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Sample records for activities topics covered

  1. The English Record: Silver Anniversary Issue; [Topics Covered in That Period].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Richard L., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    The articles reprinted in this silver anniversary issue are a representation of the type of material published during the past 25 years. Among the topics covered are secondary school curriculum, reading skills, composition in the junior high, individual differences in reading programs, vocabulary development in the college classroom, teacher…

  2. Development of a topically active imiquimod formulation.

    PubMed

    Chollet, J L; Jozwiakowski, M J; Phares, K R; Reiter, M J; Roddy, P J; Schultz, H J; Ta, Q V; Tomai, M A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a topical formulation of imiquimod, a novel immune response modifier, to induce local cytokine production for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts. A pH-solubility profile and titration data were used to calculate a pKa of 7.3, indicative of a weak base. Solubility experiments were conducted to identify a solvent that dissolves imiquimod to achieve a 5% formulation concentration. Studies to select surfactants, preservatives, and viscosity-enhancing excipients to formulate an oil-in-water cream indicated that fatty acids were the preferred solvent for topical imiquimod formulations, and isostearic acid (ISA) was selected. A relationship existed between the fatty acid composition of four commercially available ISA sources and the solubility of imiquimod. A combination of polysorbate 60, sorbitan monostearate, and xanthan gum was used to produce a physically stable cream. The preservative system included parabens and benzyl alcohol to meet the USP criteria for preservative activity. An in vitro method was developed to demonstrate that imiquimod was released from the formulation. Topical application of the formulation induced local cytokine activity in mice.

  3. Selected Antimicrobial Activity of Topical Ophthalmic Anesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Margaret M.; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Patel, Robin; Pulido, Jose S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Endophthalmitis is a rare complication of intravitreal injection (IVI). It is recommended that povidone-iodine be the last agent applied before IVI. Patients have reported povidone-iodine application to be the most bothersome part of IVIs. Topical anesthetics have been demonstrated to have antibacterial effects. This study compared the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of topical anesthetic eye drops (proparacaine 0.5%, tetracaine 0.5%, lidocaine 2.0%) and the antiseptic, 5.0% povidone-iodine, against two organisms causing endophthalmitis after IVI. Methods Minimum inhibitory concentration values of topical anesthetics, povidone-iodine, preservative benzalkonium chloride (0.01%), and saline control were determined using five isolates of each Staphylococcus epidermidis and viridans group Streptococcus species (VGS). A broth microdilution technique was used with serial dilutions. Results Lidocaine (8.53 × 10−5mol/mL) had MICs of 4.27 to 8.53 × 10−5 mol/mL, and tetracaine (1.89 × 10−5 mol/mL) had MICs of 9.45 × 10−6 mol/mL for all isolates. Proparacaine (1.7 × 10−5 mol/mL) had MICs of 1.32 to 5.3 × 10−7 and 4.25 × 10−6 mol/mL for S. epidermidis and VGS, respectively). Benzalkonium chloride (3.52 × 10−7 mol/mL) had MICs of 1.86 × 10−9 to 1.1 × 10−8 and 4.40 × 10−8 mol/mL for S. epidermidis and VGS, respectively. Povidone-iodine (1.37 × 10−4 mol/mL) had MICs of 2.14 to 4.28 × 10−6 and 8.56 × 10−6 mol/mL for S. epidermidis and VGS, respectively. Conclusion Proparacaine was the anesthetic with the lowest MICs, lower than that of povidone-iodine. Benzalkonium chloride had lower MICs than proparacaine. All tested anesthetics and povidone-iodine inhibited growth of S. epidermidis and VGS at commercially available concentrations. Translational Relevance For certain patients, it could be possible to use topical anesthetic after povidone-iodine for comfort without inhibiting and perhaps contributing additional antimicrobial

  4. Solar Energy Project, Activities: General Solar Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of activities which introduce students to concepts and issues relating to solar energy. Lessons frequently presented in the context of solar energy as it relates to contemporary energy problems. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; necessary skills and knowledge; materials; method;…

  5. Comparative topical anti-inflammatory activity of cannabinoids and cannabivarins.

    PubMed

    Tubaro, Aurelia; Giangaspero, Anna; Sosa, Silvio; Negri, Roberto; Grassi, Gianpaolo; Casano, Salvatore; Della Loggia, Roberto; Appendino, Giovanni

    2010-10-01

    A selection of seven phytocannabinoids representative of the major structural types of classic cannabinoids and their corresponding cannabivarins was investigated for in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity in the Croton oil mouse ear dermatitis assay. Differences in the terpenoid moiety were far more important for anti-inflammatory activity than those at the C-3 alkyl residue, suggesting the involvement not only of cannabinoid receptors, but also of other inflammatory end-points targeted by phytocannabinoids.

  6. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Selected Environmental Topics for Use With Elementary and Junior High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Alan D., Ed.

    This guide contains learning activities in environmental education developed by teachers and intended for use at the elementary or junior high school levels. Topics covered include: water, esthetics, air, soil and sediment, solid waste, energy, noise, population, and transportation. Generally, each activity contains an introduction, a listing of…

  7. Photovoltaic concentrator assembly with optically active cover

    DOEpatents

    Plesniak, Adam P

    2014-01-21

    A photovoltaic concentrator assembly that includes a housing that defines an internal volume and includes a rim, wherein the rim defines an opening into the internal volume, a photovoltaic cell positioned in the internal volume, and an optical element that includes an optically active body and a flange extending outward from the body, wherein the flange is sealingly engaged with the rim of the housing to enclose the internal volume.

  8. Antifungal activity of topical microemulsion containing a thiophene derivative

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Geovani Pereira; de Freitas Araújo Reis, Mysrayn Yargo; da Silva, Dayanne Tomaz Casimiro; Junior, Francisco Jaime Bezerra Mendonça; Converti, Attílio; Pessoa, Adalberto; de Lima Damasceno, Bolívar Ponciano Goulart; da Silva, José Alexsandro

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infections have become a major problem of worldwide concern. Yeasts belonging to the Candida genus and the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans are responsible for different clinical manifestations, especially in immunocompromised patients. Antifungal therapies are currently based on a few chemotherapeutic agents that have problems related to effectiveness and resistance profiles. Microemulsions are isotropic, thermodynamically stable transparent systems of oil, water and surfactant that can improve the solubilization of lipophilic drugs. Taking into account the need for more effective and less toxic drugs along with the potential of thiophene derivatives as inhibitors of pathogenic fungi growth, this study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of a thiophene derivative (5CN05) embedded in a microemulsion (ME). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the microdilution method using amphotericin B as a control. The formulations tested (ME- blank and ME-5CN05) showed physico-chemical properties that would allow their use by the topical route. 5CN05 as such exhibited moderate or weak antifungal activity against Candida species (MIC = 270–540 μg.mL−1) and good activity against C. neoformans (MIC = 17 μg.mL−1). Candida species were susceptible to ME-5CN05 (70–140 μg.mL−1), but C. neoformans was much more, presenting a MIC value of 2.2 μg.mL−1. The results of this work proved promising for the pharmaceutical industry, because they suggest an alternative therapy against C. neoformans. PMID:25242940

  9. 34 CFR 602.30 - Activities covered by recognition procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities covered by recognition procedures. 602.30 Section 602.30 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE SECRETARY'S RECOGNITION OF ACCREDITING AGENCIES...

  10. Development of a topical suspension containing three active ingredients.

    PubMed

    Chang, H C; Li, L C; Toongsuwan, S; Stephens, D; Liu, R M; Plichta-Mahmoud, H

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a topical suspension that contains sarafloxacin hydrochloride (1 mg/mL), triamcinolone acetonide (1 mg/mL), and clotrimazole (10 mg/mL), and is stable at room temperature (15-28 degrees C) for clinical usage. Due to the difference in the physicochemical properties and chemical stability profiles of these three active ingredients, it is a challenge to develop a stable suspension formulation containing these three drugs. In this study, the stability of these drugs in different buffer solutions was determined under different accelerated isothermal conditions. The Arrhenius equation was subsequently utilized to predict the room-temperature stability of these three drugs in these buffer solutions. By knowing the room-temperature solubility of the drugs in the buffer solution, the stability of the drugs in suspension was predicted. As a result, a 0.02 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 0.02% (w/v)polysorbate 20, 1% (w/v) NaCl, and 0.1% (w/v) EDTA was determined to be an acceptable medium. In addition, 0.35% (w/v) high-viscosity carboxymethylcellulose (HV-CMC) was first selected as the suspending agent to enhance the redispersibility of the suspension. Stability data further supported that all three drugs were stable in the suspension containing HV-CMC with less than 5% potency loss for at least 6 months at 40 degrees C and 12 months at 25 degrees C. However, the viscosity drop of this HV-CMC formulation at 25 degrees C and 40 degrees C became a product stability concern. To improve the viscosity stability of the suspension, the medium-viscosity carboxymethylcellulose (MV-CMC) was selected to replace the HV-CMC as the suspending agent. The optimal combination of MV-CMC and sodium chloride in achieving the most desirable dispersion properties for the formulation was determined through the use of a 32 factorial design. The optimal formulation containing 1% MV-CMC and 1% sodium chloride has shown improved viscosity stability

  11. Topical Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Activators Accelerate Postnatal Stratum Corneum Acidification

    PubMed Central

    Fluhr, Joachim W.; Man, Mao-Qiang; Hachem, Jean-Pierre; Crumrine, Debra; Mauro, Theodora M.; Elias, Peter M.; Feingold, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that pH declines from between 6 and 7 at birth to adult levels (pH 5.0–5.5) over 5–6 days in neonatal rat stratum corneum (SC). As a result, at birth, neonatal epidermis displays decreased permeability barrier homeostasis and SC integrity, improving days 5–6. We determined here whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activators accelerate postnatal SC acidification. Topical treatment with two different PPARα activators, clofibrate and WY14643, accelerated the postnatal decline in SC surface pH, whereas treatment with PPARγ activators did not and a PPARβ/δ activator had only a modest effect. Treatment with clofibrate significantly accelerated normalization of barrier function. The morphological basis for the improvement in barrier function in PPARα-treated animals includes accelerated secretion of lamellar bodies and enhanced, postsecretory processing of secreted lamellar body contents into mature lamellar membranes. Activity of β-glucocerebrosidase increased after PPARα-activator treatment. PPARα activator also improved SC integrity, which correlated with an increase in corneodesmosome density and increased desmoglein-1 content, with a decline in serine protease activity. Topical treatment of newborn animals with a PPARα activator increased secretory phospholipase A2 activity, which likely accounts for accelerated SC acidification. Thus, PPARα activators accelerate neonatal SC acidification, in parallel with improved permeability homeostasis and SC integrity/cohesion. Hence, PPARα activators might be useful to prevent or treat certain common neonatal dermatoses. PMID:18704104

  12. Recent Progress in Some Active Topics on Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Guo, L.; Jiang, J.; Chi, L.; Li, W.; Wang, Q. A.; Cai, X.

    2015-04-01

    Complex networks have been extensively studied across many fields, especially in interdisciplinary areas. It has since long been recognized that topological structures and dynamics are important aspects for capturing the essence of complex networks. The recent years have also witnessed the emergence of several new elements which play important roles in network study. By combining the results of different research orientations in our group, we provide here a review of the recent advances in regards to spectral graph theory, opinion dynamics, interdependent networks, graph energy theory and temporal networks. We hope this will be helpful for the newcomers of those fields to discover new intriguing topics.

  13. Continuous outreach activities performed by a student project team of undergraduates and their program topics in optics and photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Tokumitsu, Seika

    2016-09-01

    The out-of-curriculum project team "Rika-Kobo", organized by undergraduate students, has been actively engaged in a variety of continuous outreach activities in the fields of science and technology including optics and photonics. The targets of their activities cover wide ranges of generations from kids to parents and elderly people, with aiming to promote their interests in various fields of science and technologies. This is an out-of-curriculum project team with about 30 to 40 undergraduate students in several grades and majors. The total number of their activities per year tends to reach 80 to 90 in recent years. Typical activities to be performed by the project team include science classes in elementary and/or secondary schools, science classes at other educational facilities such as science museums, and experiment demonstrations at science events. Popular topics cover wide ranges from explanations and demonstrations of nature phenomena, such as rainbow colors, blue sky, sunset color, to demonstration experiments related to engineering applications, such as polarization of light, LEDs, and optical communications. Experimental topics in optics and photonics are especially popular to the audiences. Those activities are very effective to enhance interests of the audiences in learning related knowledges, irrespective of their generations. Those activities are also helpful for the student members to achieve and/or renew scientific knowledges. In addition, each of the activities provides the student members with effective and advantageous Project-Based-Learning (PBL) style experiences including manufacturing experiences, which are advantageous to cultivate their engineering skills.

  14. Three Activities To Assist Biology Teachers in Presenting Conceptually Difficult Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Neil; Tulip, David

    1997-01-01

    Outlines three activities for different areas of biology that can serve as motivators for students or as demonstrations. Each activity is easy to organize and uses available materials. Topics include evolution, anaerobic respiration, and heat loss. (DDR)

  15. Diclofenac epolamine (Flector) patch: evidence for topical activity.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Birte; Rovati, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on previously unpublished clinical and pharmacokinetic data with the diclofenac epolamine (diclofenac hydroxyethylpyrrolidine) patch supporting the hypothesis of a topical effect of this formulation. Previous studies have shown that 1 or 2 weeks of treatment with diclofenac epolamine provides pain relief for various localized musculoskeletal conditions such as ankle sprains, epicondylitis and knee osteoarthritis. The reduction in pain after application of the first patch in 155 patients with painful knee osteoarthritis was significant at the 1-hour time point and was superior to placebo at the 3-hour time point and at all time points thereafter. Comparable results were found in a study of 274 patients with acute ankle sprains, in which pain relief was also significantly superior to placebo at the 3-hour time point. Corresponding single-dose (patch) application for 12 hours in ten healthy volunteers demonstrated that diclofenac first appears in plasma at a mean of 4.5 hours after application (range 2-8 hours). Hence, the patch provided pain relief at a time point at which no diclofenac is assumed to be in plasma, which demonstrates local action in terms of tissue diclofenac accumulation under the patch. This is further supported by an apparent plasma diclofenac half-life of 9-12 hours after patch application, which implies the presence of a tissue reservoir, as the half-life after oral intake of diclofenac is 1-2 hours.Steady-state plasma diclofenac concentrations are present before 3 days' application (two patches/day) and are in the order of 1-3 ng/mL. The bioavailability in terms of systemic exposure from the patch compared with oral intake (75 mg/day) is in the order of 1%. Such low diclofenac concentrations are without systemic effects, as demonstrated by the fact that no drug-related gastrointestinal bleeding, ulcers or cutaneous events characteristic of Steven-Johnson syndrome have been reported during 15 years of diclofenac epolamine

  16. Topical delivery of active principles: the field of dermatological research.

    PubMed

    Nino, Massimiliano; Calabrò, Gabriella; Santoianni, Pietro

    2010-01-15

    To be effective an active drug or principle must cross the stratum corneum barrier; this process can be influenced to obtain better functional and therapeutical effects. In spite of the wide variety of the methods studied in order to improve the transdermal transfer to obtain systemic effects, the applicability is limited in this field. Attention to the epidermal barrier and penetration of active principles has been reported mostly in studies concerning dermocosmetics. Studies regarding methods of penetration are gaining experimental and clinical interest. Cutaneous bioavailability of most commercially available dermatological formulations is low. Increase of intradermal delivery can relate to chemical, biochemical, or physical manipulations. Chemical enhancers have been adopted to: (a) increase the diffusibility of the substance across the barrier; (b) increase product solubility in the vehicle; (c) improve the partition coefficient. Moreover methods of interference with the biosynthesis of some lipids allow the modification of the structure of the barrier to increase the penetration. The main physical techniques that increase cutaneous penetration of substances are: iontophoresis (that increases the penetration of ionized substances), electroporation (that electrically induces penetration through the barrier), and sonophoresis, based on 20 to 25 KHz ultrasound that induces alterations of the horny barrier, allowing penetration of active principles. Recent development of these methods are here reported and underline the importance and role of vehicles and other factors that determine effects of partition and diffusion, crucial to absorption.

  17. 17 CFR 255.13 - Other permitted covered fund activities and investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other permitted covered fund... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PROPRIETARY TRADING AND CERTAIN INTERESTS IN AND RELATIONSHIPS WITH COVERED FUNDS Covered Funds Activities and Investments § 255.13 Other permitted covered fund activities and...

  18. 17 CFR 75.13 - Other permitted covered fund activities and investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other permitted covered fund... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PROPRIETARY TRADING AND CERTAIN INTERESTS IN AND RELATIONSHIPS WITH COVERED FUNDS Covered Fund Activities and Investments § 75.13 Other permitted covered fund activities and...

  19. Earthworm activity in a simulated landfill cover soil shifts the community composition of active methanotrophs.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, Deepak; Héry, Marina; Bodrossy, Levente; Singer, Andrew C; Stralis-Pavese, Nancy; Thompson, Ian P; Murrell, J Colin

    2011-12-01

    Landfills represent a major source of methane in the atmosphere. In a previous study, we demonstrated that earthworm activity in landfill cover soil can increase soil methane oxidation capacity. In this study, a simulated landfill cover soil mesocosm (1 m × 0.15 m) was used to observe the influence of earthworms (Eisenia veneta) on the active methanotroph community composition, by analyzing the expression of the pmoA gene, which is responsible for methane oxidation. mRNA-based pmoA microarray analysis revealed that earthworm activity in landfill cover soil stimulated activity of type I methanotrophs (Methylobacter, Methylomonas, Methylosarcina spp.) compared to type II methanotrophs (particularly Methylocystis spp.). These results, along with previous studies of methanotrophs in landfill cover soil, can now be used to plan in situ field studies to integrate earthworm-induced methanotrophy with other landfill management practises in order to maximize soil methane oxidation and reduce methane emissions from landfills.

  20. Nitrifier activity and diversity in swine lagoon covers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emissions from swine waste lagoons pose an environmental challenge to current pork production practices. Semi-permeable lagoon covers limit ammonia emissions by minimizing the effect of wind on the lagoon surface. Additionally, semi-permeable covers may also act as an attachment site for b...

  1. Development of a novel in vitro onychomycosis model for the evaluation of topical antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Sleven, Reindert; Lanckacker, Ellen; Boulet, Gaëlle; Delputte, Peter; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul

    2015-05-01

    A novel in vitro onychomycosis model was developed to easily predict the topical activity potential of novel antifungal drugs. The model encompasses drug activity and diffusion through bovine hoof slices in a single experimental set-up. Results correspond well with the antifungal susceptibility assay and Franz cell diffusion test.

  2. Evaluating Active Parental Consent Procedures for School Programming: Addressing the Sensitive Topic of Suicide Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totura, Christine M. Wienke; Kutash, Krista; Labouliere, Christa D.; Karver, Marc S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents. Whereas school-based prevention programs are effective, obtaining active consent for youth participation in public health programming concerning sensitive topics is challenging. We explored several active consent procedures for improving participation rates. Methods: Five…

  3. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of pinda thailam, a herbal gel formulation.

    PubMed

    Periyanayagam, K; Venkatarathnakumar, T; Nagaveni, A; Subitha, V G; Sundari, P; Vaijorohini, M; Umamaheswari, V

    2004-07-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory activity of "Pinda thailam", a herbal gel formulation containing aqueous extract of roots of Rubia cordifolia (Rubiaceae) and Hemidesmus indicus (Asclepiadaceae) which are known for their anti-inflammatory activity using the technique of carrageenin induced paw oedema in albino rats. The herbal gel formulation showed significant anti-inflammatory activity comparable to the reference standard Diclofenac sodium gel.

  4. 29 CFR 776.28 - Covered preparatory activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... drilling operations even though no oil was discovered. 27 Laborers employed in erecting drilling rigs would also be covered. 28 Other preparatory work before drilling begins in an oil field, such as staking oil... company which was engaged in preliminary oil well drilling, even though the holes were drilled to...

  5. 29 CFR 776.28 - Covered preparatory activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... drilling operations even though no oil was discovered. 27 Laborers employed in erecting drilling rigs would also be covered. 28 Other preparatory work before drilling begins in an oil field, such as staking oil... company which was engaged in preliminary oil well drilling, even though the holes were drilled to...

  6. 29 CFR 776.28 - Covered preparatory activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... drilling operations even though no oil was discovered. 27 Laborers employed in erecting drilling rigs would also be covered. 28 Other preparatory work before drilling begins in an oil field, such as staking oil... company which was engaged in preliminary oil well drilling, even though the holes were drilled to...

  7. 29 CFR 776.28 - Covered preparatory activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drilling operations even though no oil was discovered. 27 Laborers employed in erecting drilling rigs would also be covered. 28 Other preparatory work before drilling begins in an oil field, such as staking oil... company which was engaged in preliminary oil well drilling, even though the holes were drilled to...

  8. 29 CFR 776.28 - Covered preparatory activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... drilling operations even though no oil was discovered. 27 Laborers employed in erecting drilling rigs would also be covered. 28 Other preparatory work before drilling begins in an oil field, such as staking oil... company which was engaged in preliminary oil well drilling, even though the holes were drilled to...

  9. Synthesis and larvicidal and adult topical activity of some hydrazide-hydrazone derivatives against Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of novel hydrazide-hydrazone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their larvicidal and adult topical activity against Aedes aegypti. The proposed structures of all the synthesized compounds were confirmed using elemental analysis, UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectroscopy. Com...

  10. Selected topics on the active control of helicopter aeromechanical and vibration problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, Peretz P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes in a concise manner three selected topics on the active control of helicopter aeromechanical and vibration problems. The three topics are as follows: (1) the active control of helicopter air-resonance using an LQG/LTR approach; (2) simulation of higher harmonic control (HHC) applied to a four bladed hingeless helicopter rotor in forward flight; and (3) vibration suppression in forward flight on a hingeless helicopter rotor using an actively controlled, partial span, trailing edge flap, which is mounted on the blade. Only a few selected illustrative results are presented. The results obtained clearly indicate that the partial span, actively controlled flap has considerable potential for vibration reduction in helicopter rotors.

  11. Active-learning Strategies for Legal Topics and Substance Abuse in a Pharmacy Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Steinhardt, Sarah J; Clark, John E; Kelly, William N; Hill, Angela M

    2017-02-25

    Objective. To implement active-learning strategies to engage students in learning, applying, and teaching legal and substance abuse topics. Design. Medication Safety course student groups created films on a National Patient Safety Goal (NPSG) using a movie genre and presented them in film festival format. Pharmacogenomics course student groups taught ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) topics through presentation of short stories about comic book characters with genetic mutations. Students in the Drugs of Abuse course composed and performed dances depicting the mechanism of action of a drug in an in-class rave dance format. Assessment. Course evaluations revealed student engagement with subject material and enjoyment of the creative applications, critical thinking, and collaborative aspects of the activities. Students performed well on examination questions and graded assignments. Conclusion. These active-learning strategies facilitated students' abilities to learn, apply, and teach material in medication safety, pharmacogenomics, and substance abuse courses.

  12. Active-learning Strategies for Legal Topics and Substance Abuse in a Pharmacy Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Clark, John E.; Kelly, William N.; Hill, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To implement active-learning strategies to engage students in learning, applying, and teaching legal and substance abuse topics. Design. Medication Safety course student groups created films on a National Patient Safety Goal (NPSG) using a movie genre and presented them in film festival format. Pharmacogenomics course student groups taught ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) topics through presentation of short stories about comic book characters with genetic mutations. Students in the Drugs of Abuse course composed and performed dances depicting the mechanism of action of a drug in an in-class rave dance format. Assessment. Course evaluations revealed student engagement with subject material and enjoyment of the creative applications, critical thinking, and collaborative aspects of the activities. Students performed well on examination questions and graded assignments. Conclusion. These active-learning strategies facilitated students’ abilities to learn, apply, and teach material in medication safety, pharmacogenomics, and substance abuse courses. PMID:28289294

  13. Improvement of Topical Palmitoylethanolamide Anti-Inflammatory Activity by Pegylated Prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Tronino, Diana; Russo, Roberto; Ostacolo, Carmine; Mazzolari, Angelica; De Caro, Carmen; Avagliano, Carmen; Laneri, Sonia; La Rana, Giovanna; Sacchi, Antonia; Della Valle, Francesco; Vistoli, Giulio; Calignano, Antonio

    2015-09-08

    A small library of polyethylene glycol esters of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) was synthesized with the aim of improving the pharmacokinetic profile of the parent drug after topical administration. Synthesized prodrugs were studied for their skin accumulation, pharmacological activities, in vitro chemical stability, and in silico enzymatic hydrolysis. Prodrugs proved to be able to delay and prolong the pharmacological activity of PEA by modification of its skin accumulation profile. Pharmacokinetic improvements were particularly evident when specific structural requirements, such as flexibility and reduced molecular weight, were respected. Some of the synthesized prodrugs prolonged the pharmacological effects 5 days following topical administration, while a formulation composed by PEA and two pegylated prodrugs showed both rapid onset and long-lasting activity, suggesting the potential use of polyethylene glycol prodrugs of PEA as a suitable candidate for the treatment of skin inflammatory diseases.

  14. Effects of Individual Health Topic Familiarity on Activity Patterns During Health Information Searches

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Koichi; Fukui, Ken–ichi; Numao, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-medical professionals (consumers) are increasingly using the Internet to support their health information needs. However, the cognitive effort required to perform health information searches is affected by the consumer’s familiarity with health topics. Consumers may have different levels of familiarity with individual health topics. This variation in familiarity may cause misunderstandings because the information presented by search engines may not be understood correctly by the consumers. Objective As a first step toward the improvement of the health information search process, we aimed to examine the effects of health topic familiarity on health information search behaviors by identifying the common search activity patterns exhibited by groups of consumers with different levels of familiarity. Methods Each participant completed a health terminology familiarity questionnaire and health information search tasks. The responses to the familiarity questionnaire were used to grade the familiarity of participants with predefined health topics. The search task data were transcribed into a sequence of search activities using a coding scheme. A computational model was constructed from the sequence data using a Markov chain model to identify the common search patterns in each familiarity group. Results Forty participants were classified into L1 (not familiar), L2 (somewhat familiar), and L3 (familiar) groups based on their questionnaire responses. They had different levels of familiarity with four health topics. The video data obtained from all of the participants were transcribed into 4595 search activities (mean 28.7, SD 23.27 per session). The most frequent search activities and transitions in all the familiarity groups were related to evaluations of the relevancy of selected web pages in the retrieval results. However, the next most frequent transitions differed in each group and a chi-squared test confirmed this finding (P<.001). Next, according to the

  15. 41 CFR 60-300.20 - Covered employment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SUBCONTRACTORS REGARDING DISABLED VETERANS, RECENTLY SEPARATED VETERANS, ACTIVE DUTY WARTIME OR CAMPAIGN BADGE..., award of tenure, demotion, transfer, layoff, termination, right of return from layoff, and rehiring; (c... absence to pursue training; (h) Activities sponsored by the contractor including social and...

  16. Topical Application of Activity-based Probes for Visualization of Brain Tumor Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cutter, Jennifer L.; Cohen, Nathan T.; Wang, Jing; Sloan, Andrew E.; Cohen, Alan R.; Panneerselvam, Ashok; Schluchter, Mark; Blum, Galia; Bogyo, Matthew; Basilion, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Several investigators have shown the utility of systemically delivered optical imaging probes to image tumors in small animal models of cancer. Here we demonstrate an innovative method for imaging tumors and tumor margins during surgery. Specifically, we show that optical imaging probes topically applied to tumors and surrounding normal tissue rapidly differentiate between tissues. In contrast to systemic delivery of optical imaging probes which label tumors uniformly over time, topical probe application results in rapid and robust probe activation that is detectable as early as 5 minutes following application. Importantly, labeling is primarily associated with peri-tumor spaces. This methodology provides a means for rapid visualization of tumor and potentially infiltrating tumor cells and has potential applications for directed surgical excision of tumor tissues. Furthermore, this technology could find use in surgical resections for any tumors having differential regulation of cysteine cathepsin activity. PMID:22427947

  17. Formulation of microemulsion propolis fluoride (PF) as varnish topical agent to stop activity of teeth caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahlan, Muhamad; Prakoso, Chandra Dwi; Darwita, Risqa Rina; Hermansyah, Heri

    2017-02-01

    Topical fluoride is proven to have higher efficacy in preventing dental caries with low production cost and easy to apply. The objective of this research is to formulate alternative agent topical fluoride NH4F 5% mixed with extract ethanol propolis (EEP) in the micro-emulsion system that has high stability, antimicrobial activity, and remineralization capability to arrest teeth caries activity. By using total plate count (TPC) analysis, formulation 2.7% EEP; 6,3% surfactant; and 90,9% NH4F shows good perform to inhibit cariogenic bacteria development around 78-80%. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) result also showed that sample successfully remineralized enamel surface. In addition, sample showed good pH, flavonoid, and polyphenol stability for 40 days.

  18. Riparian Land Use/Land Cover Data for Five Study Units in the Nutrient Enrichment Effects Topical Study of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Michaela R.; Buell, Gary R.; Kim, Moon H.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    This dataset was developed as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, Nutrient Enrichment Effects Topical (NEET) study for five study units distributed across the United States: Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, Central Columbia Plateau-Yakima River Basin, Central Nebraska Basins, Potomac River Basin and Delmarva Peninsula, and White, Great and Little Miami River Basins. One hundred forty-three stream reaches were examined as part of the NEET study conducted 2003-04. Stream segments, with lengths equal to the logarithm of the basin area, were delineated upstream from the downstream ends of the stream reaches with the use of digital orthophoto quarter quadrangles (DOQQ) or selected from the high-resolution National Hydrography Dataset (NHD). Use of the NHD was necessary when the stream was not distinguishable in the DOQQ because of dense tree canopy. The analysis area for each stream segment was defined by a buffer beginning at the segment extending to 250 meters lateral to the stream segment. Delineation of land use/land cover (LULC) map units within stream segment buffers was conducted using on-screen digitizing of riparian LULC classes interpreted from the DOQQ. LULC units were mapped using a classification strategy consisting of nine classes. National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) data were used to aid in wetland classification. Longitudinal transect sampling lines offset from the stream segments were generated and partitioned into the underlying LULC types. These longitudinal samples yielded the relative linear extent and sequence of each LULC type within the riparian zone at the segment scale. The resulting areal and linear LULC data filled in the spatial-scale gap between the 30-meter resolution of the National Land Cover Dataset and the reach-level habitat assessment data collected onsite routinely for NAWQA ecological sampling. The final data consisted of 12 geospatial datasets: LULC within 25 meters of the stream reach

  19. Final Technical Report summarizing Purdue research activities as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, Denes

    2015-09-01

    This report summarizes research activities at Purdue University done as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration. These mainly involve calculation of covariant radiative energy loss in the (Djordjevic-)Gyulassy-Levai-Vitev ((D)GLV) framework for relativistic A+A reactions at RHIC and LHC energies using realistic bulk medium evolution with both transverse and longitudinal expansion. The single PDF file provided also includes a report from the entire JET Collaboration.

  20. 29 CFR 1620.6 - Coverage is not based on amount of covered activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coverage is not based on amount of covered activity. 1620.6 Section 1620.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.6 Coverage is not based on amount of covered activity. The FLSA makes...

  1. In vitro antifungal activity of topical and systemic antifungal drugs against Malassezia species.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Muñoz, Alfonso Javier; Rojas, Florencia; Tur-Tur, Cristina; de Los Ángeles Sosa, María; Diez, Gustavo Ortiz; Espada, Carmen Martín; Payá, María Jesús; Giusiano, Gustavo

    2013-09-01

    The strict nutritional requirements of Malassezia species make it difficult to test the antifungal susceptibility. Treatments of the chronic and recurrent infections associated with Malassezia spp. are usually ineffective. The objective of this study was to obtain in vitro susceptibility profile of 76 clinical isolates of Malassezia species against 16 antifungal drugs used for topical or systemic treatment. Isolates were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were obtained by a modified microdilution method based on the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute reference document M27-A3. The modifications allowed a good growth of all tested species. High in vitro antifungal activity of most tested drugs was observed, especially triazole derivatives, except for fluconazole which presented the highest MICs and widest range of concentrations. Ketoconazole and itraconazole demonstrated a great activity. Higher MICs values were obtained with Malassezia furfur indicating a low susceptibility to most of the antifungal agents tested. Malassezia sympodialis and Malassezia pachydermatis were found to be more-susceptible species than M. furfur, Malassezia globosa, Malassezia slooffiae and Malassezia restricta. Topical substances were also active but provide higher MICs than the compounds for systemic use. The differences observed in the antifungals activity and interspecies variability demonstrated the importance to studying the susceptibility profile of each species to obtain reliable information for defining an effective treatment regimen.

  2. The effect of microneedles on the skin permeability and antitumor activity of topical 5-fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    Naguib, Youssef W.; Kumar, Amit; Cui, Zhengrong

    2014-01-01

    Topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is approved for the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis. However, 5-FU suffers from poor skin permeation. Microneedles have been successfully applied to improve the skin permeability of small and large molecules, and even nanoparticles, by creating micron-sized pores in the stratum corneum layer of the skin. In this report, the feasibility of using microneedles to increase the skin permeability of 5-FU was tested. Using full thickness mouse skin mounted on Franz diffusion apparatus, it was shown that the flux of 5-FU through the skin was increased by up to 4.5-fold when the skin was pretreated with microneedles (500 μm in length, 50 μm in base diameter). In a mouse model with B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells implanted in the subcutaneous space, the antitumor activity of a commercially available 5-FU topical cream (5%) was significantly enhanced when the cream was applied on a skin area that was pretreated with microneedles, as compared to when the cream was simply applied on a skin area, underneath which the tumor cells were implanted, and without pretreatment of the skin with microneedles. Fluorouracil is not approved for melanoma therapy, but the clinical efficacy of topical 5-FU against tumors such as basal cell carcinoma may be improved by integrating microneedle technology into the therapy. PMID:25313350

  3. 50 CFR 18.111 - What specified activities does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... subpart cover? 18.111 Section 18.111 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Coast of Alaska § 18.111 What specified activities does this subpart cover? Regulations in this subpart... polar bears by you (U.S. citizens as defined in § 18.27(c)) while engaged in oil and gas...

  4. 50 CFR 18.121 - What specified activities does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... subpart cover? 18.121 Section 18.121 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... and Adjacent Northern Coast of Alaska § 18.121 What specified activities does this subpart cover... polar bears and Pacific walruses by you (U.S. citizens as defined in § 18.27(c)) while engaged in...

  5. The Effect of Teaching the Cell Topic Using the Jigsaw Method on Students' Achievement and Learning Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Y. J.; And Others

    Teaching the Cell topic in junior high schools involves a host of problems. The study reported in this paper investigated the effect of various teaching methods on Israeli students' achievements, acquiring laboratory skills, and the dimensions of learning activities. The Cell topic was taught to an experimental group using the Jigsaw method and…

  6. Analysis of the Potential Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Averrhoa carambola L. in Mice.

    PubMed

    Cabrini, Daniela Almeida; Moresco, Henrique Hunger; Imazu, Priscila; da Silva, Cíntia Delai; Pietrovski, Evelise Fernandes; Mendes, Daniel Augusto Gasparin Bueno; da Silveira Prudente, Arthur; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Brighente, Inês Maria Costa; Otuki, Michel Fleith

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory skin disorders, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, are very common in the population; however, the treatments currently available are not well tolerated and are often ineffective. Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) is an Asian tree that has been used in traditional folk medicine in the treatment of several skin disorders. The present study evaluates the topical anti-inflammatory effects of the crude ethanolic extract of A. carambola leaves, its hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions and two isolated flavonoids on skin inflammation. Anti-inflammatory activity was measured using a croton oil-induced ear edema model of inflammation in mice. Topically applied ethanolic extract reduced edema in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in a maximum inhibition of 73 ± 3% and an ID(50) value of 0.05 (range: 0.02-0.13) mg/ear. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was also inhibited by the extract, resulting in a maximum inhibition of 60 ± 6% (0.6 mg/ear). All of the fractions tested caused inhibition of edema formation and of MPO activity. Treatment with the ethyl acetate fraction was the most effective, resulting in inhibition levels of 75 ± 5 and 54 ± 8% for edema formation and MPO activity, respectively. However, treatment of mice with isolated compounds [apigenin-6-C-β-l-fucopyranoside and apigenin-6-C-(2″-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-l-fucopyranoside] did not yield successful results. Apigenin-6-C-(2″-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-l-fucopyranoside caused only a mild reduction in edema formation (28 ± 11%). Taken together, these preliminary results support the popular use of A. carambola as an anti-inflammatory agent and open up new possibilities for its use in skin disorders.

  7. Analysis of the Potential Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Averrhoa carambola L. in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cabrini, Daniela Almeida; Moresco, Henrique Hunger; Imazu, Priscila; da Silva, Cíntia Delai; Pietrovski, Evelise Fernandes; Mendes, Daniel Augusto Gasparin Bueno; da Silveira Prudente, Arthur; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Brighente, Inês Maria Costa; Otuki, Michel Fleith

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory skin disorders, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, are very common in the population; however, the treatments currently available are not well tolerated and are often ineffective. Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) is an Asian tree that has been used in traditional folk medicine in the treatment of several skin disorders. The present study evaluates the topical anti-inflammatory effects of the crude ethanolic extract of A. carambola leaves, its hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions and two isolated flavonoids on skin inflammation. Anti-inflammatory activity was measured using a croton oil-induced ear edema model of inflammation in mice. Topically applied ethanolic extract reduced edema in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in a maximum inhibition of 73 ± 3% and an ID50 value of 0.05 (range: 0.02–0.13) mg/ear. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was also inhibited by the extract, resulting in a maximum inhibition of 60 ± 6% (0.6 mg/ear). All of the fractions tested caused inhibition of edema formation and of MPO activity. Treatment with the ethyl acetate fraction was the most effective, resulting in inhibition levels of 75 ± 5 and 54 ± 8% for edema formation and MPO activity, respectively. However, treatment of mice with isolated compounds [apigenin-6-C-β-l-fucopyranoside and apigenin-6-C-(2″-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-l-fucopyranoside] did not yield successful results. Apigenin-6-C-(2″-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-l-fucopyranoside caused only a mild reduction in edema formation (28 ± 11%). Taken together, these preliminary results support the popular use of A. carambola as an anti-inflammatory agent and open up new possibilities for its use in skin disorders. PMID:21785638

  8. In vitro glucocorticoid receptor binding and transcriptional activation by topically active glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Smith, C L; Kreutner, W

    1998-09-01

    Mometasone furoate (MF, CAS 83919-23-7, Sch 32088), budesonide (BUD, CAS 51372-29-3), fluticasone propionate (FP, CAS 80474-14-2), and triamcinolone acetonide (TA, CAS-76-25-5) are corticosteroids that are either currently available or under development for allergic rhinitis and asthma. The relative affinity of these drugs for the glucocorticoid receptor and their ability to stimulate glucocorticoid receptor-mediated transactivation of gene expression were analyzed. All of the test compounds had a higher affinity for the recombinant glucocorticoid receptor than the reference glucocorticoid receptor ligand, dexamethasone (DEX, CAS 50-02-2). In addition, all compounds showed greater potency than dexamethasone in stimulating transcription of a synthetic target gene regulated by a glucocorticoid response element. Of the compounds tested, mometasone furoate had the highest relative binding affinity for the glucocorticoid receptor, followed by fluticasone propionate, budesonide, and triamcinolone acetonide. Similarly, mometasone furoate was the most potent stimulator of glucocorticoid receptor-mediated transactivation of gene expression, followed by fluticasone propionate, tri-amcinolone acetonide, and budesonide. These in vitro studies provide a sensitive means to compare the potency of glucocorticoids and may reliably predict the in vivo topical potency of these drugs.

  9. Labeling of active proteases in fresh-frozen tissues by topical application of quenched activity-based probes.

    PubMed

    Withana, Nimali P; Garland, Megan; Verdoes, Martijn; Ofori, Leslie O; Segal, Ehud; Bogyo, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Active enzymes, such as proteases, often serve as valuable biomarkers for various disease pathologies. Therefore, methods to detect specific enzyme activities in biological samples can provide information to guide disease detection and diagnosis and to increase our understanding of the biological roles of specific enzyme targets. In this protocol, we outline methods for the topical application of fluorescently quenched activity-based probes (qABPs) to fresh-frozen tissue samples. This technique enables rapid imaging of enzyme activity at cellular resolution, and it can be combined with antibody labeling for immunodiagnosis. In this method, fresh-frozen tissue sections are fixed, incubated with the probe and imaged using fluorescence microscopy. This provides an advance over classical immunohistochemistry (IHC) in that it is rapid (4-8 h) and inexpensive, and it provides information on enzyme activity. Furthermore, it can be used with any of the growing number of fluorescent ABPs to provide data for more effective disease monitoring and diagnosis.

  10. Literature Review on Topics of Urgent RSA Needs and Concerns. (Covers Research Performed from October 1976 to June 1978.) Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Elizabeth

    Four state-of-the-art reports were prepared and disseminated in both printed and audio cassette forms to summarize the available knowledge in four areas of concern in the field of rehabilitation. Based on the recommendations of a consumer panel composed mainly of representatives from the intended audience, the topics of the reports and the authors…

  11. Implementation of Active Teaching Methods and Emerging Topics in Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmatin Fras, M.; Grigillo, D.

    2016-06-01

    Fast technological developments in photogrammetry and remote sensing areas demand quick and steady changes in the education programme and its realization. The university teachers and assistants are faced with ensuring the learning materials, data and software for practical lessons, as well as project proposals for student's team work and bachelor or master thesis. In this paper the emerging topics that already have a considerable impact in the practice are treated mostly from the educational aspect. These relatively new topics that are considered in this paper are unmanned aerial systems for spatial data collection, terrestrial and aerial laser scanning, mobile mapping systems, and novelties in satellite remote sensing. The focus is given to practical implementation of these topics into the teaching and learning programme of Geodesy and Geoinformation at the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, and experiences gained by the authors so far. Together with the technological advances, the teaching approaches must be modernized as well. Classical approaches of teaching, where a lecturer gives lecture ex cathedra and students are only listeners, are not effective enough. The didactics science of teaching has developed and proved in the practice many useful approaches that can better motivate students for more active learning. We can use different methods of team work like pro et contra debate, buzzing groups, press conference, moderated discussion etc. An experimental study on active teaching methods in the class of students of the Master programme of Geodesy and Geoinformation has been made and the results are presented. After using some new teaching methods in the class, the students were asked to answer two types of a questionnaire. First questionnaire was the standard form developed by Noel Entwistle, an educational psychologist who developed the Approaches to Studying Inventory (ASI) for identifying deep and surface approaches to

  12. Correlation between in vitro release from topical delivery vehicles and microbicidal activity of triclosan.

    PubMed

    Swart, H C; Du Preez, J L; De Villiers, M M; Lötter, A P; Liebenberg, W

    2006-01-01

    This study reports the formulation, stability, in vitro release and microbicidal activity of a cream, emulsion, foot gel, cover stick and after sun spray containing triclosan. Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent with activity against a wide range of both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria that has found increasing popular use in personal care products. These products were stable for up to 3 months when stored at 5, 25, and 40 degrees C. Antimicrobial zone inhibition tests showed that that was a liner relationship, R2 > 0.92, between the release of triclosan from these products and the size of the inhibition zones. This means the in vitro/in vivo correlation for these products was good and that release studies can be used to predict the antimicrobial activity of triclosan.

  13. 30 CFR 280.4 - What activities are not covered by this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General Information...) Postlease activities for mineral resources other than oil, gas, and sulphur, which are covered by regulations at 30 CFR part 282; and (d) G&G exploration or G&G scientific research activities related to...

  14. 30 CFR 280.4 - What activities are not covered by this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR ON THE OUTER...; (b) Federal agencies; (c) Postlease activities for mineral resources other than oil, gas, and sulphur... activities related to oil, gas, and sulphur, including gas hydrates, which are covered by regulations at...

  15. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Oil from Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825)

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Israel J. M.; Leite, Gerlânia O.; Costa, José Galberto M.; Alves, Romulo R. N.; Campos, Adriana R.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Freita, Francisco Ronaldo V.; Nunes, Maria Janeth H.; Almeida, Waltécio O.

    2015-01-01

    Tropidurus hispidus has been used in traditional medicine in several regions of Northeastern Region of Brazil. Its medicinal use involves the treatment of diseases such as warts, sore throat, tonsillitis, chicken pox, varicella, measles, asthma, alcoholism, and dermatomycosis. The present study evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory activity of Tropidurus hispidus fat in treating ear edema in an animal model. Oil from T. hispidus (OTH) was evaluated on its effect against experimental inflammation in mice. OTH was extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of Tropidurus hispidus using hexane as a solvent. We used the model of mouse ear edema induced by phlogistic agents, croton oil (single and multiple applications), arachidonic acid, phenol, capsaicin, and histamine, applied into the right ears of animals pretreated with acetone (control), dexamethasone, or OTH. OTH inhibited the dermatitis induced by all noxious agents, except capsaicin. This effect may be related to the fatty acids present in OTH. PMID:26664448

  16. Essential oil of Myrica esculenta Buch. Ham.: composition, antimicrobial and topical anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Supriya; Wakode, Sharad; Ali, M

    2012-01-01

    Hydrodistilled oil obtained from the stem bark of Myrica esculenta Buch. Ham. ex D. Don (yield 0.3%) was analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The volatile oil consisted mainly of n-hexadecanol (25.2%), eudesmol acetate (21.9%), palmitic acid (11.6%), cis-β-caryophyllene (8.7%), n-pentadecanol (7.7%) and n-octadecanol (7.6%). The oil was found to be a potential antimicrobial agent against Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The essential oil exhibited significant topical anti-inflammatory activity compared to standard drug in Swiss albino mice ear.

