for analyzing how concepts are used in the process of problem solving in science. Through the use of a "thinking aloud" interview technique, 21 tenth-grade students worked with a problem concerning the boiling point of water at the Dead Sea. Interview protocols were analyzed to develop students' concept profiles. (DS)

  9. An Investigation of the Hierarchical and Developmental Structure of Selected Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Alan Keith

    This report describes the results of an attempt to identify a learning hierarchy for each of a number of science concepts mainly encountered first in the high school grades. The concepts studied relate to stoichiometric calculations and molarity, both from chemistry; to food web relationships and problems involving Mendel's laws from biology; to…

  10. Exploring the Use of Concept Chains to Structure Teacher Trainees' Understanding of Science. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Janet; Varleys, Janet; Loxley, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a paper and pencil concept-sorting strategy that enables trainee teachers to restructure their knowledge in any one domain of science. It is used as a self-study tool, mainly to enable them to break down and understand the progression of concepts beyond the level at which they have to teach. The strategy involves listing key…

  11. Exploring the Use of Concept Chains to Structure Teacher Trainees' Understanding of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Janet; Varleys, Janet; Loxley, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a paper and pencil concept-sorting strategy that enables trainee teachers to restructure their knowledge in any one domain of science. It is used as a self-study tool, mainly to enable them to break down and understand the progression of concepts beyond the level at which they have to teach. The strategy involves listing key…

  12. Clusters of Concepts in Molecular Genetics: A Study of Swedish Upper Secondary Science Students' Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gericke, Niklas; Wahlberg, Sara

    2013-01-01

    To understand genetics, students need to be able to explain and draw connections between a large number of concepts. The purpose of the study reported herein was to explore the way upper secondary science students reason about concepts in molecular genetics in order to understand protein synthesis. Data were collected by group interviews. Concept…

  13. Learning about Animals. Superific Science Book III. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Lorraine

    Designed to arouse interest in students about animals, this document was developed to provide teachers with a variety of information and teaching activities. The booklet is intended to enable students to become knowledgeable about science concepts relating to animals without the use of expensive equipment. The teaching activities deal with: (1)…

  14. Science Concepts Young Children Learn through Water Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    Water is fascinating, fun, and multifaceted. Children can play with it endlessly. But play, for play's sake, is not water's only value (Crosser, 1994, Tovey, 1993). Indeed, water play is a compelling focus of study for young children (Chalufour & Worth, 2005). The concepts that young children learn from water play are essential for early childhood…

  15. Science Teachers' Alternate Conceptions about Direct-Currents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardhan, Harcharan; Bano, Yasmeen

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a qualitative research study on electricity carried out in 1998 on alternative conceptions (ACs) held by a select group of middle school teachers. The study was designed to identify the nature and origin of the ACs of these teachers and relate them to other similar studies carried out by other researchers. (Contains 27 references.)…

  16. Elaborated Metaphors Support Viable Inferences about Difficult Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Virginia; Reese, Debbie Denise

    2010-01-01

    Instructional metaphors scaffold learning better when accompanied by an elaboration. Applying structure mapping theory, we developed and used an elaborated instructional metaphor (text and illustrations) for introductory chemistry concepts. In two studies (N[subscript 1] = 44, N[subscript 2] = 57), college students with little chemistry background…

  17. Assessing and Developing the Concept of Assumptions in Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Din Yan

    2001-01-01

    Describes a method using small group and whole class discussions with guiding questions to enable teachers to construct successfully the concept of assumptions and develop a better appreciation of the nature and limitations of the process of scientific inquiry. (Author/SAH)

  18. Remediation of Gender Inequity in Science in a Developing Country: An Experiment with Cooperative Concept Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osisioma, Uzoamaka Irene Ngozi

    The consistent reports on gender inequity in science achievement have led to a search for more effective strategies for correcting the imbalance. This study is part of a search which sought to investigate whether or not the cooperative-concept mapping technique improves the science achievement of girls. A non-equivalent control group…

  19. The Impact on Incorporating Collaborative Concept Mapping with Coteaching Techniques in Elementary Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Syh-Jong

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate a collaborative concept-mapping technique that was integrated into coteaching in fourth-grade science classes in order to examine students' performance and attitudes toward the experimental teaching method. There are two fourth-grade science teachers and four classes with a total of 114 students…

  20. The Effect of a Pretest in an Interactive, Multimodal Pretraining System for Learning Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Floris A. B. H.; Terlouw, Cees; Pilot, Albert

    2009-01-01

    In line with the cognitive theory of multimedia learning by Moreno and Mayer (2007), an interactive, multimodal learning environment was designed for the pretraining of science concepts in the joint area of physics, chemistry, biology, applied mathematics, and computer sciences. In the experimental set up, a pretest was embedded in order to…

  1. The Impact of Socio-Scientific Controversies in Portuguese Natural Science Teachers' Conceptions and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Pedro; Galvao, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the results of a qualitative study, based on case studies, aimed at: (a) assessing a group of Portuguese secondary school natural science teachers regarding their conceptions of the nature, teaching and learning of science; (b) studying possible impacts of recent controversies surrounding scientific and technological issues…

  2. Elementary Teachers' Use of Language to Label and Interpret Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glen, Nicole J.; Dotger, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study examined how three teachers of upper elementary students used science vocabulary in their lessons. The data revealed that teachers used vocabulary to label science phenomena and interpret scientific concepts for students. The practice of labeling was used more extensively than interpreting. Teachers did not help their…

  3. Proportional Reasoning Ability and Concepts of Scale: Surface Area to Volume Relationships in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Amy; Jones, Gail

    2009-01-01

    The "National Science Education Standards" emphasise teaching unifying concepts and processes such as basic functions of living organisms, the living environment, and scale. Scale influences science processes and phenomena across the domains. One of the big ideas of scale is that of surface area to volume. This study explored whether or not there…

  4. Student Competence in Understanding the Matter Concept and Its Implications for Science Curriculum Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Using the US national sample from the 1995 Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), this study examined students' competence levels in understanding the matter concept at grades 3, 4, 7, 8 and high school graduation, and compared them to the expectations in the US national science education standards. It was found that…

  5. The Pre-Service Science Teachers' Mental Models for Concept of Atoms and Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiray, Seyit Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the pre-service science teachers' difficulties about the concept of atoms. The data was collected from two different sources: The Draw an Atom Test (DAAT) and face-to-face interviews. Draw an atom test (DAAT) were administered to the 142 science teacher candidates. To elaborate the results, the researcher…

  6. Toward a Unified Conception of Thinking: Prediction within a Cognitive Science Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Ronald G.

    This paper draws from several disciplines to provide a foundation for making progress toward a unified conception of thinking in science education. Areas covered include: (1) the philosophy of science (discussing contextual realism); (2) cognitive psychology (describing development of scientific thinking skills); and (3) artificial intelligence…

  7. Third International Conference on Inverse Design Concepts and Optimization in Engineering Sciences (ICIDES-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulikravich, George S. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Papers from the Third International Conference on Inverse Design Concepts and Optimization in Engineering Sciences (ICIDES) are presented. The papers discuss current research in the general field of inverse, semi-inverse, and direct design and optimization in engineering sciences. The rapid growth of this relatively new field is due to the availability of faster and larger computing machines.

  8. Learners' Concepts in Mathematics and Science. Occasional Paper ITE/29/88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Philip, Ed.

    This paper contains the text of four papers presented at a seminar held to develop issues for future research in the science and mathematics curriculum area. In "The Nature of Pupils' Naive Conceptions in Science," Rosalind Driver discusses spontaneous reasoning about force and motion, spontaneous reasoning in other domains of experience, general…

  9. Developing an Instrument for Assessing Students' Understanding of the Energy Concept across Science Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Mihwa

    2013-01-01

    Energy is a core and unifying concept in all science disciplines and across all grade levels. Although energy is one of the most central and richly connected ideas in all of science disciplines, students often have a great deal of difficulty understanding it. Numerous studies have been conducted on this topic finding that many students held…

  10. Exploring Europa's Habitability: Science achieved from the Europa Orbiter and Clipper Mission Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senske, D. A.; Prockter, L. M.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Patterson, G. W.; Vance, S.

    2012-12-01

    Europa is a prime candidate in the search for present-day habitable environments in our solar system. Europa is unique among the large icy satellites because it probably has a saltwater ocean today beneath an ice shell that is geodynamically active. The combination of irradiation of its surface and tidal heating of its interior could make Europa a rich source of chemical energy for life. Perhaps most importantly, Europa's ocean is believed to be in direct contact with its rocky mantle, where conditions could be similar to those on Earth's biologically rich sea floor. Hydrothermal zones on Earth's seafloor are known to be rich with life, powered by energy and nutrients that result from reactions between the seawater and the warm rocky ocean floor. Life as we know it depends on three principal "ingredients": 1) a sustained liquid water environment; 2) essential chemical elements that are critical for building life; and 3) a source of energy that could be utilized by life. Europa's habitability requires understanding whether it possesses these three ingredients. NASA has enlisted a study team to consider Europa mission options feasible over the next decade, compatible with NASA's projected planetary science budget and addressing Planetary Decadal Survey priorities. Two Europa mission concepts (Orbiter and multiple flyby—call the "Clipper") are undergoing continued study with the goal to "Explore Europa to investigate its habitability." Each mission would address this goal in complementary ways, with high science value of its own. The Orbiter and Clipper architectures lend themselves to specific types of scientific measurements. The Orbiter concept is tailored to the unique geophysical science that requires being in orbit at Europa. This includes confirming the existence of an ocean and characterizing that ocean through geophysical measurements of Europa's gravitational tides and magnetic induction response. It also includes mapping of the global morphology and

  11. Enacting Classroom Inquiry: Theorizing Teachers' Conceptions of Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Scott; Songer, Nancy Butler

    2008-01-01

    Translating written curricular materials into rich, complex, learning environments is an undertheorized area in science education. This study examines two critical cases of teachers enacting a technology-rich curriculum focused on the development of complex reasoning around biodiversity for fifth graders. Two elements emerged that significantly…

  12. Key Concepts of Environmental Sustainability in Family and Consumer Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nancy E.; Harden, Amy J.; Clauss, Barbara; Fox, Wanda S.; Wild, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    It is the vision of the American Association of Family & Consumer Sciences to be "recognized as the driving force in bringing people together to improve the lives of individuals, families, and communities" (AAFCS, 2010). Because of this focus on individuals and families and its well-established presence in American schools, family and consumer…

  13. University Student Conceptions of Learning Science through Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Robert A.; Taylor, Charlotte E.; Drury, Helen

    2006-01-01

    First-year undergraduate science students experienced a writing program as an important part of their assessment in a biology subject. The writing program was designed to help them develop both their scientific understanding as well as their written scientific expression. Open-ended questionnaires investigating the quality of the experience of…

  14. Concept Development and Transfer in Context-Based Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, John K.; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Pilot, Albert

    2011-01-01

    "Context-based courses" are increasingly used in an address to the major challenges that science education currently faces: lack of clear purpose, content overload, incoherent learning by students, lack of relevance to students, and lack of transfer of learning to new contexts. In this paper, four criteria for the design of context-based courses…

  15. A Case Study: Teaching Engineering Concepts in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stricker, David R.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to describe a high school engineering curriculum, identify teaching strategies used to increase math and science literacy, and discover challenges and constraints that occur during its development and delivery, as well as what strategies are used to overcome these obstacles. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with…

  16. Three Conceptions of Thermodynamics: Technical Matrices in Science and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Frederik V.; Rump, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    Introductory thermodynamics is a topic which is covered in a wide variety of science and engineering educations. However, very different teaching traditions have evolved within different scientific specialties. In this study we examine three courses in introductory thermodynamics within three different scientific specialties: physics, chemical…

  17. Concepts, Instruments, and Model Systems that Enabled the Rapid Evolution of Surface Science

    SciTech Connect

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Park, Jeong Y.

    2009-01-10

    Over the past forty years, surface science has evolved to become both an atomic scale and a molecular scale science. Gerhard Ertl's group has made major contributions in the field of molecular scale surface science, focusing on vacuum studies of adsorption chemistry on single crystal surfaces. In this review, we outline three important aspects which have led to recent advances in surface chemistry: the development of new concepts, in situ instruments for molecular scale surface studies at buried interfaces (solid-gas and solid-liquid), and new model nanoparticle surface systems, in addition to single crystals. Combined molecular beam surface scattering and low energy electron diffraction (LEED)- surface structure studies on metal single crystal surfaces revealed concepts, including adsorbate-induced surface restructuring and the unique activity of defects, atomic steps, and kinks on metal surfaces. We have combined high pressure catalytic reaction studies with ultra high vacuum (UHV) surface characterization techniques using a UHV chamber equipped with a high pressure reaction cell. New instruments, such as high pressure sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) which permit molecular-level surface studies have been developed. Tools that access broad ranges of pressures can be used for both the in situ characterization of solid-gas and solid-liquid buried interfaces and the study of catalytic reaction intermediates. The model systems for the study of molecular surface chemistry have evolved from single crystals to nanoparticles in the 1-10 nm size range, which are currently the preferred media in catalytic reaction studies.

  18. Everyday science & science every day: Science-related talk & activities across settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Heather

    To understand the development of science-related thinking, acting, and learning in middle childhood, I studied youth in schools, homes, and other neighborhood settings over a three-year period. The research goal was to analyze how multiple everyday experiences influence children's participation in science-related practices and their thinking about science and scientists. Ethnographic and interaction analysis methodologies were to study the cognition and social interactions of the children as they participated in activities with peers, family, and teachers (n=128). Interviews and participant self-documentation protocols elucidated the participants' understandings of science. An Everyday Expertise (Bell et al., 2006) theoretical framework was employed to study the development of science understandings on three analytical planes: individual learner, social groups, and societal/community resources. Findings came from a cross-case analysis of urban science learners and from two within-case analyses of girls' science-related practices as they transitioned from elementary to middle school. Results included: (1) children participated actively in science across settings---including in their homes as well as in schools, (2) children's interests in science were not always aligned to the school science content, pedagogy, or school structures for participation, yet children found ways to engage with science despite these differences through crafting multiple pathways into science, (3) urban parents were active supporters of STEM-related learning environments through brokering access to social and material resources, (4) the youth often found science in their daily activities that formal education did not make use of, and (5) children's involvement with science-related practices can be developed into design principles to reach youth in culturally relevant ways.

  19. Computer-Based Concept Mapping: Active Studying for Active Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Inman, Lynne; Zeitz, Leigh

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of computer-generated concept maps using a new genre of graphics programs that allows students to create, alter and expand maps as they acquire more subject matter knowledge. Four examples of increasingly complex concept maps developed by a high school student studying cellular biology are discussed and illustrated. (Contains 19…

  20. Detecting changes in student teachers' conceptions of teaching science to adolescent English language learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomeroy, Jonathon Richard

    2000-10-01

    This research study investigated the changes that occurred in six student teachers' conceptions of teaching science to adolescent English language learners over the duration of their participation in a one-year, graduate level, science teacher education program. Cases were created for each of the student teachers based on their concept maps, writing samples, interviews, lesson plans, informal interviews with cooperating teachers, and observation notes collected on biweekly visitations. The cases were divided into three dyads each consisting of two student teachers with similar preprogram and student teaching experiences. Cross case analysis revealed the existence of seven themes related to teaching science to adolescent English language learners. Further analysis suggested that student teachers that worked with experienced cooperating teachers and who had achieved a sense of autonomy over their student teaching demonstrated broad and sophisticated growth across all seven themes. Student teachers who had not achieved a sense of autonomy, demonstrated growth in two to three themes. Student teachers who demonstrated broad and sophisticated growth were able to clearly articulate their conceptions of teaching science to English language learners where as those who demonstrated limited growth were not. This research establishes the use of concept maps as a tool for detecting changes in student teachers' conceptions of teaching science to adolescent English language learners as well as the sensitivity of concept maps to detect the types of changes historically detected by writing samples and interviews. Recommendations based on the implications from are included.

  1. First- and Second-Generation Immigrant Adolescents' Multidimensional Mathematics and Science Self-Concepts and Their Achievement in Mathematics and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2012-01-01

    This study, drawing on data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2007, examined the predictive effects of multiple dimensions of mathematics and science self-concept--positive affect toward mathematics and science and self-perceived competence in mathematics and science--on mathematics and science achievement among 1,752…

  2. Digging Into Earth Science: Teachers' Alternative Conceptions in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, J. A.; Anderson, S. W.; Libarkin, J.

    2003-12-01

    A sample of K-12 South Dakota teachers was investigated to discover if they held alternative conceptions in the geosciences. Data were collected through surveys (n=38), questionnaires (n=49), individual interviews (n=8) and a 30 item multiple-choice instrument called the geoscience concept test (n=44). Information about teachers' personal interests, classroom occurrence of basic geoscience topics and teachers' personal conceptions about these same topics were gathered. According to the survey results, the study of volcanoes generated both high interest and high classroom occurrence ratings. In contrast, the study of plate tectonics generated low ratings for both interest and occurrence. In fact, only 30% of teachers were able to correctly identify the location of the Earth's tectonic plates. Taking into consideration the important relationships between these two topics, it may suggest that plate tectonics is a subject that teachers do not feel adequately prepared to teach. Additionally, a large number of teachers (79%) perceive the Earth as having a "liquid" or "molten" core. Consequently, 38 of 49 teachers questioned attributed the source of magma to the Earth's core. Another unexpected finding, was the reluctance of teachers to participate in the interview phase. Eight teachers agreed to participate in face-to-face interviews. This is in contrast to 62 who declined.

  3. Semantic Similarity Computation and Concept Mapping in Earth and Environmental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J.; Ma, X.; Fox, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    Ontologies have been widely adopted and used by Earth and Environmental Science community to capture and represent knowledge in the domain. One of the major problem that prevent us to combine and reuse these ontologies to solve more interesting problems is semantic heterogeneity problem, for example, same vocabularies from different ontologies may refer to different concept; or different terms from different ontologies may have same meaning. In this proposed work, we will address the problem by (1) developing a semantic similarity computation model to compute similarity among the concepts in Earth and Environmental Science; (2) based on the computation model, we will implement concept mapping tool that creates alignment for concepts that are semantically the same; (3) we will demonstrate the effectiveness of the tool using GCMD and CLEAN vocabularies and other earth science related ontologies.

