Science.gov

Sample records for activities suggested readings

  1. Reading Aloud--Suggestions for Classroom Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rews, Alun L. W.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an introductory summary in defense of "reading aloud" in the English as a foreign language classroom and a more substantial section offering practical suggestions for handling it. The defense centers on a clarification of the purpose of reading aloud. Descriptions of different reading activities are included along with methods of…

  2. Current Research: 2013 Summer Reading Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2013

    2013-01-01

    To supplement the summer reading of National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) members, the NSTA Committee on Research in Science Education suggested a list of science education research articles that were published in the journals of NSTA's affiliates in 2012. These articles covered a variety of topics that include learning about…

  3. Air University Suggested Professional Reading Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Maxwell AFB, AL.

    One of six related documents intended for the Air Force officer, the enlisted man, or the civilian, this reading guide contains an annotated list of 26 publications that support Project Warrior and provide information about military history and the Air Force heritage. The books are listed in sequence according to a reading ease index, which…

  4. Reading Suggestions on 1945 for Classroom Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Critchfield, James W.

    1970-01-01

    Readings are organized for teachers by these topics: World War II; The Atomic Bomb; The Cold War; American Political Personalities; and, General Events in the United States. A 7-item list is presented for high school students. (DB)

  5. What Brain Research Suggests for Teaching Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Judy

    2009-01-01

    How the brain learns to read has been the subject of much neuroscience educational research. Evidence is mounting for identifiable networks of connected neurons that are particularly active during reading processes such as response to visual and auditory stimuli, relating new information to prior knowledge, long-term memory storage, comprehension,…

  6. Increasing Reading and Test Taking Skills with Hypnosis and Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Randy Drue

    This study investigated the effects of hypnosis on the learning of reading skills and academic skills. The general hypothesis was that hypnotic suggestions related to the curriculum of a course for improvement of academic and study skills would facilitate students' academic skill learning. Ninety-three male and female students enrolled in a course…

  7. Student-Centered Reading Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, James; Wagner, Betty Jane

    1991-01-01

    Offers student-centered reading activities designed to bring students to reading maturity and involvement in literature. Discusses partner reading, dramatizing and performing texts, transforming texts, journal writing, discussion, and writing. (PRA)

  8. Suggestions for Using Supplementary Materials in the Individualization of Intensive Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Bonnie B.

    Suggestions for preparing supplementary materials for use in an individualized second language reading program are made. Newspaper sources can be used as a basis for constructing a learning activity packet with three phases. The prereading phase contains sound-symbol correspondence and vocabulary exercises, structure analysis and/or structure…

  9. Independent Activities for Accelerated Students: Individualized Reading Instruction for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapides Parish School Board, Alexandria, LAa.

    The teaching guide for use with accelerated elementary school students contains suggestions for independent reading activities, a list of independent reading books for beginning readers, and suggestions for creative activities. Stressed is the value of sharing enthusiasm about books to spur independent reading. Suggestions are given for talking…

  10. Creative Reading Activities for the Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quackenbush, Sylva

    The purpose of creative activities in the classroom and the part creativity should have in the reading program are discussed. Both the gifted and not-so-gifted child can be motivated, challenged, and provided with enriching experiences through creative activities planned and encouraged by a resourceful teacher. Suggestions given include the…

  11. Inquiry Science and Active Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandifer, Cody

    2011-01-01

    Pairing an inquiry lesson with a traditional reading activity creates a jarring philosophical mismatch between the interaction, deep thinking, and scientific reasoning that drives meaningful inquiry instruction and the "scan the text, copy the answers" response often obtained from elementary nonfiction readers. Realizing that there must be a…

  12. A Validity and Reliability Update on the Informal Reading Inventory with Suggestions for Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klesius, Janell P.; Homan, Susan P.

    1985-01-01

    The article reviews validity and reliability studies on the informal reading inventory, a diagnostic instrument to identify reading grade-level placement and strengths and weaknesses in work recognition and comprehension. Gives suggestions to improve the validity and reliability of existing inventories and to evaluate them in newly published…

  13. White House Suggests Model Used in Reading to Elevate Math Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the Bush administration's aim to improve mathematics education through a suggested reading model. The White House is focusing on research to shape how students across the country are taught the most basic mathematical concepts. This undertaking would be modeled on the government's action toward reading, which includes the…

  14. Studies and Suggestions on Prewriting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Shigao; Dai, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies and suggests the need for writing instruction by which students can experience writing as a creative process in exploring and communicating meaning. The prewriting activities generate ideas which can encourage a free flow of thoughts and help students discover both what they want to say and how to say it on paper. Through the…

  15. Writing Composition Activities to Enhance Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Janet T.

    A program of written composition based on reading comprehension can help students gain greater in-depth understanding of reading materials. Once the reading comprehension skill has been clearly defined for the class, the writing activity can provide clarification by allowing for analysis of the definition through written manipulation of language.…

  16. Reading cinnamon activates olfactory brain regions.

    PubMed

    González, Julio; Barros-Loscertales, Alfonso; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Meseguer, Vanessa; Sanjuán, Ana; Belloch, Vicente; Avila, César

    2006-08-15

    Some words immediately and automatically remind us of odours, smells and scents, whereas other language items do not evoke such associations. This study investigated, for the first time, the abstract linking of linguistic and odour information using modern neuroimaging techniques (functional MRI). Subjects passively read odour-related words ('garlic', 'cinnamon', 'jasmine') and neutral language items. The odour-related terms elicited activation in the primary olfactory cortex, which include the piriform cortex and the amygdala. Our results suggest the activation of widely distributed cortical cell assemblies in the processing of olfactory words. These distributed neuron populations extend into language areas but also reach some parts of the olfactory system. These distributed neural systems may be the basis of the processing of language elements, their related conceptual and semantic information and the associated sensory information.

  17. A Systematic Approach to Foreign Language Reading Instruction: What Does the Research Suggest?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Dolly Jesusita

    1989-01-01

    Addresses questions concerning reading in a foreign language, including: (1) Do reading strategies transfer from native language to second language?; (2) Can reading strategies be successfully taught?; and (3) If a strategies-oriented approach to reading were to be developed, what basic considerations should be included in the approach? (44…

  18. The Genetics of Reading Disability in an Often Excluded Sample: Novel Loci Suggested for Reading Disability in Rolandic Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Strug, Lisa J.; Addis, Laura; Chiang, Theodore; Baskurt, Zeynep; Li, Weili; Clarke, Tara; Hardison, Huntley; Kugler, Steven L.; Mandelbaum, David E.; Novotny, Edward J.; Wolf, Steven M.; Pal, Deb K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Reading disability (RD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with genetic basis established in families segregating “pure” dyslexia. RD commonly occurs in neurodevelopmental disorders including Rolandic Epilepsy (RE), a complex genetic disorder. We performed genomewide linkage analysis of RD in RE families, testing the hypotheses that RD in RE families is genetically heterogenenous to pure dyslexia, and shares genetic influences with other sub-phenotypes of RE. Methods We initially performed genome-wide linkage analysis using 1000 STR markers in 38 US families ascertained through a RE proband; most of these families were multiplex for RD. We analyzed the data by two-point and multipoint parametric LOD score methods. We then confirmed the linkage evidence in a second US dataset of 20 RE families. We also resequenced the SEMA3C gene at the 7q21 linkage locus in members of one multiplex RE/RD pedigree and the DISC1 gene in affected pedigrees at the 1q42 locus. Results In the discovery dataset there was suggestive evidence of linkage for RD to chromosome 7q21 (two-point LOD score 3.05, multipoint LOD 3.08) and at 1q42 (two-point LOD 2.87, multipoint LOD 3.03). Much of the linkage evidence at 7q21 derived from families of French-Canadian origin, whereas the linkage evidence at 1q42 was well distributed across all the families. There was little evidence for linkage at known dyslexia loci. Combining the discovery and confirmation datasets increased the evidence at 1q42 (two-point LOD = 3.49, multipoint HLOD = 4.70), but decreased evidence at 7q21 (two-point LOD = 2.28, multipoint HLOD  = 1.81), possibly because the replication sample did not have French Canadian representation. Discussion Reading disability in rolandic epilepsy has a genetic basis and may be influenced by loci at 1q42 and, in some populations, at 7q21; there is little evidence of a role for known DYX loci discovered in “pure” dyslexia pedigrees. 1q42 and 7q21 are

  19. Research and Theory Driven Insights: Ten Suggestions for L2 Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero-Ghiretti, Gabriela; White, Violaine; Berg, Bartell; Quintana, Rubén Domínguez; Grayson, Brandan L.; Weng, Miaowei

    2007-01-01

    Research and theory on second language reading has reached heightened dimensions in recent years. It is through reading that learners access much information concerning the target language and culture, and consequently reading is an important part of almost all language programs across stages of acquisition. The purpose of this article is to offer…

  20. Adults' Reading Practices and Activities: Age, Educational and Occupational Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Cecil; Stahl, Norman A.

    Interest in adults' everyday reading practices has a lengthy history in the study of the psychology of reading. Several studies have examined the extent of, and variability in, adults' reading activities. Different social contexts have been shown to influence the type of reading performed. The present study examined the reading patterns and…

  1. Enhancing the Lives of Nursing Home Patients through Reading Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovelace, Terry

    This study investigated the use of reading activities in the enhancement of the lives of nursing-home patients. A special reading group was led by a reading specialist in weekly sessions. Patients voluntarily attended the one-hour sessions and read short selections supplied by the reading specialist. Patients ranged in age from 54 to 91. The…

  2. Active Reading Experience Questionnaire: Development and Validation of an Instrument for Studying Active Reading Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palilonis, Jennifer; Butler, Darrell

    2015-01-01

    The increasing adoption of mobile platforms and digital textbooks in university classrooms continues to have a profound impact on higher education. Advocates believe that providing students digital textbooks with built-in annotation features and interactive study tools will improve learning by facilitating active reading, a task essential to…

  3. Acquisition Activities in Intensive Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhenghua, Xu

    1998-01-01

    Discusses four possible ways to conduct language-acquisition activities in the foreign-language classroom: (1) vivid linking; (2) story retelling; (3) self-directed statement; and (4) role playing. (Author/VWL)

  4. Read*Write*Now!: Actividades para Divertirse Leyendo y Escribiendo (Activities for Reading and Writing Fun).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venezky, Dick, Ed.; And Others

    Developed by national reading experts for "reading partners" to use with children, ages birth to grade 6, this Spanish-language booklet presents activities that help very young children to get ready for reading and writing, and guide older children to expand their reading and writing interests and skills. The booklet has three sections,…

  5. The Relationship between Students' Reading Orientations and Their Strategic Activity during a Collaborative Reading Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dennis S.; Neitzel, Carin

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the connection between middle school students' beliefs about reading and their use of comprehension strategies during a collaborative reading activity. Seventy-one fifth- and sixth-grade students were videotaped while they worked in small groups to read and discuss short texts describing the reading habits and abilities of four…

  6. Reading to Deaf Children Who Sign: A Response to Williams (2012) and Suggestions for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Jean F.

    2012-01-01

    A commentary on Williams's (2012) invited article on the use of adapted vocabulary learning interventions focuses on three areas: (a) Vocabulary interventions with storybook reading originally designed for hearing children can be adapted for deaf children. (b) Teachers are invited to reflect on how the read-aloud process in English differs from…

  7. Masked Primes Activate Feature Representations in Reading Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mousikou, Petroula; Roon, Kevin D.; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Theories of reading aloud are silent about the role of subphonemic/subsegmental representations in translating print to sound. However, there is empirical evidence suggesting that feature representations are activated in speech production and visual word recognition. In the present study, we sought to determine whether masked primes activate…

  8. Specific cerebellar activation during Braille reading in blind subjects.

    PubMed

    Gizewski, Elke R; Timmann, Dagmar; Forsting, Michael

    2004-07-01

    The traditional view that the cerebellum is involved only in the control of movements has been changed recently. It has been suggested that the human cerebellum is involved in cognition and language. Likewise, besides cortical activity in sensorimotor and visual areas, an increased global activation of the cerebellum has been revealed during Braille reading in blind subjects. Our purpose was to investigate whether there is cerebellar activation during Braille reading by blind subjects other than sensorimotor activation related to finger movements. Early blind and normal sighted subjects were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during Braille reading, tactile discrimination of nonsense dots, dots forming symbols, and finger tapping. The experiments were done in block design. Echo planar imaging sequences were carried out on a 1.5-T MR scanner. All blind individuals reading Braille showed robust activation of the posterior and lateral aspects of cerebellar hemispheral lobules Crus I bilaterally but more predominately on the right side. Additionally, activation was present in the medial cerebellum within lobules IV, V, and VIIIA, predominantly on the right. Discriminating nonsense dots did not reveal any activation of Crus I, but did reveal activation within the medial part of lobules IV, V, and VIIIA, predominately on the right. Analysis of sighted subjects during reading of printed text revealed activation of the posterolateral cerebellar hemisphere in Crus I bilaterally, predominantly on the right. Tactile analysis of dots representing symbols revealed an activation in lobules IV and VIII and in right Crus II but not in Crus I. In conclusion, parts of cerebellar activation during Braille reading in blind subjects (i.e., within lobules IV, V, and VIII) overlap with the known hand representation within the cerebellum and are likely related to the sensorimotor part of the task. Cerebellar activation during Braille reading within bilateral Crus I

  9. Sports Splash: A Handbook of Reading Activities for Use with Children. A Fun with Reading Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Carol H.

    Intended for individuals involved in teaching children to read--parents, teachers, librarians, and reading specialists--this handbook provides activities and resources to supplement programs designed to encourage children's enjoyment of books. The reading activities presented in this handbook have been developed around a sports theme. The…

  10. Active Reading Procedures for Moderating the Effects of Poor Highlighting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gier, Vicki S.; Herring, Daniel; Hudnell, Jason; Montoya, Jodi; Kreiner, David S.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated two active reading techniques intended to eliminate the negative effect on reading comprehension of preexisting, inappropriate highlighting. College students read passages in three highlighting conditions: no highlighting, appropriate highlighting, and inappropriate highlighting. In Experiment 1, 30 students read the passages while…

  11. Active Reading Behaviors in Tablet-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palilonis, Jennifer; Bolchini, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Active reading is fundamental to learning. However, there is little understanding about whether traditional active reading frameworks sufficiently characterize how learners study multimedia tablet textbooks. This paper explores the nature of active reading in the tablet environment through a qualitative study that engaged 30 students in an active…

  12. Reading under the Skin: Physiological Activation during Reading in Children with Dyslexia and Typical Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobia, Valentina; Bonifacci, Paola; Ottaviani, Cristina; Borsato, Thomas; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate physiological activation during reading and control tasks in children with dyslexia and typical readers. Skin conductance response (SCR) recorded during four tasks involving reading aloud, reading silently, and describing illustrated stories aloud and silently was compared for children with dyslexia (n =…

  13. The Effects of Pre-Reading Activities on Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Nahid Nemati; Mahmoudi, Asgar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three types of pre-reading activities (movie-watching, vocabulary presentation, and pre-reading summarization) on the reading comprehension of 76 elementary-level EFL Iranian learners. The participants were randomly assigned to one control and three experimental conditions and then a pretest was given to…

  14. Understanding Children's Reading Activities: Reading Motivation, Skill and Child Characteristics as Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Osborne, Cara; Warhurst, Amy; Norgate, Roger; Duncan, Lynne G.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a range of child characteristics (sex, age, socioeconomic status, reading skill and intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation) predicted engagement (i.e., time spent) in different reading activities (fiction books, factual books, school textbooks, comics, magazines and digital texts). In total, 791 children…

  15. Active Reading Documents (ARDs): A Tool to Facilitate Meaningful Learning through Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubas, Justin M.; Toledo, Santiago A.

    2015-01-01

    Presented here is a practical tool called the Active Reading Document (ARD) that can give students the necessary incentive to engage with the text/readings. By designing the tool to incrementally develop student understanding of the material through reading using Marzano's Taxonomy as a framework, the ARD offers support through scaffolding as they…

  16. Mothers' Reading-Related Activities at Home and Learning to Read during Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Parrila, Rauno; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Niemi, Pekka; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates how the reading-related activities of mothers at home relate to the development of reading skills among their kindergarten children. A total of 1,529 children (5-to-6-year-olds) were tested on word reading twice, once at the beginning and once at the end of a kindergarten year. The mothers of the children (n =…

  17. Reading Aloud Activity in L2 and Cerebral Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Osamu; Ikeda, Maiko; Mizumoto, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the cerebral mechanism of reading aloud activities in L2 learners. These activities have been widely used in L2 learning and teaching, and its effect has been reported in various Asian L2 learning contexts. However, the reasons for its effectiveness have not been examined. In order to fill in this gap, two studies using a…

  18. Can Waking Suggestion Be as Effective as Hypnosis in Increasing Reading Efficiency? A Consideration for Educational Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappie, David Alexander

    The primary problem was concerned with the uses of hypnosis and waking suggestions as means of improving reading efficiency. A second problem concerned rectifying research design inadequacies related to hypnosis experiments. The procedure used pretest scores secured for rate, comprehension, and vocabulary. Subjects were placed in experimental and…

  19. Activating Background Knowledge in Reading Comprehension Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Deborah Wells; Rayford, Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that a broad age range of students can use some purpose questions as cues to activate background knowledge. Suggest topic familiarity, amount of information presented, and the presence of genre clues as text features affecting schema activation. (NKA)

  20. Do You Read Me? Business and Office: Reading Development Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Elizabeth L.; Chenoweth, Roberta

    This activity guide is one of four supplements to be used with "Do You Read Me? Prevocational-Vocational Reading Development Activities" (ED 210 454). Each supplement deals with a different occupational category. Games, puzzles, and other activities are offered to aid in developing the word recognition, vocabulary, and comprehension…

  1. Activity and Imagined Activity Can Enhance Young Children's Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenberg, Arthur M.; Gutierrez, Tiana; Levin, Joel R.; Japuntich, Sandra; Kaschak, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    The Indexical Hypothesis suggests a new method for enhancing children's reading comprehension. Young readers may not consistently "index," or map, words to the objects the words represent. Consequently, these readers fail to derive much meaning from the text. The instructional method involves manipulating toy objects referred to in the…

  2. Suggested Calendar of Yearly School Board Activities 1977-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, George B.

    The materials contained in this school board calendar are intended to help local boards take the appropriate actions required by the state of Oregon at the appropriate times. Many of these board actions involve budget preparation and approval, collective bargaining, and personnel procedures. The calendar suggests activities based on the timeline…

  3. The Relevant Factors in Promoting Reading Activities in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Han-Chen; Tsai, Yao-Hsu; Huang, Shih-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    In order to help students absorb knowledge, schools often conduct reading activities. Thorough planning and strategies, however, are needed to insure the effect of reading promotions, and make them a deeply-rooted part of life. This study adopted the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to discuss the relevant factors in promoting reading activities…

  4. SPECIAL MOTIVATIONAL ACTIVITIES FOR PROMOTING CERTAIN PROBLEM AREAS IN READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DAWSON, MARVIN; SPENCER, GARY D.

    A CURRICULUM GUIDE PRODUCED AT AN INSERVICE TRAINING COURSE ON "PROBLEMS IN TEACHING READING" BY TEACHERS FROM CARROLL COUNTY SCHOOLS, GEORGIA, IN THE SPRING OF 1966 IS PRESENTED. IT OFFERS GENERAL MOTIVATIONAL READING ACTIVITIES WHICH PROMOTE GROWTH IN CERTAIN PROBLEM AREAS IN READING. RECOGNIZING THAT THERE CAN BE NO EFFECTIVE LEARNING…

  5. Open the Door for Reading (Motivational Activities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Roxy

    Designed to help elementary teachers motivate students to read, this illustrated booklet presents a store of classroom ideas that promote and enrich reading. Materials presented include (1) instructions for making a "bookworm" bookmark for each student; (2) various animated bulletin board games intended to accompany the reading process and to help…

  6. Translating Frank Smith's Reading Theory into Practice: A Reading Activity for an Exam-Driven Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keh, Claudia L.

    1988-01-01

    Smith's approach to reading comprehension is used as the basis of an activity related to the Use of English Exam in Hong Kong. The eight-step activity is described and shown to combine sound reading theory with an academic, test-oriented syllabus. (3 references) (LB)

  7. Activity Supplement for Puedo Leer: Teacher's Guide and Use of Charts. Program for Initial Reading in Spanish for Bilingual Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Sara

    This activity supplement is intended to accompany the Puedo Leer/I Can Read Teacher's Guide for initial reading in Spanish for bilingual children. The supplement, which consists of a teacher's guide and a set of charts on card stock, provides suggestions for a wide variety of pre-reading activities and approaches, which expand on the activities…

  8. Semantic and Phonological Activation in First and Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hui-Wen

    2012-01-01

    No consensus has been reached on whether phonological information is activated in reading Chinese. Further, semantic activation has not been well-studied in the context of orthographic depth. To contribute to these issues, this dissertation investigated semantic and phonological activation in reading Chinese and English. This dissertation also…

  9. CCSS-ELA: Suggestions and Cautions for Implementing the Reading Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Sheila W.; Wixson, Karen K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide guidance on the implementation of the Common Core State Standards for English language arts (CCSS-ELA). Toward this end, suggestions and cautions are provided that focus on understanding the vision, understanding the anchor and grade-level standards, and understanding the implications for instruction. In…

  10. Simulator Sickness: Reaction to a Transformed Perceptual World. 2. Sourcebook and Suggested Readings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-20

    fidelity is different depending on whether visual or inertial inputs are being discussed. The attempt is often made to depict reality as faithfully as...minimizing the problems of motion sickness in flight. Caution should be used, however, in suggesting the use nf biofeedback, hypnosis , or other methods for...projected Image visual display was used with conditions of the real world. If the simulator bal of the Ss and a virtual image display with theremainder

  11. The Use of Pre-Reading Activities in Reading Skills Achievement in Preschool Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, Aboagye Michael; Liang, Qing Jing; Natalia, Ihnatushchenko; Stephen, Mensah Abrampah

    2016-01-01

    Although wealth of empirical researches have covered the impact of crucial, indispensable role reading skills play in the development of individuals' mental faculties through the acquisition of knowledge in a particular language, scientific works on the assessment of the relationship(s) between pre-reading activities (consisting of games, puzzle…

  12. Constructing Complexity: Using Reading Levels to Differentiate Reading Comprehension Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FitzPatrick, Declan

    2008-01-01

    The author remembers a class when he asked his students to discuss in small groups how Edgar Allan Poe suggests a judgment of the main character in "The Cask of Amontillado". During their discussion it became clear to the author that the students couldn't come to consensus because they had no grasp of the narrator's explanations of his motivations…

  13. Automobile Maintenance. Reading and Language Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessman, William A.

    Designed primarily for special needs students in a vocational program in automobile maintenance, this book was written to refine the basic skills of following directions, reading comprehension, vocabulary building, spelling, word usage, and word recognition, while relating these skills to some of the tasks a beginning student in the program must…

  14. Think Texas! Suggested Activities to Help Celebrate Our Sesquicentennial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    A packet of teaching activities helps elementary and secondary teachers commemorate the sesquicentennial of Texas' independence. Activities include listening to stories about the mockingbird, bluebonnet, and pecan tree, drawing interpretations of these stories, and using a graphics tablet, light pen, or graphics software to illustrate a Texas folk…

  15. Neuroimaging of Reading Intervention: A Systematic Review and Activation Likelihood Estimate Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barquero, Laura A.; Davis, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie E.

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies examine instructional training and brain activity. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding neuroimaging of reading intervention, with a particular focus on reading difficulties (RD). To locate relevant studies, searches of peer-reviewed literature were conducted using electronic databases to search for studies from the imaging modalities of fMRI and MEG (including MSI) that explored reading intervention. Of the 96 identified studies, 22 met the inclusion criteria for descriptive analysis. A subset of these (8 fMRI experiments with post-intervention data) was subjected to activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis to investigate differences in functional activation following reading intervention. Findings from the literature review suggest differences in functional activation of numerous brain regions associated with reading intervention, including bilateral inferior frontal, superior temporal, middle temporal, middle frontal, superior frontal, and postcentral gyri, as well as bilateral occipital cortex, inferior parietal lobules, thalami, and insulae. Findings from the meta-analysis indicate change in functional activation following reading intervention in the left thalamus, right insula/inferior frontal, left inferior frontal, right posterior cingulate, and left middle occipital gyri. Though these findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of studies and the disparate methodologies used, this paper is an effort to synthesize across studies and to guide future exploration of neuroimaging and reading intervention. PMID:24427278

  16. Neuroimaging of reading intervention: a systematic review and activation likelihood estimate meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Barquero, Laura A; Davis, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie E

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies examine instructional training and brain activity. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding neuroimaging of reading intervention, with a particular focus on reading difficulties (RD). To locate relevant studies, searches of peer-reviewed literature were conducted using electronic databases to search for studies from the imaging modalities of fMRI and MEG (including MSI) that explored reading intervention. Of the 96 identified studies, 22 met the inclusion criteria for descriptive analysis. A subset of these (8 fMRI experiments with post-intervention data) was subjected to activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis to investigate differences in functional activation following reading intervention. Findings from the literature review suggest differences in functional activation of numerous brain regions associated with reading intervention, including bilateral inferior frontal, superior temporal, middle temporal, middle frontal, superior frontal, and postcentral gyri, as well as bilateral occipital cortex, inferior parietal lobules, thalami, and insulae. Findings from the meta-analysis indicate change in functional activation following reading intervention in the left thalamus, right insula/inferior frontal, left inferior frontal, right posterior cingulate, and left middle occipital gyri. Though these findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of studies and the disparate methodologies used, this paper is an effort to synthesize across studies and to guide future exploration of neuroimaging and reading intervention.

  17. Chemistry: Experiments, Demonstrations and Other Activities Suggested for Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This publication is a handbook used in conjunction with the course of study in chemistry developed through the New York State Education Department and The University of the State of New York. It contains experiments, demonstrations, and other activities for a chemistry course. Areas covered include the science of chemistry, the atomic structure of…

  18. Suggestions, Resources and Activities for Teaching about Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    This teacher resource packet contains a total of 28 modules for teaching about Japan at the elementary and secondary level. Activities on the Japanese family appropriate for grade 1 focus on similarities and differences, family size, family needs, and family roles. Grade 2 lessons look at the school, neighborhood, roles of children in the…

  19. Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulford, Jeremy, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    A collection of articles reflecting the underlying concern of British contributors with continuity--conceiving reading and learning as a whole throughout the school years--comprises this special issue of "English in Education." Specific topics treated are: "What Children Learn in Learning to Read" by R. Morris; "Reading without Primers" by W.…

  20. Influence of mono-axis random vibration on reading activity.

    PubMed

    Bhiwapurkar, M K; Saran, V H; Harsha, S P; Goel, V K; Berg, Mats

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies on train passengers' activities found that many passengers were engaged in some form of work, e.g., reading and writing, while traveling by train. A majority of the passengers reported that their activities were disturbed by vibrations or motions during traveling. A laboratory study was therefore set up to study how low-frequency random vibrations influence the difficulty to read. The study involved 18 healthy male subjects of 23 to 32 yr of age group. Random vibrations were applied in the frequency range (1-10 Hz) at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m/s(2) rms amplitude along three directions (longitudinal, lateral and vertical). The effect of vibration on reading activity was investigated by giving a word chain in two different font types (Times New Roman and Arial) and three different sizes (10, 12 and 14 points) of font for each type. Subjects performed reading tasks under two sitting positions (with backrest support and leaning over a table). The judgments of perceived difficulty to read were rated using 7-point discomfort judging scale. The result shows that reading difficulty increases with increasing vibration magnitudes and found to be maximum in longitudinal direction, but with leaning over a table position. In comparison with Times New Roman type and sizes of font, subjects perceived less difficulty with Arial type for all font sizes under all vibration magnitude.

  1. Children's Caravan: A Reading Activities Idea Book for Use with Children. A Fun with Reading Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Judith A.

    Intended for elementary school teachers and librarians, this book was designed to help in the development of reading programs for young children. Five sections are included: (1) planning ahead, which includes getting organized, making decorations, collecting "junque" (craft materials and other items needed for craft activities); (2) conducting…

  2. Teaching students to read the primary literature using POGIL activities.

    PubMed

    Murray, Tracey Arnold

    2014-01-01

    The ability to read, interpret, and evaluate articles in the primary literature are important skills that science majors will use in graduate school and professional life. Because of this, it is important that students are not only exposed to the primary literature in undergraduate education, but also taught how to read and interpret these articles. To achieve this objective, POGIL activities were designed to use the primary literature in a majors biochemistry sequence. Data show that students were able to learn content from the literature without separate activities or lecture. Students also reported an increase in comfort and confidence in approaching the literature as a result of the activities.

  3. RIF Book of Ideas: Activities to Motivate Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Reading is Fun-damental Program.

    Readily adaptable to classrooms, youth service organizations, and other groups that serve young people, the motivation activities in this book were set up for Reading is Fundamental projects and field tested by the organization's volunteers. Following an introduction to the characteristics of a good motivational activity and some guidelines for…

  4. The BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Reading Ability and Patterns of Neural Activation in Children.

    PubMed

    Jasińska, Kaja K; Molfese, Peter J; Kornilov, Sergey A; Mencl, W Einar; Frost, Stephen J; Lee, Maria; Pugh, Kenneth R; Grigorenko, Elena L; Landi, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how genes impact the brain's functional activation for learning and cognition during development remains limited. We asked whether a common genetic variant in the BDNF gene (the Val66Met polymorphism) modulates neural activation in the young brain during a critical period for the emergence and maturation of the neural circuitry for reading. In animal models, the bdnf variation has been shown to be associated with the structure and function of the developing brain and in humans it has been associated with multiple aspects of cognition, particularly memory, which are relevant for the development of skilled reading. Yet, little is known about the impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on functional brain activation in development, either in animal models or in humans. Here, we examined whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (dbSNP rs6265) is associated with children's (age 6-10) neural activation patterns during a reading task (n = 81) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), genotyping, and standardized behavioral assessments of cognitive and reading development. Children homozygous for the Val allele at the SNP rs6265 of the BDNF gene outperformed Met allele carriers on reading comprehension and phonological memory, tasks that have a strong memory component. Consistent with these behavioral findings, Met allele carriers showed greater activation in reading-related brain regions including the fusiform gyrus, the left inferior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus as well as greater activation in the hippocampus during a word and pseudoword reading task. Increased engagement of memory and spoken language regions for Met allele carriers relative to Val/Val homozygotes during reading suggests that Met carriers have to exert greater effort required to retrieve phonological codes.

  5. Quasars and Active Galaxies: A Reading List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1988-01-01

    Contains the annotated bibliographies of introductory books and sections of books, recent introductory articles, more advanced articles, and more advanced books dealing with quasars and active galaxies. (CW)

  6. Quantity, Quality, and Variety of Pupil Responses during an Open-Communication Structured Group Directed Reading-Thinking Activity and a Closed Communication Structured Group Directed Reading Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petre, Richard M.

    The quality, quantity, and variety of pupil responses while using two different group directed reading activities, the Directed Reading Activity (DRA), and the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DRTA) were investigated in this study. The subjects, all fourth graders in two nearby communities, were grouped into above-grade-level, at-grade-level,…

  7. The Use of Multiple Slate Devices to Support Active Reading Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Nicholas Yen-Cherng

    2012-01-01

    Reading activities in the classroom and workplace occur predominantly on paper. Since existing electronic devices do not support these reading activities as well as paper, users have difficulty taking full advantage of the affordances of electronic documents. This dissertation makes three main contributions toward supporting active reading…

  8. Relationships between Reading Activities and Language Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Van Dongen, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Noting that the ways children encounter and use print in the classroom can be examined as surface and organizing content of curriculum, this article provides descriptions of innovative uses of print in the kindergarten and elementary school classroom. Curriculum "surface content" includes activities, use of classroom space, display, and…

  9. Teaching Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Mary

    1980-01-01

    Described are five approaches to teaching reading: Language Experience, Modified Alphabet, Linguistic, Programmed, and Basal. It is suggested that a good teacher, well trained, certified in his or her profession, an active participant in professional organizations, can teach reading successfully using almost any approach. (KC)

  10. A Judicious Lesson: A Whole-Learning Reading Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Describes a unique language learning activity using the whole language approach in a tertiary level lower advanced reading and speaking course. Following a semester long theme on crime and punishment, students were introduced to an authentic, idiomatic text dealing with a famous murder case in U.S. history. (Author/VWL)

  11. Using Document Reading Activity Packets (DRAP) in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adomanis, James F.; Schulz, Constance

    1987-01-01

    Reviews a Document Reading Activity Packet (DRAP) revolving around the "Fort Washington Incident" of the War of 1812 and the resulting court martial of Captain Samuel T. Dyson. Explains this exercise is designed to stimulate students' interest in their own state histories as well as stimulate their curiosity for further research. (BSR)

  12. Learning Activities: The America's Cup Challenge. Meter Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronk, Rob; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes two learning activities: (1) high school students design and construct a wind powered monohull vessel to travel a predetermined distance in the least amount of time; and (2) sixth graders learn about energy by doing gas and electric meter reading. (Author/JOW)

  13. Predicting reading and mathematics from neural activity for feedback learning.

    PubMed

    Peters, Sabine; Van der Meulen, Mara; Zanolie, Kiki; Crone, Eveline A

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies use feedback learning paradigms to study the process of learning in laboratory settings, little is known about their relevance for real-world learning settings such as school. In a large developmental sample (N = 228, 8-25 years), we investigated whether performance and neural activity during a feedback learning task predicted reading and mathematics performance 2 years later. The results indicated that feedback learning performance predicted both reading and mathematics performance. Activity during feedback learning in left superior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) predicted reading performance, whereas activity in presupplementary motor area/anterior cingulate cortex (pre-SMA/ACC) predicted mathematical performance. Moreover, left superior DLPFC and pre-SMA/ACC activity predicted unique variance in reading and mathematics ability over behavioral testing of feedback learning performance alone. These results provide valuable insights into the relationship between laboratory-based learning tasks and learning in school settings, and the value of neural assessments for prediction of school performance over behavioral testing alone. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Independence and Elaboration Day: Activities to Enhance Student Reading in Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulecky, Larry; Smith, Frederick

    1981-01-01

    Describes an activity approach (Independence and Elaboration Day, I & E Day) which is intended to help high school social studies students become independent readers and learners by reading social studies material other than textbooks. Suggested materials include newspapers, minutes of political and legislative meetings, and magazines. (DB)

  15. Brain Activity with Reading Sentences and Emoticons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe a person's brain activity when he/she sees an emoticon at the end of a sentence. An emoticon consists of some characters that resemble the human face and expresses a sender's emotion. With the help of a computer network, we use e-mail, messenger, avatars and so on, in order to convey what we wish to, to a receiver. Moreover, we send an emotional expression by using an emoticon at the end of a sentence. In this research, we investigate the effect of an emoticon as nonverbal information, using an fMRI study. The experimental results show that the right and left inferior frontal gyrus were activated and we detect a sentence with an emoticon as the verbal and nonverval information.

  16. The BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Reading Ability and Patterns of Neural Activation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Jasińska, Kaja K.; Molfese, Peter J.; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Mencl, W. Einar; Frost, Stephen J.; Lee, Maria; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Landi, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how genes impact the brain’s functional activation for learning and cognition during development remains limited. We asked whether a common genetic variant in the BDNF gene (the Val66Met polymorphism) modulates neural activation in the young brain during a critical period for the emergence and maturation of the neural circuitry for reading. In animal models, the bdnf variation has been shown to be associated with the structure and function of the developing brain and in humans it has been associated with multiple aspects of cognition, particularly memory, which are relevant for the development of skilled reading. Yet, little is known about the impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on functional brain activation in development, either in animal models or in humans. Here, we examined whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (dbSNP rs6265) is associated with children’s (age 6–10) neural activation patterns during a reading task (n = 81) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), genotyping, and standardized behavioral assessments of cognitive and reading development. Children homozygous for the Val allele at the SNP rs6265 of the BDNF gene outperformed Met allele carriers on reading comprehension and phonological memory, tasks that have a strong memory component. Consistent with these behavioral findings, Met allele carriers showed greater activation in reading–related brain regions including the fusiform gyrus, the left inferior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus as well as greater activation in the hippocampus during a word and pseudoword reading task. Increased engagement of memory and spoken language regions for Met allele carriers relative to Val/Val homozygotes during reading suggests that Met carriers have to exert greater effort required to retrieve phonological codes. PMID:27551971

  17. Promoting Active Participation in Book Reading for Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleury, Veronica P.; Miramontez, Shane Herriott; Hudson, Roxanne F.; Schwartz, Ilene S.

    2014-01-01

    A common literacy practice in early childhood classrooms is reading aloud to children. Little is known, however, about the quality of engagement in shared reading activities for young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Dialogic reading is one method of shared reading in which adults encourage children to actively participate in the…

  18. The Effect of a Suggested Multisensory Phonics Program on Developing Kindergarten Pre-Service Teachers' EFL Reading Accuracy and Phonemic Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghoneim, Nahed Mohammed Mahmoud; Elghotmy, Heba Elsayed Abdelsalam

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the effect of a suggested multisensory phonics program on developing kindergarten pre-service teachers' EFL reading accuracy and phonemic awareness. A total of 40 fourth year kindergarten pre-service teachers, Faculty of Education, participated in the study that involved one group experimental design. Pre-post tests…

  19. Writing-Reading Relationships: Effectiveness of Writing Activities as Pre-Reading Tasks to Enhance L2 Inferential Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickramaarachchi, Thilina Indrajie

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the interaction between reading and writing processes in general and more specifically the impact of pre-reading tasks incorporating writing tasks (referred to as "prw tasks") in helping the development of inferential reading comprehension. A sample of 70 first year ESL students of the University of Kelaniya were…

  20. Automatic activation of phonology in silent reading is parallel: evidence from beginning and skilled readers.

    PubMed

    Alario, F-Xavier; De Cara, Bruno; Ziegler, Johannes C

    2007-07-01

    The picture-word interference paradigm was used to shed new light on the debate concerning slow serial versus fast parallel activation of phonology in silent reading. Prereaders, beginning readers (Grades 1-4), and adults named pictures that had words printed on them. Words and pictures shared phonology either at the beginnings of words (e.g., DOLL-DOG) or at the ends of words (e.g., FOG-DOG). The results showed that phonological overlap between primes and targets facilitated picture naming. This facilitatory effect was present even in beginning readers. More important, from Grade 1 onward, end-related facilitation always was as strong as beginning-related facilitation. This result suggests that, from the beginning of reading, the implicit and automatic activation of phonological codes during silent reading is not serial but rather parallel.

  1. Areas activated during naturalistic reading comprehension overlap topological visual, auditory, and somatotomotor maps

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cortical mapping techniques using fMRI have been instrumental in identifying the boundaries of topological (neighbor‐preserving) maps in early sensory areas. The presence of topological maps beyond early sensory areas raises the possibility that they might play a significant role in other cognitive systems, and that topological mapping might help to delineate areas involved in higher cognitive processes. In this study, we combine surface‐based visual, auditory, and somatomotor mapping methods with a naturalistic reading comprehension task in the same group of subjects to provide a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the cortical overlap between sensory‐motor maps in all major sensory modalities, and reading processing regions. Our results suggest that cortical activation during naturalistic reading comprehension overlaps more extensively with topological sensory‐motor maps than has been heretofore appreciated. Reading activation in regions adjacent to occipital lobe and inferior parietal lobe almost completely overlaps visual maps, whereas a significant portion of frontal activation for reading in dorsolateral and ventral prefrontal cortex overlaps both visual and auditory maps. Even classical language regions in superior temporal cortex are partially overlapped by topological visual and auditory maps. By contrast, the main overlap with somatomotor maps is restricted to a small region on the anterior bank of the central sulcus near the border between the face and hand representations of M‐I. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2784–2810, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27061771

  2. Areas activated during naturalistic reading comprehension overlap topological visual, auditory, and somatotomotor maps.

    PubMed

    Sood, Mariam R; Sereno, Martin I

    2016-08-01

    Cortical mapping techniques using fMRI have been instrumental in identifying the boundaries of topological (neighbor-preserving) maps in early sensory areas. The presence of topological maps beyond early sensory areas raises the possibility that they might play a significant role in other cognitive systems, and that topological mapping might help to delineate areas involved in higher cognitive processes. In this study, we combine surface-based visual, auditory, and somatomotor mapping methods with a naturalistic reading comprehension task in the same group of subjects to provide a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the cortical overlap between sensory-motor maps in all major sensory modalities, and reading processing regions. Our results suggest that cortical activation during naturalistic reading comprehension overlaps more extensively with topological sensory-motor maps than has been heretofore appreciated. Reading activation in regions adjacent to occipital lobe and inferior parietal lobe almost completely overlaps visual maps, whereas a significant portion of frontal activation for reading in dorsolateral and ventral prefrontal cortex overlaps both visual and auditory maps. Even classical language regions in superior temporal cortex are partially overlapped by topological visual and auditory maps. By contrast, the main overlap with somatomotor maps is restricted to a small region on the anterior bank of the central sulcus near the border between the face and hand representations of M-I. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2784-2810, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Read Alouds and Beyond: The Effects of Read Aloud Extension Activities on Vocabulary in Head Start Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Rebecca; Crandell, Jennifer DiBara; Carlis, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted in 26 Head Start classrooms with 264 children to compare the effect of a read aloud plus extension activities intervention over a control group to the effect of a read aloud only intervention over a control group on preschool children's vocabulary. Children were assessed before and after the intervention on target vocabulary…

  4. The Value of Picture-Book Reading-Based Collaborative Output Activities for Vocabulary Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Chia-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three instructional modes: picture-book reading-only (PRO), picture-book reading plus vocabulary instruction (PRVI), and picture-book reading plus reading-based collaborative output activity (PRCOA) on young adult EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' vocabulary acquisition and retention. Eighty…

  5. The Effect of a Timed Reading Activity on EFL Learners: Speed, Comprehension, and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Anna C-S

    2010-01-01

    To develop reading fluency, a 13-week timed reading activity was integrated into a normal curriculum with the aim of improving students' reading rates. Participants were 84 college students divided into an experimental and a control group. The test instruments involved pretests and posttests on reading speed and comprehension. Students'…

  6. Shared vs. specific brain activation changes in dyslexia after training of phonology, attention, or reading.

    PubMed

    Heim, Stefan; Pape-Neumann, Julia; van Ermingen-Marbach, Muna; Brinkhaus, Moti; Grande, Marion

    2015-07-01

    Whereas the neurobiological basis of developmental dyslexia has received substantial attention, only little is known about the processes in the brain during remediation. This holds in particular in light of recent findings on cognitive subtypes of dyslexia which suggest interactions between individual profiles, training methods, and also the task in the scanner. Therefore, we trained three groups of German dyslexic primary school children in the domains of phonology, attention, or visual word recognition. We compared neurofunctional changes after 4 weeks of training in these groups to those in untrained normal readers in a reading task and in a task of visual attention. The overall reading improvement in the dyslexic children was comparable over groups. It was accompanied by substantial increase of the activation level in the visual word form area (VWFA) during a reading task inside the scanner. Moreover, there were activation increases that were unique for each training group in the reading task. In contrast, when children performed the visual attention task, shared training effects were found in the left inferior frontal sulcus and gyrus, which varied in amplitude between the groups. Overall, the data reveal that different remediation programmes matched to individual profiles of dyslexia may improve reading ability and commonly affect the VWFA in dyslexia as a shared part of otherwise distinct networks.