  17. Topical Anti-inflammatory Activity of New Hybrid Molecules of Terpenes and Synthetic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Theoduloz, Cristina; Delporte, Carla; Valenzuela-Barra, Gabriela; Silva, Ximena; Cádiz, Solange; Bustamante, Fernanda; Pertino, Mariano Walter; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2015-06-18

    The aim of the study was to assess changes in the activity of anti-inflammatory terpenes from Chilean medicinal plants after the formation of derivatives incorporating synthetic anti-inflammatory agents. Ten new hybrid molecules were synthesized combining terpenes (ferruginol (1), imbricatolic acid (2) and oleanolic acid (3)) with ibuprofen (4) or naproxen (5). The topical anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was assessed in mice by the arachidonic acid (AA) and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) induced ear edema assays. Basal cytotoxicity was determined towards human lung fibroblasts, gastric epithelial cells and hepatocytes. At 1.4 µmol/mouse, a strong anti-inflammatory effect in the TPA assay was observed for oleanoyl ibuprofenate 12 (79.9%) and oleanoyl ibuprofenate methyl ester 15 (80.0%). In the AA assay, the best activity was observed for 12 at 3.2 µmol/mouse, with 56.8% reduction of inflammation, in the same range as nimesulide (48.9%). All the terpenyl-synthetic anti-inflammatory hybrids showed better effects in the TPA assay, with best activity for 6, 12 and 15. The cytotoxicity of the compounds 8 and 10 with a free COOH, was higher than that of 2. The derivatives from 3 were less toxic than the triterpene. Several of the new compounds presented better anti-inflammatory effect and lower cytotoxicity than the parent terpenes.

  18. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Eupatilin, a lipophilic flavonoid from mountain wormwood ( Artemisia umbelliformis Lam.).

    PubMed

    Giangaspero, Anna; Ponti, Cristina; Pollastro, Federica; Del Favero, Giorgia; Della Loggia, Roberto; Tubaro, Aurelia; Appendino, Giovanni; Sosa, Silvio

    2009-09-09

    Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-3',4',6-trimethoxyflavone) is the major lipophilic flavonoid from Artemisia umbelliformis Lam. and Artemisia genipi Weber, two mountain wormwoods used for the production of the celebrated alpine liqueur genepy. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of eupatilin was investigated using the inhibition of the Croton-oil-induced dermatitis in the mouse ear as the end point. The oedematous response and the leukocyte infiltration were evaluated up to 48 h after the induction of phlogosis, comparing eupatilin with hydrocortisone and indomethacin as representatives of steroid and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, respectively. At maximum development, eupatilin significantly reduced edema in a dose-dependent manner (ID(50) = 0.28 micromol/cm(2)), showing an anti-inflammatory potency comparable to that of indomethacin (ID(50) = 0.26 micromol/cm(2)) and only 1 order of magnitude lower than that of hydrocortisone (ID(50) = 0.03 micromol/cm(2)). Within 48 h, eupatilin (0.30 micromol/cm(2)) caused a global inhibition of the oedematous response (42%) higher than that of an equimolar dose of indomethacin (18%) and fully comparable to that of 0.03 micromol/cm(2) of hydrocortisone (55%). Moreover, the effect of eupatilin on the granulocytes infiltrate (32% inhibition) was similar to that of indomethacin (35% inhibition) and comparable to that of hydrocortisone (42% reduction), as confirmed by histological analysis. When our results are taken together, they show that eupatilin is endowed with potent in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity, qualitatively similar to that of hydrocortisone and intermediate in terms of potency between those of steroid and non-steroid drugs.

  19. Modulation of cortical activity during comprehension of familiar and unfamiliar text topics in speed reading and speed listening

    PubMed Central

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Mason, Robert A.; Meschyan, Gayane; Keller, Timothy A.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2014-01-01

    Brain activation associated with normal and speeded comprehension of expository texts on familiar and unfamiliar topics was investigated in reading and listening. The goal was to determine how brain activation and the comprehension processes it reflects are modulated by comprehension speed and topic familiarity. Passages on more familiar topics differentially activated a set of areas in the anterior temporal lobe and medial frontal gyrus, areas often associated with text-level integration processes, which we interpret to reflect integration of previous knowledge with the passage content. Passages presented at the faster presentation resulted in more activation of a network of frontal areas associated with strategic and working-memory processes (as well as visual or auditory sensory-related regions), which we interpret to reflect maintenance of local coherence among briefly available passage segments. The implications of this research is to demonstrate how the brain system for text comprehension adapts to varying perceptual and knowledge conditions. PMID:25463816

  20. Recent Topics on Electrical Discharge Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Toshiki

    Resent topics on electrical-discharge-related technologies along with the research activities of the technical committee on electrical discharges (TC-ED) of IEEJ are presented briefly. Following the introduction of the major research subjects that TC-ED is responsible to cover, a few examples of the investigating R&D committees' (IRDCs) activity are mentioned.

  1. Evaluation of Skin Permeation and Analgesic Activity Effects of Carbopol Lornoxicam Topical Gels Containing Penetration Enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A.; Taha, Ehab I.; Al-Qahtani, Fahad M.; Ahmed, Mahrous O.; Badran, Mohamed M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study was designed to develop a topical gel formulation for improved skin penetration of lornoxicam (LOR) for enhancement of its analgesic activity. Moreover, the effect of different penetration enhancers on LOR was studied. The LOR gel formulations were prepared by using hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and carbopol. The carbopol gels in presence of propylene glycol (PG) and ethanol were developed. The formulated gels were characterized for pH, viscosity, and LOR release using Franz diffusion cells. Also, in vitro skin permeation of LOR was conducted. The effect of hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HP β-CD), beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD), Tween 80, and oleic acid on LOR permeation was evaluated. The optimized LOR gel formulation (LORF8) showed the highest flux (14.31 μg/cm2/h) with ER of 18.34 when compared to LORF3. Incorporation of PG and HP β-CD in gel formulation (LORF8) enhanced the permeation of LOR significantly. It was observed that LORF3 and LORF8 show similar analgesic activity compared to marketed LOR injection (Xefo). This work shows that LOR can be formulated into carbopol gel in presence of PG and HP β-CD and may be promising in enhancing permeation. PMID:25045724

  2. Measurement Activities for Increasing Student Curiosity for Animal and Space Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C., Ed.

    This document presents a resource for elementary teachers in the form of a collection of facts and measurements of animals and planets to be used in generating student interest for these different topics. It is suggested that the teacher make an overhead transparency of the measurements related to the current topic, then have students guess at…

  3. 24 CFR 943.140 - What programs and activities are covered by this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY CONSORTIA AND JOINT VENTURES Subsidiaries, Affiliates, Joint Ventures in Public Housing § 943.140 What programs and activities are covered by this... requirements of part 941, subpart F, of this title. (b) For purposes of this subpart, the term “joint...

  4. Active packaging for topical cosmetic/drug products: a hot-melt extruded preservative delivery device.

    PubMed

    Zema, L; Sangalli, M E; Maroni, A; Foppoli, A; Bettero, A; Gazzaniga, A

    2010-06-01

    A delivery device intended for the prolonged release of antimicrobial agents, able to enhance the stability profile of liquid/semi-solid cosmetic/pharmaceutical products for topical application, was proposed in the present study. With the aid of a simulation program based on compartment models, the relevant kinetic and formulation parameters were defined using dehydroacetic acid sodium salt (DHA.Na, Prevan) as the model preservative. Indeed, the overall DHA.Na degradation rate is increased in the presence of formaldehyde releasers that are often employed as co-preservatives. Inert matrices (3 g weight and 18 mm diameter) based on high-density polyethylene (HDPE), possibly consistent with the design of an active packaging meant for preservative delivery, were prepared by hot-melt extrusion. Units with satisfactory physical-technological properties could be obtained up to 50%w/w loads of antimicrobial agent. In an attempt to modify the relevant Fickian release profiles by varying the area exposed to the medium, matrix systems coated with an impermeable film except for one base (CMs) or for the inner surface of a central drilled hole (PCMs) were investigated. On the basis of the n exponent of power equation and the outcome of linear fitting, PCMs were proven able to yield the zero-order release behaviour needed to ensure constant DHA.Na levels over a predetermined time period, as indicated by the simulation process.

  5. Development of topical hydrogels of terbinafine hydrochloride and evaluation of their antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Çelebi, Nevin; Ermiş, Seda; Özkan, Semiha

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare hydrogels and microemulsion (ME)-based gel formulations containing 1% terbinafine hydrochloride (TER-HCL) and to evaluate the use of these formulations for the antifungal treatment of fungal infections. Three different hydrogel formulations were prepared using chitosan, Carbopol® 974 and Natrosol® 250 polymers. A pseudo-ternary phase diagram was constructed, and starting from ME formulation, a ME gel form containing 1% Carbopol 974 was prepared. We also examined the characteristic properties of the prepared hyrogels. The physical stability of hydrogels and the ME -based gels were evaluated after storage at different temperatures for a period of 3 months. The release of TER-HCL from the gels and the commercial product (Lamisil®) was carried out by using a standard dialysis membrane in phosphate buffer (pH 5.2) at 32 °C. The results of the in vitro release study showed that the Natrosol gel released the highest amount of drug, followed by Carbopol gel, chitosan gel, commercial product, and the microoemulsion-based gel in that order. In vitro examination of antifungal activity revealed that all the prepared and commercial products were effective against Candida parapsilosis, Penicillium, Aspergillus niger and Microsporum. These results indicate that the Natrosol®-based hydrogel is a good candidate for the topical delivery of TER-HCL.

  6. Action-projection in Japanese conversation: topic particles wa, mo, and tte for triggering categorization activities

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    Conversation analytic work has revealed how anticipatory completions and preemptive actions can offer invaluable glimpses into the cognitive, contextual, grammatical, and temporal bases of projectability in turn-taking, by virtue of their potential not only as a display of participants' online prediction of roughly what it might take to complete a turn-in-progress but also to plan the next move. While the predicate-final word order and the incremental transformability of turns in Japanese generally lead to delayed projectability of turn-endings, this may be partially offset by the capacity of certain postpositional particles to trigger and propel prospective action trajectories. This article engages in a case study of the topic particle wa (and related particles mo and tte), by demonstrating how its grammatical affordances, the categorization activities, and cognitive processing it can set in motion, coupled with the immediate contextual, and temporal-productional features may coalesce to a point of critical mass, thereby enhancing the projectability of the not-yet-produced trajectory of the current turn. The discussion attempts to contribute to recent debates on ways language-specific lexicogrammatical resources are deeply interlinked with the types of opportunities that are provided for social action. PMID:26379565

  7. NAO-related Variability in Arctic Storm Activity and its Effect on Cloud Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Previdi, M.; Veron, D. E.

    2005-12-01

    Variability in Arctic and sub-Arctic storm activity on intraseasonal, interannual and decadal timescales is associated primarily with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). NAO-related changes in storminess affect a wide range of sensible weather, including air temperature, precipitation and wind. We focus on a less often examined climate impact of these storm changes, their effect on cloud cover. The NAO modulation of storminess in the high latitude North Atlantic is studied using composites of regional climate model simulations representative of NAO extremes. The associated changes in cloud cover and their role in producing the mean surface air temperature response to NAO variability are then discussed.

  8. Determining the Covering Factor of Compton-thick Active Galactic Nuclei with NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brightman, M.; Baloković, M.; Stern, D.; Arévalo, P.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Fuerst, F.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Koss, M.; LaMassa, S.; Puccetti, S.; Rivers, E.; Vasudevan, R.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-05-01

    The covering factor of Compton-thick (CT) obscuring material associated with the torus in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is at present best understood through the fraction of sources exhibiting CT absorption along the line of sight (NH > 1.5 × 1024 cm-2) in the X-ray band, which reveals the average covering factor. Determining this CT fraction is difficult, however, due to the extreme obscuration. With its spectral coverage at hard X-rays (>10 keV), Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is sensitive to the AGNs covering factor since Compton scattering of X-rays off optically thick material dominates at these energies. We present a spectral analysis of 10 AGNs observed with NuSTAR where the obscuring medium is optically thick to Compton scattering, so-called CT AGNs. We use the torus models of Brightman & Nandra that predict the X-ray spectrum from reprocessing in a torus and include the torus opening angle as a free parameter and aim to determine the covering factor of the CT gas in these sources individually. Across the sample we find mild to heavy CT columns, with NH measured from 1024 to 1026 cm-2, and a wide range of covering factors, where individual measurements range from 0.2 to 0.9. We find that the covering factor, fc, is a strongly decreasing function of the intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity, LX, where fc = (-0.41 ± 0.13)log10(LX/erg s-1)+18.31 ± 5.33, across more than two orders of magnitude in LX (1041.5-1044 erg s-1). The covering factors measured here agree well with the obscured fraction as a function of LX as determined by studies of local AGNs with LX > 1042.5 erg s-1.

  9. Diversity and activity of methanotrophs in landfill cover soils with and without landfill gas recovery systems.

    PubMed

    Su, Yao; Zhang, Xuan; Xia, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Qi-Qi; Kong, Jiao-Yan; Wang, Jing; He, Ruo

    2014-05-01

    Aerobic CH4 oxidation plays an important role in mitigating CH4 release from landfills to the atmosphere. Therefore, in this study, oxidation activity and community of methanotrophs were investigated in a subtropical landfill. Among the three sites investigated, the highest CH4 concentration was detected in the landfill cover soil of the site (A) without a landfill gas (LFG) recovery system, although the refuse in the site had been deposited for a longer time (∼14-15 years) compared to the other two sites (∼6-11 years) where a LFG recovery system was applied. In April and September, the higher CH4 flux was detected in site A with 72.4 and 51.7gm(-2)d(-1), respectively, compared to the other sites. The abundance of methanotrophs assessed by quantification of pmoA varied with location and season. A linear relationship was observed between the abundance of methanotrophs and CH4 concentrations in the landfill cover soils (R=0.827, P<0.001). The key factors influencing the methanotrophic diversity in the landfill cover soils were pH, the water content and the CH4 concentration in the soil, of which pH was the most important factor. Type I methanotrophs, including Methylococcus, Methylosarcina, Methylomicrobium and Methylobacter, and type II methanotrophs (Methylocystis) were all detected in the landfill cover soils, with Methylocystis and Methylosarcina being the dominant genera. Methylocystis was abundant in the slightly acidic landfill cover soil, especially in September, and represented more than 89% of the total terminal-restriction fragment abundance. These findings indicated that the LFG recovery system, as well as physical and chemical parameters, affected the diversity and activity of methanotrophs in landfill cover soils.

  10. Spreading Topsoil Encourages Ecological Restoration on Embankments: Soil Fertility, Microbial Activity and Vegetation Cover

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Desirée; Mejías, Violeta; Jáuregui, Berta M.; López-Archilla, Ana Isabel; Peco, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    The construction of linear transport infrastructure has severe effects on ecosystem functions and properties, and the restoration of the associated roadslopes contributes to reduce its impact. This restoration is usually approached from the perspective of plant cover regeneration, ignoring plant-soil interactions and the consequences for plant growth. The addition of a 30 cm layer of topsoil is a common practice in roadslope restoration projects to increase vegetation recovery. However topsoil is a scarce resource. This study assesses the effects of topsoil spreading and its depth (10 to 30 cm) on two surrogates of microbial activity (β-glucosidase and phosphatase enzymes activity and soil respiration), and on plant cover, plant species richness and floristic composition of embankment vegetation. The study also evaluates the differences in selected physic-chemical properties related to soil fertility between topsoil and the original embankment substrate. Topsoil was found to have higher values of organic matter (11%), nitrogen (44%), assimilable phosphorous (50%) and silt content (54%) than the original embankment substrate. The topsoil spreading treatment increased microbial activity, and its application increased β-glucosidase activity (45%), phosphatase activity (57%) and soil respiration (60%). Depth seemed to affect soil respiration, β-glucosidase and phosphatase activity. Topsoil application also enhanced the species richness of restored embankments in relation to controls. Nevertheless, the depth of the spread topsoil did not significantly affect the resulting plant cover, species richness or floristic composition, suggesting that both depths could have similar effects on short-term recovery of the vegetation cover. A significant implication of these results is that it permits the application of thinner topsoil layers, with major savings in this scarce resource during the subsequent slope restoration work, but the quality of topsoil relative to the

  11. Spreading topsoil encourages ecological restoration on embankments: soil fertility, microbial activity and vegetation cover.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Desirée; Mejías, Violeta; Jáuregui, Berta M; Costa-Tenorio, Marga; López-Archilla, Ana Isabel; Peco, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    The construction of linear transport infrastructure has severe effects on ecosystem functions and properties, and the restoration of the associated roadslopes contributes to reduce its impact. This restoration is usually approached from the perspective of plant cover regeneration, ignoring plant-soil interactions and the consequences for plant growth. The addition of a 30 cm layer of topsoil is a common practice in roadslope restoration projects to increase vegetation recovery. However topsoil is a scarce resource. This study assesses the effects of topsoil spreading and its depth (10 to 30 cm) on two surrogates of microbial activity (β-glucosidase and phosphatase enzymes activity and soil respiration), and on plant cover, plant species richness and floristic composition of embankment vegetation. The study also evaluates the differences in selected physic-chemical properties related to soil fertility between topsoil and the original embankment substrate. Topsoil was found to have higher values of organic matter (11%), nitrogen (44%), assimilable phosphorous (50%) and silt content (54%) than the original embankment substrate. The topsoil spreading treatment increased microbial activity, and its application increased β-glucosidase activity (45%), phosphatase activity (57%) and soil respiration (60%). Depth seemed to affect soil respiration, β-glucosidase and phosphatase activity. Topsoil application also enhanced the species richness of restored embankments in relation to controls. Nevertheless, the depth of the spread topsoil did not significantly affect the resulting plant cover, species richness or floristic composition, suggesting that both depths could have similar effects on short-term recovery of the vegetation cover. A significant implication of these results is that it permits the application of thinner topsoil layers, with major savings in this scarce resource during the subsequent slope restoration work, but the quality of topsoil relative to the

  12. Nanoemulsion as a carrier to improve the topical anti-inflammatory activity of stem bark extract of Rapanea ferruginea

    PubMed Central

    Dal Mas, Juarana; Zermiani, Tailyn; Thiesen, Liliani C; Silveira, Joana LM; da Silva, Kathryn ABS; de Souza, Márcia M; Malheiros, Angela; Bresolin, Tania MB; Lucinda-Silva, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsion containing soft extract of stem bark of Rapanea ferruginea to improve the topical delivery and anti-inflammatory activity. The extract of R. ferruginea stem bark was incorporated into the oily phase of the nanoemulsion by the method of phase inversion at low energy. The developed nanoemulsion had an average droplet size of 47.88±8.20 nm and a polydispersibility index of 0.228. Uniformity of size, spherical shape of droplet, and absence of clusters were confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy. The zeta potential was −34.7±1.15 mV. The nanoemulsion showed a moderate degree of skin irritation in the agarose overlay assay in vitro. The content of the extract markers, myrsinoic acids A and B, was 54.10±0.08 and 53.03 μg/g in the formulation, respectively. The formulation demonstrated pseudoplastic and thixotropic rheological behavior. In vitro release of chemical markers was controlled by diffusion mechanism. An extract-loaded nanoemulsion showed a topical anti-inflammatory activity in a croton oil-induced edema ear model, with a decrease in tumor necrosis factor release and myeloperoxidase activity. The nanoemulsion was 160% more efficient than the conventional cream containing 0.13% of the extract. The nanoemulsion showed suitable properties as a carrier for topical use of R. ferruginea extract and the approach for improving the topical anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27660442

  13. Active control of near-field radiative heat transfer between graphene-covered metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qimei; Zhou, Ting; Wang, Tongbiao; Liu, Wenxing; Liu, Jiangtao; Yu, Tianbao; Liao, Qinghua; Liu, Nianhua

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the near-field radiative heat transfer between graphene-covered metamaterials is investigated. The electric surface plasmons (SPs) supported by metamaterials can be coupled with the SPs supported by graphene. The near-field heat transfer between the graphene-covered metamaterials is significantly larger than that between metamaterials because of the strong coupling in our studied frequency range. The relationship between heat flux and chemical potential is studied for different vacuum gaps. Given that the chemical potential of graphene can be tuned by the external electric field, heat transfer can be actively controlled by modulating the chemical potential. The heat flux for certain vacuum gaps can reach a maximum value when the chemical potential is at a particular value. The results of this study are beneficial for actively controlling energy transfer.

  14. Trends in Radiation Dosimetry: preliminary overview of active growth areas, research trends and hot topics from 2011-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldock, C.

    2017-01-01

    The themes and trends of the radiation dosimetry research field were bibliometrically explored by way of co-occurrence term maps using the titles and abstracts text corpora from the Web of Science database for the period from 2011 to 2015. Visualisation of similarities was used by way of the VOSviewer visualization tool to generate cluster maps of radiation dosimetry knowledge domains and the associated citation impact of topics within the domains. Heat maps were then generated to assist in the understanding of active growth areas, research trends, and emerging and hot topics.

  15. Heritage Adoption Lessons Learned, Active Mirror Telescope Cover Deployment and Latch Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincentsen, James E.

    2006-01-01

    The Active Mirror Telescope (AMT) task adopted the Cover Deployment and Latch Mechanism (CDLM) design as used on the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) project. The three separate mechanisms that comprise the CDLM will be discussed in this paper in addition to a focus on heritage adoption lessons learned and specific examples. These lessons learned will be valuable to any project considering the use of heritage designs.

  16. History of Research on Physical Activity and Health: Selected Topics, 1867 to the 1950s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Roberta J.

    1995-01-01

    Developments in the biomedical sciences affect how people think about health and fitness, as do social and cultural factors. This paper examines two topics of interest to educators, physicians, and researchers in the physiological sciences from 1867-1950 (the phenomenon referred to as the athlete's heart and anthropometrical/growth and development…

  17. Determining the Covering Factor of Compton-Thick Active Galactic Nuclei with NuSTAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brightman, M.; Balokovic, M.; Stern, D.; Arevalo, P.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    The covering factor of Compton-thick (CT) obscuring material associated with the torus in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is at present best understood through the fraction of sources exhibiting CT absorption along the line of sight (N(sub H) greater than 1.5 x 10(exp 24) cm(exp -2)) in the X-ray band, which reveals the average covering factor. Determining this CT fraction is difficult, however, due to the extreme obscuration. With its spectral coverage at hard X-rays (greater than 10 keV), Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is sensitive to the AGNs covering factor since Compton scattering of X-rays off optically thick material dominates at these energies. We present a spectral analysis of 10 AGNs observed with NuSTAR where the obscuring medium is optically thick to Compton scattering, so-called CT AGNs. We use the torus models of Brightman and Nandra that predict the X-ray spectrum from reprocessing in a torus and include the torus opening angle as a free parameter and aim to determine the covering factor of the CT gas in these sources individually. Across the sample we find mild to heavy CT columns, with N(sub H) measured from 10(exp 24) to 10(exp 26) cm(exp -2), and a wide range of covering factors, where individual measurements range from 0.2 to 0.9. We find that the covering factor, f(sub c), is a strongly decreasing function of the intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity, L(sub X), where f(sub c) = (-0.41 +/- 0.13)log(sub 10)(L(sub X)/erg s(exp -1))+18.31 +/- 5.33, across more than two orders of magnitude in L(sub X) (10(exp 41.5) - 10(exp 44) erg s(exp -1)). The covering factors measured here agree well with the obscured fraction as a function of LX as determined by studies of local AGNs with L(sub X) greater than 10(exp 42.5) erg s(exp -1).

  18. DETERMINING THE COVERING FACTOR OF COMPTON-THICK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH NuSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Brightman, M.; Baloković, M.; Fuerst, F.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D.; Arévalo, P.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Hickox, R. C.; Koss, M.; LaMassa, S.; and others

    2015-05-20

    The covering factor of Compton-thick (CT) obscuring material associated with the torus in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is at present best understood through the fraction of sources exhibiting CT absorption along the line of sight (N{sub H} > 1.5 × 10{sup 24} cm{sup −2}) in the X-ray band, which reveals the average covering factor. Determining this CT fraction is difficult, however, due to the extreme obscuration. With its spectral coverage at hard X-rays (>10 keV), Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is sensitive to the AGNs covering factor since Compton scattering of X-rays off optically thick material dominates at these energies. We present a spectral analysis of 10 AGNs observed with NuSTAR where the obscuring medium is optically thick to Compton scattering, so-called CT AGNs. We use the torus models of Brightman and Nandra that predict the X-ray spectrum from reprocessing in a torus and include the torus opening angle as a free parameter and aim to determine the covering factor of the CT gas in these sources individually. Across the sample we find mild to heavy CT columns, with N{sub H} measured from 10{sup 24} to 10{sup 26} cm{sup −2}, and a wide range of covering factors, where individual measurements range from 0.2 to 0.9. We find that the covering factor, f{sub c}, is a strongly decreasing function of the intrinsic 2–10 keV luminosity, L{sub X}, where f{sub c} = (−0.41 ± 0.13)log{sub 10}(L{sub X}/erg s{sup −1})+18.31 ± 5.33, across more than two orders of magnitude in L{sub X} (10{sup 41.5}–10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1}). The covering factors measured here agree well with the obscured fraction as a function of L{sub X} as determined by studies of local AGNs with L{sub X} > 10{sup 42.5} erg s{sup −1}.

  19. The low keratin affinity of efinaconazole contributes to its nail penetration and fungicidal activity in topical onychomycosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Keita; Sugimoto, Noriaki; Hosaka, Shinya; Katafuchi-Nagashima, Maria; Arakawa, Yoshio; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Jo Siu, William; Pillai, Radhakrishnan

    2014-07-01

    Onychomycosis is a common fungal nail disease that is difficult to treat topically due to the deep location of the infection under the densely keratinized nail plate. Keratin affinity of topical drugs is an important physicochemical property impacting therapeutic efficacy. To be effective, topical drugs must penetrate the nail bed and retain their antifungal activity within the nail matrix, both of which are adversely affected by keratin binding. We investigated these properties for efinaconazole, a new topical antifungal for onychomycosis, compared with those of the existing topical drugs ciclopirox and amorolfine. The efinaconazole free-drug concentration in keratin suspensions was 14.3%, significantly higher than the concentrations of ciclopirox and amorolfine, which were 0.7% and 1.9%, respectively (P < 0.001). Efinaconazole was released from keratin at a higher proportion than in the reference drugs, with about half of the remaining keratin-bound efinaconazole removed after washing. In single-dose in vitro studies, efinaconazole penetrated full-thickness human nails into the receptor phase and also inhibited the growth of Trichophyton rubrum under the nail. In the presence of keratin, efinaconazole exhibited fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes comparable to that of amorolfine and superior to that of ciclopirox. In a guinea pig onychomycosis model with T. mentagrophytes infection, an efinaconazole solution significantly decreased nail fungal burden compared to that of ciclopirox and amorolfine lacquers (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the high nail permeability of efinaconazole and its potent fungicidal activity in the presence of keratin are related to its low keratin affinity, which may contribute to its efficacy in onychomycosis.

  20. A Review of Land-Cover Mapping Activities in Coastal Alabama and Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathryn E.L.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Land-use and land-cover (LULC) data provide important information for environmental management. Data pertaining to land-cover and land-management activities are a common requirement for spatial analyses, such as watershed modeling, climate change, and hazard assessment. In coastal areas, land development, storms, and shoreline modification amplify the need for frequent and detailed land-cover datasets. The northern Gulf of Mexico coastal area is no exception. The impact of severe storms, increases in urban area, dramatic changes in land cover, and loss of coastal-wetland habitat all indicate a vital need for reliable and comparable land-cover data. Four main attributes define a land-cover dataset: the date/time of data collection, the spatial resolution, the type of classification, and the source data. The source data are the foundation dataset used to generate LULC classification and are typically remotely sensed data, such as aerial photography or satellite imagery. These source data have a large influence on the final LULC data product, so much so that one can classify LULC datasets into two general groups: LULC data derived from aerial photography and LULC data derived from satellite imagery. The final LULC data can be converted from one format to another (for instance, vector LULC data can be converted into raster data for analysis purposes, and vice versa), but each subsequent dataset maintains the imprint of the source medium within its spatial accuracy and data features. The source data will also influence the spatial and temporal resolution, as well as the type of classification. The intended application of the LULC data typically defines the type of source data and methodology, with satellite imagery being selected for large landscapes (state-wide, national data products) and repeatability (environmental monitoring and change analysis). The coarse spatial scale and lack of refined land-use categories are typical drawbacks to satellite

  1. 45 CFR 90.3 - What programs or activities does the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Discrimination Act of 1975 cover? 90.3 Section 90.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 90.3 What programs or activities does the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 cover? (a) The Age Discrimination Act of 1975 applies to any program or activity receiving...

  2. UVA-UVB Photoprotective Activity of Topical Formulations Containing Morinda citrifolia Extract

    PubMed Central

    Serafini, Mairim Russo; Detoni, Cassia Britto; Menezes, Paula dos Passos; Pereira Filho, Rose Nely; Fortes, Vanessa Silveira; Vieira, Maria José Fonseca; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; de Albuquerque Junior, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to solar radiation, particularly its ultraviolet (UV) component, has a variety of harmful effects on human health. Some of these effects include sunburn cell formations, basal and squamous cell cancers, melanoma, cataracts, photoaging of the skin, and immune suppression. The beneficial photoprotective effects of topical formulations with the extract, Morinda citrifolia, have not been investigated. This present study aims to investigate the potential benefits of M. citrifolia topical application on the dorsal skin of mice, exposed to UVA-UVB light. Using 7 days of treatment, [before (baseline values) and 20 h after UV exposure], the thickness, skin barrier damage (TEWL), erythema, and histological alterations were evaluated. The results showed that the formulations containing the extract protected the skin against UV-induced damage. PMID:25133171

  3. Activity of Topical Antimicrobial Agents Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Recovered from Burn Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    both the prophylaxis and treatment of burn wound infections [18]. Agents such as silver sulfadiazine , silver nitrate, mupirocin, honey, mafenide...include emerging resistance of staphylococci to mupirocin and of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to silver sulfadiazine (Table 1) [9,18–21]. Prior studies...administered routinely peri-operatively and various topical antimicrobials are used to include silver sulfadiazine , mafe- nide acetate, silver nitrate

  4. Evaluation of topical Matricaria chamomilla extract activity on linear incisional wound healing in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Jarrahi, Morteza; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Taherian, Abbas Ali; Miladi, Hossein; Rashidi Pour, Ali

    2010-05-01

    In this investigation, the effect of Matricaria chamomilla extract on linear incisional wound healing was studied. Thirty male Wistar rats were subjected to a linear 3 cm incision made over the skin of the back. The animals were randomly divided into three experimental groups, as control, olive oil, and treatment. Control group did not receive any drug or cold cream. Olive oil group received topical olive oil once a day from beginning of experiments to complete wound closure. Treatment group were treated topically by M. chamomilla extract dissolved in olive oil at the same time. For computing the percentage of wound healing, the area of the wound measured at the beginning of experiments and the next 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, and 20 days. The percentage of wound healing was calculated by Walker formula after measurement of the wound area. Results showed that there were statistically significant differences between treatment and olive oil animals (p < 0.05) in most of the days. We conclude that the extract of M. chamomilla administered topically has wound healing potential in linear incisional wound model in rats.

  5. Satellite estimation of photosynthetically active radiation in Southeast Asia: Impacts of smoke and cloud cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hideki; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Hoyano, Akira; Aoki, Masatoshi; Komori, Daisuke; Boonyawat, Samakkee

    2004-02-01

    Since large-scale variations in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) influence the terrestrial carbon sources and sinks through the plant photosynthesis variations, large-scale evaluation of PAR is required. In the present study a simple PAR estimation model was developed for Southeast Asia, where large-scale forest fires occurred during El Niño years. The model considered the smoke aerosol released by forest fires using satellite-based smoke detection methods. A comparison study with ground-based solar radiation data for Malaysia and Thailand indicated that the current model could estimate monthly PAR with 10% (root-mean-square) accuracy and would successfully trace the seasonal and year-to-year variations in PAR, including the forest fire periods. During the peak-smoke month in Indonesia, September 1997, the reduction of PAR by smoke reached 63-75% in the center of the Kalimantan and Sumatra Islands. From the analyses of the smoke and cloud cover impacts on PAR in 1997-1999, annual PAR variations were found to be mostly regulated by smoke variations on the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Kalimantan Islands and cloud cover variations on the Indo-China Peninsula. Thus annual variations in PAR changed with location. These variations did not simply correlate with year-to-year variations in cloud cover associated with the El Niño and La Niña cycle, but exhibited more complicated spatial variations due to the existence of smoke in Southeast Asia.

  6. Backscattering characteristics Analyses of winter wheat covered area and Drought Monitoring Based on active microwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C., Sr.; Li, L.

    2015-12-01

    The advantage of active microwave remote sensing on the sensitivity of polarization characteristic, backscatter intensity and phase characteristics to soil moisture demonstrates its potential to map and monitor relative soil moisture changes and drought information with high spatial resolution. However, the existence of soil surface condition and vegetation effects confounds the retrieval of soil moisture from active microwave, and therefore limits its applications on soil moisture retrieval and drought monitoring. To research how to reduce the effect of soil roughness and wheat cover with multi- incident angles and multi polarization active microwave remote sensing data, MIMICS and AIEM models were used to simulate the backscattering coefficient of winter wheat covered field. The interaction between winter wheat at main growth stages and microwave was analyzed. The effects of surface roughness and physical parameters of wheat on the backscattering characteristics and the variation of different incident angles and different polarization conditions are simulated and analyzed emphatically. Then scattering coefficient information of winter wheat covered area at different wheat growth stage was measured with a C band ground-based scattering meter. At the same time, biomass, leaf area index and soil rough degree, soil water content and other related parameters are collected. After comparing and analyzing the measured data and the simulated data at different incident angles and different polarization modes, we propose an approach of using multi polarization and multi angle data to eliminate the soil roughness and wheat vegetation effects and performing the inversion of soil moisture. Using the Radarsat2 satellite SAR data and ground-based scatter data gotten at the same period in 2012, soil moisture information of greater area is obtained, and then the drought information is obtained, which is consistent with the measured results.

  7. In vitro activity of inexpensive topical alternatives against Candida spp. isolated from the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Traboulsi, Rana S; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

    2008-03-01

    The use of inexpensive topical alternatives, e.g. oil of melaleuca (tea tree oil (TTO)), chlorhexidine (CHX), povidone iodine (PI) and gentian violet (GV), to treat oral candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients has been proposed in resource-poor countries. However, pre-clinical studies comparing the antifungal activity of these agents are lacking. This study compared the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of TTO, GV, PI, CHX and fluconazole (FLZ) against 91 clinical Candida strains using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) methodology. Isolates were obtained from the oral cavity of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Among the topical agents examined, GV showed the most potent activity against all Candida isolates tested (MIC range, MIC for 50% of the organisms (MIC(50)) and MIC for 90% of the organisms (MIC(90)) of 0.03-0.25 microg/mL, 0.06 microg/mL and 0.1 2microg/mL, respectively). CHX was 64 times less active than GV (MIC range, MIC(50) and MIC(90) of 0.5-16 microg/mL, 4 microg/mL and 8 microg/mL, respectively). The lowest antifungal activity was seen for PI (MIC(90)=0.25%). Moreover, GV, unlike the other topical agents tested, was fungicidal (minimum fungicidal concentration=1 microg/mL) against Candida albicans isolates (n=83). In addition, GV showed activity against FLZ-resistant C. albicans (n=3). The combination of GV and FLZ was not antagonistic and there was no interaction between the two compounds. GV possesses potent antifungal activity against FLZ-susceptible and -resistant Candida strains and is not antagonistic when used in combination with FLZ. In vivo evaluation is warranted.

  8. The Potential Radiative Forcing of Global Land Use and Land Cover Change Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

    2014-12-01

    Given the expected increase in pressure on land resources over the next century, there is a need to understand the total impacts of activities associated with land use and land cover change (LULCC). Here we quantify these impacts using the radiative forcing metric, including forcings from changes in long-lived greenhouse gases, tropospheric ozone, aerosol effects, and land surface albedo. We estimate radiative forcings from the different agents for historical LULCC and for six future projections using simulations from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Land Model and Community Atmosphere Models and additional offline analyses. When all forcing agents are considered together we show that 45% (+30%, -20%) of the present-day (2010) anthropogenic radiative forcing can be attributed to LULCC. Changes in the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols from LULCC enhance the total LULCC radiative forcing by a factor of 2 to 3 with respect to the forcing from CO2 alone. In contrast, the non-CO2 forcings from fossil fuel burning are roughly neutral, due largely to the negative (cooling) impact of aerosols from these sources. We partition the global LULCC radiative forcing into three major sources: direct modification of land cover (e.g. deforestation), agricultural activities, and fire regime changes. Contributions from deforestation and agriculture are roughly equal in the present day, while changes to wildfire activity impose a small negative forcing globally. In 2100, deforestation activities comprise the majority of the LULCC radiative forcing for all projections except one (Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5). This suggests that realistic scenarios of future forest area change are essential for projecting the contribution of LULCC to climate change. However, the commonly used RCP land cover change projections all include decreases in global deforestation rates over the next 85 years. To place an upper bound on the potential

  9. pH-activated Nanoparticles for Controlled Topical Delivery of Farnesol to Disrupt Oral Biofilm Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Horev, Benjamin; Klein, Marlise I.; Hwang, Geelsu; Li, Yong; Kim, Dongyeop; Koo, Hyun; Benoit, Danielle S.W.

    2015-01-01

    Development of effective therapies to control oral biofilms is challenging, as topically introduced agents must avoid rapid clearance from biofilm-tooth interfaces while targeting biofilm microenvironments. Additionally, exopolysaccharide matrix and acidification of biofilm microenvironments are associated with cariogenic (caries-producing) biofilm virulence. Thus, nanoparticle carriers capable of binding to hydroxyapatite (HA), saliva-coated HA (sHA), and exopolysaccharides with enhanced drug-release at acidic pH were developed. Nanoparticles are formed from diblock copolymers composed of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), and 2-propylacrylic acid (PAA) (p(DMAEMA)-b-p(DMAEMA-co-BMA-co-PAA)) that self-assemble into ~21 nm cationic nanoparticles. Nanoparticles exhibit outstanding adsorption affinities (~244 L-mmol−1) to negatively-charged HA, sHA, and exopolysaccharide-coated sHA due to strong electrostatic interactions via multivalent tertiary amines of p(DMAEMA). Owing to hydrophobic cores, Nanoparticles load farnesol, a hydrophobic antibacterial drug, at ~22 wt%. Farnesol release is pH-dependent with t1/2=7 and 15 h for release at pH 4.5 and 7.2, as Nanoparticles undergo core destabilization at acidic pH, characteristic of cariogenic biofilm microenvironments. Importantly, topical applications of farnesol-loaded nanoparticles disrupted Streptococcus mutans biofilms 4-fold more effectively than free farnesol. Mechanical stability of biofilms treated with drug-loaded nanoparticles was compromised, resulting in >2-fold enhancement in biofilm removal under shear stress compared to free farnesol and controls. Farnesol-loaded nanoparticles effectively attenuated biofilm virulence in vivo using a clinically-relevant topical treatment regimen (2×/day) in a rodent dental caries disease model. Treatment with farnesol-loaded nanoparticles reduced both the number and severity of carious lesions, while free-farnesol had no effect

  10. pH-activated nanoparticles for controlled topical delivery of farnesol to disrupt oral biofilm virulence.

    PubMed

    Horev, Benjamin; Klein, Marlise I; Hwang, Geelsu; Li, Yong; Kim, Dongyeop; Koo, Hyun; Benoit, Danielle S W

    2015-03-24

    Development of effective therapies to control oral biofilms is challenging, as topically introduced agents must avoid rapid clearance from biofilm-tooth interfaces while targeting biofilm microenvironments. Additionally, exopolysaccharides-matrix and acidification of biofilm microenvironments are associated with cariogenic (caries-producing) biofilm virulence. Thus, nanoparticle carriers capable of binding to hydroxyapatite (HA), saliva-coated HA (sHA), and exopolysaccharides with enhanced drug release at acidic pH were developed. Nanoparticles are formed from diblock copolymers composed of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), and 2-propylacrylic acid (PAA) (p(DMAEMA)-b-p(DMAEMA-co-BMA-co-PAA)) that self-assemble into ∼21 nm cationic nanoparticles. Nanoparticles exhibit outstanding adsorption affinities (∼244 L-mmol(-1)) to negatively charged HA, sHA, and exopolysaccharide-coated sHA due to strong electrostatic interactions via multivalent tertiary amines of p(DMAEMA). Owing to hydrophobic cores, nanoparticles load farnesol, a hydrophobic antibacterial drug, at ∼22 wt %. Farnesol release is pH-dependent with t1/2 = 7 and 15 h for release at pH 4.5 and 7.2, as nanoparticles undergo core destabilization at acidic pH, characteristic of cariogenic biofilm microenvironments. Importantly, topical applications of farnesol-loaded nanoparticles disrupted Streptococcus mutans biofilms 4-fold more effectively than free farnesol. Mechanical stability of biofilms treated with drug-loaded nanoparticles was compromised, resulting in >2-fold enhancement in biofilm removal under shear stress compared to free farnesol and controls. Farnesol-loaded nanoparticles effectively attenuated biofilm virulence in vivo using a clinically relevant topical treatment regimen (2×/day) in a rodent dental caries disease model. Strikingly, treatment with farnesol-loaded nanoparticles reduced both the number and severity of carious lesions, while free

  11. The Effects of Activating Prior Topic and Metacognitive Knowledge on Text Comprehension Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostons, Danny; van der Werf, Greetje

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research on prior knowledge activation has consistently shown that activating learners' prior knowledge has beneficial effects on learning. If learners activate their prior knowledge, this activated knowledge serves as a framework for establishing relationships between the knowledge they already possess and new information provided to…

  12. Evaluation of functional stability of quercetin as a raw material and in different topical formulations by its antilipoperoxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Casagrande, Rúbia; Georgetti, Sandra R; Verri, Waldiceu A; Jabor, José R; Santos, Antonio C; Fonseca, Maria J V

    2006-03-01

    The present study evaluates the antioxidant activity of the flavonol quercetin, and its functional stability as a raw material and when added in formulations. The iron-chelating activity was determined using the bathophenanthroline assay, and the functional stability was evaluated with the antilipoperoxidative assay. Raw material presented concentration-dependent antilipoperoxidative and iron-chelating activities. The initial antilipoperoxidative activity of the raw material, cream and gel-cream were 63%, 78%, and 69%, respectively. There was no detectable loss of activity during 182 days (6 months) of storage at all tested temperatures (4°C, room temperature [RT], 37°C, and 45°C) for the raw material. Considering the method variability of 10%, activity loss greater than 10% for nonionic cream was detected after 126 days at 4°C (20.1%), decreasing thereafter to 22.2% after 182 days. At 45°C, the loss of activity started after 182 days (13.2%). For the anionic gel-cream, activity loss started after 84 days (28.4%, 45°C), decreasing after 182 days to 40.3% at 45°C. At 37°C, activity loss was detected after 182 days (12%). In conclusion, the results suggest that the activity of quercetin depends on iron chelation, and its posible usefulness as a topical antioxidant to prevent oxidative stress-induced skin damage depends on maintaining its antilipoperoxidative activity stored at RT, which avoids special storage conditions.

  13. Efinaconazole Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... may catch fire. Stay away from heat and flames while you are applying this medication.Do not get a pedicure or apply nail polish or other cosmetic nail products to your toenails during your treatment with efinaconazole topical solution.To apply the topical ...

  14. Desoximetasone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... cover the area with tight fitting diapers or plastic pants.Do not wrap or bandage the treated ... into the affected areas. Cover the area with plastic wrap (such as Saran Wrap® or Handi-Wrap®). ...

  15. Desonide Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... cover the area with tight fitting diapers or plastic pants.Do not wrap or bandage the treated ... into the affected areas. Cover the area with plastic wrap (such as Saran Wrap® or Handi-Wrap®). ...