  4. Movement as a basic concept in physiotherapy--a human science approach.

    PubMed

    Wikström-Grotell, Camilla; Eriksson, Katie

    2012-08-01

    The development of scientific knowledge of physiotherapy (PT) has advanced significantly. Research is mostly conducted within a biomedical paradigm and theory-building is underpinned by a positivist paradigm. The basic philosophical questions and concepts are not much reflected on, and PT lacks an established theoretical frame. The first step in theory development is to define the basic concepts. The aim of this professional theoretical paper was to reflect on and describe the concept of movement in PT based on earlier research as a standpoint for a broader and deeper understanding of the complex nature of PT reality inspired by a model for concept analysis developed in caring science [Eriksson K 2010 Concept determination as part of the development of knowledge in caring science. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences 24: 2-11]. The concept of movement in PT is conceptualized as complex and multidimensional. The understanding of human movement in PT is based on five categories described in the paper. The conceptualization of movement includes acting in relation to the socio-cultural environment, inter-dynamic aspects, as well as personal, intradynamic aspects. This paper argues for the need to further develop the concept of movement in PT within a human science approach. A deeper understanding is needed as a basis for understanding complex clinical practice as well as in shaping the PT discipline. PMID:22765213

  5. Focusing on the Classical or Contemporary? Chinese Science Teacher Educators' Conceptions of Nature of Science Content to Be Taught to Pre-Service Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Zhi Hong; Wong, Siu Ling; Wei, Bing; Zhan, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from the phenomenographic perspective, an exploratory study investigated Chinese teacher educators' conceptions of teaching Nature of Science (NOS) to pre-service science teachers through semi-structured interviews. Five key dimensions emerged from the data. This paper focuses on the dimension, "NOS content to be taught to…

  6. Science with SALT: the road from concept to reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, David A. H.

    2015-08-01

    The Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) was a relatively cheap (~$20M) 10m class telescope, modelled on the innovative HET design, for which the construction phase was completed in late 2005. However it took another 6 years or so before the commissioning was really completed and the telescope entered full science operations. This talk will discuss the design and construction of SALT, its First Generation instruments and the operational model for the telescope. A number of technical challenges, some unforeseeable at the time, had to be overcome, which are described in this talk. Some science highlights will be presented, covering a range of topics and focussing on studies related to some of the more unique or rare capabilities of SALT, like time resolved studies. Finally, I look to the future and the prospects of new instruments and capabilities.

  7. STATE OF THE SCIENCE OF MATERNAL-INFANT BONDING: A PRINCIPLE-BASED CONCEPT ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Bicking Kinsey, Cara; Hupcey, Judith E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide a principle-based analysis of the concept of maternal-infant bonding. Design Principle-based method of concept analysis for which the data set included 44 articles published in the last decade from Pubmed, CINAHL, and PyschINFO/PsychARTICLES. Setting Literature inclusion criteria were English language, articles published in the last decade, peer-reviewed journal articles and commentary on published work, and human populations. Measurement and Findings After brief review of the history of maternal-infant bonding, a principle-based concept analysis was completed to examine the state of the science with regard to this concept. The concept was critically examined according to the clarity of definition (epistemological principle), applicability of the concept (pragmatic principle), consistency in use and meaning (linguistic principle), and differentiation of the concept from related concepts (logical principle). Analysis of the concept revealed: (1) maternal-infant bonding describes maternal feelings and emotions towards her infant. Evidence that the concept encompasses behavioral or biological components was limited; (2) the concept is clearly operationalized in the affective domain; and (3) maternal-infant bonding is linguistically confused with attachment, although the boundaries between the concepts are clearly delineated. Key Conclusion Despite widespread use of the concept, maternal-infant bonding is at times superficially developed and subject to confusion with related concepts. Concept clarification is warranted. A theoretical definition of the concept of maternal-infant bonding was developed to aid in the clarification, but more research is necessary to further clarify and advance the concept. Implications for Practice Nurse midwives and other practitioners should use the theoretical definition of maternal-infant bonding as a preliminary guide to identification and understanding of the concept in clinical practice. PMID:23452661

  8. Active Control by Conservation of Energy Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio

    2000-01-01

    Three unrelated experiments are discussed; each was extremely sensitive to initial conditions. The initial conditions are the beginnings of the origins of the information that nonlinearity displays. Initial conditions make the phenomenon unstable and unpredictable. With the knowledge of the initial conditions, active control requires far less power than that present in the system response. The first experiment is on the control of shocks from an axisymmetric supersonic jet; the second, control of a nonlinear panel response forced by turbulent boundary layer and sound; the third, control of subharmonic and harmonics of a panel forced by sound. In all three experiments, control is achieved by redistribution of periodic energy response such that the energy is nearly preserved from a previous uncontrolled state. This type of active control improves the performance of the system being controlled.

  9. Marine Science Activities for Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Dennis; And Others

    These marine education materials are based on the approach that students learn best when given a multisensory experience. The activities are intended to develop such experiences for the visually impaired child. Activities are intended to supplement an upper-elementary science curriculum or be the basis of a unit on marine biology. The guide is…

  10. An Overview of the MATISSE Instrument — Science, Concept and Current Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, B.; Lagarde, S.; Jaffe, W.; Petrov, R.; Schöller, M.; Antonelli, P.; Beckmann, U.; Berio, P.; Bettonvil, F.; Glindemann, A.; Gonzalez, J.-C.; Graser, U.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Millour, F.; Robbe-Dubois, S.; Venema, L.; Wolf, S.; Henning, T.; Lanz, T.; Weigelt, G.; Agocs, T.; Bailet, C.; Bresson, Y.; Bristow, P.; Dugué, M.; Heininger, M.; Kroes, G.; Laun, W.; Lehmitz, M.; Neumann, U.; Augereau, J.-C.; Avila, G.; Behrend, J.; van Belle, G.; Berger, J.-P.; van Boekel, R.; Bonhomme, S.; Bourget, P.; Brast, R.; Clausse, J.-M.; Connot, C.; Conzelmann, R.; Cruzalèbes, P.; Csepany, G.; Danchi, W.; Delbo, M.; Delplancke, F.; Dominik, C.; van Duin, A.; Elswijk, E.; Fantei, Y.; Finger, G.; Gabasch, A.; Gay, J.; Girard, P.; Girault, V.; Gitton, P.; Glazenborg, A.; Gonté, F.; Guitton, F.; Guniat, S.; De Haan, M.; Haguenauer, P.; Hanenburg, H.; Hogerheijde, M.; ter Horst, R.; Hron, J.; Hugues, Y.; Hummel, C.; Idserda, J.; Ives, D.; Jakob, G.; Jasko, A.; Jolley, P.; Kiraly, S.; Köhler, R.; Kragt, J.; Kroener, T.; Kuindersma, S.; Labadie, L.; Leinert, C.; Le Poole, R.; Lizon, J.-L.; Lucuix, C.; Marcotto, A.; Martinache, F.; Martinot-Lagarde, G.; Mathar, R.; Matter, A.; Mauclert, N.; Mehrgan, L.; Meilland, A.; Meisenheimer, K.; Meisner, J.; Mellein, M.; Menardi, S.; Menut, J.-L.; Merand, A.; Morel, S.; Mosoni, L.; Navarro, R.; Nussbaum, E.; Ottogalli, S.; Palsa, R.; Panduro, J.; Pantin, E.; Parra, T.; Percheron, I.; Duc, T. P.; Pott, J.-U.; Pozna, E.; Przygodda, F.; Rabbia, Y.; Richichi, A.; Rigal, F.; Roelfsema, R.; Rupprecht, G.; Schertl, D.; Schmidt, C.; Schuhler, N.; Schuil, M.; Spang, A.; Stegmeier, J.; Thiam, L.; Tromp, N.; Vakili, F.; Vannier, M.; Wagner, K.; Woillez, J.

    2014-09-01

    MATISSE, a second generation Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) instrument, is a combined imager and spectrograph for interferometry in the 3-5 μm region (L- and M-bands) and the 8-13 μm window (N-band). MATISSE builds on the experience gained with the VLTI's first generation instruments. It employs multi-axial beam combination while also providing wavelength differential visibility and phase, and closure-phase aperture-synthesis imaging at a range of spectral resolutions. MATISSE is designed for a broad range of science goals, and its potential for studies of the discs around young stars and active galactic nuclei are highlighted. The instrument concept and operating modes are described; construction is in progress towards installation at the VLTI in 2016.

  11. Inquiry Science and Active Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandifer, Cody

    2011-01-01

    Pairing an inquiry lesson with a traditional reading activity creates a jarring philosophical mismatch between the interaction, deep thinking, and scientific reasoning that drives meaningful inquiry instruction and the "scan the text, copy the answers" response often obtained from elementary nonfiction readers. Realizing that there must be a…

  12. Using the Tower of Hanoi puzzle to infuse your mathematics classroom with computer science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, Alison S.

    2016-07-01

    This article suggests that logic puzzles, such as the well-known Tower of Hanoi puzzle, can be used to introduce computer science concepts to mathematics students of all ages. Mathematics teachers introduce their students to computer science concepts that are enacted spontaneously and subconsciously throughout the solution to the Tower of Hanoi puzzle. These concepts include, but are not limited to, conditionals, iteration, and recursion. Lessons, such as the one proposed in this article, are easily implementable in mathematics classrooms and extracurricular programmes as they are good candidates for 'drop in' lessons that do not need to fit into any particular place in the typical curriculum sequence. As an example for readers, the author describes how she used the puzzle in her own Number Sense and Logic course during the federally funded Upward Bound Math/Science summer programme for college-intending low-income high school students. The article explains each computer science term with real-life and mathematical examples, applies each term to the Tower of Hanoi puzzle solution, and describes how students connected the terms to their own solutions of the puzzle. It is timely and important to expose mathematics students to computer science concepts. Given the rate at which technology is currently advancing, and our increased dependence on technology in our daily lives, it has become more important than ever for children to be exposed to computer science. Yet, despite the importance of exposing today's children to computer science, many children are not given adequate opportunity to learn computer science in schools. In the United States, for example, most students finish high school without ever taking a computing course. Mathematics lessons, such as the one described in this article, can help to make computer science more accessible to students who may have otherwise had little opportunity to be introduced to these increasingly important concepts.

  13. Re-Presenting the Social Construction of Science in Light of the Propositions of Bruno Latour: For a Renewal of the School Conception of Science in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Vincent; Bader, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Current opinion holds that school science has not been producing the expected outcomes. Highlighted by a considerable body of research, one of the concerns is that young people still mobilize a naive conception of science. Consequently, we must pursue the reflection process concerning ways of renewing the school conception of science so as to…

  14. Expert science teachers' gas explanations and ability to respond to students' alternative conceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffries, Carolyn Livingston

    Research in the field of science education suggests that to be successful in helping students learn science, teachers must have high knowledge of content, pedagogy, and content-specific pedagogy. In other words, teachers must understand the concepts, their students, and the best methods for teaching those concepts to their students. This means that in addition to understanding the consensual scientific view, science teachers must be able to explain concepts in ways that are understandable to learners. There is scant research on how expert science teachers accomplish this task, especially with complex or abstract science concepts. This study examined the types of explanations expert middle school science teachers give when teaching the particulate gas model and the relationship of these explanations to teachers' conceptual understanding and their ability to identify alternative conceptions. During individual interviews, fourteen expert middle school science teachers were given a conceptual understanding drawing task, an instructional explanation task, and several scenarios of student statements with follow-up questions about their interpretations and response explanations. Results indicated that the teachers had a thorough understanding of the particle model of gases, created instructional explanations and responses that incorporated effective science education methods, and correctly identified and addressed students' alternative conceptions of gases. Moreover, the teachers' appropriate modifications of the particulate gas model and concrete approach to teaching gases indicated high pedagogical content knowledge suitable for this topic and age group. The teachers purposefully simplified the gas model in their explanations in response to their students' level of development and understanding and were careful not to instill or support generation of inaccurate models. Results also indicated that the teachers tended to address more alternative conceptions and use more

  15. Fundamental concepts of modelling; The science of simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, W.J. . Dept. of Engineering Physics)

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses the roles of simulation in science and engineering:the extended calculator, the prototyper and the intuition generation medium. Simulation has emerged as a wing of science that is orthogonal to experimentation and theory. It has the pedestrian role of the extended calculator in that simulation provides a numerical bridge between symbolic theory and hard experimental data. In this role, discovery has been assisted. But, simulation has proved to be more than a super calculator. The nuclear industry and computational fluid dynamics are but two examples of areas that use simulation to replace experimentation (prototyping) for cost and danger reasons. Further, there is an emerging role of graphics and artificial intelligence in the discovery process. Simulation is clearly becoming not only a tool that reduces the tedium, but one that enhances the creative process. The paper looks at the state of the art in thermalhydraulics and considers the emerging trends. A general modelling scheme is proposed and a system view is used to suggest the criteria for 'optimum' simulation models for the working environment.

  16. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 14 activities related to solar energy for secondary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question such as: (1) how much solar heat comes from the sun? or (2) how many times do you have to run water through a flat-plate collector to get a 10 degree rise in…

  17. Relationship of sex, achievement, and science self-concept to the science career preferences of black students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobowitz, Tina

    Science career preferences of junior high school-aged students, while not stable predictors of ultimate career choice, do serve to direct and maintain individuals along the paths to careers in science. In this study, factors relevant to science career preferences of black eighth grade students were investigated. This issue is of particular import to blacks since they are severely underrepresented in the scientific fields. The sample consisted of 113 males and 148 females in an inner city junior high school. The Science Career Preference Scale, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and the Self-Concept of Ability Scale (Form B-Science) were administered. Mathematics and science grades were obtained from class rating sheets. Treatment of the data involved multiple regression analysis according to a hierarchical model. Results showed that of all the independent variables, sex was the strongest predictor of science career preferences, accounting for 25% of the criterion variance. The findings suggest that early adolescent science career preferences are related more to interests that are consonant with sex-role considerations than realistic assessment of mathematics or science achievement.

  18. A case study of change in conceptions and practices of prospective science teachers during field experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Cristine Schoneweg

    Field experiences are a pivotal component in the development of science pedagogy amongst future science teachers. This study sought to examine the ways in which prospective high school science teachers' conceptions of science pedagogy change, if at all, during the field experiences component of a science teacher preparation program. The following research questions guided this investigation of the experiences of two participating prospective science teachers: (1) What are the conceptions of teaching science held by participants? (2) How do these conceptions change as participants progress through pre-student teaching and student teaching? (3) What is the role of pre-student teaching and student teaching in the construction of these conceptions, from the perspective of the participants? (4) In what ways did the pre-student teaching and student teaching experiences constrain or support the development of conceptual change pedagogy among participants? This interpretive case study of participants' development in conceptions about science pedagogy was guided by principles of phenomenological inquiry. Primary sources of data were transcripts of semi-structured formal interviews with participants. Field notes from classroom observations and documents, such as journal entries and lesson plans, were used as supporting data. Data collection occurred during Fall 1995 and Spring 1996, as participants progressed through pre-student teaching and student teaching, respectively. The data were analyzed through an inductive procedure. There were two levels of data analysis. First, the data for each individual participant were analyzed; second, a cross-participant analysis was performed. The overarching assertion that emerged from the analysis was that 'the nature of the field experiences for these participants may have (inadvertently) rewarded the pursuit of technical proficiency at the expense of both critical reflection and development on issues related to participants

  19. Scientists' conceptions of scientific inquiry: Revealing a private side of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiff, Rebecca R.

    Science educators, philosophers, and pre-service teachers have contributed to conceptualizing inquiry but missing from the inquiry forum is an in-depth research study concerning science faculty conceptions of scientific inquiry. The science education literature has tended to focus on certain aspects of doing, teaching, and understanding scientific inquiry without linking these concepts. As a result, conceptions of scientific inquiry have been disjointed and are seemingly unrelated. Furthermore, confusion surrounding the meaning of inquiry has been identified as a reason teachers are not using inquiry in instruction (Welch et al., 1981). Part of the confusion surrounding scientific inquiry is it has been defined differently depending on the context (Colburn, 2000; Lederman, 1998; Shymansky & Yore, 1980; Wilson & Koran, 1976). This lack of a common conception of scientific inquiry is the reason for the timely nature of this research. The result of scientific journeys is not to arrive at a stopping point or the final destination, but to refuel with questions to drive the pursuit of knowledge. A three-member research team conducted Interviews with science faculty members using a semi-structured interview protocol designed to probe the subject's conceptions of scientific inquiry. The participants represented a total of 52 science faculty members from nine science departments (anthropology, biology, chemistry, geology, geography, school of health, physical education and recreation (HPER), medical sciences, physics, and school of environmental science) at a large mid-western research university. The method of analysis used by the team was grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1990; Glaser & Strauss, 1967), in which case the frequency of concepts, patterns, and themes were coded to categorize scientists' conceptions of scientific inquiry. The results from this study address the following components: understanding and doing scientific inquiry, attributes of scientists engaged

  20. The conceptions of learning science for science-mathematics groups and literature-mathematics groups in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadi, Ozlem; Lee, Min-Hsien

    2015-05-01

    Background:The conceptions of learning have a deep effect on the learning process, and accordingly on learning outcomes. Some researchers emphasize that conceptions of learning are domain-dependent and there should be more research in different domains (e.g. science, literature) to enhance students' understanding of conceptions of learning science. Purpose:The purpose of this research was to examine and compare science-major and literature-major students' conceptions of learning science (COLS). Also, gender differences in COLS were examined for two majors. Sample:The sample for this study comprised of 503 high school students in 10th, 11th, and 12th grades (244 females, 259 males) in a district of Karaman in Turkey. Design and methods:The questionnaire, the Conceptions of Learning Science (COLS), developed by Lee, Johanson, and Tsai, was used to identify students' COLS. The data obtained via the questionnaire were analyzed by means of SPSS 15.0 statistical software. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the factor structure of the questionnaire. Then, two-way MANOVA was conducted to compare the mean scores regarding the students' majors and genders in terms of the factors of COLS. Results:The results of the study revealed that students in Science-Mathematics field tended to express more agreement with lower-level COLS, such as learning science by 'memorizing,' 'preparing for exams,' and 'increasing one's knowledge' than those in Literature-Mathematics field. Second, more female students conceptualized learning science as 'increasing one's knowledge,' 'applying,' 'understanding,' or 'seeing in a new way' than male students in both majors. Third, the findings of two-way MANOVA, in general, revealed that there were significant differences in the average scores of conceptions of 'memorizing,' 'calculating and practicing,' and 'increasing one's knowledge' between two majors. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant mean difference

  1. Predicting fifth-grade students' understanding of ecological science concepts with motivational and cognitive variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alao, Solomon

    The need to identify factors that contribute to students' understanding of ecological concepts has been widely expressed in recent literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between fifth grade students' prior knowledge, learning strategies, interest, and learning goals and their conceptual understanding of ecological science concepts. Subject were 72 students from three fifth grade classrooms located in a metropolitan area of the eastern United States. Students completed the goal commitment, interest, and strategy use questionnaire (GISQ), and a knowledge test designed to assess their prior knowledge and conceptual understanding of ecological science concepts. The learning goals scale assessed intentions to try to learn and understand ecological concepts. The interest scale assessed the feeling and value-related valences that students ascribed to science and ecological science concepts. The strategy use scale assessed the use of two cognitive strategies (monitoring and elaboration). The knowledge test assessed students' understanding of ecological concepts (the relationship between living organisms and their environment). Scores on all measures were examined for gender differences; no significant gender differences were observed. The motivational and cognitive variables contributed to students' understanding of ecological concepts. After accounting for interest, learning goals, and strategy use, prior knowledge accounted for 28% of the total variance in conceptual understanding. After accounting for prior knowledge, interest, learning goals, and strategy use explained 7%, 6%, and 4% of the total variance in conceptual understanding, respectively. More importantly, these variables were interrelated to each other and to conceptual understanding. After controlling for prior knowledge, learning goals, and strategy use, interest did not predict the variance in conceptual understanding. After controlling for prior knowledge, interest, and

  2. 101 Environmental Education Activities. Booklet 4--Science Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Helen, Comp.