  7. Ready--Set--Read (For Families): Early Childhood Language Activities for Children from Birth through Age Five. America Reads Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corporation for National Service.

    This Ready--Set--Read Kit includes an activity guide for families, a 1997-98 early childhood activity calendar, and an early childhood growth wallchart. The activity guide part of the kit presents activities and ideas that families (adults who have nurturing relationships with a child--a mother, father, grandparent, other relative, or close…

  8. Note Launchers: Promoting Active Reading of Mathematics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Josh W.; Helms, Kimberly Turner

    2010-01-01

    Note launchers, an instructor-designed reading guide, model how to select, decide, and focus upon what textbook material is important to learn. Reading guides are specially-designed study aids that can steer students through difficult parts of assigned readings (Bean, 1996) while encouraging advance preparation. As an example of a reading guide,…

  9. The Role of Parents in Adolescents' Reading Motivation and Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauda, Susan Lutz

    2009-01-01

    Parent support for reading is one of the many elements that may play a role in the development and sustainment of children's reading motivation; to date, however, research has focused much more on the role that parents play in their preschool and primary-grade children's reading than in their older children's reading. Thus, this paper examines the…

  10. Can Reading Questions Foster Active Learning? A Study of Six College Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koontz, T. M.; Plank, K. M.

    2011-01-01

    Many instructors strive to encourage student reading outside of class and active learning in class. One pedagogical tool, structured reading questions, can help do both. Using examples from question sets across six courses, the authors illustrate how reading questions can help students achieve the six active-learning principles described by…

  11. Relationship between Computer-Based Reading Activities and Reading Achievements among Hong Kong and U.S. Students: A Comparative Study Using PIRLS 2011 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Dan; Wang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Reading for personal interest and acquiring and using information using various reading processes are important parts of reading literacy that students need to develop in order to progress successfully through their schooling and fully function in the information society. Computer assisted reading instructional activities are assumed useful in…

  12. Home for the Holidays... Reading Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of the Secretary.

    Noting that reading well is at the heart of all learning, this guide suggests reading activities that will prevent a decline in children's reading skills over winter vacation, and the guide encourages parents to spend time with their children through these activities. The guide provides links to the following suggested reading lists: the American…

  13. Suggested Activities to Use With Children Who Present Symptoms of Visual Perception Problems, Elementary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington County Public Schools, Washington, PA.

    Symptoms displayed by primary age children with learning disabilities are listed; perceptual handicaps are explained. Activities are suggested for developing visual perception and perception involving motor activities. Also suggested are activities to develop body concept, visual discrimination and attentiveness, visual memory, and figure ground…

  14. Does early reading failure decrease children's reading motivation?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Paul L; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L; Cordray, David S; Fuchs, Lynn S

    2008-01-01

    The authors used a pretest-posttest control group design with random assignment to evaluate whether early reading failure decreases children's motivation to practice reading. First, they investigated whether 60 first-grade children would report substantially different levels of interest in reading as a function of their relative success or failure in learning to read. Second, they evaluated whether increasing the word reading ability of 15 at-risk children would lead to gains in their motivation to read. Multivariate analyses of variance suggest marked differences in both motivation and reading practice between skilled and unskilled readers. However, bolstering at-risk children's word reading ability did not yield evidence of a causal relationship between early reading failure and decreased motivation to engage in reading activities. Instead, hierarchical regression analyses indicate a covarying relationship among early reading failure, poor motivation, and avoidance of reading.

  15. Principles and Implementation of Reading Activities in Primary School English Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinxiu, Jing; Zhengping, Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Reading is an important skill in learning English. However, reading class is not emphasized in some primary schools in China, and there are various problems with the reading activities, which inadequately just focus on teaching of words, sentences separately from texts. This paper aims to bring out a whole system of principles in designing…

  16. Caribbean Women Writers: Suggested Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders-Hamilton, Tanya

    This document is a bibliography of books written by Caribbean women writers. Authors and their works are organized by the country of their origin; these include: Antigua, Barbados/USA, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Matinique, Puerto Rico, Trinidad/Tobago, and Trinidad/USA. Books of interest to children and young…

  17. A Study of the Effects of Self-Directed Activity Upon Quantity, Quality, and Variety of Responses in a Group Directed Reading-Thinking Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William Warner

    Many behavioral theorists have suggested that self-directed activity is central to the learning process (e.g., Dewey, Piaget, Wertheimer). Accordingly, it was predicted that such activity bears a significant positive relationship to the quantity, quality, and variety of responses in a reading lesson. Moreover, it was expected that selected…

  18. Acquisition of Mathematical Language: Suggestions and Activities for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirillo, Michelle; Bruna, Katherine Richardson; Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we describe aspects of mathematical language that could be problematic to English-language learners, provide recommendations for teaching English-language learners, and suggest activities intended to foster language development in mathematics. (Contains 1 figure.)

  19. Reading Faster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing…

  20. Ready, Set, Read! Hundreds of Exciting, Skill-Appropriate Ready-To-Use Reading Readiness Activities. Pre-K-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Jean R.

    Designed to be useful for teachers, students, and parents, this resource book contains skill-appropriate, easy-to-follow activities for emergent readers. Noting that helping children become successful readers by developing reading readiness skills and a love for literature requires careful planning and instruction, the book states that children…

  1. Elevating Baseline Activation Does Not Facilitate Reading of Unattended Words

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Kouchi, Scott; Ruthruff, Eric; Lachter, Joel B.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have disagreed the extent to which people extract meaning from words presented outside the focus of spatial attention. The present study, examined a possible explanation for such discrepancies, inspired by attenuation theory: unattended words can be read more automatically when they have a high baseline level of activation (e.g., due to frequent repetition or due to being expected in a given context). We presented a brief prime word in lowercase, followed by a target word in uppercase. Participants indicated whether the target word belonged to a particular category (e.g., "sport"). When we drew attention to the prime word using a visual cue, the prime produced substantial priming effects on target responses (i.e., faster responses when the prime and target words were identical or from the same category than when they belonged to different categories). When prime words were not attended, however, they produced no priming effects. This finding replicated even when there were only 4 words, each repeated 160 times during the experiment. Even with a very high baseline level of activation, it appears that very little word processing is possible without spatial attention.

  2. Teaching Students to Read the Primary Literature Using POGIL Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Tracey Arnold

    2014-01-01

    The ability to read, interpret, and evaluate articles in the primary literature are important skills that science majors will use in graduate school and professional life. Because of this, it is important that students are not only exposed to the primary literature in undergraduate education, but also taught how to read and interpret these…

  3. Rethinking Middle School Reading Instruction: A Basic Literacy Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, William E.; Wood, Karen D.; Taylor, D. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Research on subject matter instruction across the 20th century (e.g., Stevens, 1912; Bellack, 1966; Hoetker & Ahlbrand; 1969; Gall, 1970; Langer, 1999; Mehan, 1979; Nystrand, 1997;) reveals a preponderance of teacher-directed lecture, recitation, and round-robin reading of text in place of instruction that focuses on reading-to-learn, thinking,…

  4. The role of reading activity on the modulation of motor cortical outputs to the reading hand in Braille readers.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Leone, A; Wassermann, E M; Sadato, N; Hallett, M

    1995-12-01

    We studied the cortical motor output maps of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) of both hands and the abductor digiti minimi of the reading hand in 6 blind proficient Braille readers. The maps were generated using transcranial magnetic stimulation. We compared the maps obtained on a day in which they worked as Braille proofreaders (reading Braille for approximately 6 hours) with the maps obtained on a day they took off from work. On the work day, the maps for the FDI of the reading hand were significantly larger after the working shift than in the morning after having been off work for 2 days. These changes were not seen for the same muscle on the day off work or on any of the 2 days in the other two muscles studied. These results illustrate the rapid modulation in motor cortical outputs in relation to preceding activity and emphasize the importance of precise timing in studies of the neurophysiological correlates of skill acquisition.

  5. Learning from texts: activation of information from previous texts during reading.

    PubMed

    Beker, Katinka; Jolles, Dietsje; Lorch, Robert F; van den Broek, Paul

    Learning often involves integration of information from multiple texts. The aim of the current study was to determine whether relevant information from previously read texts is spontaneously activated during reading, allowing for integration between texts (experiment 1 and 2), and whether this process is related to the representation of the texts (experiment 2). In both experiments, texts with inconsistent target sentences were preceded by texts that either did or did not contain explanations that resolved the inconsistencies. In experiment 1, the reading times of the target sentences introducing inconsistencies were faster if the preceding text contained an explanation for the inconsistency than if it did not. This result demonstrates that relevant information from a prior text is spontaneously activated when the target sentence is read. In experiment 2 free recall was used to gain insight into the representation after reading. The reading time results for experiment 2 replicated the reading time results for experiment 1. However, the effects on reading times did not translate to measurable differences in text representations after reading. This research extends our knowledge about the processes involved in multiple text comprehension: Prior text information is spontaneously activated during reading, thereby enabling integration between different texts.

  6. Going Blended with a Triple-Entry Activity: Students' Online Discussions of Assigned Readings Using "Marginalia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanevsky, Lannie; Xin, Cindy; Ram, Ilana

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe and investigate small group discussions of assigned readings in an online version of a "triple-entry activity" in a blended course used an annotation tool, "Marginalia". We wondered if students would interact in this structured, critical, reflective reading activity as effectively online as they had…

  7. The Effect of Project-Based Activities on Intermediate EFL Students' Reading Comprehension Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiraz, Mona Poorverdi; Larsari, Ebrahim Ezati

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between the use of Project-based activities and intermediate EFL students' reading comprehension. The study addresses the questions of whether students' reading comprehension differs after implementing Project-based activities, and whether different projects lead to different degrees of reading…

  8. The Contribution of Early Home Literacy Activities to First Grade Reading and Writing Achievements in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aram, Dorit; Korat, Ofra; Hassunah-Arafat, Safieh

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed the literacy development of native Arabic-speaking children from kindergarten to the end of first grade, focusing on the role of home literacy activities (mother-child shared book reading and joint writing). The contribution of these activities in kindergarten to children's reading and writing at the end of…

  9. Comparing Effects of Different Writing Activities on Reading Comprehension: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Michael; Simpson, Amy; Graham, Steve

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this review were to determine: (1) if different writing activities were more effective than others in improving students' reading comprehension, and (2) if obtained differences among writing activities was related to how reading comprehension was measured? Meta-analysis was used to examine these questions across studies involving…

  10. Induction of rotational behaviour by intranigral baclofen suggests possible GABA-agonist activity.

    PubMed

    Waddington, J L

    1977-10-15

    In rats, unilateral injections of the GABA-derivative baclofen into the zona reticulata of the substantia nigra produced a contralateral rotation that was translated to ipsilateral rotation under the influence of amphetamine. These results mimic those following unilateral elevation of GABA levels in the substantia nigra and suggest that baclofen may have some GABA agonist activity following intracerebral injection.

  11. Tractography Activation Patterns in Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Suggest Better Clinical Responses in OCD DBS

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Christian J.; Lujan, J. Luis; Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Goodman, Wayne K.; Okun, Michael S.; McIntyre, Cameron C.; Haq, Ihtsham U.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Medication resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients can be successfully treated with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) which targets the anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) and the nucleus accumbens (NA). Growing evidence suggests that in patients who respond to DBS, axonal fiber bundles surrounding the electrode are activated, but it is currently unknown which discrete pathways are critical for optimal benefit. Our aim was to identify axonal pathways mediating clinical effects of ALIC-NA DBS. Methods: We created computational models of ALIC-NA DBS to simulate the activation of fiber tracts and to identify connected cerebral regions. The pattern of activated axons and their cortical targets was investigated in six OCD patients who underwent ALIC-NA DBS. Results: Modulation of the right anterior middle frontal gyrus (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) was associated with an excellent response. In contrast, non-responders showed high activation in the orbital part of the right inferior frontal gyrus (lateral orbitofrontal cortex/anterior ventrolateral prefrontal cortex). Factor analysis followed by step-wise linear regression indicated that YBOCS improvement was inversely associated with factors that were predominantly determined by gray matter activation results. Discussion: Our findings support the hypothesis that optimal therapeutic results are associated with the activation of distinct fiber pathways. This suggests that in DBS for OCD, focused stimulation of specific fiber pathways, which would allow for stimulation with lower amplitudes, may be superior to activation of a wide array of pathways, typically associated with higher stimulation amplitudes. PMID:26834544

  12. Activating Student Background Knowledge in a Take Charge Approach to Foreign Language Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Dolly J.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses the immediate needs of language teachers who want to develop their students' reading skills but have not been provided with the instructional information necessary to do so. It suggests a methodological sequence for using the students' background knowledge and strategy training for foreign language reading using authentic texts. (33…

  13. Does reading keep you thin? Leisure activities, cultural tastes, and body weight in comparative perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.

    2011-01-01

    While sedentary leisure-time activities such as reading, going to movies, attending cultural events, attending sporting events, watching TV, listening to music, and socializing with friends would seem to contribute to excess weight, a perspective focusing on SES differences in cultural tastes suggests the opposite, that some sedentary activities are associated with lower rather than higher body weight. This study aims to test theories of cultural distinction by examining relationships between leisure-time activities and body weight. Using 2007 data on 17 nations from the International Social Survey Program, the analysis estimates relationships between the body mass index and varied leisure-time activities while controlling for SES, physical activities, and sociodemographic variables. Net of controls for SES and physical activities, participation time in cultural activities is associated with lower rather than higher body weight, particularly in high-income nations. The results suggest that both cultural activities and body weight reflect forms of distinction that separate SES-based lifestyles. PMID:21707664

  14. Auditory short-term memory activation during score reading.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Veerle L; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback.

  15. Auditory Short-Term Memory Activation during Score Reading

    PubMed Central

    Simoens, Veerle L.; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback. PMID:23326487

  16. A trade-off between somatosensory and auditory related brain activity during object naming but not reading.

    PubMed

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Hope, Thomas M H; Prejawa, Susan; Parker Jones, 'Ōiwi; Vitkovitch, Melanie; Price, Cathy J

    2015-03-18

    The parietal operculum, particularly the cytoarchitectonic area OP1 of the secondary somatosensory area (SII), is involved in somatosensory feedback. Using fMRI with 58 human subjects, we investigated task-dependent differences in SII/OP1 activity during three familiar speech production tasks: object naming, reading and repeatedly saying "1-2-3." Bilateral SII/OP1 was significantly suppressed (relative to rest) during object naming, to a lesser extent when repeatedly saying "1-2-3" and not at all during reading. These results cannot be explained by task difficulty but the contrasting difference between naming and reading illustrates how the demands on somatosensory activity change with task, even when motor output (i.e., production of object names) is matched. To investigate what determined SII/OP1 deactivation during object naming, we searched the whole brain for areas where activity increased as that in SII/OP1 decreased. This across subject covariance analysis revealed a region in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) that lies within the auditory cortex, and is activated by auditory feedback during speech production. The tradeoff between activity in SII/OP1 and STS was not observed during reading, which showed significantly more activation than naming in both SII/OP1 and STS bilaterally. These findings suggest that, although object naming is more error prone than reading, subjects can afford to rely more or less on somatosensory or auditory feedback during naming. In contrast, fast and efficient error-free reading places more consistent demands on both types of feedback, perhaps because of the potential for increased competition between lexical and sublexical codes at the articulatory level.

  17. Coaching Reading Buddies for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theurer, Joan Leikam; Schmidt, Kathy Burson

    2008-01-01

    Reading buddies have been used by teachers for many years. The practice and benefits of having older students reading with younger students on a regular basis has been well documented. This article provides suggestions for teachers as they begin a reading buddy program and includes ideas for meaningful follow-up activities that will help keep…

  18. Executive Control Modulates Cross-Language Lexical Activation during L2 Reading: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pivneva, Irina; Mercier, Julie; Titone, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Models of bilingual reading such as Bilingual Interactive Activation Plus (Dijkstra & van Heuven, 2002) do not predict a central role for domain-general executive control during bilingual reading, in contrast with bilingual models from other domains, such as production (e.g., the Inhibitory Control Model; Green, 1998). We thus investigated…

  19. Learning from Texts: Activation of Information from Previous Texts during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beker, Katinka; Jolles, Dietsje; Lorch, Robert F., Jr.; van den Broek, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Learning often involves integration of information from multiple texts. The aim of the current study was to determine whether relevant information from previously read texts is spontaneously activated during reading, allowing for integration between texts (experiment 1 and 2), and whether this process is related to the representation of the texts…

  20. The Main Sources of Intersubject Variability in Neuronal Activation for Reading Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kherif, Ferath; Josse, Goulven; Seghier, Mohamed L.; Price, Cathy J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find the most prominent source of intersubject variability in neuronal activation for reading familiar words aloud. To this end, we collected functional imaging data from a large sample of subjects (n = 76) with different demographic characteristics such as handedness, sex, and age, while reading. The…

  1. Preschool Children's Use of Thematic Vocabulary during Dialogic Reading and Activity-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Naomi L.; Coogle, Christan Grygas; Storie, Sloan

    2016-01-01

    An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare the expressive use of thematic vocabulary by three preschool children with developmental delays during Dialogic Reading, a shared book reading intervention, and Activity-Based Intervention, a naturalistic play-based teaching method. The design was replicated across two early childhood…

  2. Building Reading Comprehension Habits in Grades 6?12: A Toolkit of Classroom Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwiers, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Help struggling readers understand content area texts with research-based, innovative classroom tools that foster lifelong reading comprehension habits. This book presents easy-to-use activities organized around six habits of reading comprehension: (1) Organizing text information by sculpting the main idea and summarizing; (2) Connecting to…

  3. Oral Reading in Social Studies: Use and Misuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Cecilia H.

    1980-01-01

    Criticizes use of round-robin oral reading and suggests ways in which oral reading can be effective. Some uses of oral reading in the social studies classroom are during class discussion and after silent reading for comprehension, with captioned filmstrips, for vocabulary development activities, and for expressive, audience-oriented reading. (KC)

  4. Examining the delivery modes of metacognitive awareness and active reading lessons in a college nonmajors introductory biology course.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kendra M; Brözel, Volker S; Heiberger, Greg A

    2014-05-01

    Current research supports the role of metacognitive strategies to enhance reading comprehension. This study measured the effectiveness of online versus face-to-face metacognitive and active reading skills lessons introduced by Biology faculty to college students in a nonmajors introductory biology course. These lessons were delivered in two lectures either online (Group 1: N = 154) or face to face (Group 2: N = 152). Previously validated pre- and post- surveys were used to collect and compare data by paired and independent t-test analysis (α = 0.05). Pre- and post- survey data showed a statistically significant improvement in both groups in metacognitive awareness (p = 0.001, p = 0.003, respectively) and reading comprehension (p < 0.001 for both groups). When comparing the delivery mode of these lessons, no difference was detected between the online and face-to-face instruction for metacognitive awareness (pre- p = 0.619, post- p = 0.885). For reading comprehension, no difference in gains was demonstrated between online and face-to-face (p = 0.381); however, differences in pre- and post- test scores were measured (pre- p = 0.005, post- p = 0.038). This study suggests that biology instructors can easily introduce effective metacognitive awareness and active reading lessons into their course, either through online or face-to-face instruction.

  5. Examining the Delivery Modes of Metacognitive Awareness and Active Reading Lessons in a College Nonmajors Introductory Biology Course†

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kendra M.; Brözel, Volker S.; Heiberger, Greg A.

    2014-01-01

    Current research supports the role of metacognitive strategies to enhance reading comprehension. This study measured the effectiveness of online versus face-to-face metacognitive and active reading skills lessons introduced by Biology faculty to college students in a nonmajors introductory biology course. These lessons were delivered in two lectures either online (Group 1: N = 154) or face to face (Group 2: N = 152). Previously validated pre- and post- surveys were used to collect and compare data by paired and independent t-test analysis (α = 0.05). Pre- and post- survey data showed a statistically significant improvement in both groups in metacognitive awareness (p = 0.001, p = 0.003, respectively) and reading comprehension (p < 0.001 for both groups). When comparing the delivery mode of these lessons, no difference was detected between the online and face-to-face instruction for metacognitive awareness (pre- p = 0.619, post- p = 0.885). For reading comprehension, no difference in gains was demonstrated between online and face-to-face (p = 0.381); however, differences in pre- and post- test scores were measured (pre- p = 0.005, post- p = 0.038). This study suggests that biology instructors can easily introduce effective metacognitive awareness and active reading lessons into their course, either through online or face-to-face instruction. PMID:24839509

  6. The Reading Habits of Church Active Mormon Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleton, Marianne; Cranney, A. Garr

    Data from 149 female members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS) were used to construct a composite of the reading habits and their relation to other characterisitics of this group. The typical respondent was a married woman between 26 and 40 years old who had attended college but remained at home to care for children under…

  7. Parafoveal Lexical Activation Depends on Skilled Reading Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally

    2015-01-01

    The boundary paradigm was used to investigate individual differences in the extraction of lexical information from the parafovea in sentence reading. The preview of a target word was manipulated so that it was identical (e.g., "sped"), a higher frequency orthographic neighbor ("seed"), a nonword neighbor ("sted"), or…

  8. Metabolic brain activity suggestive of persistent pain in a rat model of neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Scott J; Millecamps, Magali; Aliaga, Antonio; Seminowicz, David A; Low, Lucie A; Bedell, Barry J; Stone, Laura S; Schweinhardt, Petra; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Persistent pain is a central characteristic of neuropathic pain conditions in humans. Knowing whether rodent models of neuropathic pain produce persistent pain is therefore crucial to their translational applicability. We investigated the Spared Nerve Injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain and the formalin pain model in rats using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with the metabolic tracer [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to determine if there is ongoing brain activity suggestive of persistent pain. For the formalin model, under brief anesthesia we injected one hindpaw with 5% formalin and the FDG tracer into a tail vein. We then allowed the animals to awaken and observed pain behavior for 30 min during the FDG uptake period. The rat was then anesthetized and placed in the scanner for static image acquisition, which took place between minutes 45 and 75 post-tracer injection. A single reference rat brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) was used to align the PET images with the Paxinos and Watson rat brain atlas. Increased glucose metabolism was observed in the somatosensory region associated with the injection site (S1 hindlimb contralateral), S1 jaw/upper lip and cingulate cortex. Decreases were observed in the prelimbic cortex and hippocampus. Second, SNI rats were scanned 3 weeks post-surgery using the same scanning paradigm, and region-of-interest analyses revealed increased metabolic activity in the contralateral S1 hindlimb. Finally, a second cohort of SNI rats were scanned while anesthetized during the tracer uptake period, and the S1 hindlimb increase was not observed. Increased brain activity in the somatosensory cortex of SNI rats resembled the activity produced with the injection of formalin, suggesting that the SNI model may produce persistent pain. The lack of increased activity in S1 hindlimb with general anesthetic demonstrates that this effect can be blocked, as well as highlights the importance of investigating brain activity in awake and behaving

  9. Metabolic brain activity suggestive of persistent pain in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Scott J; Millecamps, Magali; Aliaga, Antonio; Seminowicz, David A; Low, Lucie A; Bedell, Barry J; Stone, Laura S; Schweinhardt, Petra; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Persistent pain is a central characteristic of neuropathic pain conditions in humans. Knowing whether rodent models of neuropathic pain produce persistent pain is therefore crucial to their translational applicability. We investigated the spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain and the formalin pain model in rats using positron emission tomography (PET) with the metabolic tracer [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to determine if there is ongoing brain activity suggestive of persistent pain. For the formalin model, under brief anesthesia we injected one hindpaw with 5% formalin and the FDG tracer into a tail vein. We then allowed the animals to awaken and observed pain behavior for 30min during the FDG uptake period. The rat was then anesthetized and placed in the scanner for static image acquisition, which took place between minutes 45 and 75 post-tracer injection. A single reference rat brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) was used to align the PET images with the Paxinos and Watson rat brain atlas. Increased glucose metabolism was observed in the somatosensory region associated with the injection site (S1 hindlimb contralateral), S1 jaw/upper lip and cingulate cortex. Decreases were observed in the prelimbic cortex and hippocampus. Second, SNI rats were scanned 3weeks post-surgery using the same scanning paradigm, and region-of-interest analyses revealed increased metabolic activity in the contralateral S1 hindlimb. Finally, a second cohort of SNI rats was scanned while anesthetized during the tracer uptake period, and the S1 hindlimb increase was not observed. Increased brain activity in the somatosensory cortex of SNI rats resembled the activity produced with the injection of formalin, suggesting that the SNI model may produce persistent pain. The lack of increased activity in S1 hindlimb with general anesthetic demonstrates that this effect can be blocked, as well as highlights the importance of investigating brain activity in awake and behaving rodents.

  10. Computational Investigations of Trichoderma Reesei Cel7A Suggest New Routes for Enzyme Activity Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Beckham, G. T.; Payne, C. M.; Bu, L.; Taylor, C. B.; McCabe, C.; Chu, J. W.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.

    2012-01-01

    The Trichoderma reesei Family 7 cellulase (Cel7A) is a key industrial enzyme in the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. It is a multi-modular enzyme with a Family 1 carbohydrate-binding module, a flexible O-glycosylated linker, and a large catalytic domain. We have used simulation to elucidate new functions for the 3 sub-domains, which suggests new routes to increase the activity of this central enzyme. These findings include new roles for glycosylation, which we have shown can be used to tune the binding affinity. We have also examined the structures of the catalytically-active complex of Cel7A and its non-processive counterpart, Cel7B, engaged on cellulose, which suggests allosteric mechanisms involved in chain binding when these cellulases are complexed on cellulose. Our computational results also suggest that product inhibition varies significantly between Cel7A and Cel7B, and we offer a molecular-level explanation for this observation. Finally, we discuss simulations of the absolute and relative binding free energy of cellulose ligands and various mutations along the CD tunnel, which will affect processivity and the ability of Cel7A (and related enzymes) to digest cellulose. These results highlight new considerations in protein engineering for processive and non-processive cellulases for production of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  11. The structure of the PERK kinase domain suggests the mechanism for its activation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Wenjun; Li, Jingzhi; Ron, David; Sha, Bingdong

    2011-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) unfolded protein response (UPR) is comprised of several intracellular signaling pathways that alleviate ER stress. The ER-localized transmembrane kinase PERK is one of three major ER stress transducers. Oligomerization of PERK’s N-terminal ER luminal domain by ER stress promotes PERK trans-autophosphorylation of the C-terminal cytoplasmic kinase domain at multiple residues including Thr980 on the kinase activation loop. Activated PERK phosphorylates Ser51 of the α-subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), which inhibits initiation of protein synthesis and reduces the load of unfolded proteins entering the ER. The crystal structure of PERK’s kinase domain has been determined to 2.8 Å resolution. The structure resembles the back-to-back dimer observed in the related eIF2α kinase PKR. Phosphorylation of Thr980 stabilizes both the activation loop and helix αG in the C-terminal lobe, preparing the latter for eIF2α binding. The structure suggests conservation in the mode of activation of eIF2α kinases and is consistent with a ‘line-up’ model for PERK activation triggered by oligomerization of its luminal domain. PMID:21543844

  12. Surface changes on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko suggest a more active past.

    PubMed

    El-Maarry, M Ramy; Groussin, O; Thomas, N; Pajola, M; Auger, A-T; Davidsson, B; Hu, X; Hviid, S F; Knollenberg, J; Güttler, C; Tubiana, C; Fornasier, S; Feller, C; Hasselmann, P; Vincent, J-B; Sierks, H; Barbieri, C; Lamy, P; Rodrigo, R; Koschny, D; Keller, H U; Rickman, H; A'Hearn, M F; Barucci, M A; Bertaux, J-L; Bertini, I; Besse, S; Bodewits, D; Cremonese, G; Da Deppo, V; Debei, S; De Cecco, M; Deller, J; Deshapriya, J D P; Fulle, M; Gutierrez, P J; Hofmann, M; Ip, W-H; Jorda, L; Kovacs, G; Kramm, J-R; Kührt, E; Küppers, M; Lara, L M; Lazzarin, M; Lin, Z-Yi; Lopez Moreno, J J; Marchi, S; Marzari, F; Mottola, S; Naletto, G; Oklay, N; Pommerol, A; Preusker, F; Scholten, F; Shi, X

    2017-03-31

    The Rosetta spacecraft spent ~2 years orbiting comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, most of it at distances that allowed surface characterization and monitoring at submeter scales. From December 2014 to June 2016, numerous localized changes were observed, which we attribute to cometary-specific weathering, erosion, and transient events driven by exposure to sunlight and other processes. While the localized changes suggest compositional or physical heterogeneity, their scale has not resulted in substantial alterations to the comet's landscape. This suggests that most of the major landforms were created early in the comet's current orbital configuration. They may even date from earlier if the comet had a larger volatile inventory, particularly of CO or CO2 ices, or contained amorphous ice, which could have triggered activity at greater distances from the Sun.

  13. Surface changes on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko suggest a more active past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Maarry, M. Ramy; Groussin, O.; Thomas, N.; Pajola, M.; Auger, A.-T.; Davidsson, B.; Hu, X.; Hviid, S. F.; Knollenberg, J.; Güttler, C.; Tubiana, C.; Fornasier, S.; Feller, C.; Hasselmann, P.; Vincent, J.-B.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Keller, H. U.; Rickman, H.; A’Hearn, M. F.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Besse, S.; Bodewits, D.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Deller, J.; Deshapriya, J. D. P.; Fulle, M.; Gutierrez, P. J.; Hofmann, M.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Kovacs, G.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lin, Z.-Yi; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marchi, S.; Marzari, F.; Mottola, S.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Pommerol, A.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Shi, X.

    2017-03-01

    The Rosetta spacecraft spent ~2 years orbiting comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, most of it at distances that allowed surface characterization and monitoring at submeter scales. From December 2014 to June 2016, numerous localized changes were observed, which we attribute to cometary-specific weathering, erosion, and transient events driven by exposure to sunlight and other processes. While the localized changes suggest compositional or physical heterogeneity, their scale has not resulted in substantial alterations to the comet’s landscape. This suggests that most of the major landforms were created early in the comet’s current orbital configuration. They may even date from earlier if the comet had a larger volatile inventory, particularly of CO or CO2 ices, or contained amorphous ice, which could have triggered activity at greater distances from the Sun.

  14. El Reto: A Leer America! A Leer Y Escribir Ya! Como Divertirse Leyendo Y Escribiendo. (America Reads Challenge: Read*Write*Now! Activities for Reading and Writing Fun)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kameenui, Edward J.; Simmons, Deborah C.

    Developed by national reading experts for the "America Reads Challenge: Read*Write*Now!" initiative and translated into Spanish, this booklet provides 45 ideas for families, teachers, librarians, and other learning partners to use with all children--including those with disabilities--to help them read well and independently by the end of…

  15. Suggested improvements to the standard filter paper assay used to measure cellulase activity.

    PubMed

    Coward-Kelly, Guillermo; Aiello-Mazzari, Cateryna; Kim, Sehoon; Granda, Cesar; Holtzapple, Mark

    2003-06-20

    Two suggestions can be found in the literature to improve the reproducibility of the Mandels' filter paper assay: add supplemental cellobiase and increase the boiling time for color development. Here we provide data that strongly supports adding supplemental cellobiase. Adding supplemental cellobiase increased assay response by 56%. Cellulases from different sources have different cellobiase activities, which would cause significant variation in the assay response. There is no need for additional boiling time-5 minutes is sufficient. For maximum reproducibility, it is essential that the water bath vigorously boil so that temperature excursions are minimized.

  16. Helping Children with Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgington, Ruth; And Others

    Intended for parents helping their children with reading disabilities, the book describes specific activities in eight areas. The eight areas include general suggestions for the study period, hand and eye coordination activities, phonics training, ear training, reading, relaxation activities, muscle memory, writing, and spelling. Thirteen…

  17. Information and Experience: Audio-Visual Observations of Reading Activities in Swedish Comprehensive School Classrooms 1967-1969

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolatkhah, Mats; Hampson Lundh, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates reading activities in Swedish primary school classrooms during the late 1960s. Sound and video recordings of 223 Swedish lessons held between 1967 and 1969 are used to analyse the activity of reading as taught and performed. The results indicate that the practice of informational reading, often based on finding…

  18. Using Technology and Creative Reading Activities to Increase Pleasure Reading among High School Students in Resource Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Katherine B.

    This applied dissertation was designed to encourage resource students to read more books for pleasure. Resource students in the writer's high school did not read many books for pleasure. Students had short attention spans and found it difficult to finish school assignments without encouragement. They also found reading difficult and often said…

  19. A Study of Student Engagement Activities, Discipline Referrals, and Student Achievement in Reading First Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fransen, Shelly Lynette

    2013-01-01

    High quality student engagement activities are essential if students are to be successful learners. Over the years, many instructional strategies and models have been devised to encourage teachers to develop student engagement activities that result in high achievement. The Reading First Model initiative was introduced as a part of the No Child…

  20. Elementary School Recess: Selected Readings, Games, and Activities for Teachers and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Rhonda L., Ed.

    Based upon the principle that all children have a right to play and to experience the benefits of recess, this book assists elementary school teachers and parents in offering children in preschool through Grade 6 appropriate recess games and activities and provides a variety of readings that support the need for recess activities. The book is…

  1. Effects of Three Forms of Reading-Based Output Activity on L2 Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassaei, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of three forms of output activity on EFL learners' recognition and recall of second language (L2) vocabulary. To this end, three groups of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) were instructed to employ the following three output activities after reading two narrative texts: (1) summarizing the…

  2. Reading the Rocks. A Fall Activity Packet for Fifth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on various geological…

  3. Protein-Protein Interactions Suggest Novel Activities of Human Cytomegalovirus Tegument Protein pUL103

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Daniel A.; Glassbrook, James E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that causes severe disease in newborns and immunocompromised patients. During infection, the host cell endosecretory system is remodeled to form the cytoplasmic virion assembly complex (cVAC). We and others previously identified the conserved, multifunctional HCMV virion tegument protein pUL103 as important for cVAC biogenesis and efficient secondary envelopment. To help define its mechanisms of action and predict additional functions, we used two complementary methods, coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) and proximity biotinylation (BioID), to identify viral and cellular proteins that interact with pUL103. By using the two methods in parallel and applying stringent selection criteria, we identified potentially high-value interactions of pUL103 with 13 HCMV and 18 cellular proteins. Detection of the previously identified pUL103-pUL71 interaction, as well as verification of several interactions by reverse co-IP, supports the specificity of our screening process. As might be expected for a tegument protein, interactions were identified that suggest distinct roles for pUL103 across the arc of lytic infection, including interactions with proteins involved in cellular antiviral responses, nuclear activities, and biogenesis and transport of cytoplasmic vesicles. Further analysis of some of these interactions expands our understanding of the multifunctional repertoire of pUL103: we detected HCMV pUL103 in nuclei of infected cells and identified an ALIX-binding domain within the pUL103 sequence. IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is able to reconfigure the host cell machinery to establish a virion production factory, the cytoplasmic virion assembly complex (cVAC). cVAC biogenesis and operation represent targets for development of novel HCMV antivirals. We previously showed that the HCMV tegument protein pUL103 is required for cVAC biogenesis. Using pUL103 as bait, we investigated viral and

  4. Dynamic Assessment of Reading Difficulties: Predictive and Incremental Validity on Attitude toward Reading and the Use of Dialogue/Participation Strategies in Classroom Activities

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Juan-José; Lara, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic Assessment (DA) has been shown to have more predictive value than conventional tests for academic performance. However, in relation to reading difficulties, further research is needed to determine the predictive validity of DA for specific aspects of the different processes involved in reading and the differential validity of DA for different subgroups of students with an academic disadvantage. This paper analyzes the implementation of a DA device that evaluates processes involved in reading (EDPL) among 60 students with reading comprehension difficulties between 9 and 16 years of age, of whom 20 have intellectual disabilities, 24 have reading-related learning disabilities, and 16 have socio-cultural disadvantages. We specifically analyze the predictive validity of the EDPL device over attitude toward reading, and the use of dialogue/participation strategies in reading activities in the classroom during the implementation stage. We also analyze if the EDPL device provides additional information to that obtained with a conventionally applied personal-social adjustment scale (APSL). Results showed that dynamic scores, obtained from the implementation of the EDPL device, significantly predict the studied variables. Moreover, dynamic scores showed a significant incremental validity in relation to predictions based on an APSL scale. In relation to differential validity, the results indicated the superior predictive validity for DA for students with intellectual disabilities and reading disabilities than for students with socio-cultural disadvantages. Furthermore, the role of metacognition and its relation to the processes of personal-social adjustment in explaining the results is discussed. PMID:28243215

  5. Dynamic Assessment of Reading Difficulties: Predictive and Incremental Validity on Attitude toward Reading and the Use of Dialogue/Participation Strategies in Classroom Activities.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Juan-José; Lara, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic Assessment (DA) has been shown to have more predictive value than conventional tests for academic performance. However, in relation to reading difficulties, further research is needed to determine the predictive validity of DA for specific aspects of the different processes involved in reading and the differential validity of DA for different subgroups of students with an academic disadvantage. This paper analyzes the implementation of a DA device that evaluates processes involved in reading (EDPL) among 60 students with reading comprehension difficulties between 9 and 16 years of age, of whom 20 have intellectual disabilities, 24 have reading-related learning disabilities, and 16 have socio-cultural disadvantages. We specifically analyze the predictive validity of the EDPL device over attitude toward reading, and the use of dialogue/participation strategies in reading activities in the classroom during the implementation stage. We also analyze if the EDPL device provides additional information to that obtained with a conventionally applied personal-social adjustment scale (APSL). Results showed that dynamic scores, obtained from the implementation of the EDPL device, significantly predict the studied variables. Moreover, dynamic scores showed a significant incremental validity in relation to predictions based on an APSL scale. In relation to differential validity, the results indicated the superior predictive validity for DA for students with intellectual disabilities and reading disabilities than for students with socio-cultural disadvantages. Furthermore, the role of metacognition and its relation to the processes of personal-social adjustment in explaining the results is discussed.

  6. Toward Semantics in the Wild: Activation to Manipulable Nouns in Naturalistic Reading

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Wonil; Lai, Vicky T.

    2016-01-01

    The neural basis of language processing, in the context of naturalistic reading of connected text, is a crucial but largely unexplored area. Here we combined functional MRI and eye tracking to examine the reading of text presented as whole paragraphs in two experiments with human subjects. We registered high-temporal resolution eye-tracking data to a low-temporal resolution BOLD signal to extract responses to single words during naturalistic reading where two to four words are typically processed per second. As a test case of a lexical variable, we examined the response to noun manipulability. In both experiments, signal in the left anterior inferior parietal lobule and posterior inferior temporal gyrus and sulcus was positively correlated with noun manipulability. These regions are associated with both action performance and action semantics, and their activation is consistent with a number of previous studies involving tool words and physical tool use. The results show that even during rapid reading of connected text, where semantics of words may be activated only partially, the meaning of manipulable nouns is grounded in action performance systems. This supports the grounded cognition view of semantics, which posits a close link between sensory–motor and conceptual systems of the brain. On the methodological front, these results demonstrate that BOLD responses to lexical variables during naturalistic reading can be extracted by simultaneous use of eye tracking. This opens up new avenues for the study of language and reading in the context of connected text. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The study of language and reading has traditionally relied on single word or sentence stimuli. In fMRI, this is necessitated by the fact that time resolution of a BOLD signal much lower than that of cognitive processes that take place during natural reading of connected text. Here, we propose a method that combines eye tracking and fMRI, and can extract word-level information from the

  7. Suggested Activities to Initiate Consumer Education in the Elementary Classroom. Centering On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainor, Nancy

    This booklet of teacher-developed and teacher-tested activities and strategies draws upon the curriculum areas of language arts, mathematics and social studies. Though prepared for fourth, fifth and sixth grade students, the material is adaptable for primary grades and can be used for group activities or as individual task cards. Activity sheets…

  8. Variants in the DYX2 locus are associated with altered brain activation in reading-related brain regions in subjects with reading disability.

    PubMed

    Cope, Natalie; Eicher, John D; Meng, Haiying; Gibson, Christopher J; Hager, Karl; Lacadie, Cheryl; Fulbright, Robert K; Constable, R Todd; Page, Grier P; Gruen, Jeffrey R

    2012-10-15

    Reading disability (RD) is a complex genetic disorder with unknown etiology. Genes on chromosome 6p22, including DCDC2, KIAA0319, and TTRAP, have been identified as RD associated genes. Imaging studies have shown both functional and structural differences between brains of individuals with and without RD. There are limited association studies performed between RD genes, specifically genes on 6p22, and regional brain activation during reading tasks. Using fourteen variants in DCDC2, KIAA0319, and TTRAP and exhaustive reading measures, we first tested for association with reading performance in 82 parent-offspring families (326 individuals). Next, we determined the association of these variants with activation of sixteen brain regions of interest during four functional magnetic resonance imaging-reading tasks. We nominally replicated associations between reading performance and variants of DCDC2 and KIAA0319. Furthermore, we observed a number of associations with brain activation patterns during imaging-reading tasks with all three genes. The strongest association occurred between activation of the left anterior inferior parietal lobe and complex tandem repeat BV677278 in DCDC2 (uncorrected p=0.00003, q=0.0442). Our results show that activation patterns across regions of interest in the brain are influenced by variants in the DYX2 locus. The combination of genetic and functional imaging data show a link between genes and brain functioning during reading tasks in subjects with RD. This study highlights the many advantages of imaging data as an endophenotype for discerning genetic risk factors for RD and other communication disorders and underscores the importance of integrating neurocognitive, imaging, and genetic data in future investigations.