  16. Preparation of a novel silk microfiber covered by AgCl nanoparticles with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qifan; Xu, Zongpu; Hu, Binhui; He, Xiuling; Zhu, Liangjun

    2017-03-01

    We prepared silk fibroin microfibers in which silver chloride (AgCl) nanoparticles were dispersed, by sequential dipping of microfibers obtained using alkaline hydrolysis in alternating solutions of silver nitrate and potassium chloride. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed an increase in nanoparticle size and quantity with increase in dipping cycles and solution concentration, but ultrasound irradiation did not affect nanoparticle formation. The presence of cubic AgCl crystals was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the nanoparticles do not affect the microfiber properties. The growth of Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria was inhibited by microfiber covered with AgCl nanoparticles. This antimicrobial activity allows to use microfiber as a reinforced or surface additive biomaterial. Microsc. Res. Tech. 80:272-279, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Magnetically Tunable Invisibility of a Homogeneous Dielectric Rod with No Cover or Active Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Cao, Xiyuan; Tang, Yang; Che, Zhiyuan; Yannick, Fouodji T.; Du, Junjie

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate the invisibility of a homogeneous ferrite rod and photonic crystals composed of such rods when an appropriate external static magnetic field (ESMF) is applied. As a naturally occurring effect, no external tool, including metamaterial and plasmonic covers or active sources, is used to hide the rod. In the invisible state, the response of the rod to the impinging wave becomes unique, with a 1 /4 -cycle response delay of the induced magnetic dipole which lowers its scattering efficiency to the maximum possible extent. The visible and invisible states can be manipulated by an ESMF. The manipulability enables photonic crystals composed of such rods to assume different functions in the same electromagnetic device, such as remaining transparent for the impinging wave or totally reflecting it. The fast switching time of magnetic systems might make it particularly useful for practical applications.

  18. Chinese herbal medicine (Tuhuai extract) exhibits topical anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activity in murine disease models

    PubMed Central

    Man, Mao-Qiang; Shi, Yuejun; Man, Mona; Lee, Seung Hun; Demerjian, Marianne; Chang, Sandra; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Elias, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    While psoriasis is one of the most common skin disorders in humans, effective, safe and inexpensive treatments are still largely unavailable. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for centuries for treating psoriasis and several reports claim that systemic administration of one such CHM, Tuhuai, mainly composed of flos sophorae, smilax glabra roxb and licorice, is effective in psoriasis. However, the mechanisms by which this CHM improves psoriasis are not yet clear. Two universal features of psoriasis are epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation. Moreover, drugs that specifically inhibit epidermal hyperplasia and/or inflammation are widely used to treat psoriasis. Here, we investigated whether topical applications of Tuhuai extract exhibit anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities in two murine models of inflammatory dermatoses. To assess Tuhuai's potential anti-proliferative effect, we disrupted epidermal barrier function twice-daily for 4 days in normal hairless mice followed by topical applications of either 1% Tuhuai extract or Vehicle to both flanks immediately after each barrier perturbation. Changes in epidermal proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining. To assess the anti-inflammatory effects of Tuhuai, both irritant (phorbol ester) and acute allergic contact dermatitis (oxazolone) models were used. Whereas topical Tuhuai extract did not alter epidermal proliferation or induce irritation in normal skin, it both reduced epidermal hyperplasia in the epidermal hyperproliferative model, and reduced inflammation in both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis models. As topical Tuhuai extract exhibits anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of human models of inflammatory dermatoses, Tuhuai could provide an effective, relatively safe and inexpensive therapeutic alternative for the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, including psoriasis. PMID:18341576

  19. Chinese herbal medicine (Tuhuai extract) exhibits topical anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activity in murine disease models.

    PubMed

    Man, Mao-Qiang; Shi, Yuejun; Man, Mona; Lee, Seung Hun; Demerjian, Marianne; Chang, Sandra; Feingold, Kenneth R; Elias, Peter M

    2008-08-01

    While psoriasis is one of the most common skin disorders in humans, effective, safe and inexpensive treatments are still largely unavailable. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for centuries for treating psoriasis and several reports claim that systemic administration of one such CHM, Tuhuai, mainly composed of flos sophorae, smilax glabra roxb and licorice, is effective in psoriasis. However, the mechanisms by which this CHM improves psoriasis are not yet clear. Two universal features of psoriasis are epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation. Moreover, drugs that specifically inhibit epidermal hyperplasia and/or inflammation are widely used to treat psoriasis. Here, we investigated whether topical applications of Tuhuai extract exhibit anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities in two murine models of inflammatory dermatoses. To assess Tuhuai's potential anti-proliferative effect, we disrupted epidermal barrier function twice-daily for 4 days in normal hairless mice followed by topical applications of either 1% Tuhuai extract or Vehicle to both flanks immediately after each barrier perturbation. Changes in epidermal proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining. To assess the anti-inflammatory effects of Tuhuai, both irritant (phorbol ester) and acute allergic contact dermatitis (oxazolone) models were used. Whereas topical Tuhuai extract did not alter epidermal proliferation or induce irritation in normal skin, it both reduced epidermal hyperplasia in the epidermal hyperproliferative model, and reduced inflammation in both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis models. As topical Tuhuai extract exhibits anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of human models of inflammatory dermatoses, Tuhuai could provide an effective, relatively safe and inexpensive therapeutic alternative for the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, including psoriasis.

  20. Topics for Mathematics Clubs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, LeRoy C., Ed.; Snyder, Henry D., Ed.

    The ten chapters in this booklet cover topics not ordinarily discussed in the classroom: Fibonacci sequences, projective geometry, groups, infinity and transfinite numbers, Pascal's Triangle, topology, experiments with natural numbers, non-Euclidean geometries, Boolean algebras, and the imaginary and the infinite in geometry. Each chapter is…

  1. College Students' Health Information Activities on Facebook: Investigating the Impacts of Health Topic Sensitivity, Information Sources, and Demographics.

    PubMed

    Syn, Sue Yeon; Kim, Sung Un

    2016-07-01

    College students tend to lack access to health information. Because social networking sites (SNSs) are popularly adopted by college students, SNSs are considered to be good media channels for college students to obtain health-related information. This study examines the factors that influence college students' health information-seeking and -sharing activities on Facebook. An online survey was distributed to college students between the ages of 18 and 29 to determine intentions pertaining to health information activities according to the factors identified for the study. The factors included both contextual factors (such as health topic sensitivity and health information sources) as well as user factors (such as demographics). Our findings showed that college students are willing to read and post health-related information on Facebook when the health topic is not sensitive. In addition, there are clear differences in preferences between professional sources and personal sources as health information sources. It was found that most user factors, except gender, have no influence on health information activities. The impacts of SNS contexts, awareness of information sources, types of interlocutors, and privacy concerns are further discussed.

  2. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of 2alpha-hydroxy pentacyclic triterpene acids from the leaves of Ugni molinae.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, María C; Delporte, Carla; Backhouse, Nadine; Erazo, Silvia; Letelier, María Eugenia; Cassels, Bruce K; Silva, Ximena; Alegría, Sergio; Negrete, Rosa

    2006-08-15

    Leaf extracts of Ugni molinae Turcz. are used in the Chilean cosmetic industry on the assumption that they have decongestant, regenerative, and anti-aging properties. A bioassay-guided fractionation of this plant material showed that some extracts have potent anti-inflammatory activities. Further fractionation led to the isolation and identification of betulinic acid, a mixture of ursolic and oleanolic acids, and the 2alpha-hydroxy derivatives alphitolic, asiatic, and corosolic acids. The latter three were evaluated in vivo in the mouse ear assay for their topical anti-inflammatory activity, inducing inflammation with either arachidonic acid (AA) or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13 acetate (TPA). Only corosolic acid was active in the AA assay, with similar potency to nimesulide, but all three triterpene acids inhibited TPA-induced inflammation with potencies comparable to that of indomethacin.

  3. The role of triterpenoids in the topical anti-inflammatory activity of Calendula officinalis flowers.

    PubMed

    Della Loggia, R; Tubaro, A; Sosa, S; Becker, H; Saar, S; Isaac, O

    1994-12-01

    By means of a bioassay-oriented fractionation of the CO2 extract of Calendula flowers, the triterpenoids are shown as the most important anti-inflammatory principles of the drug. Among them, the faradiol monoester appears to be the most relevant principle for the activity of the drug, due to its quantitative prevalence. The unesterified faradiol, not present in the extract, is the most active of the tested compounds and equals indomethacin in activity, whereas the monools psi-taraxasterol, lupeol, taraxasterol, and beta-amyrin are less active than the free diol. The anti-inflammatory activity of different CO2 extracts is proportional to their content of faradiol monoester, which can be taken as a suitable parameter for the quality control of Calendula preparations.

  4. Comparison of antifungal activities of gentian violet and povidone-iodine against clinical isolates of Candida species and other yeasts: a framework to establish topical disinfectant activities.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shigemi; Tabe, Yoko; Yamada, Toshihiko; Misawa, Shigeki; Oguri, Toyoko; Ohsaka, Akimichi; Miida, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated antifungal activity as assessed by the contact time in topical use of gentian violet (GV) and povidone-iodine (PI) against Candida strains. A total of 102 yeast isolates were used in this study. A markedly lower minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)(90) of GV than of PI was detected for all yeast isolates. No remarkable difference in the MICs was observed among the identical strains isolated from different clinical sites for both GV and PI. Although the minimal fungicidal activities (MFCs) of PI were identical for all tested time points, the fungicidal activity of GV decreased during the time course of incubation. These results indicate that, whereas GV is more effective than PI, the topical disinfectant efficacy of GV should be estimated using the MFC(5 min) and not the MIC or the MFC(24 h) for overall prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections and oral infections.

  5. Topic-Aware Physical Activity Propagation in a Health Social Network

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Nhathai; Ebrahimi, Javid; Kil, Dave; Piniewski, Brigitte; Dou, Dejing

    2016-01-01

    Modeling physical activity propagation, such as physical exercise level and intensity, is the key to preventing the conduct that can lead to obesity; it can also help spread wellness behavior in a social network. PMID:27087794

  6. Fluorouracil Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by years of too much exposure to sunlight). Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are also used ... plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to sunlight and UV light (such as tanning booths) and ...

  7. Estradiol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Estradiol topical gel and emulsion (lotion type mixture) are used to treat and prevent hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) in women who are experiencing menopause ( ...

  8. Testosterone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... eyes, wash them right away with warm, clean water. Call a doctor if your eyes become irritated.Testosterone topical comes in single use tubes and packets and a multiple use pump. The pump releases a specific amount of testosterone ...

  9. [In vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activity of absorbable topical hemostatic agents used in the operating room].

    PubMed

    Piana, Andrea; Mura, Ida; Deidda, Silvia; Lo Curto, Paola; Are, Bianca Maria; Maida, Giorgio; Masia, Maria Dolores

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of three absorbable, sterile, regenerated oxidized cellulose gauzes against ATCC and clinical isolates of bacterial and fungal strains, in particular those most frequently involved in surgical site infections. The three cellulose devices showed rapid antimicrobial activity against the microbial species tested. Their use could be a valuable adjunct to antibiotic prophylaxis in the prevention of surgical site infections.

  10. Synthesis and Larvicidal and Adult Topical Activity of Some Hydrazide-Hydrazone Derivatives Against Aedes aegypti

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    epidemics in the future [2]. Currently, the development of naturally occurring insecticides and repellents are under exploration to increase and...Abbas Ali, Ikhlas A. Khan Center for Natural Products Research, The University of Mississippi, 38677, Mississippi, USA Alden Estep, James J...reported to possess broad spectrum insecticidal activity and are used as active ingredients for controlling agricultural and horticultural pests [16-18

  11. New topic of supercritical fluids: Local activity coefficients of supercritical solvent and cosolvent around solute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Minqiang; Zhang, Xiaogang; Han, Buxing; Song, Jiyuan; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Zhaofu; Zhang, Jianling

    2008-03-01

    The study of inhomogeneity in supercritical fluids (SCFs) is of great importance. In this work, we propose the concept of local activity coefficients in supercritical (SC) solutions, which link thermodynamics and inhomogeneity in SC systems. The local activity coefficients of CO2+acetonitrile+phenol blue and CO2+aceticacid+phenol blue systems are investigated at 308.15K in critical region and outside critical region. To do this, the local compositions of CO2+acetonitrile and CO2+acetic acid mixed solvents around phenol blue are first estimated using UV-visible spectroscopy. Then it is considered that there exist bulk phase and local phase around phenol blue in the systems. The activity coefficients of CO2 and the cosolvents (acetonitrile or acetic acid) in bulk phase are calculated using Peng-Robinson equation of state. The local activity coefficients of CO2 and the cosolvents are then calculated on the basis of thermodynamic principles. It is demonstrated that in the critical region the local activity coefficients differ from bulk activity coefficients significantly and are sensitive to pressure. This can explain many unusual phenomena in SC systems in critical region thermodynamically.

  12. New topic of supercritical fluids: local activity coefficients of supercritical solvent and cosolvent around solute.

    PubMed

    Hou, Minqiang; Zhang, Xiaogang; Han, Buxing; Song, Jiyuan; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Zhaofu; Zhang, Jianling

    2008-03-14

    The study of inhomogeneity in supercritical fluids (SCFs) is of great importance. In this work, we propose the concept of local activity coefficients in supercritical (SC) solutions, which link thermodynamics and inhomogeneity in SC systems. The local activity coefficients of CO(2)+acetonitrile+phenol blue and CO(2)+acetic acid+phenol blue systems are investigated at 308.15 K in critical region and outside critical region. To do this, the local compositions of CO(2)+acetonitrile and CO(2)+acetic acid mixed solvents around phenol blue are first estimated using UV-visible spectroscopy. Then it is considered that there exist bulk phase and local phase around phenol blue in the systems. The activity coefficients of CO(2) and the cosolvents (acetonitrile or acetic acid) in bulk phase are calculated using Peng-Robinson equation of state. The local activity coefficients of CO(2) and the cosolvents are then calculated on the basis of thermodynamic principles. It is demonstrated that in the critical region the local activity coefficients differ from bulk activity coefficients significantly and are sensitive to pressure. This can explain many unusual phenomena in SC systems in critical region thermodynamically.

  13. Topical delivery and in vivo antileishmanial activity of paromomycin-loaded liposomes for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Guilherme; Santos, Delia C M; Oliveira, Monica C; Fernandes, Ana P; Ferreira, Luciana S; Ramaldes, Gilson A; Nunan, Elziria A; Ferreira, Lucas A M

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the potential of liposomes loaded with paromomycin (PA), an aminoglycoside antibiotic associated with poor skin penetration, for the topical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Fluid liposomes were prepared and characterized for particle size, zeta potential, and drug entrapment. Permeation studies were performed with two in vitro models: intact and stripped skin. The antileishmanial activity of free and liposomal PA was evaluated in BALB/c mice infected by Leishmania (L.) major. Drug entrapment ranged from 10 to 14%, and the type of vesicle had little influence on this parameter. Particle size and polydispersity index of the vesicles composed by phosphatidylcholine (PC) and PC/cholesterol (Chol) ranged from of 516 to 362 nm and 0.7 to 0.4, respectively. PA permeation across intact skin was low, regardless of the formulation tested, while drug penetration into skin (percent of the applied dose) from PC (7.2 +/- 0.2%) and PC/Chol (4.8 +/- 0.2%) liposomes was higher than solution (1.9 +/- 0.1%). PA-loaded liposomes enhanced in vitro drug permeation across stripped skin and improved the in vivo antileishmanial activity in experimentally infected mice. Our findings suggest that the liposomes represent a promising alternative for the topical treatment of CL using PA.

  14. Histatin 5-spermidine conjugates have enhanced fungicidal activity and efficacy as a topical therapeutic for oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Tati, Swetha; Li, Rui; Puri, Sumant; Kumar, Rohitashw; Davidow, Peter; Edgerton, Mira

    2014-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is caused by the opportunistic fungi Candida albicans and is prevalent in immunocompromised patients, individuals with dry mouth, or patients with prolonged antibiotic therapies that reduce oral commensal bacteria. Human salivary histatins, including histatin 5 (Hst 5), are small cationic proteins that are the major source of fungicidal activity of saliva. However, Hsts are rapidly degraded in vivo, limiting their usefulness as therapeutic agents despite their lack of toxicity. We constructed a conjugate peptide using spermidine (Spd) linked to the active fragment of Hst 5 (Hst 54-15), based upon our findings that C. albicans spermidine transporters are required for Hst 5 uptake and fungicidal activity. We found that Hst 54-15-Spd was significantly more effective in killing C. albicans and Candida glabrata than Hst 5 alone in both planktonic and biofilm growth and that Hst 54-15-Spd retained high activity in both serum and saliva. Hst 54-15-Spd was not bactericidal against streptococcal oral commensal bacteria and had no hemolytic activity. We tested the effectiveness of Hst 54-15-Spd in vivo by topical application to tongue surfaces of immunocompromised mice with OPC. Mice treated with Hst 54-15-Spd had significant clearance of candidal tongue lesions macroscopically, which was confirmed by a 3- to 5-log fold reduction of C. albicans colonies recovered from tongue tissues. Hst 54-15-Spd conjugates are a new class of peptide-based drugs with high selectivity for fungi and potential as topical therapeutic agents for oral candidiasis.

  15. Histatin 5-Spermidine Conjugates Have Enhanced Fungicidal Activity and Efficacy as a Topical Therapeutic for Oral Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Tati, Swetha; Li, Rui; Puri, Sumant; Kumar, Rohitashw; Davidow, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is caused by the opportunistic fungi Candida albicans and is prevalent in immunocompromised patients, individuals with dry mouth, or patients with prolonged antibiotic therapies that reduce oral commensal bacteria. Human salivary histatins, including histatin 5 (Hst 5), are small cationic proteins that are the major source of fungicidal activity of saliva. However, Hsts are rapidly degraded in vivo, limiting their usefulness as therapeutic agents despite their lack of toxicity. We constructed a conjugate peptide using spermidine (Spd) linked to the active fragment of Hst 5 (Hst 54–15), based upon our findings that C. albicans spermidine transporters are required for Hst 5 uptake and fungicidal activity. We found that Hst 54–15-Spd was significantly more effective in killing C. albicans and Candida glabrata than Hst 5 alone in both planktonic and biofilm growth and that Hst 54–15-Spd retained high activity in both serum and saliva. Hst 54–15-Spd was not bactericidal against streptococcal oral commensal bacteria and had no hemolytic activity. We tested the effectiveness of Hst 54–15-Spd in vivo by topical application to tongue surfaces of immunocompromised mice with OPC. Mice treated with Hst 54–15-Spd had significant clearance of candidal tongue lesions macroscopically, which was confirmed by a 3- to 5-log fold reduction of C. albicans colonies recovered from tongue tissues. Hst 54–15-Spd conjugates are a new class of peptide-based drugs with high selectivity for fungi and potential as topical therapeutic agents for oral candidiasis. PMID:24247141

  16. TOPICAL REVIEW: Protein stability and enzyme activity at extreme biological temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feller, Georges

    2010-08-01

    Psychrophilic microorganisms thrive in permanently cold environments, even at subzero temperatures. To maintain metabolic rates compatible with sustained life, they have improved the dynamics of their protein structures, thereby enabling appropriate molecular motions required for biological activity at low temperatures. As a consequence of this structural flexibility, psychrophilic proteins are unstable and heat-labile. In the upper range of biological temperatures, thermophiles and hyperthermophiles grow at temperatures > 100 °C and synthesize ultra-stable proteins. However, thermophilic enzymes are nearly inactive at room temperature as a result of their compactness and rigidity. At the molecular level, both types of extremophilic proteins have adapted the same structural factors, but in opposite directions, to address either activity at low temperatures or stability in hot environments. A model based on folding funnels is proposed accounting for the stability-activity relationships in extremophilic proteins.

  17. Current topics in active and intelligent food packaging for preservation of fresh foods.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Yuan; Lee, Seung Jae; Choi, Dong Soo; Hur, Sun Jin

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current packaging systems, e.g. active packaging and intelligent packaging, for various foods. Active packaging, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), extends the shelf life of fresh produce, provides a high-quality product, reduces economic losses, including those caused by delay of ripening, and improves appearance. However, in active packaging, several variables must be considered, such as temperature control and different gas formulations with different product types and microorganisms. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. Intelligent packaging is emerging as a potential advantage in food processing and is an especially useful tool for tracking product information and monitoring product conditions. Moreover, intelligent packaging facilitates data access and information exchange by altering conditions inside or outside the packaging and product. In spite of these advantages, few of these packaging systems are commercialized because of high cost, strict safety and hygiene regulations or limited consumer acceptance. Therefore more research is needed to develop cheaper, more easily applicable and effective packaging systems for various foods.

  18. Field-Scale Stable-Isotope Probing of Active Methanotrophs in a Landfill-Cover Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroth, M. H.; Henneberger, R.; Chiri, E.

    2012-12-01

    The greenhouse gas methane (CH4) is an important contributor to global climate change. While its atmospheric concentration is increasing, a large portion of produced CH4 never reaches the atmosphere, but is consumed by aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB). The latter are ubiquitous in soils and utilize CH4 as sole source of energy and carbon. Among other methods, MOB may be differentiated based on characteristic phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). Stable-isotope probing (SIP) on PLFA has been widely applied to identify active members of MOB communities in laboratory incubation studies, but results are often difficult to extrapolate to the field. Thus, novel field-scale approaches are needed to link activity and identity of MOB in their natural environment. We present results of field experiments in which we combined PLFA-SIP with gas push-pull tests (GPPTs) to label active MOB at the field-scale while simultaneously quantifying CH4 oxidation activity. During a SIP-GPPT, a mixture of reactive (here 13CH4, O2) and non-reactive tracer gases (e.g., Ar, Ne, He) is injected into the soil at a location of interest. Thereafter, gas flow is reversed and the gas mixture diluted with soil air is extracted from the same location and sampled periodically. Rate constants for CH4 oxidation can be calculated by analyzing breakthrough curves of 13CH4 and a suitable non-reactive tracer gas. SIP-GPPTs were performed in a landfill-cover soil, and feasibility of this novel approach was tested at several locations along a gradient of MOB activity and soil temperature. Soil samples were collected before and after SIP-GPPTs, total PLFA were extracted, and incorporation of 13C in the polar lipid fraction was analyzed. Potential CH4 oxidation rates derived from SIP-GPPTs were similar to those derived from regular GPPTs (using unlabeled CH4) performed at the same locations prior to SIP-GPPTs, indicating that application of 13CH4 did not adversely affect bacterial CH4 oxidation rates. Rates

  19. [Topical contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Alipov, V I; Korkhov, V V

    1982-02-01

    Recently there has been little interest in topical contraceptives. The most popular are the cervical cap and the diaphragm. Other types of mechanical contraceptive devices are being investigated. Standley and Kessler have developed a device for introduction into the cervical canal with a reservoir of spermatocide, it does not block the flow of blood during menstruation. New models of vaginal rings are also being developed which are simple enough for self-insertion and also contain a reservoir of spermatocide. Work is being done on spermatocide-containing sponges in many countries. Another project being investigated is the possibility of using natural proteins, collagens, and other substances which absorb spermatozoids. The ancients used various vaginal suppositories to kill spermatozoids; in the late 19th century quinine sulfate was used for this, and a variety of substances have been used recently. These spermicidal creams also have the advantage of acting as anti-infectious agents in many cases. But they do have some negative effects. They are about 85% effective, are local irritants, and some cause discomfort during intercourse. And it is possible that some are resorbed by the body and act on the liver and other organs. Vaginal globules and suppositories are also popular. The "Kontraceptin-T" brand contains quinosol, boric acid, and tannin. There are also foaming tablets which are mixed with water and then introduced. New locally-active chemical substances are being developed in Japan, West Germany, and the USSR. Kontraceptin-E contains paranonyl-phenoxypolyethylene glycol and sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate. The "Norforks" and other preparations contain mercurial compounds which may turn out to be harmful. The future promises the development of products which will act to prevent fertilization by acting on the hyaluronidase and the acrosine of the spermatozoid, thus preventing it from penetrating the ovum. It would be best to find enzyme inhibitors which are

  20. Cover crops increase foraging activity of omnivorous predators in seed patches and facilitate weed biological control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Omnivores are important consumers of both weed seeds and insect pests, and habitat provisions like cover crops are suggested to promote their ecosystem services in agricultural systems. However, few studies establish direct links between cover, food, and pest suppression because they are entangled a...

  1. Hot topic: Antilisterial activity by endolysin PlyP100 in fresh cheese.

    PubMed

    Van Tassell, Maxwell L; Ibarra-Sánchez, Luis A; Hoepker, Garrett P; Miller, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    Our objective was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of a Listeria bacteriophage endolysin that may address limitations of current antilisterial processes for fresh cheeses. Listeria monocytogenes is highly problematic in the manufacture and processing of ready-to-eat foods due to its environmental persistence and its ability to grow under refrigerated storage. Special care must be taken to prevent listerial contamination during the production of fresh cheeses, as their delicate flavor and texture are incompatible with many of the antimicrobial processes and additives commonly used for other foods. Bacteriophage-derived cell wall hydrolytic enzymes, known as endolysins, comprise one possible intervention that may not suffer from the high strain specificity of their parent bacteriophages or the development of resistant strains. We recombinantly expressed endolysin PlyP100 and compared its lytic activity in vitro across several environmental parameters and target organisms, then incorporated it into a fresh cheese model challenged with a cocktail of L. monocytogenes. We show that PlyP100 demonstrates optimal activity under pH and salt concentrations consistent with a low-acid food matrix such as fresh cheese. Furthermore, we show that PlyP100 exhibits target specificity for gram-positive organisms with directly crosslinked peptidoglycan and displays considerable inhibitory activity against L. monocytogenes in fresh cheese for at least 4 wk under refrigerated storage. As PlyP100 demonstrates considerable promise for preventing the propagation of L. monocytogenes in fresh cheeses, this novel preservation method could help safeguard consumer health and the market expansion of an otherwise high-risk food with few other viable preservatives.

  2. Curative effect of topical treatment of digital dermatitis with a gel containing activated copper and zinc chelate

    PubMed Central

    Holzhauer, M.; Bartels, C. J.; van Barneveld, M.; Vulders, C.; Lam, T.

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of two topical treatments for painful ulcerative stage (M2) of bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) lesions was compared in a clinical trial conducted on five dairy farms in 2009 to 2010. The first treatment was a water-based gel with active components copper and zinc (Intra Hoof-fit gel [IHF]) and the second treatment was a topical chlortetracycline spray (CTC spray). The experimental unit for this study was the hindleg with the presence of a BDD lesion. Cure was defined as the transition of an M2 lesion into a healed (M0) or a non-painful chronic stage (M4) of BDD at D28. On day 0, cows with M2 BDD lesions were photographed and were treated with either IHF or CTC. Subsequently, feet were photographed and scored on D28. The cure rate of M2 BDD lesions treated with IHF at D28 was 0.92 (CI 0.84 to 0.96) and was significantly better than for M2 BDD lesions treated with CTC, which was 0.58 (CI 0.47 to 0.68). PMID:21957114

  3. Topical Search: AIDS and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Inst. of Justice.

    This topical search includes 30 of the most representative citations on the subject of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and youth selected from the National Institute of Justice/NCJRS (National Criminal Justice Reference Service) database. Topics covered in this package include education programs for in-school youth, policies and…

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate) rind extracts applied topically to ex vivo skin.

    PubMed

    Houston, David M J; Bugert, Joachim; Denyer, Stephen P; Heard, Charles M

    2017-03-01

    Coadministered pomegranate rind extract (PRE) and zinc (II) produces a potent virucidal activity against Herpes simplex virus (HSV); however, HSV infections are also associated with localised inflammation and pain. Here, the objective was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity and relative depth penetration of PRE, total pomegranate tannins (TPT) and zinc (II) in skin, ex vivo. PRE, TPT and ZnSO4 were dosed onto freshly excised ex vivo porcine skin mounted in Franz diffusion cells and analysed for COX-2, as a marker for modulation of the arachidonic acid inflammation pathway, by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Tape stripping was carried out to construct relative depth profiles. Topical application of PRE to ex vivo skin downregulated expression of COX-2, which was significant after just 6h, and maintained for up to 24h. This was achieved with intact stratum corneum, proving that punicalagin penetrated skin, further supported by the depth profiling data. When PRE and ZnSO4 were applied together, statistically equal downregulation of COX-2 was observed when compared to the application of PRE alone; no effect followed the application of ZnSO4 alone. TPT downregulated COX-2 less than PRE, indicating that tannins alone may not be entirely responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of PRE. Punicalagin was found throughout the skin, in particular the lower regions, indicating appendageal delivery as a significant route to the viable epidermis. Topical application of TPT and PRE had significant anti-inflammatory effects in ex vivo skin, confirming that PRE penetrates the skin and modulates COX-2 regulation in the viable epidermis. Pomegranates have potential as a novel approach in ameliorating the inflammation and pain associated with a range of skin conditions, including cold sores and herpetic stromal keratitis.

  5. Absence of systemic hormonal effects in an oestradiol diether topically active on the vaginal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Wolff, J P; Cachelou, R; Guéritée, N

    1982-12-01

    The women in this study were either post-menopausal or ovariectomised for at least 1 yr prior to the study. They had also been treated for cancer of the cervix (27 women), endometrium (5), ovaries (5) or breast (1). All women presented with sexual troubles, mainly genital discomfort (dyspareunia or vaginism). In a double-blind fashion, gynaecological capsules containing either an oestradiol diether (ICD: promestriene) or only the excipient were administered for 40 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment, the FSH, LH, oestrone (E1) and oestradiol (E2) plasma levels were not found to be significantly different from the pre-therapeutic values. These results suggest that promestriene acts on the vaginal mucosa, therefore not being converted back into the hormone from which it was derived. Also, in its dietheroxide form, promestriene is incapable of crossing the malpighian (vaginal or epidermal) epithelium and of reaching the general blood circulation. This discrepancy between the local anti-atrophic effects and the inability to exert systemic oestrogen activities singles out promestriene and justifies its therapeutic use when hormonally active oestrogens are contra-indicated, as in patients who have an oestrogen-sensitive cancer in their medical history.

  6. Newly Developed Topical Cefotaxime Sodium Hydrogels: Antibacterial Activity and In Vivo Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Azza S; Afifi, Samar A; Elkhodairy, Kadria A

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to reach better treatment of skin infections, gel formulations containing Cefotaxime (CTX) were prepared. The gel was formulated using Carbopol 934 (C934), Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose 4000 (HPMC 4000), Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium (Na CMC), Pectin (PEC), Xanthan Gum (XG), or Guar Gum (GG). Thirteen different formulas were prepared and characterized physically in terms of color, syneresis, spreadability, pH, drug content, and rheological properties. Drug-excipients compatibility studies were confirmed by FTIR and then in vitro drug release study was conducted. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of CTX were studied against wound pathogens such as, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), using either pure drug or Fucidin® cream as control. F13 provides better spreadability compared to F1 (XG) or F11 (HPMC). Moreover, the release of the drug from hydrogel F13 containing C934 was slower and sustained for 8 h. Stability study revealed that, upon storage, there were no significant changes in pH, drug content, and viscosity of the gels. Also, F13 showed the larger inhibition zone and highest antibacterial activity among other formulations. Histological analysis demonstrated that after single treatment with F13 gel formulation, a noticeable reduction in microbial bioburden occurred in case of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial isolates.

  7. Pharmacodynamic activity of Dapivirine and Maraviroc single entity and combination topical gels for HIV-1 prevention

    PubMed Central

    Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Yandura, Sarah; Wang, Lin; Moncla, Bernard; Teeple, Elizabeth A.; Devlin, Brid; Nuttall, Jeremy; Brown, Elizabeth R.; Rohan, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Dapivirine (DPV), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, and maraviroc (MVC), a CCR5 antagonist, were formulated into aqueous gels designed to prevent mucosal HIV transmission. Methods 0.05% DPV, 0.1% MVC, 0.05% DPV/0.1% MVC and placebo gels were evaluated for pH, viscosity, osmolality, and in vitro release. In vitro assays and mucosal tissues were used to evaluate anti-HIV activity. Viability (Lactobacilli only) and epithelial integrity in cell lines and mucosal tissues defined safety. Results The gels were acidic and viscous. DPV gel had an osmolality of 893 mOsm/kg while the other gels had an osmolality of <100 mOsm/kg. MVC release was similar from the single and combination gels (~5 μg/cm2/min1/2), while DPV release was 10-fold less from the single as compared to the combination gel (0.4331 μg/cm2/min1/2). Titrations of the gels showed 10-fold more drug was needed to protect ectocervical than colonic tissue. The combination gel showed ~10- and 100-fold improved activity as compared to DPV and MVC gel, respectively. All gels were safe. Conclusions The DPV/MVC gel showed a benefit blocking HIV infection of mucosal tissue compared to the single entity gels. Combination products with drugs affecting unique steps in the viral replication cycle would be advantageous for HIV prevention. PMID:26078001

  8. Newly Developed Topical Cefotaxime Sodium Hydrogels: Antibacterial Activity and In Vivo Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Azza S.; Afifi, Samar A.; Elkhodairy, Kadria A.

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to reach better treatment of skin infections, gel formulations containing Cefotaxime (CTX) were prepared. The gel was formulated using Carbopol 934 (C934), Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose 4000 (HPMC 4000), Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium (Na CMC), Pectin (PEC), Xanthan Gum (XG), or Guar Gum (GG). Thirteen different formulas were prepared and characterized physically in terms of color, syneresis, spreadability, pH, drug content, and rheological properties. Drug-excipients compatibility studies were confirmed by FTIR and then in vitro drug release study was conducted. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of CTX were studied against wound pathogens such as, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), using either pure drug or Fucidin® cream as control. F13 provides better spreadability compared to F1 (XG) or F11 (HPMC). Moreover, the release of the drug from hydrogel F13 containing C934 was slower and sustained for 8 h. Stability study revealed that, upon storage, there were no significant changes in pH, drug content, and viscosity of the gels. Also, F13 showed the larger inhibition zone and highest antibacterial activity among other formulations. Histological analysis demonstrated that after single treatment with F13 gel formulation, a noticeable reduction in microbial bioburden occurred in case of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial isolates. PMID:27314033

  9. Spotlight Topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A Spotlight Topic consists of a set of two or more review articles focused on a specific subject in surface science. The topics are recommended by the Board of Editors. A topic may be chosen because it is particularly new or fast-breaking, thus deserving introduction to the general readership. Or, it may be because a topic is especially controversial or confusing, requiring clarification by experts. Each review will give a critical assessment rather than an encyclopedic report. While our editors always will insist on fairness and accuracy, any review which forwards an opinion is bound to be somewhat subjective. Therefore, it is the editors' wish that the set of reviews written by different authors on the same subject matter will provide a broad and balanced viewpoint. It is often the case that an author who is an expert in a technique or method may be especially enthusiastic or critical about this technique or method. A companion review in the set may provide a different viewpoint. We are hopeful that the reader, after studying these reviews and checking some of the key references, will obtain an informed opinion of the subject. We think the set of reviews in a spotlight area will considerably shorten the ``learning time'' that a nonexpert would otherwise need to become knowledgeable about a subject. In this issue, we feature a spotlight topic on oxide surfaces. The set contains an overview article by Jacques Jupille, and four articles written by G. Pacchioni, F. Cosandey and T. E. Madey, B. G. Daniels, R. Lindsay and G. Thornton, and C. Noguera respectively. Of these, the article by Pacchioni has already appeared in SRL 7, 277 (2000). The other three articles appear in this issue. A reader who wishes to suggest a spotlight topic or recommend authors to write such reviews should contact the Editor-in-Chief. We would like to hear from you.

  10. Riparian Land Use/Land Cover Data for Three Study Units in Group II of the Nutrient Enrichment Effects Topical Study of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Michaela R.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Dickinson, Ross G.; Sanocki, Chris A.; Tranmer, Andrew W.

    2009-01-01

    This data set was developed as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, Nutrient Enrichment Effects Topical (NEET) study. This report is concerned with three of the eight NEET study units distributed across the United States: Ozark Plateaus, Upper Mississippi River Basin, and Upper Snake River Basin, collectively known as Group II of the NEET study. Ninety stream reaches were investigated during 2006-08 in these three study units. Stream segments, with lengths equal to the base-10 logarithm of the basin area, were delineated upstream from the stream reaches through the use of digital orthophoto quarter-quadrangle (DOQQ) imagery. The analysis area for each stream segment was defined by a streamside buffer extending laterally to 250 meters from the stream segment. Delineation of landuse and land-cover (LULC) map units within stream-segment buffers was completed using on-screen digitizing of riparian LULC classes interpreted from the DOQQ. LULC units were classified using a strategy consisting of nine classes. National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) data were used to aid in wetland classification. Longitudinal riparian transects (lines offset from the stream segments) were generated digitally, used to sample the LULC maps, and partitioned in accord with the intersected LULC map-unit types. These longitudinal samples yielded the relative linear extent and sequence of each LULC type within the riparian zone at the segment scale. The resulting areal and linear estimates of LULC extent filled in the spatial-scale gap between the 30-meter resolution of the 1990s National Land Cover Dataset and the reach-level habitat assessment data collected onsite routinely for NAWQA ecological sampling. The resulting data consisted of 12 geospatial data sets: LULC within 25 meters of the stream reach (polygon); LULC within 50 meters of the stream reach (polygon); LULC within 50 meters of the stream segment (polygon); LULC within 100 meters of the stream segment (polygon

  11. TOPICAL REVIEW: Electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS): a review of patents 1906-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Salvatore; Sakka, Yoshio; Maizza, Giovanni

    2009-10-01

    The electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS) is an ever growing class of versatile techniques for sintering particulate materials. Despite the tremendous advances over the last two decades in ECASed materials and products there is a lack of comprehensive reviews on ECAS apparatuses and methods. This paper fills the gap by tracing the progress of ECAS technology from 1906 to 2008 and surveys 642 ECAS patents published over more than a century. It is found that the ECAS technology was pioneered by Bloxam (1906 GB Patent No. 9020) who developed the first resistive sintering apparatus. The patents were searched by keywords or by cross-links and were withdrawn from the Japanese Patent Office (342 patents), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (175 patents), the Chinese State Intellectual Property Office of P.R.C. (69 patents) and the World Intellectual Property Organization (12 patents). A subset of 119 (out of 642) ECAS patents on methods and apparatuses was selected and described in detail with respect to their fundamental concepts, physical principles and importance in either present ECAS apparatuses or future ECAS technologies for enhancing efficiency, reliability, repeatability, controllability and productivity. The paper is divided into two parts, the first deals with the basic concepts, features and definitions of basic ECAS and the second analyzes the auxiliary devices/peripherals. The basic ECAS is classified with reference to discharge time (fast and ultrafast ECAS). The fundamental principles and definitions of ECAS are outlined in accordance with the scientific and patent literature.

  12. Antiallergic activity of topical lodoxamide on in vivo and in vitro models.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, G; Buscaglia, S; Catrullo, A; Paolieri, F; Riccio, A M; Fiorino, N; Canonica, G W

    1996-12-01

    Lodoxamide is an antiallergic drug acting as a mast-cell stabilizer, which is effective in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of lodoxamide eye-drops on the inflammatory early-phase reaction (EPR) changes induced by allergen-specific conjunctival challenge (ASCC). This was a cross-over, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study, including 10 outpatients suffering from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis due to Parietaria judaica. Patients received one drop of lodoxamide tromethamine 0.1% or placebo 30 min before each ASCC. Clinical evaluation and cytologic assessment were done at baseline and 30 min after each ASCC. Lodoxamide induced a reduction in total symptom score and hyperemia during the EPR (P < 0.05). Lacrimation, itching/burning, and eyelid swelling were only slightly (nonsignificantly) reduced. Lodoxamide induced a reduction in the total number of inflammatory cells and neutrophils during the EPR (P < 0.02). Eosinophil and lymphocyte number and ICAM-1 expression showed only a slight, not statistically significant decrease. Placebo did not affect the studied parameters. Lodoxamide reduced early clinical events and cellular changes after ASCC consistently with its activity as mast-cell stabilizer. Moreover, lodoxamide was able to downregulate in vitro ICAM-1 expression on the continuously cultured, differentiated conjunctival cell line WK. This was shown both in basal conditions (P < 0.05) and upon interferon-gamma stimulation (P < 0.03), although at high concentration.

  13. Management of plastic bronchitis with topical tissue-type plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Elizabeth; Blount, Robert; Lewis, Nancy; Nielson, Dennis; Church, Gwynne; Jones, Kirk; Ly, Ngoc

    2012-08-01

    Plastic bronchitis or cast bronchitis is a rare disease of unclear etiology characterized by formation of airway casts that can lead to life-threatening airway obstruction. There is currently limited data regarding optimal treatment of plastic bronchitis. Several therapies have been suggested, but recurrences are common and mortality remains high. We report the case of a 6-year-old boy with refractory eosinophilic bronchial casts, unresponsive to low-dose systemic corticosteroids, inhaled corticosteroids, azithromycin, and dornase alfa, who was treated successfully and safely with direct instillation of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) to the obstructing casts during flexible bronchoscopy and inhaled tPA. Our case illustrates that the current therapy for plastic bronchitis remains inadequate. To our knowledge, this case is the first to show that direct instillation of tPA can be used safely for treatment of this disease. The use of tPA via direct administration into the airways during bronchoscopy and via a nebulizer appeared to be a safe and effective therapy for plastic bronchitis and should be considered early in the course of the disease to prevent complications of severe airway obstruction.

  14. Spinosad Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Spinosad suspension is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults and ... Topical spinosad comes as a suspension (liquid) to apply to the scalp and hair. It is usually applied to the scalp and hair in one or sometimes ...

  15. Ciclopirox Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... use this medication near heat or an open flame, such as a cigarette.To use ciclopirox topical solution, follow these steps: Be sure that you have trimmed your nails properly before your first treatment. Use the applicator brush attached to the bottle ...

  16. Acyclovir Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Zovirax® Cream ... Acyclovir cream is used to treat cold sores (fever blisters; blisters that are caused by a virus called herpes ... Topical acyclovir comes as a cream and an ointment to apply to the skin. Acyclovir cream is usually applied five times a day for 4 days. Acyclovir ...

  17. Clindamycin Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you have or have ever had asthma, eczema (sensitive skin that often becomes itchy or irritated) or allergies.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while using topical clindamycin, ...

  18. Diphenhydramine Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... to relieve the itching of insect bites, sunburns, bee stings, poison ivy, poison oak, and minor skin ... rub the medication in until most of it disappears. Use just enough medication to cover the affected ...

  19. Tavaborole Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... insert it in the bottle. Squeeze the dropper bulb and then loosen your grip to fill the ... dropper over your affected toenail and squeeze the bulb slowly to release enough medication to cover your ...

  20. Fluocinonide Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... area, do not use tight-fitting diapers or plastic pants. Such use may increase side effects.Do ... into the affected areas. Cover the area with plastic wrap (such as Saran Wrap or Handi-Wrap). ...

  1. Fluocinolone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... area, do not use tight-fitting diapers or plastic pants. Such use may increase side effects.Do ... into the affected areas. Cover the area with plastic wrap (such as Saran Wrap or Handi-Wrap). ...

  2. Diflorasone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... area, do not use tight-fitting diapers or plastic pants. Such use may increase side effects.Do ... into the affected areas. Cover the area with plastic wrap (such as Saran Wrap or Handi-Wrap). ...

  3. Betamethasone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... area, do not use tight-fitting diapers or plastic pants. Such use may increase side effects.Do ... into the affected areas. Cover the area with plastic wrap (such as Saran Wrap or Handi-Wrap.) ...

  4. Halcinonide Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... area, do not use tight-fitting diapers or plastic pants. Such use may increase side effects.Do ... into the affected areas. Cover the area with plastic wrap (such as Saran Wrap or Handi-Wrap). ...

  5. Hydrological Response to Land Cover Changes and Human Activities in Arid Regions Using a Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Shereif H.; Alazba, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrological response to land cover changes induced by human activities in arid regions has attracted increased research interest in recent decades. The study reported herein assessed the spatial and quantitative changes in surface runoff resulting from land cover change in the Al-Baha region of Saudi Arabia between 1990 and 2000 using an ArcGIS-surface runoff model and predicted land cover and surface runoff depth in 2030 using Markov chain analysis. Land cover maps for 1990 and 2000 were derived from satellite images using ArcGIS 10.1. The findings reveal a 26% decrease in forest and shrubland area, 28% increase in irrigated cropland, 1.5% increase in sparsely vegetated land and 0.5% increase in bare soil between 1990 and 2000. Overall, land cover changes resulted in a significant decrease in runoff depth values in most of the region. The decrease in surface runoff depth ranged from 25-106 mm/year in a 7020-km2 area, whereas the increase in such depth reached only 10 mm/year in a 243-km2 area. A maximum increase of 73 mm/year was seen in a limited area. The surface runoff depth decreased to the greatest extent in the central region of the study area due to the huge transition in land cover classes associated with the construction of 25 rainwater harvesting dams. The land cover prediction revealed a greater than twofold increase in irrigated cropland during the 2000-2030 period, whereas forest and shrubland are anticipated to occupy just 225 km2 of land area by 2030, a significant decrease from the 747 km2 they occupied in 2000. Overall, changes in land cover are predicted to result in an annual increase in irrigated cropland and dramatic decline in forest area in the study area over the next few decades. The increase in surface runoff depth is likely to have significant implications for irrigation activities. PMID:25923712

  6. Hydrological response to land cover changes and human activities in arid regions using a geographic information system and remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Shereif H; Alazba, A A

    2015-01-01

    The hydrological response to land cover changes induced by human activities in arid regions has attracted increased research interest in recent decades. The study reported herein assessed the spatial and quantitative changes in surface runoff resulting from land cover change in the Al-Baha region of Saudi Arabia between 1990 and 2000 using an ArcGIS-surface runoff model and predicted land cover and surface runoff depth in 2030 using Markov chain analysis. Land cover maps for 1990 and 2000 were derived from satellite images using ArcGIS 10.1. The findings reveal a 26% decrease in forest and shrubland area, 28% increase in irrigated cropland, 1.5% increase in sparsely vegetated land and 0.5% increase in bare soil between 1990 and 2000. Overall, land cover changes resulted in a significant decrease in runoff depth values in most of the region. The decrease in surface runoff depth ranged from 25-106 mm/year in a 7020-km2 area, whereas the increase in such depth reached only 10 mm/year in a 243-km2 area. A maximum increase of 73 mm/year was seen in a limited area. The surface runoff depth decreased to the greatest extent in the central region of the study area due to the huge transition in land cover classes associated with the construction of 25 rainwater harvesting dams. The land cover prediction revealed a greater than twofold increase in irrigated cropland during the 2000-2030 period, whereas forest and shrubland are anticipated to occupy just 225 km2 of land area by 2030, a significant decrease from the 747 km2 they occupied in 2000. Overall, changes in land cover are predicted to result in an annual increase in irrigated cropland and dramatic decline in forest area in the study area over the next few decades. The increase in surface runoff depth is likely to have significant implications for irrigation activities.