    Fourth in the series "101 Environmental Education Activities" by the Upper Mississippi River ECO-Center, the booklet contains 39 environment-based science activities directed to students in primary, intermediate, and junior high classes. Organization of the activities usually includes grade level, objectives, procedures, and materials, evaluation…

  3. Central Computer Science Concepts to Research-Based Teacher Training in Computer Science: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zendler, Andreas; Klaudt, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    The significance of computer science for economics and society is undisputed. In particular, computer science is acknowledged to play a key role in schools (e.g., by opening multiple career paths). The provision of effective computer science education in schools is dependent on teachers who are able to properly represent the discipline and whose…

  4. Identifying Alternative Conceptions About Water on Mars Held by Middle School Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, K. J.; Keller, J. M.; Novodvorsky, I.

    2008-12-01

    The current Mars Exploration strategy of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to "follow the water" in hopes of finding past or present life. The purpose of our study is to identify alternative conceptions about water on Mars held by middle school science teachers in order to inform space science educators. We use middle school science teachers in southern Arizona and California as the study population because earth science and phase changes are part of state education standards for middle school in Arizona and California. The study assesses understanding of four main concepts: carbon dioxide versus water ice, recent versus ancient water, the phases of water, and how scientists know about water on Mars. To identify teachers' conceptions, an anonymous online survey was administered. The survey also collected non-identifying demographic information about the teachers. A preliminary analysis of the data from the pilot study suggests that the teachers surveyed do not know about or understand that evidence suggests that Mars was different in the past, that water vapor exists on Mars, the utility of Earth-based telescopes, and the status of the search for life on Mars. We will present the teachers' conceptions about water on Mars. Our results will have implications for how NASA and other space science institutes could direct their education and public outreach efforts to middle school science teachers in order to be as effective as possible.

  5. Life Science Research Facility materials management requirements and concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Catherine C.

    1986-01-01

    The Advanced Programs Office at NASA Ames Research Center has defined hypothetical experiments for a 90-day mission on Space Station to allow analysis of the materials necessary to conduct the experiments and to assess the impact on waste processing of recyclable materials and storage requirements of samples to be returned to earth for analysis as well as of nonrecyclable materials. The materials include the specimens themselves, the food, water, and gases necessary to maintain them, the expendables necessary to conduct the experiments, and the metabolic products of the specimens. This study defines the volumes, flow rates, and states of these materials. Process concepts for materials handling will include a cage cleaner, trash compactor, biological stabilizer, and various recycling devices.

  6. Neutron activation analysis in the life sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frontasyeva, M. V.

    2011-03-01

    Development of methods for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and their applications in the life sciences are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on epithermal activation with reactor neutrons (ENAA), and the advantages of this technique in analysis of environmental objects are shown. The results of applied INAA studies in the field of the life sciences carried out at the world's leading nuclear centers are reported. Experience in employing a radioanalytical complex at the IBR-2 reactor (Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna) for such studies is summarized.

  7. Space station freedom life sciences activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1994-01-01

    Life sciences activities being planned for Space Station Freedom (SSF) as of Fall 1992 are discussed. Planning for these activities is ongoing. Therefore, this description should be viewed as indicative of the prevailing ideas at one particular time in the SSF development cycle. The proposed contributions of the Canadian Space Agency (CSN) the European Space Agency (ESA), Japan, and the United States are all discussed in detail. In each case, the life sciences goals, and the way in which each partner proposes to achieve their goals, are reviewed.

  8. ESA Science Archives and associated VO activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arviset, Christophe; Baines, Deborah; Barbarisi, Isa; Castellanos, Javier; Cheek, Neil; Costa, Hugo; Fajersztejn, Nicolas; Gonzalez, Juan; Fernandez, Monica; Laruelo, Andrea; Leon, Ignacio; Ortiz, Inaki; Osuna, Pedro; Salgado, Jesus; Tapiador, Daniel

    ESA's European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), near Madrid, Spain, hosts most of ESA space based missions' scientific archives, in planetary (Mars Express, Venus Express, Rosetta, Huygens, Giotto, Smart-1, all in ESA Planetary Science Archive), in astronomy (XMM-Newton, Herschel, ISO, Integral, Exosat, Planck) and in solar physics (Soho). All these science archives are operated by a dedicated Science Archives and Virtual Observatory Team (SAT) at ESAC, enabling common and efficient design, development, operations and maintenance of the archives software systems. This also ensures long term preservation and availability of such science archives, as a sustainable service to the science community. ESA space science data can be accessed through powerful and user friendly user interface, as well as from machine scriptable interface and through VO interfaces. Virtual Observatory activities are also fully part of ESA archiving strategy and ESA is a very ac-tive partner in VO initiatives in Europe through Euro-VO AIDA and EuroPlanet and worldwide through the IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance) and the IPDA (International Planetary Data Alliance).

  9. Science goals and mission concept for the future exploration of Titan and Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobie, G.; Teanby, N. A.; Coustenis, A.; Jaumann, R.; Raulin, F.; Schmidt, J.; Carrasco, N.; Coates, A. J.; Cordier, D.; De Kok, R.; Geppert, W. D.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Lefevre, A.; Livengood, T. A.; Mandt, K. E.; Mitri, G.; Nimmo, F.; Nixon, C. A.; Norman, L.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Postberg, F.; Rodriguez, S.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Soderblom, J. M.; Solomonidou, A.; Stephan, K.; Stofan, E. R.; Turtle, E. P.; Wagner, R. J.; West, R. A.; Westlake, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Saturn's moons, Titan and Enceladus, are two of the Solar System's most enigmatic bodies and are prime targets for future space exploration. Titan provides an analogue for many processes relevant to the Earth, more generally to outer Solar System bodies, and a growing host of newly discovered icy exoplanets. Processes represented include atmospheric dynamics, complex organic chemistry, meteorological cycles (with methane as a working fluid), astrobiology, surface liquids and lakes, geology, fluvial and aeolian erosion, and interactions with an external plasma environment. In addition, exploring Enceladus over multiple targeted flybys will give us a unique opportunity to further study the most active icy moon in our Solar System as revealed by Cassini and to analyse in situ its active plume with highly capable instrumentation addressing its complex chemistry and dynamics. Enceladus' plume likely represents the most accessible samples from an extra-terrestrial liquid water environment in the Solar system, which has far reaching implications for many areas of planetary and biological science. Titan with its massive atmosphere and Enceladus with its active plume are prime planetary objects in the Outer Solar System to perform in situ investigations. In the present paper, we describe the science goals and key measurements to be performed by a future exploration mission involving a Saturn-Titan orbiter and a Titan balloon, which was proposed to ESA in response to the call for definition of the science themes of the next Large-class mission in 2013. The mission scenario is built around three complementary science goals: (A) Titan as an Earth-like system; (B) Enceladus as an active cryovolcanic moon; and (C) Chemistry of Titan and Enceladus - clues for the origin of life. The proposed measurements would provide a step change in our understanding of planetary processes and evolution, with many orders of magnitude improvement in temporal, spatial, and chemical resolution

  10. Sample classroom activities based on climate science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miler, T.

    2009-09-01

    We present several activities developed for the middle school education based on a climate science. The first activity was designed to teach about the ocean acidification. A simple experiment can prove that absorption of CO2 in water increases its acidity. A liquid pH indicator is suitable for the demonstration in a classroom. The second activity uses data containing coordinates of a hurricane position. Pupils draw a path of a hurricane eye in a tracking chart (map of the Atlantic ocean). They calculate an average speed of the hurricane, investigate its direction and intensity development. The third activity uses pictures of the Arctic ocean on September when ice extend is usually the lowest. Students measure the ice extend for several years using a square grid printed on a plastic foil. Then they plot a graph and discuss the results. All these activities can be used to improve the natural science education and increase the climate change literacy.

  11. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally. Concept: Plants Reproduce Their Own Kind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Offers suggestions for spring activities focusing on plant reproduction both indoors and outdoors. Suggests planting seeds to observe, measure, and record effects of temperature, moisture, fertilizer. Recommends outdoor study of the horsetail plant. (NEC)

  12. A Measurement Activity to Encourage Exploration of Calculus Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuffey, William

    2015-01-01

    This article describes an activity that incorporates measurement in order to lead students to discover and explore fundamental concepts of calculus. Students are provided with an experientially real starting point involving measurement and are encouraged to engage in mathematical discussions in a low-stakes environment. I describe the activity as…

  13. Presupposition Processing and the (Re)activation of Negated Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Autry, Kevin S.; Levine, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Negated words take longer to recognize than non-negated words following sentences with negation, suggesting that negated concepts are less active. The present experiments tested the possibility that this reduced activation would not persist beyond immediate testing. Experiment 1 used a probe task and materials similar to those used in previous…

  14. Preservice Teachers' Exploration of Children's Alternative Conceptions: Cornerstone for Planning to Teach Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, Rose M.

    2006-09-01

    Investigation involving children’s understandings of scientific concepts have been a dominant area of research in science education over the last 2 1/2 decades. One fruitful outcome of these studies is to alert teachers to difficulties in learning science. Although this information is commendable in highlighting their existence, not much is presented on how to deal with the alternative conceptions. It is generally believed that teachers tend to teach the way they were taught, and breaking this cycle requires different emphasis on pedagogy in teacher education. The focus of this article is on preservice teachers’ experiences in a science education course as they explore the importance of children’s alternative conceptions and in using such knowledge to make decisions about teaching.

  15. Opportunities to Learn in School and at Home: How can they predict students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Su; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhao, Yandong

    2012-09-01

    As the breadth and depth of economic reforms increase in China, growing attention is being paid to equalities in opportunities to learn science by students of various backgrounds. In early 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technology jointly sponsored a national survey of urban eighth-grade students' science literacy along with their family and school backgrounds. The present study focused on students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles (BSCP), a subset of science literacy. The sample analyzed included 3,031 students from 109 randomly selected classes/schools. Correlation analysis, one-way analysis of variance, and two-level linear regression were conducted. The results showed that having a refrigerator, internet, more books, parents purchasing books and magazines related to school work, higher father's education level, and parents' higher expectation of the education level of their child significantly predicted higher BSCP scores; having siblings at home, owning an apartment, and frequently contacting teachers about the child significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. At the school level, the results showed that being in the first-tier or key schools, having school libraries, science popularization galleries, computer labs, adequate equipment for teaching, special budget for teacher training, special budget for science equipment, and mutual trust between teachers and students significantly predicated higher BSCP scores; and having science and technology rooms, offering science and technology interest clubs, special budget for science curriculum development, and special budget for science social practice activities significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. The implications of the above findings are discussed.

  16. Applying mathematical concepts with hands-on, food-based science curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Roseno, Ashley T.; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G.; Hoerdeman, Callan; Díaz, Sebastián R.; Eugene, Geist; Duffrin, Melani W.

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the current state of the mathematics education system in the United States and provides a possible solution to the contributing issues. As a result of lower performance in primary mathematics, American students are not acquiring the necessary quantitative literacy skills to become successful adults. This study analyzed the impact of the FoodMASTER Intermediate curriculum on fourth-grade student’s mathematics knowledge. The curriculum is a part of the FoodMASTER Initiative, which is a compilation of programs utilizing food, a familiar and necessary part of everyday life, as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Students exposed to the curriculum completed a 20-item researcher-developed mathematics knowledge exam (Intervention n=288; Control n=194). Overall, the results showed a significant increase in mathematics knowledge from pre- to post-test. These findings suggest that students engaged in food-based science activities provided them with the context in which to apply mathematical concepts to an everyday experience. Therefore, the FoodMASTER approach was successful at improving students’ mathematics knowledge while building a foundation for becoming quantitatively literate adults. PMID:26494927

  17. Conceptions of Science Teacher Mentoring and Mentoring Practice in an Alternative Certification Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koballa, Thomas R.; Upson Bradbury, Leslie; Glynn, Shawn M.; Deaton, Cynthia Minchew

    2008-08-01

    Conceptions of mentoring held by six mentors and six beginning science teachers in an alternative certification program were explored qualitatively by means of case studies and phenomenography. Interviews with the six mentors and six beginning teachers produced 379 statements that were grouped into six conceptual categories. The categories of apprenticeship, personal support, and colearning revealed the variation in how mentors and beginning teachers conceptualized school-based mentoring. The conceptions functioned as referents for their mentoring practice. Mentoring as apprenticeship was the dominant conception among both the beginning teachers and mentors. The findings of this study imply that conceptions of mentoring held by mentors and beginning science teachers should be considered when organizing the school-based component of alternative certification programs.

  18. Hands-On Life Science Activities for Middle Schools. Teacher's Edition. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Barbara; Kramer, Stephanie

    This book provides 50 enrichment activities for the science curriculum that provide concrete connections with important world events. Each activity is self-contained and provides everything the student needs to gain a basic understanding of a concept or to work through a project. The activities include innovative and traditional projects for both…

  19. Intergenerational Learning: Grandparents Teaching Everyday Concepts in Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jane, Beverley; Robbins, Jill

    2007-01-01

    For many grandchildren their grandparents are "special" people, and the time they spend together often generates memorable experiences and conversations that are educational. Yet society underestimates the impact that grandparents have as mentors and role models for children. Through spontaneous, shared activities grandparents support the science…

  20. Life and Environment. Elementary Science Activity Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Frank F.

    This book, a volume of the High/Scope Elementary Curriculum science books series, is designed to bring the essential features of plant and animal environments into focus. It contains activities that enable students to gain insights into the life histories of animals and plants, their habitats, and their place in the broader picture of life on…

  1. 474 Science Activities for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Moira D.

    This book uses a child-initiated, whole language approach to help children have fun while exploring the world of science. The activities are divided into 23 units. Each unit begins with an "Attention Getter," the purpose of which is to introduce the unit to children in a way that grabs their attention, stimulates their interest, and creates…

  2. Advanced Concept Exploration for Fast Ignition Science Program, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Richard Burnite; McLean, Harry M.; Theobald, Wolfgang; Akli, Kramer U.; Beg, Farhat N.; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Schumacher, Douglass W.; Wei, Mingsheng

    2013-09-04

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy reactors. FI differs from conventional “central hot spot” (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using a laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10’s of nanoseconds) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 picoseconds) high intensity pulse to ignite a small volume within the dense fuel. The physics of fast ignition process was the focus of our Advanced Concept Exploration (ACE) program. Ignition depends critically on two major issues involving Relativistic High Energy Density (RHED) physics: The laser-induced creation of fast electrons and their propagation in high-density plasmas. Our program has developed new experimental platforms, diagnostic packages, computer modeling analyses, and taken advantage of the increasing energy available at laser facilities to advance understanding of the fundamental physics underlying these issues. Our program had three thrust areas: • Understand the production and characteristics of fast electrons resulting from FI relevant laser-plasma interactions and their dependence on laser prepulse and laser pulse length. • Investigate the subsequent fast electron transport in solid and through hot (FI-relevant) plasmas. • Conduct and understand integrated core-heating experiments by comparison to simulations. Over the whole period of this project (three years for this contract), we have greatly advanced our fundamental understanding of the underlying properties in all three areas: • Comprehensive studies on fast electron source characteristics have shown that they are controlled by the laser intensity distribution and the topology and plasma density gradient. Laser pre-pulse induced pre-plasma in front of a solid surface results in increased stand-off distances from the electron origin to the high density

  3. Diagramming the Never Ending Story: Student-generated diagrammatic stories integrate and retain science concepts improving science literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillsbury, Ralph T.

    This research examined an instructional strategy called Diagramming the Never Ending Story: A method called diagramming was taught to sixth grade students via an outdoor science inquiry ecology unit. Students generated diagrams of the new ecology concepts they encountered, creating explanatory 'captions' for their newly drawn diagrams while connecting them in a memorable story. The diagramming process culminates in 20-30 meter-long murals called the Never Ending Story: Months of science instruction are constructed as pictorial scrolls, making sense of all new science concepts they encounter. This method was taught at a North Carolina "Public" Charter School, Children's Community School, to measure its efficacy in helping students comprehend scientific concepts and retain them thereby increasing science literacy. There were four demographically similar classes of 20 students each. Two 'treatment' classes, randomly chosen from the four classes, generated their own Never Ending Stories after being taught the diagramming method. A Solomon Four-Group Design was employed: Two Classes (one control, one treatment) were administered pre- and post; two classes received post tests only. The tests were comprised of multiple choice, fill-in and extended response (open-ended) sections. Multiple choice and fill-in test data were not statistically significant whereas extended response test data confirm that treatment classes made statistically significant gains.

  4. MSLICE Science Activity Planner for the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Wallick, Michael N.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Fox, Jason M.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Kurien, James A.; McCurdy, Michael P.; Pyrzak, Guy; Aghevli, Arash; Bachmann, Andrew G.