  9. Variants in the DYX2 locus are associated with altered brain activation in reading-related brain regions in subjects with reading disability

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Natalie; Eicher, John D.; Meng, Haiying; Gibson, Christopher J.; Hager, Karl; Lacadie, Cheryl; Fulbright, Robert K.; Constable, R. Todd; Page, Grier P.; Gruen, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Reading disability (RD) is a complex genetic disorder with unknown etiology. Genes on chromosome 6p22, including DCDC2, KIAA0319, and TTRAP, have been identified as RD associated genes. Imaging studies have shown both functional and structural differences between brains of individuals with and without RD. There are limited association studies performed between RD genes, specifically genes on 6p22, and regional brain activation during reading tasks. Using fourteen variants in DCDC2, KIAA0319, and TTRAP and exhaustive reading measures, we first tested for association with reading performance in 82 parent-offspring families (326 individuals). Next, we determined the association of these variants with activation of sixteen brain regions of interest during four functional magnetic resonance imaging-reading tasks. We nominally replicated associations between reading performance and variants of DCDC2 and KIAA0319. Furthermore, we observed a number of associations with brain activation patterns during imaging-reading tasks with all three genes. The strongest association occurred between activation of the left anterior inferior parietal lobe and complex tandem repeat BV677278 in DCDC2 (uncorrected p=0.00003, q=0.0442). Our results show that activation patterns across regions of interest in the brain are influenced by variants in the DYX2 locus. The combination of genetic and functional imaging data show a link between genes and brain functioning during reading tasks in subjects with RD. This study highlights the many advantages of imaging data as an endophenotype for discerning genetic risk factors for RD and other communication disorders and underscores the importance of integrating neurocognitive, imaging, and genetic data in future investigations. PMID:22750057

  10. The Changing Surface of Saturn's Titan: Cassini Observations Suggest Active Cryovolcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    conclude that the VIMS instrument has found two instances in which selected regions on Titan's surface became unusually reflective and remained reflective on time scales of days to months. In both cases the area of reflectance variability is large (~100000 sq km), larger than either Loki or the Big Island of Hawaii. This is a strong evidence for currently active surface processes on Titan. Pre-Cassini, Titan was thought of as a pre-biotic earth that was frozen in time. Cassini VIMS and SAR observations combined suggest that Titan is the present day is not frozen solid, and is instead an episodically changing or evolving world. References: [1] Nelson R. M. et al, LPSC 2007 , Europlanets 2007, AGU 2007, EGU 2008, Accepted in Icarus 2008. [2] Lopes et al (this meeting), Stofan et al. Icarus 185, 443-456, 2007. Lopes et al. Icarus 186, 395- 412, 2007. Kirk et al., DPS 2007. Acknowledgement: This work done at JPL under contract with NASA

  11. Have Hatchet--Will Survive: Suggested Activities for Decision-Making Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressler, Jean; Howell, Helen

    1991-01-01

    Describes oral activities that help middle and junior high school students develop decision-making skills. The activities, based on Gary Paulsen's novel "Hatchet," focus on struggling for survival. Recommends "Hatchet" as a vehicle for observing the maturing process and for teaching skills that students can apply to their own…

  12. Theatre Techniques for Language Learning: Assumptions and Suggested Progression of Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Martha L.

    A discussion of the use of drama activities in Second Language instruction looks at the rationale for using such techniques in the language classroom, describes a progression of drama activities used for an intensive course in intermediate English as a Second Language, and examines other considerations in the use of drama in language teaching.…

  13. Keep Fit. Suggested Fitness Activities for Forms 1-4 Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinataci, S.

    This booklet is designed for teachers who conduct physical education programs and who coach sports in schools where modern training equipment is not available. Most of the equipment described or shown in this booklet can be improvised. The activities are designed for girls in grades seven through ten. The following activities are covered in the…

  14. Tuberculosis screening and compliance with return for skin test reading among active drug users.

    PubMed Central

    Malotte, C K; Rhodes, F; Mais, K E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the independent and combined effects of different levels of monetary incentives and a theory-based educational intervention on return for tuberculosis (TB) skin test reading in a sample of active injection drug and crack cocaine users. Prevalence of TB infection in this sample was also determined. METHODS: Active or recent drug users (n = 1004), recruited via street outreach techniques, were skin tested for TB. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 levels of monetary incentive ($5 and $10) provided at return for skin test reading, alone or in combination with a brief motivational education session. RESULTS: More than 90% of those who received $10 returned for skin test reading, in comparison with 85% of those who received $5 and 33% of those who received no monetary incentive. The education session had no impact on return for skin test reading. The prevalence of a positive tuberculin test was 18.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Monetary incentives dramatically increase the return rate for TB skin test reading among drug users who are at high risk of TB infection. PMID:9585747

  15. Greater Intermanual Transfer in the Elderly Suggests Age-Related Bilateral Motor Cortex Activation Is Compensatory

    PubMed Central

    Graziadio, Sara; Nazarpour, Kianoush; Gretenkord, Sabine; Jackson, Andrew; Eyre, Janet A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Hemispheric lateralization of movement control diminishes with age; whether this is compensatory or maladaptive is debated. The authors hypothesized that if compensatory, bilateral activation would lead to greater intermanual transfer in older subjects learning tasks that activate the cortex unilaterally in young adults. They studied 10 young and 14 older subjects, learning a unimanual visuomotor task comprising a feedforward phase, where there is unilateral cortical activation in young adults, and a feedback phase, which activates the cortex bilaterally in both age groups. Increased intermanual transfer was demonstrated in older subjects during feedforward learning, with no difference between groups during feedback learning. This finding is consistent with bilateral cortical activation being compensatory to maintain performance despite declining computational efficiency in neural networks. PMID:25575222

  16. Reading for Mastery: An Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Savannah Miller

    This guide provides a description of a mastery learning reading program based on a language approach to teaching reading. All suggested activities stress the use of skills to obtain meaning from reading as the main goal of instruction. Sections include a discussion of the elements of this mastery learning instructional program that notes the need…

  17. Reading, Writing, and Revolution: Facilitating Social Activism in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Janelle M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how teachers can develop a sense of social activism in students through critical multiculturalism. Drawing upon data from a nine-month participant observation study of a first-grade public charter school classroom in central California, this article highlights how teachers can integrate critical multiculturalism within an…

  18. Predicting Reading and Mathematics from Neural Activity for Feedback Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Sabine; Van der Meulen, Mara; Zanolie, Kiki; Crone, Eveline A.

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies use feedback learning paradigms to study the process of learning in laboratory settings, little is known about their relevance for real-world learning settings such as school. In a large developmental sample (N = 228, 8-25 years), we investigated whether performance and neural activity during a feedback learning task…

  19. Reading-Related Literacy Activities of American Adults: Time Spent, Task Types, and Cognitive Skills Used

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sheida; Chen, Jing; Forsyth, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This article presents data on the types and duration of reading-related activities reported by a volunteer sample of 400 adults (demographically similar to the U.S. adult population age 20 and older in terms of race, ethnicity, education, and working status) in the 2005 Real-World Tasks Study. This diary study revealed that adults spent, on…

  20. Literature-Based Reading: Children's Books and Activities To Enrich the K-5 Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Mildred Knight; Swisher, Claudia Lisman

    This book helps teachers and media directors to use children's literature to enrich elementary reading programs and to pursue sound educational objectives as they share the books and stories. It provides activities designed to expand and enrich the opportunities for children to become literate. It is a tool which addresses the need for children to…

  1. Automatic Activation of Phonology in Silent Reading Is Parallel: Evidence from Beginning and Skilled Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alario, F.-Xavier; De Cara, Bruno; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2007-01-01

    The picture-word interference paradigm was used to shed new light on the debate concerning slow serial versus fast parallel activation of phonology in silent reading. Prereaders, beginning readers (Grades 1-4), and adults named pictures that had words printed on them. Words and pictures shared phonology either at the beginnings of words (e.g.,…

  2. Reading Actively Online: An Exploratory Investigation of Online Annotation Tools for Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Jingyan; Deng, Liping

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to design and facilitate active reading among secondary school students with an online annotation tool--Diigo. Two classes of different academic performance levels were recruited to examine their annotation behavior and perceptions of Diigo. We wanted to determine whether the two classes differed in how they used Diigo; how they…

  3. Using Multimedia Vocabulary Annotations in L2 Reading and Listening Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jing Xu

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of multimedia vocabulary annotation (MVA) in facilitating second language (L2) reading and listening activities. It examines the multimedia learning and multimedia language learning theories that underlie the MVA research, synthesizes the findings on MVA in the last decade, and identifies three underresearched areas on…

  4. Literature Links: Thematic Units Linking Read-Alouds and Computer Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labbo, Linda D.; Love, Mary Susan; Park Prior, Miri; Hubbard, Betty P.; Ryan, Tammy

    2006-01-01

    This book gives the reader ideas for providing primary-grade students with literacy learning opportunities that integrate conventional literacies, such as phonics and comprehension, with new literacies, such as multimedia composition and hyperlink navigation. The reader will find a variety of linked activities, including reading children's books,…

  5. Decoding and disrupting left midfusiform gyrus activity during word reading

    PubMed Central

    Hirshorn, Elizabeth A.; Ward, Michael J.; Fiez, Julie A.; Ghuman, Avniel Singh

    2016-01-01

    The nature of the visual representation for words has been fiercely debated for over 150 y. We used direct brain stimulation, pre- and postsurgical behavioral measures, and intracranial electroencephalography to provide support for, and elaborate upon, the visual word form hypothesis. This hypothesis states that activity in the left midfusiform gyrus (lmFG) reflects visually organized information about words and word parts. In patients with electrodes placed directly in their lmFG, we found that disrupting lmFG activity through stimulation, and later surgical resection in one of the patients, led to impaired perception of whole words and letters. Furthermore, using machine-learning methods to analyze the electrophysiological data from these electrodes, we found that information contained in early lmFG activity was consistent with an orthographic similarity space. Finally, the lmFG contributed to at least two distinguishable stages of word processing, an early stage that reflects gist-level visual representation sensitive to orthographic statistics, and a later stage that reflects more precise representation sufficient for the individuation of orthographic word forms. These results provide strong support for the visual word form hypothesis and demonstrate that across time the lmFG is involved in multiple stages of orthographic representation. PMID:27325763

  6. Comment on Birgegard and Sohlberg's (1999) suggestions for research in subliminal psychodynamic activation.

    PubMed

    Fudin, R

    2000-06-01

    Methodological changes in subliminal psychodynamic activation experiments based on the assumption that multiletter messages can be encoded automatically (Birgegard & Sohlberg, 1999) are questioned. Their contention that partial experimental messages and appropriate nonsense anagram controls (Fudin, 1986) need not be presented in every experiment is supported, with a reservation. If the difference between responses to the complete message and its control is significant in the predicted direction, then Fudin's procedure should be used. A nonsignificant difference between the response to each partial message and its control is needed to support the assumption of proponents of subliminal psychodynamic activation that successful outcomes are effected by the encoding of the meaning of a complete message. Experiments in subliminal psychodynamic activation can be improved if their methodologies take into account variables that may operate when subliminal stimuli are presented and encoded.

  7. Reading stories activates neural representations of visual and motor experiences.

    PubMed

    Speer, Nicole K; Reynolds, Jeremy R; Swallow, Khena M; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2009-08-01

    To understand and remember stories, readers integrate their knowledge of the world with information in the text. Here we present functional neuroimaging evidence that neural systems track changes in the situation described by a story. Different brain regions track different aspects of a story, such as a character's physical location or current goals. Some of these regions mirror those involved when people perform, imagine, or observe similar real-world activities. These results support the view that readers understand a story by simulating the events in the story world and updating their simulation when features of that world change.

  8. Reading Stories Activates Neural Representations of Visual and Motor Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Speer, Nicole K.; Reynolds, Jeremy R.; Swallow, Khena M.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    To understand and remember stories, readers integrate their knowledge of the world with information in the text. Here we present functional neuroimaging evidence that neural systems track changes in the situation described by a story. Different brain regions track different aspects of a story, such as a character’s physical location or current goals. Some of these regions mirror those involved when people perform, imagine, or observe similar real-world activities. These results support the view that readers understand a story by simulating the events in the story world and updating their simulation when features of that world change. PMID:19572969

  9. Promoting active learning of graduate student by deep reading in biochemistry and microbiology pharmacy curriculum.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ren

    2017-01-06

    To promote graduate students' active learning, deep reading of high quality papers was done by graduate students enrolled in biochemistry and microbiology pharmacy curriculum offered by college of life science, Jiangxi Normal University from 2013 to 2015. The number of graduate students, who participated in the course in 2013, 2014, and 2015 were eleven, thirteen and fifteen, respectively. Through deep reading of papers, presentation, and group discussion in the lecture, these graduate students have improved their academic performances effectively, such as literature search, PPT document production, presentation management, specialty document reading, academic inquiry, and analytical and comprehensive ability. The graduate students also have increased their understanding level of frontier research, scientific research methods, and experimental methods. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2017.

  10. Hazardous Waste Environmental Education Resource Kit for Manitoba Teachers: Suggested Activities K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey-Franchuk, Andrea J.

    Society has become increasingly aware of the harmful effects that the disposal of chemical waste products have on the environment and human health. Public information is central to the development of a responsible waste management plan. The activities contained in this guide are organized in sequence from kindergarten to grade 12, and provide…

  11. Sporicidal activity of an improved iodide formulation and suggestions regarding the biological safety cabinet.

    PubMed

    Kida, Nori

    2009-06-01

    The sporicidal activity of an improved iodide formulation based on a previously reported agent (Kida et al., 2004, tentatively designated as the KMT reagent) which is composed of 50 mM EDTA-2Na, 50 mM ferric chloride hexahydrate (FeCl3.6H2O), 50 mM potassium iodide (KI) and 50% ethanol in 0.85% NaCl solution at pH 0.3 with hydrochloric acid, was examined in the liquid and vapor phases. The improved iodide formulation subject to distillation (tentatively designated as the distilled KMT reagent: pH around 3) showed comparable sporicidal activity with the KMT reagent. As for the dilution effect, dilution at 1:2 showed more potent sporicidal activity than the undiluted one. It achieved complete disinfection with a treatment for 5 min at 20 degrees C and for 60 min at 5 degrees C. Even at a ratio of 1:100, the dilutions showed significant sporicidal activities at 37 degrees C. The experiment on the disinfection of the biological safety cabinet (Class II type A) as a practical possibility showed that pretreatment with 400 ml of water vapor treatment, and a mixture of 300 ml of this reagent and 150 ml of water in vapor phase achieved complete disinfection after a 24 h-decontamination process. The distilled KMT reagent may be useful for disinfecting against various contaminated materials and sites in both the liquid phase and vapor phase.

  12. Brain Activity while Reading Sentences with Kanji Characters Expressing Emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe the brain activity associated with kanji characters expressing emotion, which are places at the end of a sentence. Japanese people use a special kanji character in brackets at the end of sentences in text messages such as those sent through e-mail and messenger tools. Such kanji characters plays a role to expresses the sender's emotion (such as fun, laughter, sadness, tears), like emoticons. It is a very simple and effective way to convey the senders' emotions and his/her thoughts to the receiver. In this research, we investigate the effects of emotional kanji characters by using an fMRI study. The experimental results show that both the right and left inferior frontal gyrus, which have been implicated on verbal and nonverbal information, were activated. We found that we detect a sentence with an emotional kanji character as the verbal and nonverval information, and a sentence with emotional kanji characters enrich communication between the sender and the reciever.

  13. Effect of cimetidine on catalase activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a suggested mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Masoud, Masoudeh; Ebrahimi, Farnoosh; Minai-Tehrani, Dariush

    2014-01-01

    Catalase is an important enzyme for the degradation of hydrogen peroxide in cells. Bacteria have potent catalase to deal with H2O2 in their medium culture. Any chemicals that inhibit catalase activity can be harmful for cells. Histamine H2 antagonist drugs such as cimetidine and ranitidine are used for the treatment of gastrointestinal tract disorders. The present results showed that cimetidine could inhibit the catalase activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a competitive inhibition. The determination of IC50 value and Ki (6.5 μM) of cimetidine demonstrated that the enzyme binds to the drug with high affinity. Binding of the drug to the enzyme was pH-dependent and no binding was observed at basic pH (>9) and acidic pH (<6). Moreover, the imidazole ring and cyanoguanidine group of cimetidine may play an important role in inhibition by binding to Fe in heme group and glutamic acid 51 residue on the enzyme, respectively. Ranitidine had no effect on the catalase activity.

  14. Structures of human Bruton's tyrosine kinase in active and inactive conformations suggest a mechanism of activation for TEC family kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Marcotte, Douglas J.; Liu, Yu-Ting; Arduini, Robert M.; Hession, Catherine A.; Miatkowski, Konrad; Wildes, Craig P.; Cullen, Patrick F.; Hong, Victor; Hopkins, Brian T.; Mertsching, Elisabeth; Jenkins, Tracy J.; Romanowski, Michael J.; Baker, Darren P.; Silvian, Laura F.

    2010-11-15

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a member of the TEC family of kinases, plays a crucial role in B-cell maturation and mast cell activation. Although the structures of the unphosphorylated mouse BTK kinase domain and the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated kinase domains of human ITK are known, understanding the kinase selectivity profiles of BTK inhibitors has been hampered by the lack of availability of a high resolution, ligand-bound BTK structure. Here, we report the crystal structures of the human BTK kinase domain bound to either Dasatinib (BMS-354825) at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution or to 4-amino-5-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-7H-pyrrolospyrimidin- 7-yl-cyclopentane at 1.6 {angstrom} resolution. This data provides information relevant to the development of small molecule inhibitors targeting BTK and the TEC family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. Analysis of the structural differences between the TEC and Src families of kinases near the Trp-Glu-Ile motif in the N-terminal region of the kinase domain suggests a mechanism of regulation of the TEC family members.

  15. Immunohistochemical evidence suggests intrinsic regulatory activity of human eccrine sweat glands

    PubMed Central

    ZANCANARO, CARLO; MERIGO, FLAVIA; CRESCIMANNO, CATERINA; ORLANDINI, SIMONETTA; OSCULATI, ANTONIO

    1999-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry of normal eccrine sweat glands was performed on paraffin sections of human skin. Immunoreactivity (ir) for neuron specific enolase, S100 protein (S100), regulatory peptides, nitric oxide synthase type I (NOS-I) and choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT) was found in small nerve bundles close to sweat glands. In the glands, secretory cells were labelled with anticytokeratin antibody. Using antibodies to S100, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) a specific distribution pattern was found in secretory cells. Granulated (dark) and parietal (clear) cells were immunopositive for CGRP, and S100 and SP, respectively. Immunoreactivity was diffuse in the cytoplasm for CGRP and S100, and peripheral for SP. Myoepithelial cells were not labelled. Electron microscopy revealed electron dense granules, probably containing peptide, in granulated cells. Using antibodies to NOS-I and ChAT, ir was exclusively found in myoepithelial cells. Immunoreactivity for the atrial natriuretic peptide was absent in sweat glands. These results provide evidence for the presence of both regulatory peptides involved in vasodilation and key enzymes for the synthesis of nitric oxide and acetylcholine in the secretory coil of human sweat glands. It is suggested that human sweat glands are capable of some intrinsic regulation in addition to that carried out by their nerve supply. PMID:10386780

  16. Relation between waking sport activities, reading, and dream content in sport students and psychology students.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Erlacher, Daniel

    2008-05-01

    The continuity hypothesis in its general form states that dreams reflect waking life: concerns, thoughts, and experiences (G. W. Domhoff, 1996; M. Schredl, 1999; I. Strauch & B. Meier, 1996). For example, athletes and sport students dream about sports more often than do psychology students, presumably reflecting their engagement in sport activities and sport theory (D. Erlacher & M. Schredl, 2004). In the present study, the authors tested the previously unexamined hypothesis that differences in dream content would directly reflect individuals' differing amounts of waking sport activities. As expected, the amount of time that individuals spent engaged in an activity (sports or reading) was directly related to their percentage of corresponding dreams. Also, individuals reported reading dreams less frequently than they did sport dreams, although reading was more prominent in their waking lives than were sport activities. The findings also indicated that other factors such as emotional involvement and associated worries might be of importance in explaining the relation between waking activities and dream events. Future studies using longitudinal designs would shed more light on this relation and would help derive a more precise formulation of the continuity hypothesis.

  17. Associations between reading achievement and independent reading in early elementary school: a genetically informative cross-lagged study.

    PubMed

    Harlaar, Nicole; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Thompson, Lee A; Dethorne, Laura S; Petrill, Stephen A

    2011-01-01

    This study used a cross-lagged twin design to examine reading achievement and independent reading from 10 to 11 years (n = 436 twin pairs). Reading achievement at age 10 significantly predicted independent reading at age 11. The alternative path, from independent reading at age 10 to reading achievement at age 11, was not significant. Individual differences in reading achievement and independent reading at both ages were primarily due to genetic influences. Furthermore, individual differences in independent reading at age 11 partly reflected genetic influences on reading achievement at age 10. These findings suggest that genetic influences that contribute to individual differences in children's reading abilities also influence the extent to which children actively seek out and create opportunities to read.

  18. Activation of Lexical and Semantic Representations without Intention along GPC-Sublexical and Orthographic-Lexical Reading Pathways in a Stroop Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Kathryn F.; Gould, Layla; Borowsky, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Dual route models of reading suggest there are 2 pathways for reading words: an orthographic-lexical pathway, used to read familiar regular words and exception words, and a grapheme-to-phoneme-conversion-(GPC)-sublexical pathway, used to read unfamiliar regular words, pseudohomophones (PHs), and nonwords. It is unclear, however, whether PHs…

  19. Print-specific multimodal brain activation in kindergarten improves prediction of reading skills in second grade.

    PubMed

    Bach, Silvia; Richardson, Ulla; Brandeis, Daniel; Martin, Ernst; Brem, Silvia

    2013-11-15

    Children who are poor readers usually experience troublesome school careers and consequently often suffer from secondary emotional and behavioural problems. Early identification and prediction of later reading problems thus are critical in order to start targeted interventions for those children with an elevated risk for emerging reading problems. In this study, behavioural precursors of reading were assessed in nineteen (aged 6.4 ± 0.3 years) non-reading kindergarteners before training letter-speech sound associations with a computerized game (Graphogame) for eight weeks. The training aimed to introduce the basic principles of letter-speech sound correspondences and to initialize the sensitization of specific brain areas to print. Event-related potentials (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were recorded during an explicit word/symbol processing task after the training. Reading skills were assessed two years later in second grade. The focus of this study was on clarifying whether electrophysiological and fMRI data of kindergarten children significantly improve prediction of future reading skills in 2nd grade over behavioural data alone. Based on evidence from previous studies demonstrating the importance of initial print sensitivity in the left occipito-temporal visual word form system (VWFS) for learning to read, the first pronounced difference in processing words compared to symbols in the ERP, an occipito-temporal negativity (N1: 188-281 ms) along with the corresponding functional activation in the left occipito-temporal VWFS were defined as potential predictors. ERP and fMRI data in kindergarteners significantly improved the prediction of reading skills in 2nd grade over behavioural data alone. Together with the behavioural measures they explained up to 88% of the variance. An additional discriminant analysis revealed a remarkably high accuracy in classifying normal (n=11) and poor readers (n=6). Due to the key limitation of the study

  20. Dynamic brain architectures in local brain activity and functional network efficiency associate with efficient reading in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Feng, Gangyi; Chen, Hsuan-Chih; Zhu, Zude; He, Yong; Wang, Suiping

    2015-10-01

    The human brain is organized as a dynamic network, in which both regional brain activity and inter-regional connectivity support high-level cognitive processes, such as reading. However, it is still largely unknown how the functional brain network organizes to enable fast and effortless reading processing in the native language (L1) but not in a non-proficient second language (L2), and whether the mechanisms underlying local activity are associated with connectivity dynamics in large-scale brain networks. In the present study, we combined activation-based and multivariate graph-theory analysis with functional magnetic resonance imaging data to address these questions. Chinese-English unbalanced bilinguals read narratives for comprehension in Chinese (L1) and in English (L2). Compared with L2, reading in L1 evoked greater brain activation and recruited a more globally efficient but less clustered network organization. Regions with both increased network efficiency and enhanced brain activation in L1 reading were mostly located in the fronto-temporal reading-related network (RN), whereas regions with decreased global network efficiency, increased clustering, and more deactivation in L2 reading were identified in the default mode network (DMN). Moreover, functional network efficiency was closely associated with local brain activation, and such associations were also modulated by reading efficiency in the two languages. Our results demonstrate that an economical and integrative brain network topology is associated with efficient reading, and further reveal a dynamic association between network efficiency and local activation for both RN and DMN. These findings underscore the importance of considering interregional connectivity when interpreting local BOLD signal changes in bilingual reading.

  1. Children Can Love Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zibart, Rosemary

    1980-01-01

    Describes the Reading Is Fundamental Program (RIF), whose reading motivation concept is simple: young people who get the opportunity to freely choose and to own books may begin to experience reading as a pleasurable activity. (Author/LLS)

  2. Small Schools Reading Curriculum, 7-8: Reading, Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies. Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartl, David, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to assist teachers in small schools with the improvement of curriculum and instruction and to help smaller districts which do not have curriculum personnel to comply with Washington's Student Learning Objectives (SLO) Law, this guide contains reading curriculum materials for grades 7 and 8. The objectives listed are correlated to the…

  3. Small Schools Reading Curriculum, K-3: Reading, Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies. Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartl, David, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to assist teachers in small schools with the improvement of curriculum and instruction and to help smaller districts which do not have curriculum personnel to comply with Washington's Student Learning Objectives (SLO) Law, this guide contains reading curriculum materials for grades K-3. The objectives listed are correlated to the Goals…

  4. Small Schools Reading Curriculum, 4-6: Reading, Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies. Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartl, David, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to assist teachers in small schools with the improvement of curriculum and instruction and to help smaller districts which do not have curriculum personnel to comply with Washington's Student Learning Objectives (SLO) Law, this guide contains reading curriculum materials for grades 4-6. The objectives listed are correlated to the Goals…

  5. Where, when and why brain activation differs for bilinguals and monolinguals during picture naming and reading aloud.

    PubMed

    Parker Jones, Oiwi; Green, David W; Grogan, Alice; Pliatsikas, Christos; Filippopolitis, Konstantinos; Ali, Nilufa; Lee, Hwee Ling; Ramsden, Sue; Gazarian, Karine; Prejawa, Susan; Seghier, Mohamed L; Price, Cathy J

    2012-04-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that when bilinguals named pictures or read words aloud, in their native or nonnative language, activation was higher relative to monolinguals in 5 left hemisphere regions: dorsal precentral gyrus, pars triangularis, pars opercularis, superior temporal gyrus, and planum temporale. We further demonstrate that these areas are sensitive to increasing demands on speech production in monolinguals. This suggests that the advantage of being bilingual comes at the expense of increased work in brain areas that support monolingual word processing. By comparing the effect of bilingualism across a range of tasks, we argue that activation is higher in bilinguals compared with monolinguals because word retrieval is more demanding; articulation of each word is less rehearsed; and speech output needs careful monitoring to avoid errors when competition for word selection occurs between, as well as within, language.

  6. Neural activity tied to reading predicts individual differences in extended-text comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Mossbridge, Julia A.; Grabowecky, Marcia; Paller, Ken A.; Suzuki, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension depends on neural processes supporting the access, understanding, and storage of words over time. Examinations of the neural activity correlated with reading have contributed to our understanding of reading comprehension, especially for the comprehension of sentences and short passages. However, the neural activity associated with comprehending an extended text is not well-understood. Here we describe a current-source-density (CSD) index that predicts individual differences in the comprehension of an extended text. The index is the difference in CSD-transformed event-related potentials (ERPs) to a target word between two conditions: a comprehension condition with words from a story presented in their original order, and a scrambled condition with the same words presented in a randomized order. In both conditions participants responded to the target word, and in the comprehension condition they also tried to follow the story in preparation for a comprehension test. We reasoned that the spatiotemporal pattern of difference-CSDs would reflect comprehension-related processes beyond word-level processing. We used a pattern-classification method to identify the component of the difference-CSDs that accurately (88%) discriminated good from poor comprehenders. The critical CSD index was focused at a frontal-midline scalp site, occurred 400–500 ms after target-word onset, and was strongly correlated with comprehension performance. Behavioral data indicated that group differences in effort or motor preparation could not explain these results. Further, our CSD index appears to be distinct from the well-known P300 and N400 components, and CSD transformation seems to be crucial for distinguishing good from poor comprehenders using our experimental paradigm. Once our CSD index is fully characterized, this neural signature of individual differences in extended-text comprehension may aid the diagnosis and remediation of reading comprehension deficits. PMID

  7. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory.

  8. Augmenting Paper-Based Reading Activity with Direct Access to Digital Materials and Scaffolded Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Nian-Shing; Teng, Daniel Chia-En; Lee, Cheng-Han; Kinshuk

    2011-01-01

    Comprehension is the goal of reading. However, students often encounter reading difficulties due to the lack of background knowledge and proper reading strategy. Unfortunately, print text provides very limited assistance to one's reading comprehension through its static knowledge representations such as symbols, charts, and graphs. Integrating…

  9. Structural data suggest that the active and inactive forms of the RecA filament are not simply interconvertible.

    PubMed

    Yu, X; Egelman, E H

    1992-09-05

    We have used electron microscopy to examine the two major conformational states of the helical filament formed by the RecA protein of Escherichia coli. The compressed filament, formed in the absence of a nucleotide cofactor either as a self-polymer or on a single-stranded DNA molecule, is characterized in solution by about 6.1 subunits per turn of a 76 A pitch helix, and appears to be inactive with respect to all RecA activity. The active state of the filament, formed with ATP or an ATP analog on either a single or double-stranded DNA substrate, has about 6.2 subunits per turn of a 94 A pitch helix. Measurements of the contour length of RecA-covered single-stranded DNA circles in ice, formed in the absence of nucleotide cofactor, indicate that each RecA subunit binds five bases, in contrast to the three bases or base-pairs per subunit in the active state. The different stoichiometries of DNA binding suggests that the two polymeric forms are not interconvertible, as has been suggested on biochemical grounds. A three-dimensional reconstruction of the inactive state shows the same general features as the 83 A pitch filament present in the RecA crystal. This structural similarity and the fact that the crystal does not contain ATP or DNA suggests that the crystal structure is more similar to the compressed filament than the active, extended filament.

  10. How a Small Change in Retinal Leads to G-Protein Activation: Initial Events Suggested by Molecular Dynamics Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Crozier, Paul S.; Stevens, Mark J.; Woolf, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Rhodopsin is the prototypical G-protein coupled receptor, coupling light activation with high efficiency to signaling molecules. The dark-state X-ray structures of the protein provide a starting point for consideration of the relaxation from initial light activation to conformational changes that may lead to signaling. In this study we create an energetically unstable retinal in the light activated state and then use molecular dynamics simulations to examine the types of compensation, relaxation, and conformational changes that occur following the cis–trans light activation. The results suggest that changes occur throughout the protein, with changes in the orientation of Helices 5 and 6, a closer interaction between Ala 169 on Helix 4 and retinal, and a shift in the Schiff base counterion that also reflects changes in sidechain interactions with the retinal. Taken together, the simulation is suggestive of the types of changes that lead from local conformational change to light-activated signaling in this prototypical system. PMID:17109408

  11. Activation of Vago by interferon regulatory factor (IRF) suggests an interferon system-like antiviral mechanism in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaozheng; Li, Haoyang; Chen, Yixiao; Chen, Yonggui; Wang, Sheng; Weng, Shao-Ping; Xu, Xiaopeng; He, Jianguo

    2015-10-13

    There is a debate on whether invertebrates possess an antiviral immunity similar to the interferon (IFN) system of vertebrates. The Vago gene from arthropods encodes a viral-activated secreted peptide that restricts virus infection through activating the JAK-STAT pathway and is considered to be a cytokine functionally similar to IFN. In this study, the first crustacean IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-like gene was identified in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. The L. vannamei IRF showed similar protein nature to mammalian IRFs and could be activated during virus infection. As a transcriptional regulatory factor, L. vannamei IRF could activate the IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE)-containing promoter to regulate the expression of mammalian type I IFNs and initiate an antiviral state in mammalian cells. More importantly, IRF could bind the 5'-untranslated region of L. vannamei Vago4 gene and activate its transcription, suggesting that shrimp Vago may be induced in a similar manner to that of IFNs and supporting the opinion that Vago might function as an IFN-like molecule in invertebrates. These suggested that shrimp might possess an IRF-Vago-JAK/STAT regulatory axis, which is similar to the IRF-IFN-JAK/STAT axis of vertebrates, indicating that invertebrates might possess an IFN system-like antiviral mechanism.

  12. Activation of Vago by interferon regulatory factor (IRF) suggests an interferon system-like antiviral mechanism in shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chaozheng; Li, Haoyang; Chen, Yixiao; Chen, Yonggui; Wang, Sheng; Weng, Shao-Ping; Xu, Xiaopeng; He, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    There is a debate on whether invertebrates possess an antiviral immunity similar to the interferon (IFN) system of vertebrates. The Vago gene from arthropods encodes a viral-activated secreted peptide that restricts virus infection through activating the JAK-STAT pathway and is considered to be a cytokine functionally similar to IFN. In this study, the first crustacean IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-like gene was identified in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. The L. vannamei IRF showed similar protein nature to mammalian IRFs and could be activated during virus infection. As a transcriptional regulatory factor, L. vannamei IRF could activate the IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE)-containing promoter to regulate the expression of mammalian type I IFNs and initiate an antiviral state in mammalian cells. More importantly, IRF could bind the 5′-untranslated region of L. vannamei Vago4 gene and activate its transcription, suggesting that shrimp Vago may be induced in a similar manner to that of IFNs and supporting the opinion that Vago might function as an IFN-like molecule in invertebrates. These suggested that shrimp might possess an IRF-Vago-JAK/STAT regulatory axis, which is similar to the IRF-IFN-JAK/STAT axis of vertebrates, indicating that invertebrates might possess an IFN system-like antiviral mechanism. PMID:26459861

  13. Lifewide Learning for Early Reading Development.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Amy Jo; Friedlander, Elliott; Jonason, Christine; Leer, Jane; Sorensen, Lisa Zook; Guajardo, Jarrett; D'Sa, Nikhit; Pava, Clara; Pisani, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    The authors examine the relationships between children's reading abilities and the enabling environment for learning in the context of Save the Children's Literacy Boost program. They conceptualize the enabling environment at a micro level, with two components: the home literacy environment, represented by reading materials/habits at home, and the community learning environment (community reading activities). Using longitudinal reading scores of 6,874 students in 424 schools in 12 sites across Africa and Asia, there was 1) a modest but consistent relationship between students' home literacy environments and reading scores, and 2) a strong relationship between reading gains and participation in community reading activities, suggesting that interventions should consider both home and community learning environments and their differential influences on interventions across different low-resource settings.

  14. Similarities and differences in brain activation and functional connectivity in first and second language reading: evidence from Chinese learners of English.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fan; Young Kim, Say; Liu, Yanni; Liu, Li

    2014-10-01

    It has been evidenced that both similarities and differences exist in the brain network involved in second language reading in comparison to the first language reading. However, very few studies have been done to compare functional connectivity in L1 and L2 reading. Brain activation and functional connectivity during English pseudoword rhyming judgment in a group of late Chinese-English bilinguals (the CE group) were compared to a Chinese word rhyming judgment task in another group of late Chinese-English bilinguals (the CC group). Brain activation analyses revealed that the two groups engaged a similar network and that the only significant group difference was greater involvement of the right middle occipital gyrus in the CC group than in the CE group, due to greater holistic visuospatial processing of Chinese characters. English pseudowords can be read using the same network as Chinese characters, whereas psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses revealed different connectivity within the reading network between the two groups. Greater functional connectivity was found between three visuo-orthographic seed regions and the right precentral gyrus in the CC group, suggesting that the sensorimotor patterns of Chinese syllables are activated during Chinese word rhyming judgment. In contrast, we found greater connectivity between the three seed regions and the left postcentral gyrus in the CE group. In addition, the connectivity between one of the three seed regions (i.e. the right middle occipital gyrus) and the left postcentral gyrus was positively correlated with English proficiency in the CE group. This suggests that somatosensory feedback plays a key role in processing the foreign phonemes of English pseudowords and those highly proficient bilinguals tend to rely on this information to a greater degree. We also found that within the CE group, the connectivity between the right middle occipital gyrus and the left inferior parietal lobule was positively

  15. [Spatio-Temporal Bioelectrical Brain Activity Organization during Reading Syntagmatic and Paradigmatic Collocations by Students with Different Foreign Language Proficiency].

    PubMed

    Sokolova, L V; Cherkasova, A S

    2015-01-01

    Texts or words/pseudowords are often used as stimuli for human verbal activity research. Our study pays attention to decoding processes of grammatical constructions consisted of two-three words--collocations. Russian and English collocation sets without any narrative were presented to Russian-speaking students with different English language skill. Stimulus material had two types of collocations: paradigmatic and syntagmatic. 30 students (average age--20.4 ± 0.22) took part in the study, they were divided into two equal groups depending on their English language skill (linguists/nonlinguists). During reading brain bioelectrical activity of cortex has been registered from 12 electrodes in alfa-, beta-, theta-bands. Coherent function reflecting cooperation of different cortical areas during reading collocations has been analyzed. Increase of interhemispheric and diagonal connections while reading collocations in different languages in the group of students with low knowledge of foreign language testifies of importance of functional cooperation between the hemispheres. It has been found out that brain bioelectrical activity of students with good foreign language knowledge during reading of all collocation types in Russian and English is characterized by economization of nervous substrate resources compared to nonlinguists. Selective activation of certain cortical areas has also been observed (depending on the grammatical construction type) in nonlinguists group that is probably related to special decoding system which processes presented stimuli. Reading Russian paradigmatic constructions by nonlinguists entailed increase between left cortical areas, reading of English syntagmatic collocations--between right ones.

  16. Reconstitution of Torso signaling in cultured cells suggests a role for both Trunk and Torso-like in receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Amarnath, Smita; Stevens, Leslie M; Stein, David S

    2017-02-15

    Formation of the Drosophila embryonic termini is controlled by the localized activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase Torso. Both Torso and Torso's presumed ligand, Trunk, are expressed uniformly in the early embryo. Polar activation of Torso requires Torso-like, which is expressed by follicle cells adjacent to the ends of the developing oocyte. We find that Torso expressed at high levels in cultured Drosophila cells is activated by individual application of Trunk, Torso-like or another known Torso ligand, Prothoracicotropic Hormone. In addition to assays of downstream signaling activity, Torso dimerization was detected using bimolecular fluorescence complementation. Trunk and Torso-like were active when co-transfected with Torso and when presented to Torso-expressing cells in conditioned medium. Trunk and Torso-like were also taken up from conditioned medium specifically by cells expressing Torso. At low levels of Torso, similar to those present in the embryo, Trunk and Torso-like alone were ineffective but acted synergistically to stimulate Torso signaling. Our results suggest that Torso interacts with both Trunk and Torso-like, which cooperate to mediate dimerization and activation of Torso at the ends of the Drosophila embryo.

  17. A Methodology for Reading Skill Improvement in Vocational Secondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Wanda; And Others

    Designed to help vocational teachers aid students in reading vocational education class materials, this handbook contains six sections of background information and suggested activities geared to various aspects of reading and a section of ideas for use in improving the reading skills of vocational students. While most of the examples in the…

  18. Content Reading Education: What Methods Do Teachers Prefer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Thomas C.; Rakow, Steven J.

    1991-01-01

    A random sample of 4,000 secondary teachers evaluated a list of 36 recommended content area reading practices. Respondents (1,676) suggested that inservice programs concentrate on asking questions about readings, discussing valuable but infrequently used strategies, and using student-centered activities relating prior experience to readings.…

  19. Identification and characterization of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus open reading frame 11 promotor activation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Lei

    2008-01-01

    Open reading frame 11 (ORF11) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus belongs to a herpesviral homologous protein family shared by some members of the gamma- herpesvirus subfamily. Little is known about this ORF11 homologous protein family. We have characterized an unknown open reading frame, ORF11, located adjacent and in the opposite orientation to a well-characterized viral IL-6 gene. Northern blot analysis reveals that ORF11 is expressed during the KSHV lytic cycle with delayed-early transcription kinetics. We have determined the 5{prime} and 3{prime} untranslated region of the unspliced ORF11 transcript and identified both the transcription start site and the transcription termination site. Core promoter region, representing ORF11 promoter activity, was mapped to a 159nt fragment 5{prime} most proximal to the transcription start site. A functional TATA box was identified in the core promoter region. Interestingly, we found that ORF11 transcriptional activation is not responsive to Rta, the KSHV lytic switch protein. We also discovered that part of the ORF11 promoter region, the 209nt fragment upstream of the transcription start site, was repressed by phorbol esters. Our data help to understand transcription regulation of ORF11 and to elucidate roles of ORF11 in KSHV pathogenesis and life cycle.

  20. Comparative Analysis of the Flax Immune Receptors L6 and L7 Suggests an Equilibrium-Based Switch Activation Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chunhong; Newell, Kim; Lawrence, Gregory J.; Ellis, Jeffrey G.; Anderson, Peter A.; Dodds, Peter N.