  7. Characterization of Antifungal Activity and Nail Penetration of ME1111, a New Antifungal Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Takei-Masuda, Naomi; Kubota, Natsuki; Takahata, Sho; Ohyama, Makoto; Kaneda, Kaori; Iida, Maiko; Maebashi, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Fungal nail infection (onychomycosis) is a prevalent disease in many areas of the world, with a high incidence approaching 23%. Available antifungals to treat the disease suffer from a number of disadvantages, necessitating the discovery of new efficacious and safe antifungals. Here, we evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity and nail penetration ability of ME1111, a novel antifungal agent, along with comparator drugs, including ciclopirox, amorolfine, terbinafine, and itraconazole. ME1111 showed potent antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (the major etiologic agents of onychomycosis) strains isolated in Japan and reference fungal strains with an MIC range of 0.12 to 0.5 mg/liter and an MIC50 and MIC90 of 0.5 mg/liter for both. Importantly, none of the tested isolates showed an elevated ME1111 MIC. Moreover, the antifungal activity of ME1111 was minimally affected by 5% wool keratin powder in comparison to the other antifungals tested. The ME1111 solution was able to penetrate human nails and inhibit fungal growth in a dose-dependent manner according to the TurChub assay. In contrast, 8% ciclopirox and 5% amorolfine nail lacquers showed no activity under the same conditions. ME1111 demonstrated approximately 60-fold-greater selectivity in inhibition of Trichophyton spp. than of human cell lines. Our findings demonstrate that ME1111 possesses potent antidermatophyte activity, maintains this activity in the presence of keratin, and possesses excellent human nail permeability. These results suggest that ME1111 is a promising topical medication for the treatment of onychomycosis and therefore warrants further clinical evaluation. PMID:26643333

  8. Characterization of Antifungal Activity and Nail Penetration of ME1111, a New Antifungal Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Yuji; Takei-Masuda, Naomi; Kubota, Natsuki; Takahata, Sho; Ohyama, Makoto; Kaneda, Kaori; Iida, Maiko; Maebashi, Kazunori

    2016-02-01

    Fungal nail infection (onychomycosis) is a prevalent disease in many areas of the world, with a high incidence approaching 23%. Available antifungals to treat the disease suffer from a number of disadvantages, necessitating the discovery of new efficacious and safe antifungals. Here, we evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity and nail penetration ability of ME1111, a novel antifungal agent, along with comparator drugs, including ciclopirox, amorolfine, terbinafine, and itraconazole. ME1111 showed potent antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (the major etiologic agents of onychomycosis) strains isolated in Japan and reference fungal strains with an MIC range of 0.12 to 0.5 mg/liter and an MIC50 and MIC90 of 0.5 mg/liter for both. Importantly, none of the tested isolates showed an elevated ME1111 MIC. Moreover, the antifungal activity of ME1111 was minimally affected by 5% wool keratin powder in comparison to the other antifungals tested. The ME1111 solution was able to penetrate human nails and inhibit fungal growth in a dose-dependent manner according to the TurChub assay. In contrast, 8% ciclopirox and 5% amorolfine nail lacquers showed no activity under the same conditions. ME1111 demonstrated approximately 60-fold-greater selectivity in inhibition of Trichophyton spp. than of human cell lines. Our findings demonstrate that ME1111 possesses potent antidermatophyte activity, maintains this activity in the presence of keratin, and possesses excellent human nail permeability. These results suggest that ME1111 is a promising topical medication for the treatment of onychomycosis and therefore warrants further clinical evaluation.

  9. Topical anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mritunjay; Chawla, Rajiv; Goyal, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects.

  10. Topical anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mritunjay; Chawla, Rajiv; Goyal, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects. PMID:26702198

  11. Expression of allelopathy in the soil environment: Soil concentration and activity of benzoxazinoid compounds released by rye cover crop residue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The activity of allelopathic compounds is often reduced in the soil environment where processes involving release from donor plant material, soil adsorption and degradation, and uptake by receptor plants naturally result in complex interactions. Rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crops are known to supp...

  12. Long term tillage, cover crop and fertilization effects on microbial community structure and activity: Implications on soil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduced tillage, cover crops and fertilization are associated with greater microbial biomass and activity that are linked to improvements in soil quality, but their impacts vary widely with climate, soils and cropping systems. This study aimed to characterize the impact of long term (31 years) tilla...

  13. USDA Human Nutrition Research and Education Activities. A Report to Congress Covering the Period January-December 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupont, Jacqueline; And Others

    This document is the sixth annual, legislatively mandated report on the human nutrition research and education activities of the United States Department of Agriculture for fiscal year 1992 in which directions and highlights are emphasized. The report contains six sections. Section 1 is an introduction. Section 2 covers human nutrition research…

  14. Does grazing of cover crops impact biologically active soil C and N fractions under inversion and no tillage management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are a key component of conservation cropping systems. They can also be a key component of integrated crop-livestock systems by offering high-quality forage during short periods between cash crops. The impact of cattle grazing on biologically active soil C and N fractions has not receiv...

  15. Land-cover observations as part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS): Progress, activities, and prospects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herold, M.; Woodcock, C.E.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Townshend, J.; Brady, M.; Steenmans, C.; Schmullius, C. C.

    2008-01-01

    The international land-cover community has been working with GEO since 2005 to build the foundations for land-cover observations as an integral part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) has provided the platform to elevate the societal relevance of land cover monitoring and helped to link a diverse set of global, regional, and national activities. A dedicated 2007-2009 GEO work plan task has resulted in achievements on the strategic and implementation levels. Integrated Global Observations of the Land (IGOL), the land theme of the Integrated Global Observation Strategy (IGOS), has been approved and is now in the process of transition into GEO implementation. New global land-cover maps at moderate spatial resolutions (i.e., GLOBCOVER) are being produced using guidelines and standards of the international community. The Middecadal Global Landsat Survey for 2005-2006 is extending previous 1990 and 2000 efforts for global, high-quality Landsat data. Despite this progress, essential challenges for building a sustained global land-cover-observing system remain, including: international cooperation on the continuity of global observations; ensuring consistency in land monitoring approaches; community engagement and country participation in mapping activities; commitment to ongoing quality assurance and validation; and regional networking and capacity building.

  16. Clinical Effects of a Topically Applied Toll-like Receptor 9 Agonist in Active Moderate-to-Severe Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Atreya, Raja; Bloom, Stuart; Scaldaferri, Franco; Gerardi, Viviana; Admyre, Charlotte; Karlsson, Åsa; Knittel, Thomas; Kowalski, Jan; Lukas, Milan; Löfberg, Robert; Nancey, Stephane; Petryka, Robert; Rydzewska, Grazyna; Schnabel, Robert; Seidler, Ursula; Neurath, Markus F.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Toll-like receptors [TLRs] are potential drug targets for immunomodulation. We determined the safety and efficacy of the TLR-9 agonist DNA-based immunomodulatory sequence 0150 [DIMS0150] in ulcerative colitis [UC] patients refractory to standard therapy. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 131 patients with moderate-to-severe active UC were randomized to receive two single doses of the oligonucleotide DIMS0150 [30 mg] or placebo administered topically during lower GI endoscopy at baseline and Week 4. The primary endpoint was clinical remission, defined as Clinical Activity Index [CAI] ≤4, at Week 12. Secondary endpoints included mucosal healing and symptomatic remission of key patient-reported outcomes [absence of blood in stool and weekly stool frequency <35]. Results: There was no statistical significant difference between the groups in the induction of clinical remission at Week 12, with 44.4% in the DIMS0150 group vs. 46.5% in the placebo group. However, the proportion of patients who achieved symptomatic remission was 32.1% in the DIMS0150 group vs. 14.0% in the placebo group at Week 4 [p = 0.020], and 44.4% vs. 27.9% at Week 8 [p = 0.061]. More patients on DIMS0150 compared with those on placebo had mucosal healing [34.6% vs. 18.6%; p = 0.09] and histological improvement regarding the Geboes score [30.9% vs. 9.3%; p = 0.0073] at Week 4. Significantly more patients on DIMS0150 were in clinical remission with mucosal healing at Week 4: 21% vs. 4.7% in the placebo group [p = 0.02]. DIMS0150 was well tolerated, and no safety signals compared with placebo were evident. Conclusions: Therapy with the topically applied TLR-9 agonist DIMS0150 is a promising and well-tolerated novel therapeutic option for treatment-refractory, chronic active UC patients, warranting further clinical trials. PMID:27208386

  17. Post-steroid management of chronic vulvar itching with a topical formula containing natural anti-itching and anti-inflammatory actives

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Di Maio, Eleonora; Di Paola, Gaetana; Felice, Raffaele; Murina, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    Aim To determine whether use of a topical, nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory, and anti-itching formula was able to preserve the absence of symptoms, mainly itching and burning, induced by an earlier and relatively short treatment with topical steroids in women diagnosed with vulvar dermatitis or lichen simplex. Methods Ninety-six subjects (36 with contact dermatitis, 29 with allergic dermatitis, 31 with lichen simplex) were enrolled in the study. All participants were first treated with topical mometasone furoate (MF) 0.1%. When the symptoms disappeared, they were treated either with Zantogin®, a multicomponent topical formula containing anti-inflammatory and anti-itching natural actives, or a control cream for 60 days. Results The study demonstrated that, in about 85% of the participants treated with Zantogin®, symptoms disappeared completely, and only 15% had to resort to MF as needed, with an average use of about three applications per subject (in total). In the placebo group, approximately 90% of participants had to resort to MF as needed, with an average use per person of more than 16 applications in 60 days. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that, following use of a topical steroid, symptoms such as burning and itching can be validly controlled with subsequent and longer therapy with a herbal topical formula, Zantogin®, which is able to properly counteract itching and inflammation, prevent symptom relapse, and avoid the typical side effects associated with prolonged use of topical steroids. PMID:23637564

  18. Topical application of a platelet activating factor receptor agonist suppresses phorbol ester-induced acute and chronic inflammation and has cancer chemopreventive activity in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Ravi P; Rezania, Samin; Ocana, Jesus A; DaSilva-Arnold, Sonia C; Bradish, Joshua R; Richey, Justin D; Warren, Simon J; Rashid, Badri; Travers, Jeffrey B; Konger, Raymond L

    2014-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) has long been associated with acute edema and inflammatory responses. PAF acts by binding to a specific G-protein coupled receptor (PAF-R, Ptafr). However, the role of chronic PAF-R activation on sustained inflammatory responses has been largely ignored. We recently demonstrated that mice lacking the PAF-R (Ptafr-/- mice) exhibit increased cutaneous tumorigenesis in response to a two-stage chemical carcinogenesis protocol. Ptafr-/- mice also exhibited increased chronic inflammation in response to phorbol ester application. In this present study, we demonstrate that topical application of the non-hydrolysable PAF mimetic (carbamoyl-PAF (CPAF)), exerts a potent, dose-dependent, and short-lived edema response in WT mice, but not Ptafr -/- mice or mice deficient in c-Kit (c-KitW-sh/W-sh mice). Using an ear inflammation model, co-administration of topical CPAF treatment resulted in a paradoxical decrease in both acute ear thickness changes associated with a single PMA application, as well as the sustained inflammation associated with chronic repetitive PMA applications. Moreover, mice treated topically with CPAF also exhibited a significant reduction in chemical carcinogenesis. The ability of CPAF to suppress acute and chronic inflammatory changes in response to PMA application(s) was PAF-R dependent, as CPAF had no effect on basal or PMA-induced inflammation in Ptafr-/- mice. Moreover, c-Kit appears to be necessary for the anti-inflammatory effects of CPAF, as CPAF had no observable effect in c-KitW-sh/W-sh mice. These data provide additional evidence that PAF-R activation exerts complex immunomodulatory effects in a model of chronic inflammation that is relevant to neoplastic development.

  19. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of ME1111, a New Topical Agent for Onychomycosis, against Clinical Isolates of Dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Isham, N.; Long, L.

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of onychomycosis has improved considerably over the past several decades following the introduction of the oral antifungals terbinafine and itraconazole. However, these oral agents suffer from certain disadvantages, including drug interactions and potential liver toxicity. Thus, there is a need for new topical agents that are effective against onychomycosis. ME1111 is a novel selective inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) of dermatophyte species, whose small molecular weight enhances its ability to penetrate the nail plate. In this study, we determined the antifungal activity of ME1111 against dermatophyte strains, most of which are known to cause nail infections, as measured by the MIC (n = 400) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) (n = 300). Additionally, we examined the potential for resistance development in dermatophytes (n = 4) following repeated exposure to ME1111. Our data show that the MIC90 of ME1111 against dermatophyte strains was 0.25 μg/ml, which was equivalent to that of the comparators amorolfine and ciclopirox (0.25 and 0.5 μg/ml, respectively). ME1111 was fungicidal at clinically achievable concentrations against dermatophytes, and its MFC90s against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were 8 μg/ml, comparable to those of ciclopirox. Furthermore, ME1111, as well as ciclopirox, did not induce resistance in 4 dermatophytes tested. Our studies show that ME1111 possesses potent antifungal activity and suggest that it has low potential for the development of resistance in dermatophytes. PMID:26055386

  20. Luliconazole Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Luliconazole comes as a cream to apply to the skin. To treat jock itch and ringworm, luliconazole is usually applied once a day for 1 ... than prescribed by your doctor.To use the cream, apply enough cream to cover the affected area ...

  1. Multiple microbial activity-based measures reflect effects of cover cropping and tillage on soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural producers, conservation professionals, and policy makers are eager to learn of soil analytical techniques and data that document improvement in soil health by agricultural practices such as no-till and incorporation of cover crops. However, there is considerable uncertainty within the r...

  2. Cover crop effects on soil microbial communities and enzyme activity in semiarid agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare a fallow-winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation to several cover crop-winter wheat rotations under dryland and irrigated conditions in the semiarid US High Plains. We carried out a study that included two sites (Sidney, NE, and Akron, CO), and three s...

  3. 77 FR 29663 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; User Fee Cover...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Doc No: 2012-12038] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No... Fee Cover Sheet; Form FDA 3397 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing an opportunity for public comment on the...

  4. A Cutinase from Trichoderma reesei with a lid-covered active site and kinetic properties of true lipases.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Alain; Amara, Sawsan; Nyyssölä, Antti; Mateos-Diaz, Eduardo; Blangy, Stéphanie; Kontkanen, Hanna; Westerholm-Parvinen, Ann; Carrière, Frédéric; Cambillau, Christian

    2014-11-11

    Cutinases belong to the α/β-hydrolase fold family of enzymes and degrade cutin and various esters, including triglycerides, phospholipids and galactolipids. Cutinases are able to degrade aggregated and soluble substrates because, in contrast with true lipases, they do not have a lid covering their catalytic machinery. We report here the structure of a cutinase from the fungus Trichoderma reesei (Tr) in native and inhibitor-bound conformations, along with its enzymatic characterization. A rare characteristic of Tr cutinase is its optimal activity at acidic pH. Furthermore, Tr cutinase, in contrast with classical cutinases, possesses a lid covering its active site and requires the presence of detergents for activity. In addition to the presence of the lid, the core of the Tr enzyme is very similar to other cutinase cores, with a central five-stranded β-sheet covered by helices on either side. The catalytic residues form a catalytic triad involving Ser164, His229 and Asp216 that is covered by the two N-terminal helices, which form the lid. This lid opens in the presence of surfactants, such as β-octylglucoside, and uncovers the catalytic crevice, allowing a C11Y4 phosphonate inhibitor to bind to the catalytic serine. Taken together, these results reveal Tr cutinase to be a member of a new group of lipolytic enzymes resembling cutinases but with kinetic and structural features of true lipases and a heightened specificity for long-chain triglycerides.

  5. Estimating Cloud Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this activity was to help students understand the percentage of cloud cover and make more accurate cloud cover observations. Students estimated the percentage of cloud cover represented by simulated clouds and assigned a cloud cover classification to those simulations. (Contains 2 notes and 3 tables.)

  6. Topical Application of PPADS Inhibits Complement Activation and Choroidal Neovascularization in a Model of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Birke, Kerstin; Lipo, Erion; Birke, Marco T.; Kumar-Singh, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness among the elderly. AMD patients have elevated levels of membrane attack complex (MAC) in their choroidal blood vessels and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). MAC forms pores in cell membranes. Low levels of MAC result in an elevation of cytokine release such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that promotes the formation of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). High levels of MAC result in cell lysis and RPE degeneration is a hallmark of advanced AMD. The current standard of care for CNV associated with wet AMD is intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF molecules every 4 to 12 weeks. Such injections have significant side effects. Recently, it has been found that membrane pore-forming proteins such as α-haemolysin can mediate their toxic effects through auto- and paracrine signaling and that complement-induced lysis is amplified through ATP release followed by P2X receptor activation. We hypothesized that attenuation of P2X receptor activation may lead to a reduction in MAC deposition and consequent formation of CNV. Hence, in this study we investigated topical application of the purinergic P2X antagonist Pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS) as a potential treatment for AMD. We found that 4.17 µM PPADS inhibited formation of HUVEC master junctions and master segments by 74.7%. In a human complement mediated cell lysis assay, 104 µM PPADS enabled almost complete protection of Hepa1c1c7 cells from 1% normal human serum mediated cell lysis. Daily topical application of 4.17 mM PPADS for 3 days attenuated the progression of laser induced CNV in mice by 41.8% and attenuated the deposition of MAC at the site of the laser injury by 19.7%. Our data have implications for the future treatment of AMD and potentially other ocular disorders involving CNV such as angioid streaks, choroidal rupture and high myopia. PMID:24130789

  7. Systemic exposure of topical erythromycin in comparison to oral administration and the effect on cytochrome P450 3A4 activity

    PubMed Central

    Carls, Alexandra; Jedamzik, Julia; Witt, Lukas; Hohmann, Nicolas; Burhenne, Juergen; Mikus, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Aims Erythromycin is a macrolide antibiotic, which is frequently used as a topical formulation for the treatment of acne. It is also known as an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzyme 3A4. In this study, the systemic availability of topical erythromycin, hence the influence on the activity of CYP3A, is evaluated in comparison to orally administered erythromycin. Methods Sixteen healthy volunteers received consecutively topical (two applications of 800 mg) and oral erythromycin (two dose groups, 250 and 1000 mg, with n = 8) to assess erythromycin pharmacokinetics. A microdose of midazolam (3 μg orally) was used to determine the effect on CYP3A activity. Results After topical administration, erythromycin was detected in the plasma of every participant without causing a statistically significant alteration of CYP3A activity. After oral administration, the dose-normalized erythromycin exposure (AUC∞) was 1335 h ng ml−1 after 250 mg and 3-fold higher after the 1000 mg dose (4051 h ng ml−1; P < 0.01), suggesting nonlinear pharmacokinetics of erythromycin. Both oral doses inhibited CYP3A activity; midazolam clearance was decreased to 61% (250 mg) and 21% (1000 mg). The relationship between erythromycin exposure and CYP3A activity (Hill equation) revealed a 50% reduction of CYP3A activity by an erythromycin AUC∞ of 2106 h ng ml−1. Conclusions Topical erythromycin did not cause clinically relevant CYP3A alterations, although low systemic availability of erythromycin was observed. This supports the assumption that treatment with topical erythromycin is not critical in terms of CYP3A inhibition. Furthermore, substantial nonlinearity of erythromycin pharmacokinetics after two different oral doses was observed, possibly due to autoinhibition. PMID:25139487

  8. Topical Enzyme-Replacement Therapy Restores Transglutaminase 1 Activity and Corrects Architecture of Transglutaminase-1-Deficient Skin Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Aufenvenne, Karin; Larcher, Fernando; Hausser, Ingrid; Duarte, Blanca; Oji, Vinzenz; Nikolenko, Heike; Del Rio, Marcela; Dathe, Margitta; Traupe, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    Transglutaminase-1 (TG1)-deficient autosomal-recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a rare and severe genetic skin disease caused by mutations in TGM1. It is characterized by collodion babies at birth, dramatically increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and lifelong pronounced scaling. The disease has a tremendous burden, including the problem of stigmatization. Currently, no therapy targeting the molecular cause is available, and the therapeutic situation is deplorable. In this study, we developed the basis for a causative therapy aiming at the delivery of the enzyme to the inner site of the keratinocytes’ plasma membrane. We prepared sterically stabilized liposomes with encapsulated recombinant human TG1 (rhTG1) and equipped with a highly cationic lipopeptide vector to mediate cellular uptake. The liposomes overcame the problems of insufficient cutaneous delivery and membrane penetration and provided excellent availability and activity of rhTG1 in primary keratinocytes. To demonstrate the general feasibility of this therapeutic approach in a humanized context, we used a skin-humanized mouse model. Treatment with rhTG1 liposomes resulted in considerable improvement of the ichthyosis phenotype and in normalization of the regenerated ARCI skin: in situ monitoring showed a restoration of TG1 activity, and cholesterol clefts vanished ultrastructurally. Measurement of TEWL revealed a restoration of epidermal barrier function. We regard this aspect as a major advance over available nonspecific approaches making use of, for example, retinoid creams. We conclude that this topical approach is a promising strategy for restoring epidermal integrity and barrier function and provides a causal cure for individuals with TG1 deficiency. PMID:24055110

  9. Friction-induced surface activity of some hydrocarbons with clean and oxide-covered iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    Sliding friction studies were conducted on a clean and oxide-covered iron surface with exposure of that surface to various hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbons included ethane, ethylene ethyl chloride, methyl chloride, and vinyl chloride. Auger cylindrical mirror analysis was used to follow interactions of the hydrocarbon with the iron surface. Results with vinyl chloride indicate friction induced surface reactivity, adsorption to surface oxides, friction sensitivity to concentration and polymerization. Variation in the loads employed influence adsorption and accordingly friction. In contrast with ethyl and vinyl chloride, friction induced surface reactivity was not observed with ethane and ethylene.

  10. Effect of topical cis-urocanic acid on local lymph node activation during contact sensitization in mouse, rat and guinea-pig.

    PubMed

    Lauerma, A I; Homey, B; Vohr, H W; Lee, C H; Bloom, E; Maibach, H I

    1996-05-01

    Cis-urocanic acid (cUCA) has been suggested as a mediator of impairment of contact hypersensitivity induction by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. We ascertained whether topical cUCA influences local lymph node activation during induction of contact hypersensitivity. Topical cUCA or vehicle was applied during the local lymph node assay to oxazolone. Local lymph node weight and cell number were assessed in all animals. Additionally, cell proliferation rate was studied in Hartley guinea-pigs and CBA/Ca mice, whereas activation of antigen-presenting cells was quantified in NMRI mice and Wistar rats. Topical cUCA suppressed all parameters of local lymph node activation due to oxazolone application in guinea-pigs. No effect, with the exception of a suppression of antigen-presenting cell activity, was seen in mice. No effect was seen in rats. The study shows that topical cUCA may suppress local lymph node activation during contact sensitization and suggests that differences between the effect of cUCA in different animal species may exist.

  11. Teacher Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Includes articles and classroom activities about chemicals in the body entitled: "Your Body's Chemical Factory,""Testing for Catalase Activity,""How Sweet It IS...,""Milking Calcium for All It's Worth," and "Testing for Starch in Plant Products." (MKR)

  12. 50 CFR 18.121 - What specified activities does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Mammals Incidental to Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, and Production Activities in the Beaufort Sea... polar bears and Pacific walruses by you (U.S. citizens as defined in § 18.27(c)) while engaged in oil and gas exploration, development, and production activities in the Beaufort Sea and adjacent...

  13. Platelet activating factor, lyso-platelet activating factor and arachidonic acid release in normal human skin and the influence of topical steroid treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, R M; Lawlor, F; Judge, M R; Courtney, P; Barlow, R; Kobza Black, A; Mallet, A I; Greaves, M W

    1993-01-01

    1. Previous, in vitro, studies have established the synthesis of platelet activating factor (PAF) by the 're-modelling' pathways in which the activation of a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme catalyses the hydrolysis of an ether-acyl-phosphocholine to give concomitant release of lyso-PAF, the immediate precursor of PAF, and arachidonic acid, the precursor of the icosanoids. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between PAF and eicosanoid release in human skin, and to study the effect of treatment of skin with a topical steroid, on the release of PAF, lyso-PAF and arachidonic acid. 2. A novel assay procedure was developed for the simultaneous assay of PAF and lyso-PAF in skin exudates from abrasions and suction blisters in normal human skin. In addition we assayed arachidonic acid and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a representative eicosanoid. 3. The mean amounts of mediator recovered in the first 30 min period following abrasion were PAF 0.43, lyso-PAF 11.9, PGE2 25.7 and arachidonic acid 760 pmol/sample. The molar ratio of PAF:lyso-PAF:arachidonic acid in skin exudates from abrasions was 1:30:1800 and in suction blister exudates was 1:90:3660. 4. Time course studies showed a decline in the recoveries of arachidonic acid and lyso-PAF, of about 50% in 2 h. In contrast, PAF was recovered in exudates at a constant rate over 2 h but PGE2 release decreased by more than 90% after the initial 30 min period. 5. Topical application under occlusion, of 0.05% clobetasol propionate, a potent corticosteroid, significantly reduced lyso-PAF by 30% in suction blister exudates but did not significantly alter the concentrations of PAF or arachidonic acid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8329291

  14. 50 CFR 18.111 - What specified activities does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Walruses and Polar Bears Incidental to Oil and Gas Exploration Activities in the Chukchi Sea and Adjacent... polar bears by you (U.S. citizens as defined in § 18.27(c)) while engaged in oil and gas...

  15. 50 CFR 18.111 - What specified activities does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Walruses and Polar Bears Incidental to Oil and Gas Exploration Activities in the Chukchi Sea and Adjacent... polar bears by you (U.S. citizens as defined in § 18.27(c)) while engaged in oil and gas...

  16. 50 CFR 18.111 - What specified activities does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Walruses and Polar Bears Incidental to Oil and Gas Exploration Activities in the Chukchi Sea and Adjacent... polar bears by you (U.S. citizens as defined in § 18.27(c)) while engaged in oil and gas...

  17. 50 CFR 18.111 - What specified activities does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Walruses and Polar Bears Incidental to Oil and Gas Exploration Activities in the Chukchi Sea and Adjacent... polar bears by you (U.S. citizens as defined in § 18.27(c)) while engaged in oil and gas...

  18. 32 CFR 143.6 - Activity not covered by this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... does not limit the right of any member of the Armed Forces to: (1) Join or maintain membership in any... from joining or being a member of an organization that engages in representational activities...

  19. Enzymatic activity of a mine soil varies according to vegetation cover and level of compost applied.

    PubMed

    de Varennes, Amerilis; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Qu, Guiwei; Cunha-Queda, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    We applied three doses of compost from mixed municipal solid waste (0, 15, and 30 g kg(-1) of soil) to a soil developed on pyrite mine wastes. Part of the soil was planted with young Erica australis L. collected at the mine; part was fertilized with N-P-K-Mg and sown with Dactylis glomerata L .Bare soil without mineral fertilization was included in the experiment, as well. Compost application to bare soil increased pH, provided plant nutrients, and enhanced the activity of the six soil enzymes tested. Growth of D. glomerata, and E. australis was stimulated in compost-amended soil compared with unamended controls. The presence of D. glomerata led to the greatest activities of soil acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, and cellulase compared with bare soil or with soil with E. australis. The presence of E. australis increased the activities of protease and cellulase in amended soil, compared with control, but it impaired dehydrogenase, fl-glucosidase, and acid phosphatase activities. These negative impacts probably derived from phenolic compounds known to be released from roots of this species. The survival strategy of this species seems to include a small need for P in the shoots, and the release of exudates that impair microbial activity and P cycling.

  20. Formulation of cidofovir improves the anti-papillomaviral activity of topical treatments in the CRPV/rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Neil D.; Cladel, Nancy M.; Hu, Jiafen; Balogh, Karla K.

    2014-01-01

    Current topical treatments for papillomas use ablative, cytotoxic and immunomodulating strategies and reagents. However, the effectiveness of topical treatments using different formulations has not been examined in preclinical models or clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to determine whether formulation of the small molecule acyclic nucleoside, cidofovir (CDV), could lead to improved therapeutic endpoints following topical treatment of papillomas using the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV)/rabbit model. Different formulations with a set dose of 1% cidofovir were tested to establish comparative data. The results demonstrated that anti-papilloma treatments with topical CDV were greatly enhanced when formulated versus unformulated. Best results were obtained with CDV formulated in cremophor, then in carbomer 940, and then in DMSO. Further studies indicated that effective formulations led to complete cures of papillomas at dilutions less than 0.3% CDV. These studies together with previous observations demonstrated that unformulated CDV under the same treatment regime required doses of 2% to achieve cures demonstrating that much less compound can be used when properly formulated. PMID:24946003

  1. Lactate Effectively Covers Energy Demands during Neuronal Network Activity in Neonatal Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Anton; Mukhtarov, Marat; Bregestovski, Piotr; Zilberter, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous experimental data indicate that lactate is efficiently used for energy by the mature brain, the direct measurements of energy metabolism parameters during neuronal network activity in early postnatal development have not been performed. Therefore, the role of lactate in the energy metabolism of neurons at this age remains unclear. In this study, we monitored field potentials and contents of oxygen and NAD(P)H in correlation with oxidative metabolism during intense network activity in the CA1 hippocampal region of neonatal brain slices. We show that in the presence of glucose, lactate is effectively utilized as an energy substrate, causing an augmentation of oxidative metabolism. Moreover, in the absence of glucose lactate is fully capable of maintaining synaptic function. Therefore, during network activity in neonatal slices, lactate can be an efficient energy substrate capable of sustaining and enhancing aerobic energy metabolism. PMID:21602909

  2. Activity concentration of natural radionuclides and radon and thoron exhalation rates in rocks used as decorative wall coverings in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Hosoda, Masahiro; Tabe, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, many dwellings have decorative wall coverings made from granite, andesite, tuff, gabbro, and marble. However, information regarding activity concentrations and radon (Rn) and thoron (Rn) exhalation rates for such rocks is very scarce. Therefore, samples of the granite, andesite, tuff, and marble that are used as wall coverings in Japan were collected from mining companies, and their activity concentrations and Rn and Rn exhalation rates were measured. Dose estimations for inhabitants living in houses built with these materials were also carried out. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in all the materials was lower than the critical values described by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (10,000 Bq kg for K and 1,000 Bq kg for all other radionuclides of natural origin). The maximum values of Rn and Rn mass exhalation rates for the granite samples were 0.12 and 430 mBq kg s, and those for the area exhalation rates were 1.8 and 6300 mBq m s, respectively; these values are higher than those for other samples. The maximum value of effective doses to inhabitants was 0.68 mSv y, which is lower than the intervention exemption level (1 mSv y) given in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 82.

  3. From the Cover: Context sensitivity of activity-dependent increases in cerebral blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caesar, Kirsten; Gold, Lorenz; Lauritzen, Martin

    2003-04-01

    Functional neuroimaging in humans is used widely to study brain function in relation to human disease and cognition. The neural basis of neuroimaging signals is probably synaptic activity, but the effect of context, defined as the interaction between synaptic inhibition, excitation, and the electroresponsive properties of the targeted neurons, is not well understood. We examined here the effect of interaction of synaptic excitation and net inhibition on the relationship between electrical activity and vascular signals in the cerebellar cortex. We show that stimulation of the net inhibitory parallel fibers simultaneously with stimulation of the excitatory climbing fibers leads to a further rise in total local field potentials (LFP) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) amplitudes, not a decrease, as predicted from theoretical studies. However, the combined stimulation of the parallel and climbing fiber systems produced changes in CBF and LFP that were smaller than their algebraic sum evoked by separate stimulation of either system. This finding was independent of the starting condition, i.e., whether inhibition was superimposed on a state of excitation or vice versa. The attenuation of the increases in LFP and CBF amplitudes was similar, suggesting that synaptic activity and CBF were coupled under these conditions. The result might be explained by a relative neuronal refractoriness that relates to the intrinsic membrane properties of Purkinje cells, which determine the recovery time of these cells. Our work implies that neuronal and vascular signals are context-sensitive and that their amplitudes are modulated by the electroresponsive properties of the targeted neurons.

  4. Discrete element modeling of the faulting in the sedimentary cover above an active salt diapir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hongwei; Zhang, Jie; Meng, Lingsen; Liu, Yuping; Xu, Shijing

    2009-09-01

    Geological mapping, seismic analyses, and analogue experiments show that active salt diapirism results in significant faulting in the overburden strata. Faults associated with active diapirism generally develop over the crest of the dome and form a radial pattern. In this study, we have created a 3-D discrete element model and used this model to investigate the fault system over active diapirs. The model reproduces some common features observed in physical experiments and natural examples. The discrete element results show that most faults initiate near the model surface and have displacement decreasing downward. In addition, model results indicate that the earliest fault, working as the master fault, has a strong influence on the subsequent fault pattern. The footwall of the master fault is mainly deformed by arc-parallel stretching and develops a subradial fault pattern, whereas the hanging wall is deformed by both arc-parallel stretching and gliding along the master fault and top of salt, and hence develops both parallel and oblique faults. Model results replicate the fault pattern and deformation mechanism of the Reitbrook dome, Germany.

  5. Effectiveness of Topical Nigella sativa Seed Oil in the Treatment of Cyclic Mastalgia: A Randomized, Triple-Blind, Active, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Huseini, Hasan Fallah; Kianbakht, Saeed; Mirshamsi, Mohammad Hossein; Zarch, Ali Babaei

    2016-03-01

    Cyclic mastalgia is common in women and has no optimal therapy. Analgesic effects of Nigella sativa have been reported. Thus, the effect of a standardized N. sativa seed oil (600 mg applied to the site of pain bis in die for 2 months) on the 10-centimeter visual analog scale scores of pain severity in 52 women with cyclic mastalgia was compared to that of topical diclofenac (20 mg bis in die) (n = 51) and placebo (n = 53). There was no significant difference between the 1- and 2-month pain scores in the active treatment groups (p > 0.05). The pain scores of the active treatment groups did not differ significantly at 1 and 2 months (p > 0.05). The endpoint pain scores of the active treatment groups decreased significantly compared with the baseline (both p < 0.001). The pain scores of the active treatment groups at 1 and 2 months were significantly smaller than those of the placebo group (both p < 0.001). The pain scores of the placebo group at 1 and 2 months were not significantly different from the baseline (p > 0.05). No adverse effect was observed. In conclusion, topical N. sativa seed oil is safe, more effective than placebo, and has clinical effectiveness comparable to topical diclofenac in the treatment of cyclic mastalgia.

  6. Topical Antimicrobials for Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Hashmi, Javad T.; Kurup, Divya B.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout most of history, serious burns occupying a large percentage of body surface area were an almost certain death sentence because of subsequent infection. A number of factors such as disruption of the skin barrier, ready availability of bacterial nutrients in the burn milieu, destruction of the vascular supply to the burned skin, and systemic disturbances lead to immunosuppression combined together to make burns particularly susceptible to infection. In the 20th century the introduction of antibiotic and antifungal drugs, the use of topical antimicrobials that could be applied to burns, and widespread adoption of early excision and grafting all helped to dramatically increase survival. However the relentless increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials has led to a renewed search for alternative approaches to prevent and combat burn infections. This review will cover patented strategies that have been issued or filed with regard to new topical agents, preparations, and methods of combating burn infections. Animal models that are used in preclinical studies are discussed. Various silver preparations (nanocrystalline and slow release) are the mainstay of many approaches but antimicrobial peptides, topical photodynamic therapy, chitosan preparations, new iodine delivery formulations, phage therapy and natural products such as honey and essential oils have all been tested. This active area of research will continue to provide new topical antimicrobials for burns that will battle against growing multi-drug resistance. PMID:20429870

  7. Topical delivery of hexamidine.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Nicola; Paz-Alvarez, Miguel; Matts, Paul J; Lever, Rebecca; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E

    2016-06-15

    Hexamidine diisethionate (HEX D) has been used for its biocidal actions in topical preparations since the 1950s. Recent data also suggest that it plays a beneficial role in skin homeostasis. To date, the extent to which this compound penetrates the epidermis has not been reported nor how its topical delivery may be modulated. In the present work we set out to characterise the interaction of HEX D with the skin and to develop a range of simple formulations for topical targeting of the active. A further objective was to compare the skin penetration of HEX D with its corresponding dihydrochloride salt (HEX H) as the latter has more favourable physicochemical properties for skin uptake. Candidate vehicles were evaluated by in vitro Franz cell permeation studies using porcine skin. Initially, neat solvents were investigated and subsequently binary systems were examined. The solvents and chemical penetration enhancers investigated included glycerol, dimethyl isosorbide (DMI), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), 1,2-pentanol (1,2-PENT), polyethylene glycol (PEG) 200, propylene glycol (PG), propylene glycol monolaurate (PGML) and Transcutol(®)P (TC). Of a total of 30 binary solvent systems evaluated only 10 delivered higher amounts of active into the skin compared with the neat solvents. In terms of topical efficacy, formulations containing PGML far surpassed all other solvents or binary combinations. More than 70% of HEX H was extracted from the skin following application in PG:PGML (50:50). Interestingly, the same vehicle effectively promoted skin penetration of HEX D but demonstrated significantly lower uptake into and through the skin (30%). The findings confirm the unpredictable nature of excipients on delivery of actives with reference to skin even where there are minor differences in molecular structures. We also believe that they underline the ongoing necessity for fundamental studies on the interaction of topical excipients with the skin.

  8. Conformational transition of the lid helix covering the protease active site is essential for the ATP-dependent protease activity of FtsH.

    PubMed

    Suno, Ryoji; Shimoyama, Masakazu; Abe, Akiko; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Shimodate, Natsuka; Watanabe, Yo-hei; Akiyama, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Masasuke

    2012-09-21

    When bound to ADP, ATP-dependent protease FtsH subunits adopt either an "open" or "closed" conformation. In the open state, the protease catalytic site is located in a narrow space covered by a lidlike helix. This space disappears in the closed form because the lid helix bends at Gly448. Here, we replaced Gly448 with various residues that stabilize helices. Most mutants retained low ATPase activity and bound to the substrate protein, but lost protease activity. However, a mutant proline substitution lost both activities. Our study shows that the conformational transition of the lid helix is essential for the function of FtsH.

  9. Field-scale tracking of active methane-oxidizing communities in a landfill cover soil reveals spatial and seasonal variability.

    PubMed

    Henneberger, Ruth; Chiri, Eleonora; Bodelier, Paul E L; Frenzel, Peter; Lüke, Claudia; Schroth, Martin H

    2015-05-01

    Aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in soils mitigate methane (CH4 ) emissions. We assessed spatial and seasonal differences in active MOB communities in a landfill cover soil characterized by highly variable environmental conditions. Field-based measurements of CH4 oxidation activity and stable-isotope probing of polar lipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA-SIP) were complemented by microarray analysis of pmoA genes and transcripts, linking diversity and function at the field scale. In situ CH4 oxidation rates varied between sites and were generally one order of magnitude lower in winter compared with summer. Results from PLFA-SIP and pmoA transcripts were largely congruent, revealing distinct spatial and seasonal clustering. Overall, active MOB communities were highly diverse. Type Ia MOB, specifically Methylomonas and Methylobacter, were key drivers for CH4 oxidation, particularly at a high-activity site. Type II MOB were mainly active at a site showing substantial fluctuations in CH4 loading and soil moisture content. Notably, Upland Soil Cluster-gamma-related pmoA transcripts were also detected, indicating concurrent oxidation of atmospheric CH4 . Spatial separation was less distinct in winter, with Methylobacter and uncultured MOB mediating CH4 oxidation. We propose that high diversity of active MOB communities in this soil is promoted by high variability in environmental conditions, facilitating substantial removal of CH4 generated in the waste body.

  10. From The Cover: Poly- amino ester-containing microparticles enhance the activity of nonviral genetic vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Steven R.; Lynn, David M.; Ge, Qing; Anderson, Daniel G.; Puram, Sidharth V.; Chen, Jianzhu; Eisen, Herman N.; Langer, Robert

    2004-06-01

    Current nonviral genetic vaccine systems are less effective than viral vaccines, particularly in cancer systems where epitopes can be weakly immunogenic and antigen-presenting cell processing and presentation to T cells is down-regulated. A promising nonviral delivery method for genetic vaccines involves microencapsulation of antigen-encoding DNA, because such particles protect plasmid payloads and target them to phagocytic antigen-presenting cells. However, conventional microparticle formulations composed of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid take too long to release encapsulated payload and fail to induce high levels of target gene expression. Here, we describe a microparticle-based DNA delivery system composed of a degradable, pH-sensitive poly- amino ester and poly lactic-co-glycolic acid. These formulations generate an increase of 3-5 orders of magnitude in transfection efficiency and are potent activators of dendritic cells in vitro. When used as vaccines in vivo, these microparticle formulations, unlike conventional formulations, induce antigen-specific rejection of transplanted syngenic tumor cells.

  11. Efficacy Coefficients Determined Using Nail Permeability and Antifungal Activity in Keratin-Containing Media Are Useful for Predicting Clinical Efficacies of Topical Drugs for Onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yoshiki; Sugiura, Keita; Hashimoto, Takashi; Ueda, Akane; Konno, Yoshihiro; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Onychomycosis is difficult to treat topically due to the deep location of the infection under the densely keratinized nail plate. In order to obtain an in vitro index that is relevant to the clinical efficacy of topical anti-onychomycosis drugs, we profiled five topical drugs: amorolfine, ciclopirox, efinaconazole, luliconazole, and terbinafine, for their nail permeabilities, keratin affinities, and anti-dermatophytic activities in the presence of keratin. Efinaconazole and ciclopirox permeated full-thickness human nails more deeply than luliconazole. Amorolfine and terbinafine did not show any detectable permeation. The free-drug concentration of efinaconazole in a 5% human nail keratin suspension was 24.9%, which was significantly higher than those of the other drugs (1.1-3.9%). Additionally, efinaconazole was released from human nail keratin at a greater proportion than the other drugs. The MICs of the five drugs for Trichophyton rubrum were determined at various concentrations of keratin (0-20%) in RPMI 1640 medium. The MICs of ciclopirox were not affected by keratin, whereas those of efinaconazole were slightly increased and those of luliconazole and terbinafine were markedly increased in the presence of 20% keratin. Efficacy coefficients were calculated using the nail permeation flux and MIC in media without or with keratin. Efinaconazole showed the highest efficacy coefficient, which was determined using MIC in media with keratin. The order of efficacy coefficients determined using MIC in keratin-containing media rather than keratin-free media was consistent with that of complete cure rates in previously reported clinical trials. The present study revealed that efficacy coefficients determined using MIC in keratin-containing media are useful for predicting the clinical efficacies of topical drugs. In order to be more effective, topical drugs have to possess higher efficacy coefficients.

  12. Efficacy Coefficients Determined Using Nail Permeability and Antifungal Activity in Keratin-Containing Media Are Useful for Predicting Clinical Efficacies of Topical Drugs for Onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Onychomycosis is difficult to treat topically due to the deep location of the infection under the densely keratinized nail plate. In order to obtain an in vitro index that is relevant to the clinical efficacy of topical anti-onychomycosis drugs, we profiled five topical drugs: amorolfine, ciclopirox, efinaconazole, luliconazole, and terbinafine, for their nail permeabilities, keratin affinities, and anti-dermatophytic activities in the presence of keratin. Efinaconazole and ciclopirox permeated full-thickness human nails more deeply than luliconazole. Amorolfine and terbinafine did not show any detectable permeation. The free-drug concentration of efinaconazole in a 5% human nail keratin suspension was 24.9%, which was significantly higher than those of the other drugs (1.1–3.9%). Additionally, efinaconazole was released from human nail keratin at a greater proportion than the other drugs. The MICs of the five drugs for Trichophyton rubrum were determined at various concentrations of keratin (0–20%) in RPMI 1640 medium. The MICs of ciclopirox were not affected by keratin, whereas those of efinaconazole were slightly increased and those of luliconazole and terbinafine were markedly increased in the presence of 20% keratin. Efficacy coefficients were calculated using the nail permeation flux and MIC in media without or with keratin. Efinaconazole showed the highest efficacy coefficient, which was determined using MIC in media with keratin. The order of efficacy coefficients determined using MIC in keratin-containing media rather than keratin-free media was consistent with that of complete cure rates in previously reported clinical trials. The present study revealed that efficacy coefficients determined using MIC in keratin-containing media are useful for predicting the clinical efficacies of topical drugs. In order to be more effective, topical drugs have to possess higher efficacy coefficients. PMID:27441843

  13. Concluding remarks: Emerging topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perret-Gallix, D.

    2006-04-01

    In summing up this workshop, we would like to open a broad discussion on additional emerging topics that may contribute to shape the future of physics research computing activities. To initiate this global discussion let me address in this short contribution some of these issues: distributed public computing, social or collaborative software, web computing, high precision numerical computation, common development platforms and languages issues. We welcome contributions to this discussion on the ACAT Twiki web site.