    2009-01-01

    MSLICE (Mars Science Laboratory InterfaCE) is the tool used by scientists and engineers on the Mars Science Laboratory rover mission to visualize the data returned by the rover and collaboratively plan its activities. It enables users to efficiently and effectively search all mission data to find applicable products (e.g., images, targets, activity plans, sequences, etc.), view and plan the traverse of the rover in HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) images, visualize data acquired by the rover, and develop, model, and validate the activities the rover will perform. MSLICE enables users to securely contribute to the mission s activity planning process from their home institutions using off-the-shelf laptop computers. This software has made use of several plug-ins (software components) developed for previous missions [e.g., Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Phoenix Mars Lander (PHX)] and other technology tasks. It has a simple, intuitive, and powerful search capability. For any given mission, there is a huge amount of data and associated metadata that is generated. To help users sort through this information, MSLICE s search interface is provided in a similar fashion as major Internet search engines. With regard to the HiRISE visualization of the rover s traverse, this view is a map of the mission that allows scientists to easily gauge where the rover has been and where it is likely to go. The map also provides the ability to correct or adjust the known position of the rover through the overlaying of images acquired from the rover on top of the HiRISE image. A user can then correct the rover s position by collocating the visible features in the overlays with the same features in the underlying HiRISE image. MSLICE users can also rapidly search all mission data for images that contain a point specified by the user in another image or panoramic mosaic. MSLICE allows the creation of targets, which provides a way for scientists to collaboratively name

  5. Engineering design activities and conceptual change in middle school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnittka, Christine G.

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of engineering design classroom activities on conceptual change in science, and on attitudes toward and knowledge about engineering. Students were given a situated learning context and a rationale for learning science in an active, inquiry-based method, and worked in small collaborative groups. One eighth-grade physical science teacher and her students participated in a unit on heat transfer and thermal energy. One class served as the control while two others received variations of an engineering design treatment. Data were gathered from teacher and student entrance and exit interviews, audio recordings of student dialog during group work, video recordings and observations of all classes, pre- and posttests on science content and engineering attitudes, and artifacts and all assignments completed by students. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected concurrently, but analysis took place in two phases. Qualitative data were analyzed in an ongoing manner so that the researcher could explore emerging theories and trends as the study progressed. These results were compared to and combined with the results of the quantitative data analysis. Analysis of the data was carried out in the interpretive framework of analytic induction. Findings indicated that students overwhelmingly possessed alternative conceptions about heat transfer, thermal energy, and engineering prior to the interventions. While all three classes made statistically significant gains in their knowledge about heat and energy, students in the engineering design class with the targeted demonstrations made the most significant gains over the other two other classes. Engineering attitudes changed significantly in the two classes that received the engineering design intervention. Implications from this study can inform teachers' use of engineering design activities in science classrooms. These implications are: (1) Alternative conceptions will

  6. Secondary Physical Science Teachers' Conceptions of Science Teaching in a Context of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dale L.; Booth, Shirley

    2015-01-01

    Pre-service teachers enter initial teacher education programmes with conceptions of teaching gleaned from their own schooling. These conceptions, which include teachers' beliefs, may be resistant to change, which is a challenge in contexts where teacher educators hope that teachers will teach in ways different from their own schooling. Conceptions…

  7. The efficacy of planetarium experiences to teach specific science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Joel C.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of planetarium experiences on students' understanding of phases of the moon and eclipses. This research employed a quasi-experimental design. Students from 12 classes in four different schools all in the same school district participated in the study. A total of 178 students from four teachers participated in the study. Data were collected using a researcher developed pretest and posttest. All students received classroom instruction based on the school district's curriculum. The experimental groups took the posttest after attending a 45-minute planetarium experience titled Moon Witch. The control groups took the posttest before attending the planetarium experience but after receiving an additional 45-minute lesson on phases of the moon and eclipses. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was run to determine if there was variance among teachers' instructional practices. Since the results indicated there was no significant variance among teachers, the study sample was analyzed as a single group. An Independent Samples t Test for Means was run in SPSS for the study sample and each subgroup. Subgroups were African American, Hispanic, White, Male, Female, and Economically Disadvantaged. The results indicated that there was an improvement on mean gain scores for the experimental group over the control group for all students and each subgroup. The differences in mean gain scores were significantly higher for all students and for the African American, Female, and Economically Disadvantaged subgroups. An Independent Samples t Test for Means was run using SPSS for each of the three different sections of the pretest and posttest. The results indicated that most of the improvement was in Section 3. This section required students to manipulate photos of the phases of moon into correct order. This section required more spatial reasoning than Section 1

  8. The Articulation of Integration of Clinical and Basic Sciences in Concept Maps: Differences between Experienced and Resident Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-01-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic…

  9. Pre-Service and In-Service Science Teachers' Conceptions of the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buaraphan, Khajornsak

    2010-01-01

    The author explores the history of nature of science beliefs among pre-service and in-service teachers primarily in the United States and Thailand and compares this history to findings in a current study being conducted in Thailand. Two research questions were used to guide this current study: What are pre-service and in-service science teachers'…

  10. Computational Support for Alternative Confinement Concepts Basic Plasma Science

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton D. Schnack

    2002-12-09

    This is the final report for contract DE-FG03-99ER54528, ''Computational Support for Alternative Confinement Concepts''. Progress was made in the following areas of investigation: (1) Extensive studies of the confinement properties of conventional Reversed-field Pinch (RFP) configurations (i.e., without current profile control) were performed in collaboration with the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, Sweden. These studies were carried out using the full 3-dimensional, finite-{beta}, resistive MHD model in the DEBS code, including ohmic heating and anisotropic heat conduction, and thus for the first time included the self-consistent effects of the dynamo magnetic fluctuations on the confinement properties of the RFP. By using multi-variant regression analysis of these results, scaling laws for various properties characterizing the conventional RFP were obtained. In particular, it was found that the, for constant ratio of I/N (where I is the current and N = na{sup 2} is the line density), and over a range of Lundquist numbers S that approaches 10{sup 6}, the fluctuations scale as {delta}B/B {approx} S{sup -0.14}, the temperature scales as T {approx} I{sup 0.56}, the poloidal beta scales as {beta}{sub {theta}} {approx} I{sup -0.4}, and the energy confinement time scales as {tau}{sub E} {approx} I{sup 0.34}. The degradation of poloidal beta with current is a result of the weak scaling of the fluctuation level with the Lundquist number, and leads to the unfavorable scaling laws for temperature and energy confinement time. These results compare reasonably well with experimental data, and emphasize the need for external control of the dynamo fluctuations in the RFP. (2) Studies of feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes in the RFP were performed with the DEBS code in collaboration with the CNR/RFX group in Padua, Italy. The ideal growth rates are ''passively'' reduced by the presence of a resistive wall within the radius for perfectly conducting

  11. Everybody Has a Body: Science from Head to Toe. Activities Book for Teachers of Children Ages 3-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Robert E.; And Others

    This science activity book contains age-appropriate activities that will enable children ages 3-6 to explore one of the first environments they encounter, their own body. The knowledge gained in these activities can be interspersed with pre-science skills, health information, literature, self-concept development, and body awareness. Each chapter…

  12. Sacred conceptions: clinical theodicies, uncertain science, and technologies of procreation in India.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Aditya

    2006-12-01

    This article argues that the rapid transfer of assisted conception technologies, such as in vitro fertilization, to India is not restricted merely to the modalities of offering potential biomedical resolution of infertility but includes, more crucially, how clinicians and infertile consumers assimilate the "Western technoscience" of conception. The article draws on a larger multisite ethnographic study of infertility and assisted conception in India's five major cities and is principally based on narratives of clinicians and infertile couples and on clinic-based ethnographic observations. In this article I contend that the success or failure of assisted conception, when situated in the universe of Hindu faith, becomes a powerful critique of the "incompleteness" of the "Western" science of conception. Situating this contention in the broader context of a clinician's faith, I assert that assisted conception--by conjoining seemingly disparate domains of the traditional and the modern, the sacred and the profane, the human and the superhuman, science and religion--produces clinical theodicies that help explain and contain the tentativeness permeating the conception technologies. The article concludes by arguing that this enchanted version of a thoroughly disenchanted worldview of biomedicine is part of a larger cultural process of indigenization of biomedicine in India. PMID:17123174

  13. Taking Science Home: Connecting Schools and Families through Science Activity Packs for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhart, Meredith; Bloomquist, Debra; Strickler-Eppard, Lacey; Czerniak, Charlene M.; Gilbert, Amanda; Kaderavek, Joan; Molitor, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    A Framework for K-12 Science Education indicates that introducing young children to scientific and engineering practices, core disciplinary ideas, and crosscutting concepts during the early years is essential for the development of conceptual understanding in science. Unfortunately, science is infrequently included in preschool and primary…

  14. Science Student Teachers' Cognitive Structure on the Concept of "Food Pyramid"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çinar, Derya

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to determine science student teachers' cognitive structure on the concept of food pyramid. Qualitative research method was applied in this study. Fallacies detected in the pre-service teachers' conceptual structures are believed to result in students' developing misconceptions in their future classes and will adversely…

  15. Impact of Simulations on the Mental Models of Students in the Online Learning of Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laxman, Kumar; Chin, Yap Kueh

    2011-01-01

    Numerous flash or java applet based simulations have been developed to improve students' comprehension of Science concepts, particularly the more complex or "dry" ones. Simulations have been reported to be effective as instructional aids in scaffolding scientific learning by students since simulations support the explication of implicit…

  16. An Empirical Study of Relationships between Student Self-Concept and Science Achievement in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianjun; Oliver, Steve; Garcia, Augustine

    2004-01-01

    Positive self-concept and good understanding of science are important indicators of scientific literacy endorsed by professional organizations. The existing research literature suggests that these two indicators are reciprocally related and mutually reinforcing. Generalization of the reciprocal model demands empirical studies in different…

  17. Concept-Focused Teaching: Using Big Ideas to Guide Instruction in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joanne K.

    2008-01-01

    One of the main problems we face in science teaching is that students are learning isolated facts and missing central concepts. For instance, consider what you know about life cycles. Chances are that you remember something about butterflies and stages, such as egg, larva, pupa, adult. But what's the take-home idea that we should have learned…

  18. Application of Core Science Concepts Using Digital Video: A "Hands-On" Laptop Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvinen, Michael Keith; Jarvinen, Lamis Zaher; Sheehan, Danielle N.

    2012-01-01

    Today's undergraduates are highly engaged in a variety of social media outlets. Given their comfort with technology, we wondered if we could use this phenomenon to teach science-related material. We asked students to use freeware to make a short video with text, images, and music as a way to explain scientific concepts that are traditionally…

  19. Shifting Social Science Conceptions of Research: The Possibility of the Practical Argument in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Jana

    New research programs on teaching have examined teacher thinking, reflective teaching, and the possibility of teachers using practical arguments in their teaching. The changes in educational research have their basis in social science conceptions of research, which have shifted through the years. The shift from logical positivism to a more…

  20. Teachers' Knowledge Structures for Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry: Conceptions and Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartos, Stephen A.; Lederman, Norman G.

    2014-01-01

    Research on nature of science (NOS) and scientific inquiry (SI) has indicated that a teacher's knowledge of each, however well developed, is not sufficient to ensure that these conceptions necessarily manifest themselves in classroom practice (Lederman & Druger, 1985; Lederman, 2007). In light of considerable research that has examined…

  1. Early Science Education: Exploring Familiar Contexts To Improve the Understanding of Some Basic Scientific Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Isabel P.; Veiga, Luisa

    2001-01-01

    Argues that science education is a fundamental tool for global education and that it must be introduced in early years as a first step to a scientific culture for all. Describes testing validity of a didactic strategy for developing the learning of concepts, which was based upon an experimental work approach using everyday life contexts. (Author)

  2. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    The management concepts and operating procedures are documented as they apply to the planning of shuttle spacelab operations. Areas discussed include: airborne missions; formulation of missions; management procedures; experimenter involvement; experiment development and performance; data handling; safety procedures; and applications to shuttle spacelab planning. Characteristics of the airborne science experience are listed, and references and figures are included.

  3. The Effects of Instruction on Elementary Teacher's Realistic and Idealistic Attitudes Toward Selected Science Related Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogut, Thomas L.; McFarland, Bruce L.

    Reported is a study designed to determine (1) if there was any significant relationship between elementary teachers' realistic and idealistic attitudes toward selected science-related concepts, (2) if the degree of open- or closed-mindedness of the teachers had any relationship to these realistic or idealistic attitudes, and (3) if instruction had…

  4. Social Situation of Development: Parents Perspectives on Infants-Toddlers' Concept Formation in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikder, Shukla

    2015-01-01

    The social situation of development (SSD) specific to each age determines regularly the whole picture of the child's life. Therefore, we need to learn about the whole context surrounding children relevant to their development. The focus of the study is to understand parent's views on infant-toddler's science concept formation in the family…

  5. Two Approaches to Teaching Young Children Science Concepts, Vocabulary, and Scientific Problem-Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Soo-Young; Diamond, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of two different approaches to teaching designed to facilitate children's learning about science concepts and vocabulary related to objects' floating and sinking and scientific problem-solving skills: responsive teaching (RT) and the combination of responsive teaching and explicit instruction (RT + EI).…

  6. Conceptions of the Nature of Science--Are They General or Context Specific?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urhahne, Detlef; Kremer, Kerstin; Mayer, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between general and context-specific conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The categorization scheme by Osborne et al. (J Res Sci Teach 40:692-720, "2003") served as the theoretical framework of the study. In the category "nature of scientific knowledge", the certainty, development, simplicity,…

  7. Effects of Concept Mapping Instruction Approach on Students' Achievement in Basic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogonnaya, Ukpai Patricia; Okafor, Gabriel; Abonyi, Okechukwu S.; Ugama, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of concept mapping on students' achievement in basic science. The study was carried out in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. Specifically the pretest posttest non-equivalent control group research design was used. The sample was 122 students selected from two secondary…

  8. Improving the Usefulness of Concept Maps as a Research Tool for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zele, Els; Lenaerts, Josephina; Wieme, Willem

    2004-01-01

    The search for authentic science research tools to evaluate student understanding in a hybrid learning environment with a large multimedia component has resulted in the use of concept maps as a representation of student's knowledge organization. One hundred and seventy third-semester introductory university-level engineering students represented…

  9. Concept Mapping in Science Class: A Case Study of Fifth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asan, Askin

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to determine the effects of incorporating concept mapping on the achievement of fifth grade students in science class. The study was conducted with twenty-three students at Ata Elementary School, Trabzon, Turkey. The students were tested with teacher-constructed pre- and post tests containing 20…

  10. Effects of Grade Retention on Achievement and Self-Concept in Science and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehmke, Timo; Drechsel, Barbara; Carstensen, Claus H.

    2010-01-01

    The study analyzes the effects of grade repetition on science and mathematics achievement and on self-concept in mathematics using longitudinal data from a representative sample of 9th graders in Germany. Same-age comparisons were applied between three groups: (a) the retained students, (b) a matched group of promoted students, and (c) the entire…

  11. The Student as Philosopher-Scientist: Dewey's Conception of Scientific Explanation in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschaepe, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Dewey's conception of scientific explanation, which has been neglected by both philosophers of science and philosophers of education, facilitates overcoming the seeming divide between teaching a highly technical and specialized subject matter and encouraging students to successfully engage in the experience of being philosopher-scientists. By…

  12. Concept Mapping Assessment of Media Assisted Learning in Interdisciplinary Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaal, Steffen; Bogner, Franz X.; Girwidz, Raimund

    2010-01-01

    Acquisition of conceptual knowledge is a central aim in science education. In this study we monitored an interdisciplinary hypermedia assisted learning unit on hibernation and thermodynamics based on cooperative learning. We used concept mapping for the assessment, applying a pre-test/post-test design. In our study, 106 9th graders cooperated by…

  13. Using Concept Maps to Assess Student Learning in the Science Classroom: Must Different Methods Compete?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Diana C.; Ryan, Joseph M.; Samson, Sara M.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on a year-long study implemented in grade seven life-science classes with the students' regular teacher serving as a teacher researcher. Results suggest that concept mapping may be useful in assessing declarative and procedural knowledge. Contains 43 references. (DDR)

  14. Life-Science Concept Development Among Beginning Kindergarten Children From Three Different Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riechard, Donald E.

    1973-01-01

    Kindergarten children from three communities were tested on the Life-Science Concept Acquisition Test. Regression analysis indicated that significant differences existed among children from inner-urban, outer-urban, and rural farm communities on verbal, nonverbal, and total measures. Major source of significance was between outer-urban and…

  15. Prospective Teachers' Metaphorical Perceptions on the Concept of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aysegul, Derman; Serdar, Derman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal prospective teachers' perceptions of the concept of science by asking them to use metaphors to describe it. A metaphor elicitation method was employed in this study. The data obtained from the study were considered with both quantitative and qualitative (Content Analysis) analyses. The study determined the…

  16. Using "Slowmation" to Enable Preservice Primary Teachers to Create Multimodal Representations of Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoban, Garry; Nielsen, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Research has identified the value of students constructing their own representations of science concepts using modes such as writing, diagrams, 2-D and 3-D models, images or speech to communicate meaning. "Slowmation" (abbreviated from "Slow Animation") is a simplified way for students, such as preservice teachers, to make a narrated animation…

  17. Anthropomorphizing Science: How Does It Affect the Development of Evolutionary Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legare, Cristine H.; Lane, Jonathan D.; Evans, E. Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ubiquitous use of anthropomorphic language to describe biological change in both educational settings and popular science, little is known about how anthropomorphic language influences children's understanding of evolutionary concepts. In an experimental study, we assessed whether the language used to convey evolutionary concepts…

  18. The Tentativeness of Scientific Theories: Conceptions of Pre-Service Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Jasmine; Abdullah, Nabilah; Lim, Beh Kian

    2014-01-01

    The recognition of sound understanding of Nature of Science (NOS) in promoting scientific literacy among individuals has heightened the need to probe NOS conceptions among various groups. However, the nature of quantitative studies in gauging NOS understanding has left the understanding on few NOS aspects insufficiently informed. This paper aimed…

  19. Spatial Foundations of Science Education: The Illustrative Case of Instruction on Introductory Geological Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liben, Lynn S.; Kastens, Kim A.; Christensen, Adam E.