    2016-01-01

    NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are central components of the plant immune system. L6 is a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing NLR from flax (Linum usitatissimum) conferring immunity to the flax rust fungus. Comparison of L6 to the weaker allele L7 identified two polymorphic regions in the TIR and the nucleotide binding (NB) domains that regulate both effector ligand-dependent and -independent cell death signaling as well as nucleotide binding to the receptor. This suggests that a negative functional interaction between the TIR and NB domains holds L7 in an inactive/ADP-bound state more tightly than L6, hence decreasing its capacity to adopt the active/ATP-bound state and explaining its weaker activity in planta. L6 and L7 variants with a more stable ADP-bound state failed to bind to AvrL567 in yeast two-hybrid assays, while binding was detected to the signaling active variants. This contrasts with current models predicting that effectors bind to inactive receptors to trigger activation. Based on the correlation between nucleotide binding, effector interaction, and immune signaling properties of L6/L7 variants, we propose that NLRs exist in an equilibrium between ON and OFF states and that effector binding to the ON state stabilizes this conformation, thereby shifting the equilibrium toward the active form of the receptor to trigger defense signaling. PMID:26744216

  1. Reading as active sensing: a computational model of gaze planning in word recognition.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Marcello; Ognibene, Dimitri; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Pirrelli, Vito

    2010-01-01

    WE OFFER A COMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF GAZE PLANNING DURING READING THAT CONSISTS OF TWO MAIN COMPONENTS: a lexical representation network, acquiring lexical representations from input texts (a subset of the Italian CHILDES database), and a gaze planner, designed to recognize written words by mapping strings of characters onto lexical representations. The model implements an active sensing strategy that selects which characters of the input string are to be fixated, depending on the predictions dynamically made by the lexical representation network. We analyze the developmental trajectory of the system in performing the word recognition task as a function of both increasing lexical competence, and correspondingly increasing lexical prediction ability. We conclude by discussing how our approach can be scaled up in the context of an active sensing strategy applied to a robotic setting.

  2. Reading as Active Sensing: A Computational Model of Gaze Planning in Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Marcello; Ognibene, Dimitri; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Pirrelli, Vito

    2010-01-01

    We offer a computational model of gaze planning during reading that consists of two main components: a lexical representation network, acquiring lexical representations from input texts (a subset of the Italian CHILDES database), and a gaze planner, designed to recognize written words by mapping strings of characters onto lexical representations. The model implements an active sensing strategy that selects which characters of the input string are to be fixated, depending on the predictions dynamically made by the lexical representation network. We analyze the developmental trajectory of the system in performing the word recognition task as a function of both increasing lexical competence, and correspondingly increasing lexical prediction ability. We conclude by discussing how our approach can be scaled up in the context of an active sensing strategy applied to a robotic setting. PMID:20577589

  3. High adenylyl cyclase activity and in vivo cAMP fluctuations in corals suggest central physiological role.

    PubMed

    Barott, K L; Helman, Y; Haramaty, L; Barron, M E; Hess, K C; Buck, J; Levin, L R; Tresguerres, M

    2013-01-01

    Corals are an ecologically and evolutionarily significant group, providing the framework for coral reef biodiversity while representing one of the most basal of metazoan phyla. However, little is known about fundamental signaling pathways in corals. Here we investigate the dynamics of cAMP, a conserved signaling molecule that can regulate virtually every physiological process. Bioinformatics revealed corals have both transmembrane and soluble adenylyl cyclases (AC). Endogenous cAMP levels in live corals followed a potential diel cycle, as they were higher during the day compared to the middle of the night. Coral homogenates exhibited some of the highest cAMP production rates ever to be recorded in any organism; this activity was inhibited by calcium ions and stimulated by bicarbonate. In contrast, zooxanthellae or mucus had >1000-fold lower AC activity. These results suggest that cAMP is an important regulator of coral physiology, especially in response to light, acid/base disturbances and inorganic carbon levels.

  4. High adenylyl cyclase activity and in vivo cAMP fluctuations in corals suggest central physiological role

    PubMed Central

    Barott, K. L.; Helman, Y.; Haramaty, L.; Barron, M. E.; Hess, K. C.; Buck, J.; Levin, L. R.; Tresguerres, M.

    2013-01-01

    Corals are an ecologically and evolutionarily significant group, providing the framework for coral reef biodiversity while representing one of the most basal of metazoan phyla. However, little is known about fundamental signaling pathways in corals. Here we investigate the dynamics of cAMP, a conserved signaling molecule that can regulate virtually every physiological process. Bioinformatics revealed corals have both transmembrane and soluble adenylyl cyclases (AC). Endogenous cAMP levels in live corals followed a potential diel cycle, as they were higher during the day compared to the middle of the night. Coral homogenates exhibited some of the highest cAMP production rates ever to be recorded in any organism; this activity was inhibited by calcium ions and stimulated by bicarbonate. In contrast, zooxanthellae or mucus had >1000-fold lower AC activity. These results suggest that cAMP is an important regulator of coral physiology, especially in response to light, acid/base disturbances and inorganic carbon levels. PMID:23459251

  5. Roads to Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staiger, Ralph C.

    This book is a collection of ideas that have been used in many countries for the encouragement of reading. Its purposes are to provide information about reading and the reading habit; to put forward examples of local, national, and international reading promotion activities selected as useful, representative of different approaches, and adaptable…

  6. The Reading of Older Americans Who View Learning as a Lifelong Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngandu, Kathleen M.

    A study examined the reading behavior of 101 older adults enrolled in a summer "elderhostel" program offered by a small eastern college. Each subject responded to a questionnaire concerning reading habits, interests, attitudes, and motivations. Results showed that the older adults had a wide range of reading interests, including mysteries,…

  7. Making the Reading, Writing, Social Studies Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen-Esmaili, Karen

    1990-01-01

    Suggests incorporating reading, writing, and social studies within the context of literature. Includes reading lists and activities for teaching about the Victorian period in a two-month social studies unit that incorporates science fiction, mysteries, and fairy tales. Children discuss old photographs, examine artifacts, visit a Victorian mansion,…

  8. Individual Differences in Skilled Adult Readers Reveal Dissociable Patterns of Neural Activity Associated with Component Processes of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welcome, Suzanne E.; Joanisse, Marc F.

    2012-01-01

    We used fMRI to examine patterns of brain activity associated with component processes of visual word recognition and their relationships to individual differences in reading skill. We manipulated both the judgments adults made on written stimuli and the characteristics of the stimuli. Phonological processing led to activation in left inferior…

  9. Reading and Writing to Learn in Secondary Education: Online Processing Activity and Written Products in Summarizing and Synthesizing Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mateos, Mar; Martin, Elena; Villalon, Ruth; Luna, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The research reported here employed a multiple-case study methodology to assess the online cognitive and metacognitive activities of 15-year-old secondary students as they read informational texts and wrote a new text in order to learn, and the relation of these activities to the written products they were asked to generate. To investigate the…

  10. Open Your Cupboards to Learning Center Games: Activities for Reinforcing Math and Reading Skills for Teacher and Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langham, Martha A.; Peterson, Nancy M.

    This book has been developed to furnish teachers and parents with ideas for activities and games which aid children in the transition from oral language to printed language for reading and math. These games are designed to provide children with activities and experiences that increase vocabularies and make them useful in communication, language…

  11. Activation of HER3 Interferes with Antitumor Effects of Axl Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors: Suggestion of Combination Therapy1

    PubMed Central

    Torka, Robert; Pénzes, Kinga; Gusenbauer, Simone; Baumann, Christine; Szabadkai, István; Őrfi, Lászlȯ; Kéri, György; Ullrich, Axel

    2014-01-01

    The Axl receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) has been established as a strong candidate for targeted therapy of cancer. However, the benefits of targeted therapies are limited due to acquired resistance and activation of alternative RTKs. Therefore, we asked if cancer cells are able to overcome targeted Axl therapies. Here, we demonstrate that inhibition of Axl by short interfering RNA or the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) BMS777607 induces the expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3) and the neuregulin 1(NRG1)–dependent phosphorylation of HER3 in MDA-MB231 and Ovcar8 cells. Moreover, analysis of 20 Axl-expressing cancer cell lines of different tissue origin indicates a low basal phosphorylation of RAC-α serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT) as a general requirement for HER3 activation on Axl inhibition. Consequently, phosphorylation of AKT arises as an independent biomarker for Axl treatment. Additionally, we introduce phosphorylation of HER3 as an independent pharmacodynamic biomarker for monitoring of anti-Axl therapy response. Inhibition of cell viability by BMS777607 could be rescued by NRG1-dependent activation of HER3, suggesting an escape mechanism by tumor microenvironment. The Axl-TKI MPCD84111 simultaneously blocked Axl and HER2/3 signaling and thereby prohibited HER3 feedback activation. Furthermore, dual inhibition of Axl and HER2/3 using BMS777607 and lapatinib led to a significant inhibition of cell viability in Axl-expressing MDA-MB231 and Ovcar8 cells. Therefore, we conclude that, in patient cohorts with expression of Axl and low basal activity of AKT, a combined inhibition of Axl and HER2/3 kinase would be beneficial to overcome acquired resistance to Axl-targeted therapies. PMID:24862757

  12. Structure of the unliganded form of the proprotein convertase furin suggests activation by a substrate-induced mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Dahms, Sven O.; Arciniega, Marcelino; Steinmetzer, Torsten; Huber, Robert; Than, Manuel E.

    2016-01-01

    Proprotein convertases (PCs) are highly specific proteases required for the proteolytic modification of many secreted proteins. An unbalanced activity of these enzymes is connected to pathologies like cancer, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolaemia, and infectious diseases. Novel protein crystallographic structures of the prototypical PC family member furin in different functional states were determined to 1.8–2.0 Å. These, together with biochemical data and modeling by molecular dynamics calculations, suggest essential elements underlying its unusually high substrate specificity. Furin shows a complex activation mechanism and exists in at least four defined states: (i) the “off state,” incompatible with substrate binding as seen in the unliganded enzyme; (ii) the active “on state” seen in inhibitor-bound furin; and the respective (iii) calcium-free and (iv) calcium-bound forms. The transition from the off to the on state is triggered by ligand binding at subsites S1 to S4 and appears to underlie the preferential recognition of the four-residue sequence motif of furin. The molecular dynamics simulations of the four structural states reflect the experimental observations in general and provide approximations of the respective stabilities. Ligation by calcium at the PC-specific binding site II influences the active-site geometry and determines the rotamer state of the oxyanion hole-forming Asn295, and thus adds a second level of the activity modulation of furin. The described crystal forms and the observations of different defined functional states may foster the development of new tools and strategies for pharmacological intervention targeting furin. PMID:27647913

  13. Unbalanced Activation of Glutathione Metabolic Pathways Suggests Potential Involvement in Plant Defense against the Gall Midge Mayetiola destructor in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuming; Zhang, Shize; Whitworth, R. Jeff; Stuart, Jeffrey J.; Chen, Ming-Shun

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione, γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine, exists abundantly in nearly all organisms. Glutathione participates in various physiological processes involved in redox reactions by serving as an electron donor/acceptor. We found that the abundance of total glutathione increased up to 60% in resistant wheat plants within 72 hours following attack by the gall midge Mayetiola destructor, the Hessian fly. The increase in total glutathione abundance, however, is coupled with an unbalanced activation of glutathione metabolic pathways. The activity and transcript abundance of glutathione peroxidases, which convert reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG), increased in infested resistant plants. However, the enzymatic activity and transcript abundance of glutathione reductases, which convert GSSG back to GSH, did not change. This unbalanced regulation of the glutathione oxidation/reduction cycle indicates the existence of an alternative pathway to regenerate GSH from GSSG to maintain a stable GSSG/GSH ratio. Our data suggest the possibility that GSSG is transported from cytosol to apoplast to serve as an oxidant for class III peroxidases to generate reactive oxygen species for plant defense against Hessian fly larvae. Our results provide a foundation for elucidating the molecular processes involved in glutathione-mediated plant resistance to Hessian fly and potentially other pests as well. PMID:25627558

  14. Allele-Specific Phenotype Suggests a Possible Stimulatory Activity of RCAN-1 on Calcineurin in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weixun; Choi, Tae-Woo; Ahnn, Joohong; Lee, Sun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) binds to calcineurin through the PxIxIT motif, which is evolutionarily conserved. SP repeat phosphorylation in RCAN1 is required for its complete function. The specific interaction between RCAN1 and calcineurin is critical for calcium/calmodulin-dependent regulation of calcineurin serine/threonine phosphatase activity. In this study, we investigated two available deletion rcan-1 mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans, which proceed differently for transcription and translation. We found that rcan-1 may be required for calcineurin activity and possess calcineurin-independent function in body growth and egg-laying behavior. In the genetic background of enhanced calcineurin activity, the rcan-1 mutant expressing a truncated RCAN-1 which retains the calcineurin-binding PxIxIT motif but misses SP repeats stimulated growth, while rcan-1 lack mutant resulted in hyperactive egg-laying suppression. These data suggest rcan-1 has unknown functions independent of calcineurin, and may be a stimulatory calcineurin regulator under certain circumstances. PMID:27871170

  15. Reading a Suspenseful Literary Text Activates Brain Areas Related to Social Cognition and Predictive Inference

    PubMed Central

    Lehne, Moritz; Engel, Philipp; Rohrmeier, Martin; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Stories can elicit powerful emotions. A key emotional response to narrative plots (e.g., novels, movies, etc.) is suspense. Suspense appears to build on basic aspects of human cognition such as processes of expectation, anticipation, and prediction. However, the neural processes underlying emotional experiences of suspense have not been previously investigated. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while participants read a suspenseful literary text (E.T.A. Hoffmann's “The Sandman”) subdivided into short text passages. Individual ratings of experienced suspense obtained after each text passage were found to be related to activation in the medial frontal cortex, bilateral frontal regions (along the inferior frontal sulcus), lateral premotor cortex, as well as posterior temporal and temporo-parietal areas. The results indicate that the emotional experience of suspense depends on brain areas associated with social cognition and predictive inference. PMID:25946306

  16. A novel fMRI paradigm suggests that pedaling-related brain activation is altered after stroke.

    PubMed

    Promjunyakul, Nutta-On; Schmit, Brian D; Schindler-Ivens, Sheila M

    2015-01-01

    were examined separately, reduced brain activation volume reached statistical significance in BA6 [p = 0.04; 4,350 (2,347) μL stroke; 6,938 (3,134) μL control] and cerebellum [p = 0.001; 4,591 (1,757) μL stroke; 8,381 (2,835) μL control]. Regardless of whether activated regions were examined together or separately, there were no significant between-group differences in brain activation intensity [p = 0.17; 1.30 (0.25)% stroke; 1.16 (0.20)% control]. Reduced volume in the stroke group was not observed during lower limb tapping and could not be fully attributed to differences in head motion or movement rate. There was a tendency for pedaling-related brain activation volume to increase with increasing work performed by the paretic limb during pedaling (p = 0.08, r = 0.525). Hence, the results of this study provide two original and important contributions. First, we demonstrated that pedaling can be used with fMRI to examine brain activation associated with lower limb movement in people with stroke. Unlike previous lower limb movements examined with fMRI, pedaling involves continuous, reciprocal, multijoint movement of both limbs. In this respect, pedaling has many characteristics of functional lower limb movements, such as walking. Thus, the importance of our contribution lies in the establishment of a novel paradigm that can be used to understand how the brain adapts to stroke to produce functional lower limb movements. Second, preliminary observations suggest that brain activation volume is reduced during pedaling post-stroke. Reduced brain activation volume may be due to anatomic, physiology, and/or behavioral differences between groups, but methodological issues cannot be excluded. Importantly, brain action volume post-stroke was both task-dependent and mutable, which suggests that it could be modified through rehabilitation. Future work will explore these possibilities.

  17. A novel fMRI paradigm suggests that pedaling-related brain activation is altered after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Promjunyakul, Nutta-on; Schmit, Brian D.; Schindler-Ivens, Sheila M.

    2015-01-01

    regions were examined separately, reduced brain activation volume reached statistical significance in BA6 [p = 0.04; 4,350 (2,347) μL stroke; 6,938 (3,134) μL control] and cerebellum [p = 0.001; 4,591 (1,757) μL stroke; 8,381 (2,835) μL control]. Regardless of whether activated regions were examined together or separately, there were no significant between-group differences in brain activation intensity [p = 0.17; 1.30 (0.25)% stroke; 1.16 (0.20)% control]. Reduced volume in the stroke group was not observed during lower limb tapping and could not be fully attributed to differences in head motion or movement rate. There was a tendency for pedaling-related brain activation volume to increase with increasing work performed by the paretic limb during pedaling (p = 0.08, r = 0.525). Hence, the results of this study provide two original and important contributions. First, we demonstrated that pedaling can be used with fMRI to examine brain activation associated with lower limb movement in people with stroke. Unlike previous lower limb movements examined with fMRI, pedaling involves continuous, reciprocal, multijoint movement of both limbs. In this respect, pedaling has many characteristics of functional lower limb movements, such as walking. Thus, the importance of our contribution lies in the establishment of a novel paradigm that can be used to understand how the brain adapts to stroke to produce functional lower limb movements. Second, preliminary observations suggest that brain activation volume is reduced during pedaling post-stroke. Reduced brain activation volume may be due to anatomic, physiology, and/or behavioral differences between groups, but methodological issues cannot be excluded. Importantly, brain action volume post-stroke was both task-dependent and mutable, which suggests that it could be modified through rehabilitation. Future work will explore these possibilities. PMID:26089789

  18. The Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA) and the Traditional Approach Using Tales of Virtue Based on His Majesty the King's Teaching Concepts in Seventh Grade Students' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaemsai, Rungruedee; Rattanavich, Saowalak

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the English reading comprehension and ethical awareness of 7th grade students, when using either a directed reading-thinking activity (DR-TA), or a more traditional approach, involving tales of virtue based on His Majesty the King's teaching concepts. A randomized control group pretest-posttest design was used for the study,…

  19. Activity-dependent depression of excitability and calcium transients in the neurohypophysis suggests a model of "stuttering conduction".

    PubMed

    Muschol, Martin; Kosterin, Paul; Ichikawa, Michinori; Salzberg, B M

    2003-12-10

    Using millisecond time-resolved optical recordings of transmembrane voltage and intraterminal calcium, we have determined how activity-dependent changes in the population action potential are related to a concurrent modulation of calcium transients in the neurohypophysis. We find that repetitive stimulation dramatically alters the amplitude of the population action potential and significantly increases its temporal dispersion. The population action potentials and the calcium transients exhibit well correlated frequency-dependent amplitude depression, with broadening of the action potential playing only a limited role. High-speed camera recordings indicate that the magnitude of the spike modulation is uniform throughout the neurohypophysis, thereby excluding propagation failure as the underlying mechanism. In contrast, temporal dispersion and latency of the population spike do increase with distance from the stimulation site. This increase is enhanced during repeated stimulation and by raising the stimulation frequency. Changes in Ca influx directly affect the decline in population spike amplitude, consistent with electrophysiological measurements of the local loss of excitability in nerve terminals and varicosities, mediated by a Ca-activated K conductance. Our observations suggest a model of "stuttering conduction": repeated action potential stimulation causes excitability failures limited to nerve terminals and varicosities, which account for the rapid decline in the population spike amplitude. These failures, however, do not block action potential propagation but generate the cumulative increases in spike latency.

  20. Comparison of the White-Nose Syndrome Agent Pseudogymnoascus destructans to Cave-Dwelling Relatives Suggests Reduced Saprotrophic Enzyme Activity

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Hannah T.; Barton, Hazel A.

    2014-01-01

    White-nose Syndrome (WNS) is an emerging infectious mycosis that has impacted multiple species of North American bats since its initial discovery in 2006, yet the physiology of the causal agent, the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans ( = Geomyces destructans), is not well understood. We investigated the ability of P. destructans to secrete enzymes that could permit environmental growth or affect pathogenesis and compared enzyme activity across several Pseudogymnoascus species isolated from both hibernating bats and cave sediments. We found that P. destructans produced enzymes that could be beneficial in either a pathogenic or saprotrophic context, such as lipases, hemolysins, and urease, as well as chitinase and cellulases, which could aid in saprotrophic growth. The WNS pathogen showed significantly lower activity for urease and endoglucanase compared to con-generic species (Pseudogymnoascus), which may indicate a shift in selective pressure to the detriment of P. destructans’ saprotrophic ability. Based on the positive function of multiple saprotrophic enzymes, the causal agent of White-nose Syndrome shows potential for environmental growth on a variety of substrates found in caves, albeit at a reduced level compared to environmental strains. Our data suggest that if P. destructans emerged as an opportunistic infection from an environmental source, co-evolution with its host may have led to a reduced capacity for saprotrophic growth. PMID:24466096

  1. Assessing Motivation to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrell, Linda B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Motivation to Read Profile (MRP), which assesses children's self-concepts as readers and the value they see in reading. Discusses its development and offers suggestions for its use with elementary students. Includes the MRP. (SR)

  2. The neural correlates of reading fluency deficits in children.

    PubMed

    Langer, Nicolas; Benjamin, Christopher; Minas, Jennifer; Gaab, Nadine

    2015-06-01

    Multiple studies have shown that individuals with a reading disability (RD) demonstrate deficits in posterior left-hemispheric brain regions during reading-related tasks. These studies mainly focused on reading sub-skills, and it remains debated whether such dysfunction is apparent during more ecologically valid reading skills, such as reading fluency. In this fMRI study, reading fluency was systematically varied to characterize neural correlates of reading fluency in 30 children with (RD) and without (typical developing children, TYP) a RD. Sentences were presented at constrained, comfortable, and accelerated speeds, which were determined based on individual reading speed. Behaviorally, RD children displayed decreased performance in several reading-related tasks. Using fMRI, we demonstrated that both TYP and RD children display increased activation in several components of the reading network during fluent reading. When required to read at an accelerated speed, RD children exhibited less activation in the fusiform gyrus (FG) compared with the TYP children. A region of interest analysis substantiated differences in the FG and demonstrated a relationship to behavioral reading performance. These results suggest that the FG plays a key role in fluent reading and that it can be modulated by speed. These results and their implications for remediation strategies should be considered in educational practice.

  3. Subcaste differences in neural activation suggest a prosocial role for oxytocin in eusocial naked mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, Georgia A; Faykoo-Martinez, Mariela; Peragine, Deane E; Mooney, Skyler J; Holmes, Melissa M

    2016-03-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) influences prosocial behavior(s), aggression, and stress responsiveness, and these diverse effects are regulated in a species- and context-specific manner. The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a unique species with which to study context-dependent effects of OT, exhibiting a strict social hierarchy with behavioral specialization within the subordinate caste: soldiers are aggressive and defend colonies against unfamiliar conspecifics while workers are prosocial and contribute to in-colony behaviors such as pup care. To determine if OT is involved in subcaste-specific behaviors, we compared behavioral responses between workers and soldiers of both sexes during a modified resident/intruder paradigm, and quantified activation of OT neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) using the immediate-early-gene marker c-fos co-localized with OT neurons. Resident workers and soldiers were age-matched with unfamiliar worker stimulus animals as intruders, and encounters were videorecorded and scored for aggressive behaviors. Colony-matched controls were left in their home colony for the duration of the encounters. Brains were extracted and cell counts were conducted for OT immunoreactive (ir), c-fos-ir, and percentage of OT-c-fos double-labeled cells. Results indicate that resident workers were less aggressive but showed greater OT neural activity than soldiers. Furthermore, a linear model including social treatment, cortisol, and subcaste revealed that subcaste was the only significant predictor of OT-c-fos double-labeled cells in the PVN. These data suggest that in naked mole-rats OT promotes prosocial behaviors rather than aggression and that even within subordinates status exerts robust effects on brain and behavior.

  4. Cortical activation during Braille reading is influenced by early visual experience in subjects with severe visual disability: a correlational fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Melzer, P; Morgan, V L; Pickens, D R; Price, R R; Wall, R S; Ebner, F F

    2001-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed on blind adults resting and reading Braille. The strongest activation was found in primary somatic sensory/motor cortex on both cortical hemispheres. Additional foci of activation were situated in the parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes where visual information is processed in sighted persons. The regions were differentiated most in the correlation of their time courses of activation with resting and reading. Differences in magnitude and expanse of activation were substantially less significant. Among the traditionally visual areas, the strength of correlation was greatest in posterior parietal cortex and moderate in occipitotemporal, lateral occipital, and primary visual cortex. It was low in secondary visual cortex as well as in dorsal and ventral inferior temporal cortex and posterior middle temporal cortex. Visual experience increased the strength of correlation in all regions except dorsal inferior temporal and posterior parietal cortex. The greatest statistically significant increase, i.e., approximately 30%, was in ventral inferior temporal and posterior middle temporal cortex. In these regions, words are analyzed semantically, which may be facilitated by visual experience. In contrast, visual experience resulted in a slight, insignificant diminution of the strength of correlation in dorsal inferior temporal cortex where language is analyzed phonetically. These findings affirm that posterior temporal regions are engaged in the processing of written language. Moreover, they suggest that this function is modified by early visual experience. Furthermore, visual experience significantly strengthened the correlation of activation and Braille reading in occipital regions traditionally involved in the processing of visual features and object recognition suggesting a role for visual imagery.

  5. Simulation suggests that rapid activation of social distancing can arrest epidemic development due to a novel strain of influenza

    PubMed Central

    Kelso, Joel K; Milne, George J; Kelly, Heath

    2009-01-01

    Background Social distancing interventions such as school closure and prohibition of public gatherings are present in pandemic influenza preparedness plans. Predicting the effectiveness of intervention strategies in a pandemic is difficult. In the absence of other evidence, computer simulation can be used to help policy makers plan for a potential future influenza pandemic. We conducted simulations of a small community to determine the magnitude and timing of activation that would be necessary for social distancing interventions to arrest a future pandemic. Methods We used a detailed, individual-based model of a real community with a population of approximately 30,000. We simulated the effect of four social distancing interventions: school closure, increased isolation of symptomatic individuals in their household, workplace nonattendance, and reduction of contact in the wider community. We simulated each of the intervention measures in isolation and in several combinations; and examined the effect of delays in the activation of interventions on the final and daily attack rates. Results For an epidemic with an R0 value of 1.5, a combination of all four social distancing measures could reduce the final attack rate from 33% to below 10% if introduced within 6 weeks from the introduction of the first case. In contrast, for an R0 of 2.5 these measures must be introduced within 2 weeks of the first case to achieve a similar reduction; delays of 2, 3 and 4 weeks resulted in final attack rates of 7%, 21% and 45% respectively. For an R0 of 3.5 the combination of all four measures could reduce the final attack rate from 73% to 16%, but only if introduced without delay; delays of 1, 2 or 3 weeks resulted in final attack rates of 19%, 35% or 63% respectively. For the higher R0 values no single measure has a significant impact on attack rates. Conclusion Our results suggest a critical role of social distancing in the potential control of a future pandemic and indicate that such

  6. Role of Reading Engagement in Mediating Effects of Reading Comprehension Instruction on Reading Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigfield, Allan; Guthrie, John T.; Perencevich, Kathleen C.; Taboada, Ana; Klauda, Susan Lutz; McRae, Angela; Barbosa, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The engagement model of reading development suggests that instruction improves students' reading comprehension to the extent that it increases students' engagement processes in reading. We compared how Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) (support for cognitive and motivational processes in reading), strategy instruction (support for…

  7. Parental Involvement in School Activities and Reading Literacy: Findings and Implications from PIRLS 2011 Data. Policy Brief No. 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirazchiyski, Plamen; Klemencic, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief presents evidence demonstrating a positive association between parental involvement in school activities and student performance in the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2011. This association, which was evident in most of the 54 education systems analyzed, indicates that students enrolled in schools with…

  8. Associations among Preschool Children's Classroom Literacy Environment, Interest and Engagement in Literacy Activities, and Early Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroody, Alison E.; Diamond, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relations among the classroom literacy environment, children's interest and engagement in literacy activities, and children's early reading skills in a sample of 167 children aged 4 and 5 years enrolled in 31 Head Start classrooms. Researchers rated the classroom literacy environment. Teachers reported on children's…

  9. Preschoolers' Acquisition of Scientific Vocabulary through Repeated Read-Aloud Events, Retellings, and Hands-on Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia B.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored 3- and 4-year-old children's development of scientific vocabulary from participation in repeated interactive read-aloud events and retellings of three informational picture books about light and color, followed by hands-on science activities. Thirty-two children attending a YWCA preschool were matched by age and general…

  10. The Relationship of Oral Reading, Dramatic Activities, and Theatrical Production to Student Communication Skills, Knowledge, Comprehension, and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Robert S.; Koziol, Stephen M., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Studies the effects and interactions of a planned curriculum and 4 different sequences of oral reading, dramatic activities, and theatrical production on ninth grade students' communication skills, knowledge, comprehension, and attitudes toward self and theater. Reports significant improvement in communication skills and attitudes toward self and…

  11. A Comparison of Word Learning in 3-Year-Old Children At-Risk for Language and Literacy Difficulties in Two Conditions: Dialogic Reading and Activity-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Naomi L.

    2013-01-01

    Existing research suggests a need for an intervention that can accelerate vocabulary acquisition for young children at-risk due to poverty. An adapted alternating treatments design was used to examine the effects of Dialogic Reading and Activity-Based Intervention (ABI) on participants' production of target words. Participants were three…

  12. What makes the dorsomedial frontal cortex active during reading the mental states of others?

    PubMed Central

    Isoda, Masaki; Noritake, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    The dorsomedial frontal part of the cerebral cortex is consistently activated when people read the mental states of others, such as their beliefs, desires, and intentions, the ability known as having a theory of mind (ToM) or mentalizing. This ubiquitous finding has led many researchers to conclude that the dorsomedial frontal cortex (DMFC) constitutes a core component in mentalizing networks. Despite this, it remains unclear why the DMFC becomes active during ToM tasks. We argue that key psychological and behavioral aspects in mentalizing are closely associated with DMFC functions. These include executive inhibition, distinction between self and others, prediction under uncertainty, and perception of intentions, all of which are important for predicting others' intention and behavior. We review the literature supporting this claim, ranging in fields from developmental psychology to human neuroimaging and macaque electrophysiology. Because perceiving intentions in others' actions initiates mentalizing and forms the basis of virtually all types of social interaction, the fundamental issue in social neuroscience is to determine the aspects of physical entities that make an observer perceive that they are intentional beings and to clarify the neurobiological underpinnings of the perception of intentionality in others' actions. PMID:24367287

  13. Extensive Reading in the EFL Classroom: Benefits of a Face-to-Face Collaboration Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchhoff, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Extensive reading is an approach to language education that has shown great promise for foreign language learners to acquire language; however, implementation reveals difficulty in maintaining student motivation to read over long periods of time. This study investigates students' experience of face-to-face talk about books in an extensive reading…

  14. Activating Student Background Knowledge in a Take Charge Approach to Foreign Language Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Dolly Jesusita

    A guide for teachers of second language reading offers ideas for using authentic texts as instructional materials. The guide focuses on how to teach students to become strategic readers and use their background knowledge to enhance comprehension. Schema theory is proposed as a framework for approaching reading tasks, by providing relevant pre- and…

  15. The Effects of Authentic Reading Activities on the Written Production of Novice College Spanish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capanegra, Ana Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Many scholars have researched reading-to-writing relations, some of which found reading to be an effective enhancer of writing (Al-Jarf, 2004; Asencior, 2006; Lee, 1986a; Lee & Riley, 1990; Perez-Sotelo & Gonzalez-Bueno, 2003; Shang, 2007). Similar beginner college student samples were used previously by Asencior (2006), Perez-Sotelo and…

  16. Brassica juncea nitric oxide synthase like activity is stimulated by PKC activators and calcium suggesting modulation by PKC-like kinase.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Pooja Saigal; Gupta, Ravi; Maurya, Arun Kumar; Deswal, Renu

    2012-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule having varied physiological and regulatory roles in biological systems. The fact that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is responsible for NO generation in animals, prompted major search for a similar enzyme in plants. Arginine dependent NOS like activity (BjNOSla) was detected in Brassica juncea seedlings using oxyhemoglobin and citrulline assays. BjNOSla showed 25% activation by NADPH (0.4 mM) and 40% by calcium (0.4 mM) but the activity was flavin mononucleotide (FMN), flavin dinucleotide (FAD) and calmodulin (CaM) independent. Pharmacological approach using mammalian NOS inhibitors, NBT (300 μM) and l-NAME (5 mM), showed significant inhibition (100% and 67% respectively) supporting that the BjNOSla operates via the oxidative pathway. Most of the BjNOSla activity (80%) was confined to shoot while root showed only 20% activity. Localization studies by NADPH-diaphorase and DAF-2DA staining showed the presence of BjNOSla in guard cells. Kinetic analysis showed positive cooperativity with calcium as reflected by a decreased K(m) (∼13%) and almost two fold increase in V(max). PMA (438 nM), a kinase activator, activated BjNOSla ∼1.9 fold while its inactive analog 4αPDD was ineffective. Calcium and PMA activated the enzyme to ∼3 folds. Interestingly, 1,2-DG6 (2.5 μM) and PS (1 μM) with calcium activated the enzyme activity to ∼7 fold. A significant inhibition of BjNOSla by PKC inhibitors-staurosporine (∼90%) and calphostin-C (∼40%), further supports involvement of PKC-like kinase. The activity was also enhanced by abiotic stress conditions (7-46%). All these findings suggest that BjNOSla generates NO via oxidative pathway and is probably regulated by phosphorylation.

  17. Crystal Structures of the Response Regulator DosR From Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Suggest a Helix Rearrangement Mechanism for Phosphorylation Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Wisedchaisri, G.; Wu, M.; Sherman, D.R.; Hol, W.G.J.

    2009-05-26

    The response regulator DosR is essential for promoting long-term survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under low oxygen conditions in a dormant state and may be responsible for latent tuberculosis in one-third of the world's population. Here, we report crystal structures of full-length unphosphorylated DosR at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution and its C-terminal DNA-binding domain at 1.7 {angstrom} resolution. The full-length DosR structure reveals several features never seen before in other response regulators. The N-terminal domain of the full-length DosR structure has an unexpected ({beta}{alpha}){sub 4} topology instead of the canonical ({beta}{alpha}){sub 5} fold observed in other response regulators. The linker region adopts a unique conformation that contains two helices forming a four-helix bundle with two helices from another subunit, resulting in dimer formation. The C-terminal domain in the full-length DosR structure displays a novel location of helix {alpha}10, which allows Gln199 to interact with the catalytic Asp54 residue of the N-terminal domain. In contrast, the structure of the DosR C-terminal domain alone displays a remarkable unstructured conformation for helix {alpha}10 residues, different from the well-defined helical conformations in all other known structures, indicating considerable flexibility within the C-terminal domain. Our structures suggest a mode of DosR activation by phosphorylation via a helix rearrangement mechanism.

  18. Purified recombinant hypothetical protein coded by open reading frame Rv1885c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis exhibits a monofunctional AroQ class of periplasmic chorismate mutase activity.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Prachee; Aruna, Bandi; Sardesai, Abhijit A; Hasnain, Seyed E

    2005-05-20

    Naturally occurring variants of the enzyme chorismate mutase are known to exist that exhibit diversity in enzyme structure, regulatory properties, and association with other proteins. Chorismate mutase was not annotated in the initial genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) because of low sequence similarity between known chorismate mutases. Recombinant protein coded by open reading frame Rv1885c of Mtb exhibited chorismate mutase activity in vitro. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of the recombinant protein suggests its resemblance to the AroQ class of chorismate mutases, prototype examples of which include the Escherichia coli and yeast chorismate mutases. We also demonstrate that unlike the corresponding proteins of E. coli, Mtb chorismate mutase does not have any associated prephenate dehydratase or dehydrogenase activity, indicating its monofunctional nature. The Rv1885c-encoded chorismate mutase showed allosteric regulation by pathway-specific as well as cross-pathway-specific ligands, as evident from proteolytic cleavage protection and enzyme assays. The predicted N-terminal signal sequence of Mtb chorismate mutase was capable of functioning as one in E. coli, suggesting that Mtb chorismate mutase belongs to the AroQ class of chorismate mutases. It was evident that Rv1885c may not be the only enzyme with chorismate mutase enzyme function within Mtb, based on our observation of the presence of chorismate mutase activity displayed by another hypothetical protein coded by open reading frame Rv0948c, a novel instance of the existence of two monofunctional chorismate mutases ever reported in any pathogenic bacterium.

  19. Reading is Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkeljohann, Rosemary

    1979-01-01

    The focus article in this newsletter contains a discussion of the theory of reading as a thinking process and offers practical suggestions for implementing instruction in teaching reading as a thinking process. The section on theory is based on observations of the reading process as perceived by psycholinguists such as Frank Smith and Kenneth…

  20. Using a Reading Strategy To Foster Active Learning in Content Area Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that using K-W-L as an active learning strategy in a traditional lecture classroom setting can facilitate interaction between professor, students and subject matter. Considers how this method fosters a sense of community between professor, the discipline, and students even in large classes. Concludes that one of the advantages of active…

  1. VISUAL TRAINING AND READING PERFORMANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ANAPOLLE, LOUIS

    VISUAL TRAINING IS DEFINED AS THE FIELD OF OCULAR REEDUCATION AND REHABILITATION OF THE VARIOUS VISUAL SKILLS THAT ARE OF PARAMOUNT IMPORTANCE TO SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT, AUTOMOBILE DRIVING, OUTDOOR SPORTS ACTIVITIES, AND OCCUPATIONAL PURSUITS. A HISTORY OF ORTHOPTICS, THE SUGGESTED NAME FOR THE ENTIRE FIELD OF OCULAR REEDUCATION, IS GIVEN. READING AS…

  2. Open reading frame UL26 of human cytomegalovirus encodes a novel tegument protein that contains a strong transcriptional activation domain.

    PubMed

    Stamminger, Thomas; Gstaiger, Matthias; Weinzierl, Konstanze; Lorz, Kerstin; Winkler, Michael; Schaffner, Walter

    2002-05-01

    A selection strategy, the activator trap, was used in order to identify genes of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) that encode strong transcriptional activation domains in mammalian cells. This approach is based on the isolation of activation domains from a GAL4 fusion library by means of selective plasmid replication, which is mediated in transfected cells by a GAL4-inducible T antigen gene. With this screening strategy, we were able to isolate two types of plasmids encoding transactivating fusion proteins from a library of random HCMV DNA inserts. One plasmid contained the exon 3 of the HCMV IE-1/2 gene region, which has previously been identified as a strong transcriptional activation domain. In the second type of plasmid, the open reading frame (ORF) UL26 of HCMV was fused to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain. By quantitative RNA mapping using S1 nuclease analysis, we were able to classify UL26 as a strong enhancer-type activation domain with no apparent homology to characterized transcriptional activators. Western blot analysis with a specific polyclonal antibody raised against a prokaryotic UL26 fusion protein revealed that two protein isoforms of 21 and 27 kDa are derived from the UL26 ORF in both infected and transfected cells. Both protein isoforms, which arise via alternative usage of two in-frame translational start codons, showed a nuclear localization and could be detected as early as 6 h after infection of primary human fibroblasts. By performing Western blot analysis with purified virions combined with fractionation experiments, we provide evidence that pUL26 is a novel tegument protein of HCMV that is imported during viral infection. Furthermore, we observed transactivation of the HCMV major immediate-early enhancer-promoter by pUL26, whereas several early and late promoters were not affected. Our data suggest that pUL26 is a novel tegument protein of HCMV with a strong transcriptional activation domain that could play an important role during initiation of

  3. Reading(s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Geoffrey; Summerfield, Judith

    Developed for college English courses, this book presents selections of poetry, short stories, and commentary intended to invite different ways of reading and interpreting literature. An introduction provides an overview of the book's content, as well as a discussion of how to read. The first section, "Entering a Language," considers the…

  4. Reading and Writing Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Jana M., Ed.

    This collection of papers, from a conference on reading and writing connections held at the University of Illinois in October 1986, reflects the value of demonstrating connections between reading instruction and writing. The book shows practitioners how writing can be blended with reading instruction and how writing activities can be used not just…

  5. Free Reading Is UTOPIA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeCrone, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    In high school students get tied up in extracurricular activities and have little time for pleasure reading. It is true that with rigorous academic schedules they have little time for pleasure reading. Thus began a conversation with a sophomore English teacher at the author's high school. As they were discussing the plight of free reading he was…

  6. Reading to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Phillip; Wardrip, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Science teachers expect high school students to know how to read, understand, and learn from texts at the core of the curriculum. But though students learn to read in grade school, many do not know how to "read to learn" science. And science teachers are often too busy teaching science to actively help students increase their science reading…

  7. Reading Ourselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherriff, Dawn

    2001-01-01

    Describes how reading and art have taught the author to slow down. Discusses how she wants her students to leave the third-grade classroom reading--reading words, reading pictures, and reading their world. Considers how one student slows down her reading, pays attention to her thinking, and begins to see the pictures and connections that poems…

  8. The Effect of Individual Differences in the Inner and Outer States of ICT on Engagement in Online Reading Activities and PISA 2009 Reading Literacy: Exploring the Relationship between the Old and New Reading Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yuan-Hsuan; Wu, Jiun-Yu

    2012-01-01

    With the prevalence of ICT, the concept of reading literacy has evolved to encompass both online reading and printed texts. This study clarifies the relationship between reading printed texts and online electronic texts from the perspective of individual differences in the inner and outer phases of ICT in a partial mediation model. We used the…

  9. Fusion activation by a headless parainfluenza virus 5 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase stalk suggests a modular mechanism for triggering.

    PubMed

    Bose, Sayantan; Zokarkar, Aarohi; Welch, Brett D; Leser, George P; Jardetzky, Theodore S; Lamb, Robert A

    2012-09-25

    The Paramyxoviridae family of enveloped viruses enters cells through the concerted action of two viral glycoproteins. The receptor-binding protein, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), H, or G, binds its cellular receptor and activates the fusion protein, F, which, through an extensive refolding event, brings viral and cellular membranes together, mediating virus-cell fusion. However, the underlying mechanism of F activation on receptor engagement remains unclear. Current hypotheses propose conformational changes in HN, H, or G propagating from the receptor-binding site in the HN, H, or G globular head to the F-interacting stalk region. We provide evidence that the receptor-binding globular head domain of the paramyxovirus parainfluenza virus 5 HN protein is entirely dispensable for F activation. Considering together the crystal structures of HN from different paramyxoviruses, varying energy requirements for fusion activation, F activation involving the parainfluenza virus 5 HN stalk domain, and properties of a chimeric paramyxovirus HN protein, we propose a simple model for the activation of paramyxovirus fusion.