  14. Covering Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Ted; Krajicek, David; Hackney, Suzette; Moore, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    Presents four brief articles on covering crime. Notes that reporting on crimes requires special skills for student reporters, editors, and photographers. Explains how to gain access to scenes, to develop journalistic ethics, and how to cover crime and its victims. Discusses the relation of race and ethnic issues to crime, and how visual…

  15. Active thermography and post-processing image enhancement for recovering of abraded and paint-covered alphanumeric identification marks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanini, R.; Quattrocchi, A.; Piccolo, S. A.

    2016-09-01

    Alphanumeric marking is a common technique employed in industrial applications for identification of products. However, the realised mark can undergo deterioration, either by extensive use or voluntary deletion (e.g. removal of identification numbers of weapons or vehicles). For recovery of the lost data many destructive or non-destructive techniques have been endeavoured so far, which however present several restrictions. In this paper, active infrared thermography has been exploited for the first time in order to assess its effectiveness in restoring paint covered and abraded labels made by means of different manufacturing processes (laser, dot peen, impact, cold press and scribe). Optical excitation of the target surface has been achieved using pulse (PT), lock-in (LT) and step heating (SHT) thermography. Raw infrared images were analysed with a dedicated image processing software originally developed in Matlab™, exploiting several methods, which include thermographic signal reconstruction (TSR), guided filtering (GF), block guided filtering (BGF) and logarithmic transformation (LN). Proper image processing of the raw infrared images resulted in superior contrast and enhanced readability. In particular, for deeply abraded marks, good outcomes have been obtained by application of logarithmic transformation to raw PT images and block guided filtering to raw phase LT images. With PT and LT it was relatively easy to recover labels covered by paint, with the latter one providing better thermal contrast for all the examined targets. Step heating thermography never led to adequate label identification instead.

  16. Section 608 Technician Certification Test Topics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Identifies some of the topics covered on Section 608 Technician Certification tests such as ozone depletion, the Clean Air Act and Montreal Protocol, Substitute Refrigerants and oils, Refrigeration and Recovery Techniques.

  17. Topical Niosome Gel of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Extract for Anti-inflammatory Activity Enhanced Skin Permeation and Stability of Compound D.

    PubMed

    Priprem, Aroonsri; Janpim, Khwanhatai; Nualkaew, Somsak; Mahakunakorn, Pramote

    2016-06-01

    An extract of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. (ZC) was encapsulated in niosomes of which a topical gel was formed. (E)-4-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)but-3-en-1-ol or compound D detected by a gradient HPLC was employed as the marker and its degradation determined to follow zero-order kinetics. Niosomes significantly retarded thermal-accelerated decomposition of compound D in the gel (p < 0.05) but did not change the activation energy of compound D. Niosomes enhanced in vitro permeation rate of compound D from the gel. Topical applications of ZC noisome gel gave a faster change in tail flick latency than piroxicam gel and hydrocortisone cream (p < 0.05) while there were insignificant differences in anti-inflammatory activity up to 6 h using croton oil-induced ear edema model in mice (p > 0.05). Thus, encapsulation of ZC extract in niosomes enhanced chemical stability and skin permeation with comparable topical anti-inflammatory effects to steroid and NSAID.

  18. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Population synthesis in astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, S. B.; Prokhorov, M. E.

    2007-11-01

    Population synthesis is a method for numerical simulation of the population of objects with a complex evolution. This method is widely used in astrophysics. We consider its main applications to studying astronomical objects. Examples of modeling evolution are given for populations of close binaries and isolated neutron stars. The application of the method to studying active galactic nuclei and the integral spectral characteristics of galaxies is briefly discussed. An extensive bibliography on all the topics covered is provided.

  19. Microbial Phototrophic, Heterotrophic, and Diazotrophic Activities Associated with Aggregates in the Permanent Ice Cover of Lake Bonney, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Paerl; Priscu

    1998-11-01

    Abstract The McMurdo Dry Valley lakes, Antarctica, one of the Earth's southernmost ecosystems containing liquid water, harbor some of the most environmentally extreme (cold, nutrient-deprived) conditions on the planet. Lake Bonney has a permanent ice cover that supports a unique microbial habitat, provided by soil particles blown onto the lake surface from the surrounding, ice-free valley floor. During continuous sunlight summers (Nov.-Feb.), the dark soil particles are heated by solar radiation and melt their way into the ice matrix. Layers and patches of aggregates and liquid water are formed. Aggregates contain a complex cyanobacterial-bacterial community, concurrently conducting photosynthesis (CO2 fixation), nitrogen (N2) fixation, decomposition, and biogeochemical zonation needed to complete essential nutrient cycles. Aggregate-associated CO2- and N2-fixation rates were low and confined to liquid water (i.e., no detectable activities in the ice phase). CO2 fixation was mediated by cyanobacteria; both cyanobacteria and eubacteria appeared responsible for N2 fixation. CO2 fixation was stimulated primarily by nitrogen (NO3-), but also by phosphorus (PO43-). PO43- and iron (FeCl3 + EDTA) enrichment stimulated of N2 fixation. Microautoradiographic and physiological studies indicate a morphologically and metabolically diverse microbial community, exhibiting different cell-specific photosynthetic and heterotrophic activities. The microbial community is involved in physical (particle aggregation) and chemical (establishing redox gradients) modification of a nutrient- and organic matter-enriched microbial "oasis," embedded in the desertlike (i.e., nutrient depleted) lake ice cover. Aggregate-associated production and nutrient cycling represent microbial self-sustenance in a microenvironment supporting "life at the edge," as it is known on Earth.

  20. Mental mechanisms for topics identification.

    PubMed

    Massey, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Topics identification (TI) is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM). We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM) to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly.

  1. Antioxidant and antiradical activities in extracts of hazelnut kernel (Corylus avellana L.) and hazelnut green leafy cover.

    PubMed

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Karamać, Magdalena; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2006-06-28

    Phenolic compounds in the aqueous systems were extracted, from hazelnut kernel (HK) and hazelnut green leafy cover (HGLC), with 80% (v/v) ethanol (HKe and HGLCe) or 80% (v/v) acetone (HKa and HGLCa). The extracts were examined for their phenolic and condensed tannin contents and phenolic acid profiles (free and esterified fractions) as well as antioxidant and antiradical activities by total antioxidant activity (TAA), antioxidant activity in a beta-carotene-linoleate model system, scavenging of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical, and reducing power. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in the contents of total phenolics, condensed tannins, and TAA existed among the extracts that were examined. HGLCa extract had the highest content of total phenolics (201 mg of catechin equivalents/g of extract), condensed tannins (542 mg of catechin equivalents/g of extract), and TAA (1.29 mmol of Trolox equivalents/g of extract) followed by HGLCe, HKa, and HKe extracts, respectively. Five phenolic acids (gallic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acid) were tentatively identified and quantified, among which gallic acid was the most abundant in both free and esterified forms. The order of antioxidant activity in a beta-carotene-linoleate model system, the scavenging effect on DPPH radical, and the reducing power in all extracts were in the following order: HGLCa > HGLCe > HKa > HKe. These results suggest that both 80% ethanol and acetone are capable of extracting phenolics, but 80% acetone was a more effective solvent for the extraction process. HGLC exhibited stronger antioxidant and antiradical activities than HK itself in both extracts and could potentially be considered as an inexpensive source of natural antioxidants.

  2. Development and Application of a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Stability-Indicating Assay for Beyond-Use Date Determination of Compounded Topical Gels Containing Multiple Active Drugs.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Gregory; Sokom, Simara; Coward, Lori; Arnold, John J

    2017-01-01

    Topical gels compounded by pharmacists are important clinical tools for the management of pain. Nevertheless, there is often a dearth of information about the chemical stability of drugs included in these topical formulations, complicating the assignment of beyond-use dating. The purpose of this study was to develop a high-performance liquid chromatography photodiode array-based stability-indicating assay that could simultaneously resolve six drugs (amitriptyline, baclofen, clonidine, gabapentin, ketoprofen, lidocaine) commonly included in topical gels for pain management and their potential degradation products. Furthermore, this method was applied to the determination of beyond-use dating of combinations of these drugs prepared in commonly utilized bases (Lipobase, Lipoderm, Pluronic organogel). Gabapentin was determined to be the least stable component in all formulations tested. Measured stability ranged between 7 to 49 days depending on the base and other active drugs present in the formulation. In the absence of gabapentin, baclofen was the next least stable component, lasting for 120 days, regardless of the type of formulating base used.

  3. Extravehicular activity technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webbon, Bruce W.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on extravehicular activity technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: extravehicular mobility unit; airlock and EMU support equipment; tools, mobility aids, and workstations; and telerobotic work aids interfaces.

  4. Sky cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerth, Jordan J.

    Of all of the standard meteorological parameters collected and observed daily, sky cover is not only one of the most complex, but the one that is fairly ambiguously defined and difficult to quantify. Despite that, the implications of how cloud fraction and sky cover are understood not only impact daily weather forecasts, but also present challenges to assessing the state of the earth's climate system. Part of the reason for this is the lack of observational methods for verifying the skill of clouds represented and parameterized in numerical models. While human observers record sky cover as part of routine duties, the spatial coverage of such observations in the United States is relatively sparse. There is greater spatial coverage of automated observations, and essentially complete coverage from geostationary weather satellites that observe the Americas. A good analysis of sky cover reconciles differences between manual observations, automated observations, and satellite observations, through an algorithm that accounts for the strengths and weaknesses of each dataset. This work describes the decision structure for trusting and weighting these similar observations. Some of the issues addressed include: human and instrument error resulting from approximations and estimations, a deficiency in high cloud detectability using surface-based ceilometers, poorly resolved low cloud using infrared channels on space-based radiometers during overnight hours, and decreased confidence in satellite-detected cloud during stray light periods. Using the blended sky cover analysis as the best representation of cloudiness, it is possible to compare the analysis to numerical model fields in order to assess the performance of the model and the parameterizations therein, as well as confirm or uncover additional relationships between sky cover and pertinent fields using an optimization methodology. The optimizer minimizes an affine expression of adjusted fields to the "truth" sky cover

  5. Luminosity and redshift dependence of the covering factor of active galactic nuclei viewed with WISE and Sloan digital sky survey

    SciTech Connect

    Toba, Y.; Matsuhara, H.; Oyabu, S.; Malkan, M. A.; Gandhi, P.; Nakagawa, T.; Isobe, N.; Shirahata, M.; Oi, N.; Takita, S.; Yano, K.; Ohyama, Y.; Yamauchi, C.

    2014-06-10

    In this work, we investigate the dependence of the covering factor (CF) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on the mid-infrared (MIR) luminosity and the redshift. We constructed 12 and 22 μm luminosity functions (LFs) at 0.006 ≤z ≤ 0.3 using Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data. Combining the WISE catalog with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic data, we selected 223,982 galaxies at 12 μm and 25,721 galaxies at 22 μm for spectroscopic classification. We then identified 16,355 AGNs at 12 μm and 4683 AGNs at 22 μm by their optical emission lines and cataloged classifications in the SDSS. Following that, we estimated the CF as the fraction of Type 2 AGN in all AGNs whose MIR emissions are dominated by the active nucleus (not their host galaxies) based on their MIR colors. We found that the CF decreased with increasing MIR luminosity, regardless of the choice of Type 2 AGN classification criteria, and the CF did not change significantly with redshift for z ≤ 0.2. Furthermore, we carried out various tests to determine the influence of selection bias and confirmed that similar dependences exist, even when taking these uncertainties into account. The luminosity dependence of the CF can be explained by the receding torus model, but the 'modified' receding torus model gives a slightly better fit, as suggested by Simpson.

  6. Hot Topics/New Initiatives | Drinking Water in New England ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    Information on Drinking Water in New England. Major Topics covered include: Conservation, Private Wells, Preventing Contamination, Drinking Water Sources, Consumer Confidence Reports, and Drinking Water Awards.

  7. Hot topics from the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    The Tevatron Run-II began in March 2001. To date, both the CDF and D0 experiments have collected 1 fb{sup -1} of data each. The results obtained from this data set were summarized at this conference in 39 parallel session presentations covering a wide range of topics. The author summarizes the most important of those results here and comments on some of the prospects for the future.

  8. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    Sascha Wallentowitz), 2004 (Trieste, Italy, by Naseem Rahman and Sascha Wallentowitz), 2005 (Bilkent, Ankara, by Alexander Shumovsky), 2006 (Vienna, by Helmut Rauch), 2007 (Palermo, Italy, by Antonino Messina) and 2008 (Belgrade, by Mirjana Bozic). The CEWQO series developed in two directions following the rapid development of quantum optics and the transitional development of the scientific collaboration of Central European researchers with researchers from old and new emerging Central European countries, and from all over the world. The topics discussed at CEWQO 08 were divided into ten groups that aimed to cover the broad scope of modern quantum optics: Fundamental aspects of quantum optics and quantum mechanics Single photons and photon pairs Cavity and circuit QED Atoms in intense fields Neutron, atom and molecular quantum optics Quantum gases and fluids Coherence, entanglement and decoherence Optical properties of condensed matter and nanostructures Open quantum systems and chaos Quantum information processing Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics realize and are consistent with a wider idea, and a social, economical, cultural and political program promoted since 1989 by the Central European Initiative (CEI), the main goal of which was to help transition countries in Central Europe to become closer to the EU. The resulting support of the CEI, first obtained thanks to the scientific reputation, organizing activities, and efforts of Helmut Rauch, has been very important for the organization of the CEWQO in recent years, particularly in 2008. The support of the Sixth and Seventh Framework Programs of the European Commission was also very important. A short review of papers in this topical issue A principal role in this topical issue is played by the photon. Vuletic et al describe the mapping of the photon-polarization state onto a single collective-spin excitation (magnon) shared between two atomic ensembles. A heralded quantum memory based on this mapping is

  9. TopicPanorama: A Full Picture of Relevant Topics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiting; Liu, Shixia; Liu, Junlin; Chen, Jianfei; Zhu, Jun; Guo, Baining

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a visual analytics approach to analyzing a full picture of relevant topics discussed in multiple sources, such as news, blogs, or micro-blogs. The full picture consists of a number of common topics covered by multiple sources, as well as distinctive topics from each source. Our approach models each textual corpus as a topic graph. These graphs are then matched using a consistent graph matching method. Next, we develop a level-of-detail (LOD) visualization that balances both readability and stability. Accordingly, the resulting visualization enhances the ability of users to understand and analyze the matched graph from multiple perspectives. By incorporating metric learning and feature selection into the graph matching algorithm, we allow users to interactively modify the graph matching result based on their information needs. We have applied our approach to various types of data, including news articles, tweets, and blog data. Quantitative evaluation and real-world case studies demonstrate the promise of our approach, especially in support of examining a topic-graph-based full picture at different levels of detail.

  10. Cover Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are great tools to improve soil quality and health, and great tools to increase carbon sequestration. They are nutrient management tools that can help scavenge nitrate, cycle nitrogen to the following crop, mine NO3 from groundwater, and increase nitrogen use efficiency of cropping syste...

  11. Effects of active sunscreen ingredient combinations on the topical penetration of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Pont, Adam R; Charron, Anna R; Wilson, Roselyn M; Brand, Rhonda M

    2003-02-01

    Sunscreen use can reduce the incidence of certain skin cancers. However, a number of commercially available formulations have been shown to enhance the transdermal penetration of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Most of the active ingredients used in these compounds can individually act as penetration enhancers. Commercial sunscreens frequently contain multiple active ingredients in order to provide broad sunscreen protection. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine the effect of these active ingredient combinations on the transdermal absorption of 2,4-D in vitro. All six of the combinations tested resulted in increased cumulative penetration (P <0.01) and faster lag times (P <0.05). The 2,4-D cumulative penetration in the presence of the OFF! Deepwoods combination was significantly greater than the absorption with either the individual ingredients or their average (P <0.05). A systematic study designed to isolate the chemicals responsible for this enhancement demonstrated that with UV absorbers DEET synergistically increased the 2,4-D penetration and that DEET's cumulative enhancement properties correlate with its concentration. By contrast, octocrylene significantly slowed the lag time when used in combinations and was the only active ingredient that showed any antagonistic effects on 2,4-D penetration. Because none of the active ingredient combinations were able to inhibit dermal uptake of 2,4-D, it seems that proper selection of inert ingredients may be the most feasible solution for reducing penetration enhancement.

  12. Source Book on Air Pollution Topics for Grade and High School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Eileen G., Ed.; McGovern, John J., Ed.

    This publication provides background information and activity suggestions on air pollution and related environmental topics. Student projects and experiments which can be adapted at both elementary and secondary levels are also provided. Information is organized in three parts. Part I covers basic facts about air pollutants including the types,…

  13. Potential use of secondary products of the agri-food industry for topical formulations and comparative analysis of antioxidant activity of grape leaf polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Dresch, Roger Remy; Dresch, Maria Terezinha Kreinecker; Biegelmeyer, Renata; Argenta, Débora Fretes; da Rocha, Ricardo Fagundes; Teixeira, Helder Ferreira; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Henriques, Amélia Teresinha

    2017-04-13

    The aim of the present study was to develop a phytocosmetic using Vitis waste by-products, for use as a topical formulation for skin protection against ultraviolet radiation damage. The study also evaluates the free radical scavenger activity of the crude extracts of dried leaves of Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca, as well as the anthocyanins, flavonoid fraction and isolated compounds. Next, release and permeation studies of hydrogels were performed using Franz-type diffusion cells. Flavonoid acted more intensively in TRAP and conjugated dienes antioxidant assays, whereas anthocyanins had higher antioxidant activity in hydroxyl and nitric oxide assay. Only quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (5) was released from hydrogels, and the flavonoid retention in porcine ear skin after eight hours of permeation was below of limit of quantification for this compound. The polyphenols present in Vitis are capable of absorbing UV and visible light, justifying their potential as sunscreens for the development of a phytocosmetic.

  14. Use of Dynamic Geometry as a Support to Paper and Pencil Activities for Comprehension of Ratio and Proportion Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Elena Fabiola; Lupianez, Jose Luis

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The present paper shows the importance of a joint use of pencil and paper activities and of technology so that students may develop a complete understanding of ratio and proportion. A previous experience with strategy use when solving ratio and proportion problems provided background. Prompted by a recognition of the cognitive…

  15. Evapotranspiration (ET) covers.

    PubMed

    Rock, Steve; Myers, Bill; Fiedler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    about specific projects using ET covers. There are three general approaches for non-conventional cover systems to achieve approval for installation; the first is when equivalent performance to conventional final cover systems can be demonstrated directly on site. This is the approach used by the Sandia study, by most ACAP sites, and the Rocky Mountain Arsenal. A second approach is used when there are data from a site specific study such as an ACAP installation at a site that has analogous soil and climate conditions. Several sites in Colorado and Southern California have achieved approval based on data from similar sites. The third most common approach for regulatory approval is by installation of data collection systems with the agreement that the permanence of the ET cover installation is contingent on success of the cover in meeting certain performance goals. This article is intended as an introduction to the topic and is not intended to serve as guidance for design or construction, nor indicate the appropriateness of using an ET cover systems at a particular site.

  16. Active ingredients in sunscreens act as topical penetration enhancers for the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Pont, Adam R; Charron, Anna R; Brand, Rhonda M

    2004-03-15

    Agricultural workers are encouraged to use sunscreen to decrease the risk of UV-related skin cancer. Our previous studies have shown certain commercial sunscreens to be penetration enhancers. The focus of this project is to determine whether active ingredients in sunscreen formulations (i.e., the UV absorbing components and insect repellants for the sunscreen/bug repellant combinations) also act as dermal penetration enhancers for herbicides in vitro. The total percentages of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) penetrating through hairless mouse skin in 24 h ranged from 54.9 +/- 4.7 for the no sunscreen control to 86.9 +/- 2.5 for padimate-o. Of the active ingredients tested (7.5% octyl methoxycinnamate, 7% octocrylene, 0.6% oxybenzone, 5% homosalate, 5% octyl salicylate, 8% padimate-o, 10% sulisobenzone, and 9.5% and 19% N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide [DEET]), all but octocrylene led to a significant increase in total 2,4-D penetration as compared to the control (P < 0.05), and only octocrylene and oxybenzone did not significantly decrease the corresponding lag time. Octyl salicylate (P < 0.01) and octyl methoxycinnimate (P < 0.05) significantly increased the 3H2O penetration across mouse skin, indicating physical damage to the stratum corneum. Additional studies demonstrated that the penetration enhancement seen across hairless mouse skin also occurred with human skin. Thus, the active ingredients of sunscreen formulations enhance dermal penetration of the moderately lipophilic herbicide 2,4-D.

  17. Molecular docking and ADME studies of natural compounds of Agarwood oil for topical anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Dharmendra K; Mudgal, Vipin; Agrawal, Jyoti; Maurya, Anil K; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar U; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Khan, Feroz; Thul, Sanjog T

    2013-09-01

    Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. family, Thymelaeaceae, is an evergreen plant of South-East Asia, commonly described as aloe wood or agarwood. Traditionally, the bark, root and heartwood are used for their medicinal properties as a folk medicine for hundreds of years. Chemical analyses revealed that the bulk of the oil is constituted by agarospirol (12.5%), jinkoh-eremol (11.8%) and hinesol (8.9%) as major contributor. In the present work, a QSAR model for antiinflammatory activity of 10-epi-γ-Eudesmol, jinkoh-eremol, agarospirol and other compounds has been developed by multiple linear regression method. The r(2) and rCV(2) of a model were 0.89 and 0.81 respectively. In silico molecular docking study suggests that compound 10-epi-γ-Eudesmol, jinkoh-eremol and agarospirol are preferentially more active than other identified compounds with strong binding affinity to major anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory receptors. The oil displayed a significant and dose dependent reduction of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorobol-13 acetate (TPA)- induced ear edema and MDA activity when compared with vehicle treated mice. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) were also reduced significantly in a dose dependent manner in all the TPA treated groups as compared to control. The present study indicates that agarwood oil significantly reduced the skin thickness, ear weight, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines production in TPA-induced mouse ear inflammation model and contributed towards validation of its traditional use to treat inflammation related ailments.

  18. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN LASER TECHNOLOGY: Xenon and hydrogen gas mixtures as laser active media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, V. S.; Kanaev, A. V.; Mikheev, L. D.

    1988-08-01

    It is suggested that gaseous mixtures of xenon and molecular hydrogen may be used as active media of Xe2 (172 nm) and XeH ( ~ 250 nm) photochemical lasers. By adding more than 3 Torr of hydrogen to xenon, amplification can be achieved in the 172 nm range as a result of quenching of the 1u/0u- absorbing state under optical pumping conditions. The hydrogen atoms produced by the quenching process can be utilized to populate XeH* by three-body recombination with Xe* ( 3P1/2) atoms.

  19. Preclinical testing of candidate topical microbicides for anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activity and tissue toxicity in a human cervical explant culture.

    PubMed

    Cummins, James E; Guarner, Jeannette; Flowers, Lisa; Guenthner, Patricia C; Bartlett, Jeanine; Morken, Timothy; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Paxton, Lynn; Dezzutti, Charlene S

    2007-05-01

    A human cervical explant culture was utilized for the preclinical assessment of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity and tissue toxicity of formulated, candidate topical microbicides. Products tested included cellulose acetate 1,2-benzene dicarboxylate (CAP), a carrageenan-based product (PC-515), a naphthalene sulfonate polymer (PRO 2000), a lysine dendrimer (SPL7013), a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (UC781), and an antimicrobial peptide (D2A21), along with their placebos. Cervical explants were cultured overnight with HIV-1 with or without product, washed, and monitored for signs of HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 infection was determined by p24gag levels in the basolateral medium and by immunohistochemical analysis of the explant. Product toxicity was measured by the MTT [1-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan] assay and histology. CAP, PRO 2000, SPL7013, and UC781 consistently prevented HIV-1 infection in all explants tested. PC-515 and D2A21 prevented HIV-1 infection in 50% or fewer of the explants tested. Placebos did not prevent infection in any of the explants tested. With the exception of PRO 2000 (4%), the MTT assay and histological analysis of the other products and placebos showed minimal toxicity to the epithelium and submucosa. Collectively, these data suggest that this culture system can be used for evaluating the safety and efficacy of topical microbicides designed for vaginal use.

  20. Preclinical Testing of Candidate Topical Microbicides for Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Activity and Tissue Toxicity in a Human Cervical Explant Culture▿

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, James E.; Guarner, Jeannette; Flowers, Lisa; Guenthner, Patricia C.; Bartlett, Jeanine; Morken, Timothy; Grohskopf, Lisa A.; Paxton, Lynn; Dezzutti, Charlene S.

    2007-01-01

    A human cervical explant culture was utilized for the preclinical assessment of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity and tissue toxicity of formulated, candidate topical microbicides. Products tested included cellulose acetate 1,2-benzene dicarboxylate (CAP), a carrageenan-based product (PC-515), a naphthalene sulfonate polymer (PRO 2000), a lysine dendrimer (SPL7013), a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (UC781), and an antimicrobial peptide (D2A21), along with their placebos. Cervical explants were cultured overnight with HIV-1 with or without product, washed, and monitored for signs of HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 infection was determined by p24gag levels in the basolateral medium and by immunohistochemical analysis of the explant. Product toxicity was measured by the MTT [1-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan] assay and histology. CAP, PRO 2000, SPL7013, and UC781 consistently prevented HIV-1 infection in all explants tested. PC-515 and D2A21 prevented HIV-1 infection in 50% or fewer of the explants tested. Placebos did not prevent infection in any of the explants tested. With the exception of PRO 2000 (4%), the MTT assay and histological analysis of the other products and placebos showed minimal toxicity to the epithelium and submucosa. Collectively, these data suggest that this culture system can be used for evaluating the safety and efficacy of topical microbicides designed for vaginal use. PMID:17353237

  1. Poloxamer-Based Thermoreversible Gel for Topical Delivery of Emodin: Influence of P407 and P188 on Solubility of Emodin and Its Application in Cellular Activity Screening.

    PubMed

    Ban, Eunmi; Park, Mijung; Jeong, Seonghee; Kwon, Taekhyun; Kim, Eun-Hee; Jung, Kiwon; Kim, Aeri

    2017-02-07

    Emodin is a component in a Chinese herb, Rheum officinale Baill, traditionally used for diabetes and anticancer. Its poor solubility is one of the major challenges to pharmaceutical scientists. We previously reported on thermoreversible gel formulations based on poloxamer for the topical delivery of emodin. The present study was to understand the effect of poloxamer type on emodin solubility and its application in cellular activity screening. Various gel formulations composed of poloxamer 407 (P407), poloxamer 188 (P188) and PEG400 were prepared and evaluated. Major evaluation parameters were the gelation temperature (Tgel) and solubility of emodin. The emodin solubility increased with increasing poloxamer concentration and the Tgel was modulated by the proper combination of P407. In particular, this study showed that the amount of P407 in thermoreversible poloxamer gel (PG) was the dominant factor in enhancing solubility and P188 was effective at fixing gelation temperature in the desired range. A thermoreversible emodin PG was selected as the proper composition with the liquid state at room temperature and gel state at body temperature. The gel showed the solubility enhancement of emodin at least 100-fold compared to 10% ethanol or water. The thermoreversible formulation was applied for in vitro cellular activity screening in the human dermal fibroblast cell line and DLD-1 colon cancer cell line after dilution with cell culture media. The thermoreversible gel formulation remained as a clear solution in the microplate, which allowed reliable cellular activity screening. In contrast, emodin solution in ethanol or DMSO showed precipitation at the corresponding emodin concentration, complicating data interpretation. In conclusion, the gel formulation is proposed as a useful prototype topical formulation for testing emodin in vivo as well as in vitro.

  2. Coal Activities for Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Coal Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This collection of lesson plans designed for teachers of 4th- through 12th-grade students utilizes an assortment of teaching strategies for topics related to coal and the coal industry. Activities cover the following topics: coal formation; coal identification; "the geologist's dilemma" (a supply and demand activity); geologic time and…

  3. New approaches to topical therapy.

    PubMed

    Smith, C H

    2000-10-01

    Despite the rapid and proven efficacy of topical corticosteroids, side-effects can limit their clinical usefulness. Topically active macrolide immunosuppressants such as ascomycin and tacrolimus appear to provide comparable therapeutic potency without significant local or adverse effects. Data from ongoing studies will be crucial in determining the safety of these agents in the long term, and also their place within the current therapeutic armamentarium available for patients with atopic dermatitis. Enzyme inhibitors of PLA(2) and PDE 4 currently in the very early stages of clinical development also show potential promise as additional alternative strategies to topical treatment and may perhaps act as steroid sparing agents. Having been in the therapeutic doldrums for years, topical management of atopic dermatitis is likely to show great changes in the very near future.

  4. Women's Health Topics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women's Health Topics Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... Print Take Time to Care about Your Health . Women often spend so much time helping others that ...

  5. Regulatory Information By Topic

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA develops and enforces regulations that span many environmental topics, from acid rain reduction to wetlands restoration. Each topic listed below may include related laws and regulations, compliance enforcement information, policies guidance

  6. Production of hybrid lipid-based particles loaded with inorganic nanoparticles and active compounds for prolonged topical release.

    PubMed

    García-González, C A; Sampaio da Sousa, A R; Argemí, A; López Periago, A; Saurina, J; Duarte, C M M; Domingo, C

    2009-12-01

    The production of particulate hybrid carriers containing a glyceryl monostearate (Lumulse GMS-K), a waxy triglyceride (Cutina HR), silanized TiO(2) and caffeine were investigated with the aim of producing sunscreens with UV-radiation protection properties. Particles were obtained using the supercritical PGSS (Particles from Gas Saturated Solutions) technique. This method takes advantages of the lower melting temperatures of the lipids obtained from the dissolution of CO(2) in the bulk mixture. Experiments were performed at 13 MPa and 345 K, according to previous melting point measurements. Blends containing Lumulse GMS-K and Cutina HR lipids (50 wt%) were loaded with silanized TiO(2) and caffeine in percentile proportions of 6 and 4 wt%, respectively. The particles produced were characterized using several analytical techniques as follows: system crystallinity was checked by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, thermal stability by thermogravimetric analysis, and morphology by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Further, the UV-shielding ability of TiO(2) after its dispersion in the lipidic matrix was assessed by solid UV-vis spectroscopy. Preliminary results indicated that caffeine-loaded solid lipid particles presented a two-step dissolution profile, with an initial burst of 60 wt% of the loaded active agent. Lipid blends loaded with TiO(2) and caffeine encompassed the UV-filter behavior of TiO(2) and the photoaging prevention properties of caffeine.

  7. Therapeutic advantages of medicinal herbs fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum, in topical application and its activities on atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Joo, Seong Soo; Won, Tae Joon; Nam, Sang Yoon; Kim, Yun-Bae; Lee, Young Chul; Park, So-Yong; Park, Hee Yong; Hwang, Kwang Woo; Lee, Do Ik

    2009-07-01

    The use of herbal medicines in the therapeutic treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) has been suggested recently. The present study examined whether selected herbal extracts fermented in Lactobacillus plantarum (FHE) possessed anti-AD properties. In addition, the study assessed the increased bioavailability of these herbal extracts both in vitro and in vivo. The data from these experiments revealed that FHE inhibited the proliferation of splenic T and B cells in a dose-dependent manner, when activated with their mitogens. Moreover, the expression of Th1/Th2 mRNA cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) from mouse splenocytes was inhibited severely as was cyclosporine A. Furthermore, the release of beta-hexosaminidase in RBL-2H3 mast cells was suppressed significantly. FHE also reduced the plasma level of IgE in dust mite extract-induced AD-like NC/Nga mice. More dramatic results were found in the histological changes, which were observed by hematoxylin-eosin and toluidine blue staining, as well as in the macroscopic features on dorsal lesions of AD-like NC/Nga mice. In conclusion, the results presented in this study suggest that FHE may have therapeutic advantages for the treatment of AD due to its increased immune-suppressive and increased absorptive effects, which were fortified by L. plantarum fermentation.

  8. Freshman Health Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovde, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a cluster of health topics that are frequently selected by students in lower division classes. Topics address issues relating to addictive substances, including alcohol and tobacco, eating disorders, obesity, and dieting. Analysis of the topics examines their interrelationships and organization in the reference literature.…

  9. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of a monofloral honey of Mimosa scabrella provided by Melipona marginata during winter in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Borsato, Débora M; Prudente, Arthur S; Döll-Boscardin, Patrícia M; Borsato, Aurélio V; Luz, Cynthia F P; Maia, Beatriz H L N S; Cabrini, Daniela A; Otuki, Michel F; Miguel, Marilis D; Farago, Paulo V; Miguel, Obdulio G

    2014-07-01

    Melipona marginata is an endangered species of stingless bee from Brazil that produces honey with particular physicochemical features and a remarkable exotic flavor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report devoted to exploring the medicinal potential of this honey. Thus, the aim of this paper was to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory activity of honey extract from M. marginata on skin inflammation. The honey sample was classified as a monofloral honey of Mimosa scabrella. The presence of 11 phenolic compounds as kaempferol and caffeic acid was detected using the high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV-ESI-MS) method. The anti-inflammatory activity was measured using a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced ear edema model of inflammation in mice. The topical application of the M. marginata honey extract (1.0 mg/ear) was able to reduce ear edema with an inhibitory effect of 54 ± 5%. This extract decreased the myeloperoxidase activity in 75 ± 3%, which suggests a lower leucocyte infiltration that was confirmed by histological analysis. This extract also provided a reduction of 55 ± 14% in the production of reactive oxygen species. This anti-inflammatory activity could be due to a synergic effect of the phenolic compounds identified in the honey sample. Taken together, these results open up new possibilities for the use of M. marginata honey extract in skin disorders.

  10. Topical formulations containing Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus extract: In vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo efficacy against UV-B-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Campanini, Marcela Z; Custódio, Dayana L; Ivan, Ana L M; Martins, Sarah M; Paranzini, Maria J R; Martinez, Renata M; Verri, Waldiceu A; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Arakawa, Nilton S; de J Faria, Terezinha; Baracat, Marcela M; Casagrande, Rúbia; Georgetti, Sandra R

    2014-02-01

    Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus is a Brazilian native plant that presents high concentrations of flavonoids and other polyphenolic compounds. Herein, we evaluated: (1) the chemical properties of P. pseudocaryophyllus ethanolic extract (PPE), (2) the in vitro antioxidant activity (AA) of PPE and of two different topical formulations (F1 and F2) containing PPE, (3) physico-chemical and functional stability, (4) in vitro release of PPE, and (5) in vivo capacity of formulations to prevent UV-B irradiation-induced skin damage. Results show that the polyphenol and flavonoid contents in PPE were 199.33 and 28.32 mg/g, respectively, and HPLC results show the presence of eugenol, tannic acid, and rutin. Evaluation of the in vitro AA of PPE demonstrated a dose-dependent effect and an IC50 of 4.75 μg/mL in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 3.0 μg/mL in 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. The ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay) was 0.046 μmol/L trolox equivalent/μg/mL of extract. Among the AA, only the capacity to scavenge DPPH radical of PPE was maintained in F1 and F2. In addition, both formulations satisfactorily released the extract. The evaluation of the functional stability of F1 and F2 did not demonstrate loss of activity by storage at room temperature and at 4°C/6 months. In irradiated mice, treatment with F1 and F2 added with PPE significantly increased the capacity to scavenge ABTS radical and the FRAP of skin compared to vehicle-treated mice. In conclusion, the present results suggest that formulations containing PPE may be a topical source of antioxidant compounds to decrease oxidative damages of the skin.

  11. Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC) as Vehicles for Topical Administration of Sesamol: In Vitro Percutaneous Absorption Study and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Puglia, Carmelo; Lauro, Maria Rosaria; Offerta, Alessia; Crascì, Lucia; Micicchè, Lucia; Panico, Anna Maria; Bonina, Francesco; Puglisi, Giovanni

    2017-03-01

    Sesamol is a natural phenolic compound extracted from Sesamum indicum seed oil. Sesamol is endowed with several beneficial effects, but its use as a topical agent is strongly compromised by unfavorable chemical-physical properties. Therefore, to improve its characteristics, the aim of the present work was the formulation of nanostructured lipid carriers as drug delivery systems for topical administration of sesamol.Two different nanostructured lipid carrier systems have been produced based on the same solid lipid (Compritol® 888 ATO) but in a mixture with two different kinds of oil phase such as Miglyol® 812 (nanostructured lipid carrier-M) and sesame oil (nanostructured lipid carrier-PLUS). Morphology and dimensional distribution of nanostructured lipid carriers have been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and photon correlation spectroscopy, respectively. The release pattern of sesamol from nanostructured lipid carriers was evaluated in vitro determining drug percutaneous absorption through excised human skin. Furthermore, an oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay was used to determine their antioxidant activity.From the results obtained, the method used to formulate nanostructured lipid carriers led to a homogeneous dispersion of particles in a nanometric range. Sesamol has been encapsulated efficiently in both nanostructured lipid carriers, with higher encapsulation efficiency values (> 90 %) when sesame oil was used as the oil phase (nanostructured lipid carrier-PLUS). In vitro evidences show that nanostructured lipid carrier dispersions were able to control the rate of sesamol diffusion through the skin, with respect to the reference formulations.Furthermore, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay pointed out an interesting and prolonged antioxidant activity of sesamol, especially when vehiculated by nanostructured lipid carrier-PLUS.

  12. Current topics on sonoelectrochemistry.

    PubMed

    González-García, José; Esclapez, María Deseada; Bonete, Pedro; Hernández, Yolanda Vargas; Garretón, Luís Gaete; Sáez, Verónica

    2010-02-01

    Sonoelectrochemistry is undergoing a reemerging activity in the last years with an increasing number of papers appearing in a wide range of peer review journals. Applied studies which cover environmental treatments, synthesis or characterization of nanostructures, polymeric materials synthesis, analytical procedures, films preparations, membrane preparations among other interesting applications have been reviewed. The revised fundamental analyses trying to elucidate the mechanism of the interactions between the ultrasound and electrical fields, are focused on test electrochemical processes, on the use of unconventional solvents and combination with other techniques. After the review of the achievements and faults of sonoelectrochemistry, future research lines are suggested.

  13. An Analysis of the Learning Activities Covered in the 5th Grade Science Textbooks Based on 2005 and 2013 Turkish Science Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydogdu, Cemil; Idin, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the learning activities covered in 5th grade elementary science textbooks which depend on 2005 and 2013 elementary science curricula. Two elementary science textbooks [which] depend on 2005 science curriculum and two elementary science textbooks [which] depend on 2013 science curriculum were researched. The…

  14. An Analysis of the Learning Activities Covered in the 5th Grade Science Textbooks Based on 2005 and 2013 Turkish Science Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydogdu, Cemil; Idin, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the learning activities covered in 5th grade elementary science textbooks which depend on 2005 and 2013 elementary science curricula. Two elementary science textbooks depends on 2005 science curriculum and two elementary science textbooks depend on 2013 science curriculum were researched. The study is a…

  15. The in vitro activity of terconazole against yeasts: its topical long-acting therapeutic efficacy in experimental vaginal candidiasis in rats.

    PubMed

    Van Cutsem, J

    1991-10-01

    The activity of the broad-spectrum triazole antifungal terconazole was evaluated in vitro by the serial decimal dilution technique in broth media. The best correlation between in vitro and in vivo activity was found in brain-heart infusion broth and Eagle's minimum essential medium. All strains of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, C. glabrata, and Trichosporon beigelii tested were susceptible. Terconazole blocked the morphogenetic transformation from the yeast into the filamentous form at concentrations of 0.008 to 0.05 microgram/ml. In experimental candidiasis in castrated rats with estrogen-induced permanent pseudoestrus, topical treatment with terconazole was superior to miconazole, clotrimazole, econazole, butoconazole, tioconazole, sulconazole, bifonazole, valconazole, fenticonazole, nystatin, and amphotericin B in the various schedules used. A 3-day once-daily intravaginal application of terconazole 0.8% was usually sufficient to provide a functional therapeutic period of 7 days because of prolonged high biologically active antifungal levels in the vagina. No side effects were observed at any concentration of terconazole.

  16. The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey: Final Public Release of ~ 35 000 Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei Covering 13 Billion Years of Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Fèvre, O.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Gavignaud, I.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Le Brun, V.; Lemaux, B.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Maccagni, D.; McCracken, H. J.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mazure, A.; Mellier, Y.; Merighi, R.; Merluzzi, P.; Moreau, C.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Vettolani, G.; Zamorani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Zucca, E.

    2014-03-01

    The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) final and public data release offers an excellent opportunity to revisit galaxy evolution with a sample of 35 016 galaxies and active galactic nuclei covering the redshift range 0 < z < 6.7. The VVDS includes three tiered surveys, the wide, deep and ultra-deep surveys, covering up to 8.7 square degrees, and each magnitude-selected with limits iAB = 22.5, 24 and 24.75 respectively. The VVDS redshifts, spectra, and all associated multi-wavelength data are available at http://cesam.lam.fr/vvds. The highlights and scientific legacy of the VVDS are summarised.

  17. Efficacy of a new topical gel-spray formulation of ketoprofen lysine salt in the rat: percutaneous permeation in vitro and in vivo and pharmacological activity.

    PubMed

    Porzio, S; Caselli, G; Pellegrini, L; Pallottini, V; Del Rosario, M; Coppola, A; Boltri, L; Gentile, M; Clavenna, G; Melillo, G

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the percutaneous permeation of a new topical Gel-Spray formulation, containing 15% of ketoprofen lysine salt (KLS), both in vitro, using the Franz-type diffusion cells and in vivo, by evaluating urinary recovery after topical administration and to correlate the absorption data with KLS pharmacological activity in the rat. Concentrations of ketoprofen free acid (KFA) were determined by HPLC in the receptor compartment (in vitro), or in urine (in vivo). The permeation of ketoprofen evaluated in vitro after the application of KLS Gel-Spray was higher than that observed with the marketed formulation Profénid gel (containing KFA at 2.5%). The same evidence was found in vivo, except when the ratio between the administered dose and the area treated was higher than 1 mg cm-2. Thus, the difference between the two formulations seems to be the resultant of two opposing components: a positive gradient of concentration that favours the absorption of ketoprofen from KLS Gel-Spray and the presence of the enhancer ethanol that could favour the efficacy of Profénid gel. Under our conditions the former prevailed. As for the efficacy, evaluated in the carrageenan-induced oedema and hyperalgesia model, KLS Gel-Spray confirmed the data obtained for in vivo absorption, being more efficient than the reference standard Profénid gel. The observed inhibitory effects were due only to dermal absorption, oral absorption was excluded by an Elizabethan collar applied around the neck of the rat. In these experimental conditions, no significant damage of the rat stomach mucosa was observed. These results indicate that KLS Gel-Spray, due to its high KLS concentration, allows a very high efficiency in delivering ketoprofen to the inflamed area using a minimal amount of formulation, even in the absence of permeation enhancers.

  18. Isolated and combined effects of photobiomodulation therapy, topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and physical activity in the treatment of osteoarthritis induced by papain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomazoni, Shaiane Silva; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Frigo, Lúcio; Pallotta, Rodney Capp; Teixeira, Simone; de Almeida, Patricia; Bjordal, Jan Magnus; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Álvaro Brandão

    2016-10-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic inflammatory disease and is characterized as a degenerative process. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of a topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), physical activity, and photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) applied alone and/or in combination between them in an experimental model of knee OA. OA was induced by injection of papain in the knees of rats. After 21 days, the animals started to be treated with the above treatment. Histological analysis shows that the experimental model of OA induction causes morphological changes consistent with the disease, and among treatments, the PBMT is the most effective for reducing these changes. Moreover, the results demonstrate that PBMT and NSAID reduce the total number of cells in the inflammatory infiltrate (p<0.05) and PBMT was the most effective for reducing the activity of myeloperoxidase (p<0.05). Finally, we observed that both NSAID and PBMT were effective for reducing the gene expression of MMP-3 (p<0.05), but in relation to the gene expression of MMP-13, PBMT was the most effective treatment (p<0.05). The results of this study indicate that PBMT is the most effective therapy in stopping disease progression, and improving inflammatory conditions observed in OA.

  19. Endogenous β-glucocerebrosidase activity in Abca12⁻/⁻epidermis elevates ceramide levels after topical lipid application but does not restore barrier function.