    2011-01-01

    To study the role of spatial concepts in science learning, 125 college students with high, medium, or low scores on a horizontality (water-level) spatial task were given information about geological strike and dip using existing educational materials. Participants mapped an outcrop's strike and dip, a rod's orientation, pointed to a distant…

  20. Self-Concept and Participation in School Activities Reanalyzed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winne, Philip H.; Walsh, John

    1980-01-01

    Yarworth and Gauthier (EJ 189 606) examined whether self-concept variables enhanced predictions about students' participation in school activities, using unstructured stepwise regression techniques. A reanalysis of their data using hierarchial regression models tested their hypothesis more appropriately, and uncovered multicollinearity and…

  1. En otras palabras: Illustrated Grammatical Concepts and Communicative Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carfora, Juanita; Carfora, Lolita

    This manual, designed for teachers of Spanish as a second language, contains visual aids to illustrate certain grammatical concepts and related vocabulary. The manual consists of 30 tear-out blackline masters, each containing one to six separate cartoon pictures, to be used for classroom or homework activities in any sequence. Accompanying each…

  2. The Synthetic Aperture Radar Science Data Processing Foundry Concept for Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hua, H.; Norton, C. D.; Little, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2008, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and the Advanced Information Systems Technology Program have invested in two technology evolutions to meet the needs of the community of scientists exploiting the rapidly growing database of international synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. JPL, working with the science community, has developed the InSAR Scientific Computing Environment (ISCE), a next-generation interferometric SAR processing system that is designed to be flexible and extensible. ISCE currently supports many international space borne data sets but has been primarily focused on geodetic science and applications. A second evolutionary path, the Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) science data system, uses ISCE as its core science data processing engine and produces automated science and response products, quality assessments and metadata. The success of this two-front effort has been demonstrated in NASA's ability to respond to recent events with useful disaster support. JPL has enabled high-volume and low latency data production by the re-use of the hybrid cloud computing science data system (HySDS) that runs ARIA, leveraging on-premise cloud computing assets that are able to burst onto the Amazon Web Services (AWS) services as needed. Beyond geodetic applications, needs have emerged to process large volumes of time-series SAR data collected for estimation of biomass and its change, in such campaigns as the upcoming AfriSAR field campaign. ESTO is funding JPL to extend the ISCE-ARIA model to a "SAR Science Data Processing Foundry" to on-ramp new data sources and to produce new science data products to meet the needs of science teams and, in general, science community members. An extension of the ISCE-ARIA model to support on-demand processing will permit PIs to leverage this Foundry to produce data products from accepted data sources when they need them. This paper will describe each of the elements of the SAR SDP Foundry and describe their

  3. The ISIS Mission Concept: An Impactor for Surface and Interior Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesley, Steven R.; Elliot, John O.; Abell, Paul A.; Asphaug, Erik; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Lam, Try; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2013-01-01

    The Impactor for Surface and Interior Science (ISIS) mission concept is a kinetic asteroid impactor mission to the target of NASA's OSIRIS-REx (Origins-Spectral Interpretation-Resource Identification-Security-Regolith Explorer) asteroid sample return mission. The ISIS mission concept calls for the ISIS spacecraft, an independent and autonomous smart impactor, to guide itself to a hyper-velocity impact with 1999 RQ36 while the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft observes the collision. Later the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft descends to reconnoiter the impact site and measure the momentum imparted to the asteroid through the impact before departing on its journey back to Earth. In this paper we discuss the planetary science, human exploration and impact mitigation drivers for mission, and we describe the current mission concept and flight system design.

  4. Using the history of research on sickle-cell anemia to affect preservice teachers' conceptions of the nature of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Eric M.

    Preservice elementary teachers enrolled in an elective biology course participated in an eight-class unit of instruction based on the history of research in understanding the disease sickle-cell anemia. Students were introduced to the disease as a "mystery" for them to solve, and subsequently developed an understanding of the disease from several disciplines in biology (e.g., genetics, ecology, evolution, molecular biology). The unit involved open-ended problems in which students examined evidence and developed explanations in a manner analogous to the reasoning used by Anthony C. Allison and his colleagues during the early to middle part of the twentieth century. Throughout the unit, students were challenged to explicitly and reflectively connect their work with the historical material to more general conclusions about aspects of the nature of science. These aspects included (a) the nature of scientific theories, (b) the tentative nature of science, (c) the difference between scientific theories and laws, (d) the validity of observational methods in science, and (e) the subjective (theory-laden) nature of science. The research measured students' pre- and post-instruction views by using both an open-ended survey (VNOS) and follow-up, semi-structured interviews. The results indicated that an appreciable number of students underwent a change or enrichment in their views for some of the nature of science aspects. Moreover, change or enrichment in students' views was directly attributable to their work in the sickle-cell unit as evidenced from the specific examples students articulated in their post-instruction responses in support of their more informed views. In general, the findings of this research lend empirical support to the value of having students actively recapitulate the history of science to improve their nature of science conceptions. This is facilitated when the lessons challenge students to explicitly and reflectively develop views of the nature of

  5. The articulation of integration of clinical and basic sciences in concept maps: differences between experienced and resident groups.

    PubMed

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-08-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic science concepts and these basic science concepts are expected to be used for the organization of the maps. These hypotheses are derived from studies about knowledge development of individuals. However, integrated curricula require a high degree of cooperation between clinicians and basic scientists. This study examined whether there are consistent variations regarding the articulation of integration when groups of experienced clinicians and basic scientists and groups of residents and basic scientists-in-training construct concept maps. Seven groups of three clinicians and basic scientists on experienced level and seven such groups on resident level constructed concept maps illuminating clinical problems. They were guided by instructions that focused them on articulation of integration. The concept maps were analysed by features that described integration. Descriptive statistics showed consistent variations between the two expertise levels. The concept maps of the resident groups exceeded those of the experienced groups in articulated integration. First, they used significantly more links between clinical and basic science concepts. Second, these links connected basic science concepts with a greater variety of clinical concepts than the experienced groups. Third, although residents did not use significantly more basic science concepts, they used them significantly more frequent to organize the clinical concepts. The conclusion was drawn that not all hypotheses could be confirmed and that the resident concept maps were more elaborate than expected. This article discusses the implications for the role that residents and

  6. Building, Using, and Maximizing the Impact of Concept Inventories in the Biological Sciences: Report on a National Science Foundation–sponsored Conference on the Construction of Concept Inventories in the Biological Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Klymkowsky, Michael; Elrod, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The meeting “Conceptual Assessment in the Biological Sciences” was held March 3–4, 2007, in Boulder, Colorado. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation and hosted by University of Colorado, Boulder's Biology Concept Inventory Team, the meeting drew together 21 participants from 13 institutions, all of whom had received National Science Foundation funding for biology education. Topics of interest included Introductory Biology, Genetics, Evolution, Ecology, and the Nature of Science. The goal of the meeting was to organize and leverage current efforts to develop concept inventories for each of these topics. These diagnostic tools are inspired by the success of the Force Concept Inventory, developed by the community of physics educators to identify student misconceptions about Newtonian mechanics. By working together, participants hope to lessen the risk that groups might develop competing rather than complementary inventories. PMID:18056297

  7. Analog Testing of Operations Concepts for Integration of an Earth-Based Science Team During Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Beaton, Kara H.; Graff, Trevor; Newton, Carolyn; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) is an underwater spaceflight analog that allows a true mission-like operational environment and uses buoyancy effects and added weight to simulate different gravity levels. A mission was undertaken in 2016, NEEMO 21. The mission was performed at the Aquarius undersea research habitat. During the mission, the effects of varying operations concepts on representative communication latencies associated with Mars missions were studied. Six subjects were weighed out to simulate near-zero or partial gravity and evaluated different operations concepts for integration and management of a simulated Earth-based science team (ST) to provide input and direction during exploration activities. Exploration traverses were planned in advance based on precursor data collected. Subjects completed science-related tasks including pre-sampling surveys and marine science-based sampling as a portion of their tasks on saturation dives up to 4 hours in duration that were to simulate extravehicular activity (EVA) on Mars. A one-way communication latency of 15 minutes between space and mission control was simulated throughout the missions. Objective data included task completion times, total EVA times, crew idle time, translation time, SBT assimilation time (defined as time available for ST to discuss data/imagery after it has been collected, in addition to the time taken to watch imagery and listen to audio streaming over latency). Subjective data included acceptability, simulation quality, capability assessment ratings, and comments. Results were collected and will be presented on the acceptability of the operations concepts studied and which capabilities are the most enabling/enhancing in the operations concept. Discussion is presented on the importance of designing EVA timelines to account for the length of the task, level of interaction with the ground that is required/desired, and communication latency.

  8. Student Perception of Metacognitive Activities in Entry-Level Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandall, Leah; Mamo, Martha; Speth, Carol; Lee, Don; Kettler, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    A research study investigated student perception of the use of metacognitive activities in the classroom. The courses were large enrollment (n greater than 100) introductory Plant and Soil Sciences courses taught in the fall semester. The courses implemented activities such as concept sketches or conceptual modeling to help students develop their…

  9. The influence of the history of science course on pre-service science teachers' understanding of the nature of science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcay, Behiye

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a history of science course on pre-service science teachers' understanding of the nature of science concepts. Subjects in the study were divided in two groups: (1) students who enrolled in only in the history of science course, (2) students who enrolled both the meaning of science and the history of science courses. An interpretative-descriptive approach and constant comparative analysis were used to identify similarities and differences among pre-service teachers' views about nature of scientific knowledge prior to and after the history of science course. The results of this study indicate that explicitly addressing certain aspects of the nature of science is effective in promoting adequate understanding of the nature of science for pre-service science teachers. Moreover, the results indicate that a student's prior experience with the history of science helps to improve their understanding of the history and nature of science. The history of science course helped pre-service teachers to develop the following views which are parallel with these advocated in both the Benchmarks (AAAS, 1993) and the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) concerning the nature of scientific knowledge: (1) Scientific knowledge is empirically based and an ongoing process of experimentation, investigation, and observation. (2) Science is a human endeavor. (3) People from different cultures, races, genders, and nationality contribute to science. (4) Scientific knowledge is not based on myths, personal beliefs, and religious values. (5) Science background and prior knowledge have important roles for scientific investigations. (6) Scientific theories and laws represent different kinds of knowledge. (7) Science is affected by political, social, and cultural values. (8) Creativity and imagination are used during all stages of scientific investigations. (9) Theories change because of new evidence and new views of existing

  10. Optical Science: Deploying Technical Concepts and Engaging Participation through Digital Storytelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. G.; Berry, K.; Arrigo, J.; Hooper, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    Technical 'hands-on' training workshops are designed to bring together scientists, technicians, and program managers from universities, government agencies, and the private sector to discuss methods used and advances made in instrumentation and data analysis. Through classroom lectures and discussions combined with a field-day component, hands-on workshop participants get a 'full life cycle' perspective from instrumentation concepts and deployment to data analysis. Using film to document this process is becoming increasingly more popular, allowing scientists to add a story-telling component to their research. With the availability of high-quality and low priced professional video equipment and editing software, scientists are becoming digital storytellers. The science video developed from the 'hands-on' workshop, Optical Water Quality Sensors for Nutrients: Concepts, Deployment, and Analysis, encapsulates the objectives of technical training workshops for participants. Through the use of still photography, video, interviews, and sound, the short video, An Introduction to CUAHSI's Hands-on Workshops, produced by a co-instructor of the workshop acts as a multi-purpose tool. The 10-minute piece provides an overview of workshop field day activities and works to bridge the gap between classroom learning, instrumentation application and data analysis. CUAHSI 'hands-on' technical workshops have been collaboratively executed with faculty from several universities and with the U.S. Geological Survey. The video developed was designed to attract new participants to these professional development workshops, to stimulate a connection with the environment, to act as a workshop legacy resource, and also serve as a guide for prospective hands-on workshop organizers. The effective use of film and short videos in marketing scientific programs, such as technical trainings, allows scientists to visually demonstrate the technologies currently being employed and to provide a more

  11. NASA'S Earth Science Data Stewardship Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Dawn R.; Murphy, Kevin J.; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been collecting Earth observation data for over 50 years using instruments on board satellites, aircraft and ground-based systems. With the inception of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Program in 1990, NASA established the Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project and initiated development of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). A set of Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) was established at locations based on science discipline expertise. Today, EOSDIS consists of 12 DAACs and 12 Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS), processing data from the EOS missions, as well as the Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership mission, and other satellite and airborne missions. The DAACs archive and distribute the vast majority of data from NASA’s Earth science missions, with data holdings exceeding 12 petabytes The data held by EOSDIS are available to all users consistent with NASA’s free and open data policy, which has been in effect since 1990. The EOSDIS archives consist of raw instrument data counts (level 0 data), as well as higher level standard products (e.g., geophysical parameters, products mapped to standard spatio-temporal grids, results of Earth system models using multi-instrument observations, and long time series of Earth System Data Records resulting from multiple satellite observations of a given type of phenomenon). EOSDIS data stewardship responsibilities include ensuring that the data and information content are reliable, of high quality, easily accessible, and usable for as long as they are considered to be of value.

  12. The Effects of Hands-On Learning Stations on Building American Elementary Teachers' Understanding about Earth and Space Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

    2010-01-01

    Research on conceptual change indicates that not only children, but also teachers have incomplete understanding or misconceptions on science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with in-service teachers' understanding of four earth and space science concepts taught in elementary school: reason for seasons, phases of the moon, rock…

  13. The Development and Validation of a Two-Tiered Multiple-Choice Instrument to Identify Alternative Conceptions in Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangione, Katherine Anna

    2010-01-01

    This study was to determine reliability and validity for a two-tiered, multiple- choice instrument designed to identify alternative conceptions in earth science. Additionally, this study sought to identify alternative conceptions in earth science held by preservice teachers, to investigate relationships between self-reported confidence scores and…

  14. The Impact of a Summer Institute on Inservice Early Childhood Teachers' Knowledge of Earth and Space Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Krissek, Lawrence A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated inservice PreK to Grade two teachers' knowledge of some earth and space science concepts before and after a short-term teacher institute. A one-group pre-test-post-test design was used in the current study. Earth science concepts targeted during the professional development included properties of rocks and soils, and the…

  15. Concept Learning for Achieving Personalized Ontologies: An Active Learning Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şensoy, Murat; Yolum, Pinar

    In many multiagent approaches, it is usual to assume the existence of a common ontology among agents. However, in dynamic systems, the existence of such an ontology is unrealistic and its maintenance is cumbersome. Burden of maintaining a common ontology can be alleviated by enabling agents to evolve their ontologies personally. However, with different ontologies, agents are likely to run into communication problems since their vocabularies are different from each other. Therefore, to achieve personalized ontologies, agents must have a means to understand the concepts used by others. Consequently, this paper proposes an approach that enables agents to teach each other concepts from their ontologies using examples. Unlike other concept learning approaches, our approach enables the learner to elicit most informative examples interactively from the teacher. Hence, the learner participates to the learning process actively. We empirically compare the proposed approach with the previous concept learning approaches. Our experiments show that using the proposed approach, agents can learn new concepts successfully and with fewer examples.

  16. Effects of concept maps and dialogue journals on bilingual students' conceptual understanding in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFall, Rebecca E.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of using concept maps or dialogue journals on bilingual students' conceptual understanding in science. Three fourth grade classes, which included 60 students, using the Science and Technology for Children, Plant Growth and Development unit participated in the study. The vocabulary knowledge and conceptual understanding of bilingual and native English students in three treatment groups were compared. The study was conducted over a three month period. The three treatment groups consisted of (1) a control group using only the Science and Technology for Children, Plant Growth and Development unit, (2) the concept map treatment group, and (3) the dialogue journal treatment group. Student achievement was measured using a pretest and a posttest. Significant differences in the pretest and posttest scores were found for all three treatment groups. The concept map treatment group scored significantly higher than the dialogue journal and control groups on the posttest. The use of concept maps was found to be highly effective for both native English and bilingual students.

  17. An active target concept for the electronuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Grebyonkin, K.F.; Shzerebzov, A.L.; Kandiev, Ya.Z.; Maloyaroslavtsev, A.N.; Modin, V.N.; Orlov, A.I.; Peschkov, I.A.; Scherbakov, A.P.

    1995-12-31

    Preliminary identification of the components and efficiency estimations for the proposed (by Chelyabinsk-70) concept of active target for electronuclear reactor are goals of this work. (The electronuclear reactor comprises a high-energy proton acclerator, a high-atomic-number target (lead, tungsten) which produces neutrons from the protons, and a subcritical blanket.) Results of preliminary neutron and thermal-hydraulic simulations of the target are represented in the paper and preliminary detailing of the active target components is performed. It is shown that the use of active target can lead to an essential reduction of the requirements to the accelerator power without deterioration of the safety of the system.

  18. Self-Concept of Science Ability Held by Eighth Grade Females: Science Teachers as Significant Others.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Virginia Kemp

    This is part of a longitudinal investigation of the academic and career development of an eighth-grade class through to their third year after high school, conducted by the Grand Rapids, Michigan Public Schools/Western Michigan University - Center for Educational Studies. The study examined the relationship between science teachers' evaluations of…

  19. Science-Based Occupations and the Science Curriculum: Concepts of Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikenhead, Glen S.

    2005-01-01

    What science-related knowledge is actually used by nurses in their day-to-day clinical reasoning when attending patients? The study investigated the knowledge-in-use of six acute-care nurses in a hospital surgical unit. It was found that the nurses mainly drew upon their professional knowledge of nursing and upon their procedural understanding…

  20. Preliminary Concepts for the Materials Science Research Facility on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobb, S.D.; Szofran, F. R.; Schaefer, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is designed to accommodate the current and evolving cadre of peer-reviewed materials science investigations selected to conduct research in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS). The MSRF consists of modular autonomous Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR's). The initial MSRF concept consists of three Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR-1, MSRR-2, and MSRR-3) which will be developed for a phased deployment beginning on Utilization Flight 3. Each MSRR is a stand-alone autonomous rack and will be comprised of either on-orbit replaceable Experiment Modules, Module Inserts, investigation unique apparatus, or multi-user generic processing apparatus Each MSRR will support a wide variety of scientific investigations.