  10. Mutations in the linker domain affect phospho-STAT3 function and suggest targets for interrupting STAT3 activity.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Claudia; Haripal, Bhagwattie; Klinge, Sebastian; Darnell, James E

    2015-12-01

    Crystallography of the cores of phosphotyrosine-activated dimers of STAT1 (132-713) and STAT3 (127-722) bound to a similar double-stranded deoxyoligonucleotide established the domain structure of the STATs and the structural basis for activation through tyrosine phosphorylation and dimerization. We reported earlier that mutants in the linker domain of STAT1 that connect the DNA-binding domain and SH2 domain can prevent transcriptional activation. Because of the pervasive importance of persistently activated STAT3 in many human cancers and the difficulty of finding useful drug candidates aimed at disrupting the pY interchange in active STAT3 dimers, we have examined effects of an array of mutants in the STAT3 linker domain. We have found several STAT3 linker domain mutants to have profound effects of inhibiting STAT3 transcriptional activation. From these results, we propose (i) there is definite functional interaction of the linker both with the DNA binding domain and with the SH2 domain, and (ii) these putative contacts provide potential new targets for small molecule-induced pSTAT3 inhibition.

  11. Mutations in the linker domain affect phospho-STAT3 function and suggest targets for interrupting STAT3 activity

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Claudia; Haripal, Bhagwattie; Klinge, Sebastian; Darnell, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Crystallography of the cores of phosphotyrosine-activated dimers of STAT1 (132–713) and STAT3 (127–722) bound to a similar double-stranded deoxyoligonucleotide established the domain structure of the STATs and the structural basis for activation through tyrosine phosphorylation and dimerization. We reported earlier that mutants in the linker domain of STAT1 that connect the DNA-binding domain and SH2 domain can prevent transcriptional activation. Because of the pervasive importance of persistently activated STAT3 in many human cancers and the difficulty of finding useful drug candidates aimed at disrupting the pY interchange in active STAT3 dimers, we have examined effects of an array of mutants in the STAT3 linker domain. We have found several STAT3 linker domain mutants to have profound effects of inhibiting STAT3 transcriptional activation. From these results, we propose (i) there is definite functional interaction of the linker both with the DNA binding domain and with the SH2 domain, and (ii) these putative contacts provide potential new targets for small molecule-induced pSTAT3 inhibition. PMID:26553978

  12. Open to Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Reading, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Contributors offer teaching ideas, including: using Sherlock Holmes mysteries to teach character and plot development, using materials supplied by the athletic coaches in the reading laboratory, and using individualized reading in the content areas. (AEA)

  13. Nicotinic Activity of Arecoline, the Psychoactive Element of "Betel Nuts", Suggests a Basis for Habitual Use and Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Papke, Roger L.; Horenstein, Nicole A.; Stokes, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Habitual chewing of "betel nut" preparations constitutes the fourth most common human self-administration of a psychoactive substance after alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine. The primary active ingredient in these preparations is arecoline, which comes from the areca nut, the key component of all such preparations. Arecoline is known to be a relatively non-selective muscarinic partial agonist, accounting for many of the overt peripheral and central nervous system effects, but not likely to account for the addictive properties of the drug. We report that arecoline has activity on select nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes, including the two classes of nAChR most related to the addictive properties of nicotine: receptors containing α4 and β2 subunits and those which also contain α6 and β3 subunits. Arecoline is a partial agonist with about 6–10% efficacy for the α4* and α6* receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Additionally, arecoline is a silent agonist of α7 nAChR; while it does not activate α7 receptors when applied alone, it produces substantial activation when co-applied with the positive allosteric modulator PNU-120696. Some α7 silent agonists are effective inhibitors of inflammation, which might account for anti-inflammatory effects of arecoline. Arecoline's activity on nAChR associated with addiction may account for the habitual use of areca nut preparations in spite of the well-documented risk to personal health associated with oral diseases and cancer. The common link between betel and tobacco suggests that partial agonist therapies with cytisine or the related compound varenicline may also be used to aid betel cessation attempts. PMID:26488401

  14. Nicotinic Activity of Arecoline, the Psychoactive Element of "Betel Nuts", Suggests a Basis for Habitual Use and Anti-Inflammatory Activity.

    PubMed

    Papke, Roger L; Horenstein, Nicole A; Stokes, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Habitual chewing of "betel nut" preparations constitutes the fourth most common human self-administration of a psychoactive substance after alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine. The primary active ingredient in these preparations is arecoline, which comes from the areca nut, the key component of all such preparations. Arecoline is known to be a relatively non-selective muscarinic partial agonist, accounting for many of the overt peripheral and central nervous system effects, but not likely to account for the addictive properties of the drug. We report that arecoline has activity on select nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes, including the two classes of nAChR most related to the addictive properties of nicotine: receptors containing α4 and β2 subunits and those which also contain α6 and β3 subunits. Arecoline is a partial agonist with about 6-10% efficacy for the α4* and α6* receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Additionally, arecoline is a silent agonist of α7 nAChR; while it does not activate α7 receptors when applied alone, it produces substantial activation when co-applied with the positive allosteric modulator PNU-120696. Some α7 silent agonists are effective inhibitors of inflammation, which might account for anti-inflammatory effects of arecoline. Arecoline's activity on nAChR associated with addiction may account for the habitual use of areca nut preparations in spite of the well-documented risk to personal health associated with oral diseases and cancer. The common link between betel and tobacco suggests that partial agonist therapies with cytisine or the related compound varenicline may also be used to aid betel cessation attempts.

  15. Extraclass Activities in Aviation, Photography, Radio for Secondary School Pupils: Suggestions for School Administrators and Sponsors. Bulletin, 1956, No. 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Willis C.

    1956-01-01

    One of the outstanding characteristics of American secondary education is the emphasis that it places upon individual and social needs. Most educators endorse student extraclass activities as an important way to obtain program flexibility, meet individual needs, and attain desirable education objectives. Among the purposes of this publication are…

  16. Barriers to and Suggestions for a Healthful, Active Lifestyle as Perceived by Rural and Urban Costa Rican Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Garita-Arce, Carlos; Sanchez-Lopez, Marta; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the perceptions of rural and urban Costa Rican adolescents regarding which barriers and motivators affect their adoption of an active lifestyle. Design: Data were collected in focus group discussions. Participants: 108 male and female adolescents aged 12 to 18 from the 7th to 11th grades. Setting: Two urban and 1 rural high…

  17. The Effects of Reading Only vs. Reading plus Enhancement Activities on Vocabulary Learning and Production of Iranian Pre-University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amiryousefi, Mohammad; Kassaian, Zohreh

    2010-01-01

    The present research was conducted to examine the relative effectiveness of two instructional approaches to second language vocabulary learning: the "Reading Only" (RO) approach and the "Reading Plus" (RP) approach. To carry out this study, sixty EFL students from Shahed Pre-University Center of Isfahan were selected and…

  18. "Read Naturally": A Strategy To Increase Oral Reading Fluency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasbrouck, Jan E.; Ihnot, Candyce; Rogers, Ginger H.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Read Naturally (RN) strategy to improve reading fluency that combines reading from a model, repeated readings, and progress-monitoring. Suggests positive results found in data collected from classroom implementations with K-3 remedial and special education students and 6th-grade special education students. (NH)

  19. New Ulvan-Degrading Polysaccharide Lyase Family: Structure and Catalytic Mechanism Suggests Convergent Evolution of Active Site Architecture.

    PubMed

    Ulaganathan, ThirumalaiSelvi; Boniecki, Michal T; Foran, Elizabeth; Buravenkov, Vitaliy; Mizrachi, Naama; Banin, Ehud; Helbert, William; Cygler, Miroslaw

    2017-03-23

    Ulvan is a complex sulfated polysaccharide biosynthesized by green seaweed and contains predominantly rhamnose, xylose, and uronic acid sugars. Ulvan-degrading enzymes have only recently been identified and added to the CAZy ( www.cazy.org ) database as family PL24, but neither their structure nor catalytic mechanism(s) are yet known. Several homologous, new ulvan lyases, have been discovered in Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain PLSV, Alteromonas LOR, and Nonlabens ulvanivorans, defining a new family PL25, with the lyase encoded by the gene PLSV_3936 being one of them. This enzyme cleaves the glycosidic bond between 3-sulfated rhamnose (R3S) and glucuronic acid (GlcA) or iduronic acid (IdoA) via a β-elimination mechanism. We report the crystal structure of PLSV_3936 and its complex with a tetrasaccharide substrate. PLSV_3936 folds into a seven-bladed β-propeller, with each blade consisting of four antiparallel β-strands. Sequence conservation analysis identified a highly conserved region lining at one end of a deep crevice on the protein surface. The putative active site was identified by mutagenesis and activity measurements. Crystal structure of the enzyme with a bound tetrasaccharide substrate confirmed the identity of base and acid residues and allowed determination of the catalytic mechanism and also the identification of residues neutralizing the uronic acid carboxylic group. The PLSV_3936 structure provides an example of a convergent evolution among polysaccharide lyases toward a common active site architecture embedded in distinct folds.

  20. I Can Read and Write! How To Encourage Your School-Age Child's Literacy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Reading Association, Newark, DE.

    This booklet suggests that parents read with their elementary-age child, allowing the child to participate in the reading. The booklet also shows how to make the home a reader-friendly environment, initiate writing activities with a child, and make family trips to the library. Sections of the booklet are: "Read to Your Child"; "The Family That…

  1. The Universality of Symbolic Representation for Reading in Asian and Alphabetic Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi

    2007-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of reading have identified unique patterns of activation for individuals reading in alphabetic and Asian languages, suggesting the involvement of different processes in each. The present study investigates the extent to which a cognitive prerequisite for reading, the understanding of the symbolic function of print, is common…

  2. Addressing the Gender Gap in Boys' Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welldon, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Research shows that boys have a tougher time that girls learning to read, and they score lower in reading achievement tests. The school literacy initiative was to help reduce the gender gap in reading and get boys in grades 4-6 excited about reading. To achieve this goal, the Cool Guys Reading Club, promoting reading as a cool activity, was born.…

  3. Effects of transcription elongation rate and Xrn2 exonuclease activity on RNA polymerase II termination suggest widespread kinetic competition

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Nova; Brannan, Kristopher; Erickson, Benjamin; Kim, Hyunmin; Cortazar, Michael; Sheridan, Ryan M.; Nguyen, Tram; Karp, Shai; Bentley, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The torpedo model of transcription termination asserts that the exonuclease Xrn2 attacks the 5′PO4-end exposed by nascent RNA cleavage and chases down the RNA polymerase. We tested this mechanism using a dominant-negative human Xrn2 mutant and found that it delayed termination genome-wide. Xrn2 nuclease inactivation caused strong termination defects downstream of most poly(A) sites and modest delays at some histone and U snRNA genes suggesting that the torpedo mechanism is not limited to poly(A) site-dependent termination. A central untested feature of the torpedo model is that there is kinetic competition between the exonuclease and the pol II elongation complex. Using pol II rate mutants, we found that slow transcription robustly shifts termination upstream, and fast elongation extends the zone of termination further downstream. These results suggest that kinetic competition between elongating pol II and the Xrn2 exonuclease is integral to termination of transcription on most human genes. PMID:26474067

  4. Idea Sharing: The Use of Read-Share-Act to Promote Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charumanee, Nisakorn

    2014-01-01

    Nisakorn Charumanee believes that a reading teacher has an active role in cultivating reading culture or reading habit and in activating students to "want" to read. One way to do this is to integrate extensive reading into the classroom (Day and Bamford, 1998; Bamford and Day, 2004) where extensive reading can be enhanced if the teacher…

  5. Anticorrelation between Local Photoluminescence and Photocurrent Suggests Variability in Contact to Active Layer in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Eperon, Giles E; Moerman, David; Ginger, David S

    2016-11-22

    We use high-resolution, spatially resolved, laser beam induced current, confocal photoluminescence, and photoconductive atomic force microscopy (pcAFM) measurements to correlate local solar cell performance with spatially heterogeneous local material properties in methylammonium lead triiodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite solar cells. We find that, for this material and device architecture, the photocurrent heterogeneity measured via pcAFM on devices missing a top selective contact with traditional Au-coated tips is significantly larger than the photocurrent heterogeneity observed in full devices with both electron- and hole-selective extraction layers, indicating that extraction barriers at the Au/perovskite interface are ameliorated by deposition of the organic charge extraction layer. Nevertheless, in completed, efficient device structures (PCE ≈ 16%) with state-of-the-art nickel oxide and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid (PCBM) methyl ester contacts, we observe that the local photoluminescence (PL) is weakly anticorrelated with local photocurrent at both short-circuit and open-circuit conditions. We determine that the contact materials are fairly homogeneous; thus the heterogeneity stems from the perovskite itself. We suggest a cause for the anticorrelation as being related to local carrier extraction heterogeneity. However, we find that the contacts are still the dominating source of losses in these devices, which minimizes the impact of the material heterogeneity on device performance at present. These results suggest that further steps to prevent recombination losses at the interfaces are needed to help perovskite-based cells approach theoretical efficiency limits; only at this point will material heterogeneity become crucial.

  6. Teachers' Role in Fostering Reading Skill: Effective and Successful Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, G. Rexlin; Raja, B. William Dharma

    2011-01-01

    Reading bestows enjoyment and enlightenment. It unlocks the unknown. It is a complex cognitive activity that is indispensable for the kind of knowledge society. So the students of today's world must know how to learn from reading and to enter the present literate society. One who reads can lead others to light. People who read can be free because…

  7. Small Schools Reading Curriculum, 9-12: Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, JoAnne, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to assist teachers in small schools with the improvement of curriculum and instruction and to help smaller districts which do not have curriculum personnel to comply with Washington's Student Learning Objectives (SLO) Law, this guide contains reading curriculum materials for grades 9-12. The objectives listed are correlated to the Goals…

  8. Chinese Americans Past and Present; A Collection of Chinese American Readings and Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Don; Collier, Irene Dea

    This work consists of twenty reading selections, fiction and non-fiction. It is intended for use in grades 4 through 6 (9-12 year olds), and covers topics dealing with the history of the Chinese in America and contemporary Chinese American experience. These selections emphasize particularly the role the Chinese played in the development of the…

  9. Elementary School EFL Learners' Vocabulary Learning: The Effects of Post-Reading Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atay, Derin; Kurt, Gokce

    2006-01-01

    As language learning involves the acquisition of thousands of words, teachers and learners alike would like to know how vocabulary learning can be fostered, especially in EFL settings where learners frequently acquire impoverished lexicons, despite years of formal study. Research indicates that reading is important but not sufficient for…

  10. The Kids' Book Club: Lively Reading and Activities for Grades 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Desiree; Shropshire, Sandy

    Children learn to love reading by sharing quality books. Intended for children's librarians, media specialists, teachers, day care providers, and parents, this book will make it easy and fun to conduct book club meetings with little preparation time. Everything needed to start a weekly book club at school or at the library is included--detailed…

  11. Effect of Specialized In-Service Professional Development Activities on Elementary School Students' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Christy; Evans, Cay; Dai, Yong; Williams, Debbie; Rogers, Keitha

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether there was a significant increase in the reading achievement during second- and third-grade of the 12 students who attended Midway Elementary Professional Development School (PDS) from kindergarten through fifth grade. Additionally, the study was seeking a possible relationship between the in-service…

  12. Anticipation Guides: Ready-to-Use Guides & Fun Activities to Boost Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Joanne I; Vincent, Pamela J.

    2004-01-01

    Anticipation guides--work sheets that students complete before reading a book--can be invaluable tools for building prediction skills and helping students learn where to focus their attention. In this book, veteran teachers Joanne I. Hines and Pamela J. Vincent offer classroom-tested anticipation guides for a variety of trade books sure to engage…

  13. Invented Spelling Activities in Small Groups and Early Spelling and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Margarida Alves; Salvador, Liliana; Albuquerque, Ana; Silva, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the impact of an invented spelling programme conducted in small groups on children's written language acquisition in Portuguese. We expected the experimental group to have better post-test results than the control group in spelling and reading. Participants were 160 preschool-age children who were randomly divided into an…

  14. Early-light embryonic stimulation suggests a second route, via gene activation, to cerebral lateralization in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Chiandetti, Cinzia; Galliussi, Jessica; Andrew, Richard J.; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Genetic factors determine the asymmetrical position of vertebrate embryos allowing asymmetric environmental stimulation to shape cerebral lateralization. In birds, late-light stimulation, just before hatching, on the right optic nerve triggers anatomical and functional cerebral asymmetries. However, some brain asymmetries develop in absence of embryonic light stimulation. Furthermore, early-light action affects lateralization in the transparent zebrafish embryos before their visual system is functional. Here we investigated whether another pathway intervenes in establishing brain specialization. We exposed chicks' embryos to light before their visual system was formed. We observed that such early stimulation modulates cerebral lateralization in a comparable vein of late-light stimulation on active retinal cells. Our results show that, in a higher vertebrate brain, a second route, likely affecting the genetic expression of photosensitive regions, acts before the development of a functional visual system. More than one sensitive period seems thus available to light stimulation to trigger brain lateralization. PMID:24048072

  15. An interactive activation and competition model of person knowledge, suggested by proactive interference by traits spontaneously inferred from behaviours.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanbo E; Higgins, Nancy C; Uleman, James S; Michaux, Aaron; Vipond, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    People unconsciously and unintentionally make inferences about others' personality traits based on their behaviours. In this study, a classic memory phenomenon--proactive interference (PI)--is for the first time used to detect spontaneous trait inferences. PI should occur when lists of behaviour descriptions, all implying the same trait, are to be remembered. Switching to a new trait should produce 'release' from proactive interference (or RPI). Results from two experiments supported these predictions. PI and RPI effects are consistent with an interactive activation and competition model of person perception (e.g., McNeill & Burton, 2002, J. Exp. Psychol., 55A, 1141), which predicts categorical organization of social behaviours based on personality traits. Advantages of this model are discussed.

  16. Early-light embryonic stimulation suggests a second route, via gene activation, to cerebral lateralization in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Chiandetti, Cinzia; Galliussi, Jessica; Andrew, Richard J; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Genetic factors determine the asymmetrical position of vertebrate embryos allowing asymmetric environmental stimulation to shape cerebral lateralization. In birds, late-light stimulation, just before hatching, on the right optic nerve triggers anatomical and functional cerebral asymmetries. However, some brain asymmetries develop in absence of embryonic light stimulation. Furthermore, early-light action affects lateralization in the transparent zebrafish embryos before their visual system is functional. Here we investigated whether another pathway intervenes in establishing brain specialization. We exposed chicks' embryos to light before their visual system was formed. We observed that such early stimulation modulates cerebral lateralization in a comparable vein of late-light stimulation on active retinal cells. Our results show that, in a higher vertebrate brain, a second route, likely affecting the genetic expression of photosensitive regions, acts before the development of a functional visual system. More than one sensitive period seems thus available to light stimulation to trigger brain lateralization.

  17. Structure of Epstein-Barr Virus Glycoprotein 42 Suggests a Mechanism for Triggering Receptor-Activated Virus Entry

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, Austin N.; Sorem, Jessica; Longnecker, Richard; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2009-05-26

    Epstein-Barr virus requires glycoproteins gH/gL, gB, and gp42 to fuse its lipid envelope with B cells. Gp42 is a type II membrane protein consisting of a flexible N-terminal region, which binds gH/gL, and a C-terminal lectin-like domain that binds to the B-cell entry receptor human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II. Gp42 triggers membrane fusion after HLA binding, a process that requires simultaneous binding to gH/gL and a functional hydrophobic pocket in the lectin domain adjacent to the HLA binding site. Here we present the structure of gp42 in its unbound form. Comparisons to the previously determined structure of a gp42:HLA complex reveals additional N-terminal residues forming part of the gH/gL binding site and structural changes in the receptor binding domain. Although the core of the lectin domain remains similar, significant shifts in two loops and an {alpha} helix bordering the essential hydrophobic pocket suggest a structural mechanism for triggering fusion.

  18. Prose reading in neglect.

    PubMed

    Beschin, Nicoletta; Cisari, Carlo; Cubelli, Roberto; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-02-01

    Prose reading has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of Unilateral Spatial Neglect. However, little is known about the relationship between prose reading and other measures of neglect and its severity, or between prose reading and single word reading. Thirty participants with a first stroke in the right hemisphere and clear symptoms of spatial neglect in everyday life were assessed with tests of prose reading (text in one column book-like, and in two columns magazine-like), single words reading, and a battery of 13 tests investigating neglect. Seventy percent of these participants omitted words at the beginning of the text (left end), showing Prose Reading Neglect (PRN). The participants showing PRN differed from those not showing PRN only for the overall severity of neglect, and had a lesion centred on the insula, putamen and superior temporal gyrus. Double dissociations emerged between PRN and single word reading neglect, suggesting different cognitive requirements between the two tests: parallel processing in single word reading vs. serial analysis in text reading. Notably, the pattern of neglected text varied dramatically across participants presenting with PRN, including dissociations between reading performance of one and two columns text. Prose reading proved a complex and unique task which should be directly investigated to predict the effects of unilateral neglect. The outcome of this study should also inform clinical assessment and advises given to patients and care-givers.

  19. Suggestions to Reduce Clinical Fibromyalgia Pain and Experimentally Induced Pain Produce Parallel Effects on Perceived Pain but Divergent Functional MRI–Based Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Derbyshire, Stuart W.G.; Whalley, Matthew G.; Seah, Stanley T.H.; Oakley, David A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Hypnotic suggestion is an empirically validated form of pain control; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Methods Thirteen fibromyalgia patients received suggestions to alter their clinical pain, and 15 healthy controls received suggestions to alter experimental heat pain. Suggestions were delivered before and after hypnotic induction with blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) activity measured concurrently. Results Across groups, suggestion produced substantial changes in pain report (main effect of suggestion, F2, 312 = 585.8; p < .0001), with marginally larger changes after induction (main effect of induction, F1, 312 = 3.6; p = .060). In patients, BOLD response increased with pain report in regions previously associated with pain, including thalamus and anterior cingulate cortex. In controls, BOLD response decreased with pain report. All changes were greater after induction. Region-of-interest analysis revealed largely linear patient responses with increasing pain report. Control responses, however, were higher after suggestion to increase or decrease pain from baseline. Conclusions Based on behavioral report alone, the mechanism of suggestion could be interpreted as largely similar regardless of the induction or type of pain experience. The functional magnetic resonance imaging data, however, demonstrated larger changes in brain activity after induction and a radically different pattern of brain activity for clinical pain compared with experimental pain. These findings imply that induction has an important effect on underlying neural activity mediating the effects of suggestion, and the mechanism of suggestion in patients altering clinical pain differs from that in controls altering experimental pain. Patient responses imply that suggestions altered pain experience via corresponding changes in pain-related brain regions, whereas control responses imply suggestion engaged cognitive control. PMID:27490850

  20. Molecular multiproxy analysis of ancient root systems suggests strong alteration of deep subsoil organic matter by rhizomicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gocke, Martina; Huguet, Arnaud; Derenne, Sylvie; Kolb, Steffen; Wiesenberg, Guido L. B.

    2013-04-01

    decreasing contents of archeal GDGTs from rhizolith via rhizosphere towards root-free loess. Furthermore, the bacterial fingerprint revealed - similar to modern root systems - higher taxonomic diversity in rhizosphere compared to rhizoliths and reference loess. This argues for microorganisms benefiting from root deposits and exudates. Highest concentrations of branched GDGTs in rhizoliths suggest that their source organisms feed on root remains. Incorporation of rhizomicrobial remains as represented by RNA and GDGTs usually affected the sediment at maximum to a distance of 2-3 cm from the former root. FA contents in rhizosphere showed strong scatter and were in part depleted compared to reference loess or, especially in deeper transects, enriched. This indicates the presence of degradation products originating from former rhizosphere processes. Especially at larger depth not affected by modern pedogenic processes, portions of mainly microbial derived C16 homologues were higher in rhizosphere loess up to distances of 10 cm, revealing that the possible extension of the rhizosphere was underestimated so far. In Corg poor subsoil, the occurence of diverse rhizosphere microorganisms and degradation processes even in several centimeters distant from roots point to a strong alteration of OM, possibly contributing to carbon mineralisation.

  1. How to Help Kids Enjoy Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    Because reading for pleasure faces such stiff competition from other activities, one Minnesota elementary principal instituted rewarding and enjoyable reading activities: DEAR (Drop Everything and Read) Time, principal's book club, "I love to read" month, RIOT (Reading Instead of Television) Time, celebrity readers, T-shirt logos, and…

  2. Promoting the Necessity to Read: A Guide for Instructors of the Disabled Reader in the Teaching of Survival Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Jennifer S.

    Designed to meet the needs of older nonreaders, this booklet provides teaching suggestions and classroom activities for functional or survival reading skills. The topics covered include using the telephone; figuring the cost of a purchase; following directions; survival vocabulary for public signs; vocabulary for the medicine chest; reading the…

  3. Modulation of cortical activity during comprehension of familiar and unfamiliar text topics in speed reading and speed listening

    PubMed Central

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Mason, Robert A.; Meschyan, Gayane; Keller, Timothy A.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2014-01-01

    Brain activation associated with normal and speeded comprehension of expository texts on familiar and unfamiliar topics was investigated in reading and listening. The goal was to determine how brain activation and the comprehension processes it reflects are modulated by comprehension speed and topic familiarity. Passages on more familiar topics differentially activated a set of areas in the anterior temporal lobe and medial frontal gyrus, areas often associated with text-level integration processes, which we interpret to reflect integration of previous knowledge with the passage content. Passages presented at the faster presentation resulted in more activation of a network of frontal areas associated with strategic and working-memory processes (as well as visual or auditory sensory-related regions), which we interpret to reflect maintenance of local coherence among briefly available passage segments. The implications of this research is to demonstrate how the brain system for text comprehension adapts to varying perceptual and knowledge conditions. PMID:25463816

  4. Cooccurrence of problems in activity level, attention, psychosocial adjustment, reading and writing in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Mei-Hui; Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Chuang, I-Ching; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the cooccurrence of problems in activity level, attention, reading, writing and psychosocial adjustment of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). A parent-report questionnaire, the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire - Chinese version (DCDQ-C), was used to screen first to third graders from 13 mainstream schools in Taipei. Two standardized motor tests were then administered to those who scored below 10% on the DCDQ-C. Tests of activity level, attention, reading, writing and psychosocial adjustment were then administered to this sample. Thirty-eight children identified as DCD, 32 as suspect for DCD and 82 as normal comparison were included in the final sample. Multivariate analysis of variance comparing the three groups (DCD, suspect DCD, and comparison) revealed that both children with DCD and suspect for DCD obtained significantly poorer scores on measures of attention and reading, and were more hyperactive than comparison children. Children with DCD and suspect for DCD were also reported to have more internalizing and social problems than children without motor problems. No significant differences, however, were noted between children with different degree of motor coordination problems (categorized as DCD and suspect for DCD) on any measure. Furthermore, a high percentage of children in both the DCD and suspect groups fell in the clinical range of attention, activity level and psychosocial adjustment problems. The results revealed a high risk for these problems in nonreferred children with motor coordination problems. The high percentage of clinical range behavioral problems warrants attention of clinicians who work with children with motor coordination difficulties to the need to promote early identification and referral.

  5. Genes for Reading and Spelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Timothy C.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews research on the behavioral and molecular genetics of reading and, where available, spelling. Recent research is summarized, suggesting that reading and spelling appear to share a common genetic basis, and that dyslexia lies on a genetic continuum with normal variance in reading skill. Research also suggests that while many of…

  6. Reading Comics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  7. Reading Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna R., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the Arizona Reading Journal focuses on the theme "reading recovery" and includes the following articles: "Why Is an Inservice Programme for Reading Recovery Teachers Necessary?" (Marie M. Clay); "What Is Reading Recovery?" (Gay Su Pinnell); "Teaching a Hard To Teach Child" (Constance A.…

  8. Reading Rituals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2007-01-01

    The Ogden, Utah schools have used the mandates of the federal Reading First grant program to transform reading instruction and student achievement in low-performing schools. Reading First was approved by Congress in 2001 under the No Child Left Behind Act to bring scientifically based reading methods and materials to struggling schools. The $1…

  9. Optically readout write once read many memory with single active organic layer

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Viet Cuong; Lee, Pooi See

    2016-01-18

    An optically readable write once read many memory (WORM) in Ag/Poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH PPV)/ITO is demonstrated in this work. Utilising characteristics of the organic light emitting diode structure of Ag/MEH PPV/ITO and electrochemical metallization of Ag, a WORM with light emitting capability can be realised. The simple fabrication process and multifunction capability of the device can be useful for future wearable optoelectronics and photomemory applications, where fast and parallel readout can be achieved by photons.

  10. Optically readout write once read many memory with single active organic layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Viet Cuong; Lee, Pooi See

    2016-01-01

    An optically readable write once read many memory (WORM) in Ag/Poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH PPV)/ITO is demonstrated in this work. Utilising characteristics of the organic light emitting diode structure of Ag/MEH PPV/ITO and electrochemical metallization of Ag, a WORM with light emitting capability can be realised. The simple fabrication process and multifunction capability of the device can be useful for future wearable optoelectronics and photomemory applications, where fast and parallel readout can be achieved by photons.

  11. Beginning Reading: A Natural Language Learning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovey, Duane R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Offers teachers and parents practical suggestions for helping children to begin reading naturally. Looks at specific strategies for helping young children to learn to read, particularly a built-in success procedure emphasizing nonvisual aspects of reading. (RWB)

  12. The Effects of Reading Fluency on Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zugel, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to examine the effects reading fluency has on reading comprehension. The analysis was done through a synthesis of recent literature on the topic. Research shows improvement in reading fluency does improve reading comprehension and suggests reading development similarities for all readers. This consistency in…

  13. A Read-Aloud for Science (Read It Aloud).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Judy S.; Breen, Margaret

    1996-01-01

    Recommends a young adult read-aloud selection for science classes on endangered species. Describes listening, writing, discussing, investigating, and debating activities capitalizing on this read-aloud. (SR)

  14. R.E.A.D.Y.: Read, Educate and Develop Youth. Reading Plan for Michigan: Parent Information for Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers. Learning Begins at Birth. [Kit with Videotape and Audiotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Association for the Education of Young Children, East Lansing.

    Noting the important role that parents can play in preparing their child to learn to read, the Read, Educate and Develop Youth (READY) Reading Plan for Michigan provides kits to parents of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. The kits contain suggestions for age-appropriate activities parents can do with their children to help them learn. In…

  15. Anything but Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Both the popular media and professional literature are filled with suggestions on how to improve reading, but the one approach that always works is rarely mentioned: provide readers with a supply of interesting and comprehensible books. Instead, people are given advice that is dead wrong as a means of improving reading (e.g., roller skating and…

  16. Entrepreneurship Education: Supplementary Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Thomas J.; And Others

    This third volume in the Entrepreneurship Education curriculum materials includes readings and suggested additional resources which complement the instructional strategies contained in the first two volumes. Three sections are included in the guide: critical incidents, readings in entrepreneurial skills, and management skill area resources.…

  17. Books for Summer Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Suggests several novels for educators' summer reading enjoyment, including classics by Robert Pirsig, Robertson Davies, John Steinbeck, Albert Camus, and Charles Dickens. Educators might also read Alex Kotlowitz's "There Are No Children Here" (Doubleday, 1991) and Sharon Quint's "Schooling Homeless Children" (Teachers College Press, 1994) to gain…

  18. Career Education: Learning with a Purpose. Secondary Guide-Vol. 5. Mathematics and Career Clusters, Mathematics Related Activity Suggestions, Field Trip Sites and Guest Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Marilyn; And Others

    The guide offers a compilation of teacher-developed career education materials which may be integrated with secondary level curriculum in mathematics. Suggested activities and ideas present the following units based on career clusters as they relate to mathematics: construction, communications and media, hospitality and recreation, public service,…

  19. "Capture Silk": Reading Aloud Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Patricia

    1993-01-01

    Considers the benefits and impact that come from reading texts aloud with other persons. Provides a plan by which partners can read books together aloud. Claims that this is a vital and habit-forming activity. (HB)

  20. Do You Read How I Read? Systematic Individual Differences in Semantic Reliance amongst Normal Readers

    PubMed Central

    Woollams, Anna M.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Madrid, Gaston; Patterson, Karalyn E.

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which meaning is involved in reading aloud has proven an area of longstanding debate, and current computational models differ on this dimension. The connectionist triangle model proposes that normal individuals rely on semantic information for correct reading of words with atypical spelling-sound relationships, but to varying degrees. This proposed individual difference would account for the varying stage of decline at which patients with semantic dementia first show the reading impairment known as surface dyslexia. Recent neuroimaging data has provided validation of this view, showing that individual differences in degree of semantic reliance during exception word reading predict the amount of activation in left anterior temporal regions associated with semantic processing. This study aimed to establish the cognitive correlates of individual differences in semantic reliance during exception word reading. Experiment 1 used a subgrouping approach with 32 participants and found larger imageability and semantic priming effects specifically for exception word reading amongst high relative to low semantic reliance readers. High semantic reliance readers also tended to read nonwords more slowly than low semantic reliance readers. A second experiment used a regression approach with 129 readers and confirmed the relationship of degree of semantic reliance both to imageability effects in exception word reading and speed of nonword reading. Further, while the performance of the higher semantic readers revealed no significant association with semantic processing tasks, there was a negative relationship with rhyme processing tasks. We therefore speculate that differences in phonological abilities may be responsible for varying degrees of semantic reliance in reading aloud. This proposal accords with the results of functional imaging showing that higher semantic reliance during exception word reading corresponds to lower activation in left pre-central gyrus, an

  1. Family Reading Night: A How to Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehmer, Julie

    2007-01-01

    A family reading night is the ideal way to introduce the library media center and actively involve parents in their child's reading success. This event is an opportunity to explain how a reading program works and provide parents with strategies to encourage further reading at home. Parents can sit down with their children and read in the library,…

  2. Teaching Reading and the At Risk Pupil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    At risk students need to experience a reading curriculum which offers success in learning to read; appropriate sequence of reading activities; feedback regarding what has been accomplished in reading; rewards for doing well when comparing past with present achievement records; intrinsic motivation in wanting to read; help and guidance to achieve…

  3. An application of CCD read-out technique to neutron distribution measurement using the self-activation method with a CsI scintillator plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohtomi, Akihiro; Kurihara, Ryosuke; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Honda, Soichiro; Tokunaga, Masaaki; Uno, Heita; Shinsho, Kiyomitsu; Wakabayashi, Genichiro; Koba, Yusuke; Fukunaga, Junichi; Umezu, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Ohga, Saiji

    2016-10-01

    In our previous paper, the self-activation of an NaI scintillator had been successfully utilized for detecting photo-neutrons around a high-energy X-ray radiotherapy machine; individual optical pulses from the self-activated scintillator are read-out by photo sensors such as a photomultiplier tube (PMT). In the present work, preliminary observations have been performed in order to apply a direct CCD read-out technique to the self-activation method with a CsI scintillator plate using a Pu-Be source and a 10-MV linac. In conclusion, it has been revealed that the CCD read-out technique is applicable to neutron measurement around a high-energy X-ray radiotherapy machine with the self-activation of a CsI plate. Such application may provide a possibility of novel method for simple neutron dose-distribution measurement.

  4. Speed Reading Courses and Their Effect on Reading Authentic Texts: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macalister, John

    2010-01-01

    Fluent reading is essential for successful comprehension. One dimension of reading fluency is reading rate, or reading speed. Because of the importance of reading fluency, fluency development activities should be incorporated into classroom practice. One activity that meets the fluency development conditions proposed by Nation (2007) is speed…

  5. Motivating Interest in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Reading Association. Utah Council.

    This yearbook is a collection of articles on the topic of motivating interest in reading. The articles are: "An Introduction to Recreational Reading in the Classroom" by Floyd Sucher, which discusses objectives, materials, setting, scheduling, and sharing activities; "New Words and New Meaning for Old Words" by Vermont Harward, Dan Bird, and Edith…

  6. DIFFERENTIAL AND AGE-DEPENDENT EXPRESSION OF HYPERPOLARIZATION-ACTIVATED, CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-GATED CATION CHANNEL ISOFORMS 1–4 SUGGESTS EVOLVING ROLES IN THE DEVELOPING RAT HIPPOCAMPUS

    PubMed Central

    BENDER, R. A.; BREWSTER, A.; SANTORO, B.; LUDWIG, A.; HOFMANN, F.; BIEL, M.; BARAM, T. Z.

    2011-01-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cation currents (Ih) are found in several brain regions including thalamus and hippocampus. Important functions of these currents in promoting synchronized network activity and in determining neuronal membrane properties have been progressively recognized, but the molecular underpinnings of these currents are only emerging. Ih currents are generated by hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels (HCNs). These channel proteins are encoded by at least four HCN genes, that govern the kinetic and functional properties of the resulting channels. Because of the potential impact of Ih-mediated coordinated neuronal activity on the maturation of the functional hippocampal network, this study focused on determining the expression of the four members of the HCN gene family throughout postnatal hippocampal development at both the regional and single cell level. The results of these experiments demonstrated that HCNs 1, 2 and 4 are differentially expressed in interneuronal and principal cell populations of the rat hippocampal formation. Expression profiles of each HCN isoform evolve during postnatal development, and patterns observed during early postnatal ages differ significantly from those in mature hippocampus. The onset of HCN expression in interneurons of the hippocampus proper precedes that in the dentate gyrus, suggesting that HCN-mediated pacing activity may be generated in hippocampal interneurons prior to those in the hilus. Taken together, these findings indicate an age-dependent spatiotemporal evolution of specific HCN expression in distinct hippocampal cell populations, and suggest that these channels serve differing and evolving functions in the maturation of coordinated hippocampal activity. PMID:11682156

  7. Induction of leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) like activity with wounding and methyl jasmonate in pigeonpea (Cajanas cajan) suggests the role of these enzymes in plant defense in leguminosae.

    PubMed

    Lomate, Purushottam R; Hivrale, Vandana K

    2011-06-01

    Aminopeptidases are ubiquitous in nature and their activities have been identified in several plant species. Leucine aminopeptidases (LAPs) are predominantly studied in solanaceous plants and are induced in response to wounding, herbivory and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). The functions of plant aminopeptidases are still under discussion and it is likely that the different classes play various roles. In the present study we report the local and systemic induction of LAP-like activity upon mechanical wounding and MeJA treatment. Two proteins with LAP-like activity were detected in pigeonpea leaves. They were designated as AP1 and AP2. AP1 activity was significantly induced upon wounding and application of MeJA. The estimated molecular masses of AP1 and AP2 were ∼ 60 and 41 kDa respectively in SDS-PAGE. The pH optimum for LAP-like activity in control leaf extracts was found to be neutral (pH 7.0) however the enzymes showed highest activity at alkaline pH (pH 9.0) in the leaf extracts of treated plants. The temperature optimum for LAP-like activity was around 40-50 °C. The enzymes were strongly inhibited by 1, 10 phenanthroline and bestatin. Heavy metal ions and EDTA inhibited LAP-like activities, whereas Mn(+2) and Mg(+2) activated the enzyme activities. Beside LpNA (33.5 U/mg/min) pigeonpea LAP-like enzymes also cleaved ApNA (15 U/mg/min) but were unable to cleave VpNA. Total proteolytic activity was also observed to be induced in treated plants. LAP-like activity was increased upto 19.5 fold after gel filtration chromatography. Results suggest that these enzymes may have functional defensive role in pigeonpea.

  8. The influence of a semi-reclined seated posture on head and neck kinematics and muscle activity while reading a tablet computer.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Ethan C; Gallagher, Kaitlin M

    2017-04-01

    Increased tablet computer usage calls for a proper understanding of potential injury risks from these devices. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of tablet computer reading postures on head and neck flexion and muscle activity. Nineteen participants completed read a tablet computer in four different postures (standard computer monitor, tablet on a desk, tablet in the lap, semi-reclined with tablet in the lap). Reading the tablet in a semi-reclined trunk posture with the tablet in one's lap increased (p < 0.001) neck flexion angle (71.6%ROM) relative to reading from the standard computer monitor (6.39%ROM). Head flexion in the semi-reclined posture (19.7%ROM) and muscle activity (8.88%MVC) were similar to when reading from a standard computer monitor. Despite potentially reducing the gravitational moment produced by the head, the semi-reclined position could still compromise the force capabilities of the neck extensor musculature and result in increased strain on the passive tissues of the spine. Future work should assess how the semi-reclined position influences cervical intervertebral angles and passive tissue properties of the cervical spine. Overall, more research needs to be conducted on thoracic spine kinematics while reading a tablet computer.

  9. Using Web-Based Activities to Promote Reading: An Exploratory Study with Teenagers (Uso de actividades en la red para promover la lectura: un estudio exploratorio con adolescentes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rátiva Velandia, Marlén; Pedreros Torres, Andrés Leonardo; Núñez Alí, Mónica

    2012-01-01

    It is considered valuable to take advantage of web activities to improve and qualify the English teaching and learning processes, especially in the promotion of reading comprehension. In this article we share the process and results of a study that focused on some activities based on web materials that were designed and used with 10th grade…

  10. Scientific Encounters of the Mysterious Sea. Reading Activities That Explore the Mysterious Creatures of the Deep Blue Sea. Grades 4-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embry, Lynn

    This activity book presents reading activities for grades 4-7 exploring the mysterious creatures of the deep sea. The creatures include: angel sharks; argonauts; barberfish; comb jelly; croakers; electric rays; flying fish; giganturid; lantern fish; narwhals; northern basket starfish; ocean sunfish; Portuguese man-of-war; sea cucumbers; sea…

  11. Anti-inflammation activities of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in response to UV radiation suggest potential anti-skin aging activity.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sung-Suk; Hwang, Jinik; Park, Mirye; Seo, Hyo Hyun; Kim, Hyoung-Shik; Lee, Jeong Hun; Moh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2014-10-14

    Certain photosynthetic marine organisms have evolved mechanisms to counteract UV-radiation by synthesizing UV-absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). In this study, MAAs were separated from the extracts of marine green alga Chlamydomonas hedleyi using HPLC and were identified as porphyra-334, shinorine, and mycosporine-glycine (mycosporine-Gly), based on their retention times and maximum absorption wavelengths. Furthermore, their structures were confirmed by triple quadrupole MS/MS. Their roles as UV-absorbing compounds were investigated in the human fibroblast cell line HaCaT by analyzing the expression levels of genes associated with antioxidant activity, inflammation, and skin aging in response to UV irradiation. The mycosporine-Gly extract, but not the other MAAs, had strong antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Furthermore, treatment with mycosporine-Gly resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 mRNA levels, which are typically increased in response to inflammation in the skin, in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, in the presence of MAAs, the UV-suppressed genes, procollagen C proteinase enhancer (PCOLCE) and elastin, which are related to skin aging, had increased expression levels equal to those in UV-mock treated cells. Interestingly, the increased expression of involucrin after UV exposure was suppressed by treatment with the MAAs mycosporine-Gly and shinorine, but not porphyra-334. This is the first report investigating the biological activities of microalgae-derived MAAs in human cells.