    PubMed

    Haller, Jorge F; Cavallaro, Paul; Hernandez, Nicholas J; Dolat, Lee; Soscia, Stephanie J; Welti, Ruth; Grabowski, Gregory A; Fitzgerald, Michael L; Freeman, Mason W

    2014-03-01

    ABCA12 mutations disrupt the skin barrier and cause harlequin ichthyosis. We previously showed Abca12(-/-) skin has increased glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and correspondingly lower amounts of ceramide (Cer). To examine why loss of ABCA12 leads to accumulation of GlcCer, de novo sphingolipid synthesis was assayed using [(14)C]serine labeling in ex vivo skin cultures. A defect was found in β-glucocerebrosidase (GCase) processing of newly synthesized GlcCer species. This was not due to a decline in GCase function. Abca12(-/-) epidermis had 5-fold more GCase protein (n = 4, P < 0.01), and a 5-fold increase in GCase activity (n = 3, P < 0.05). As with Abca12(+/+) epidermis, immunostaining in null skin showed a typical interstitial distribution of the GCase protein in the Abca12(-/-) stratum corneum. Hence, we tested whether the block in GlcCer conversion could be circumvented by topically providing GlcCer. This approach restored up to 15% of the lost Cer products of GCase activity in the Abca12(-/-) epidermis. However, this level of barrier ceramide replacement did not significantly reduce trans-epidermal water loss function. Our results indicate loss of ABCA12 function results in a failure of precursor GlcCer substrate to productively interact with an intact GCase enzyme, and they support a model of ABCA12 function that is critical for transporting GlcCer into lamellar bodies.

  20. Topical hemostatic agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Palm, Melanie D; Altman, Jeffrey S

    2008-04-01

    Topical hemostatic agents play an important role in both common and specialized dermatologic procedures. These agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action and include physical or mechanical agents, caustic agents, biologic physical agents, and physiologic agents. Some agents induce protein coagulation and precipitation resulting in occlusion of small cutaneous vessels, while others take advantage of latter stages in the coagulation cascade, activating biologic responses to bleeding. Traditional and newer topical hemostatic agents are discussed in this review, and the benefits and costs of each agent will be provided.

  1. COMETS Profiles. Career Oriented Modules to Explore Topics in Science. 24 Biographical Sketches of Women in Science Careers plus Accompanying Language Arts Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noyce, Ruth, Ed.

    Twenty-four biographical sketches of women in scientific professions are included in this COMETS Profiles package. Each biography relates to a science topic dealt with in one of the instructional modules of COMETS Science (Career Oriented Modules to Explore Topics in Science). The purpose of these materials is to demonstrate to early adolescents…

  2. Spatial variability of the active layer thickness at the Limnopolar Lake CALM-S site (Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Antarctica) and the role of snow cover.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pablo, Miguel A.; Molina, Antonio; Ramos, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Since its establishment in early 2009, thaw depth has been measured in late January - early February at the Limnopolar Lake CALM-S site (A25) in Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Antarctica (62°38'59.1''S, 61°06'16.9''W). Ground, surface, and air temperatures have been also measured, as well as snow cover deep, derived from an array of miniature temperature loggers mounted into a wood mast (iButton from Maxim) (Lewcovicz, 2008). Thermal characterization of the active layer has been already done based on this data (de Pablo et al., 2013), as well as the interannual variability (de Pablo et al., 2014) and the snow cover evolution analyses (de Pablo et al., submitted). The results show that permafrost could exist at 120 cm depth, although the active layer is reducing, probably caused by the elongation on the snow cover duration. While the snow cover thickness remains approximately similar each winter, the snow offset delays, reducing the period in which solar radiation could heat the ground. In fact, during the last years, thaw depth was not able to be measured (in spite we visited the area in the approximately the same dates) due to thick snow layer remained covering the CALM-S site. However, we have not yet developed an analysis of the spatial variability of the thaw depth we measured each year, and how it could be conditioned by the ground properties (as slope or grain-size) or external factors, such as snow cover. In order to confirm the effect of the snow cover in the evolution of the active layer thickness, here we analyze the spatial variability of the thaw depth for the entire CALM-S site, and try to correlate it respect to the ground surface characteristics (grain-size, ground patterns, among others), the ground surface temperature and the snow cover thickness. Some of those data were acquired while the surface was visible during Antarctic field trips few years ago, and others (snow cover thickness) was measured by mechanical probing in each node. This

  3. Hot topics in noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinson, Michael R.

    2003-10-01

    Our world continues to be a noisy place and the challenge to ``increase and diffuse knowledge of noise propagation, passive and active noise control, and the effects of noise'' remains. In the last several years, noise in the classroom has emerged as one of the hotter topics: Considerable progress has been made in the underpinning research, the formulation of recommendations, and the process of educating society on the social and personal impact of inadequate acoustical conditions in classrooms. The establishment of the ANSI S12.60-2002 standard for classroom acoustics was a milestone event. Noise in cities and the understanding of our soundscapes are subjects of ongoing significance. The development of standards and regulations is a continuing process, with urban community noise regulations, aviation noise, and the preservation of natural quiet in national parks being of current concern. New methods to reduce noise are under development and include passive and active methods of noise control, techniques for modeling the performance of noise barriers, and approaches for designing product sound quality.

  4. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Propa pH® Peel-Off Acne Mask ... pimples and skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat ... medications called keratolytic agents. Topical salicylic acid treats acne by reducing swelling and redness and unplugging blocked ...

  5. Selected topics from classical bacterial genetics.

    PubMed

    Raleigh, Elisabeth A; Elbing, Karen; Brent, Roger

    2002-08-01

    Current cloning technology exploits many facts learned from classical bacterial genetics. This unit covers those that are critical to understanding the techniques described in this book. Topics include antibiotics, the LAC operon, the F factor, nonsense suppressors, genetic markers, genotype and phenotype, DNA restriction, modification and methylation and recombination.

  6. Marshall Space Flight Center ECLSS technology activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) technology activities are presented. Topics covered include: analytical development; ECLSS modeling approach; example of water reclamation modeling needs; and hardware development and testing.

  7. 'Hot Topics' in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maran, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    Three current topics in astrophysics are described here on the occasion of the joint meeting of the American Association of Physics Teachers and the American Astronomical Society (Jan. 7-11, 2001, San Diego, Calif.). Many equally exciting topics--ranging from the dozens of newly discovered planets of sunlike stars to evidence suggesting that the expansion of the universe is accelerating--could have been chosen. The topics discussed are: (1) the habitability of Mars, (2) black holes, galaxy bulges, and the X-ray background, and (3) the greatest explosions since the Big Bang.

  8. 29 CFR 825.122 - Definitions of covered servicemember, spouse, parent, son or daughter, next of kin of a covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... covered active duty or call to covered active duty status, son or daughter of a covered servicemember, and... on covered active duty or call to covered active duty status, son or daughter of a covered... it is recognized. (c) Parent. Parent means a biological, adoptive, step or foster father or...

  9. Topicalization: A Psycholinguistic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ruilin

    2001-01-01

    Explores topicalization in the Chinese-English translation classroom. Examines translation in language teaching, Advocates translation as a useful skill and discusses it as a means of mastering a foreign language--in this case, English. (Author/VWL)

  10. Topical therapies for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Altman, Roy D; Barthel, H Richard

    2011-07-09

    This review discusses the pharmacology, analgesic efficacy, safety and tolerability of topical NSAIDs, salicylates and capsaicin for the management of osteoarthritis (OA) pain. Topical therapies present a valuable therapeutic option for OA pain management, with substantial evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of topical NSAIDs, but less robust support for capsaicin and salicylates. We define topical therapies as those intended to act locally, in contrast to transdermal therapies intended to act systemically. Oral therapies for patients with mild to moderate OA pain include paracetamol (acetaminophen) and NSAIDs. Paracetamol has only weak efficacy at therapeutic doses and is hepatotoxic at doses >3.25 g/day. NSAIDs have demonstrated efficacy in patients with OA, but are associated with dose-, duration- and age-dependent risks of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, haematological and hepatic adverse events (AEs), as well as clinically meaningful drug interactions. To minimize AE risks, treatment guidelines for OA suggest minimizing NSAID exposure by prescribing the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration of time. Systemic NSAID exposure may also be limited by prescribing topical NSAIDs, particularly in patients with OA pain limited to a few superficial joints. Topical NSAIDs have been available in Europe for decades and were introduced to provide localized analgesia with minimal systemic NSAID exposure. Guidelines of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), Osteoarthritis Research Society International, and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) state that topical NSAIDs may be considered for patients with mild to moderate OA of the knee or hand, particularly in patients with few affected joints and/or a history of sensitivity to oral NSAIDs. In fact, the EULAR and NICE guidelines state that topical NSAIDs should be considered before oral therapies. Clinical trials of topical

  11. Impact of Climate Change and Anthropogenic Activities in the Dynamics of Land Cover in Mediterranean Steppe West Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si Tayeb, Tayeb

    2016-08-01

    The last thirty years, there is a real dynamic change of land cover with intensive degradation of the natural vegetation especially in arid zone. Indeed, the adverse effects of drought periods from the year 1970 combined with population growth and economic conditions experienced by the country in the 1980s have greatly upset the delicate balance of the natural environment. These adverse effects may result in partial or total disappearance of some natural ecosystems.The objective of this work is to study the distribution of plant formations that constitute the ecosystem typical of west Algeria and their dynamics in time and space, as well as to develop a method to monitor the degradation process and a system capable of effectively protecting areas classified for their plant and animal species.The Landsat satellite images were used to map the vegetation of the study area at a scale of 1:200,000. A comparison was then made between the map obtained from satellite images (Landsat 8) of 2014 and (Landsat 5) of 1987.The results show the following main trends in the distribution patterns of steppe species, a strong decrease of land occupied by steppe of Stipatenacissima and steppe of Artimesiaherba-alba, witch replaced by three taxa Thymelaeamicrophylla, Salsolavermiculata and Peganumharmala. Steppe of Artemisia herbaalba has been transformed by steppe of. taxa Thymelaeamicrophylla, Salsolavermiculata and Lygeumspartum. Woody species such as Quercus ilex and Juniperusphoenicea are characterized by a large regression.

  12. Simple fabrication of hydrophilic nanochannels using the chemical bonding between activated ultrathin PDMS layer and cover glass by oxygen plasma.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Hyun; Cui, Yidan; Lee, Min Jung; Nam, Seong-Won; Oh, Doori; Kang, Seong Ho; Kim, Youn Sang; Park, Sungsu

    2011-01-21

    This study describes a simple and low cost method for fabricating enclosed transparent hydrophilic nanochannels by coating low-viscosity PDMS (monoglycidyl ether-terminated polydimethylsiloxane) as an adhesion layer onto the surface of the nanotrenches that are molded with a urethane-based UV-curable polymer, Norland Optical Adhesive (NOA 63). In detail, the nanotrenches made of NOA 63 were replicated from a Si master mold and coated with 6 nm thick layer of PDMS. These nanotrenches underwent an oxygen plasma treatment and finally were bound to a cover glass by chemical bonding between silanol and hydroxyl groups. Hydrophobic recovery that is observed in the bulk PDMS was not observed in the thin film of PDMS on the mold and the PDMS-coated nanochannel maintained its surface hydrophilicity for at least one month. The potentials of the nanochannels for bioapplications were demonstrated by stretching λ-DNA (48,502 bp) in the channels. Therefore, this fabrication approach provides a practical solution for the simple fabrication of the nanochannels for bioapplications.

  13. TOPICAL TREATMENT OF MELASMA

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma. PMID:20101327

  14. Topical mechlorethamine restores autoimmune-arrested follicular activity in mice with an alopecia areata-like disease by targeting infiltrated lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liren; Cao, Liping; Bernardo, Olga; Chen, Yongliang; Sundberg, John P; Lui, Harvey; Chung, Stephen; Shapiro, Jerry

    2003-03-01

    Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disease targeted at hair follicles with infiltrated T lymphocytes probably playing an important role in the pathogenesis. It was reported in 1985 that mechlorethamine was effective on alopecia areata patients. This has never been confirmed since. The aims of the study were to investigate the effects of mechlorethamine on balding C3H/HeJ mice affected with an alopecia-areata-like disease and to study the underlying mechanisms. Mice were treated on half of the dorsal skin with mechlorethamine and the contralateral side was treated with the vehicle ointment. After 10 wk of mechlorethamine therapy, a full pelage of hair covered the treated side in all the mice and was maintained during the study, whereas the vehicle-treated sides showed either no change or continued hair loss. Immunohistochemistry revealed that infiltrated CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes were eliminated from the treated side. In vitro cell viability assay showed that lymphocytes were much more sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of mechlorethamine than skin and hair follicular cells. RNase protection assay and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that tumor necrosis factor alpha/beta, interleukin-12, and interferon-gamma were inhibited by mechlorethamine upon successful treatment. Our findings support that mechlorethamine restores follicular activity by selectively targeting infiltrated lymphocytes in vivo in alopecia-areata-affected mice.

  15. Effects of Land-Cover Change, Floods, and Stream Position on Geomorphic Processes - Implications for Restoration Activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, F.A.; ,

    2001-01-01

    A geomorphic study for North Fish Creek, a northern Wisconsin tributary to Lake Superior was analyzed to determine the hydrologic and geomorphic changes caused by clear-cut logging and agricultural activity. Discharge magnitude estimated with HEC-2 for full-channel capacities indicate that modern full-channel discharges are about twice as large as pre-1946 full-channel discharges. Flood-plain deposition rates were high along the transitional main stem after European settlement. Restoration and protection activities would be most effective if focused on watershed practices to reduce runoff and on channel restoration that reduce buff and bank erosion in the upper and transitional main stems.

  16. Physiographic and land cover attributes of the Puget Lowland and the active streamflow gaging network, Puget Sound Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher; Sevier, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Geospatial information for the active streamflow gaging network in the Puget Sound Basin was compiled to support regional monitoring of stormwater effects to small streams. The compilation includes drainage area boundaries and physiographic and land use attributes that affect hydrologic processes. Three types of boundaries were used to tabulate attributes: Puget Sound Watershed Characterization analysis units (AU); the drainage area of active streamflow gages; and the catchments of Regional Stream Monitoring Program (RSMP) sites. The active streamflow gaging network generally includes sites that represent the ranges of attributes for lowland AUs, although there are few sites with low elevations (less than 60 meters), low precipitation (less than 1 meter year), or high stream density (greater than 5 kilometers per square kilometers). The active streamflow gaging network can serve to provide streamflow information in some AUs and RSMP sites, particularly where the streamflow gage measures streamflow generated from a part of the AU or that drains to the RSMP site, and that part of the AU or RSMP site is a significant fraction of the drainage area of the streamgage. The maximum fraction of each AU or RSMP catchment upstream of a streamflow gage and the maximum fraction of any one gaged basin in an AU or RSMP along with corresponding codes are provided in the attribute tables.

  17. Proceedings of a Topical Meeting On Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects

    SciTech Connect

    1986-02-12

    These proceedings describe the workshop of the Topical Meeting on Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects. The projects covered include binary power plants, rotary separator, screw expander power plants, modular wellhead power plants, inflow turbines, and the EPRI hybrid power system. Active projects versus geothermal power projects were described. In addition, a simple approach to estimating effects of fluid deliverability on geothermal power cost is described starting on page 119. (DJE-2005)

  18. The pharmacology of topical analgesics.

    PubMed

    Barkin, Robert L

    2013-07-01

    Pain management of patients continues to pose challenges to clinicians. Given the multiple dimensions of pain--whether acute or chronic, mild, moderate, or severe, nociceptive or neuropathic--a multimodal approach may be needed. Fortunately, clinicians have an array of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment choices; however, each modality must be chosen carefully, because some often used oral agents are associated with safety and tolerability issues that restrict their use in certain patients. In particular, orally administered nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, opioids, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants are known to cause systemic adverse effects in some patients. To address this problem, a number of topical therapies in various therapeutic classes have been developed to reduce systemic exposure and minimize the risks of patients developing adverse events. For example, topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug formulations produce a site-specific effect (ie, cyclo-oxygenase inhibition) while decreasing the systemic exposure that may lead to undesired effects in patients. Similarly, derivatives of acetylsalicylic acid (ie, salicylates) are used in topical analgesic formulations that do not significantly enter the patient's systemic circulation. Salicylates, along with capsaicin, menthol, and camphor, compose the counterirritant class of topical analgesics, which produce analgesia by activating and then desensitizing epidermal nociceptors. Additionally, patches and creams that contain the local anesthetic lidocaine, alone or co-formulated with other local anesthetics, are also used to manage patients with select acute and chronic pain states. Perhaps the most common topical analgesic modality is the cautious application of cutaneous cold and heat. Such treatments may decrease pain not by reaching the target tissue through systemic distribution, but by acting more directly on the affected tissue. Despite the tolerability benefits associated with avoiding

  19. Topical Therapy in Atopic Dermatitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Sathishkumar, Dharshini; Moss, Celia

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic childhood skin disorder caused by complex genetic, immunological, and environmental interactions. It significantly impairs quality of life for both child and family. Treatment is complex and must be tailored to the individual taking into account personal, social, and emotional factors, as well as disease severity. This review covers the management of AD in children with topical treatments, focusing on: education and empowerment of patients and caregivers, avoidance of trigger factors, repair and maintenance of the skin barrier by correct use of emollients, control of inflammation with topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors, minimizing infection, and the use of bandages and body suits. PMID:27904185

  20. Multimedia Activities in L2 Course Websites--A Case Study of a Site Dedicated to Cultural Topics of Portuguese-Speaking Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasconcelos, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    This study examines student preferences and behavior when navigating online multimedia modules dedicated to teaching cultural aspects associated with an L2, and the contribution of the online multimedia format of the modules to raising interest in these cultural topics. It focuses on student options regarding reading texts on the modules' main…

  1. Effect of parental selection of healthy behavior topic during well child visit on plan to change childs eating or physical activity behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current recommendations direct pediatricians to address obesity and obesity prevention routinely during well child visits and to tailor their counseling, but clinicians may feel ineffective because of time constraints and lack of parent interest. To prompt parents to select a healthy lifestyle topic...

  2. Torpedo: topic periodicity discovery from text data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingjing; Deng, Hongbo; Han, Jiawei

    2015-05-01

    Although history may not repeat itself, many human activities are inherently periodic, recurring daily, weekly, monthly, yearly or following some other periods. Such recurring activities may not repeat the same set of keywords, but they do share similar topics. Thus it is interesting to mine topic periodicity from text data instead of just looking at the temporal behavior of a single keyword/phrase. Some previous preliminary studies in this direction prespecify a periodic temporal template for each topic. In this paper, we remove this restriction and propose a simple yet effective framework Torpedo to mine periodic/recurrent patterns from text, such as news articles, search query logs, research papers, and web blogs. We first transform text data into topic-specific time series by a time dependent topic modeling module, where each of the time series characterizes the temporal behavior of a topic. Then we use time series techniques to detect periodicity. Hence we both obtain a clear view of how topics distribute over time and enable the automatic discovery of periods that are inherent in each topic. Theoretical and experimental analyses demonstrate the advantage of Torpedo over existing work.

  3. Topical Therapies for Pruritus

    PubMed Central

    Elmariah, Sarina B.; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2011-01-01

    Itch, or pruritus, is the predominant symptom associated with acute and chronic cutaneous disease and in some cases, may be debilitating. To date, there is no single universally effective anti-itch treatment. As the pathophysiology of itch in most cutaneous or systemic disorders remains unclear, anti-pruritic therapy is often directed against a variety of targets, including the epidermal barrier, immune system, or the nervous system. Topical therapy is the mainstay of dermatologic management of acute or localized itch or in patients with contraindications to systemic therapies. This review will summarize current topical therapies to treat pruritus and discuss potential future therapies. PMID:21767774

  4. Novel Topic Authorship Attribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    include area code ) NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8–98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 25-03-2011 Master’s Thesis 2010-01-01—2011-03-25...your writer’s voice. St. Martin’s Press, 1994. 43 [35] S. Roman, Introduction to Coding and Information Theory. Springer-Verlag New York, New York...0 0 0 0 T50077 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TOTALS 1582 3293 1493 1858 1182 1129 1160 1107 Table B.2: Topic/Author Data Tabulation 48 AUTHORS TOPICS A100512

  5. High plains cover crop research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some recent statements have been made about the benefits of growing cover crops in mixtures as compared with single-species plantings of cover crops. Those stated benefits have included greatly reduced water use, enhanced soil microbiological activity, increased biomass productivity, and enhanced wa...

  6. Development of a pneumatically driven active cover lid for multi-well microplates for use in perfusion three-dimensional cell culture.

    PubMed

    Huang, Song-Bin; Chou, Dean; Chang, Yu-Han; Li, Ke-Cing; Chiu, Tzu-Keng; Ventikos, Yiannis; Wu, Min-Hsien

    2015-12-16

    Before microfluidic-based cell culture models can be practically utilized for bioassays, there is a need for a transitional cell culture technique that can improve conventional cell culture models. To address this, a hybrid cell culture system integrating an active cover lid and a multi-well microplate was proposed to achieve perfusion 3-D cell culture. In this system, a microfluidic-based pneumatically-driven liquid transport mechanism was integrated into the active cover lid to realize 6-unit culture medium perfusion. Experimental results revealed that the flow of culture medium could be pneumatically driven in a flow-rate uniform manner. We used the system to successfully perform a perfusion 3-D cell culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for up to 16 days. Moreover, we investigated the effects of various cell culture models on the physiology of MSCs. The physiological nature of MSCs can vary with respect to the cell culture model used. Using the perfusion 3-D cell culture format might affect the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Overall, we have developed a cell culture system that can achieve multi-well microplate-based perfusion 3-D cell culture in an efficient, cost-effective, and user-friendly manner. These features could facilitate the widespread application of perfusion cell culture models for cell-based assays.

  7. Development of a pneumatically driven active cover lid for multi-well microplates for use in perfusion three-dimensional cell culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Song-Bin; Chou, Dean; Chang, Yu-Han; Li, Ke-Cing; Chiu, Tzu-Keng; Ventikos, Yiannis; Wu, Min-Hsien

    2015-12-01

    Before microfluidic-based cell culture models can be practically utilized for bioassays, there is a need for a transitional cell culture technique that can improve conventional cell culture models. To address this, a hybrid cell culture system integrating an active cover lid and a multi-well microplate was proposed to achieve perfusion 3-D cell culture. In this system, a microfluidic-based pneumatically-driven liquid transport mechanism was integrated into the active cover lid to realize 6-unit culture medium perfusion. Experimental results revealed that the flow of culture medium could be pneumatically driven in a flow-rate uniform manner. We used the system to successfully perform a perfusion 3-D cell culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for up to 16 days. Moreover, we investigated the effects of various cell culture models on the physiology of MSCs. The physiological nature of MSCs can vary with respect to the cell culture model used. Using the perfusion 3-D cell culture format might affect the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Overall, we have developed a cell culture system that can achieve multi-well microplate-based perfusion 3-D cell culture in an efficient, cost-effective, and user-friendly manner. These features could facilitate the widespread application of perfusion cell culture models for cell-based assays.

  8. Topical Research: Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…

  9. Transportation: Topic Paper E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    As one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, this paper reviews the issue of transportation services. In the area of urban mass transit, four relevant pieces of legislation and public transportation accessibility regulations are cited, and cost issues are explored. Paratransit systems,…

  10. Dialogue-Based Activities and Manipulatives to Engage Liberal Arts Majors in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James C.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents four inquiry-based learning activities developed for a liberal arts math course. The activities cover four topics: the Pythagorean theorem, interest theory, optimization, and the Monty Hall problem. Each activity consists of a dialogue, with a theme and characters related to the topic, and a manipulative, that allow students…

  11. [Field Learning Activities].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolde Forest Environmental Education Center, Reading, PA.

    Seventy field activities, pertinent to outdoor, environmental studies, are described in this compilation. Designed for elementary and junior high school students, the activities cover many discipline areas--science, social studies, language arts, health, history, mathematics, and art--and many are multidisciplinary in use. Topics range from soil…

  12. Snow-cover dynamics monitored by automatic digital photography at the rooting zone of an active rock glacier in the Hinteres Lantal Cirque, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Rieckh, Matthias; Avian, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Knowledge regarding snow-cover dynamics and climatic conditions in the rooting zone of active rock glaciers is still limited. The number of meteorological stations on the surface of or close to active rock glaciers is increasing. However, areal information on snow-cover distribution and its spatial dynamics caused by different processes on rock glaciers surfaces with a high temporal resolution from such remote alpine areas are mostly difficult to obtain. To face this problem an automatic remote digital camera (RDC) system was proprietary developed. The core parts of the RDC system are a standard hand-held digital camera, a remote control, a water proof casing with a transparent opening, a 12V/25Ah battery and solar panels with a charge controller. Three such devices were constructed and installed at different sites in the Central Alps of Austria. One RDC system is used to monitor the rooting zone of the highly active rock glacier in the Hinteres Langtal Cirque (46°59'N, 12°47'E), Central Schober Mountains, Austria. The 0.15 km² large NW-facing rock glaciers is tongue-shaped with a fast moving lower part (>1m/a) and a substantially slower upper part, ranging in elevation between 2455-2700 m a.s.l. The RDC system was set up in September 2006 and is located since than at 2770 m a.s.l. on a pronounced ridge crest that confines the Hinteres Langtal Cirque to the SW. The water proof casing was attached to a 1.5 m high metal pole which itself was fixed to the bedrock by screws and concrete glue. The viewing direction of the camera is NE. Hence, the image section of the RDC focuses on the rooting zone of the rock glacier and its headwalls up to c. 3000 m a.s.l. Photographs were taken daily at 3 pm providing the optimal lighting conditions in the relevant part of the cirque. 720 photographs were taken continuously in the period 12.09.2006 to 31.08.2008. These optical data were analysed by applying GIS and remote sensing techniques regarding snow-cover distribution

  13. Soft versus hard X-ray emission in active galactic nuclei: partial-covering and warm-plus-cold absorber models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, M. T.; Barcons, X.

    1996-09-01

    We analyse the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) hardness ratio and the 0.5-2-keV to 2-10-keV flux ratio of 65 active galactic nuclei (AGN) for which there are both ROSAT archival observations available and 2-10-keV fluxes, mostly from the HEAO-1 MC-LASS survey. We conclude that the simplest spectral model for the AGN that can accommodate the variety of X-ray colours obtained is a standard power law (with energy spectral index alpha~0.9) plus a ~0.1-keV blackbody, both of which are partially absorbed. In our sample, type 1 AGN require an absorbing column around 10^22 cm^-2 with covering fractions between 20 and 100 per cent, while type 2 AGN display larger columns and ~100 per cent coverage. This simple model also provides a good link between soft and hard AGN X-ray luminosity functions and source counts. We also consider a warm absorber as an alternative model to partial covering and find that the presence of gas in two phases (ionized and neutral) is required.

  14. Acquisition Research Topics Catalog.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    expected to increase; if the weapon is models depend upon various types of being phased out, demand for the computational techniques to reach related EOQ...being able to identify these assets, we could Topic: Inventory Model Simulation establish inventory levels based upon Requirements specific product ...eseloresorce reuird fo th prducion management approaches and techniques to resources required for the production minimize loss and damage to Government and

  15. PA Discussion Topics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-04

    Vehicle Power & Mobility PA Discussion Topics UNCLASSIFIED: Dist A. Approved for public releas Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions...Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports , 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302

  16. Chronic postsurgical pain: still a neglected topic?

    PubMed Central

    Kissin, Igor; Gelman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background Surgical injury can frequently lead to chronic pain. Despite the obvious importance of this problem, the first publications on chronic pain after surgery as a general topic appeared only a decade ago. This study tests the hypothesis that chronic postsurgical pain was, and still is, represented insufficiently. Methods We analyzed the presentation of this topic in journal articles covered by PubMed and in surgical textbooks. The following signs of insufficient representation in journal articles were used: (1) the lack of journal editorials on chronic pain after surgery, (2) the lack of journal articles with titles clearly indicating that they are devoted to chronic postsurgical pain, and (3) the insufficient representation of chronic postsurgical pain in the top surgical journals. Results It was demonstrated that insufficient representation of this topic existed in 1981–2000, especially in surgical journals and textbooks. Interest in this topic began to increase, however, mostly regarding one specific surgery: herniorrhaphy. It is important that the change in the attitude toward chronic postsurgical pain spreads to other groups of surgeries. Conclusion Chronic postsurgical pain is still a neglected topic, except for pain after herniorrhaphy. The change in the attitude toward chronic postsurgical pain is the important first step in the approach to this problem. PMID:23152698

  17. ISEE 3 observations during the CDAW 8 intervals - Case studies of the distant geomagnetic tail covering a wide range of geomagnetic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Slavin, J. A.; Owen, C. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Galvin, A. B.; Sanderson, T. R.; Scholer, M.

    1989-01-01

    Observations made by the ISEE 3 spacecraft in the distant geomagnetic tail during the eight CDAW 8 intervals are discussed, along with their relation to concurrent geomagnetic activity. This extensive multiinstrument case study of distant tail data covers a wide range of geomagnetic conditions from extended intervals of magnetic quiet with isolated substorms to prolonged periods of intense disturbance. Plasmoids are observed in the distant tail following disturbance enhancements, the time of their appearance being generally consistent with disconnection from the near-earth region at the time of the enhancement. Their structure is entirely consistent with the neutral line model. However, not all enhancements in geomagnetic activity result in the observation of plasmoids. In particular, the CDAW 8 data suggest that, during extended intervals of strong activity, a continuous neutral line may reside in the near-earth tail and some disturbance enhancements may then relate to an increase in the reconnection rate at a preexisting neutral line, rather than to new neutral line and plasmoid formation.

  18. Agricultural Education Science Activity--Nos. SS 2-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Agricultural Curriculum Materials Service.

    This packet contains three science learning activities that can be used in agricultural education courses. The activities cover these topics: (1) determining the effects of soil particle size on capillary action; (2) measuring levels of eroded soil particles in streams; and (3) determining the effects of soil cover and texture on surface erosion.…

  19. Topics in landing gear dynamics research at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomb, H. G., Jr.; Tanner, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Four topics in landing gear dynamics are discussed. Three of these topics are subjects of recent research: tilt steering phenomenon, water spray ingestion on flooded runways, and actively controlled landing gear. The fourth topic is a description of a major facility recently enhanced in capability.

  20. Drugs and related topics.

    PubMed

    Cereijo, Ines

    2006-01-01

    Drugs is a topic that was certainly an issue of discussion at this year's annual meeting. This Committee had the responsibility of organizing a half day symposium on "Pharmaceutical Authenticity and Safety" that took place September 12, 2005. This symposium aims at improving the critical points in the analytical pharmaceutical field related to traceability assessment, use of certified reference materials (CRMs), and proficiency testing implementation to get the highest quality of the obtained results. Recognized experts presented these topics. Also, other complementary subjects, such as the application of advanced analytical technologies to reach the authenticity and safety of the pharmaceutical drugs and drug products, their microbiological quality assessment, without disregarding an important topic such as sampling, was presented and discussed. The talks that were presented are the following: "Proficiency Testing as a Need in the Pharmaceutical Field," Arlene Fox (AOAC INTERNATIONAL, Gaithersburg, MD); "Implementation of Traceability in the Pharmaceutical Laboratory," Thomas Layloff, (Management Sciences for Health, Arlington, VA); "Harmonized Characteristics of Certified Reference Materials According to ISO Guides-Attractive also for Pharmaceutical Analysis," Hendrik Emons (Reference Materials, Unit Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Joint Research Centre European Commission, (Geel, Belgium); "Importance of LC/MS/MS for the Fingerprinting of Pharmaceutical Drugs," Paul A. Steinberg, (Thermo Electron Corp., Woodstock, GA); "Process Analytical Technology (PAT) as a Way for Better Manufacturing and Quality Assurance," John F. Kauffman (Division of Pharmaceutical Analysis, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (St. Louis, MO); "Stability Testing for the Safety Assessment of Pharmaceuticals," Marta Vidal (Boeringher Ingelheim Argentina, Buenos Aires, Argentina); "Validation of Microbiological Methods for Sterile and Nonsterile Pharmaceutical

  1. [Transducer hygiene -- an underrated topic?].

    PubMed

    Merz, E

    2005-02-01

    , whereby ample contact time must be allowed for the disinfecting agent. Coarse contamination of the transducer should be removed with disposable tissue. Above all, dried blood spots should be avoided. Intraoperatively used transducers (= critical medical products), which, for instance, come in contact with abdominal organs, are subject to applicable rules and regulation for cleaning and disinfection. Before each use, an adequately long sterile cover must be placed over the transducer and connecting cable. When the examination is completed, the cover is removed and discarded, and the transducer cleaned and disinfected. The applicability of a reusable medical product implies that each manufacturer is obligated to provide care instruction, including formulated instructions for cleaning and disinfection. This entails that each manufacturer of sonographic equipment must make available a detailed summary of the appropriate disinfectants suitable for the respective transducers. Customarily, recommendations for care and cleaning of the transducers can be found in the manual that comes with the sonographic unit. In the absence of such a manual, a written request should be sent to the manufacturer of the sonographic equipment. Sonographic equipment manufacturers and disinfectant producers prefer disinfecting agents for instruments that are based on glutaraldehyde, aldehydes and quaternary agents, mostly for reason of material compatibility rather than their anti-infective effectiveness. Most recommended disinfectants are not tested for antiviral properties, but this is obligatory when applied to transducers that enter a body cavity potentially harboring a virus load - regardless whether the work is done with protective cover . Further information about the topic "medical products" can be found in the guidelines for hospital hygiene and infection prevention published by the Robert Koch Institute (Section: Required Hygienic Standards for Medical Products ), the website of the Robert

  2. TopicLens: Efficient Multi-Level Visual Topic Exploration of Large-Scale Document Collections.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjeong; Kang, Kyeongpil; Park, Deokgun; Choo, Jaegul; Elmqvist, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    Topic modeling, which reveals underlying topics of a document corpus, has been actively adopted in visual analytics for large-scale document collections. However, due to its significant processing time and non-interactive nature, topic modeling has so far not been tightly integrated into a visual analytics workflow. Instead, most such systems are limited to utilizing a fixed, initial set of topics. Motivated by this gap in the literature, we propose a novel interaction technique called TopicLens that allows a user to dynamically explore data through a lens interface where topic modeling and the corresponding 2D embedding are efficiently computed on the fly. To support this interaction in real time while maintaining view consistency, we propose a novel efficient topic modeling method and a semi-supervised 2D embedding algorithm. Our work is based on improving state-of-the-art methods such as nonnegative matrix factorization and t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding. Furthermore, we have built a web-based visual analytics system integrated with TopicLens. We use this system to measure the performance and the visualization quality of our proposed methods. We provide several scenarios showcasing the capability of TopicLens using real-world datasets.

  3. Topical Knowledge and Topical Interest Predictors of Listening Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Victoria Chou; Devine, Denise A.

    1983-01-01

    A study investigated whether preassessments of general and specific knowledge can predict children's listening comprehension. Topical knowledge, assessed by multiple-choice questions, did predict story comprehension; topical interest, however, did not correlate either with topical knowledge or comprehension. (Authors/PP)

  4. Calcium effects and systemic exposure of vitamin D3 analogues after topical treatment of active vitamin D3-containing ointments in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Atsushi; Hirabe, Maho; Tokuda, Takuya; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Amano, Toru; Okamoto, Tadao

    2016-10-05

    Topical agents containing vitamin D3 (VD3) analogues such as calcipotriol, maxacalcitol and tacalcitol and the combination of calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate (betamethasone) are prescribed for patients with psoriasis. However, they are known to occasionally cause hypercalcemia, and the frequency of hypercalcemia is suggested to vary according to the VD3 analogue used. In this study, to address the reason for these differences, the calcemic effects of maxacalcitol-, calcipotriol- and calcipotriol/betamethasone-containing ointments in rats were evaluated. The serum calcium levels in rats treated with ointments containing maxacalcitol, but not calcipotriol or calcipotriol/betamethasone, were significantly elevated, which is consistent with clinical observations. The serum concentration of VD3 analogue in rats treated with ointments containing calcipotriol and calcipotriol/betamethasone was lower than that in rats treated with maxacalcitol-containing ointment. Thus, the calcemic effects appear to be associated with the systemic exposure of VD3 analogues in rats. To understand the mechanism underlying the different systemic exposures of VD3 analogues, skin permeation and metabolic stability of VD3 analogues were evaluated. The cumulative amount of calcipotriol permeated through rat skin was significantly lower than that of maxacalcitol. On the other hand, the metabolic clearance of calcipotriol in rat hepatocytes was higher than that of maxacalcitol. Similar results were obtained using human skin and human hepatocytes. The current study demonstrates that the lower calcemic effects of calcipotriol- and calcipotriol/betamethasone-containing ointments are caused by the low systemic exposure of calcipotriol according to low skin permeability and rapid hepatic elimination after topical application.

  5. Retrospective Study on the Analgesic Activity of a Topical (TT-CTAC) Cream in Patients With Diabetic Neuropathy and Other Chronic Pain Conditions.

    PubMed

    Somberg, John C; Molnar, Janos

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of chronic pain in diabetic neuropathy or neuropathic pain of other origins is challenging. Compounded topical formulations have evolved as potential treatment options. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of a compounded topical cream (Transdermal Therapeutics). Two versions of TT-CTAC cream were evaluated: cream 6B and cream 7B. Both creams contain ketamine (10%), baclofen (2%), gabapentin (6%), amitriptyline (4%), bupivacaine (2%), and clonidine (0.2%). Additionally, one cream (7B) contains nifedipine (2%). The primary efficacy outcome was the change in numeric pain intensity score from pretreatment to posttreatment. Secondary outcomes were qualitative grading (excellent, good, poor, or no effect), reduction in oral medication, and avoiding referral to a pain specialist. Information on 283 patients was evaluated, 205 received the 7B and 78 received 6B creams. The pain score decreased by 2.4 ± 2.4 (35%) with the 6B cream (from 7.8 ± 1.6 to 5.4 ± 2.0, P < 0.001) and by 3.0 ± 2.4 (40%) with the 7B cream (from 7.5 ± 1.7 to 4.5 ± 2.2, P < 0.001). Excellent or good effects were reported in 82% of the patients in the 6B and in 70% in the 7B groups. Reduction in oral pain medication was seen in 35% of the patients in the 7B and in 20% in the 6B groups. In the opinion of the treating physicians, the cream therapy caused the avoidance of a pain specialist referral in 53% of the patients in the 6B and in 39% in the 7B groups. The creams were equally effective in diabetic neuropathy, neuropathic pain, or other chronic pain states. We conclude that both creams provided excellent pain relief in the majority of the patients studied and may be a useful modality for pain therapy.

  6. Vehicle body cover

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, T.

    1987-01-13

    This patent describes a vehicle body covered with a vehicle body cover which comprises: a front cover part, a rear cover part, a pair of side cover parts, and a roof cover part: the front cover part having portions adapted to cover only a hood, an area around a windshield and tops of front fenders of a vehicle body. The portion covering the hood is separated from the portions covering the tops of the fenders by cuts in the front cover part, the front cover part having an un-cut portion corresponding to a position at which the hood is hinged to the car body. The front cover part has a cut-out at a position corresponding to the windshield of the vehicle body and the front cover part has at least one cut-out at a position corresponding to where a rear view mirror is attached to the vehicle body; and the rear cover part having portions adapted to cover an area around a rear window, a trunk lid and a rear end of the vehicle body, the portion covering the trunk lid separated from the rest of the rear cover part by cuts corresponding to three sides of the trunk lid and an un-cut portion corresponding to a position at which the trunk lid is hinged to the vehicle body. The rear cover part has a hole at position corresponding to a trunk lid lock, a cut-out portion at a position corresponding to the rear window of the vehicle body, a cut-out at a position corresponding to a license plate of the vehicle body and cut-outs at positions corresponding to rear taillights of the vehicle body.

  7. Hot topics for leadership development.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-02-01

    Three areas stand out from a health systems perspective that should be on the development agenda for all leaders. These topics include population health, predictive analytics, and supply chain management. Together, these topics address access, quality, and cost management.

  8. Recycle Alaska: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. Activities Handbook, Teacher's Guide, and Student Worksheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Recycling is a very important aspect of conserving the environment for future generations. This guide addresses the topic of litter prevention for the Alaskan environment and contains 42 activities. Activity topics covered include Natural Cycles, Human Interruption of Natural Cycles, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Recycled Classroom. Grade level,…

  9. Multiple layer insulation cover

    DOEpatents

    Farrell, James J.; Donohoe, Anthony J.

    1981-11-03

    A multiple layer insulation cover for preventing heat loss in, for example, a greenhouse, is disclosed. The cover is comprised of spaced layers of thin foil covered fabric separated from each other by air spaces. The spacing is accomplished by the inflation of spaced air bladders which are integrally formed in the cover and to which the layers of the cover are secured. The bladders are inflated after the cover has been deployed in its intended use to separate the layers of the foil material. The sizes of the material layers are selected to compensate for sagging across the width of the cover so that the desired spacing is uniformly maintained when the cover has been deployed. The bladders are deflated as the cover is stored thereby expediting the storage process and reducing the amount of storage space required.

  10. Neutron transport simulation (selected topics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, P.

    2009-10-01

    Neutron transport simulation is usually performed for criticality, power distribution, activation, scattering, dosimetry and shielding problems, among others. During the last fifteen years, innovative technological applications have been proposed (Accelerator Driven Systems, Energy Amplifiers, Spallation Neutron Sources, etc.), involving the utilization of intermediate energies (hundreds of MeV) and high-intensity (tens of mA) proton accelerators impinging in targets of high Z elements. Additionally, the use of protons, neutrons and light ions for medical applications (hadrontherapy) impose requirements on neutron dosimetry-related quantities (such as kerma factors) for biologically relevant materials, in the energy range starting at several tens of MeV. Shielding and activation related problems associated to the operation of high-energy proton accelerators, emerging space-related applications and aircrew dosimetry-related topics are also fields of intense activity requiring as accurate as possible medium- and high-energy neutron (and other hadrons) transport simulation. These applications impose specific requirements on cross-section data for structural materials, targets, actinides and biologically relevant materials. Emerging nuclear energy systems and next generation nuclear reactors also impose requirements on accurate neutron transport calculations and on cross-section data needs for structural materials, coolants and nuclear fuel materials, aiming at improved safety and detailed thermal-hydraulics and radiation damage studies. In this review paper, the state-of-the-art in the computational tools and methodologies available to perform neutron transport simulation is presented. Proton- and neutron-induced cross-section data needs and requirements are discussed. Hot topics are pinpointed, prospective views are provided and future trends identified.

  11. Incorporating Women and Crime Topics into Criminology Classes: Assignments, Exercises, and Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    Recommends a variety of books, assignments, exercises, and projects which can be incorporated into introductory criminology classes to compensate for the omission of topics on women and crime in textbooks and curricula. Includes a list of potential topics for writing assignments and a selection of films covering such topics as sexual harassment,…

  12. The Living Ocean. SeaWiFS: Studying Ocean Color from Space. Teacher's Guide with Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This educational document, designed for grades 9 to 10, discusses the observation of oceans from space. Topics covered include ocean color, the role of phytoplankton, the carbon cycle, and the greenhouse effect. Activities and discussion questions are presented.

  13. The impact of human activities on land use and land cover changes and environmental processes in the Gorce Mountains (Western Polish Carpathians) in the past 50 years.

    PubMed

    Bucała, Anna

    2014-06-01

    The role of human impact on the natural environment was studied in the Jaszcze and Jamne catchments in the Gorce Mountains (Western Polish Carpathians). Analysis of land use and land cover changes using GIS techniques and cartographic materials between 1954 and 2004 indicates an increase in forest area by 11.5% and 18.5%, respectively, at the expense of arable land and grassland areas. Agricultural abandonment often occurred on steep slopes (above 10°) with skeletal (shallow) soils at higher elevations (above 800 m a.s.l.). In addition, the density of dirt roads decreased from 6.97 km/km(2) in 1981 to 4.3 km/km(2) in 2008. In former agricultural areas, long expanses of terraces have either disappeared or experienced shallow mass movements. The statistical reports and questionnaire survey indicate reduced income from farm activities in this region. As a result of LULC changes and stream transformation, the Jaszcze and Jamne stream channels were shortened, straightened, and narrowed, with tendency to incision estimated at 1 cm per year over the past 40 years. The changes observed in the environment under human impact, accelerated following 1989, are representative of the Western Polish Carpathians.

  14. What Medicare Covers

    MedlinePlus

    ... your Medicare coverage — Original Medicare or a Medicare Advantage Plan (Part C). What Part A covers Medicare ... health plans cover Medicare health plans include Medicare Advantage, Medical Savings Account (MSA), Medicare Cost plans, PACE, ...

  15. Labour Market Policy in Germany: Job Placement, Unemployment Insurance and Active Labour Market Policy in Germany. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blien, Uwe; Walwei, Ulrich; Werner, Heinz

    Job placement, unemployment insurance, and active labor market policy in Germany were reviewed. The following were among the review's main conclusions: (1) measures of active and passive labor market policy are still regarded as important to combating unemployment and improving the matching function of the German labor market; (2) the many…

  16. Active experiments in space; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission D (Meeting D3) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbert, R.