  1. Adolescents' Motivation to Select an Academic Science-Related Career: The Role of School Factors, Individual Interest, and Science Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskinen, Päivi H.; Schütte, Kerstin; Prenzel, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers consider a lacking interest in science and the students' belief that science is too demanding as major reasons why young people do not strive for science-related careers. In this article, we first delineated a theoretical framework to investigate the importance of interest, self-concept, and school factors regarding…

  2. An Investigation of Taiwanese High School Students' Science Learning Self-Efficacy in Relation to Their Conceptions of Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Background: Past studies have shown significant associations between students' conceptions of learning science and their science learning self-efficacy. However, in most of the studies, students' science learning self-efficacy has often been measured by a singular scale. Purpose: Extending the findings of these studies, the present study…

  3. The Effects of Student Multiple Intelligence Preference on Integration of Earth Science Concepts and Knowledge within a Middle Grades Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutshall, Lisa Christine

    This research was conducted in an eastern Tennessee 8th grade science classroom with 99 students participating. The action research project attempted to examine an adolescent science student's integration of science concepts within a project-based setting using the multiple intelligence theory. In an effort to address the national science…

  4. An Experimental Evaluation of the Effects of ESCP and General Science on the Development of Interdisciplinary Science Concepts by Ninth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Esther Montague

    This study was an experimental evaluation of achievement in understanding interdisciplinary science concepts by ninth grade students enrolled in two different integrated science courses. The experimental group used "Investigating the Earth", the textbook/laboratory program, developed by the Earth Science Curriculum Project (ESCP) staff. The…

  5. The Classroom Practice of a Prospective Secondary Biology Teacher and His Conceptions of the Nature of Science and of Teaching and Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellado, Vicente; Bermejo, Maria Luisa; Blanco, Lorenzo J.; Ruiz, Constantino

    2008-01-01

    We describe research carried out with a prospective secondary biology teacher, whom we shall call Miguel. The teacher's conceptions of the nature of science and of learning and teaching science were analyzed and compared with his classroom practice when teaching science lessons. The data gathering procedures were interviews analyzed by means of…

  6. "Active Science": Integrating Physical Activity and Science Learning into the Afterschool Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Kevin E.; Yan, Zi; McInnis, Kyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Afterschool programs offer significant opportunities to increase physical activity levels and improve academic performance of children. Purpose: This study assessed an innovative approach to embed physical activity into science lessons in an afterschool community setting. Methods: Participants were 47 boys and girls (age = 10.8 ± 0.7…

  7. An examination of conceptual change in undergraduate biology majors while learning science concepts including biological evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuaide, Glenn G.

    2006-12-01

    Without adequate understanding of science, we cannot make responsible personal, regional, national, or global decisions about any aspect of life dealing with science. Better understanding how we learn about science can contribute to improving the quality of our educational experiences. Promoting pathways leading to life-long learning and deep understanding in our world should be a goal for all educators. This dissertation project was a phenomenological investigation into undergraduate understanding and acceptance of scientific theories, including biological evolution. Specifically, student descriptions of conceptual change while learning science theory were recorded and analyzed. These qualitative investigations were preceded by a survey that provided a means of selecting students who had a firmer understanding of science theory. Background information and survey data were collected in an undergraduate biology class at a small, Southern Baptist-affiliated liberal arts school located in south central Kentucky. Responses to questions on the MATE (Rutledge and Warden, 1999) instrument were used to screen students for interviews, which investigated the way by which students came to understand and accept scientific theories. This study identifies some ways by which individuals learn complex science theories, including biological evolution. Initial understanding and acceptance often occurs by the conceptual change method described by Posner et al. (1982). Three principle ways by which an individual may reach a level of understanding and acceptance of science theory were documented in this study. They were conceptual change through application of logic and reasoning; conceptual change through modification of religious views; and conceptual change through acceptance of authoritative knowledge. Development of a deeper, richer understanding and acceptance of complex, multi-faceted concepts such as biological evolution occurs in some individuals by means of conceptual

  8. Effective self-regulated science learning through multimedia-enriched skeleton concept maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marée, Ton J.; van Bruggen, Jan M.; Jochems, Wim M. G.

    2013-04-01

    Background: This study combines work on concept mapping with scripted collaborative learning. Purpose: The objective was to examine the effects of self-regulated science learning through scripting students' argumentative interactions during collaborative 'multimedia-enriched skeleton concept mapping' on meaningful science learning and retention. Programme description: Each concept in the enriched skeleton concept map (ESCoM) contained annotated multimedia-rich content (pictures, text, animations or video clips) that elaborated the concept, and an embedded collaboration script to guide students' interactions. Sample: The study was performed in a Biomolecules course on the Bachelor of Applied Science program in the Netherlands. All first-year students (N=93, 31 women, 62 men, aged 17-33 years) took part in this study. Design and methods: The design used a control group who received the regular course and an experimental group working together in dyads on an ESCoM under the guidance of collaboration scripts. In order to investigate meaningful understanding and retention, a retention test was administered a month after the final exam. Results: Analysis of covariance demonstrated a significant experimental effect on the Biomolecules exam scores between the experimental group and the control, and the difference between the groups on the retention test also reached statistical significance. Conclusions: Scripted collaborative multimedia ESCoM mapping resulted in meaningful understanding and retention of the conceptual structure of the domain, the concepts, and their relations. Not only was scripted collaborative multimedia ESCoM mapping more effective than the traditional teaching approach, it was also more efficient in requiring far less teacher guidance.

  9. An Investigation of Concept Mapping to Improve the Reading Comprehension of Science Texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Kevin

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated how well 74 6th-grade science students represented text structures from a 900-word textbook chapter on soil conservation, given a concept map template with four superordinate terms and 24 unsorted concepts. Findings suggest students were more successful at classifying pre-selected terms under given superordinate categories than they were at fully identifying relevant concept sets and articulating three different relationship types between terms. No significant differences were noted in the mapping performance of students at different reading levels. About two-third of students indicated they enjoyed concept mapping and would prefer to both read and map rather than just read without mapping. Students also expressed a strong preference for mapping in pairs or small groups compared to mapping alone. Multiple recommendations are provided for improving the relational thinking of students tasked with concept mapping expository science texts, including bridging to more open-ended maps, embedding mapping in longer-term inquiry projects, and leveraging collaborative and tool-based scaffolds.

  10. An analysis of the concept of teaching in elementary school science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seatter, Carol Eunice Scarff

    The problem for this thesis arises directly from several years of observation of science classrooms in British Columbia. The troubling phenomenon seen within numerous classrooms, taught by teachers claiming to be constructivist teachers, involved teachers fostering the idea that children can think about science in terms of their own ideas, that is, that children can think about science in common-sense terms. In the many cases I have observed, teachers justify this practice on the grounds of constructivist theory. However, this kind of "constructivist teaching" does not, in my opinion, lead to scientific reasoning. My argument begins with the premise that the development of scientific reasoning in children is necessary for science education. I will argue that the currently popular "constructivist" movement has significant potential to fail in producing scientific reasoning in children, as did its predecessor, the "discovery learning" movement of the 1960s. The incommensurable differences between scientific and common-sense reasoning are presented and discussed. This thesis examines constructivist theory in terms of its potential to hinder the development of scientific reasoning in children. Two features of the constructivist writings are examined: those which pertain to the nature of science, and those relating to the concept of teaching. A chapter on the logic of scientific inquiry is central to the thesis, as it describes and explains the concepts, forms of explanation and truth criteria unique to the discipline of science. The epistemological foundations of science education are discussed in terms of the realist/instrumentalist debate. The thesis argues in favor of a sophisticated realist view of knowledge, such as those offered by Hacking and Matthews who take into account Hanson's "theory-laden" observation without falling prey to a naive realist view. Reasoning in science is compared with children's common-sense reasoning in an attempt to further understand

  11. The Interactions of Conceptions of Teaching Science and Environmental Factors to Produce Praxis in Three Novice Teachers of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyunju; Hewson, Peter W.; Lemberger, John; Marion, Robin D.

    2010-11-01

    One strategy for implementing learner-centered teaching is through the preparation of teachers and their induction into the profession. This article presents case studies of three secondary science teachers that follow them from their science teacher education program that advocated teaching for conceptual change as one approach to learner-centered teaching into their first years of teaching. The article’s purpose is to describe the teachers’ initial conceptions of teaching science carried over from their teacher preparation program, and how they integrated those conceptions with the environmental influences of their classrooms and schools to produce praxis. Data were collected from the participants in several different ways during the participants’ pre-service year and during their first year or two of teaching: Observation of the participants’ teaching; related interviews with participants; and their action research journals. As they approached the end of their first or second year of teaching, all three teachers demonstrated increased levels of confidence in their teaching competence, both in their classroom performance and their places in their departments and schools. None of them had, however, fully implemented conceptual change teaching approach that was the specific goal of their teacher preparation program.

  12. Science Activities for Children 3 to 9 Years Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Bonnie E.

    Activities in the life and physical sciences are provided (in separate sections) for preschool and elementary school students. Life science activities include those related to plants, soil, habitats, fossils, animals, life cycles, food chains, nutrition, and other biologically-oriented topics. Physical science activities include those related to…

  13. Teacher thinking and interconnectedness: Teachers' thinking about students' experiences and science concepts during classroom teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Bhaskar Raj

    2004-11-01

    This study examined 4 elementary school teachers' thinking during science teaching in 2 urban schools in the southern United States. Most of the students in these schools come from minority families with low socioeconomic status. The teachers involved in this study were participants in the Linking Food and the Environment (LIFE) program, a curriculum designed for urban elementary students to learn life and environmental sciences. The research employed cross-case study methodology to understand teachers' thinking and the decisions they made during classroom teaching. Fifteen science lessons were taped (7 videotaped and 8 audiotaped) for each teacher over a period of 7 months. Six stimulated recall interviews were conducted to elicit the teachers' thinking and decision-making process during teaching. Data were analyzed using William and Baxter's (1996) discourse analysis framework. Three factors that influence elementary school teachers' thinking and the decisions they made during science teaching emerged from the data analysis: (1) Most teachers believed that students' experiences could be used during teaching, but they disagreed about the usefulness of students' experiences in teaching science for understanding. Two teachers who perceived their students to be less intelligent did not use students' experiences during teaching. (2) All the teachers in the study asserted that students must have the knowledge of science process skills to succeed in science investigation and high-stakes tests. These teachers also believed that mastering science process skills aided in students' understanding of science concepts. (3) In an academically high-performing school, the school administrators played a less significant role in teachers' thinking and decision making than in an academically low-performing school. Administrators were under pressure to "teach to the test" so that students would perform better in the high-stakes test. Teachers perceived a higher incentive for teaching

  14. INSTANT: a Small Mission Concept to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 Point for Innovative Solar, Heliospheric and Space Weather Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavraud, B.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We present a small mission concept to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather sciences. The proposed INvestigation of Solar-Terrestrial Activity aNd Transients (INSTANT) mission concept is designed to identify how solar coronal magnetic fields drive eruptions, mass transport and particle acceleration that impact the Earth and the heliosphere. The INSTANT concept would be the first to (1) obtain measurements of coronal magnetic fields from space, and (2) determine coronal mass ejection (CME) kinematics with unparalleled accuracy. Thanks to innovative instrumentation at a vantage point that provides the most suitable perspective view of the Sun-Earth system, INSTANT would, in addition, uniquely track the whole chain of fundamental processes driving space weather. We present the science requirements, payload and mission profile which fulfill ambitious science objectives within small mission programmatic boundary conditions.

  15. Using a Concept Mapping Tool with a Photograph Association Technique (CoMPAT) to Elicit Children's Ideas about Microbial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Jenny; Grace, Marcus

    2010-03-01

    Concept mapping is a technique used to provide a visual representation of an individual's ideas about a concept or set of related concepts. This paper describes a concept mapping tool using a photograph association technique (CoMPAT) that is considered to be a novel way of eliciting children's ideas. What children at 11 years of age know about particular concepts related to microbial activity is presented and discussed in relation to the effectiveness of CoMPAT as a tool to draw out their ideas. It is proposed that this tool could be used to explore ideas about this and other science concepts from children in other age groups, and where language may be a barrier to participation.

  16. Using the History of Research on Sickle Cell Anemia to Affect Preservice Teachers' Conceptions of the Nature of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Eric M.

    This paper examines how using a series of lessons developed from the history of research on sickle cell anemia affects preservice teacher conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The importance of a pedagogy that has students do science through an integral use of the history of science is effective at enriching students' NOS views is presented.…

  17. Overview on NASA's Advanced Electric Propulsion Concepts Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced electric propulsion research activities are currently underway that seek to addresses feasibility issues of a wide range of advanced concepts, and may result in the development of technologies that will enable exciting new missions within our solar system and beyond. Each research activity is described in terms of the present focus and potential future applications. Topics include micro-electric thrusters, electrodynamic tethers, high power plasma thrusters and related applications in materials processing, variable specific impulse plasma thrusters, pulsed inductive thrusters, computational techniques for thruster modeling, and advanced electric propulsion missions and systems studies.

  18. Selected advanced aerodynamic and active control concepts development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A summary is presented of results obtained during analysis, design and test activities on six selected technical tasks directed at exploratory improvement of fuel efficiency for new and derivative transports. The work included investigations into the potential offered by natural laminar flow, improved surface coatings and advanced high lift concepts. Similar investigations covering optimum low-energy flight path control, integrated application of active controls and evaluation of primary flight control systems reliability and maintenance are also summarized. Recommendations are included for future work needed to exploit potential advancements.

  19. Students' Conceptions of the Nature of Science: Perspectives from Canadian and Korean Middle School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyeran; Nielsen, Wendy; Woodruff, Earl

    2014-05-01

    This study examined and compared students' understanding of nature of science (NOS) with 521 Grade 8 Canadian and Korean students using a mixed methods approach. The concepts of NOS were measured using a survey that had both quantitative and qualitative elements. Descriptive statistics and one-way multivariate analysis of variances examined the quantitative data while a conceptually clustered matrix classified the open-ended responses. The country effect could explain 3-12 % of the variances of subjectivity, empirical testability and diverse methods, but it was not significant for the concepts of tentativeness and socio-cultural embeddedness of science. The open-ended responses showed that students believed scientific theories change due to errors or discoveries. Students regarded empirical evidence as undeniable and objective although they acknowledged experiments depend on theories or scientists' knowledge. The open responses revealed that national situations and curriculum content affected their views. For our future democratic citizens to gain scientific literacy, science curricula should include currently acknowledged NOS concepts and should be situated within societal and cultural perspectives.

  20. The effect of an outdoor setting on the transfer of earth science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Jerry Marvin

    The ability of students to transfer concepts learned in school to future learning and employment settings is critical to their academic and career success. Concept transfer can best be studied by defining it as a process rather than an isolated event. Preparation for future learning (PFL) is a process definition of transfer which recognizes the student's ability to draw from past experiences, make assumptions, and generate potential questions and strategies for problem resolution. The purpose of this study was to use the PFL definition of concept transfer to examine whether a knowledge-rich outdoor setting better prepares students for future learning of science concepts than the classroom setting alone does. The research hypothesis was that sixth-grade students experiencing a geology-rich outdoor setting would be better prepared to learn advanced earth science concepts than students experiencing classroom learning only. A quasi-experimental research design was used for this study on two non-equivalent, self-contained sixth-grade rural public school classes. After a pretest was given on prior geology knowledge, the outdoor treatment group was taken on a geology-rich field excursion which introduced them to the concepts of mineral formation and mining. The indoor treatment group received exposure to the same concepts in the classroom setting via color slides and identification of mineral specimens. Subsequently, both groups received direct instruction on advanced concepts about mineral formation and mining. They were then given a posttest, which presented the students with a problem-solving scenario and questions related to concepts covered in the direct instruction. A t-test done on pretest data revealed that the indoor treatment group had previously learned classroom geology material significantly better than the outdoor treatment group had. Therefore an analysis of covariance was performed on posttest data which showed that the outdoor treatment group was better

  1. Mapping Changes in Science Teachers' Content Knowledge: Concept Maps and Authentic Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Barbara A.; Lubin, Ian A.; Slater, Janis L.; Walden, Susan E.

    2013-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine content knowledge changes following 2 weeks of professional development that included scientific research with university scientists. Engaging teachers in scientific research is considered to be an effective way of encouraging knowledge of both inquiry pedagogy and content knowledge. We used concept maps with two cohorts of teachers to assess changes in science teacher knowledge. In study 1, 34 teachers developed pre- and post-concept maps in one of the nine different content areas. A repeated measures analysis of six quantitative scores showed statistically significant increases in knowledge representation. Quantitative and qualitative scoring methods indicate that concept maps are effective for assessing teacher knowledge gains from professional development. Study 2 replicated the results with 24 teachers and provided further information about how knowledge changes.

  2. Sciencing with Mother Goose: Activities for Integrating Science and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Carolyn; Bell, Ann

    The pairing of Mother Goose rhymes and nursery tales with the scientific thinking process is an effective instructional strategy linking reading and science learning at the primary level. This paper presents several such pairings which stress the basic science processes in grades K-3 of observing, communicating, comparing, ordering, and…

  3. An MD-PhD program in Brazil: students' concepts of science and of common sense.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R V; Campos, P C C; Mourão, P A S

    2011-11-01

    In 1995, a pioneering MD-PhD program was initiated in Brazil for the training of medical scientists in experimental sciences at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. The program's aim was achieved with respect to publication of theses in the form of papers with international visibility and also in terms of fostering the scientific careers of the graduates. The expansion of this type of program is one of the strategies for improving the preparation of biomedical researchers in Brazil. A noteworthy absence of interest in carrying out clinical research limits the ability of young Brazilian physicians to solve biomedical problems. To understand the students' views of science, we used qualitative and quantitative triangulation methods, as well as participant observation to evaluate the students' concepts of science and common sense. Subjective aspects were clearly less evident in their concepts of science. There was a strong concern about "methodology", "truth" and "usefulness". "Intuition", "creativity" and "curiosity" were the least mentioned thematic categories. Students recognized the value of intuition when it appeared as an explicit option but they did not refer to it spontaneously. Common sense was associated with "consensus", "opinion" and ideas that "require scientific validation". Such observations indicate that MD-PhD students share with their senior academic colleagues the same reluctance to consider common sense as a valid adjunct for the solution of scientific problems. Overcoming this difficulty may be an important step toward stimulating the interest of physicians in pursuing experimental research. PMID:21971688

  4. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-06-10

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes--although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms. PMID:24821756

  5. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L.; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K.; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes—although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms. PMID:24821756

  6. Expected SOFIA sensitivity, characteristics, US science instrument complement and operations concept.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becklin, E. E.; Davidson, J. A.