  12. Speed- Reading Made Easy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, W. S.

    1970-01-01

    Illustrates a compromise between vertical and horizontal typographies which should make speed reading faster and more reliable, and suggests that computers could prepare text according to this arrangement. (MB)

  13. Art Criticism and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Edmund Burke; Woods, Don

    1981-01-01

    The authors review a body of theory and accumulating evidence which suggests that critical study of the arts facilitates the development of cognitive skills, including those essential to reading. (Author/SJL)

  14. Learning to read shapes the activation of neural lexical representations in the speech recognition pathway.

    PubMed

    Schild, Ulrike; Röder, Brigitte; Friedrich, Claudia K

    2011-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that written and spoken language processing are tightly linked. Here we focus on the development of this relationship at the time children start reading and writing. We hypothesize that the newly acquired knowledge about graphemes shapes lexical access in neural spoken word recognition. A group of preliterate children (six years old) and two groups of beginning readers (six and eight years old) were tested in a spoken word identification task. Using word onset priming we compared behavioural and neural facilitation for target words in identical prime-target pairs (e.g., mon-monster) and in prime target pairs that varied in the first speech sound (e.g., non-monster, Variation condition). In both groups of beginning readers priming was less effective in the Variation condition than in the Identity condition. This was indexed by less behavioural facilitation and enhanced P350 amplitudes in the event related potentials (ERPs). In the group of preliterate children, by contrast, both conditions did not differ. Together these results reveal that lexical access in beginning readers is based on more acoustic detail than lexical access in preliterate children. The results are discussed in the light of bidirectional speech and print interactions in readers.

  15. Toward Life-Long Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duquette, Raymond J.

    Developing life-long reading habits is a process that should begin in elementary school. Children should be encouraged not only to read what has been approved for classroom use but also to look beyond classroom walls to read for interest and enjoyment. "Looking beyond the walls" is a parable that suggests that school curriculum go beyond the…

  16. How to Read Your Newspaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Newspaper Agency, Inc., Honolulu.

    One of a series prepared by the Hawaii Newspaper Agency, this teaching guide offers suggestions on how to teach students to read the newspaper. The booklet presents a rationale for teaching students to read the newspaper, stresses the importance of creating the right classroom environment for teaching students to read the newspaper, defines what…

  17. Reading and the English Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    In this issue, articles deal with various aspects of the relationship between reading and the English teacher. Titles include "Literary Humor" by Wilmer Lamar and "200 Adolescent Novels Worth Reading" by Ken Donelson; both suggest reading materials. Practical teaching tips are provided in "Comprehension Is Comprehension, Is . . ." by Jerry Walker,…

  18. Tutoring Reading--Valued Youth as Reading Helpers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Juanita C.

    2004-01-01

    The teacher wondered how her group of middle school tutors would react to reading predictable children's books to their elementary "tutees." Would they enjoy the books or would they think they were too mature to do the activities in the lesson? She wondered if the tutors would enjoy being read to as she modeled the dramatic reading of a children's…

  19. Read-Alouds: Do They Enhance Students' Ability To Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terblanche, Leezill

    Teachers can greatly extend a child's literacy development through the use of interactive read-alouds. When a story is read aloud to children a number of opportunities arise for extended activities that are related to the story and further literacy support. Children are able to learn about literacy through an adult modeling good reading behavior.…

  20. Reading, Risk, and Reality: College Students and Reading for Pleasure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Julie; Fister, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    News reports and well-publicized government studies have led to a popular perception that reading is an endangered activity, particularly among youth. In this study we surveyed college students, librarians, and college writing instructors about students' attitudes toward reading for pleasure, examine barriers to voluntary reading among college…

  1. Iowa City Reads! The Reading Event Worth Shouting About.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donham van Deusen, Jean; Langhorne, Mary Jo

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Community Reading Month (CRM) initiative in Iowa City, Iowa; its goals are to promote the value of reading and to build a sense of community. Topics include the development of CRM, increased reading scores of Iowa City's elementary school students, activities for people of all ages, and planning and evaluation. (AEF)

  2. Seven Ways Children Will Love Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patricia M.

    2002-01-01

    Offers ideas for teaching young readers to appreciate books. Suggests creating activities, such as reading contests, book theater, book reviews with a twist, character essays, and game shows. Intended as a starting point to help inspire Catholic educators to come up with more ideas of their own. (NB)

  3. Miraculous Readings: Using Fantasy Novels about Reading to Reflect on Reading the Bible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Russell W.

    2009-01-01

    This article reflects on the vivid images of reading presented in several popular fantasy novels, including "The Spiderwick Chronicles," "The Great Good Thing," and "The Neverending Story." It suggests that these images can be used to help children, youth, and adults reflect on the nature of reading and the potential power of reading sacred texts.…

  4. Enhancing Preschoolers' Executive Functions through Embedding Cognitive Activities in Shared Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, S. J.; Powell, T.; Vasseleu, E.; Johnstone, S.; Melhuish, E.

    2017-01-01

    Given evidence that early executive functioning sets the stage for a broad range of subsequent outcomes, researchers have sought to identify ways to foster these cognitive capacities. The current series of studies sought to design, develop, and provide evidence for the efficacy of embedding cognitive activities in a commonplace activity--shared…

  5. The Impact of a Therapy Dog Program on Children's Reading Skills and Attitudes toward Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirnan, Jean; Siminerio, Steven; Wong, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    An existing school program in which therapy dogs are integrated into the reading curriculum was analyzed to determine the effect on student reading. Previous literature suggests an improvement in both reading skills and attitudes towards reading when students read in the presence of a therapy dog. Using a mixed method model, the researchers…

  6. Learning to Read through Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra Conservation Center, Jamestown, CA.

    One of the twelve exemplary programs summarized in the Introduction to Right to Read's "Effective Reading Programs: Summaries of 222 Selected Programs" (CS001934), this program attempts to raise the reading skills of inmates of the Sierra Conservation Center to the level needed for training in conservation work while in prison, or for…

  7. How to Read in "English"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jack

    1978-01-01

    Teachers of the Newark, Delaware, school district developed Project C.A.R.E. (Content Area Reading Enrichment) to make reading a part of math, science, social studies, English and survival instruction. Project C.A.R.E. English activities are designed to make certain that reading is truly a part of all language arts by reinforcing five reading…

  8. Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP): use of a small group reading activity run by persons with dementia in adult day health care and long-term care settings.

    PubMed

    Skrajner, Michael J; Camp, Cameron J

    2007-01-01

    Six persons in the early to middle stages of dementia ("leaders") were trained in Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP) to lead a reading activity for 22 persons with more advanced dementia ("participants") in an adult day health center (ADHC) and a special care unit (SCU) in a skilled nursing facility. Researchers assessed the leaders' abilities to learn and follow the procedures of leading a group, as well as their satisfaction with their roles. In addition, participants' engagement and affect were measured, both during standard activities programming and during client-led activities. Results of this study suggest that persons with dementia can indeed successfully lead small group activities, if several important prerequisites are met. Furthermore, the engagement and affect of participants was more positive in client-led activities than in standard activities programming.

  9. The "Enigma" Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Frances Greenberg; Banas, Norma

    1985-01-01

    Approaches are discussed for constructing and implementing the ENIGMA (Engineering Individual Growth Through Manipulative Associations) reading program, a language-based activity using teacher-made puzzles and stories in a manipulative-associative manner. (CL)

  10. Open to Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Reading, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Includes the following short articles describing teaching techniques: (1) "S-RUN: Beyond SQ3R" (Nancy S. Bailey); (2) "Read-React for Unique Responses" (Barbara Zynda); (3) "Use a Literacy Van"; and (4) "Summaries Improve Comprehension" (Milford A. Jeremiah). (MM)

  11. Kinetic Structure of Large-Conductance Ca2+-activated K+ Channels Suggests that the Gating Includes Transitions through Intermediate or Secondary States

    PubMed Central

    Rothberg, Brad S.; Magleby, Karl L.

    1998-01-01

    Mechanisms for the Ca2+-dependent gating of single large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels from cultured rat skeletal muscle were developed using two-dimensional analysis of single-channel currents recorded with the patch clamp technique. To extract and display the essential kinetic information, the kinetic structure, from the single channel currents, adjacent open and closed intervals were binned as pairs and plotted as two-dimensional dwell-time distributions, and the excesses and deficits of the interval pairs over that expected for independent pairing were plotted as dependency plots. The basic features of the kinetic structure were generally the same among single large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, but channel-specific differences were readily apparent, suggesting heterogeneities in the gating. Simple gating schemes drawn from the Monod- Wyman-Changeux (MWC) model for allosteric proteins could approximate the basic features of the Ca2+ dependence of the kinetic structure. However, consistent differences between the observed and predicted dependency plots suggested that additional brief lifetime closed states not included in MWC-type models were involved in the gating. Adding these additional brief closed states to the MWC-type models, either beyond the activation pathway (secondary closed states) or within the activation pathway (intermediate closed states), improved the description of the Ca2+ dependence of the kinetic structure. Secondary closed states are consistent with the closing of secondary gates or channel block. Intermediate closed states are consistent with mechanisms in which the channel activates by passing through a series of intermediate conformations between the more stable open and closed states. It is the added secondary or intermediate closed states that give rise to the majority of the brief closings (flickers) in the gating. PMID:9607935

  12. Reading Salt Activates Gustatory Brain Regions: fMRI Evidence for Semantic Grounding in a Novel Sensory Modality

    PubMed Central

    González, Julio; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; Costumero, Víctor; Parcet, María Antonia; Ávila, César

    2012-01-01

    Because many words are typically used in the context of their referent objects and actions, distributed cortical circuits for these words may bind information about their form with perceptual and motor aspects of their meaning. Previous work has demonstrated such semantic grounding for sensorimotor, visual, auditory, and olfactory knowledge linked to words, which is manifest in activation of the corresponding areas of the cortex. Here, we explore the brain basis of gustatory semantic links of words whose meaning is primarily related to taste. In a blocked functional magnetic resonance imaging design, Spanish taste words and control words matched for a range of factors (including valence, arousal, imageability, frequency of use, number of letters and syllables) were presented to 59 right-handed participants in a passive reading task. Whereas all the words activated the left inferior frontal (BA44/45) and the posterior middle and superior temporal gyri (BA21/22), taste-related words produced a significantly stronger activation in these same areas and also in the anterior insula, frontal operculum, lateral orbitofrontal gyrus, and thalamus among others. As these areas comprise primary and secondary gustatory cortices, we conclude that the meaning of taste words is grounded in distributed cortical circuits reaching into areas that process taste sensations. PMID:22123940

  13. The pH-dependence of the Escherichia coli RNase HII-catalysed reaction suggests that an active site carboxylate group participates directly in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Bastock, James A; Webb, Michelle; Grasby, Jane A

    2007-04-27

    RNase HII specifically catalyses the hydrolysis of phosphate diester linkages contained within the RNA portion of DNA/RNA hybrids. The catalytic parameters of the enzyme derived from Escherichia coli BL21 have been measured using 5'-fluorescent oligodeoxynucleotide substrates containing embedded ribonucleotides. The products of the reaction and the chemistry of phosphate diester hydrolysis were assigned unequivocally using mass spectrometry. The pH-dependence of the catalytic parameters was measured under conditions of optimal magnesium ion concentration. The logarithm of the turnover number of the enzyme increases steeply with pH until a pH-independent region is reached close to neutrality. The slope of the pH-dependent region is 2, indicating that the catalytically proficient form of RNase HII is di-anionic. The pH-dependence of log 1/K(M) is a sigmoidal curve reaching a maximal value at higher pH, suggesting deprotonation of a residue stabilises substrate binding. Possible mechanisms for the RNase HII-catalysed reaction consistent with the pH-dependent behaviour of the enzyme are discussed. The active sites of RNase H enzymes contain a cluster of four strictly conserved carboxylate groups. Together, the data suggest a requirement for ionisation of an active site carboxylic acid for metal ion binding or correct positioning of metal ion(s) in the enzyme-substrate complex and a role for a second active site carboxylate in general base catalysis.

  14. Reading Attitude as a Mediator between Contextual Factors and Reading Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Hyo Jin; Bong, Mimi; Woo, Yeon-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Background: Among the factors known to influence reading development and performance, attitude toward reading is shown to be particularly critical for developing learners. Reading attitude (McKenna, 1994; McKenna et al., 1995) enhances independent reading, levels of engagement in classroom reading activities, and the amount and variety of topics…

  15. The Relationship between Reading Proficiency and Reading Strategy Use: A Study of Adult ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between reading strategy use and reading proficiency among 121 adult ESL learners. Reading strategy use was measured by the SORS, and reading proficiency was determined by the CASAS Reading Test and BEST Literacy Test. Findings of the study reveal that (a) adult ESL learners are active strategies users; (b)…

  16. Neural correlates of fixation duration in natural reading: Evidence from fixation-related fMRI.

    PubMed

    Henderson, John M; Choi, Wonil; Luke, Steven G; Desai, Rutvik H

    2015-10-01

    A key assumption of current theories of natural reading is that fixation duration reflects underlying attentional, language, and cognitive processes associated with text comprehension. The neurocognitive correlates of this relationship are currently unknown. To investigate this relationship, we compared neural activation associated with fixation duration in passage reading and a pseudo-reading control condition. The results showed that fixation duration was associated with activation in oculomotor and language areas during text reading. Fixation duration during pseudo-reading, on the other hand, showed greater involvement of frontal control regions, suggesting flexibility and task dependency of the eye movement network. Consistent with current models, these results provide support for the hypothesis that fixation duration in reading reflects attentional engagement and language processing. The results also demonstrate that fixation-related fMRI provides a method for investigating the neurocognitive bases of natural reading.

  17. Analysis of methane monooxygenase genes in mono lake suggests that increased methane oxidation activity may correlate with a change in methanotroph community structure.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ju-Ling; Joye, Samantha B; Scholten, Johannes C M; Schäfer, Hendrik; McDonald, Ian R; Murrell, J Colin

    2005-10-01

    Mono Lake is an alkaline hypersaline lake that supports high methane oxidation rates. Retrieved pmoA sequences showed a broad diversity of aerobic methane oxidizers including the type I methanotrophs Methylobacter (the dominant genus), Methylomicrobium, and Methylothermus, and the type II methanotroph Methylocystis. Stratification of Mono Lake resulted in variation of aerobic methane oxidation rates with depth. Methanotroph diversity as determined by analysis of pmoA using new denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis primers suggested that variations in methane oxidation activity may correlate with changes in methanotroph community composition.

  18. Sterol content analysis suggests altered eburicol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51) activity in isolates of Mycosphaerella graminicola adapted to azole fungicides.

    PubMed

    Bean, Tim P; Cools, Hans J; Lucas, John A; Hawkins, Nathaniel D; Ward, Jane L; Shaw, Michael W; Fraaije, Bart A

    2009-06-01

    The recent decline in the effectiveness of some azole fungicides in controlling the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola has been associated with mutations in the CYP51 gene encoding the azole target, the eburicol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51), an essential enzyme of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. In this study, analysis of the sterol content of M. graminicola isolates carrying different variants of the CYP51 gene has revealed quantitative differences in sterol intermediates, particularly the CYP51 substrate eburicol. Together with CYP51 gene expression studies, these data suggest that mutations in the CYP51 gene impact on the activity of the CYP51 protein.

  19. Stop codon read-through with PTC124 induces palmitoyl-protein thioesterase-1 activity, reduces thioester load and suppresses apoptosis in cultured cells from INCL patients

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Chinmoy; Zhang, Zhongjian; Mukherjee, Anil B.

    2011-01-01

    Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL), a lethal hereditary neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder, affects mostly children. It is caused by inactivating mutations in the palmitoyl-protein thioesterase-1 (PPT1) gene. Nonsense mutations in a gene generate premature termination codons producing truncated, nonfunctional or deleterious proteins. PPT1 nonsense-mutations account for approximately 31% of INCL patients in the US. Currently, there is no effective treatment for this disease. While aminoglycosides such as gentamycin suppress nonsense mutations, inherent toxicity of aminoglycosides prohibits chronic use in patients. PTC124 is a non-toxic compound that induces ribosomal read-through of premature termination codons. We sought to determine whether PTC124-treatment of cultured cells from INCL patients carrying nonsense mutations in the PPT1 gene would correct PPT1 enzyme-deficiency with beneficial effects. Our results showed that PTC124-treatment of cultured cells from INCL patients carrying PPT1 nonsense-mutations induced PPT1 enzymatic activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This low level of PPT1 enzyme activity induced by PTC124 is virtually identical to that induced by gentamycin-treatment. Even though only a modest increase in PPT1 activity was achieved by PTC124-treatment of INCL cells, this treatment reduced the levels of thioester (constituent of ceroid) load. Our results suggest that PTC124-treatment induces PPT1 enzymatic activity in cultured cells from INCL patients carrying PPT1 nonsense-mutations, and this modest enzymatic activity has demonstrable beneficial effects on these cells. The clinical relevance of these effects may be tested in animal models of INCL carrying nonsense mutations in the PPT1 gene. PMID:21704547

  20. Individual sequence variability and functional activities of fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) suggest ancient and complex immune recognition models in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Romero, Alejandro; Dios, Sonia; Poisa-Beiro, Laura; Costa, Maria M; Posada, David; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we describe sequences of fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (MuFREPs) with the fibrinogen domain probably involved in the antigen recognition, but without the additional collagen-like domain of ficolins, molecules responsible for complement activation by the lectin pathway. Although they do not seem to be true or primive ficolins since the phylogenetic analysis are not conclusive enough, their expression is increased after bacterial infection or PAMPs treatment and they present opsonic activities similar to mammalian ficolins. The most remarkable aspect of these sequences was the existence of a very diverse set of FREP sequences among and within individuals (different mussels do not share any identical sequence) which parallels the extraordinary complexity of the immune system, suggesting the existence of a primitive system with a potential capacity to recognize and eliminate different kind of pathogens.

  1. Phonological and Semantic Activation in Reading Two-Kanji Compound Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morita, Aiko; Matsuda, Fumiko

    2000-01-01

    Examined whether phonological information was activated automatically in processing two kanji compound words. In one experiment, participants judged whether pairs of words were homophones, while others judged whether pairs were synonyms. In the second, participants were asked to make one of the two judgments, as in experiment one. Findings support…

  2. A Dual Read-Out Assay to Evaluate the Potency of Compounds Active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Ollinger, Juliane; Bailey, Mai Ann; Moraski, Garrett C.; Casey, Allen; Florio, Stephanie; Alling, Torey; Miller, Marvin J.; Parish, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a serious global health problem caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There is an urgent need for discovery and development of new treatments, but this can only be accomplished through rapid and reproducible M. tuberculosis assays designed to identify potent inhibitors. We developed an automated 96-well assay utilizing a recombinant strain of M. tuberculosis expressing a far-red fluorescent reporter to determine the activity of novel compounds; this allowed us to measure growth by monitoring both optical density and fluorescence. We determined that optical density and fluorescence were correlated with cell number during logarithmic phase growth. Fluorescence was stably maintained without antibiotic selection over 5 days, during which time cells remained actively growing. We optimized parameters for the assay, with the final format being 5 days’ growth in 96-well plates in the presence of 2% w/v DMSO. We confirmed reproducibility using rifampicin and other antibiotics. The dual detection method allows for a reproducible calculation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), at the same time detecting artefacts such as fluorescence quenching or compound precipitation. We used our assay to confirm anti-tubercular activity and establish the structure activity relationship (SAR) around the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-carboxamides, a promising series of M. tuberculosis inhibitors. PMID:23593234

  3. Reading, Writing, and Thinking about Disability Issues: Five Activities for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Tammie M.; Menten, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors share five practical teaching activities for introducing disability into the secondary English curriculum that also address NCTE/IRA objectives for the English language arts. They have used these lessons to help students better analyze the language/rhetoric of disability, understand how disability is represented in…

  4. Impact of Activity-Based Mathematics Instruction on Students with Different Prior Knowledge and Reading Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yüksel, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of activity-based mathematics instruction on mathematics performance and investigate those factors, which contribute to the mathematics performance of a sample of children aged between 10 and 12 years. The study was designed to consider the impact of prior knowledge, self-regulation, prior attitude,…

  5. Teacher Language Scaffolds the Development of Independent Strategic Reading Activities and Metacognitive Awareness in Emergent Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Polly A.; Schmitt, Maribeth Cassidy

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of teacher language related to a specific network of strategies for problem solving, self-monitoring, and self-correcting on (a) the development and use of independent strategic activities and (b) metacognitive awareness variables in emergent readers. Descriptive analyses of 120 individual lessons conducted…

  6. Stage-Specific Binding Profiles of Cohesin in Resting and Activated B Lymphocytes Suggest a Role for Cohesin in Immunoglobulin Class Switching and Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Günal-Sadık, Gamze; Paszkowski-Rogacz, Maciej; Singaravelu, Kalaimathy; Beyer, Andreas; Buchholz, Frank; Jessberger, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    The immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (Igh) features higher-order chromosomal interactions to facilitate stage-specific assembly of the Ig molecule. Cohesin, a ring-like protein complex required for sister chromatid cohesion, shapes chromosome architecture and chromatin interactions important for transcriptional regulation and often acts together with CTCF. Cohesin is likely involved in B cell activation and Ig class switch recombination. Hence, binding profiles of cohesin in resting mature murine splenic B lymphocytes and at two stages after cell activation were elucidated by chromatin immunoprecipitation and deep sequencing. Comparative genomic analysis revealed cohesin extensively changes its binding to transcriptional control elements after 48 h of stimulation with LPS/IL-4. Cohesin was clearly underrepresented at switch regions regardless of their activation status, suggesting that switch regions need to be cohesin-poor. Specific binding changes of cohesin at B-cell specific gene loci Pax5 and Blimp-1 indicate new cohesin-dependent regulatory pathways. Together with conserved cohesin/CTCF sites at the Igh 3′RR, a prominent cohesin/CTCF binding site was revealed near the 3′ end of Cα where PolII localizes to 3′ enhancers. Our study shows that cohesin likely regulates B cell activation and maturation, including Ig class switching. PMID:25375358

  7. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  8. The Development and Evaluation of an Achievement Test for Measuring the Efficacy of Task-Based Writing Activities to Enhance Iranian EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejad, Ferdows Mohsen; Khosravian, Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the reliability of an achievement test to measure the efficacy of task-based writing activities to improve Iranian EFL learners' reading comprehension at the intermediate level in a private language institute in Ilam, Iran, namely Alefba language institute. To achieve the goal, the techniques for evaluating reliability…

  9. Read, Play, and Learn! Storybook Activities for Young Children. The Transdisciplinary Play-Based Curriculum. Collection 2: Modules 9-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Toni W.

    Read, Play, and Learn is a play-based curriculum designed to promote growth across all of the areas of development important to a young child. With a school-year's worth of ready-to-use lessons or modules, the curriculum provides story-related activities centered around themes such as enjoying seasonal festivities, sharing emotions, making…

  10. Understanding the Active Ingredients in an Effective Preschool Vocabulary Intervention: An Exploratory Study of Teacher and Child Talk during Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasik, Barbara A.; Hindman, Annemarie H.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: In order to identify the active ingredients in an effective professional development intervention focused on enhancing preschool vocabulary instruction, this study examines the frequency with which teachers and children discussed theme-related vocabulary words during shared book reading. Head Start teachers received 1 year of…

  11. Read, Play, and Learn! Storybook Activities for Young Children. The Transdisciplinary Play-Based Curriculum. Collection 1: Modules 1-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Toni W.

    Read, Play, and Learn is a play-based curriculum designed to promote growth across all of the areas of development important to a young child. With a school-year's worth of ready-to-use lessons or modules, the curriculum provides story-related activities centered around themes such as enjoying seasonal festivities, sharing emotions, making…

  12. Effects of At-Home Reading Activities and Parental Involvement on Classroom Communication Arts Assessments: Focus on the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, George

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation was written collaboratively by Cynthia Warren, Linetta Carter, and George Edwards with the exception of chapter 4 which is the individual effort of the aforementioned researchers. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of at-home reading activities and parental involvement on classroom communication arts assessments…

  13. Suggested Involvement of PP1/PP2A Activity and De Novo Gene Expression in Anhydrobiotic Survival in a Tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini, by Chemical Genetic Approach.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Koyuki; Kubo, Takeo; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2015-01-01

    Upon desiccation, some tardigrades enter an ametabolic dehydrated state called anhydrobiosis and can survive a desiccated environment in this state. For successful transition to anhydrobiosis, some anhydrobiotic tardigrades require pre-incubation under high humidity conditions, a process called preconditioning, prior to exposure to severe desiccation. Although tardigrades are thought to prepare for transition to anhydrobiosis during preconditioning, the molecular mechanisms governing such processes remain unknown. In this study, we used chemical genetic approaches to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of anhydrobiosis in the anhydrobiotic tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini. We first demonstrated that inhibition of transcription or translation drastically impaired anhydrobiotic survival, suggesting that de novo gene expression is required for successful transition to anhydrobiosis in this tardigrade. We then screened 81 chemicals and identified 5 chemicals that significantly impaired anhydrobiotic survival after severe desiccation, in contrast to little or no effect on survival after high humidity exposure only. In particular, cantharidic acid, a selective inhibitor of protein phosphatase (PP) 1 and PP2A, exhibited the most profound inhibitory effects. Another PP1/PP2A inhibitor, okadaic acid, also significantly and specifically impaired anhydrobiotic survival, suggesting that PP1/PP2A activity plays an important role for anhydrobiosis in this species. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of the required activities of signaling molecules for desiccation tolerance in tardigrades. The identified inhibitory chemicals could provide novel clues to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms underlying anhydrobiosis in tardigrades.

  14. Suggested Involvement of PP1/PP2A Activity and De Novo Gene Expression in Anhydrobiotic Survival in a Tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini, by Chemical Genetic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Koyuki; Kubo, Takeo; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2015-01-01

    Upon desiccation, some tardigrades enter an ametabolic dehydrated state called anhydrobiosis and can survive a desiccated environment in this state. For successful transition to anhydrobiosis, some anhydrobiotic tardigrades require pre-incubation under high humidity conditions, a process called preconditioning, prior to exposure to severe desiccation. Although tardigrades are thought to prepare for transition to anhydrobiosis during preconditioning, the molecular mechanisms governing such processes remain unknown. In this study, we used chemical genetic approaches to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of anhydrobiosis in the anhydrobiotic tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini. We first demonstrated that inhibition of transcription or translation drastically impaired anhydrobiotic survival, suggesting that de novo gene expression is required for successful transition to anhydrobiosis in this tardigrade. We then screened 81 chemicals and identified 5 chemicals that significantly impaired anhydrobiotic survival after severe desiccation, in contrast to little or no effect on survival after high humidity exposure only. In particular, cantharidic acid, a selective inhibitor of protein phosphatase (PP) 1 and PP2A, exhibited the most profound inhibitory effects. Another PP1/PP2A inhibitor, okadaic acid, also significantly and specifically impaired anhydrobiotic survival, suggesting that PP1/PP2A activity plays an important role for anhydrobiosis in this species. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of the required activities of signaling molecules for desiccation tolerance in tardigrades. The identified inhibitory chemicals could provide novel clues to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms underlying anhydrobiosis in tardigrades. PMID:26690982

  15. Active Lip Contour Using Hue Characteristics Energy Model for A Lip Reading System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogoshi, Yasuhiro; Ide, Hisato; Araki, Chikahiro; Kimura, Haruhiko

    Active contour model (SNAKES) is very used as one of the powerful technique in a contour extraction that utilizes principle of energy-minimizing. Performing extraction of lip contour with the lip image that has strong edges or noises on the lips and oral cavity is an important problem. This paper proposes a new energy model of SNAKES based on hue characteristics of lip images.

  16. The Effects of Word Walls and Word Wall Activities on the Reading Fluency of First Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasmine, Joanne; Schiesl, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Reading fluency is the ability to read orally with speed and efficiency, including word recognition, decoding, and comprehension (Chard & Pikulski, 2005). Able readers achieve fluency as they recognize words with speed and build upon them to aid in comprehension (Pumfrey & Elliott, 1990). One way to help students achieve fluency is through the use…

  17. What We Know About: Reading at the Middle and High School Levels--Building Active Readers across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Elizabeth A.

    Based on research findings, informed opinions contained in the professional literature, and examples from school personnel of "what works," this report focuses on strategies that educators can use to improve secondary school students' reading skills and enhance interest in reading. Many of the strategies in the report are applicable…

  18. The Effects of a Dog Reading Visitation Program on Academic Engagement Behavior in Three Elementary Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities: A Single Case Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassette, Laura A.; Taber-Doughty, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD) struggle with behavioral problems during reading activities in school. One way to address these concerns may be through dog reading programs which are increasing in popularity in schools and libraries. Preliminary anecdotal research suggests dog reading programs may improve…

  19. Como ayudar a su hijo a aprender a leer ingles como segunda lengua. (How Can I Help My Child Learn to Read English as a Second Language.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Ricardo L.; Deyoe, Rita Maxine

    Suggestions for ways in which parents can help their children learn to read English are contained in this short booklet written in Spanish. Activities to be performed in the home, such as listening to and talking to the child in any language, reading aloud, reading for oneself, obtaining books for the home, and organizing study time for the child,…

  20. Conformational Changes in the Activation Loop of Mitochondrial Glutaminase C: A Direct Fluorescence Read-Out that Distinguishes the Binding of Allosteric Inhibitors from Activators.

    PubMed

    Stalnecker, Clint A; Erickson, Jon W; Cerione, Richard A

    2017-02-14

    The first step in glutamine catabolism is catalyzed by the mitochondrial enzyme glutaminase, with a specific isoform, glutaminase C (GAC), being highly expressed in cancer cells. GAC activation requires the formation of homo-tetramers, promoted by anionic allosteric activators such as inorganic phosphate. This leads to the proper orientation of a flexible loop proximal to the dimer-dimer interface that is essential for catalysis (i.e. the activation loop). A major class of allosteric inhibitors of GAC, with the prototype being BPTES (bis-2-(5-phenylacetamido-1,2,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)ethyl sulfide), and the related molecule CB-839, binds to the activation loop and induces the formation of an inactive tetramer (2 inhibitors bound per active tetramer). Here, we describe a direct readout for monitoring the dynamics of the activation loop of GAC in response to these allosteric inhibitors, as well as allosteric activators, through the substitution of phenylalanine at position 327 with tryptophan (F327W). The tryptophan fluorescence of the GAC(F327W) mutant undergoes a marked quenching upon the binding of BPTES or CB-839, yielding titration profiles that make it possible to measure the binding affinities of these inhibitors for the enzyme. Allosteric activators like phosphate induce the opposite effect (i.e. a fluorescence enhancement). These results describe direct read-outs for the binding of the BPTES-class of allosteric inhibitors, as well as for inorganic phosphate and related activators of GAC, which should facilitate screening for additional modulators of this important metabolic enzyme.

  1. Paperless Braille Reading: A Preliminary Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, M.; Ashcroft, S. C.

    The study involving three blind elementary school, six blind high school, and four blind college students was designed to establish oral reading rates and oral reading error rates for Ss reading conventional braille volumes and brailled materials with the Digi-cassette, an electronic braille reading and writing machine. Data suggested several…

  2. Clonality Analysis of Immunoglobulin Gene Rearrangement by Next-Generation Sequencing in Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma Suggests Antigen Drive Activation of BCR as Opposed to Sporadic Burkitt Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Amato, Teresa; Abate, Francesco; Piccaluga, Pierpaolo; Iacono, Michele; Fallerini, Chiara; Renieri, Alessandra; De Falco, Giulia; Ambrosio, Maria Raffaella; Mourmouras, Vaselious; Ogwang, Martin; Calbi, Valeria; Rabadan, Roul; Hummel, Michael; Pileri, Stefano; Bellan, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Recent studies using next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis disclosed the importance of the intrinsic activation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) pathway in the pathogenesis of sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL) due to mutations of TCF3/ID3 genes. Since no definitive data are available on the genetic landscape of endemic Burkitt (eBL), we first assessed the mutation frequency of TCF3/ID3 in eBL compared with sBL and subsequently the somatic hypermutation status of the BCR to answer whether an extrinsic activation of BCR signaling could also be demonstrated in Burkitt lymphoma. Methods: We assessed the mutations of TCF3/ID3 by RNAseq and the BCR status by NGS analysis of the immunoglobulin genes (IGs). Results: We detected mutations of TCF3/ID3 in about 30% of the eBL cases. This rate is significantly lower than that detected in sBL (64%). The NGS analysis of IGs revealed intraclonal diversity, suggesting an active targeted somatic hypermutation process in eBL compared with sBL. Conclusions: These findings support the view that the antigenic pressure plays a key role in the pathogenetic pathways of eBL, which may be partially distinct from those driving sBL development. PMID:26712879

  3. Why Should I Read?--A Cross-Cultural Investigation into Adolescents' Reading Socialisation and Reading Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broeder, Peter; Stokmans, Mia

    2013-01-01

    While reading behaviour of adolescents is a frequent object of research, most studies in this field are restricted to a single country. This study investigates reading as a leisure-time activity across social groups from three regions differing in reading tradition as well as in the facilities available for reading. The authors analyse the reading…

  4. When deaf signers read English: do written words activate their sign translations?

    PubMed

    Morford, Jill P; Wilkinson, Erin; Villwock, Agnes; Piñar, Pilar; Kroll, Judith F

    2011-02-01

    Deaf bilinguals for whom American Sign Language (ASL) is the first language and English is the second language judged the semantic relatedness of word pairs in English. Critically, a subset of both the semantically related and unrelated word pairs were selected such that the translations of the two English words also had related forms in ASL. Word pairs that were semantically related were judged more quickly when the form of the ASL translation was also similar whereas word pairs that were semantically unrelated were judged more slowly when the form of the ASL translation was similar. A control group of hearing bilinguals without any knowledge of ASL produced an entirely different pattern of results. Taken together, these results constitute the first demonstration that deaf readers activate the ASL translations of written words under conditions in which the translation is neither present perceptually nor required to perform the task.

  5. Positive Suggestion: It Helps LD Students Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldridge, O. A. "Buff"

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews his experiences in remediating reading problems of learning disabled students through hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestion. Research on the use of hypnosis is briefly summarized and recommendations on the use of nonhypnotic suggestion in the classroom are given. (CL)

  6. Required Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janko, Edmund

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author insists that those seeking public office prove their literary mettle. As an English teacher, he does have a litmus test for all public officials, judges and senators included--a reading litmus test. He would require that all candidates and nominees have read and reflected on a nucleus of works whose ideas and insights…

  7. Against Readings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Edmundson states that if he could make one wish for the members of his profession, college and university professors of literature, he would wish that for one year, two, three, or five, they would give up readings. By "a reading," he means the application of an analytical vocabulary to describe and (usually) to judge a work of literary art.…

  8. Bilingual Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garganta, Soledad; Ramirez, Inez

    This report discusses the importance of bilingual reading instruction for limited English speaking ability (LESA) students, and careful testing of their language dominance and reading levels. Bilingual students, and English- and Spanish-dominant students from the Fabens Independent School District, Grades K-13, were tested for the data reported…

  9. Reading Remixed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenza, Joyce Kasman; Stephens, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Critics claim that digital technologies are killing reading, but these teacher-librarians have observed that teens are as excited about reading as they ever were. Online communities give these readers opportunities to get to know authors, communicate with other fans, and learn more about books of interest. Publishers and authors are responding to…

  10. Read Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    This manual, designed to help public libraries in Arizona to plan their summer reading programs for children, celebrates the 25th anniversary of the Arizona Reading Program. The material in the manual is prepared for libraries to adapt for their own uses. Chapters of the manual include: (1) Introductory Materials; (2) Goals, Objectives and…

  11. Linking research to practice: suggestions for reading a research article.

    PubMed

    Crocker, L M

    1977-01-01

    Although researchers and editorial review boards are obligated to communicate research information in readable fashion, journal readers also must assume responsibility for interpreting and evaluating research articles. The general format for reporting research results is described. In addition, seven major questions to be asked by cirtical readers are presented. These questions are designed to help readers identify the purpose of a study; assess its importance; evaluate the research design, sampling and data collecting procedures; interpret the results of data analyses; and form implications for practice.

  12. Comparison of human monocytes isolated by elutriation and adherence suggests that heterogeneity may reflect a continuum of maturation/activation states.

    PubMed Central

    Dransfield, I; Corcoran, D; Partridge, L J; Hogg, N; Burton, D R

    1988-01-01

    Monocytes are heterogeneous both in terms of physical properties and in their functional capacity. Isolation of monocytes from peripheral blood may perturb the observed heterogeneity for purified cell preparations. To explore this possibility we examined monocytes prepared by two techniques, counter-flow centrifugation elutriation (CCE) and fibronectin adherence, in terms of cell-surface molecule expression and several physical properties. Although such cells would be expected to represent dissimilar cross-sections of the total monocyte population, they were found to have similar cell-surface antigenic profiles. Observed differences in levels of expression of several molecules (CR1, CR3 and the antigen recognized by LP9 antibody) were found to be a temperature-related phenomenon. These results indicate that monocytes are not divisible into 'subpopulations' on the basis of cell-surface molecule expression and suggest that heterogeneity of monocytes may reflect the presence in the circulation of a continuum of maturational/activation states. PMID:3350583

  13. Investigation of the Fusarium virguliforme Transcriptomes Induced during Infection of Soybean Roots Suggests that Enzymes with Hydrolytic Activities Could Play a Major Role in Root Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Binod B.; Baumbach, Jordan L.; Singh, Prashant; Srivastava, Subodh K.; Yi, Xiaoping

    2017-01-01

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is caused by the fungal pathogen, Fusarium virguliforme, and is a major threat to soybean production in North America. There are two major components of this disease: (i) root necrosis and (ii) foliar SDS. Root symptoms consist of root necrosis with vascular discoloration. Foliar SDS is characterized by interveinal chlorosis and leaf necrosis, and in severe cases by flower and pod abscission. A major toxin involved in initiating foliar SDS has been identified. Nothing is known about how root necrosis develops. In order to unravel the mechanisms used by the pathogen to cause root necrosis, the transcriptome of the pathogen in infected soybean root tissues of a susceptible cultivar, ‘Essex’, was investigated. The transcriptomes of the germinating conidia and mycelia were also examined. Of the 14,845 predicted F. virguliforme genes, we observed that 12,017 (81%) were expressed in germinating conidia and 12,208 (82%) in mycelia and 10,626 (72%) in infected soybean roots. Of the 10,626 genes induced in infected roots, 224 were transcribed only following infection. Expression of several infection-induced genes encoding enzymes with oxidation-reduction properties suggests that degradation of antimicrobial compounds such as the phytoalexin, glyceollin, could be important in early stages of the root tissue infection. Enzymes with hydrolytic and catalytic activities could play an important role in establishing the necrotrophic phase. The expression of a large number of genes encoding enzymes with catalytic and hydrolytic activities during the late infection stages suggests that cell wall degradation could be involved in root necrosis and the establishment of the necrotrophic phase in this pathogen. PMID:28095498

  14. Overlapping neural circuitry for narrative comprehension and proficient reading in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Vannest, Jennifer J; Holland, Scott K

    2013-11-01

    Narrative comprehension is a perinatal linguistic ability which is more intuitive than reading activity. Whether there are specific shared brain regions for narrative comprehension and reading that are tuned to reading proficiency, even before reading is acquired, is the question of the current study. We acquired fMRI data during a narrative comprehension task at two age points, when children are age 5-7 (K-2nd grade) and later when the same children were age 11 (5th-7th grade). We then examined correlations between this fMRI data and reading and reading comprehension scores from the same children at age 11. We found that greater frontal and supramarginal gyrus (BA 40) activation in narrative comprehension at the age of 5-7 years old was associated with better word reading and reading comprehension scores at the age of 11. A shift towards temporal and occipital activation was found when correlating their narrative comprehension functional data at age 11, with reading scores at the same age point. We suggest that increased reliance on executive functions and auditory-visual networks when listening to stories before reading is acquired, facilitates reading proficiency in older age and may be a biomarker for future reading ability. Children, who rely on use of imagination/visualization as well as auditory processing for narrative comprehension when they reach age 11, also show greater reading abilities. Understanding concordant neural pathways supporting auditory narrative and reading comprehension might be guide for development of effective tools for reading intervention programs.