    1992-12-01

    The present volume on active experiments in space discusses dynamic trapping of electrons in the Porcupine ionospheric ion beam experiment, plasma wave observations during electron gun experiments on ISEE-1, spatial coherence and electromagnetic wave generation during electron beam experiments in space, and recent experimental measurements of space platform charging at LEO altitudes. Attention is given to high voltage spheres in an unmagnetized plasma, energetic ion emission for active spacecraft control, the collective gyration of a heavy ion cloud in a magnetized plasma, and remote sensing of artificial luminous clouds by lidars. Topics addressed include modulation of the background flux of energetic particles by artificial injection, wave measurements in active experiments on plasma beam injection, field formation around negatively biased solar arrays in the LEO-plasma, and the registration of ELF waves in rocket-satellite experiments with plasma injection.

  17. Cover crops for Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are grown to benefit the following crop as well as to improve the soil, but they are normally not intended for harvest. Selecting the right cover crops for farming operations can improve yields, soil and water conservation and quality, and economic productivity. Properly managed cover ...

  18. Cover crop water use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are being widely promoted because of soil health benefits. However, semi-arid dryland production systems, chronically short of water for crop production, may not be able to profitably withstand the yield reduction that follows cover crops because of cover crop water use. Some studies sug...

  19. Topically applied vitamins and their cutaneous effects.

    PubMed

    Grammaticopoulos, George T; Furtunopoulos, Demetrios G; Zisova, Lilia G

    2004-01-01

    The number of cosmetic products which include vitamins as a constituent has increased three-fold since 1991. Vitamins are commonly used as ingredients of products designed to improve the appearance and health of the skin; for this reason the cutaneous benefits of such products are actively researched by dermatologists and chemists. The present study does a review of the action of topically applied vitamins for local use which improves the function of the skin. We specifically consider the biologic activity of topically applied vitamins, their stability and usefulness. Ways of stabilizing different kinds of vitamins, as well as their stability to oxygen, light, temperature, acids, and bases, are shown. The conclusion suggested by the review is that the efficiency of topically applied vitamins is dependent not only on their good stabilization and concentration but also on the clinical individual tests that can determine the best product for each particular patient.

  20. Topics in statistical mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Elser, V.

    1984-05-01

    This thesis deals with four independent topics in statistical mechanics: (1) the dimer problem is solved exactly for a hexagonal lattice with general boundary using a known generating function from the theory of partitions. It is shown that the leading term in the entropy depends on the shape of the boundary; (2) continuum models of percolation and self-avoiding walks are introduced with the property that their series expansions are sums over linear graphs with intrinsic combinatorial weights and explicit dimension dependence; (3) a constrained SOS model is used to describe the edge of a simple cubic crystal. Low and high temperature results are derived as well as the detailed behavior near the crystal facet; (4) the microscopic model of the lambda-transition involving atomic permutation cycles is reexamined. In particular, a new derivation of the two-component field theory model of the critical behavior is presented. Results for a lattice model originally proposed by Kikuchi are extended with a high temperature series expansion and Monte Carlo simulation. 30 references.

  1. Activation and micropore structure determination of carbon-fiber composite molecular sieves. Topical report, 30 March 1994--14 April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Jagtoyen, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kimber, G.; Fei, You Qing

    1995-05-19

    Progress in developing novel, rigid, monolithic adsorbent carbon fiber composites is described. Carbon fiber composites are activated using steam or CO{sub 2}, in order to produce uniform activation through the material and to control the pore structure and adsorptive properties. There is an overall shrinkage during activation, which is directly correlated with burnoff; burnoff above 40% results in fracture. Burnoffs higher than 10% does not produce any benefit for separation of CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixtures. Five samples of CFCMS have been prepared for testing as molecular sieves; all have relatively narrow pore size distributions with average pore diameters around 6A.

  2. 43 CFR 5.1 - What does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROJECTS AND STILL PHOTOGRAPHY ON CERTAIN AREAS UNDER DEPARTMENT JURISDICTION Areas Administered by the... does this subpart cover? This subpart covers commercial filming and still photography activities...

  3. 43 CFR 5.1 - What does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROJECTS AND STILL PHOTOGRAPHY ON CERTAIN AREAS UNDER DEPARTMENT JURISDICTION Areas Administered by the... does this subpart cover? This subpart covers commercial filming and still photography activities...

  4. TOPICAL REVIEW: Nucleosynthesis in classical nova explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José, Jordi; Hernanz, Margarita

    2007-12-01

    Classical novae are fascinating stellar explosions at the crossroads of stellar astrophysics, nuclear physics, and cosmochemistry. In this review, we briefly summarize 30 years of nucleosynthesis studies, with special emphasis on recent advances in nova theory (including multidimensional models) as well as on experimental efforts to reduce nuclear uncertainties affecting critical reaction rates. Among the topics that are covered, we outline the interplay between nova outbursts and the galactic chemical abundances, the synthesis of radioactive nuclei of interest for γ-ray astronomy, such as 7Li, 22Na or 26Al, and the potential discovery of presolar meteoritic grains likely condensed in nova shells.

  5. Preface to Special Topic: Marine Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, F. T.; Iglesias, G.; Santos, P. R.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2015-12-30

    Marine renewable energy (MRE) is generates from waves, currents, tides, and thermal resources in the ocean. MRE has been identified as a potential commercial-scale source of renewable energy. This special topic presents a compilation of works selected from the 3rd IAHR Europe Congress, held in Porto, Portugal, in 2014. It covers different subjects relevant to MRE, including resource assessment, marine energy sector policies, energy source comparisons based on levelized cost, proof-of-concept and new-technology development for wave and tidal energy exploitation, and assessment of possible inference between wave energy converters (WEC).

  6. Current Topics In STEM Education Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glembo, Tyler

    2015-04-01

    The role of the federal government in education is a hotly debated topic in Congress, causing education to become deeply embedded in politics. Federal funding of education, although covering only about ten percent of total cost, has large impact in the classroom, from testing standards to low interest student loans. This talk will examine the current landscape in physics education including issues facing the community at a national/federal level and also legislation such as the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. We will also examine how stakeholders can develop effective messages and participate in discussions with policy makers.

  7. Discovering Health Topics in Social Media Using Topic Models

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Michael J.; Dredze, Mark

    2014-01-01

    By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM), as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689) and allergies (r = 0.810) temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r = .534) and obesity (r = −.631) related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media. PMID:25084530

  8. Discovering health topics in social media using topic models.

    PubMed

    Paul, Michael J; Dredze, Mark

    2014-01-01

    By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM), as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689) and allergies (r = 0.810) temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r =  .534) and obesity (r =  -.631) related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media.

  9. Topical Pain Relievers May Cause Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reported Cases According to FDA chemist Reynold Tan, Ph.D., there have been 43 reported cases of burns associated with the use of OTC topical muscle and joint pain relievers containing the active ingredients menthol, methyl salicylate and capsaicin. These cases ...

  10. Sea Changes. Topics in Marine Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations designed to impart ocean science understanding to high school students. The principal theme of Changes in the Sea is presented in this particular…

  11. Topical Antimicrobials for Burn Infections – An Update

    PubMed Central

    Sevgi, Mert; Toklu, Ani; Vecchio, Daniela; Hamblin, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    The relentless rise in antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria and fungi, coupled with the high susceptibility of burn wounds to infection, and the difficulty of systemically administered antibiotics to reach damaged tissue, taken together have made the development of novel topical antimicrobials for burn infections a fertile area of innovation for researchers and companies. We previously covered the existing patent literature in this area in 2010, but the notable progress made since then, has highlighted the need for an update to bring the reader up to date on recent developments. New patents in the areas of topically applied antibiotics and agents that can potentiate the action of existing antibiotics may extend their useful lifetime. Developments have also been made in biofilm-disrupting agents. Antimicrobial peptides are nature’s way for many life forms to defend themselves against attack by pathogens. Silver has long been known to be a highly active antimicrobial but new inorganic metal derivatives based on bismuth, copper and gallium have emerged. Halogens such as chlorine and iodine can be delivered by novel technologies. A variety of topically applied antimicrobials include chitosan preparations, usnic acid, ceragenins and XF porphyrins. Natural product derived antimicrobials such as tannins and essential oils have also been studied. Novel techniques to deliver reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in situ have been developed. Light-mediated techniques include photodynamic therapy, ultraviolet irradiation, blue light, low-level laser therapy and titania photocatalysis. Passive immunotherapy employs antibodies against pathogens and their virulence factors. Finally an interesting new area uses therapeutic microorganisms such as phages, probiotic bacteria and protozoa to combat infections. PMID:24215506

  12. Ocular Safety of Topical Naltrexone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    AD_________________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-09-1-0312 TITLE: Ocular Safety of Topical Naltrexone ...Topical Naltrexone 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1-0312 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Joseph W. Sassani, M.D.; Ian...associates have been funded to perform a Phase I Clinical Trial of Naltrexone dissolved in Vigamox® and applied topically as eye drops preliminary to a

  13. Special Operations Research Topics 2016

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    religious and cultural conflict? A6. Preventing, countering, and disrupting foreign fighter flow The steady state of foreign fighter flow ( FFF ) across...militants from the Middle East, North Africa, and Europe can access this region. The same is true of FFF across Southeast Asia and 5 A. Priority...Topics Previous years’ topics lists are available online at https://jsou.socom.mil. the relationship of VEOs with the FFF phenomenon. This research topic

  14. Auto Mechanics I. Learning Activity Packets (LAPs). Section C--Engine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains five learning activity packets (LAPs) that outline the study activities for the "engine" instructional area for an Auto Mechanics I course. The five LAPs cover the following topics: basic engine principles, cooling system, engine lubrication system, exhaust system, and fuel system. Each LAP contains a cover sheet…

  15. Covering the Global Village: A Handbook for the Student Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zombory, Chris

    Geared to student journalists and their advisors, this handbook demonstrates how different journalism techniques can be used to cover developing nations issues locally. News briefs are timely, short stories that give an overview or summary of a news topic. A news event is similar to a news brief in that the event being covered must be current and…

  16. A Study of Topic and Topic Change in Conversational Threads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    4 and = 6 (LDA Topics = 50). Vertical lines show identified topic transitions. Personally identifying terms are grayed out for privacy purposes...50). Personally identifying terms are grayed out for privacy purposes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 5.4...Matt, thank you for being a generous mentor and wonderful friend. To Marco Draeger, Jenny Tam , Jon Durham, and the rest of the NLP lab, thanks for

  17. Topicality 1 and Topicality 2: A Quest for True Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Clark D.; Vasilius, Janet M.

    The actual nature of topicality as it is presented in intercollegiate debate rounds has become so split that there are two different types of topicality. The first type (T1) is a "real" argument that is subjective, intentional, absolute, jurisdictional, pragmatic, and focuses on content and product. The second type (T2) is strategic,…

  18. Armored geomembrane cover engineering.

    PubMed

    Foye, Kevin

    2011-06-01

    Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities--a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers.

  19. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Foye, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers. PMID:21776229

  20. National land cover dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has produced a land cover dataset for the conterminous United States on the basis of 1992 Landsat thematic mapper imagery and supplemental data. The National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) is a component of the USGS Land Cover Characterization Program. The seamless NLCD contains 21 categories of land cover information suitable for a variety of State and regional applications, including landscape analysis, land management, and modeling nutrient and pesticide runoff. The NLCD is distributed by State as 30-meter resolution raster images in an Albers Equal-Area map projection.

  1. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Topic models like latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) provide a framework for analyzing large datasets where observations are collected into groups. Although topic modeling has been fruitfully applied to problems social science, biology, and computer vision, it has been most widely used to model datasets where documents are modeled as exchangeable…

  2. [Violence Prevention: A Topical Newsletter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourland, Eric

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue addresses the issue of violence prevention in American schools and is based on presentations and discussions at the Workgroup To Improve the Quality of Technical Assistance around the Topic of Violence Prevention held in Washington, D.C. on June 12-14, 1995. The newsletter reports on the following presentation topics:…

  3. Resources for Topics in Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This guide for conducting library research on topics in architecture or on the work of a particular architect presents suggestions for utilizing four categories of resources: books, dictionaries and encyclopedias, indexes, and a periodicals and series list (PASL). Two topics are researched as examples: the contemporary architect Richard Meier, and…

  4. Resources for Topics in Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This guide for conducting library research on topics in art or the work of a particular artist presents suggestions for utilizing four categories of resources: books, dictionaries and encyclopedias, indexes, and a periodicals and serials list (PASL). Three topics are researched as examples: the contemporary artist and author Frank Stella, the…

  5. Working Topics for Students' Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marting, Janet

    Students enrolled in composition classes may provide the answer to the dilemma of coming up with a writing topic: work--the "four letter word." Most, if not all, students have already become part of the labor force. The theme of "work" is naturally successful because it centers around a topic students know well, something that…

  6. Public understanding of geoscientific topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münch, Ute; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2014-05-01

    Geoscientific topics and their consequences for the society are becoming more and more important for our daily life. Natural hazards such as flood and storm or the consequences of the climate change are urgent tasks and great challenges we have to tackle. Cascading natural hazards or environmental risks, can't be evaluated as single events by one scientific discipline, they rather need the expertise of different experts. The same applies for slowly progressive processes such as the climate change and its different aftereffects. More than ever politicians, decision makers, but also the public are asking for comprehensive background information and data to discuss activity options and to develop sustainable solutions. The improvement of public knowledge about science, their assets and drawbacks, chances and risks is getting crucial. To paint a comprehensive picture of different factors, correlations and dependencies the pooling of expertise is required. Thus eight research centres of the research field "Earth and Environment" of the Helmholtz-Association, Germany's largest scientific research organisation are currently building up a knowledge platform. Scientists of different disciplines will provide background information and explain their latest findings in an understandable way. Infographics, maps and animations will be applied to simplify and interpret complicated facts and findings. In addition to the web presence target group-specific products and activities will be organized. To meet the expectations of the different stakeholders an intensive dialog is aspired: round table discussions, exhibitions in museums and public places, tweeds are envisaged. In the beginning the partners will concentrate on the topics "consequences of the climate change", "pollutant dispersion" and "natural hazards/meteorological extreme events". The project is called Earth System Knowledge Platform (ESKP) coordinated by the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) and the Helmholtz

  7. Topical Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    Topical medications have dramatically changed the treatment of rhinitis. While systemic treatment is often more potent, topical treatment has fewer side effects. However, topical preparations also have side effects which should be considered when treating rhinitis. Topical steroids are potent anti-inflammatories but may cause nasal bleeding; sodium cromoglycate improves allergic and general inflammation but is less potent than steroids. Topical decongestants are beneficial for short-term use when there is nasal obstruction or copious discharge, but can cause damage to nasal epithelium or atrophy and dryness of the nasal mucous membrane after years of use. Anticholinergic spray is effective when watery discharge predominates, and saline is helpful when there is nasal dryness. Treatment of associated conjunctivitis is also discussed. PMID:21286563

  8. Silostop Bunker Covers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quality of the seal provided by the plastic cover is a key issue for minimizing losses in bunker and pile silos. Most bunker covers are 6 to 8 mil polyethylene sheets held in place by tires or tire sidewalls. Frequently there are problems with spoilage at the shoulders (i.e., against the walls),...

  9. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: LANDFILL COVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill covers are used at Superfund sites to minimize surface water infiltration and control gas migration. In many cases covers are used in conjunction with other waste treatment technologies, such as slurry walls, ground water pump-and-treat systems, and gas collection. This ...

  10. Land Cover Trends Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  11. CounselorQuest: Concise Analyses of Critical Counseling Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R., Comp.

    This document contains 167 Educational Resources and Information Center (ERIC) digests from eight ERIC Clearinghouses covering topics of interest to counselors who work with clients from preschool age through adults. Digests are organized alphabetically by title; three indices help users locate digests alphabetically, by educational level, and by…

  12. Accelerators, Beams And Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators And Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC

    2011-10-24

    Accelerator science and technology have evolved as accelerators became larger and important to a broad range of science. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams was established to serve the accelerator community as a timely, widely circulated, international journal covering the full breadth of accelerators and beams. The history of the journal and the innovations associated with it are reviewed.

  13. Systematic Planning for ICT Integration in Topic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qiyun; Woo, Huay Lit

    2007-01-01

    Integrating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into teaching and learning is a growing area that has attracted many educators' efforts in recent years. Based on the scope of content covered, ICT integration can happen in three different areas: curriculum, topic, and lesson. This paper elaborates upon the concept of ICT integration, and…

  14. MODIS Snow-Cover Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vinvent V.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo; Bayr, Klaus J.; Houser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. These products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products represent potential improvement to the currently available operation products mainly because the MODIS products are global and 500-m resolution, and have the capability to separate most snow and clouds. Also the snow-mapping algorithms are automated which means that a consistent data set is generated for long-term climates studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the product. The snow product suite starts with a 500-m resolution swath snow-cover map which is gridded to the Integerized Sinusoidal Grid to produce daily and eight-day composite tile products. The sequence then proceeds to a climate-modeling grid product at 5-km spatial resolution, with both daily and eight-day composite products. A case study from March 6, 2000, involving MODIS data and field and aircraft measurements, is presented. Near-term enhancements include daily snow albedo and fractional snow cover.

  15. Investigation of some topical formulations containing dexpanthenol.

    PubMed

    Stozkowska, Wiesława; Piekoś, Ryszard

    2004-01-01

    Owing to its ability to regenerate epidermal cells Dexpanthenol (D-panthenol; chemically known as (+)-2,4-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutyramide) has found use for the treatment of patholytic ileus and postoperative distention. The purpose of research was to develop a gel containing dexpanthenol by monitoring the effect of various concentrations of a gelating agent on the activity of the ciliary apparatus. A system containing 2.5% of hydroxyethylcellulose was optimal for the preparation of the gel. Together with a formulation containing 5% of dexpanthenol, drops with equal concentration of the active compound were tested for comparison. Physical characteristics, such as osmotic pressure, acidity, density and viscosity of the preparation were determined as well as its microbiological sterility. The anti-inflammatory activity of the gel was determined following its topical application. Epidermal tests showed its good tolerance after topical application to the shaved skin of guinea pigs.

  16. Learning Activity Package, Biology, LAPs 12, 13, 15, 17, and 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoden, Bruce

    Included is a set of five teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in topics in biology. The units cover the topics of individuals and populations, communities and ecosystems, diversity, plant functions, and animal functions. Each unit contains a rationale for the material; a list of behavioral objectives…

  17. Making Algebra Come Alive: Student Activities & Teacher Notes. Math Assessment Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posamentier, Alfred S.

    This book contains a set of versatile enrichment exercises that cover a very broad range of mathematical topics and applications in algebra from the Moebius strip to the googol. Several criteria have been used in developing the activities and selecting the topics that are included. All of them bear heavily and equally on concerns for curriculum…

  18. Making Pre-Algebra Come Alive: Student Activities & Teacher Notes. Math Assessment Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posamentier, Alfred S.

    This book contains a set of versatile enrichment exercises that cover a very broad range of mathematical topics and applications in pre-algebra from the Moebius strip to the googol. Several criteria have been used in developing the activities and selecting the topics that are included. All of them bear heavily and equally on concerns for…

  19. Topics in little Higgs physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Spencer

    The Standard Model is the currently accepted model of elementary particle interactions as determined by many years of particle physics experiments. It is both highly predictive and successful in its predictions, which is one of the great achievements of the last half century of science. However, there are indications that the Standard Model is incomplete with the main evidence being the so called hierarchy problem. In general terms, the hierarchy problem suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model have to be severely fine tuned in order to describe the real world. Motivated by the naturalness issues the hierarchy problem provokes, many theories of beyond the Standard Model physics have been proposed that alleviate the fine tuning. Continuing this approach, recently a new scenario called "Little Higgs" theories has been suggested as a viable alternative to the Standard Model, which has some novel features compared to the other competitive theories. The fact that these Little Higgs models may describe the real world is interesting and motivates their study. In the first chapter, an introduction describing in elementary terms what the hierarchy problem is and how Little Higgs theories are a solution to this problem is presented. After this short introduction, two topics in Little Higgs theories are analyzed. The first subject is determining if Little Higgs theories are consistent with the precision experiments performed to date. This is covered in chapters two and three, where two different Little Higgs models with approximate custodial SU(2) symmetry are presented. This symmetry increases the range of parameter space where these Little Higgs theories are both consistent with precision tests and are natural under the sense of the hierarchy problem. Thus, these theories are viable candidates for beyond the Standard Model physics. The fourth chapter is on the second subject, which is analyzing the constraints that unitarity places upon the Little Higgs theories

  20. Human Driving Forces and Their Impacts on Land Use/Land Cover. Hands-On! Developing Active Learning Modules on the Human Dimensions of Global Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Susanne

    This learning module aims to engage students in problem solving, critical thinking, scientific inquiry, and cooperative learning. The module is appropriate for use in any introductory or intermediate undergraduate course that focuses on human-environment relationships. The module explains that land use/cover change has occurred at all times in all…

  1. Topic Model for Graph Mining.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Junyu; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan; Luo, Xiangfeng

    2015-12-01

    Graph mining has been a popular research area because of its numerous application scenarios. Many unstructured and structured data can be represented as graphs, such as, documents, chemical molecular structures, and images. However, an issue in relation to current research on graphs is that they cannot adequately discover the topics hidden in graph-structured data which can be beneficial for both the unsupervised learning and supervised learning of the graphs. Although topic models have proved to be very successful in discovering latent topics, the standard topic models cannot be directly applied to graph-structured data due to the "bag-of-word" assumption. In this paper, an innovative graph topic model (GTM) is proposed to address this issue, which uses Bernoulli distributions to model the edges between nodes in a graph. It can, therefore, make the edges in a graph contribute to latent topic discovery and further improve the accuracy of the supervised and unsupervised learning of graphs. The experimental results on two different types of graph datasets show that the proposed GTM outperforms the latent Dirichlet allocation on classification by using the unveiled topics of these two models to represent graphs.

  2. The future of topical analgesics.

    PubMed

    Arnstein, Paul M

    2013-07-01

    Topically applied analgesic therapies have been used throughout history to treat a variety of patient conditions that present with pain. Before modem pharmaceuticals became readily available, mud-based emollients, salves, cold therapies, and other natural remedies were often used. Now we have effective therapies and are developing advanced topical analgesics as we learn more about the physiology and pathophysiology of pain. The use of topical analgesics may be associated with fewer patient systemic side effects than are seen with oral, parenteral, or transdermally administered agents, making the topical route of administration attractive to prescribers and patients. With further refinement of existing drugs and the development of novel agents, topical analgesics may offer relief for treating patient pain conditions that are currently challenging to treat, such as pain resulting from burns, wound debridement, and pressure ulcers. Recognizing the value of a multimodal approach, topical analgesics may offer a therapeutic option that can become part of a comprehensive treatment plan for the patient. With continued advancements in targeted drug-delivery systems, topical analgesics may be able to provide a method to prevent or reverse the phenomena of peripheral and central sensitization, or the neuroplastic changes believed to be responsible for the transition from acute to chronic pain states in patients. For those patients at risk for developing chronic pain states, such as complex regional pain syndrome, the combination of cutaneous stimulation (achieved through rubbing during application) and analgesic effects produced by the drug itself may prevent the disabling pain that often emerges during the subacute phase of disease. In summary, better utilization of currently available topical analgesics and continued research promise to ensure that topical analgesics are, and will continue to be, important tools in the treatment of patients with resistant pain.

  3. Miscellaneous Topics in Computer-Aided Drug Design: Synthetic Accessibility and GPU Computing, and Other Topics

    PubMed Central

    Fukunishi, Yoshifumi; Mashimo, Tadaaki; Misoo, Kiyotaka; Wakabayashi, Yoshinori; Miyaki, Toshiaki; Ohta, Seiji; Nakamura, Mayu; Ikeda, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background Computer-aided drug design is still a state-of-the-art process in medicinal chemistry, and the main topics in this field have been extensively studied and well reviewed. These topics include compound databases, ligand-binding pocket prediction, protein-compound docking, virtual screening, target/off-target prediction, physical property prediction, molecular simulation and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) prediction. Message and Conclusion: However, there are also a number of secondary or miscellaneous topics that have been less well covered. For example, methods for synthesizing and predicting the synthetic accessibility (SA) of designed compounds are important in practical drug development, and hardware/software resources for performing the computations in computer-aided drug design are crucial. Cloud computing and general purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU) computing have been used in virtual screening and molecular dynamics simulations. Not surprisingly, there is a growing demand for computer systems which combine these resources. In the present review, we summarize and discuss these various topics of drug design. PMID:27075578

  4. Active impedance matching of complex structural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmartin, Douglas G.; Miller, David W.; Hall, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on active impedance matching of complex structural systems are presented. Topics covered include: traveling wave model; dereverberated mobility model; computation of dereverberated mobility; control problem: optimal impedance matching; H2 optimal solution; statistical energy analysis (SEA) solution; experimental transfer functions; interferometer actuator and sensor locations; active strut configurations; power dual variables; dereverberation of complex structure; dereverberated transfer function; compensators; and relative power flow.

  5. Supplement. Multi-Ethnic Activities. Lower Elementary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., South Bend. Ethnic Heritage Studies Program.

    Developed as part of an ethnic heritage studies program, this teacher's guide presents learning activities designed to facilitate an awareness of cultural pluralism for lower elementary students. Each activity is intended as part of a foundation for cultural understanding. Thirteen topics are covered: uniqueness of the child, contributions of…

  6. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  7. A heuristic approach to determine an appropriate number of topics in topic modeling

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Topic modelling is an active research field in machine learning. While mainly used to build models from unstructured textual data, it offers an effective means of data mining where samples represent documents, and different biological endpoints or omics data represent words. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) is the most commonly used topic modelling method across a wide number of technical fields. However, model development can be arduous and tedious, and requires burdensome and systematic sensitivity studies in order to find the best set of model parameters. Often, time-consuming subjective evaluations are needed to compare models. Currently, research has yielded no easy way to choose the proper number of topics in a model beyond a major iterative approach. Methods and results Based on analysis of variation of statistical perplexity during topic modelling, a heuristic approach is proposed in this study to estimate the most appropriate number of topics. Specifically, the rate of perplexity change (RPC) as a function of numbers of topics is proposed as a suitable selector. We test the stability and effectiveness of the proposed method for three markedly different types of grounded-truth datasets: Salmonella next generation sequencing, pharmacological side effects, and textual abstracts on computational biology and bioinformatics (TCBB) from PubMed. Conclusion The proposed RPC-based method is demonstrated to choose the best number of topics in three numerical experiments of widely different data types, and for databases of very different sizes. The work required was markedly less arduous than if full systematic sensitivity studies had been carried out with number of topics as a parameter. We understand that additional investigation is needed to substantiate the method's theoretical basis, and to establish its generalizability in terms of dataset characteristics. PMID:26424364

  8. Covering the State Legislature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Stephen C.

    1975-01-01

    Describes how journalism majors at Ball State University are required to cover the annual sessions of the Indiana legislature, and discusses some of the experiences and problems that were encountered. (RB)

  9. Safety and Health Topics: Asbestos

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Asbestos Asbestos This page requires that javascript be enabled for ... Hazards and Toxic Substances Hazardous Waste What is asbestos? Asbestos is the name given to a group ...

  10. Conversational topics in transsexual persons.

    PubMed

    Van Borsel, John; Cayzeele, Miet; Heirman, Eva; T'sjoen, Guy

    2014-06-01

    Abstract In general, speech language therapy for transsexual persons focuses on pitch and pitch variation and more recently also on resonance. Other communicative aspects are dealt with far less often, especially language. This study investigated to what extent conversational topics might need attention in therapy for transsexual persons. A total of 111 males, 116 females, 28 male-to-female and 18 female-to-male transsexuals were asked to indicate on a list with 34 topics how often they speak about each topic (never, sometimes, often) in conversations with males, with females and in a gender mixed group. Results showed that transsexual persons behave in accordance with the desired gender. However, they also tend to adopt a position depending on the gender of their conversational partner. It can be concluded that in general it is not necessary to pay attention to conversational topics in therapy for transsexual persons.

  11. Hierarchical Theme and Topic Modeling.

    PubMed

    Chien, Jen-Tzung

    2016-03-01

    Considering the hierarchical data groupings in text corpus, e.g., words, sentences, and documents, we conduct the structural learning and infer the latent themes and topics for sentences and words from a collection of documents, respectively. The relation between themes and topics under different data groupings is explored through an unsupervised procedure without limiting the number of clusters. A tree stick-breaking process is presented to draw theme proportions for different sentences. We build a hierarchical theme and topic model, which flexibly represents the heterogeneous documents using Bayesian nonparametrics. Thematic sentences and topical words are extracted. In the experiments, the proposed method is evaluated to be effective to build semantic tree structure for sentences and the corresponding words. The superiority of using tree model for selection of expressive sentences for document summarization is illustrated.

  12. Bed Bug Clearinghouse by Topic

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This information is intended to help states, communities, and consumers prevent and control bed bug infestations. Topics include bed bug biology and behavior, detection and monitoring, non-chemical techniques such as heat treatment, and pesticides.

  13. MODIS Snow-Cover Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; DiGirolamo, Nicole E.; Bayr, Klaus J.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. MODIS snow and ice products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products represent potential improvement to or enhancement of the currently-available operational products mainly because the MODIS products are global and 500-m resolution, and have the capability to separate most snow and clouds. Also the snow-mapping algorithms are automated which means that a consistent data set may be generated for long-term climate studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the products. The MODIS snow product suite begins with a 500-m resolution, 2330-km swath snow-cover map which is then gridded to an integerized sinusoidal grid to produce daily and 8-day composite tile products. The sequence proceeds to a climate-modeling grid (CMG) product at about 5.6-km spatial resolution, with both daily and 8-day composite products. Each pixel of the CMG contains fraction of snow cover from 40 - 100%. Measured errors of commission in the CMG are low, for example, on the continent of Australia in the spring, they vary from 0.02 - 0.10%. Near-term enhancements include daily snow albedo and fractional snow cover. A case study from March 6, 2000, involving MODIS data and field and aircraft measurements, is presented to show some early validation work.

  14. Land Cover Characterization Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    (2) identify sources, develop procedures, and organize partners to deliver data and information to meet user requirements. The LCCP builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS land use and land cover programs and projects. It will be compatible with current concepts of government operations, the changing needs of the land use and land cover data users, and the technological tools with which the data are applied.

  15. WATER COOLED RETORT COVER

    DOEpatents

    Ash, W.J.; Pozzi, J.F.

    1962-05-01

    A retort cover is designed for use in the production of magnesium metal by the condensation of vaporized metal on a collecting surface. The cover includes a condensing surface, insulating means adjacent to the condensing surface, ind a water-cooled means for the insulating means. The irrangement of insulation and the cooling means permits the magnesium to be condensed at a high temperature and in massive nonpyrophoric form. (AEC)

  16. Special Operations Research Topics 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    overcome the crisis culture? Is the USSOCOM crisis management style driven by the direct action door kickers at the expense of thinkers? Could Sun...themselves lecturing in JSOU classrooms . This gives our students the unique opportunity to experience first-hand the author’s perspectives on their...Priority Topics Topic Titles A1. No time to think: Crisis management culture in SOF is inhibiting strategic thought A2. SOF in under-governed spaces

  17. Continuous Time Dynamic Topic Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-20

    called topics, can be used to explain the observed collection. LDA is a probabilistic extension of latent semantic indexing (LSI) [5] and probabilistic... latent semantic indexing (pLSI) [11]. Owing to its formal generative semantics, LDA has been extended and applied to authorship [19], email [15...Steyvers. Probabilistic topic models. In Latent Semantic Analysis: A Road to Meaning. 2006. [9] T. L. Griffiths and M. Steyvers. Finding scientific

  18. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    analyzing large datasets where observations are collected into groups. Although topic modeling has been fruitfully applied to problems social science...topic modeling has been fruitfully applied to problems social science, biology, and computer vision, it has been most widely used to model datasets... socialization , and I’m glad that it was a conduit for me to meet and get to know such great people as Leonard Kostovetsky, Guy David, Kunle Demuren

  19. The topical treatment of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    van de Kerkhof, P C M; Vissers, W H P M

    2003-01-01

    According to the patients, improvement of efficacy, long-term safety and improvement of compliance are needed. The topical treatment has been innovated during the last decade. Most important are the introduction of two new classes of treatments: topical vitamin D(3) analogues and the retinoid tazarotene. To what extent, however, have we achieved developments which are in line with the needs as expressed by the patients? Improved efficacy has been realized by successful combinations of topical treatments. In particular, the combinations of dithranol, vitamin D(3) and tazarotene with a topical corticosteroid proved to be very effective with a reduced profile of side-effects. The efficacy of vitamin D(3) analogues and tazarotene is such that the efficacy of a potent corticosteroid (betamethasone-17-valerate) is approached; calcipotriol even showed an efficacy which is at least as good as this corticosteroid. The long-term safety of new compounds has been evaluated for at least 12 months in large studies. Remarkably for corticosteroids such information is available for only 12 weeks. However, intermittent applications of a topical corticosteroid in combination with another topical treatment provide an effective and safe long-term control of psoriasis. Compliance is a conditio sine qua non for an effective topical treatment. Important progress has been made to increase compliance. Short-contact dithranol has been popularized as an ambulatory treatment which is a highly effective approach as a care instruction programme. Formulations which are better from a cosmetical point of view have been developed for various topical treatments. Reduction of the frequency of applications proved to be possible for most treatments. Once daily applications for corticosteroids, vitamin D(3) analogues and retinoids have been developed, and intermittent applications, a few times per week, are possible for corticosteroids, which proved to be very effective with a reduced profile of side

  20. Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Thomas; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of topical NSAIDs to treat acute musculoskeletal conditions is widely accepted in some parts of the world, but not in others. Their main attraction is their potential to provide pain relief without associated systemic adverse events. Objectives To review the evidence from randomised, double-blind, controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of topically applied NSAIDs in acute pain. Search methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and our own in-house database to December 2009. We sought unpublished studies by asking personal contacts and searching on-line clinical trial registers and manufacturers web sites. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, active or placebo (inert carrier)-controlled trials in which treatments were administered to adult patients with acute pain resulting from strains, sprains or sports or overuse-type injuries (twisted ankle, for instance). There had to be at least 10 participants in each treatment arm, with application of treatment at least once daily. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and validity, and extracted data. Numbers of participants achieving each outcome were used to calculate relative risk and numbers needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or other active treatment. Main results Forty-seven studies were included; most compared topical NSAIDs in the form of a gel, spray, or cream with a similar placebo, with 3455 participants in the overall analysis of efficacy. For all topical NSAIDs combined, compared with placebo, the number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) for clinical success, equivalent to 50% pain relief, was 4.5 (3.9 to 5.3) for treatment periods of 6 to 14 days. Topical diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and piroxicam were of similar efficacy, but indomethacin and benzydamine were not significantly better than placebo. Local skin reactions were generally mild and transient, and did not differ from

  1. Energy Conservation Activities for the Classroom K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Dept. of Energy, Frankfort.

    After a brief introduction entitled "Where Does the Energy We Use Come From," this unit presents 86 activities. Each activity gives the title, concept, objectives, subject area, level, time involved, materials needed, procedures, and related career activities. Topics cover everything from housing insulation to alternate sources of energy to energy…

  2. Microcirculatory effect of topical vapocoolants

    PubMed Central

    Galdyn, Izabela; Swanson, Edward; Gordon, Chad; Kwiecien, Grzegorz; Bena, James; Siemionow, Maria; Zins, James

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vapocoolant sprays are commonly used to minimize pain following minor interventions such as venipuncture, shave biopsy or needle insertion. Although these sprays have been widely used in clinical practice, little is known about their effect on microcirculation or cutaneous blood flow. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the real-time effect of a topical vapocoolant using a well-established, rat cremaster muscle microcirculatory model, allowing direct measurement of changes in vessel diameter, capillary density and leukocyte behaviour. METHODS: Fifty rats were divided into a control and four experimental groups: group 1: 4 s spray with vapocoolant at 18 cm distance; group 2: 10 s spray at 18 cm distance; group 3: 4 s spray at 8 cm distance; and group 4: 10 s spray at 8 cm distance. Vessel diameters, capillary density and leukocyte behaviour were monitored for 1 h thereafter. Muscle was harvested for immunohistochemistry analysis of proangiogenic markers (vascular endothelial growth factor and von Willebrand factor), leukocyte behaviour markers (E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule, intercellular adhesion molecule), pimonidazole-hypoxia staining and ApopTag (Millipore, USA) staining for apoptosis. Gene expression for inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma) was evaluated using polymerase chain reaction and myeloperoxidase assay for inflammation was performed. RESULTS: The use of refrigerant spray decreased vessel diameter and capillary density initially, although none of these decreases were statistically significant. Polymerase chain reaction showed no significant changes. The myeloperoxidase assay showed statistically significant increase in myeloperoxidase activity in groups 2, 3 and 4. Immunohistochemistry was negative for angiogenic and proinflammatory markers. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of statistically significant changes in vessel diameter and inflammatory markers corroborated the

  3. Topical corticosteroids do not revert the activated phenotype of eosinophils in eosinophilic esophagitis but decrease surface levels of CD18 resulting in diminished adherence to ICAM-1, ICAM-2, and endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lingblom, Christine; Bergquist, Henrik; Johnsson, Marianne; Sundström, Patrik; Quiding-Järbrink, Marianne; Bove, Mogens; Wennerås, Christine

    2014-12-01

    Swallowed topical corticosteroids are the standard therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in adults. Eosinophils in the blood of untreated EoE patients have an activated phenotype. Our aim was to determine if corticosteroids restore the phenotype of eosinophils to a healthy phenotype and if certain cell-surface molecules on blood eosinophils correlate with eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus. Levels of eight surface markers on eosinophils from treated and untreated EoE patients were determined by flow cytometry and analyzed using multivariate methods of pattern recognition. Corticosteroid-treated EoE patients' eosinophils had decreased levels of CD18 compared to both untreated patients and healthy controls, but maintained their activated phenotype. CD18 expression correlated positively with eosinophil numbers in the esophagus and promoted the adherence of eosinophils to ICAM-1, ICAM-2, and to endothelial cells. The diminished expression of CD18 may be one mechanism behind the reduced entry of eosinophils into the esophagus in corticosteroid-treated EoE patients.

  4. Traditional Persian topical medications for gastrointestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tafti, Laleh Dehghani; Shariatpanahi, Seyyed Mahyar; Damghani, Mahmoud Mahdavi; Javadi, Behjat

    2017-01-01

    Drug delivery across the skin is used for several millennia to ease gastrointestinal (GI) ailments in Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM). TPM topical remedies are generally being applied on the stomach, lower abdomen, lower back and liver to alleviate GI illnesses such as dyspepsia, gastritis, GI ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal worms and infections. The aim of the present study is to survey the topical GI remedies and plant species used as ingredients for these remedies in TPM. In addition, pharmacological activities of the mentioned plants have been discussed. For this, we searched major TPM textbooks to find plants used to cure GI problems in topical use. Additionally, scientific databases were searched to obtain pharmacological data supporting the use of TPM plants in GI diseases. Rosa × damascena, Pistacia lentiscus, Malus domestica, Olea europaea and Artemisia absinthium are among the most frequently mentioned ingredients of TPM remedies. β-asarone, amygdalin, boswellic acids, guggulsterone, crocin, crocetin, isomasticadienolic acid, and cyclotides are the most important phytochemicals present in TPM plants with GI-protective activities. Pharmacological studies demonstrated GI activities for TPM plants supporting their extensive traditional use. These plants play pivotal role in alleviating GI disorders through exhibiting numerous activities including antispasmodic, anti-ulcer, anti-secretory, anti-colitis, anti-diarrheal, antibacterial and anthelmintic properties. Several mechanisms underlie these activities including the alleviation of oxidative stress, exhibiting cytoprotective activity, down-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines, suppression of the cellular signaling pathways of inflammatory responses, improving re-epithelialization and angiogenesis, down-regulation of anti-angiogenic factors, blocking activity of acetylcholine, etc. PMID:28392893

  5. Organic Optoelectronic Materials: A Topical Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The topics covered include the following: Introduction to Nonlinear Optics of Organics and the Use of Second Harmonic Generation as a Polymer Probe; Experimental Characterization of Second Order Nonlinear Optical Chromophores; Chi(2) Structure-Property Relationship on the Colligative Scale; The Stability of the Poled Order in Crosslinked Systems; Corona Electric Filed Poling of Nonlinear Polymers and Femtosecond Optical Applications; Synthesis and Characterization of Photosensitive Polymers for Optical Waveguide Definition; Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Conjugated Polymers; The Relationship Between Chemical Structure and Second-Order Optical Nonlinearities or Organic Molecules; Theory and Structure/Property of chi(3) Materials; Synthesis of Well-Defined Thiophene Oligomers and Planar Conjugated Polymers for chi(3) Studies; and Spectroscopy as a Probe of chi(3) in Conjugated Materials.

  6. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Includes short discussion of perimeters of regular polygons having fixed areas, Fibonacci numbers, triangle transformations, transformational matrices, round-off errors, and a mathematical model for musical keys. (RS)

  7. Automatic cloud cover mapping.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, J. P., III; Rosenfeld, A.

    1971-01-01

    A method of converting a picture into a 'cartoon' or 'map' whose regions correspond to differently textured regions is described. Texture edges in the picture are detected, and solid regions surrounded by these (usually broken) edges are 'colored in' using a propagation process. The resulting map is cleaned by comparing the region colors with the textures of the corresponding regions in the picture, and also by merging some regions with others according to criteria based on topology and size. The method has been applied to the construction of cloud cover maps from cloud cover pictures obtained by satellites.

  8. Reusable pipe flange covers

    DOEpatents

    Holden, James Elliott; Perez, Julieta

    2001-01-01

    A molded, flexible pipe flange cover for temporarily covering a pipe flange and a pipe opening includes a substantially round center portion having a peripheral skirt portion depending from the center portion, the center portion adapted to engage a front side of the pipe flange and to seal the pipe opening. The peripheral skirt portion is formed to include a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs, wherein free ends of the flexible tabs are formed with respective through passages adapted to receive a drawstring for pulling the tabs together on a back side of the pipe flange.

  9. Extracting Hot spots of Topics from Time Stamped Documents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Chundi, Parvathi

    2011-07-01

    Identifying time periods with a burst of activities related to a topic has been an important problem in analyzing time-stamped documents. In this paper, we propose an approach to extract a hot spot of a given topic in a time-stamped document set. Topics can be basic, containing a simple list of keywords, or complex. Logical relationships such as and, or, and not are used to build complex topics from basic topics. A concept of presence measure of a topic based on fuzzy set theory is introduced to compute the amount of information related to the topic in the document set. Each interval in the time period of the document set is associated with a numeric value which we call the discrepancy score. A high discrepancy score indicates that the documents in the time interval are more focused on the topic than those outside of the time interval. A hot spot of a given topic is defined as a time interval with the highest discrepancy score. We first describe a naive implementation for extracting hot spots. We then construct an algorithm called EHE (Efficient Hot Spot Extraction) using several efficient strategies to improve performance. We also introduce the notion of a topic DAG to facilitate an efficient computation of presence measures of complex topics. The proposed approach is illustrated by several experiments on a subset of the TDT-Pilot Corpus and DBLP conference data set. The experiments show that the proposed EHE algorithm significantly outperforms the naive one, and the extracted hot spots of given topics are meaningful.

  10. "The Strawberry Caper": Using Scenario-Based Problem Solving to Integrate Middle School Science Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonda, Rebecca L.; DeHart, Kyle; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Legg, Alison Slinskey

    2015-01-01

    Achieving a deep understanding of the many topics covered in middle school biology classes is difficult for many students. One way to help students learn these topics is through scenario-based learning, which enhances students' performance. The scenario-based problem-solving module presented here, "The Strawberry Caper," not only…

  11. Topical therapies in hyperhidrosis care.

    PubMed

    Pariser, David M; Ballard, Angela

    2014-10-01

    Primary focal hyperhidrosis affects 3% of the US population; about the same number as psoriasis. More than half of these patients have primary focal axillary hyperhidrosis: sweating that is beyond what is anticipated or necessary for thermoregulation. Most topical therapies are based on aluminum salts, which work by a chemical reaction that forms plugs in the eccrine sweat ducts. Topical anticholinergics may also be used. Instruction on proper methods and timing of antiperspirants enhances effect and may be effective alone or in combination with other treatments in patients with hyperhidrosis.

  12. Covering All Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The day a school opens its doors for the first time, the flooring will be new and untarnished. When the flooring is in such pristine condition, many flooring materials--carpeting, vinyl, terrazzo, wood or some other surface--will look good. But school and university planners who decide what kind of material covers the floors of their facilities…

  13. Coronary covered stents.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Ismail Dogu; Fabris, Enrico; Serdoz, Roberta; Caiazzo, Gianluca; Foin, Nicolas; Abou-Sherif, Sara; Di Mario, Carlo

    2016-11-20

    Covered stents offer an effective bail-out strategy in vessel perforations, are an alternative to surgery for the exclusion of coronary aneurysms, and have a potential role in the treatment of friable embolisation-prone plaques. The aim of this manuscript is to offer an overview of currently available platforms and to report results obtained in prior studies.