    The joint US and German SOFIA project to develop and operate a 2.5 meter infrared airborne telescope in a Boeing 747-SP began earlier this year. Universities Space Research Association (USRA), teamed with Raytheon E-Systems and United Airlines, was selected by NASA to develop and operate SOFIA. The 2.5 meter telescope will be designed and built by a consortium of German companies lead by MAN-GHH. Work on the aircraft and the primary mirror has started. First science flights will begin in 2001 with 20% of the observing time assigned to German investigators. The observatory is expected to operate for over 20 years. The sensitivity, characteristics, US science instrument complement, and operations concept for the SOFIA observatory, with an emphasis on the science community's participation, are discussed.

  7. Further Characterization of an Active Clearance Control Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Shawn C.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Oswald, Jay J.

    2007-01-01

    A new test chamber and precision hydraulic actuation system were incorporated into an active clearance control (ACC) test rig at NASA Glenn Research Center. Using the improved system, a fast-acting, mechanically-actuated, ACC concept was evaluated at engine simulated temperatures and pressure differentials up to 1140 F and 120 psig, on the basis of secondary seal leakage and kinematic controllability. During testing, the ACC concept tracked a simulated flight clearance transient profile at 1140 F, 120 psig, with a maximum error of only 0.0012 in. Comparison of average dynamic leakage of the system with average static leakage did not show significant differences between the two operating conditions. Calculated effective clearance values for the rig were approximately 0.0002 in. at 120 psig, well below the industry specified effective clearance threshold of 0.001 in.

  8. Science Fiction and Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Terence

    2002-01-01

    Uses science fiction films such as "Jurassic Park" or "Anaconda" to teach science concepts while fostering student interest. Advocates science fiction as a teaching tool to improve learning and motivation. Describes how to use science fiction in the classroom with the sample activity Twister. (YDS)

  9. Come Fly with Me! Exploring Science K-6 through Aviation/Aerospace Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housel, David C.; Housel, Doreen K. M.

    This guide contains 95 activities dealing with various aerospace/aviation education concepts. The activities are presented in units for kindergarten through sixth grade organized around a central theme at each grade level. The themes follow a sequence from grade to grade. Beginning with the introduction of basic inquiry process skills in…

  10. Essential Concepts of Nanoscale Science and Technology for High School Students Based on a Delphi Study by the Expert Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhnini, Sohair; Blonder, Ron

    2015-07-01

    Nanoscale science and technology (NST) is an important new field in modern science. In the current study, we seek to answer the question: 'What are the essential concepts of NST that should be taught in high school'? A 3-round Delphi study methodology was applied based on 2 communities of experts in nanotechnology research and science education. Eight essential concepts in NST were identified. Each concept is accompanied by its explanation, definition, importance and includes subcategories that compose it. Three concepts emerged in the Delphi study, which were not identified before: functionality, classification of nanomaterials, and the making of nanotechnology. Differences between the concepts suggested by the 2 communities of experts were found. The results of this study serve as a tool to examine different nanotechnology programs that were reported thus far and to make recommendations for designing a NST program for high school students that includes the essential concepts.

  11. As an Infused or a Separated Theme? Chinese Science Teacher Educators' Conceptions of Incorporating Nature of Science Instruction in the Courses of Training Pre-Service Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Zhi Hong; Wong, Siu Ling

    2013-01-01

    Teaching nature of science (NOS) is beginning to find its place in science education in China. This exploratory study interviewed twenty-four Chinese science teacher educators about their conceptions of teaching NOS to pre-service science teachers. Although five dimensions emerged, this paper mainly focuses on reporting the findings relevant to…

  12. The Positive and Negative Effects of Science Concept Tests on Student Conceptual Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Barufaldi, James P.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the phenomenon of testing effect during science concept assessments, including the mechanism behind it and its impact upon a learner's conceptual understanding. The participants consisted of 208 high school students, in either the 11th or 12th grade. Three types of tests (traditional multiple-choice test, correct concept test, and incorrect concept test) related to the greenhouse effect and global warming were developed to explore the mechanisms underlining the test effect. Interview data analyzed by means of the flow-map method were used to examine the two-week post-test consequences of taking one of these three tests. The results indicated: (1) Traditional tests can affect participants' long-term memory, both positively and negatively; in addition, when students ponder repeatedly and think harder about highly distracting choices during a test, they may gradually develop new conceptions; (2) Students develop more correct conceptions when more true descriptions are provided on the tests; on the other hand, students develop more misconceptions while completing tests in which more false descriptions of choices are provided. Finally, the results of this study revealed a noteworthy phenomenon that tests, if employed appropriately, may be also an effective instrument for assisting students' conceptual understanding.

  13. The Science of Chocolate: Interactive Activities on Phase Transitions, Emulsification, and Nucleation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowat, Amy C.; Hollar, Kathryn A.; Stone, Howard A.; Rosenberg, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Nearly everyone loves chocolate, which makes this an excellent topic for communicating scientific concepts to the general public and to students in the classroom. Here we present the outline and activities for an interactive presentation on the science of chocolate for nonspecialists and their children ages 6 and up. We design the presentation…

  14. Physical Sciences: Curriculum Resources and Activities for School Librarians and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Amy; Richer, Janet; Weckman, Janet

    This book provides resources to teachers and librarians for creating thematic units on specific topics targeting grades K-8. Each topic includes key concepts, comprehensive teaching resources, teaching resources (nonfiction children's literature), reading selections (fiction children's literature), science activities, creative writing and art…

  15. Drama Activities as Ideational Resources for Primary-Grade Children in Urban Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varelas, Maria; Pappas, Christine C.; Tucker-Raymond, Eli; Kane, Justine; Hankes, Jennifer; Ortiz, Ibett; Keblawe-Shamah, Neveen

    2010-01-01

    In this study we explored how dramatic enactments of scientific phenomena and concepts mediate children's learning of scientific meanings along material, social, and representational dimensions. These drama activities were part of two integrated science-literacy units, "Matter" and "Forest," which we developed and implemented in six urban…

  16. Earth Sciences: Curriculum Resources and Activities for School Librarians and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Amy; Richer, Janet; Weckman, Janet

    This book provides resources to teachers and librarians for creating thematic units on specific topics targeting grades K-8. Each topic includes key concepts, comprehensive teaching resources, teaching resources (nonfiction children's literature), reading selections (fiction children's literature), science activities, creative writing and art…

  17. Life Sciences: Curriculum Resources and Activities for School Librarians and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Amy; Richer, Janet; Weckman, Janet

    This book provides resources to teachers and librarians for creating thematic units on specific topics targeting grades K-8. Each topic includes key concepts, comprehensive teaching resources, teaching resources (nonfiction children's literature), reading selections (fiction children's literature), science activities, creative writing and art…

  18. Promoting Science Outdoor Activities for Elementary School Children: Contributions from a Research Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boaventura, Diana; Faria, Claudia; Chagas, Isabel; Galvao, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to analyse the promotion of scientific literacy through practical research activities and to identify children's conceptions about scientists and how they do science. Elementary school children were engaged in two scientific experiments in a marine biology research laboratory. A total of 136 students answered a…

  19. Only One Ocean: Marine Science Activities for Grades 5-8. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halversen, Catherine; Strang, Craig

    This guide was designed by the Marine Activities, Resources & Education (MARE) Program through the Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) ongoing curriculum development program for middle school students. This GEMS guide addresses the concepts of the interconnectedness of the ocean basins, respect for organisms, oceanography, physical…

  20. Science Activities That Work: Perceptions of Primary School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleton, Ken

    2002-06-01

    Many primary school teachers in Australia tend to be reluctant to teach science, partly because they are not confident in science and have limited science background knowledge. However, quite a number of primary school teachers still manage to teach some science. When they plan to teach science, many of them use the term science activities that work. Such activities seem to be related to science pedagogical content knowledge for some primary teachers. In order to better understand what the term activities that work means, twenty teachers from several schools were interviewed and asked what they understood by this expression. Themes that emerged suggest that activities that work are hands on, are interesting and motivating for the children, have a clear outcome or result, are manageable in the classroom, use equipment that is readily available, and are preferably used in a context where science is integrated into themes. Implications for curriculum and for preservice teacher education are considered.

  1. LANSCE nuclear science facilities and activities

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Ronald O

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear science activities at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) encompass measurements spanning the neutron energy range from thermal to 600 MeV. The neutron sources use spallation of the LANSCE 800 MeV pulsed proton beam with the time-of-flight technique to measure properties of neutron-induced reactions as a function of energy over this large energy range. Current experiments are conducted at the Lujan Center moderated neutron source, the unmoderated WNR target, and with a lead-slowing-down spectrometer. Instruments in use include the DANCE array of BaF{sub 2} scintillators for neutron capture studies, the FIGARO array of liquid scintillator neutron detectors, the GEANIE array of high-resolution HPGe x-ray and gamma-ray detectors, and a number of fission chambers, and other detectors. The LANL capabilities for production and handling of radioactive materials coupled with the neutron sources and detectors at LANSCE are enabling new and challenging measurements for a variety of applications including nuclear energy and nuclear astrophysics. An overview of recent research and examples of results is presented.

  2. Science Activity Planner for the MER Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jeffrey S.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Fox, Jason M.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Powell, Mark W.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Wallick, Michael N.; Mittman, David S.

    2008-01-01

    The Maestro Science Activity Planner is a computer program that assists human users in planning operations of the Mars Explorer Rover (MER) mission and visualizing scientific data returned from the MER rovers. Relative to its predecessors, this program is more powerful and easier to use. This program is built on the Java Eclipse open-source platform around a Web-browser-based user-interface paradigm to provide an intuitive user interface to Mars rovers and landers. This program affords a combination of advanced display and simulation capabilities. For example, a map view of terrain can be generated from images acquired by the High Resolution Imaging Science Explorer instrument aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft and overlaid with images from a navigation camera (more precisely, a stereoscopic pair of cameras) aboard a rover, and an interactive, annotated rover traverse path can be incorporated into the overlay. It is also possible to construct an overhead perspective mosaic image of terrain from navigation-camera images. This program can be adapted to similar use on other outer-space missions and is potentially adaptable to numerous terrestrial applications involving analysis of data, operations of robots, and planning of such operations for acquisition of scientific data.

  3. The effect of science demonstrations as a community service activity on pre-service science teachers' teaching practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurel, Derya Kaltakci

    2016-03-01

    In the scope of this study, pre-service science teachers (PSST) developed and carried out science demonstrations with everyday materials for elementary school students as a community service activity. 17 PSST enrolled in the community services practices course at Kocaeli University comprised the sample of the present study. Community service practices aim to develop consciousness of social responsibility and professional skills, as well as to gain awareness of social and community problems and find solutions for pre-service teachers. With this aim, each PSST developed five science demonstration activities and their brochures during a semester. At the end of the semester, a total of 85 demonstrations were carried out at public elementary schools, which are especially located in socioeconomically poor districts of Kocaeli, Turkey. In the present case study, the effect of developing and carrying out science demonstrations for elementary school students on six of the PSST' teaching practices on density and buoyancy concept was investigated. 30-minute interviews conducted with each PSST, videos recorded during their demonstration performances, brochures they prepared for their demonstration activities, and reflection papers were used as data collection tools of the study. The results showed that community service practices with science demonstrations had positive effects on PSST' science content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge.

  4. Advancing One Health Policy and Implementation Through the Concept of One Medicine One Science

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Carol; Travis, Dominic A.; Berger, Kavita; Coat, Gwenaële; Kennedy, Shaun; Steer, Clifford J.; Murtaugh, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous interspecies disease transmission events, Ebola virus being a recent and cogent example, highlight the complex interactions between human, animal, and environmental health and the importance of addressing medicine and health in a comprehensive scientific manner. The diversity of information gained from the natural, social, behavioral, and systems sciences is critical to developing and sustainably promoting integrated health approaches that can be implemented at the local, national, and international levels to meet grand challenges. The Concept of One Medicine One Science (COMOS) as outlined herein describes the interplay between scientific knowledge that underpins health and medicine and efforts toward stabilizing local systems using 2 linked case studies: the food system and emerging infectious disease. Forums such as the International Conference of One Medicine One Science (iCOMOS), where science and policy can be debated together, missing pieces identified, and science-based collaborations formed among industry, governmental, and nongovernmental policy makers and funders, is an essential step in addressing global health. The expertise of multiple disciplines and research foci to support policy development is critical to the implementation of one health and the successful achievement of global health security goals. PMID:26421234

  5. The influence of an inquiry professional development program on secondary science teachers' conceptions and use of inquiry teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotter, Christine

    2005-11-01

    This research investigated nine secondary science teachers' conceptions and use of inquiry teaching throughout a year-long professional development program. The professional development program consisted of a two-week summer inquiry institute and research experience in university scientists' laboratories, as well as three academic year workshops. Teachers' conceptions of inquiry teaching were established through both qualitative interviews and a quantitative instrument given before and after the summer institute and again at the end of the academic year. Videotapes of all nine teachers presenting inquiry lessons in their own classrooms were evaluated using an observation protocol that measured the teachers' degree of reform teaching. Three of the teachers were chosen for an in-depth case study of their classroom teaching practices. Data collected from each of the case study teachers included videotapes from classroom observations, responses to an inquiry survey, and transcripts from two additional qualitative interviews. Students' responses to their teachers' use of inquiry teaching were also investigated in the case study classrooms. Through their participation in the professional development experience, the teachers gained a deeper understanding of how to implement inquiry practices in their classrooms. The teachers gained confidence and practice with inquiry methods through developing and presenting their institute-developed inquiry lessons, through observing other teachers' lessons, and participating as students in the workshop inquiry activities. Data analysis revealed that the teachers' knowledge of inquiry was necessary but not sufficient for their implementation of inquiry teaching practices. The teachers' conceptions of science, their students, effective teaching practices, and the purpose of education were found to have a direct effect on the type and amount of inquiry instruction performed in the high school classrooms. The research findings suggest that

  6. The Use of Poster Sessions as a Tool to Integrate Concepts in Introduction to Environmental Science Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgar, C. A.; Doser, D. I.; Walsh, E. A.

    2004-12-01

    For the past year we have required students within our Introduction to Environmental Science classes to present a poster during the final week of class. The course has no science or math prerequisites and serves a variety of students including majors in elementary education (70%) and environmental science (10%) and has an enrollment of around 60-80 students (enrollment currently limited by availability of classroom space). We have found the poster session to be an excellent avenue for students from diverse backgrounds to integrate concepts learned in the course and apply them to their chosen major. For example, majors in elementary education are encouraged to develop lessons plans or a hands on activity they can later use within their elementary classroom. All posters must be connected in some way to environmental issues in the El Paso/Juarez border community. In order to avoid last minute work on presentations, the students are required to select topics, search for initial references, and write abstracts for their posters as intermediate steps during the last 2 months of the course. Posters are presented in a special poster session where students rotate between roles as presenters and evaluators. Post-course assessments have shown that most students find the poster session helpful in learning to apply course concepts to situations outside of environmental science, especially within their chosen field of study. The major drawbacks to the poster format have been developing a consistent method to grade posters as well as the actual process of grading posters during the last week of classes.

  7. FIR/THz Space Interferometry: Science Opportunities, Mission Concepts, and Technical Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David

    2007-01-01

    Sensitive far-IR imaging and spectroscopic measurements of astronomical objects on sub-arcsecond angular scales are essential to our understanding of star and planet formation, the formation and evolution of galaxies, and to the detection and characterization of extrasolar planets. Cold single-aperture telescopes in space, such as the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Herschel Space Observatory, are very sensitive, but they lack the necessary angular resolution by two or more orders of magnitude. Far-IR space interferometers will address this need in the coming decades. Several mission concepts have already been studied, including in the US the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) and the more ambitious Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS). This talk will describe science goals and summarize alternative concepts for future FIR/THz space interferometry missions. Small arrays of sensitive, fast, direct detectors are a key enabling technology for SPIRIT and SPECS. I will describe the technology requirements for far-IR interferometry, including the detector requirements, and their derivation from the mission science goals and instrument concepts.

  8. Crosscutting earth science concepts and diverse learners: communicating a framework for climate education. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rife, G. S.

    2013-12-01

    Formal K-12 educators have a myriad of organizations that offer benchmarks, standards, and other frameworks that offer structure to their teaching. Informal educators are often left with little direction to help them offer programming that is both entertaining and informative. All educators have opportunities to integrate earth science concepts in ways that diverse learners can experience to become educated about our climate and the earth systems that impact it. Formal educators also have experience and training in using different methodologies to reach diverse learners that are not always easy for informal educators to access. Frameworks, like the recent group of literacy principles produced by various experts in the fields offer opportunities to support both formal and informal educators as they strive to motivate and inform learners with a diversity of learning modalities. New research suggests that some methods are effective and easy to implement for any educators wishing to approach the topic of earth science and climate education in any setting they function in. Coupling crosscutting earth science content and concepts with different instructional methods yields new insights into best ways to educate all learners in meaningful and lasting ways.

  9. The Relationships among Scientific Epistemic Beliefs, Conceptions of Learning Science, and Motivation of Learning Science: A Study of Taiwan High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hsin-Ning Jessie; Liang, Jyh-Chong

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationships among Taiwanese high school students' scientific epistemic beliefs (SEBs), conceptions of learning science (COLS), and motivation of learning science. The questionnaire responses from 470 high school students in Taiwan were gathered for analysis to explain these relationships. The structural equation modeling…

  10. The Impact of a Cryogenics-Based Enrichment Programme on Attitude Towards Science and the Learning of Science Concepts. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caleon, Imelda; Subramaniam, R.