  15. Exploring Poetry: The Reading and Writing Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Connecting reading and writing has become an important trend in teaching the language arts. Poetry, as a salient facet of the reading curriculum, integrates well with different purposes in writing. Poetry read aloud to students can assist learners to enjoy reading activities and develop the feeling and aesthetic dimension of learning, among other…

  16. Hypertext Fiction Reading: Haptics and Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangen, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Reading is a multi-sensory activity, entailing perceptual, cognitive and motor interactions with whatever is being read. With digital technology, reading manifests itself as being extensively multi-sensory--both in more explicit and more complex ways than ever before. In different ways from traditional reading technologies such as the codex,…

  17. Arizona Reading Journal, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Karen, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    The two issues of the 1999-2000 "Arizona Reading Journal" provides information about reading in general and about the activities of the Arizona Reading Association. The Fall 1999 issue includes the following articles: "IRA Resolution on Class Size"; "Teaching Reading in Social Studies" (Marlow Ediger); "Examining the Role of Student-Written Texts…

  18. Science Fiction: Serious Reading, Critical Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigo, Diane; Moore, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    Science fiction deserves a greater respect, serious and critical reading and a better place in high school literature classes. Some of the science fiction books by Isaac Asimov, Alfred Bester, Ray Bradbury and Octavia L. Butler and various activities for incorporating science fiction into the English language arts instruction classroom are…

  19. RNA-Based Stable Isotope Probing Suggests Allobaculum spp. as Particularly Active Glucose Assimilators in a Complex Murine Microbiota Cultured In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Elena; Young, Wayne; Rosendale, Douglas; Reichert-Grimm, Verena; Riedel, Christian U; Conrad, Ralf; Egert, Markus

    2017-01-01

    RNA-based stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) and metabolic profiling were used to detect actively glucose-consuming bacteria in a complex microbial community obtained from a murine model system. A faeces-derived microbiota was incubated under anaerobic conditions for 0, 2, and 4 h with 40 mM [U(13)C]glucose. Isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation and fractionation of isolated RNA into labeled and unlabeled fractions followed by 16S rRNA sequencing showed a quick adaptation of the bacterial community in response to the added sugar, which was dominated by unclassified Lachnospiraceae species. Inspection of distinct fractions of isotope-labeled RNA revealed Allobaculum spp. as particularly active glucose utilizers in the system, as the corresponding RNA showed significantly higher proportions among the labeled RNA. With time, the labeled sugar was used by a wider spectrum of faecal bacteria. Metabolic profiling indicated rapid fermentation of [U(13)C]glucose, with lactate, acetate, and propionate being the principal (13)C-labeled fermentation products, and suggested that "cross-feeding" occurred in the system. RNA-SIP combined with metabolic profiling of (13)C-labeled products allowed insights into the microbial assimilation of a general model substrate, demonstrating the appropriateness of this technology to study assimilation processes of nutritionally more relevant substrates, for example, prebiotic carbohydrates, in the gut microbiota of mice as a model system.

  20. RNA-Based Stable Isotope Probing Suggests Allobaculum spp. as Particularly Active Glucose Assimilators in a Complex Murine Microbiota Cultured In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Elena; Young, Wayne; Rosendale, Douglas; Reichert-Grimm, Verena; Conrad, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    RNA-based stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) and metabolic profiling were used to detect actively glucose-consuming bacteria in a complex microbial community obtained from a murine model system. A faeces-derived microbiota was incubated under anaerobic conditions for 0, 2, and 4 h with 40 mM [U13C]glucose. Isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation and fractionation of isolated RNA into labeled and unlabeled fractions followed by 16S rRNA sequencing showed a quick adaptation of the bacterial community in response to the added sugar, which was dominated by unclassified Lachnospiraceae species. Inspection of distinct fractions of isotope-labeled RNA revealed Allobaculum spp. as particularly active glucose utilizers in the system, as the corresponding RNA showed significantly higher proportions among the labeled RNA. With time, the labeled sugar was used by a wider spectrum of faecal bacteria. Metabolic profiling indicated rapid fermentation of [U13C]glucose, with lactate, acetate, and propionate being the principal 13C-labeled fermentation products, and suggested that “cross-feeding” occurred in the system. RNA-SIP combined with metabolic profiling of 13C-labeled products allowed insights into the microbial assimilation of a general model substrate, demonstrating the appropriateness of this technology to study assimilation processes of nutritionally more relevant substrates, for example, prebiotic carbohydrates, in the gut microbiota of mice as a model system. PMID:28299315

  1. Small Schools Science Curriculum, K-3: Reading, Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies. Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartl, David, Ed.; And Others

    Learning objectives and suggested activities, monitoring procedures and resources for the Washington K-3 Small Schools Science Curriculum are based on the rationale that "young children need the opportunity to observe, classify, predict, test ideas again and again in a variety of contexts, ask questions, explain, discuss ideas, fail, and succeed.…

  2. The Relationship of Print Reading in Tier I Instruction and Reading Achievement for Kindergarten Students At-Risk for Reading Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kent, Shawn C

    2014-08-01

    For many students at risk for reading difficulties, effective, early reading instruction can improve reading outcomes and set them on a positive reading trajectory. Thus, response-to-intervention models include a focus on a student's Tier I reading instruction as one element for preventing reading difficulties and identifying students with a learning disability. The purpose of this study was to examine the amount of time kindergarten students at risk for reading difficulties actively engaged in reading print during Tier I reading instruction, and the extent to which time in reading print was related to end-of-year reading achievement. Findings revealed the amount of time students were engaged in reading print predicted end-of-year reading achievement, although time engaged in reading print during Tier I was limited overall. Student and teacher level factors and their relationship to the amount of time students engage in reading print is also examined.

  3. Age-related changes in the bimanual advantage and in brain oscillatory activity during tapping movements suggest a decline in processing sensory reafference.

    PubMed

    Sallard, Etienne; Spierer, Lucas; Ludwig, Catherine; Deiber, Marie-Pierre; Barral, Jérôme

    2014-02-01

    Deficits in the processing of sensory reafferences have been suggested as accounting for age-related decline in motor coordination. Whether sensory reafferences are accurately processed can be assessed based on the bimanual advantage in tapping: because of tapping with an additional hand increases kinesthetic reafferences, bimanual tapping is characterized by a reduced inter-tap interval variability than unimanual tapping. A suppression of the bimanual advantage would thus indicate a deficit in sensory reafference. We tested whether elderly indeed show a reduced bimanual advantage by measuring unimanual (UM) and bimanual (BM) self-paced tapping performance in groups of young (n = 29) and old (n = 27) healthy adults. Electroencephalogram was recorded to assess the underlying patterns of oscillatory activity, a neurophysiological mechanism advanced to support the integration of sensory reafferences. Behaviorally, there was a significant interaction between the factors tapping condition and age group at the level of the inter-tap interval variability, driven by a lower variability in BM than UM tapping in the young, but not in the elderly group. This result indicates that in self-paced tapping, the bimanual advantage is absent in elderly. Electrophysiological results revealed an interaction between tapping condition and age group on low beta band (14-20 Hz) activity. Beta activity varied depending on the tapping condition in the elderly but not in the young group. Source estimations localized this effect within left superior parietal and left occipital areas. We interpret our results in terms of engagement of different mechanisms in the elderly depending on the tapping mode: a 'kinesthetic' mechanism for UM and a 'visual imagery' mechanism for BM tapping movement.

  4. Empowering Parents as Reading Tutors: An Example of a Family School Partnership for Children's Literacy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janiak, Richard

    Research suggests that quality home literacy activities make a difference in children's reading development. The federally funded Title I program of the Charlotte County, Florida school system promoted the role of parents as reading tutors in a way that supported the district's literacy development goals and philosophy. Parent involvement plans…

  5. Language Arts: The Intricate Interplay of Reading, Writing and Speech. Harvesting the Harvesters. Book 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Ken

    The sixth in a series of 10 study units for a Migrant Educators' National Training OutReach (MENTOR) correspondence course examines the role of speech, reading, and writing in migrant education and suggests approaches to teaching reading and writing which use group activities and individualized evaluation. Designed to be used in preservice or…

  6. Drawing Your Own Conclusions. Graphic Strategies for Reading, Writing, and Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claggett, Fran; Brown, Joan

    Based on the premise that the primary ways individuals make sense of the world is through observation, analysis, imagination, and feeling, this work suggests that through the use of graphics, students can experience these functions as they interact with reading and writing activities. Graphics encourage students to read more closely, make visual…

  7. It's Never Too Soon: Building a Firm Foundation for Reading and Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Kathy; Benelli, Cecilia; Gudt, Pamela Terry

    1998-01-01

    Discusses emergent literacy development, which includes meaningful literacy-related activities involving oral language, reading, and writing. Offers suggestions for fostering children's development in each area, such as the use of picture books and puppets for vocabulary development; reading aloud and discussing children's literature; and…

  8. Reading Habits of Third-Year Medical Students during an Integrated Endocrinology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedberg, Mark; Mahanaimi, David; Lev-Zion, Rafael; Sidi, Aviel; Glick, Shimon

    1998-01-01

    Independent reading by medical students beyond formal classroom activities is considered central to medical education. This study examines self-directed study among third-year students in a six-year medical program. Students averaged 151 minutes daily on independent study using lecture notes, textbooks, and reading articles. Suggests ways to…

  9. Regional amplitude of the low-frequency fluctuations at rest predicts word-reading skill.

    PubMed

    Xu, M; De Beuckelaer, A; Wang, X; Liu, L; Song, Y; Liu, J

    2015-07-09

    Individuals' reading skills are critical for their educational development, but variation in reading skills is known to be large. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the role of spontaneous brain activity at rest in individual differences in reading skills in a large sample of participants (N=263). Specifically, we correlated individuals' word-reading skill with their fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) of the whole brain at rest and found that the fALFFs of both the bilateral precentral gyrus (PCG) and superior temporal plane (STP) were positively associated with reading skills. The fALFF-reading association observed in these two regions remained after controlling for general cognitive abilities and in-scanner head motion. A cross-validation confirmed that the individual differences in word-reading skills were reliably correlated with the fALFF values of the bilateral PCG and STP. A follow-up task-based fMRI experiment revealed that the reading-related regions overlapped with regions showing a higher response to sentences than to pseudo-sentences (strings of pseudo-words), suggesting the resting-state brain activity partly captures the characteristics of task-based brain activity. In short, our study provides one of the first pieces of evidence that links spontaneous brain activity to reading behavior and offers an easy-to-access neural marker for evaluating reading skill.

  10. Neural division of labor in reading is constrained by culture: a training study of reading Chinese characters.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingjing; Wang, Xiaoyi; Frost, Stephen J; Sun, Wan; Fang, Shin-Yi; Mencl, W Einar; Pugh, Kenneth R; Shu, Hua; Rueckl, Jay G

    2014-04-01

    Word reading in alphabetic language involves a cortical system with multiple components whose division of labor depends on the transparency of the writing system. To gain insight about the neural division of labor between phonology and semantics subserving word reading in Chinese, a deep non-alphabetic writing system, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the effects of phonological and semantic training on the cortical circuitry for oral naming of Chinese characters. In a training study, we examined whether a training task that differentially focused readers' attention on the phonological or semantic properties of a Chinese character changes the patterns of cortical activation that was evoked by that character in a subsequent naming task. Our imaging results corroborate that the cortical regions underlying reading in Chinese largely overlap the left-hemisphere reading system responsible for reading in alphabetic languages, with some cortical regions in the left-hemisphere uniquely recruited for reading in Chinese. However, in contrast to findings from studies of English word naming, we observed considerable overlap in the neural activation patterns associated with phonological and semantic training on naming Chinese characters, which we suggest may reflect a balanced neural division of labor between phonology and semantics in Chinese character reading. The equitable division of labor for Chinese reading might be driven by the special statistical structure of the writing system, which includes equally systematic mappings in the correspondences between written forms and their pronunciations and meanings.

  11. Reading Cooperatively or Independently? Study on ELL Student Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Siping; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of cooperative reading teaching activities and independent reading activities for English language learner (ELL) students at 4th grade level. Based on simple linear regression and correlational analyses of data collected from two large data bases, PIRLS and NAEP, the study found that cooperative reading…

  12. The role of reading time complexity and reading speed in text comprehension.

    PubMed

    Wallot, Sebastian; O'Brien, Beth A; Haussmann, Anna; Kloos, Heidi; Lyby, Marlene S

    2014-11-01

    Reading speed is commonly used as an index of reading fluency. However, reading speed is not a consistent predictor of text comprehension, when speed and comprehension are measured on the same text within the same reader. This might be due to the somewhat ambiguous nature of reading speed, which is sometimes regarded as a feature of the reading process, and sometimes as a product of that process. We argue that both reading speed and comprehension should be seen as the result of the reading process, and that the process of fluent text reading can instead be described by complexity metrics that quantify aspects of the stability of the reading process. In this article, we introduce complexity metrics in the context of reading and apply them to data from a self-paced reading study. In this study, children and adults read a text silently or aloud and answered comprehension questions after reading. Our results show that recurrence metrics that quantify the degree of temporal structure in reading times yield better prediction of text comprehension compared to reading speed. However, the results for fractal metrics are less clear. Furthermore, prediction of text comprehension is generally strongest and most consistent across silent and oral reading when comprehension scores are normalized by reading speed. Analyses of word length and word frequency indicate that the observed complexity in reading times is not a simple function of the lexical properties of the text, suggesting that text reading might work differently compared to reading of isolated word or sentences.

  13. Open to Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  14. Reading homophone puns: Evidence from eye tracking.

    PubMed

    Jared, Debra; Bainbridge, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    We investigated how readers make sense of homophone puns (e.g., The butcher was very glad we could meat up) by tracking their eye movements as they read. Comparison sentences included homophone-error sentences in which the presented homophone was also not correct (e.g., The lawyer was very glad we could meat up) and sentences in which the homophone was correct for the context (e.g., The butcher was very glad to chop meat up for the stew). An effect of the frequency of the unpresented homophone mate (e.g., meet) was found on first-pass reading times for homophones, indicating that participants activated the meaning of the homophone mate through shared phonology. First-fixation and gaze durations on the homophones were longer in puns than in correct-context sentences, indicating that participants immediately noticed that the homophone was incongruous with the adjacent context (e.g., glad we could meat) in puns, but total reading times did not differ, suggesting that the incongruity was quickly resolved. Immediate reading times on homophone in puns and homophone-error sentences did not differ, but total reading times did, suggesting that the impact of the critical context word (e.g., butcher) is delayed. Further analyses examined the resolution process in more detail. Ratings of the funniness of the puns were most strongly related to the strength of the association between the homophone and the critical context word (e.g., butcher). (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Segmentation in reading and film comprehension.

    PubMed

    Zacks, Jeffrey M; Speer, Nicole K; Reynolds, Jeremy R

    2009-05-01

    When reading a story or watching a film, comprehenders construct a series of representations in order to understand the events depicted. Discourse comprehension theories and a recent theory of perceptual event segmentation both suggest that comprehenders monitor situational features such as characters' goals, to update these representations at natural boundaries in activity. However, the converging predictions of these theories had previously not been tested directly. Two studies provided evidence that changes in situational features such as characters, their locations, their interactions with objects, and their goals are related to the segmentation of events in both narrative texts and films. A 3rd study indicated that clauses with event boundaries are read more slowly than are other clauses and that changes in situational features partially mediate this relation. A final study suggested that the predictability of incoming information influences reading rate and possibly event segmentation. Taken together, these results suggest that processing situational changes during comprehension is an important determinant of how one segments ongoing activity into events and that this segmentation is related to the control of processing during reading.

  16. Simple Things You Can Do To Help All Children Read Well and Independently by the Third Grade. America Reads Challenge: Read*Write*Now!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatis, Corey; Thompson-Hoffman, Susan; de Kanter, Adriana; Moles, Ollie; Steele, Shirley; Howes, Sarah; Doyle, Michelle; Colmenares, Margarita; Vosburgh, Leah; Herman, Menahem; Ballen, Jennifer; Arnold, Chandler

    This booklet presents suggestions for things people can do to help meet the America Reads Challenge of having all children read well and independently by the end of third grade. One of the ways to meet this challenge is through the research-based community reading initiative, called READ*WRITE*NOW!, which encourages students to read and write at…

  17. Single-agent lenalidomide in relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma: results from a UK phase II study suggest activity and possible gender differences.

    PubMed

    Eve, Heather E; Carey, Sean; Richardson, Sarah J; Heise, Carla C; Mamidipudi, Vidya; Shi, Tao; Radford, John A; Auer, Rebecca L; Bullard, Sheila H; Rule, Simon A J

    2012-10-01

    We present data from a phase II study investigating a novel treatment strategy for relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Twenty-six patients received lenalidomide 25 mg/d (days 1-21 of a 28-d cycle) for up to 6 cycles followed by low-dose maintenance lenalidomide (15 mg) in responding patients. Eight patients achieved complete or partial response to give an overall response rate of 31% with median response duration of 22·2 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·0-53·6] and median progression-free survival (PFS) of 3·9 months (95% CI 0·0-11·1). An additional six patients (23%) achieved stable disease. Eleven patients received maintenance with median PFS of 14·6 months (95% CI 7·3-21·9). Correlative studies showed that peripheral T and Natural Killer (NK) cells increased in responding patients by 40-60% over the first 6 cycles with an initial dip in NK cells suggestive of tumour infiltration. Peripheral regulatory T cells were increased in MCL patients (P = 0·001) and expanded further following lenalidomide. Sequential plasma analysis showed increased IL12 p40 and IL7 alongside decreased MMP9, IL10, and adiponectin. Finally, a significant correlation (P = 0·02) between gender and response suggested that female MCL patients were more sensitive to lenalidomide than males. In summary, we confirm the activity, safety and immunomodulatory properties of lenalidomide in MCL and highlight its potential as a low-dose maintenance agent.

  18. EMH: Reading and Language Arts--Level V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canfield, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    The curriculum guide in language arts covers reading instruction activities for educable mentally handicapped secondary school students. Behavioral objectives are set forth, and activities and suggested materials are described for 18 skills: recognizing sight words; arranging words in alphabetical order; using guide words in the dictionary; using…

  19. Exosomes secreted by human placenta carry functional Fas ligand and TRAIL molecules and convey apoptosis in activated immune cells, suggesting exosome-mediated immune privilege of the fetus.

    PubMed

    Stenqvist, Ann-Christin; Nagaeva, Olga; Baranov, Vladimir; Mincheva-Nilsson, Lucia

    2013-12-01

    Apoptosis is crucially important in mediating immune privilege of the fetus during pregnancy. We investigated the expression and in vitro apoptotic activity of two physiologically relevant death messengers, the TNF family members Fas ligand (FasL) and TRAIL in human early and term placentas. Both molecules were intracellularly expressed, confined to the late endosomal compartment of the syncytiotrophoblast, and tightly associated to the generation and secretion of placental exosomes. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we show that FasL and TRAIL are expressed on the limiting membrane of multivesicular bodies where, by membrane invagination, intraluminal microvesicles carrying membranal bioactive FasL and TRAIL are formed and released in the extracellular space as exosomes. Analyzing exosomes secreted from placental explant cultures, to our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time that FasL and TRAIL are clustered on the exosomal membrane as oligomerized aggregates ready to form death-inducing signaling complex. Consistently, placental FasL- and TRAIL-carrying exosomes triggered apoptosis in Jurkat T cells and activated PBMC in a dose-dependent manner. Limiting the expression of functional FasL and TRAIL to exosomes comprise a dual benefit: 1) storage of exosomal FasL and TRAIL in multivesicular bodies is protected from proteolytic cleavage and 2) upon secretion, delivery of preformed membranal death molecules by exosomes rapidly triggers apoptosis. Our results suggest that bioactive FasL- and TRAIL-carrying exosomes, able to convey apoptosis, are secreted by the placenta and tie up the immunomodulatory and protective role of human placenta to its exosome-secreting ability.

  20. Factors related to students' engaged reading in high school science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa-Angrino, Solanlly

    Using emergent motivation theory, this study analyzes the relationships between high school students' perceptions of their reading skills, task challenge, and personal control over assigned reading activities and their reading engagement (i.e., interest, enjoyment, and concentration) during science instruction. The study also examines how these relationships differ between struggling and proficient readers. Further, the study examines the association between students' experiences of conditions of anxiety, apathy, boredom or relaxation and flow on their reading engagement during science instruction. Finally, the study investigates the relationship between reading engagement and science achievement. The experience sampling method (ESM) was used with a sample of 244 high school students in grades 9--12 to measure students' perceptions of skill, challenge, and control, and their reading engagement during science instruction. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was employed with repeated-measures analysis of students' momentary experiences of skill, challenge, control, and engagement during reading. Results show that when students perceive having both high reading skills and high control, they exhibit deeper reading engagement than when they perceive having both low reading skills and low control. These feelings of control were noticeably important for struggling readers as compared to proficient readers. It was also found that students experience deeper reading engagement during flow (i.e., when students perceive they have high reading skills and the reading task is highly challenging), but reading engagement decreases significantly whenever students experience conditions of anxiety or apathy when reading science materials. Finally, reading engagement was positively related to science achievement. Educational implications of the results are presented. Limitations of the study are discussed and suggestions for future research are described.

  1. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  2. Reading the dyslexic brain: multiple dysfunctional routes revealed by a new meta-analysis of PET and fMRI activation studies

    PubMed Central

    Paulesu, Eraldo; Danelli, Laura; Berlingeri, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia has been the focus of much functional anatomical research. The main trust of this work is that typical developmental dyslexics have a dysfunction of the phonological and orthography to phonology conversion systems, in which the left occipito-temporal cortex has a crucial role. It remains to be seen whether there is a systematic co-occurrence of dysfunctional patterns of different functional systems perhaps converging on the same brain regions associated with the reading deficit. Such evidence would be relevant for theories like, for example, the magnocellular/attentional or the motor/cerebellar ones, which postulate a more basic and anatomically distributed disorder in dyslexia. We addressed this issue with a meta-analysis of all the imaging literature published until September 2013 using a combination of hierarchical clustering and activation likelihood estimation methods. The clustering analysis on 2360 peaks identified 193 clusters, 92 of which proved spatially significant. Following binomial tests on the clusters, we found left hemispheric network specific for normal controls (i.e., of reduced involvement in dyslexics) including the left inferior frontal, premotor, supramarginal cortices and the left infero-temporal and fusiform regions: these were preferentially associated with reading and the visual-to-phonology processes. There was also a more dorsal left fronto-parietal network: these clusters included peaks from tasks involving phonological manipulation, but also motoric or visuo-spatial perception/attention. No cluster was identified in area V5 for no task, nor cerebellar clusters showed a reduced association with dyslexics. We conclude that the examined literature demonstrates a specific lack of activation of the left occipito-temporal cortex in dyslexia particularly for reading and reading-like behaviors and for visuo-phonological tasks. Additional deficits of motor and attentional systems relevant for reading may be associated

  3. Facilitating text reading in posterior cortical atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Rajdev, Kishan; Shakespeare, Timothy J.; Leff, Alexander P.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We report (1) the quantitative investigation of text reading in posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), and (2) the effects of 2 novel software-based reading aids that result in dramatic improvements in the reading ability of patients with PCA. Methods: Reading performance, eye movements, and fixations were assessed in patients with PCA and typical Alzheimer disease and in healthy controls (experiment 1). Two reading aids (single- and double-word) were evaluated based on the notion that reducing the spatial and oculomotor demands of text reading might support reading in PCA (experiment 2). Results: Mean reading accuracy in patients with PCA was significantly worse (57%) compared with both patients with typical Alzheimer disease (98%) and healthy controls (99%); spatial aspects of passages were the primary determinants of text reading ability in PCA. Both aids led to considerable gains in reading accuracy (PCA mean reading accuracy: single-word reading aid = 96%; individual patient improvement range: 6%–270%) and self-rated measures of reading. Data suggest a greater efficiency of fixations and eye movements under the single-word reading aid in patients with PCA. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate how neurologic characterization of a neurodegenerative syndrome (PCA) and detailed cognitive analysis of an important everyday skill (reading) can combine to yield aids capable of supporting important everyday functional abilities. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with PCA, 2 software-based reading aids (single-word and double-word) improve reading accuracy. PMID:26138948

  4. Andre Can Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmgren, Rene L.

    1985-01-01

    Allowing a fifth grader who caused problems in regular classrooms to exert control over some learning activities led to the student's involvement in the activities, his commitment to their completion, and the development of a situation that made learning to read desirable and acceptable to him. (PGD)

  5. Reading, Writing and Relevance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Mary

    This monograph presents classroom activities that were designed to encourage children to read and write in a self-reliant and responsible manner. The activities were chosen for their relevance to the children involved and because the vocabulary involved was interesting, familiar, and worth remembering and using again. The topics are arranged in…

  6. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  7. Bidirectional Relations between Text Reading Prosody and Reading Comprehension in the Upper Primary School Grades: A Longitudinal Perspective.

    PubMed

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J; Groen, Margriet A; Verhoeven, Ludo

    The purpose of this study was to examine the directionality of the relationship between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper grades of primary school. We compared three theoretical possibilities: Two unidirectional relations from text reading prosody to reading comprehension and from reading comprehension to text reading prosody and a bidirectional relation between text reading prosody and reading comprehension. Further, we controlled for autoregressive effects and included decoding efficiency as a measure of general reading skill. Participants were 99 Dutch children, followed longitudinally, from fourth- to sixth-grade. Structural equation modeling showed that the bidirectional relation provided the best fitting model. In fifth-grade, text reading prosody was related to prior decoding and reading comprehension, whereas in sixth-grade, reading comprehension was related to prior text reading prosody. As such, the results suggest that the relation between text reading prosody and reading comprehension is reciprocal, but dependent on grade level.

  8. "Decoding versus comprehension": Brain responses underlying reading comprehension in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Bednarz, Haley M; Maximo, Jose O; Murdaugh, Donna L; O'Kelley, Sarah; Kana, Rajesh K

    2017-02-24

    Despite intact decoding ability, deficits in reading comprehension are relatively common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, few neuroimaging studies have tested the neural bases of this specific profile of reading deficit in ASD. This fMRI study examined activation and synchronization of the brain's reading network in children with ASD with specific reading comprehension deficits during a word similarities task. Thirteen typically developing children and 18 children with ASD performed the task in the MRI scanner. No statistically significant group differences in functional activation were observed; however, children with ASD showed decreased functional connectivity between the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and the left inferior occipital gyrus (LIOG). In addition, reading comprehension ability significantly positively predicted functional connectivity between the LIFG and left thalamus (LTHAL) among all subjects. The results of this study provide evidence for altered recruitment of reading-related neural resources in ASD children and suggest specific weaknesses in top-down modulation of semantic processing.

  9. The RIF Guide to Encouraging Young Readers. A Fun-filled Sourcebook of over 200 Favorite Reading Activities of Kids and Parents from Across the Country, Plus an Annotated List of Books and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Ruth, Ed.

    Based on the notion that reading is both fun and fundamental, this book contains a stimulating array of activities that parents can use to engage their children in reading from the toddler stage through primary school. The first section provides information on how to use the guide, and some tips for encouraging young readers. The second and major…

  10. Hey! Somebody Read to Me! Ten Easy Ways to Include Reading Every Day. Family Ties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulmen, Marie Christine

    2005-01-01

    If a child does not learn to read in the early grades, there are few opportunities for them to catch up. Therefore, the extent of a child's exposure to reading before the early school years is not only important, but critical. In this column, the author suggests ten easy ways to make reading a part of every young child's day: (1) Read and reread…

  11. Can verbal working memory training improve reading?

    PubMed

    Banales, Erin; Kohnen, Saskia; McArthur, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine whether poor verbal working memory is associated with poor word reading accuracy because the former causes the latter, or the latter causes the former. To this end, we tested whether (a) verbal working memory training improves poor verbal working memory or poor word reading accuracy, and whether (b) reading training improves poor reading accuracy or verbal working memory in a case series of four children with poor word reading accuracy and verbal working memory. Each child completed 8 weeks of verbal working memory training and 8 weeks of reading training. Verbal working memory training improved verbal working memory in two of the four children, but did not improve their reading accuracy. Similarly, reading training improved word reading accuracy in all children, but did not improve their verbal working memory. These results suggest that the causal links between verbal working memory and reading accuracy may not be as direct as has been assumed.

  12. How Reading Volume Affects Both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires…

  13. The phenotype and activation status of T and NK cells in porcine colostrum suggest these are central/effector memory cells.

    PubMed

    Hlavova, Karolina; Stepanova, Hana; Faldyna, Martin

    2014-12-01

    In pigs, the epitheliochorial placenta does not allow transfer of maternally derived antibodies or immune cells to the fetus. Thus, piglets are dependent on intake of colostrum for acquisition of passive immunity during the neonatal period. As well as immunoglobulin G (IgG), cellular components of colostrum, mainly lymphocytes, can enter the systemic circulation and secondary lymphoid organs of the neonate. In order to understand the function and immunological role of these cells, a flow cytometric study was undertaken to characterise the cellular profile and phenotype of T cells and NK cells present in porcine colostrum. The results indicated that the greatest numbers of lymphocytes were found on the first day of lactation. The predominant cell types in colostrum were CD8(+) single positive T cells (53.6%), followed by CD4(+)CD8(+) double positive T cells (21.1%), CD2(+)CD8(+) γδ T cells (15.0%) and NK cells (13.5%). CD4(+) single positive T cells (4.4%) and other γδ T cell subpopulations (1.8% CD2(-)CD8(-) and 0.4% CD2(+)CD8(-)) were present in colostrum at low levels. Although the profile of the T cell subpopulations during the first 3 days of lactation remained constant, the absolute numbers of T and NK cells decreased significantly in the first few hours of lactation. Expression of CCR7, CD11b, CD25, CD45RA and MHC class II was used to assess the activation status of T and NK cells in colostrum. T cell subpopulations expressed markers consistent with an effector memory phenotype, indicating that these were antigen-experienced cells. The phenotype of colostral T and NK cells suggests a role in mucosal immunity and potentially in transfer of passive immunity from sow to piglet.

  14. Why should I read? - A cross-cultural investigation into adolescents' reading socialisation and reading attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeder, Peter; Stokmans, Mia

    2013-06-01

    While reading behaviour of adolescents is a frequent object of research, most studies in this field are restricted to a single country. This study investigates reading as a leisure-time activity across social groups from three regions differing in reading tradition as well as in the facilities available for reading. The authors analyse the reading behaviour of a total of 2,173 adolescents in the Netherlands, in Beijing (China), and in Cape Town (South Africa). Taking Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour as a starting point, the authors adjusted it to model the three most important determinants of reading behaviour, namely (1) reading attitude; (2) subjective norms (implicit and explicit social pressure to read); and (3) perceived behavioural control, which includes reading proficiency and appropriateness of the available books (book supply). While they found the adjusted model to fit the Dutch and Beijing situation quite well, it appeared to be inappropriate for the Cape Town situation. Despite considerable cultural and situational differences between the Netherlands and Beijing, the results show a similar pattern for these two environments. The most important determinants turn out to be: the hedonic reading attitude, the implicit norm of family and friends, the attractiveness of the available choice of books, and the perceived reading proficiency.

  15. En sus marcas--Listos--A leer! Para los cuidadores de ninos pequenos: Actividades de lenguaje para la primera infancia y ninez entre el nacimiento y los 5 anos. El reto: A leer, America! (Ready--Set--Read! For Caregivers: Early Childhood Language Activities for Children from Birth through Age Five. America Reads Challenge).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This Ready--Set--Read Kit includes an activity guide for caregivers, a 1997-98 early childhood activity calendar, and an early childhood growth chart. The activity guide presents activities and ideas that caregivers (family child care providers and the teachers, staff, and volunteers in child development programs) can use to help young children…

  16. En sus marcas--Listos--A leer! Para las familias: Actividades de lenguaje para la primera infancia y ninez entre el nacimiento y los 5 anos. El reto: A leer, America! (Ready--Set--Read! For Families: Early Childhood Language Activities for Children from Birth through Age Five. America Reads Challenge).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This Ready--Set--Read Kit includes an activity guide for families, a 1997-98 early childhood activity calendar, and an early childhood growth wallchart. The activity guide presents activities and ideas that families (adults who have nurturing relationships with a child--a mother, father, grandparent, other relative, or close friend) can use to…

  17. The Influence of Personality Characteristics on Children's Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medford, Emma; McGeown, Sarah P.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that children's motivation to read is influenced by their level of reading skill and reading self-concept. However, it is possible that characteristics unrelated to reading, such as underlying personality characteristics, may also influence children's motivation to read. The current study examined the extent to which children's…

  18. Chemistry Curricula. Course Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    Listings of suggested topics aimed at helping university and college faculties plan courses in the main areas of the chemistry curricula are provided. The suggestions were originally offered as appendices to the American Chemical Society's (ACS) Committee on Professional Training's 1983 guidelines for ACS-approved schools. The course data included…

  19. "To Read or Not to Read": Responses to the New NEA Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauerlein, Mark; Munson, Lynne; Prehoda, Lauren; Stotsky, Sandra; Greene, Jay P.; O'Connor, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Americans are reading less; comprehension is eroding. And where reading intersects with academic achievement and participation in civic matters and cultural activities, the results are dire. Thus concludes the new National Endowment for the Arts study, "To Read or Not To Read: A Question of National Consequence". A divergent group of experts…

  20. Reading Fluency and College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy V.; Chang, Shu-Ching; Edmondson, Elizabeth; Nageldinger, James; Nigh, Jennifer; Remark, Linda; Kenney, Kristen Srsen; Walsh-Moorman, Elizabeth; Yildirim, Kasim; Nichols, William Dee; Paige, David D.; Rupley, William H.

    2017-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards suggest that an appropriate goal for secondary education is college and career readiness. Previous research has identified reading fluency as a critical component for proficient reading. One component of fluency is word recognition accuracy and automaticity. The present study attempted to determine the word…

  1. READING AND WRITING STANDARD ENGLISH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CRAIG, MYRTLE C.

    THE PROBLEM OF HOW TO TEACH PUPILS IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS TO READ AND WRITE STANDARD ENGLISH IS DISCUSSED. THE VALUE OF ORAL LANGUAGE AS A MEANS OF ATTAINING READING AND WRITING PROFICIENCY IS SUGGESTED. SUCCESS IN THESE AREAS CAN BE ATTAINED IF (1) THE HOME LANGUAGE OF THE CHILD IS ACCEPTED, (2) THE CHILD IS OFFERED MATERIALS ON HIS LEVEL OF…

  2. Cultivate the Love of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews-Beck, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that the school year is like a growing season, but with planting in the fall and harvest in the spring. Discusses ways teachers can "prepare the soil" for cultivating students' love of reading. Presents a baker's dozen ideas to build the desire to read. (RS)

  3. BOOKS TO READ BEFORE COLLEGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FINK, RONN; ROOK, ROBERT

    THIS READING LIST PUBLISHED BY THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE LIBRARY WAS DRAWN FROM BOOK TITLES SUGGESTED BY 28 COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY PRESIDENTS IN PENNSYLVANIA FOR STUDENTS CONTEMPLATING GOING TO COLLEGE. THE FIRST OF THREE SECTIONS LISTS 26 ANNOTATED TITLES MOST OFTEN CITED AS BENEFICIAL READING FOR STUDENTS ENTERING COLLEGE. TITLES HIGHLY RECOMMENDED…

  4. SUPPLEMENTARY TEACHING ASSISTANCE IN READING. PROJECT STAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobilization for Youth, Inc., New York, NY.

    THE PROCEEDINGS AT THE SECOND MEETING OF A READING CLINIC FOR PARENTS OF CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH IS DESCRIBED. AT THE READING CLINIC THE PARENTS WERE INTRODUCED TO SEVERAL ACTIVITIES WHICH THEIR CHILDREN MIGHT TRY AT HOME IN CONNECTION WITH NEWSPAPERS, MAGAZINES, THE TV GUIDE, AND OTHER SUCH READING MATERIALS. THE ACTIVITIES INCLUDED…

  5. Do Your Students Think When They Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nessel, Denise

    1989-01-01

    A widely used technique for teaching reading, Directed Reading Activity (DRA), contributes to the development of passive readers rather than thinking readers. This article describes an alternative approach, Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DRTA), contrasts DRTA with DRA, gives an example of DRTA in action, and provides tips for switching to…

  6. Reading Disorders:

    PubMed Central

    Seaber, Emma

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between eating disorders and reading behaviors, arguing that there is a meaningful difference in a minority of readers' approach to and understanding of anorexia life-writing, and of literary texts more broadly. To illuminate this distinction, this article begins by considering the reported deleterious influence of Marya Hornbacher’s anorexia memoir, Wasted, elaborating the ways Hornbacher offers a positive presentation of anorexia nervosa that may, intentionally or not, induce certain readers to “try it” themselves. This is followed by an exploration of how Hornbacher’s own reading praxis is implicated in a discursive feedback loop around anorexia narratives. It concludes with a discussion of disordered reading attitudes in relation to the emergence of the “pro-anorexia” phenomenon.

  7. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF) in Developmental Dyslexia: Activation during Reading in a Surface and Deep Dyslexic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynd, George W.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The exploratory study examined patterns of regional cerebral blood flow in a surface and a deep dyslexic during reading. Significant differences in gray matter blood flow were found between subjects and normal controls. Also differences existed between the surface and deep dyslexic in the distribution of cortical perfusion. (Author/DB)

  8. From Professional Teacher to Activities Manager: The Changing Role of the Teacher in Reading Teachers' Guides, 1920-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Arthur

    A study examined the changing role and status of the elementary school teacher as projected in the teachers' guides that accompany reading textbooks. Twelve fifth-grade teachers' guides for each decade since 1920 were analyzed by scrutinizing every sixth chapter, story, or lesson for (1) physical characteristics, (2) testing components, (3) number…

  9. Analysis of Immune Response Markers in Jorge Lobo's Disease Lesions Suggests the Occurrence of Mixed T Helper Responses with the Dominance of Regulatory T Cell Activity

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Michelle de C. S.; Rosa, Patricia S.; Soares, Cleverson T.; Fachin, Luciana R. V.; Baptista, Ida Maria F. D.; Woods, William J.; Garlet, Gustavo P.

    2015-01-01

    Jorge Lobo’s disease (JLD) is a chronic infection that affects the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Its etiologic agent is the fungus Lacazia loboi. Lesions are classified as localized, multifocal, or disseminated, depending on their location. Early diagnosis and the surgical removal of lesions are the best therapeutic options currently available for JLD. The few studies that evaluate the immunological response of JLD patients show a predominance of Th2 response, as well as a high frequency of TGF-β and IL-10 positive cells in the lesions; however, the overall immunological status of the lesions in terms of their T cell phenotype has yet to be determined. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the pattern of Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory T cell (Treg) markers mRNA in JLD patients by means of real-time PCR. Biopsies of JLD lesions (N = 102) were classified according to their clinical and histopathological features and then analyzed using real-time PCR in order to determine the expression levels of TGF-β1, FoxP3, CTLA4, IKZF2, IL-10, T-bet, IFN-γ, GATA3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-33, RORC, IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 and to compare these levels to those of healthy control skin (N = 12). The results showed an increased expression of FoxP3, CTLA4, TGF-β1, IL-10, T-bet, IL-17F, and IL-17A in lesions, while GATA3 and IL-4 levels were found to be lower in diseased skin than in the control group. When the clinical forms were compared, TGF-β1 was found to be highly expressed in patients with a single localized lesion while IL-5 and IL-17A levels were higher in patients with multiple/disseminated lesions. These results demonstrate the occurrence of mixed T helper responses and suggest the dominance of regulatory T cell activity, which could inhibit Th-dependent protective responses to intracellular fungi such as L. loboi. Therefore, Tregs may play a key role in JLD pathogenesis. PMID:26700881

  10. The Style of Reading and Reading in Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeece, Pauline Davey

    2007-01-01

    Adult read aloud book activities, including literature selections, have significant impact on children's language learning opportunities. The style in which books are orally shared with children is also important. Detailed examination of adult-child book reading conversations has demonstrated a variety of teaching and learning approaches in the…

  11. Rewards for Reading: Their Effects on Reading Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Pin-Hwa; Wu, Jen-Rung

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, many Taiwanese elementary schools have implemented extensive reading activities in their respective campuses. In order to motivate pupils to read, teachers and parents would offer pupils contingent rewards. As we know, the use of rewards in educational settings as a way to improve motivation is a controversial issue. Previous…

  12. Varicella-zoster virus open reading frame 4 encodes a transcriptional activator that is functionally distinct from that of herpes simplex virus homology ICP27.

    PubMed Central

    Perera, L P; Kaushal, S; Kinchington, P R; Mosca, J D; Hayward, G S; Straus, S E

    1994-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus is the etiological agent of chickenpox and zoster in humans and belongs to the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily within the family Herpesviridae. Much of the current understanding of gene regulation in alphaherpesviruses has been derived from studies of the prototype herpes simplex virus (HSV). In HSV, two virus-encoded, trans-regulatory proteins, ICP4 and ICP27, are essential for the replicative cycle of the virus. ICP4 is important in modulating HSV genes of all three kinetic classes, whereas the trans-regulatory effects of ICP27 are primarily associated with the expression of late genes. Recent evidence indicates that the trans-regulatory effects of ICP27 involve posttranscriptional processing of target gene transcripts (R. M. Sandri-Golding and G. E. Mendoza, Genes Dev. 6:848-863, 1992). The ICP27 homolog in varicella-zoster virus is a 452-amino-acid polypeptide encoded by the open reading frame 4 (ORF4) gene. Contrary to what is found with ICP27, we show that the ORF4 polypeptide is a transcriptional activator of diverse target promoters and has a critical requirement for the presence of upstream elements within these promoters to mediate its transcriptional effects. Evidence is also presented to implicate a critical role for the cysteine-rich, C-terminal region of the ORF4 polypeptide in its trans-regulatory functions. Specifically, by oligonucleotide-directed site-specific mutagenesis, we demonstrate that of 10 cysteine residues in the ORF4 polypeptide, only C-421 and C-426 are essential for transactivator function and suggest that these cysteine residues may participate in critical protein-protein interactions rather than protein-nucleic acid interactions to mediate ORF4 inducibility. Images PMID:8139031

  13. Books for Summer Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Advises administrators to use their summers to relax and recharge their intellectual batteries. Reading suggestions include Edith Wharton's "House of Mirth," Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper," Amy Tan's "Joy Luck Club," China Achebe's "Things Fall Apart," Paule Marshall's "The Chosen…

  14. Celebrate Summer with Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2007-01-01

    School is out and the summer is full of both official and unofficial holidays that prompt us to enjoy science and the profession of sharing it. As in past years, the reviewers and editors of "NSTA Recommends"--ready and willing to share their enthusiasm for reading with you--have been gathering suggestions for the summer. So along with your beach…

  15. Reading as Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    Using an adapted version of a recently published scientific article, a group of sixth graders worked together identifying conclusions, deciding on appropriate evidence, suggesting improvements for the study, and recommending further investigations for scientists. This experience provided opportunities for these students to use reading to decide on…

  16. Books for Summer Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1991

    1991-01-01

    To help replenish educators' supply of ideas, "Kappan" editors suggest several books for summer reading, including many noncurrent titles not specifically on education such as Peter Novick's "That Noble Dream," Joy Kogawa's "Obasan," Zora Neale Hurston's "Their Eyes Were Watching God," Kate Chopin's "The Awakening," Willa Cather's "My Antonia,"…

  17. Increasing Reading Compliance and Metacognitive Strategies in Border Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culver, Tiffany F.

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to increase reading compliance and active reading strategies, quizzes and reading guides were given to 100 participants in four psychology courses. Each participant was given four weeks of reading quizzes and four weeks of reading guides. Participants consisted of students (freshman through senior level) from two colleges along the…

  18. How Can I Get My Teenager to Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winebrenner, Rosemary

    The main barriers to teenage reading are lack of reading skills, lack of reading materials, and lack of time for reading. The school has often unconsciously contributed to the teenager's not reading by overloading him with homework and providing too many after-school activities. Another important factor that affects the child's attitude toward…

  19. A Kindergartner's Emergent Strategy Use during Wordless Picture Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysaker, Judith; Hopper, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research in emergent reading demonstrate that children don't come to print reading as if it were a completely new activity. Emergent reading practices such as wordless book reading are often seen as precursors to the meaning making that comes later during print reading. Yet often, the specific strategies noted in children's emergent…

  20. Reading and writing the neural code.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Garrett B

    2013-03-01

    It has been more than 20 years since Bialek and colleagues published a landmark paper asking a seemingly innocuous question: what can we extract about the outside world from the spiking activity of sensory neurons? Can we read the neural code? Although this seemingly simple question has helped us shed light on the neural code, we still do not understand the anatomical and neurophysiological constraints that enable these codes to propagate across synapses and form the basis for computations that we need to interact with our environment. The sensitivity of neuronal activity to the timing of synaptic inputs naturally suggests that synchrony determines the form of the neural code, and, in turn, regulation of synchrony is a critical element in 'writing' the neural code through the artificial control of microcircuits to activate downstream structures. In this way, reading and writing the neural code are inextricably linked.

  1. The magical activation of left amygdala when reading Harry Potter: an fMRI study on how descriptions of supra-natural events entertain and enchant.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chun-Ting; Jacobs, Arthur M; Altmann, Ulrike; Conrad, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Literature containing supra-natural, or magical events has enchanted generations of readers. When reading narratives describing such events, readers mentally simulate a text world different from the real one. The corresponding violation of world-knowledge during this simulation likely increases cognitive processing demands for ongoing discourse integration, catches readers' attention, and might thus contribute to the pleasure and deep emotional experience associated with ludic immersive reading. In the present study, we presented participants in an MR scanner with passages selected from the Harry Potter book series, half of which described magical events, while the other half served as control condition. Passages in both conditions were closely matched for relevant psycholinguistic variables including, e.g., emotional valence and arousal, passage-wise mean word imageability and frequency, and syntactic complexity. Post-hoc ratings showed that readers considered supra-natural contents more surprising and more strongly associated with reading pleasure than control passages. In the fMRI data, we found stronger neural activation for the supra-natural than the control condition in bilateral inferior frontal gyri, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, left fusiform gyrus, and left amygdala. The increased activation in the amygdala (part of the salience and emotion processing network) appears to be associated with feelings of surprise and the reading pleasure, which supra-natural events, full of novelty and unexpectedness, brought about. The involvement of bilateral inferior frontal gyri likely reflects higher cognitive processing demand due to world knowledge violations, whereas increased attention to supra-natural events is reflected in inferior frontal gyri and inferior parietal lobules that are part of the fronto-parietal attention network.

  2. The Magical Activation of Left Amygdala when Reading Harry Potter: An fMRI Study on How Descriptions of Supra-Natural Events Entertain and Enchant

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chun-Ting; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Altmann, Ulrike; Conrad, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Literature containing supra-natural, or magical events has enchanted generations of readers. When reading narratives describing such events, readers mentally simulate a text world different from the real one. The corresponding violation of world-knowledge during this simulation likely increases cognitive processing demands for ongoing discourse integration, catches readers’ attention, and might thus contribute to the pleasure and deep emotional experience associated with ludic immersive reading. In the present study, we presented participants in an MR scanner with passages selected from the Harry Potter book series, half of which described magical events, while the other half served as control condition. Passages in both conditions were closely matched for relevant psycholinguistic variables including, e.g., emotional valence and arousal, passage-wise mean word imageability and frequency, and syntactic complexity. Post-hoc ratings showed that readers considered supra-natural contents more surprising and more strongly associated with reading pleasure than control passages. In the fMRI data, we found stronger neural activation for the supra-natural than the control condition in bilateral inferior frontal gyri, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, left fusiform gyrus, and left amygdala. The increased activation in the amygdala (part of the salience and emotion processing network) appears to be associated with feelings of surprise and the reading pleasure, which supra-natural events, full of novelty and unexpectedness, brought about. The involvement of bilateral inferior frontal gyri likely reflects higher cognitive processing demand due to world knowledge violations, whereas increased attention to supra-natural events is reflected in inferior frontal gyri and inferior parietal lobules that are part of the fronto-parietal attention network. PMID:25671315

  3. Functional anatomy of listening and reading comprehension during development.

    PubMed

    Berl, Madison M; Duke, Elizabeth S; Mayo, Jessica; Rosenberger, Lisa R; Moore, Erin N; VanMeter, John; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Vaidya, Chandan J; Gaillard, William Davis

    2010-08-01

    Listening and reading comprehension of paragraph-length material are considered higher-order language skills fundamental to social and academic functioning. Using ecologically relevant language stimuli that were matched for difficulty according to developmental level, we analyze the effects of task, age, neuropsychological skills, and post-task performance on fMRI activation and hemispheric laterality. Areas of supramodal language processing are identified, with the most robust region being left-lateralized activation along the superior temporal sulcus. Functionally, this conjunction has a role in semantic and syntactic processing, leading us to refer to this conjunction as "comprehension cortex." Different from adults, supramodal areas for children include less extensive inferior frontal gyrus but more extensive right cerebellum and right temporal pole. Broader neuroanatomical pathways are recruited for reading, reflecting the more active processing and larger set of cognitive demands needed for reading compared to listening to stories. ROI analyses reveal that reading is a less lateralized language task than listening in inferior frontal and superior temporal areas, which likely reflects the difficulty of the task as children in this study are still developing their reading skills. For listening to stories, temporal activation is stable by age four with no correlations with age, neuropsychological skills or post-task performance. In contrast, frontal activation during listening to stories occurs more often in older children, and frontal activation is positively correlated with better performance on comprehension questions, suggesting that the activation of frontal networks may reflect greater integration and depth of story processing.

  4. Reading fiction and reading minds: the role of simulation in the default network.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Diana I; Bricker, Andrew B; Dodell-Feder, David; Mitchell, Jason P

    2016-02-01

    Research in psychology has suggested that reading fiction can improve individuals' social-cognitive abilities. Findings from neuroscience show that reading and social cognition both recruit the default network, a network which is known to support our capacity to simulate hypothetical scenes, spaces and mental states. The current research tests the hypothesis that fiction reading enhances social cognition because it serves to exercise the default subnetwork involved in theory of mind. While undergoing functional neuroimaging, participants read literary passages that differed along two dimensions: (i) vivid vs abstract and (ii) social vs non-social. Analyses revealed distinct subnetworks of the default network respond to the two dimensions of interest: the medial temporal lobe subnetwork responded preferentially to vivid passages, with or without social content; the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) subnetwork responded preferentially to passages with social and abstract content. Analyses also demonstrated that participants who read fiction most often also showed the strongest social cognition performance. Finally, mediation analysis showed that activity in the dmPFC subnetwork in response to the social content mediated this relation, suggesting that the simulation of social content in fiction plays a role in fiction's ability to enhance readers' social cognition.

  5. Reading fiction and reading minds: the role of simulation in the default network

    PubMed Central

    Bricker, Andrew B.; Dodell-Feder, David; Mitchell, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Research in psychology has suggested that reading fiction can improve individuals’ social-cognitive abilities. Findings from neuroscience show that reading and social cognition both recruit the default network, a network which is known to support our capacity to simulate hypothetical scenes, spaces and mental states. The current research tests the hypothesis that fiction reading enhances social cognition because it serves to exercise the default subnetwork involved in theory of mind. While undergoing functional neuroimaging, participants read literary passages that differed along two dimensions: (i) vivid vs abstract and (ii) social vs non-social. Analyses revealed distinct subnetworks of the default network respond to the two dimensions of interest: the medial temporal lobe subnetwork responded preferentially to vivid passages, with or without social content; the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) subnetwork responded preferentially to passages with social and abstract content. Analyses also demonstrated that participants who read fiction most often also showed the strongest social cognition performance. Finally, mediation analysis showed that activity in the dmPFC subnetwork in response to the social content mediated this relation, suggesting that the simulation of social content in fiction plays a role in fiction’s ability to enhance readers’ social cognition. PMID:26342221

  6. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed without…

  7. Oral Reading Fluency in Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Eun Hee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of oral reading fluency in second language reading. Two hundred and fifty-five high school students in South Korea were assessed on three oral reading fluency (ORF) variables and six other reading predictors. The relationship between ORF and other reading predictors was examined through an exploratory factor…

  8. Recreational Reading: 20 Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Cathy Collins; Mangieri, John N.

    2002-01-01

    Determines elementary teachers' knowledge of: current children's literature; children's books in six literary genres; and activities to promote students' recreational reading. Replicates a 1981 study to determine the level of knowledge possessed by today's teachers concerning children's literature and methods of increasing students' reading for…

  9. Reading As a Survival Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blosser, Patricia E.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a technique for the development of survival reading activity packets for the science classroom. The reading packets described include labels from different food and medicine products and from magazine and newspaper articles. Three types of questions were used with each packet: factual, interpretive, and application. (DS)

  10. How Close Is Close Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saccomano, Doreen

    2014-01-01

    Close Reading is a strategy that can be used when reading challenging text. This strategy requires teachers to provide scaffolding, and create opportunities for think-alouds and rereading of text in order to help students become active readers who focus on finding text-based support for their answers. In addition, teachers must also be aware of…

  11. Reading Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    The parents of students who attend Decatur High School thought that there was little hope of their kids going on to college. After a year or so in Decatur's reading program, their sons and daughters were both transformed and college bound. In this article, the author describes how Decatur was able to successfully transform their students. Seven…

  12. Reading Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patrick

    The central purpose of this book is to challenge current social constructions of poverty, reading education, and the putative relationship between the two. It explores how official and popular representations of poverty are bound to specific historical, social, and economic conditions of their own production. The book offers four stances of…

  13. A Read-Aloud for English Classrooms (Read It Aloud).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Judy S.; Cantrell, R. Jeffrey

    1996-01-01

    Presents a read-aloud from Lois Lowry's novel "Anastasia Krupnik" showing how Anastasia's first experience writing a poem helped form negative attitudes. Discusses the selections and offers suggestions for teaching poetry and for integrating poetry in other classrooms. (SR)

  14. Conversations on Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Dottie; Parker, Emelie; Cuda, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    Three highly acclaimed teachers from Virginia elementary schools reflect on how they have put research into practice to the benefit of their students, discussing their experiences in teaching reading and presenting information on how their school encourages the type of professional-development activities that provide for the careful examination of…

  15. Learning to Read Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Jennifer

    1978-01-01

    In the first part (AA 527 718) of this two part article math expression was discussed as well as student difficulty with translating written symbols into easily verbalized sentences. In this second part comprehension problems are examined and activities are offered to help students overcome these reading difficulties. (Editor/RK)

  16. Reading the Right Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Bill

    1997-01-01

    Extensive research and practical experience demonstrate that learning to read comes less naturally than learning to speak. Although half of all children intuit the alphabetic system from exposure to print and context-driven activities, many (particularly dyslexic, low-socioeconomic, and second-language kids) need an organized program that teaches…

  17. Feasibility and Efficacy of a Computer-Based Intervention Aimed at Preventing Reading Decoding Deficits Among Children Undergoing Active Treatment for Medulloblastoma: Results of a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Laurie; Ellison, Susan C.; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Wu, Shengjie; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Wright, Karen; Wetmore, Cynthia; Broniscer, Alberto; Gajjar, Amar

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of a computer-based reading intervention completed by patients diagnosed with a brain tumor. Methods Patients were randomized to the intervention (n = 43) or standard of care group (n = 38). The intervention consisted of 30 sessions using Fast ForWord® exercises in a game-like format. Change in reading decoding scores over time since diagnosis was examined. Gender, race, parent education, parent marital status, and age at diagnosis were examined as covariates. Results 17 patients (39.5%) were able to complete the target goal of 30 intervention sessions. Females had significantly greater training time than males (p = .022). Age at diagnosis was associated with average training time/session for females (r = .485, p = .041). No significant differences were found in reading scores between the randomized groups. Conclusions The study was well accepted by families and adherence by patients undergoing radiation therapy for medulloblastoma was moderate. Suggestions for improved methodology are discussed. PMID:24369366

  18. Structure of the Ni(II) complex of Escherichia coli peptide deformylase and suggestions on deformylase activities depending on different metal(II) centres.

    PubMed

    Yen, Ngo Thi Hai; Bogdanović, Xenia; Palm, Gottfried J; Kühl, Olaf; Hinrichs, Winfried

    2010-02-01

    Crystal structures of polypeptide deformylase (PDF) of Escherichia coli with nickel(II) replacing the native iron(II) have been solved with chloride and formate as metal ligands. The chloro complex is a model for the correct protonation state of the hydrolytic hydroxo ligand and the protonated status of the Glu133 side chain as part of the hydrolytic mechanism. The ambiguity that recently some PDFs have been identified with Zn(2+) ion as the active-site centre whereas others are only active with Fe(2+) (or Co(2+), Ni(2+) is discussed with respect to Lewis acid criteria of the metal ion and substrate activation by the CD loop.

  19. Dyslexia (specific reading disability).

    PubMed

    Shaywitz, Sally E; Shaywitz, Bennett A

    2005-06-01

    Converging evidence from a number of lines of investigation indicates that dyslexia represents a disorder within the language system and more specifically within a particular subcomponent of that system, phonological processing. Recent advances in imaging technology, particularly the development of functional magnetic resonance imaging, provide evidence of a neurobiological signature for dyslexia, specifically a disruption of two left hemisphere posterior brain systems, one parieto-temporal, the other occipito-temporal, with compensatory engagement of anterior systems around the inferior frontal gyrus and a posterior (right occipito-temporal) system. Furthermore, good evidence indicates a computational role for the left occipito-temporal system: the development of fluent (automatic) reading. The brain systems for reading are malleable and their disruption in dyslexic children may be remediated by provision of an evidence-based, effective reading intervention. In addition, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of young adults with reading difficulties followed prospectively and longitudinally from age 5 through their mid twenties suggests that there may be two types of reading difficulties, one primarily on a genetic basis, the other, and far more common, reflecting environmental influences. These studies offer the promise for more precise identification and effective management of dyslexia in children, adolescents and adults.

  20. Turkish EFL Academicians' Problems Concerning Translation Activities and Practices, Attitudes towards the Use of Online and Printed Translation Tools, and Suggestions for Quality Translation Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zengin, Bugra; Kacar, Isil Gunseli

    2011-01-01

    This mixed method research study aimed to highlight the problems of EFL academicians concerning their current translation practices, their attitudes towards the use of various translation tools, and offer suggestions for more quality translation practices. Seventy-three EFL academicians from three Turkish universities participated in the study.…

  1. Reading Strategies in Spanish Developmental Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Cross-linguistic studies suggest that the orthographic system determines the reading performance of dyslexic children. In opaque orthographies, the fundamental feature of developmental dyslexia is difficulty in reading accuracy, whereas slower reading speed is more common in transparent orthographies. The aim of the current study was to examine…

  2. Helping Children Overcome Reading Difficulties. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carl B.; Sensenbaugh, Roger

    This digest discusses children with reading difficulties and how these children can be helped to read and learn more effectively. The digest offers a definition and discussion of dyslexia, examines instructional conditions that help the reading comprehension of children labeled as learning disabled, offers suggestions for choosing helpful reading…

  3. Assign Books, and Students Will Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    After watching an instructional film informing that only 26 percent of today's college students do the reading for their courses, the author announced to a colleague that she gives reading tests; the colleague looked at her with what seemed a mixture of shock and pity. Indeed, the video in no way suggested that instructors compel students to read;…

  4. Approaching Interpretive Virtues through Reading Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slagter, Cynthia G.

    2007-01-01

    Educators are often frustrated when students appear not to have completed reading assignments carefully or attentively and seem unwilling or unable to give a fair and balanced critique of what they have read. This essay suggests that incorporating the practice of reading aloud may help both to point out where students are stumbling and to create…

  5. Solving the Problem of Summer Reading Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, James S.; White, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    A 2008 experiment suggests that a summer books program, when combined with teacher scaffolding lessons and parent support, can significantly improve the reading achievement of low-income children. However, just giving student books to read did not improve achievement. By having teachers provide end-of-year lessons in reading comprehension and…

  6. Reading in the Business Education Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulecky, Larry; Haugh, Rita

    This guide provides both a rationale and explicit, practical suggestions to help the high school business education teacher teach students the reading skills necessary to handle skills- and concept-oriented reading materials. It consists of four sections. The first section, which provides a rationale for reading instruction in business education…

  7. Shelf Reading as a Collaborative Service Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kevin N.; Kaspar, Wendi Arant

    2006-01-01

    Shelf reading the stacks is very often not seen as scholarly work in library circles and is therefore overlooked. However, there is a very real frustration of a patron who cannot find the material they need. There are very few studies that provide a working model for shelf reading. The authors suggest a collaborative shelf reading model based on…

  8. Children with reading difficulties show differences in brain regions associated with orthographic processing during spoken language processing.

    PubMed

    Desroches, Amy S; Cone, Nadia E; Bolger, Donald J; Bitan, Tali; Burman, Douglas D; Booth, James R

    2010-10-14

    We explored the neural basis of spoken language deficits in children with reading difficulty, specifically focusing on the role of orthography during spoken language processing. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine differences in brain activation between children with reading difficulties (aged 9-to-15 years) and age-matched children with typical achievement during an auditory rhyming task. Both groups showed activation in bilateral superior temporal gyri (BA 42 and 22), a region associated with phonological processing, with no significant between-group differences. Interestingly, typically achieving children, but not children with reading difficulties, showed activation of left fusiform cortex (BA 37), a region implicated in orthographic processing. Furthermore, this activation was significantly greater for typically achieving children compared to those with reading difficulties. These findings suggest that typical children automatically activate orthographic representations during spoken language processing, while those with reading difficulties do not. Follow-up analyses revealed that the intensity of the activation in the fusiform gyrus was associated with significantly stronger behavioral conflict effects in typically achieving children only (i.e., longer latencies to rhyming pairs with orthographically dissimilar endings than to those with identical orthographic endings; jazz-has vs. cat-hat). Finally, for reading disabled children, a positive correlation between left fusiform activation and nonword reading was observed, such that greater access to orthography was related to decoding ability. Taken together, the results suggest that the integration of orthographic and phonological processing is directly related to reading ability.

  9. Kindergarten Reading Curriculum: Reading Abilities, Not Reading Readiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ida Santos

    1985-01-01

    Addresses attitudes toward reading resulting in beginning reading instruction in the kindergarten and preschool curriculum. Argues that previously accepted notions of the necessity of reading readiness are no longer viable and encourages home and classroom support for the acquisition of reading abilities through written and oral language. (DST)

  10. The neural substrates of natural reading: a comparison of normal and nonword text using eyetracking and fMRI.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wonil; Desai, Rutvik H; Henderson, John M

    2014-01-01

    Most previous studies investigating the neural correlates of reading have presented text using serial visual presentation (SVP), which may not fully reflect the underlying processes of natural reading. In the present study, eye movements and BOLD data were collected while subjects either read normal paragraphs naturally or moved their eyes through "paragraphs" of pseudo-text (pronounceable pseudowords or consonant letter strings) in two pseudo-reading conditions. Eye movement data established that subjects were reading and scanning the stimuli normally. A conjunction fMRI analysis across natural- and pseudo-reading showed that a common eye-movement network including frontal eye fields (FEF), supplementary eye fields (SEF), and intraparietal sulci was activated, consistent with previous studies using simpler eye movement tasks. In addition, natural reading versus pseudo-reading showed different patterns of brain activation: normal reading produced activation in a well-established language network that included superior temporal gyrus/sulcus, middle temporal gyrus (MTG), angular gyrus (AG), inferior frontal gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus, whereas pseudo-reading produced activation in an attentional network that included anterior/posterior cingulate and parietal cortex. These results are consistent with results found in previous single-saccade eye movement tasks and SVP reading studies, suggesting that component processes of eye-movement control and language processing observed in past fMRI research generalize to natural reading. The results also suggest that combining eyetracking and fMRI is a suitable method for investigating the component processes of natural reading in fMRI research.

  11. The neural substrates of natural reading: a comparison of normal and nonword text using eyetracking and fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Wonil; Desai, Rutvik H.; Henderson, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Most previous studies investigating the neural correlates of reading have presented text using serial visual presentation (SVP), which may not fully reflect the underlying processes of natural reading. In the present study, eye movements and BOLD data were collected while subjects either read normal paragraphs naturally or moved their eyes through “paragraphs” of pseudo-text (pronounceable pseudowords or consonant letter strings) in two pseudo-reading conditions. Eye movement data established that subjects were reading and scanning the stimuli normally. A conjunction fMRI analysis across natural- and pseudo-reading showed that a common eye-movement network including frontal eye fields (FEF), supplementary eye fields (SEF), and intraparietal sulci was activated, consistent with previous studies using simpler eye movement tasks. In addition, natural reading versus pseudo-reading showed different patterns of brain activation: normal reading produced activation in a well-established language network that included superior temporal gyrus/sulcus, middle temporal gyrus (MTG), angular gyrus (AG), inferior frontal gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus, whereas pseudo-reading produced activation in an attentional network that included anterior/posterior cingulate and parietal cortex. These results are consistent with results found in previous single-saccade eye movement tasks and SVP reading studies, suggesting that component processes of eye-movement control and language processing observed in past fMRI research generalize to natural reading. The results also suggest that combining eyetracking and fMRI is a suitable method for investigating the component processes of natural reading in fMRI research. PMID:25566039

  12. Reading Words and Reading Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan

    The research and practical questions about the internal lexicon, the associated network of internal representation basic to word meaning, boil down to whether in reading English the phonological route is obligatory or optional. Since the English writing system is morphophonemic, not phonetic, access to the internal lexicon cannot and should not…

  13. The Social Side of Engaged Reading for Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Gay

    2014-01-01

    This article highlights, though examples from research, the social dimensions of reading for young adolescents in classroom communities that are centrally focused on engagement. Included are the positive social consequences of engagement and suggestions for teachers interested in arranging for productive social activity inside of texts and outside…

  14. Cooperative Learning in College Reading and Study Skills Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radebaugh, Muriel Rogie; Kazemek, Francis E.

    1989-01-01

    Describes how current insights into literacy, teaching, and learning as social, collaborative processes can be incorporated into college reading and study skills classes. Suggests several cooperative activities and strategies, including small group discussion, forming permanent study groups, and sharing study habits. (MM)

  15. How to Reinforce Reading through Health, Physical Education and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Div. of Instructional Services.

    Intended for use in inservice workshops for health and physical education teachers, this guide contains suggestions designed to help these teachers integrate the teaching of reading skills into their curricula. Sample activities are provided to demonstrate how the physical education teacher can use different methods and strategies to help students…

  16. The Crystal Structure of a Quercetin 2,3-Dioxygenase from Bacillus subtilis Suggests Modulation of Enzyme Activity by a Change in the Metal Ion at the Active Site(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Gopal, B.; Madan, Lalima L.; Betz, Stephen F.; Kossiakoff, Anthony A.

    2010-11-10

    Common structural motifs, such as the cupin domains, are found in enzymes performing different biochemical functions while retaining a similar active site configuration and structural scaffold. The soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis has 20 cupin genes (0.5% of the total genome) with up to 14% of its genes in the form of doublets, thus making it an attractive system for studying the effects of gene duplication. There are four bicupins in B. subtilis encoded by the genes yvrK, yoaN, yxaG, and ywfC. The gene products of yvrK and yoaN function as oxalate decarboxylases with a manganese ion at the active site(s), whereas YwfC is a bacitracin synthetase. Here we present the crystal structure of YxaG, a novel iron-containing quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase with one active site in each cupin domain. Yxag is a dimer, both in solution and in the crystal. The crystal structure shows that the coordination geometry of the Fe ion is different in the two active sites of YxaG. Replacement of the iron at the active site with other metal ions suggests modulation of enzymatic activity in accordance with the Irving-Williams observation on the stability of metal ion complexes. This observation, along with a comparison with the crystal structure of YvrK determined recently, has allowed for a detailed structure-function analysis of the active site, providing clues to the diversification of function in the bicupin family of proteins.

  17. "Passageless" administration of the Nelson-Denny Reading Comprehension Test: associations with IQ and reading skills.

    PubMed

    Ready, Rebecca E; Chaudhry, Maheen F; Schatz, Kelly C; Strazzullo, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    There are few tests that assess reading comprehension in adults, but these tests are needed for a comprehensive assessment of reading disorders (RD). The Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT) has a long-passage reading comprehension component that can be used with adolescents and adults. A problem with the NDRT is that reading comprehension test items can be answered correctly without reading the associated passage. The current study determined how IQ, verbal comprehension, and reading skills were associated with scores on a passageless administration of the NDRT. Results indicated that IQ, verbal comprehension, and broad reading skills were significantly associated with greater NDRT passageless scores. Results raise questions about the validity of the reading comprehension component of the NDRT and suggest that the test may have differential validity based on individual differences in vocabulary, general fund of knowledge, and broad reading skills.

  18. Reading Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    Reading the average science textbook, one is struck with a question: Why would people devote their lives to the study of a subject as dry as the Sahara Desert? Students in science classes only need to be let in on the great secret of science. It is fun and full of the stuff in page-turner novels--intrigue, mystery, romance, and sometimes just dumb…

  19. Structure of membrane-active toxin from crab spider Heriaeus melloteei suggests parallel evolution of sodium channel gating modifiers in Araneomorphae and Mygalomorphae.

    PubMed

    Berkut, Antonina A; Peigneur, Steve; Myshkin, Mikhail Yu; Paramonov, Alexander S; Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Arseniev, Alexander S; Grishin, Eugene V; Tytgat, Jan; Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Vassilevski, Alexander A

    2015-01-02

    We present a structural and functional study of a sodium channel activation inhibitor from crab spider venom. Hm-3 is an insecticidal peptide toxin consisting of 35 amino acid residues from the spider Heriaeus melloteei (Thomisidae). We produced Hm-3 recombinantly in Escherichia coli and determined its structure by NMR spectroscopy. Typical for spider toxins, Hm-3 was found to adopt the so-called "inhibitor cystine knot" or "knottin" fold stabilized by three disulfide bonds. Its molecule is amphiphilic with a hydrophobic ridge on the surface enriched in aromatic residues and surrounded by positive charges. Correspondingly, Hm-3 binds to both neutral and negatively charged lipid vesicles. Electrophysiological studies showed that at a concentration of 1 μm Hm-3 effectively inhibited a number of mammalian and insect sodium channels. Importantly, Hm-3 shifted the dependence of channel activation to more positive voltages. Moreover, the inhibition was voltage-dependent, and strong depolarizing prepulses attenuated Hm-3 activity. The toxin is therefore concluded to represent the first sodium channel gating modifier from an araneomorph spider and features a "membrane access" mechanism of action. Its amino acid sequence and position of the hydrophobic cluster are notably different from other known gating modifiers from spider venom, all of which are described from mygalomorph species. We hypothesize parallel evolution of inhibitor cystine knot toxins from Araneomorphae and Mygalomorphae suborders.

  20. Reading Habit Promotion in ASEAN Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangkaeo, Somsong

    This paper describes the activities of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) libraries have undertaken to promote reading by increasing awareness among their people. First, factors limiting reading habits in ASEAN libraries are addressed, including: we are not a reading society, but a chatting society; the management of "3…

  1. Accentuating Literacy Today: A Reading Consultant's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Harry, Comp.; And Others

    This handbook presents brief descriptions of various aspects of reading instruction and related lesson plans and class activities. Sections of the handbook discuss readiness, word recognition, developing vocabulary skills, reading in the content area, and reading comprehension. The handbook also offers brief biographies on Emmett Betts, Guy Bond,…

  2. Wait…This Counts as Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Many sixth grade students think they are telling the truth when they complain, "Reading is boring." However, they don't realize what sort of activities encompass reading. As a teacher with a few years of experience, I am finding new ways to engage reluctant readers and show them reading can take many different forms. In this essay, I…

  3. Dialogic Reading. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Dialogic reading is an interactive shared picture-book reading practice designed to enhance young children's language and literacy skills. During the shared reading practice, the adult and the child switch roles so that the child learns to become the storyteller with the assistance of the adult, who functions as an active listener and questioner.…

  4. Dialogic Reading. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Dialogic Reading" is an interactive shared picture book reading practice designed to enhance young children's language and literacy skills. During the shared reading practice, the adult and the child switch roles so that the child learns to become the storyteller with the assistance of the adult, who functions as an active listener and…

  5. Let Animals Teach Your Students to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1986-01-01

    Offers a plan for organizing and implementing a schoolwide reading week entitled, "Drop Everything Else, Read" (DEER). Presents explanations and directions for eight reading activities which focus on animals. Includes materials that can be duplicated and used by students as bookmarks and certificates. (ML)

  6. A Kindergartner Learns to Read for Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Bonnie L.

    Six weeks were spent working with a five-year-old kindergarten child who had an excellent understanding of sound/symbol relationships but did not know how to read for meaning. A variety of techniques was used to help the child develop reading strategies and increase confidence: directed reading-thinking activity in week one; student retelling of a…

  7. Suggestion can help.

    PubMed

    Benson, P E

    2000-10-01

    One cannot practise dentistry without realising that for the patient, the control of pain and fear is extremely important. Modern technical advances have made painless dentistry a reality and yet research has shown that more people avoid dental treatment through fear of pain than all other factors combined. Dental surgeons and psychologists agree that patients frequently magnify their unpleasant dental experiences. There are deep-seated psychological reasons for this exaggerated fear; the mouth being a highly charged erotogenic region, is a primary zone of interaction with the environment and can have important far-reaching emotional significance. To many people the anticipation of dental treatment is sufficient to arouse extreme anxiety. Dental schools lay great emphasis on basic medical sciences and the technical excellence of students, the psychosomatic approach to the alleviation of apprehension, fear and pain is meanwhile often sadly neglected. The use of controlled suggestion and hypnosis can be shown to play a very important role in clinical dentistry.

  8. Redesigning Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Gay

    2000-01-01

    All students, including struggling readers, need opportunities to make choices in their reading. Schools should shun round-robin oral reading and basal readers, prioritize reading time, allocate resources for varied reading materials keyed to student interests, and develop better reading teachers, not better reading programs. (Contains 20…

  9. Reading Research 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodacre, Elizabeth J.

    The reading research contributions discussed in this survey are arranged under the following headings: reading standards and tests, dyslexia and specific reading retardation, remedial and reading provision, reading development, and materials and reading interests. Each section summarizes research and findings in that area of study during 1975.…

  10. Analysis of biosurfactants from industrially viable Pseudomonas strain isolated from crude oil suggests how rhamnolipids congeners affect emulsification property and antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    Das, Palashpriya; Yang, Xin-Ping; Ma, Luyan Z.

    2014-01-01

    Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced mainly by Pseudomonas sp. had been reported to possess a wide range of potential industrial application. These biosurfactants are produced as monorhamnolipid (MRL) and di-rhamnolipid (DRL) congeners. The present study deals with rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by three bacterial isolates from crude oil. Biosurfactants produced by one of the strains (named as IMP67) was found to be very efficacious based on its critical micelle concentration value and hydrocarbon emulsification property. Strikingly, antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm potential of this biosurfactant were higher than biosurfactants produced by other two strains. Thin layer chromatography analysis and rhamnose quantification showed that the rhamnolipids of IMP67 had more MRL congeners than biosurfactants of the other two strains. Emulsification and antimicrobial actions were affected by manual change of MRL and DRL congener proportions. Increase of MRL proportion enhanced emulsification index and antimicrobial property to Gram negative bacteria. This result indicated that the ratio of MRL and DRL affected the emulsification potentials of rhamnolipids, and suggested that high emulsification potentials might enhance rhamnolipids to penetrate the cell wall of Gram negative bacteria. In line with this finding, rhamnolipids of IMP67 also reduced the MIC of some antibiotics against bacteria, suggesting their synergistic role with the antibiotics. PMID:25566212

  11. Secretion of Antonospora (Paranosema) locustae Proteins into Infected Cells Suggests an Active Role of Microsporidia in the Control of Host Programs and Metabolic Processes

    PubMed Central

    Senderskiy, Igor V.; Timofeev, Sergey A.; Seliverstova, Elena V.; Pavlova, Olga A.; Dolgikh, Viacheslav V.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular tools of the intracellular protozoan pathogens Apicomplexa and Kinetoplastida for manipulation of host cell machinery have been the focus of investigation for approximately two decades. Microsporidia, fungi-related microorganisms forming another large group of obligate intracellular parasites, are characterized by development in direct contact with host cytoplasm (the majority of species), strong minimization of cell machinery, and acquisition of unique transporters to exploit host metabolic system. All the aforementioned features are suggestive of the ability of microsporidia to modify host metabolic and regulatory pathways. Seven proteins of the microsporidium Antonospora (Paranosema) locustae with predicted signal peptides but without transmembrane domains were overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Western-blot analysis with antibodies against recombinant products showed secretion of parasite proteins from different functional categories into the infected host cell. Secretion of parasite hexokinase and α/β-hydrolase was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, this method showed specific accumulation of A. locustae hexokinase in host nuclei. Expression of hexokinase, trehalase, and two leucine-rich repeat proteins without any exogenous signal peptide led to their secretion in the yeast Pichia pastoris. In contrast, α/β-hydrolase was not found in the culture medium, though a significant amount of this enzyme accumulated in the yeast membrane fraction. These results suggest that microsporidia possess a broad set of enzymes and regulatory proteins secreted into infected cells to control host metabolic processes and molecular programs. PMID:24705470

  12. Analysis of biosurfactants from industrially viable Pseudomonas strain isolated from crude oil suggests how rhamnolipids congeners affect emulsification property and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Das, Palashpriya; Yang, Xin-Ping; Ma, Luyan Z

    2014-01-01

    Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced mainly by Pseudomonas sp. had been reported to possess a wide range of potential industrial application. These biosurfactants are produced as monorhamnolipid (MRL) and di-rhamnolipid (DRL) congeners. The present study deals with rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by three bacterial isolates from crude oil. Biosurfactants produced by one of the strains (named as IMP67) was found to be very efficacious based on its critical micelle concentration value and hydrocarbon emulsification property. Strikingly, antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm potential of this biosurfactant were higher than biosurfactants produced by other two strains. Thin layer chromatography analysis and rhamnose quantification showed that the rhamnolipids of IMP67 had more MRL congeners than biosurfactants of the other two strains. Emulsification and antimicrobial actions were affected by manual change of MRL and DRL congener proportions. Increase of MRL proportion enhanced emulsification index and antimicrobial property to Gram negative bacteria. This result indicated that the ratio of MRL and DRL affected the emulsification potentials of rhamnolipids, and suggested that high emulsification potentials might enhance rhamnolipids to penetrate the cell wall of Gram negative bacteria. In line with this finding, rhamnolipids of IMP67 also reduced the MIC of some antibiotics against bacteria, suggesting their synergistic role with the antibiotics.

  13. Secretion of Antonospora (Paranosema) locustae proteins into infected cells suggests an active role of microsporidia in the control of host programs and metabolic processes.

    PubMed

    Senderskiy, Igor V; Timofeev, Sergey A; Seliverstova, Elena V; Pavlova, Olga A; Dolgikh, Viacheslav V

    2014-01-01

    Molecular tools of the intracellular protozoan pathogens Apicomplexa and Kinetoplastida for manipulation of host cell machinery have been the focus of investigation for approximately two decades. Microsporidia, fungi-related microorganisms forming another large group of obligate intracellular parasites, are characterized by development in direct contact with host cytoplasm (the majority of species), strong minimization of cell machinery, and acquisition of unique transporters to exploit host metabolic system. All the aforementioned features are suggestive of the ability of microsporidia to modify host metabolic and regulatory pathways. Seven proteins of the microsporidium Antonospora (Paranosema) locustae with predicted signal peptides but without transmembrane domains were overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Western-blot analysis with antibodies against recombinant products showed secretion of parasite proteins from different functional categories into the infected host cell. Secretion of parasite hexokinase and α/β-hydrolase was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, this method showed specific accumulation of A. locustae hexokinase in host nuclei. Expression of hexokinase, trehalase, and two leucine-rich repeat proteins without any exogenous signal peptide led to their secretion in the yeast Pichia pastoris. In contrast, α/β-hydrolase was not found in the culture medium, though a significant amount of this enzyme accumulated in the yeast membrane fraction. These results suggest that microsporidia possess a broad set of enzymes and regulatory proteins secreted into infected cells to control host metabolic processes and molecular programs.

  14. Promoting a Reading Culture in School Community: How to Engage Reading Activities Cross Curricula, Directors, Teachers, Students, Parents, Administrative Services, Local Authorities, Public Libraries and Other Partners--Relating a Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Ana Bela; Marques, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to present how an intensive collaboration between the National Portuguese Reading Plan and the School Libraries Network Programme plays an important role in the promotion of reading literacy as a baseline to develop all kinds of other literacy abilities and empower the role of school libraries and the…

  15. The Campania-Lucania Extensional Fault System, southern Italy: A suggestion for a uniform model of active extension in the Italian Apennines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozzetti, F.

    2011-10-01

    By integrating new field data, seismic lines interpretation and a critical review of the literature, this work highlights a regional array of normal faults in the southern Apennines of Italy, which have been active during the Quaternary and are referred to as the "Campania-Lucania Extensional Fault System" (CLEFS). The CLEFS consists of three main NW-SE striking alignments of normal faults, which for the first time are considered genetically linked and methodically described in their geometry, kinematics and displacement. The CROP04 seismic profile, crossing the central part of the CLEFS, was strictly constrained by detailed geological surveys and reinterpreted to define the downdip trajectory of the major normal faults. These latter have been observed to splay from an east dipping low-angle detachment surface penetrating the upper crust to depths of 12-13 km. The time-space evolution of the faults and the associated basins was defined through a review of the stratigraphic data on the syntectonic deposits. As regards the overall geometry and the associate sense of shear (top-to-east), the CLEFS sensibly differs from the extensional features described previously in this region but shows surprising affinities with the "Etrurian Fault System," an extensional megastructure of the northern Apennines. Remarkable similarities concern the extent, the surface and subsurface geometry, the timing of activity and the amount of the associated deformation. These common characters recognized over a belt nearly 600 km long lead to formulation of a low-angle normal fault-driven extension geometrical-kinematic model, which is sound for the whole active extensional belt of Italy.

  16. Girls, Boys and Early Reading: Parents' Gendered Views about Literacy and Children's Attitudes towards Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Gulsah; Hill, Susan; Yates, Gregory C. R.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between children's attitudes towards reading and their parents' gendered views about literacy (GVL). It was assumed that parents may have GVL by favouring girls in reading activities, which could limit boys' enjoyment in reading activities. This study was conducted with 31 five-year-old children in first…

  17. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    PubMed Central

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  18. Plasma acylcarnitine profiles suggest incomplete long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation and altered tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in type 2 diabetic African-American women.

    PubMed

    Adams, Sean H; Hoppel, Charles L; Lok, Kerry H; Zhao, Ling; Wong, Scott W; Minkler, Paul E; Hwang, Daniel H; Newman, John W; Garvey, W Timothy

    2009-06-01

    Inefficient muscle long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) combustion is associated with insulin resistance, but molecular links between mitochondrial fat catabolism and insulin action remain controversial. We hypothesized that plasma acylcarnitine profiling would identify distinct metabolite patterns reflective of muscle fat catabolism when comparing individuals bearing a missense G304A uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3 g/a) polymorphism to controls, because UCP3 is predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle and g/a individuals have reduced whole-body fat oxidation. MS analyses of 42 carnitine moieties in plasma samples from fasting type 2 diabetics (n = 44) and nondiabetics (n = 12) with or without the UCP3 g/a polymorphism (n = 28/genotype: 22 diabetic, 6 nondiabetic/genotype) were conducted. Contrary to our hypothesis, genotype had a negligible impact on plasma metabolite patterns. However, a comparison of nondiabetics vs. type 2 diabetics revealed a striking increase in the concentrations of fatty acylcarnitines reflective of incomplete LCFA beta-oxidation in the latter (i.e. summed C10- to C14-carnitine concentrations were approximately 300% of controls; P = 0.004). Across all volunteers (n = 56), acetylcarnitine rose and propionylcarnitine decreased with increasing hemoglobin A1c (r = 0.544, P < 0.0001; and r = -0.308, P < 0.05, respectively) and with increasing total plasma acylcarnitine concentration. In proof-of-concept studies, we made the novel observation that C12-C14 acylcarnitines significantly stimulated nuclear factor kappa-B activity (up to 200% of controls) in RAW264.7 cells. These results are consistent with the working hypothesis that inefficient tissue LCFA beta-oxidation, due in part to a relatively low tricarboxylic acid cycle capacity, increases tissue accumulation of acetyl-CoA and generates chain-shortened acylcarnitine molecules that activate proinflammatory pathways implicated in insulin resistance.

  19. Slow Reading: Reading along "Lectio" Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, K. Jo-Ann; Badley, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The medieval monastic movement preserved and developed reading practices--lectio--from ancient Greek pedagogy as a slow, mindful approach to reading for formation. This ancient way of reading, now better known as lectio divina, challenges the fast, pragmatic reading so characteristic of our time. We propose that the present moment may be ripe for…

  20. Reading Together: A Successful Reading Fluency Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.; Rasinski, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The article describes a reading fluency intervention called Reading Together that combines the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979) and the Neurological Impress Method (Heckelman, 1969). Sixteen volunteers from various backgrounds were recruited and trained to deliver the Reading Together intervention to struggling readers in third through…