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the impact of a cryogenics-based enrichment programme, which involves demonstrations that use liquid nitrogen, on attitudes towards science and the learning of science concepts. The findings presented in this paper are based on a sample of 214 fifth-grade students from two schools in Singapore who had their enrichment lesson in…

  11. Do Science and Technology Teachers and Pre-Service Primary Teachers Have Different Thoughts about Concept Maps in Science and Technology Lessons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakuyu, Yunus

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the thoughts of primary science and technology teachers, primary class teachers, pre-service primary class teachers and pre-service primary science and technology teachers' about concept maps. This scale applied the use of basic and random method on the chosen 125 4th and 5th grade primary class teachers…

  12. Exploring Elementary Science Methods Course Contexts to Improve Preservice Teachers' NOS of Science Conceptions and Understandings of NOS Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Weiland, Ingrid; Rogers, Meredith Park; Pongsanon, Khemmawaddee; Bilican, Kader

    2014-01-01

    We explored adaptations to an elementary science methods course to determine how varied contexts could improve elementary preservice teachers' conceptions of NOS as well as their ideas for teaching NOS to elementary students. The contexts were (a) NOS Theme in which the course focused on the teaching of science through the consistent teaching…

  13. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Included are 30 science activities that include computer monitoring, fieldwork, enzyme activity, pH, drugs, calorimeters, Raoult's Law, food content, solubility, electrochemistry, titration, physical properties of materials, gel filtration, energy, concepts in physics, and electricity. (KR)

  14. An investigation of the relationship between middle school science teachers' knowledge and beliefs regarding the coherence and connections among science concepts and their classroom practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, Francis Quick

    In the last three decades, the United States has experienced many science education reform initiatives resulting in mixed success. Recently, research has found teachers' beliefs about their content and teaching have influence on what is taught. This investigation attempts to learn about the relationship between middle school teachers' beliefs and knowledge regarding the coherence and connectedness of science concepts and their classroom practice. This phenomenological investigation used an inductive qualitative research approach with multiple instruments and processes including; a survey, interviews, classroom observations, concept maps and classroom materials for data. The results suggest that middle school science teachers' ability to teach science in a connected and coherent fashion may be tied to their mental schema for organizing science ideas, curriculum materials, and their reflections on what they are teaching and why. Further research should help isolate and mitigate outside influences leading to a better understanding of teachers' beliefs about science.

  15. Essential Laboratory Activities Guide. Secondary Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval County Schools, Jacksonville, FL.

    This teacher's guide was developed for use in junior and senior high schools in Duval County, Jacksonville, Florida, for the purpose of identifying those secondary science laboratory experiences which are essential to the development of science content knowledge and competency in handling science laboratory equipment and consumables. The guide…

  16. Discovering Science through Art-Based Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberts, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Art and science are intrinsically linked; the essence of art and science is discovery. Both artists and scientists work in a systematic but creative way--knowledge and understanding are built up through pieces of art or a series of labs. In the classroom, integrating science and visual art can provide students with the latitude to think, discover,…

  17. Concept study on active shells driven by soft dielectric EAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochmatter, Patrick; Kovacs, Gabor

    2007-04-01

    Adaptive structures are capable to change their shape in a smart way in order to "adapt" to variable external conditions. Active shell structures with large out-of-plane deformation potential may be used to generate an interaction between the structural shape and the environment. Exemplarily, such shell-like actuators may be utilized for the propulsion of vehicles through air or water. Among the electroactive polymers (EAPs) especially soft dielectric EAP are promising for driving shell-like actuators due to their huge active strain potential and intrinsic compliancy. The challenging task of this study was to explore the potential of the DE actuator technology for the design of shell-like actuators with the ability to perform complex out-of-plane deflections. We present and evaluate concepts for the design of active shell structures driven by soft dielectric EAP. Preliminary experiments were conducted for selected approaches in order to basically verify their principle of operation and to quantify their active out-of-plane deformation potential. These experiments showed that the so-called agonist-antagonist configuration, where pre-strained DE films are attached on both sides of a hinged backbone structure, holds good performance in terms of active out-of-plane deflections and forces.

  18. Exploring the use of concept chains to structure teacher trainees' understanding of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machin, Janet; Varleys, Janet; Loxley, Peter

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports on a paper and pencil concept-sorting strategy that enables trainee teachers to restructure their knowledge in any one domain of science. It is used as a self-study tool, mainly to enable them to break down and understand the progression of concepts beyond the level at which they have to teach. The strategy involves listing key ideas in an increasingly complex and inclusive fashion such that a 'chain' is developed where the initial statements are simple and the final ones more complex. Evaluation of the strategy with trainees over a five-year period revealed promising potential for the strategy as a self-study tool, as well as an audit tool, enabling tutors to more easily identify misconceptions. There was some evidence that trainees found the strategy useful in preparing themselves to teach in the classroom, possibly by enabling meaningful learning to take place according to the Ausubel-Novak-Gowin theory.

  19. Concepts of bioisolation for life sciences research on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Glenn A.; Johnson, Catherine C.

    1991-01-01

    The risk concepts related to biological research in space are defined with attention given to the design and operation of experimental hardware for NASA's Biological Flight Research Laboratory (BFRL). The definitions are set forth to describe safety measures for the use of nonhuman specimens in microgravity environments and the direct application of the risk-control concepts. Bioisolation is the process by which biological systems can coexist productively by means of physical, chemical, or biological methods; bioisolation requirements are given for mammals, plants, and microspecimens. The BRFL provides two levels of containment based on the complete sealing of all joints and interfaces in the Modular Habitat and an airflow system designed to provide net negative pressure of at least 0.13 kPa. The requirements are designed to assure a safe working environment for conducting nonhuman life-sciences research in the Space Station Freedom.

  20. Integrating international relations and environmental science course concepts through an interactive world politics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, K. H.; Kesgin, B.

    2012-12-01

    During the fall 2012 semester, students in two introductory courses at Susquehanna University - EENV:101 Environmental Science and POLI:131 World Affairs - will participate together in an online international relations simulation called Statecraft (www.statecraftsim.com). In this strategy game, students are divided into teams representing independent countries, and choose their government type (democracy, constitutional monarchy, communist totalitarian, or military dictatorship) and two country attributes (industrial, green, militaristic, pacifist, or scientific), which determine a set of rules by which that country must abide. Countries interact over issues such as resource distribution, war, pollution, immigration, and global climate change, and must also keep domestic political unrest to a minimum in order to succeed in the game. This simulation has typically been run in political science courses, as the goal is to allow students to experience the balancing act necessary to maintain control of global and domestic issues in a dynamic, diverse world. This semester, environmental science students will be integrated into the simulation, both as environmental advisers to each country and as independent actors representing groups such as Greenpeace, ExxonMobil, and UNEP. The goal in integrating the two courses in the simulation is for the students in each course to gain both 1) content knowledge of certain fundamental material in the other course, and 2) a more thorough, applied understanding of the integrated nature of the two subjects. Students will gain an appreciation for the multiple tradeoffs that decision-makers must face in the real world (economy, resources, pollution, health, defense, etc.). Environmental science students will link these concepts to the traditional course material through a "systems thinking" approach to sustainability. Political science students will face the challenges of global climate change and gain an understanding of the nature of

  1. The Cognitive Science of Learning: Concepts and Strategies for the Educator and Learner.

    PubMed

    Weidman, Joseph; Baker, Keith

    2015-12-01

    Education is the fundamental process used to develop and maintain the professional skills of physicians. Medical students, residents, and fellows are expected to learn considerable amounts of information as they progress toward board certification. Established practitioners must continue to learn in an effort to remain up-to-date in their clinical realm. Those responsible for educating these populations endeavor to teach in a manner that is effective, efficient, and durable. The study of learning and performance is a subdivision of the field of cognitive science that focuses on how people interpret and process information and how they eventually develop mastery. A deeper understanding of how individuals learn can empower both educators and learners to be more effective in their endeavors. In this article, we review a number of concepts found in the literature on learning and performance. We address both the theoretical principles and the practical applications of each concept. Cognitive load theory, constructivism, and analogical transfer are concepts particularly beneficial to educators. An understanding of goal orientation, metacognition, retrieval, spaced learning, and deliberate practice will primarily benefit the learner. When these concepts are understood and incorporated into education and study, the effectiveness of learning is significantly improved. PMID:26579660

  2. Front end evaluation research results. Communications and concept planning: Hatfield Marine Science Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falk, John H.; Holland, Dana

    1994-01-01

    An evaluation for the renovation of the existing visitor center at the Hatfield Marine Sciences Center (HMSC) was undertaken, in conjunction with the communications planning phase of the project. The outcome is expected to be the development of a communications plan and selection of concepts for visitors' interpretive experience. In the course of the evaluation, data were collected from 140 visitors to HMSC using both a questionnaire and face to face semi-structured interviews. Major results of the evaluation covered: 1, reasons for attending the HMSC; 2, visitor expectations; 3, visitors's knowledge of general science and of marine life and environments; 4, visitors' level of interest and attitudes toward exhibit themes; 5, issue areas of greatest interest; and 6, research areas of greatest interest.Visitors to t he HMSC had a strong orientation toward seeing and closely interacting with marine life and environments.

  3. Framing the ecosystem concept through a longitudinal study of developments in science and policy.

    PubMed

    Aggestam, Filip

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines how scientific literature and policy documents frame the ecosystem concept and how these frames have shaped scientific dialogue and policy making over time. This was achieved by developing a frame typology, as a basis for organizing relevant value expressions, to assess how different frames have altered perspectives of the ecosystem concept. The frame typology and analysis is based on a semi-grounded and longitudinal document analysis of scientific literature and policy documents using the ecosystem concept. Despite changing discourses and public priorities (e.g., cultural constructs of biodiversity) both science and policy documents are characterized by stable value systems that have not changed substantially since the 1930s. These value systems were defined based on ethical principles that delineate 6 core frames: humans first, dual systems, eco-science, eco-holism, animals first, and multicentrism. Specific crises (e.g., climate change) and cross-disciplinary uptake and re-uptake of, for example, the ecosystem services concept, have brought new perspectives to the forefront of public discourse. These developments triggered changes in the core frames that, rather than being value based, are based on how the ecosystem is conceptualized under fixed value systems and over time. Fourteen subframes were developed to reflect these longitudinal changes. There are as such clear framing effects in both scientific literature and in policy. Ecosystem research is for instance often characterized by unstated value judgments even though the scientific community does not make these explicit. In contrast, policy documents are characterized by clear value expressions but are principally management driven and human centered. PMID:25926058

  4. The Discourse of Design-Based Science Classroom Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Flávio S.; Martalock, Peggy L.; Keser, Tugba

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an initial contribution to a general theory in which science classroom "activity types" and epistemological "discourse practices" are systematically linked. The idea is that activities and discourse are reflexively related, so that different types of science classroom activities (e.g., scientific argumentation,…

  5. Energy and Change. Elementary Science Activity Series, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Frank F.

    This book is number 3 of a series of elementary science books that presents a wealth of ideas for science activities for the elementary school teacher. Each activity includes a standard set of information designed to help teachers determine the activity's appropriateness for their students, plan its implementation, and help children focus on a…

  6. Explaining Earth and Space Science Concepts to Middle School Children Through Interactive web Based Stories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, A.; Gens, R.; Gupta, A.

    2005-05-01

    The role of story telling in educating, entertaining, and stimulating young minds needs no proof. Unwritten stories have carried from one generation to another preserving old traditions and cultural heritages. Advancements in technology have now brought computers and internet to homes, and tools for education and entertainment have adapted accordingly. Combining science content in web based interactive stories, provides a great way to capture the interest and curiosity of young minds, and in the process intrigue them to take up careers in science. 'Alaska: a Birds Eye View', and 'Treasure Hunt in Alaska' are two interactive web based stories designed for middle school children. Both stories are set up for the State of Alaska, but convey earth and space science concepts that are of relevance for everyone. Whereas the first story tells about the significance of satellite observations made in the optical and thermal part of the electromagnetic spectrum for mapping, monitoring volcanic eruption, studying impacts of sea ice edge changes in relation to global climate changes, the second story focuses on the significance of satellite data acquired in the microwave region of the spectrum for target detection. Creative art work has added to the visual appeal of the stories. Both stories provide a unique blend of earth and space science topics.

  7. Seeking Missing Pieces in Science Concept Assessments: Reevaluating the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment through Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Discipline-based science concept assessments are powerful tools to measure learners' disciplinary core ideas. Among many such assessments, the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment (BEMA) has been broadly used to gauge student conceptions of key electricity and magnetism (E&M) topics in college-level introductory physics courses.…

  8. How Do High School Science Textbooks in Korea, Japan, and the U.S. Explain Bioaccumulation-Related Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Heung-Tae; Kim, Jae Geun

    2013-01-01

    Although bioaccumulation-related concepts are important scientific knowledge, a study on whether high school textbooks include appropriate explanations has not been conducted. The present study investigated science and biology textbooks from Korea, Japan, and the U.S., focusing on how bioaccumulation-related concepts were defined, what types of…

  9. Use of Technology-Assisted Techniques of Mind Mapping and Concept Mapping in Science Education: A Constructivist Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balim, Ali Günay

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the effects of using mind maps and concept maps on students' learning of concepts in science courses. A total of 51 students participated in this study which used a quasi-experimental research design with pre-test/post-test control groups. The constructivist-inspired study was carried out in the sixth-grade…

  10. Lebanese Students' Conceptions of and Attitudes towards Science and Related Careers Based on Their Gender and Religious Affiliations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khishfe, Rola; BouJaoude, Saouma

    2016-01-01

    Students' attitudes and conceptions seem to be influenced by social/cultural contexts and interactions with other students from diverse backgrounds. Therefore, educators need to study attitudes, conceptions, and career choices in relation to diversity indicators. Such was one focus of the Science Education for Diversity project, which involved…

  11. 'That's What Scientists Have To Do': Preservice Elementary Teachers' Conceptions of the Nature of Science during a Moon Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abell, Sandra; Martini, Mariana; George, Melissa

    2001-01-01

    Describes a science methods course for elementary education majors in which students investigated the phases of the moon. Concludes that students did not make direct connections between their science learning activities and the nature of science. Provides a set of recommendations related to the nature of science and moon study. (Contains 27…

  12. Attitudes to concept maps as a teaching/learning activity in undergraduate health professional education: influence of preferred learning style.

    PubMed

    Laight, David W

    2004-05-01

    Concept maps that integrate and relate concepts in a nonlinear fashion are widely accepted as an educational tool that can underpin meaningful learning in medical education. However, student take-up may be affected by a number of cognitive and non-cognitive influences. In the present study, student attitudes to pre-prepared concept maps introduced in Stage 2 conjoint MPharm and BSc Pharmacology lectures were examined in relation to preferred learning styles according to the Felder-Silverman model. There was no statistically significant influence of dichotomous learning style dimension (sensing/intuitive; visual/verbal; active/reflector; sequential/global) on the self-reported utility of such concept maps to learning. However, when strength of preference was analysed within each dimension, moderate/strong verbal learners were found to be significantly less likely to self-report concept maps as useful relative to mild verbal learners. With this important exception, these data now suggest that student attitudes to concept maps are broadly not influenced by preferred learning styles and furthermore highlight the potential of concept maps to address a variety of different learning styles and thereby facilitate 'teaching to all types'. Concept maps could therefore potentially assist motivation, engagement and deep learning in medical and biomedical science education when used as a supplement to more traditional teaching/learning activities. PMID:15203499

  13. Exploring prospective secondary science teachers' understandings of scientific inquiry and Mendelian genetics concepts using computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakir, Mustafa

    The primary objective of this case study was to examine prospective secondary science teachers' developing understanding of scientific inquiry and Mendelian genetics. A computer simulation of basic Mendelian inheritance processes (Catlab) was used in combination with small-group discussions and other instructional scaffolds to enhance prospective science teachers' understandings. The theoretical background for this research is derived from a social constructivist perspective. Structuring scientific inquiry as investigation to develop explanations presents meaningful context for the enhancement of inquiry abilities and understanding of the science content. The context of the study was a teaching and learning course focused on inquiry and technology. Twelve prospective science teachers participated in this study. Multiple data sources included pre- and post-module questionnaires of participants' view of scientific inquiry, pre-posttests of understandings of Mendelian concepts, inquiry project reports, class presentations, process videotapes of participants interacting with the simulation, and semi-structured interviews. Seven selected prospective science teachers participated in in-depth interviews. Findings suggest that while studying important concepts in science, carefully designed inquiry experiences can help prospective science teachers to develop an understanding about the types of questions scientists in that field ask, the methodological and epistemological issues that constrain their pursuit of answers to those questions, and the ways in which they construct and share their explanations. Key findings included prospective teachers' initial limited abilities to create evidence-based arguments, their hesitancy to include inquiry in their future teaching, and the impact of collaboration on thinking. Prior to this experience the prospective teachers held uninformed views of scientific inquiry. After the module, participants demonstrated extended expertise in

  14. Accommodating Students with Disabilities in Soil Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley-Turnbaugh, S. J.; Murphy, Kate; Levin, E.

    2004-01-01

    Soil science education is lacking in terms of accommodations for persons with disabilities. Individuals with disabilities are often excluded from soil science activities in school, and from soil science careers. GLOBE (Global Learning Observations to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on primary and secondary school-based education and…

  15. Family Science Night: Fun Tips, Activities, and Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Shelley S.

    2013-01-01

    At last! A practical, readable guide for teachers, school leaders, and parent/teacher associations that shows how to plan fun, hands-on science nights! Get easy-to-implement, content-rich tips and ideas that will cultivate positive attitudes toward science! Learn how to involve and actively engage families in their children's science education.…

  16. Science Teaching and Learning Activities and Students' Engagement in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampden-Thompson, Gillian; Bennett, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to describe the variation in students' reports of engagement in science across science teaching and learning activities. In addition, this study examines student and school characteristics that may be associated with students' levels of engagement in science. Data are drawn from the Programme for…

  17. Teachers' Willingness to Adopt Nature of Science Activities Following a Physical Science Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Lisa A.; Argyle, Sean

    2011-01-01

    The major science education reform documents emphasize the need for K-12 students to have a robust understanding of nature of science (NOS), and inservice teachers consequently need to develop their NOS teaching repertoires. This study investigated the extent to which science teachers were willing to adopt new strategies and activities for…

  18. Essential Concepts of Nanoscale Science and Technology for High School Students Based on a Delphi Study by the Expert Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakhnini, Sohair; Blonder, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale science and technology (NST) is an important new field in modern science. In the current study, we seek to answer the question: "What are the essential concepts of NST that should be taught in high school"? A 3-round Delphi study methodology was applied based on 2 communities of experts in nanotechnology research and science…

  19. Ecocultural Factors in Students' Ability to Relate Science Concepts Learned at School and Experienced at Home: Implications for Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oloruntegbe, Kunle Oke; Ikpe, Adakole

    2011-01-01

    Making connections between science concepts taught in school and real-world phenomena is considered important in engaging students in learning. The present study examines students' abilities to relate their in-school science learning to everyday experiences at home. The sample comprised 200 senior secondary chemistry students drawn from Ondo…

  20. Perceptions of Pre-Service Social Sciences Teachers Regarding the Concept of "Geography" by Mind Mapping Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk Demirbas, Cagri

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to present the perceptions of preservice social sciences teachers regarding the concept of geography. In the study, the study group consists of 46 preservice social sciences teachers, who receive education at Ahi Evran University. The data were collected in December, 2010. Mind maps were used as data collection tools…