  14. At-Risk and Bilingual Fifth-Grade Students' On-Task Behavior and Conceptual Understanding in Earth Science-Related Topics during Inquiry-, Technology-, and Game-Based Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeal, K.; Vasquez, Y.; Avandano, C.; Moreno, K.; Besinaiz, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Graduate K-12 (GK12) program has been developed by NSF to support the national effort to advance scientific knowledge through educational partnerships. This paper highlights research conducted during the 2006-2007 school year with the Texas A&M University GK12 project. Two elementary schools with very high numbers of at risk students - those who are poor, speak English as their second language, and have a history of failing state-mandated tests were identified to be the field site for the GK12 project. In these two, high-minority (97% and 40% African American and Hispanic) schools, 80% and 56% of the children have been identified by the state as at risk; 94% and 52% are classified as economically disadvantaged; and 46% and 2% are limited English proficient, respectively. In the past year, 30% and 73% of fifth grade students in these schools passed the science portion of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test. Data collected during a three- week period where GK12 fellows taught the fifth graders Earth science-related topics is presented. During the implementation, students were engaged in technology-, inquiry-, and game-based activities. Students were divided into low-, medium-, and high-abilities in one school, and regular and bilingual groups in the other. Pre- post open-ended multiple choice tests indicated that all but the low performing students' conceptual understanding (CU) significantly (p < 0.05) improved during the IT activity. The low and high student groups' CU significantly improved during the inquiry activity, and the high and bilingual students' CU significantly improved for the game activities. Classroom observation assessments showed that there was a significant (p < 0.10) positive (0.347) correlation between on-task behavior and CU. Significant differences between student groups' CU and on-task behavior indicated that technology-based activities showed greatest differences between the low- ability learners and the other

  15. Topics in Biomedical Optics: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebden, Jeremy C.; Boas, David A.; George, John S.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2003-06-01

    The field of biomedical optics is experiencing tremendous growth. Biomedical technologies contribute in the creation of devices used in healthcare of various specialties (ophthalmology, cardiology, anesthesiology, and immunology, etc.). Recent research in biomedical optics is discussed. Overviews of meetings held at the 2002 Optical Society of America Biomedical Topical Meetings are presented.

  16. Resources for Topics in Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riordan, Dale B.

    This guide is intended to help the user become familiar with a selected group of reference tools and resources which are useful in nursing education and practice. It is important for students to use the correct medical or scientific terminology, understand the scope of a topic, and then utilize the tools necessary to research subjects of interest.…

  17. Vocational Education Today: Topical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane, Ed.; Tregenza, Karen, Ed.; Watkins, Peter, Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers examining topical issues in vocational education and training (VET) in Victoria, Australia. The following papers are included: "Vocational Education and Schooling: The Changing Scene" (Jane Kenway, Sue Willis, Peter Watkins, Karen Tregenza); "The Enterprise Approach" (James Mulraney); "VET…

  18. INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES ON CONTROVERSIAL TOPICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUTTON, THOMAS B.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO DETERMINE INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES WITH REGARD TO SELECTED CONTROVERSIAL TOPICS WHICH ARE FREQUENTLY THE FOCUS OF ADMINISTRATIVE CONCERN AND ACTION. THE STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO GAIN INFORMATION ABOUT THE NATURE AND PURPOSES OF THE POLICIES, THE FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES, AND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ISSUES ON…

  19. Subject, Topic and Sesotho Passive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of Sesotho-speaking children's spontaneous language showed that the acquisition of passives was closely linked to the fact that Sesotho subjects must be discourse topics. It is suggested that a detailed analysis of how passive constructions interact with other components of a given linguistic system is critical for developing coherent and…

  20. Topical Knowledge and ESL Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Ling; Shi, Ling

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of topical knowledge on ESL (English as a Second Language) writing performance in the English Language Proficiency Index (LPI), a standardized English proficiency test used by many post-secondary institutions in western Canada. The participants were 50 students with different levels of English proficiency…

  1. The Health Curriculum: 500 Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Oliver E.

    2001-01-01

    This 1958 paper divides 500 health topics into 20 categories: health as a social accomplishment/social problem; nutrition; physical fitness; mental health and disease; heredity/eugenics; infection/immunity; chronic and degenerative disease; substance abuse; skin care; vision, hearing, and speech; dental health; safety; physical environment; health…

  2. Topics in optics and music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Andrew W.

    2012-10-01

    While the use of optics in the playback of music has been a tremendously successful technology and laser light shows are a common occurrence, other intersections of optics and music tend to be less well known. Topics such as optics-based instruments, performance tools and effects, instrument characterization and manufacturing, recording, playback, and signal processing are explored.

  3. Aviation Maintenance Technology. Airframe. A203. Aircraft Fabric Covering, Painting, and Finishing. Instructor Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This teacher's guide is designed to aid teachers in leading students through a module on airframe building and repair, including fabric covering, painting, and finishing. The module contains two units that cover the following topics: (1) inspecting, testing, and installing aircraft fabric coverings and (2) applying dope, paint, and trim. Each unit…

  4. Covering Climate Change in Wikipedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arritt, R. W.; Connolley, W.; Ramjohn, I.; Schulz, S.; Wickert, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    The first hit in an internet search for "global warming" using any of the three leading search engines (Google, Bing, or Yahoo) is the article "Global warming" in the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. The article garners about half a million page views per month. In addition to the site's visibility with the public, Wikipedia's articles on climate-related topics are widely referenced by policymakers, media outlets, and academia. Despite the site's strong influence on public understanding of science, few geoscientists actively participate in Wikipedia, with the result that the community that edits these articles is mostly composed of individuals with little or no expertise in the topic at hand. In this presentation we discuss how geoscientists can help shape public understanding of science by contributing to Wikipedia. Although Wikipedia prides itself on being "the encyclopedia that anyone can edit," the site has policies regarding contributions and behavior that can be pitfalls for newcomers. This presentation is intended as a guide for the geoscience community in contributing to information about climate change in this widely-used reference.

  5. Topical methadone and meperidine analgesic synergy in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Kolesnikov, Yuri A; Oksman, Galina; Pasternak, Gavril W

    2010-07-25

    Topical analgesics have many potential advantages over systemic administration. Prior work has shown potent analgesic activity of a number of topical opioids in the radiant heat tail-flick assay. The current study confirms the analgesic activity of morphine and extends it to two other mu opioids, methadone and meperidine. Combinations of topical morphine and lidocaine are synergistic. Similarly, the combination of methadone and lidocaine is synergistic. While there appeared to be some potentiation with the combination of meperidine and lidocaine, it did not achieve significance. Systemically, prior studies have shown that co-administration of morphine and methadone was synergistic. The combination of morphine and methadone was also synergistic when given topically. In contrast, the combination of morphine and meperidine was not synergistic systemically and it was not synergistic topically. Thus, the pharmacology of topical opioids mimics that seen with systemic administration. Their activity in the topical model supports their potential utility while the local limitation of their actions offers the possibility of a reduced side-effect profile.

  6. Topics in bioethics: a development of student perspectives.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Keith A

    2014-12-01

    Exposing students to current biotechnological and medical issues is eye-opening for many students in a way that is not always achieved through lecture-based learning. Lecture or investigative teaching styles provide a tremendous knowledge base for the students, but sometimes these teaching styles do not allow the student to fully develop, especially personal attitudes to issues in bioethics. Through online videos, Hollywood movies, guided readings and classroom discussions, students in this course are informed of some bioethical topics, encouraged to learn about other topics, and use this gained knowledge to develop personal positions regarding the value and/or risk of the issues. This course has been well-received by previous students as a favorite in terms of both topics covered and style.

  7. THE TOPIC OF RESEARCH INTEGRITY IN LATINAMERICA1

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Eduardo; Lolas, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Present article narrates the experience of trainees of the ethics of biomedical and psychosocial research program of the Interdisciplinary Center for studies on bioethics (CIEB) of the University of Chile on the topic of research integrity in Latin America. The following problems are covered: integrity of publications, reporting of scientific research misconduct, definitions of research integrity, scientific ethical review committees functioning, international multi-centric clinical trials monitoring and norms for scientific integrity and ethical oversight. PMID:22679532

  8. Career Motivation Activities Guide, 4th through 6th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo Public Schools, OH.

    The activities guide is intended primarily to assist teachers in grades 4-7 in teaching career awareness concepts. Instructional activities correlate basic skill and career education objectives. The 29 units cover topics related to social studies (self-awareness, the community, the school, transportation, the environment, family roles, economic…

  9. Numeracy on the Line. Language Based Numeracy Activities for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marr, Beth; And Others

    This document, which was developed to meet the needs of trainers and workers in Australia's automotive industry for learning activities designed to boost auto workers' numeracy skills, contains a total of 33 learning activities organized into 8 sections. The topics covered in the individual sections are as follows: calculators (key words and…

  10. Agricultural Education Science Activity--Nos. PS 1-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Agricultural Curriculum Materials Service.

    This packet contains six science learning activities that can be used in agricultural education courses. The activities cover these topics: (1) determining the effects of soil drainage on plant growth and development; (2) determining the effect of soil compaction on plant growth and development; (3) inoculating legume seeds to promote nodule…

  11. Agricultural Education Science Activity--Nos. AS 1-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Agricultural Curriculum Materials Service.

    This packet contains four science learning activities on the subject of animal science that can be used in agricultural education courses. The activities cover these topics: (1) identifying internal parasites in domestic livestock; (2) the effect of feed preparation on feed palatability and consumption; (3) determining the absorption abilities of…

  12. Agricultural Education Science Activity--Nos. AEM 1-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Agricultural Curriculum Materials Service.

    This packet contains four science learning activities that can be used in agricultural education courses. The activities cover these topics: (1) determining the effect of air pressure on fluid flow; (2) how lubrication and oil viscosity affect friction; (3) determining relative strengths of wood fasteners; and (4) determining the effects of…

  13. Introducing Safety Topics Using a Student-Centered Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    The activities that introduce topics of chemical health and safety are offered, using student-centered cooperative method. Teaching methods and exercises used in various activities were considered valuable enough to be modified and published in a book of activities for safety.

  14. Topic Analysis Using a Finite Mixture Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hang; Yamanishi, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    Presents a single framework for conducting topic analysis that performs both topic identification and text segmentation. Key characteristics of the framework are: representing a topic by means of a cluster of words closely related to the topic; and employing a stochastic model, called a finite mixture model, to represent a word distribution within…

  15. Major research topics in combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Hussaini, M.Y.; Kumar, A.; Voigt, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) and NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) hosted a workshop on October 2--4, 1989 to discuss some combustion problems of technological interest to LaRC and to foster interaction with the academic community in these research areas. The topics chosen for this purpose were flame structure, flame holding/extinction, chemical kinetics, turbulence-kinetics interaction, transition to detonation, and reacting free shear layers. This document contains the papers and edited versions of general discussions on these topics. The lead paper set the stage for the meeting by discussing the status and issues of supersonic combustion relevant to the scramjet engine. Experts were then called upon to review the current knowledge in the aforementioned areas, to focus on how this knowledge can be extended and applied to high-speed combustion, and to suggest future directions of research in these areas.

  16. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-07-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.

  17. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects. PMID:23856680

  18. Schoolyard Science: 101 Easy and Inexpensive Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Thomas R.; Travis, Holly J.

    2011-01-01

    With 101 easy and inexpensive activities to do on school grounds, "Schoolyard Science" can help students develop their observation and inquiry skills as well as an appreciation of their outdoor environment. Covering topics such as lower plants, gardens, insects and other invertebrates, energy, and Earth science, Thomas Lord and Holly Travis…

  19. Special topics in infrared interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanel, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Topics in IR interferometry related to the development of a Michelson interferometer are treated. The selection and reading of the signal from the detector to the analog to digital converter is explained. The requirements for the Michelson interferometer advance speed are deduced. The effects of intensity modulation on the interferogram are discussed. Wavelength and intensity calibration of the interferometer are explained. Noise sources (Nyquist or Johnson noise, phonon noise), definitions of measuring methods of noise, and noise measurements are presented.

  20. Some Topics in Linear Estimation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    outstanding symposium. Iz SOME TOPICS IN LINEAR ESTIMATION 309 TABILE OF CONTENTS 1. The Integral Equations of Smoothing and Filtering la. The Smoothing ... Smoothing and Filtering 2. Some Examples - Stationary Processes 2a. Scalar Stationary Processes over Infinite Intervals 2b. Finite Intervals - The...Stationary 4. A Concluding Remark 310 T. KAILATH 1. The Integral Equations of Smoothing and Filtering Our estimation problems will be discussed in the context

  1. Topic Detection in Online Chat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    CMC Computer Mediated Communication SMS Short Message Service SNS Social Networking Service ASR Automatic Speech Recognition ASU Automatic...Mediated Communication (CMC). Forms of CMC such as chat, blogs, email, and Short Message Service (SMS) all permeate the daily lives of people nearly...Processing (NPL) techniques. Then, we explore how to leverage another mode of human communication to determine the topic in chat. We use a

  2. Surface plasmon resonance enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity in Cu nanoparticles covered Cu2O microspheres for degrading organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yahui; Lin, Yuanjing; Xu, Jianping; He, Jie; Wang, Tianzhao; Yu, Guojun; Shao, Dawei; Wang, Wei-Hua; Lu, Feng; Li, Lan; Du, Xiwen; Wang, Weichao; Liu, Hui; Zheng, Rongkun

    2016-03-01

    Micron-sized Cu2O with different coverage of Cu nanoparticles (NPs) on the sphere has been synthesized by a redox procedure. The absorption spectra show that Cu NPs induce the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at the wavelength of ∼565 nm. Methylene blue (MB) photodegrading experiments under visible-light display that the Cu2O-Cu-H2O2 system exhibits a superior photocatalytic activity to Cu2O-H2O2 or pure H2O2 with an evident dependency on Cu coverage. The maximum photodegradation rate is 88% after visible-light irradiating for 60 min. The role of the Cu NPs is clarified through photodegradation experiments under 420 nm light irradiation, which is different from the SPR wavelength of Cu NPs (∼565 nm). By excluding the SPR effect, it proves that Cu SPR plays a key role in the photodegradation. Besides, a dark catalytic activity is observed stemming from the Fenton-like reaction with the aid of H2O2. The radical quenching experiments indicate that both •O2- and •OH radicals contribute to the photocatalysis, while the dark catalysis is only governed by the •OH radicals, leading to a lower activity comparing with the photocatalysis. Therefore, with introducing Cu NPs and H2O2, the Cu2O-based photocatalytic activity could be significantly improved due to the SPR effect and dark catalysis.

  3. Topical application of DEET for schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Kalyanasundaram; He, Yi-Xun; Salafsky, Buz; Shibuya, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (also known as DEET) is a broad-spectrum insect repellent that is used extensively against both human and animal pests, worldwide. Recent studies show that topical lipid formulations of DEET, such as LipoDEET, are highly effective in killing schistosome cercariae in the skin. Minimal systemic absorption, low manufacturing cost, and a wide range of activity against insects and schistosomes potentially makes compounds such as LipoDEET an excellent prophylactic agent against human and animal schistosomiasis in endemic areas, especially for travelers, until an effective vaccine is available. PMID:14642762

  4. Recent Topics in Instrumentation and Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Kazuo; Hirose, Masanobu; Otani, Akihito; Mochizuki, Ken; Uchida, Masafumi

    Instrumentation and measurement play a vital role in research and development in the science and engineering fields. Recently, the goals of instrumentation and measurement have expanded to meet not only the industrial and science requirements but also the needs in all fields of social life, such as medicine and welfare, the environment, and disaster and security. In this article, the state of TC-IM (Technical Committee of Instrumentation and Measurement of IEEJ) activities and technical topics in the instrumentation and measurement field are reported, mainly referring to over seventy papers presented at the IM Technical Meeting.

  5. Cover Image, Volume 118, Number 3, March 2017.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Tomokazu; Tani, Tetsuya; Haraguchi, Seiki; Donai, Kenichiro; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Uenishi, Hirohide; Eitsuka, Takahiro; Miyagawa, Makoto; Song, Sanghoun; Onuma, Manabu; Hoshino, Yumi; Sato, Eimei; Honda, Arata

    2017-03-01

    Cover: The cover image, by Tomokazu Fukuda et al., is based on the Article Expression of Six Proteins Causes Reprogramming of Porcine Fibroblasts Into Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells With Both Active X Chromosomes, DOI: 10.1002/jcb.25727.

  6. TOPTRAC: Topical Trajectory Pattern Mining

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Younghoon; Han, Jiawei; Yuan, Cangzhou

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing use of GPS-enabled mobile phones, geo-tagging, which refers to adding GPS information to media such as micro-blogging messages or photos, has seen a surge in popularity recently. This enables us to not only browse information based on locations, but also discover patterns in the location-based behaviors of users. Many techniques have been developed to find the patterns of people's movements using GPS data, but latent topics in text messages posted with local contexts have not been utilized effectively. In this paper, we present a latent topic-based clustering algorithm to discover patterns in the trajectories of geo-tagged text messages. We propose a novel probabilistic model to capture the semantic regions where people post messages with a coherent topic as well as the patterns of movement between the semantic regions. Based on the model, we develop an efficient inference algorithm to calculate model parameters. By exploiting the estimated model, we next devise a clustering algorithm to find the significant movement patterns that appear frequently in data. Our experiments on real-life data sets show that the proposed algorithm finds diverse and interesting trajectory patterns and identifies the semantic regions in a finer granularity than the traditional geographical clustering methods. PMID:26709365

  7. How does the global Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) product relate to regionally developed land cover and vegetation products in a semi-arid Australian savanna?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoettker, Birte; Phinn, Stuart; Schmidt, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Spatio-temporally variable information on total vegetation cover is highly relevant to water quality and land management in river catchments adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. A time series of the global Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR; 2000-2006) and its underlying biome classification (MOD12Q1) were compared to national land cover and regional, remotely sensed products in the dry-tropical Burdekin River. The MOD12Q1 showed reasonable agreement with a classification of major vegetation groups for 94% of the study area. We then compared dry-seasonal, quality controlled MODIS FPAR observations to (i) Landsat-based woody foliage projective cover (wFPC) (2004) and (ii) MODIS bare ground index (BGI) observations (2001-2003). Statistical analysis of the MODIS FPAR revealed a significant sensitivity to Landsat wFPC-based Vegetation Structural Categories (VSC) and VSC-specific temporal variability over the 2004 dry season. The MODIS FPAR relation to 20 coinciding MODIS BGI dry-seasonal observations was significant (ρ < 0.001) for homogeneous areas of low wFPC. Our results show that the global MODIS FPAR can be used to identify VSC, represent VSC-specific variability of PAR absorption, and indicate that the amount, structure, and optical properties of green and non-green vegetation components contribute to the MODIS FPAR signal.

  8. Helicopter aeroelastic stability and response - Current topics and future trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, Peretz P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents several current topics in rotary wing aeroelasticity and concludes by attempting to anticipate future trends and developments. These topics are: (1) the role of geometric nonlinearities; (2) structural modeling, and aeroelastic analysis of composite rotor blades; (3) aeroelastic stability and response in forward flight; (4) modeling of coupled rotor/fuselage aeromechanical problems and their active control; and (5) the coupled rotor-fuselage vibration problem and its alleviation by higher harmonic control. Selected results illustrating the fundamental aspects of these topics are presented. Future developments are briefly discussed.

  9. PREFACE: The first meeting of the APS Topical Group on Hadronic Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Ted; Godfrey, Steve; Petrov, Alexey A.; Swanson, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The first meeting of the APS Topical Group on Hadronic Physics (`GHP') took place on 24-26 October 2004, at Fermilab. Two factors contributed to the decision to hold this meeting. First, the Topical Group on Hadronic Physics had recently been established, and there was general agreement that a conference devoted to the physics of hadrons was an important group activity. Second, many exciting new experimental results on hadron spectroscopy had been announced recently, and there was intense interest in these new developments. The meeting was very well attended, with over 120 scientists participating; this was triple our original estimate of the likely audience for this meeting. The plenary sessions covered a broad range of topics, as we considered it important to promote communication between the communities pursuing research in different areas of hadron physics. The topics discussed included new results from RHIC on the QGP, the status of experiments on the flavour-exotic pentaquark and other new baryons, the new open-charm Ds and hidden-charm X states, conventional light quark resonances, glueballs and hybrids, and new facilities. Finally, a `town meeting' was held to discuss funding prospects for hadronic physics and related issues, which included a panel discussion with representatives from DOE, NSF and JLab. These plenary sessions were supplemented by 14 parallel sessions, giving a total of approximately 80 presentations. To make the conference more accessible to younger researchers, as well as to simiplify administration, there was no conference fee for this meeting. This was possible as a result of the generous financial support of our hosts at Fermilab, for which we are very appreciative. We are also grateful to Larry Cardman for arranging Jlab assistance in producing and distributing the conference poster, to Gerald Ragghianti for designing the poster and proceedings cover, and to Lali Chatterjee and the Institute of Physics for arranging publication of the

  10. Using NASA Space Imaging to Teach Earth and Sun Topics in Professional Development Courses for In-Service Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verner, E.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Long, T.; Edwards, S.; Ofman, L.; Brosius, J. W.; Holman, G.; St Cyr, O. C.; Krotkov, N. A.; Fatoyinbo Agueh, T.

    2012-12-01

    several PD courses using NASA imaging technology. It includes various ways to study selected topics in physics and astronomy. We use NASA Images to develop lesson plans and EPO materials for PreK-8 grades. Topics are Space based and they vary from measurements, magnetism on Earth to that for our Sun. In addition we cover topics on ecosystem structure, biomass and water on Earth. Hands-on experiments, computer simulations, analysis of real-time NASA data, and vigorous seminar discussions are blended in an inquiry-driven curriculum to instill confident understanding of basic physical science and modern, effective methods for teaching it. Course also demonstrates ways how scientific thinking and hands-on activities could be implemented in the classroom. This course is designed to provide the non-science student a confident understanding of basic physical science and modern, effective methods for teaching it. Most of topics were selected using National Science Standards and National Mathematics Standards to be addressed in grades PreK-8. The course focuses on helping in several areas of teaching: 1) Build knowledge of scientific concepts and processes; 2) Understand the measurable attributes of objects and the units and methods of measurements; 3) Conducting data analysis (collecting, organizing, presenting scientific data, and to predict the result); 4) Use hands-on approaches to teach science; 5) Be familiar with Internet science teaching resources. Here we share our experiences and challenges we faced teaching this course.

  11. Auditory and Visual Cues for Topic Maintenance with Persons Who Exhibit Dementia of Alzheimer's Type

    PubMed Central

    Teten, Amy F.; Dagenais, Paul A.; Friehe, Mary J.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of auditory and visual redirections in facilitating topic coherence for persons with Dementia of Alzheimer's Type (DAT). Five persons with moderate stage DAT engaged in conversation with the first author. Three topics related to activities of daily living, recreational activities, food, and grooming, were broached. Each topic was presented three times to each participant: once as a baseline condition, once with auditory redirection to topic, and once with visual redirection to topic. Transcripts of the interactions were scored for overall coherence. Condition was a significant factor in that the DAT participants exhibited better topic maintenance under visual and auditory conditions as opposed to baseline. In general, the performance of the participants was not affected by the topic, except for significantly higher overall coherence ratings for the visually redirected interactions dealing with the topic of food. PMID:26171273

  12. Stability of Sulforaphane for Topical Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Stephen J.; Dickinson, Sally E.; Karlage, Kelly L.; Bowden, G Tim.; Myrdal, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural compound that has been investigated as a chemopreventive agent. SFN has been shown to inhibit the activator-protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor and may be effective for inhibition of ultraviolet (UV) induced skin carcinogenesis. This study was designed to investigate the stability of SFN as a function of pH, temperature and in various solvents and formulations. SFN was determined to undergo apparent first order degradation kinetics for the conditions explored. It was observed that SFN undergoes base catalyzed degradation. Buffer species and solvent type impacts stability as well. SFN was found to be very sensitive to temperature with degradation rate changing by a factor of nearly 3.1 for every 10°C change in temperature (at pH 4.0). SFN completely degraded after 30 days in a conventional pharmaceutical cream formulation. Improved stability was observed in organic formulation components. Stability studies were conducted on two non-aqueous topical formulations, a polyethylene glycol (PEG) ointment base and an organic oleaginous base. Topically applied SFN in the PEG base formulation significantly reduced AP-1 activation after UV stimulation in the skin of a transgenic mouse model, indicating that SFN in this formulation retains efficacy in vivo. PMID:23611476

  13. Practical Topical Therapy in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Enta, Tom

    1982-01-01

    Topical therapy in dermatology is often perplexing to nondermatologists. They have been taught by several clinicians how to treat a dermatologic case and in addition have been besieged by drug company personnel and by colorful journal advertisements on the virtues of preparations which should readily clear any rash. All these approaches usually lead to a hit or miss result. This presentation discusses a simple approach to skin eruptions, basing the treatment on the stage of the disorder rather than on the cause. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:21286146

  14. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of pain due to soft tissue injury: diclofenac epolamine topical patch

    PubMed Central

    Lionberger, David R; Brennan, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review published clinical data on diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries, such as strains, sprains, and contusions. Review of published literature on topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diclofenac, and DETP in patients with acute soft tissue injuries was included. Relevant literature was identified on MEDLINE using the search terms topical NSAIDs, diclofenac, diclofenac epolamine, acute pain, sports injury, soft tissue injury, strain, sprain, and contusion, and from citations in retrieved articles covering the years 1978–2008. Review of published, randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses shows that topical NSAIDs are significantly more effective than placebo in relieving acute pain; the pooled average relative benefit was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.5–1.9). In a limited number of comparisons, topical and oral NSAIDs provided comparable pain relief, but the use of topical agents produced lower plasma drug concentrations and fewer systemic adverse events (AEs). The physical–chemical properties of diclofenac epolamine make it well suited for topical use. In patients with acute soft tissue injuries treated with DETP, clinical data report an analgesic benefit within hours of the first application, and significant pain relief relative to placebo within 3 days. Moreover, DETP displayed tolerability comparable with placebo; the most common AEs were pruritus and other application site reactions. Review of published literature suggests that DETP is generally safe and well tolerated, clinically efficacious, and a rational treatment option for patients experiencing acute pain associated with strains, sprains, and contusions, and other localized painful conditions. PMID:21197326

  15. Topical cidofovir for plantar warts.

    PubMed

    Padilla España, Laura; Del Boz, Javier; Fernández Morano, Teresa; Arenas Villafranca, Javier; de Troya Martín, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Plantar warts are a common reason for dermatological consultations and their treatment can occasionally be a challenge. Plantar warts are benign lesions produced by the human papillomavirus (HPV) that often fail to respond to habitual treatment. Cidofovir is a potent antiviral drug that acts competitively, inhibiting viral DNA polymerase. Our aim was to assess the efficacy and safety of cidofovir cream for the treatment of viral plantar warts. We undertook a retrospective observational study of patients with plantar warts who received treatment with topical cidofovir between July 2008 and July 2011 at the Dermatology Service of the Hospital Costa del Sol, Marbella, Spain. Data about the rate of treatment response, the adverse effects, and recurrences, as well as the characteristics of the patient cohort, were recorded. We identified 35 patients who had received some previous treatment. The usual concentration was 3% (in 33 of 35 cases), applied twice a day (in 31 of 35 cases). A greater or lesser response was noted in 28 cases. There were two recurrences. Topical cidofovir seems to be a useful alternative for the therapeutic management of recalcitrant plantar common warts that fail to respond to usual treatment.

  16. Classical Integrable Systems: Selected Topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, A. M.

    In this paper two topics are considered: • Poisson structures and Hamiltonian systems. • Explicit integration of equations of motion for the Calogero-Sutherland and Toda systems. It must be said that a part of the material is well known to specialists in this field for a long time (see for example the book57). Even so, it may not always be easily accessible to nonspecialists. Within the limited space it was not possible to give a completely systematic exposition of these topics. Rather I tried to illustrate the main ideas on simple examples and in an as elementary and explicit way as possible. The examples considered here are therefore restricted to the systems related to the algebras An sun+1. For the case of arbitrary simple Lie algebra, we have only mentioned the results at best. Due to insufficient space many important results are omitted here. Nevertheless I hope that this paper may be useful and may serve as a guide, so that the interested reader may proceed to read original articles.

  17. Topical NSAIDs for chronic musculoskeletal pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; Rabbie, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly taken orally, but they are also available in topical preparations to be applied to or rubbed onto the skin of a painful joint, typically one affected by arthritis, with the aim of relieving pain locally. Topical NSAIDs are widely used in some parts of the world for acute and chronic painful conditions, but have not been universally accepted until recently. One of the problems has been that older clinical studies were generally short, lasting four weeks or less, and short duration studies are not regarded as adequate in ongoing painful conditions. Objectives To examine the use of topical NSAIDs in chronic musculoskeletal pain, focusing on studies of high methodological quality, and examining the measured effect of the preparations according to study duration. The principal aim was to estimate treatment efficacy in longer duration studies of at least 8 weeks. Search methods A series of electronic searches, together with bibliographic searches, and searches of in-house databases were combined with electronic searches of clinical trial registers and manufacturers of topical NSAIDs, or companies known to be actively researching topical NSAIDs. There had to be at least 10 participants in each treatment arm, with application of treatment at least once daily. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind studies with placebo or active comparators, where at least one treatment was a topical NSAID product, in any topical formulation (cream, gel, patch, solution), in studies lasting at least two weeks. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed study quality and validity, and extracted data. Numbers of participants achieving each outcome were used to calculate relative risk (RR) and numbers needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or other active treatment. Main results Information was available from 7688 participants in 34 studies from 32 publications; 23 studies

  18. Evaluation of advanced R and D topics in photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surek, T.

    1982-01-01

    An evaluation of advanced research and development topics in photovoltaic that is summarized. The intent was to develop priorities in a list of advanced research and development activities. Thirty-five activities in 10 major categories were evaluated by their contributions to basic scientific advances, potential impact on further technology development by private industry, and priorities for federal advanced research and development funding.

  19. Current topical and systemic therapies for itch.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Tabi Anika; Greaves, Malcolm W; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2015-01-01

    Itch is a common distressing symptom which may be caused by multifactorial aetiologies including inflammatory skin diseases, systemic diseases, neuropathic conditions and psychogenic disorders. Itch is a term used synonymously with pruritus and is defined as acute if it lasts less than 6 weeks or chronic if it persists for more than 6 weeks. It can have the same impact on the quality of life as chronic pain and shares many of the same pathophysiological pathways. Depending on the aetiology of the itch, different pathogenic mechanisms have been postulated with a number of mediators identified. These include histamine, leukotrienes, proteases, neuropeptides, cytokines and opioids, which may activate peripheral itch-mediating C-fibres via receptors on the nerve terminals and central neuronal pathways. Therefore, there is no single universally effective anti-itch treatment available. First-line treatments for itch include topical therapies, such as emollients, mild cleansers (low pH), topical anaesthetics, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors and coolants (menthol). Treatment with systemic therapies can vary according to the aetiology of the chronic itch. Non-sedating antihistamines are helpful in conditions such as urticaria where the itch is primarily histamine mediated. Although the itch of eczema is not mediated by histamine, sedating antihistamines at night are helpful to break the itch-scratch cycle. Chronic itch may also be treated with other systemic therapies, such as anticonvulsants, antidepressants as well as mu-opioid antagonists, kappa-opioid agonists and phototherapy, depending on the cause of the itch. This article summarises the topical and systemic therapies available with our current understanding of the pathophysiology of itch.

  20. VEGETATIVE COVERS FOR WASTE CONTAINMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disposal of municipal ahd hazardous waste in the United States is primarily accomplished by containment in lined and capped landfills. Evapotranspiration cover systems offer an alternative to conventional landfill cap systems. These covers work on completely different principles ...

  1. Statins: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... to take statins (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Statins updates by ... drug treatment How to take statins Related Health Topics Cholesterol Disclaimers MedlinePlus links to health information from ...

  2. Genetic Counseling: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Handouts Genetic counseling (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Genetic Counseling updates ... GO GO MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA Genetic counseling Related Health Topics Birth Defects Family History Genetic Disorders Genetic Testing ...

  3. Liver Transplantation: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Handouts Liver transplant (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Liver Transplantation updates ... ENCYCLOPEDIA Liver transplant Liver transplant - slideshow Related Health Topics Cirrhosis Hepatitis Liver Diseases Organ Transplantation National Institutes ...

  4. Pneumococcal Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Control and Prevention) - PDF Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Pneumococcal Infections updates ... ray Meningitis - pneumococcal Sputum gram stain Related Health Topics Meningitis Pneumonia Sepsis Sinusitis Streptococcal Infections National Institutes ...

  5. Toilet Training: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toilet training tips (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Toilet Training updates ... GO MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA Toilet training tips Related Health Topics Bedwetting Disclaimers MedlinePlus links to health information from ...

  6. Erectile Dysfunction: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Erection problems - aftercare (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Erectile Dysfunction updates ... Erection problems - aftercare Prolactin blood test Related Health Topics Penis Disorders National Institutes of Health The primary ...

  7. CPR: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... CPR/AED Ready Reference (American Red Cross) - PDF Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get CPR updates by ... infant CPR - infant - slideshow Myocardial contusion Related Health Topics Cardiac Arrest First Aid National Institutes of Health ...

  8. Heroin: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration) - PDF Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Heroin updates by ... Opiate and opioid withdrawal Opioid intoxication Related Health Topics Drug Abuse Opioid Abuse and Addiction National Institutes ...

  9. Topical therapy for fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Amber A; Dahl, Mark V

    2004-01-01

    Fungi often infect the skin surface and subsequently invade the stratum corneum to avoid being shed from the skin surface by desquamation. Pharmacologic agents applied to the surface of the skin in the form of creams, lotions, or sprays, readily penetrate into the stratum corneum to kill the fungi (fungicidal agents), or at least render them unable to grow or divide (fungistatic agents). Thus, topical therapies work well to rid the skin of topical fungi and yeasts. Azole drugs such as miconazole, clotrimazole, and ketoconazole are fungistatic, limiting fungal growth but depending on epidermal turnover to shed the still-living fungus from the skin surface. Allylamines and benzylamines such as terbinafine, naftifine, and butenafine are fungicidal, actually killing the fungal organisms. Fungicidal drugs are often preferred over fungistatic drugs for treatment of dermatophytic fungal infections, since treatment times as short as one application daily for 1 week are associated with high cure rates. Furthermore, patients often stop treatments when the skin appears healed, usually after about a week of treatment. If this short-term treatment is stopped, fungi recur more often when fungistatic, rather than fungicidal, drugs have been used. Yeast infections such as those caused by Candida albicans respond less well to allylamine drugs. The azole drugs are often preferred for these types of infections. Nail infections are difficult to cure with topical therapies because the infections usually occur under the nail instead of on top of it and products penetrate poorly, if at all, through the nail plate. Infections of hair follicles, nails, and widespread infections often require systemic treatments. Antifungal agents are compounded into many different types of vehicles. Patients often prefer to treat weeping infections with spray formulations. Most physicians prescribe branded products in cream or lotion bases. Cost is a factor dictating prescription choice, especially since

  10. Cover crops and N credits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops often provide many short- and long-term benefits to cropping systems. Legume cover crops can significantly reduce the N fertilizer requirement of non-legume cash crops that follow. The objectives of this presentation were to: I) educate stakeholders about the potential benefits of cover ...

  11. Topical Immunotherapy in Alopecia Areata

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gurcharan; Lavanya, MS

    2010-01-01

    Alopecia Areata (AA) is a common non-scarring alopecia directed against the anagenic hair follicle. Various treatment modalities have been used for the treatment of severe AA. Topical immunotherapy is the best documented treatment so far for severe and refractory AA. Dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE), and diphencyprone (DPCP) are the contact allergens used for this purpose. DNCB has been found to be mutagenic by the Ames test and is largely replaced by DPCP and SADBE. DPCP and SADBE are both known to be non-mutagenic compounds and have comparable efficacy results and relapse rates. SADBE requires special solvents and additives to maintain its potency and is more expensive than the rest. DPCP has a response rate varying from 60% in severe Alopecia Areata to 17% in patients with alopecia totalis or universalis, and shows about 88 to 100% high response rate in patients with patchy Alopecia Areata. PMID:21188022

  12. Topics and Terms in Environmental Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holum, John R.

    This reference is an expanded glossary of topics and terms currently related to environmental problems. These topics and terms are associated with energy, air pollution, water pollution, wastes, and pesticides. Included are 239 main entries ranging from acaricide to weathering. Each entry briefly describes the topic or term and often presents a…

  13. Topic Management in Discourse: Assessment and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentis, Michelle

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the parameters of discourse topic management in terms of a multidimensional model of topic coherence; interaction between these parameters and linguistic and cognitive knowledge; effects of discourse, linguistic, and cognitive level difficulties on topic parameters; a method of assessment across all parameters and knowledge…

  14. Good and Bad Topics for Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidman, Patricia; And Others

    This paper reports the opinions about moral topics expressed by 140 elementary and secondary student teachers, 49 in Indiana and 91 in California. Teachers' judgments of the suitability of topics were collected via a questionnaire containing 20 topics in two versions. The presentation consists of: (1) a description of the opinionnaire teachers…

  15. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Barthel, H Richard; Axford-Gatley, Robert A

    2010-11-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are mainstays of the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) but have dose- and age-related risks of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and renal adverse events (AEs). As a result, US and international guidelines recommend caution when prescribing oral NSAIDs, particularly in older patients and those with significant comorbidities. For OA of the hands and knees, topical NSAIDs provide efficacy similar to oral NSAIDs, with far less systemic distribution. Treatment-related cardiovascular, renal, and other serious AEs with topical NSAIDs have not been reported. At present, only 2 topical NSAIDs are approved in the United States for the treatment of OA: diclofenac sodium 1% gel for hand or knee OA and diclofenac sodium 1.5% in 45.5% dimethylsulfoxide solution for knee OA. Clinical trial data for these products have demonstrated efficacy superior to placebo or similar to oral diclofenac with AE profiles similar to placebo, except for application site reactions. In large double-blind trials, gastrointestinal AEs were infrequent and did not include ulcers, perforations, or bleeding. The purpose of this brief review is to examine the data from controlled double-blind trials evaluating the use of topical NSAIDs in patients with OA. Articles included were identified via a search of PubMed covering the period from January 1, 2005 through March 31, 2010. Reference lists from OA treatment guidelines and meta-analyses were reviewed for additional citations of importance.

  16. Pentyl Gallate Nanoemulsions as Potential Topical Treatment of Herpes Labialis.

    PubMed

    Kelmann, Regina G; Colombo, Mariana; De Araújo Lopes, Sávia Caldeira; Nunes, Ricardo J; Pistore, Morgana; Dall Agnol, Daniele; Rigotto, Caroline; Silva, Izabella Thais; Roman, Silvane S; Teixeira, Helder F; Oliveira Simões, Cláudia M; Koester, Letícia S

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the antiherpes activity of pentyl gallate (PG), suggesting that it could be a promising candidate for the topical treatment of human herpes labialis. PG low aqueous solubility represents a major drawback to its incorporation in topical dosage forms. Hence, the feasibility of incorporating PG into nanoemulsions, the ability to penetrate the skin, to inhibit herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 replication, and to cause dermal sensitization or toxicity were evaluated. Oil/water nanoemulsions containing 0.5% PG were prepared by spontaneous emulsification. The in vitro PG distribution into porcine ear skin after topical application of nanoemulsions was assessed, and the in vitro antiviral activity against HSV-1 replication was evaluated. Acute dermal toxicity and risk of dermal sensitization were evaluated in rat model. Nanoemulsions presented nanometric particle size (from 124.8 to 143.7 nm), high zeta potential (from -50.1 to -66.1 mV), loading efficiency above 99%, and adequate stability during 12 months. All formulations presented anti-HSV-1 activity. PG was able to reach deeper into the dermis more efficiently from the nanoemulsion F4. This formulation as well as PG were considered safe for topical use. Nanoemulsions seem to be a safe and effective approach for topically delivering PG in the treatment of human herpes labialis infection.

  17. The USGS Land Cover Institute

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Land Cover Institute (LCI) is located at the Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. It provides a focal point for advancing USGS land cover studies and applications. Satellite images and other remotely sensed data play an important role in this research. Land Cover scientists investigate new ways to use satellite images and other data to map land cover. They assess national and global land cover characteristics and monitor how - and how rapidly - land cover changes. They also study the economic impacts of land cover as well as its effects on water quality, the spread of invasive species, habitats and biodiversity, climate variability, and other environmental factors.

  18. Melasma Associated with Topical Estrogen Cream

    PubMed Central

    Schiechert, Rachel A.; Zaiac, Martin N.

    2017-01-01

    A 47-year-old woman presented with hyperpigmented patches on her upper extremities. The patient had begun using a topical estrogen cream in the affected areas prior to noticing the hyperpigmentation. A diagnosis of melasma secondary to topical estrogen cream was made. While systemic hormones are a well-documented trigger for the development of melasma, this case represents the first report of melasma associated with topical estrogens. Topical estrogens are frequently prescribed to postmenopausal women for skin rejuvenation. Melasma should be discussed as a potential side effect of systemic as well as topical estrogen preparations. PMID:28367263

  19. Cooling Town - a hot topic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerle, A.; Heinl, M.; Leitinger, G.

    2012-04-01

    The research project "Cooling Town" will investigate the thermal properties of landscapes and landscape elements and assess the thermal connectivity between urban areas and surrounding landscape components in South Tyrol (Italy). Surface temperature regimes will be analysed for selected municipalities and evaluated in regard to their relations to urban temperatures, regional land use/cover and topography. The study accounts for the little knowledge on temperature regimes of mountain landscapes and on the thermal connectivity between urban areas and surrounding landscapes. Three different levels of temporal and spatial detail are considered to investigate the driving forces of rural-urban temperature regimes and their connectivity. A static approach will relate temperature levels of urban areas with surrounding land use, land cover, landscape composition, and topographic setting, for deriving the landscape components and characteristics that are affecting urban temperatures. A repetitive approach will use monthly thermal satellite imagery to derive surface temperatures to analyse the correlation between urban temperatures and the temperature distribution in the surrounding landscapes. The dynamic approach will focus on one local area and will provide spatial and temporal temperature profiles that will result in a four-dimensional (4D) temperature model for a larger city in South Tyrol. The project provides new scientific insight into the thermal properties of landscape components, the temperature regimes of landscapes and their spatio-temporal relation to urban areas in mountain environments.

  20. Conference report: hot topics in antibody-drug conjugate development.

    PubMed

    Thudium, Karen; Bilic, Sanela

    2013-12-01

    American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists National Biotechnology Conference Sheraton San Diego Hotel and Marina, San Diego, CA, USA, 19-23 May 2013 The National Biotechnology Conference, is a premier meeting for biotechnology professionals covering a broad range of hot topics in the biotechnology industry. Attracting participants from academia, industry and regulatory, this meeting features sessions that aim to address emerging subjects of interest and allows for open exchange between scientists. The 2013 conference featured leading researchers in the fields of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) and immunogenicity. Herein, we present a summary of the ADC hot topics, including bioanalytical and PK considerations, quantitative evaluation of the impact of immunogenicity and ADME to understand ADC drug-drug interactions, and clinical considerations for ADC development. This article aims to summarize the recommendations that were made by the speakers during various sessions throughout the conference.

  1. Endocrine complications of topical and intralesional corticosteroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Curtis, J A; Cormode, E; Laski, B; Toole, J; Howard, N

    1982-03-01

    Four previously healthy children acquired skin problems that were treated with topical or intralesional fluorinated corticosteroids. Three developed signs that suggested Cushing's syndrome 1-4 months after initial treatment. Investigation showed low plasma cortisol levels and inadequate response to corticotrophin stimulation. After 7 months of treatment with topical steroids the fourth child presented with failure to thrive; during a febrile illness he had a convulsion followed by acute hypotension which responded to parenteral corticosteroid administration. Adrenal function was not studied in this patient. Although fluorinated corticosteroids seldom lead to overt adrenal suppression in children, they may impair pituitary-adrenal responses in some. Such patients should be given oral or parenteral steroid cover in the event of illness or trauma.

  2. Compact Blue-Green Lasers: Summaries of papers presented at the topical meeting. Volume 6: Technical digest series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Jarus W.

    1992-02-01

    Summaries of papers presented at the Compact Blue-Green Lasers Topical Meeting held in Santa Fe, New Mexico on February 20-21, 1992 are presented. Topics covered are blue-green laser applications, IR pumped visible lasers, blue-green diode emitters, materials, frequency conversion in bulk devices, gas lasers, and frequency conversion in guided-wave devices.

  3. Design, Development, and Psychometric Analysis of a General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Topic Inventory Based on the Identified Main Chemistry Topics Relevant to Nursing Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corina E.

    2013-01-01

    This two-stage study focused on the undergraduate nursing course that covers topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry. In the first stage, the central objective was to identify the main concepts of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was based on open-ended interviews of both nursing…

  4. Repurposing celecoxib as a topical antimicrobial agent

    PubMed Central

    Thangamani, Shankar; Younis, Waleed; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new antibiotics and alternative strategies to combat multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens, which are a growing clinical issue. Repurposing existing approved drugs with known pharmacology and toxicology is an alternative strategy to accelerate antimicrobial research and development. In this study, we show that celecoxib, a marketed inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive pathogens from a variety of genera, including Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Listeria, Bacillus, and Mycobacterium, but not against Gram-negative pathogens. However, celecoxib is active against all of the Gram-negative bacteria tested, including strains of, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas, when their intrinsic resistance is artificially compromised by outer membrane permeabilizing agents such as colistin. The effect of celecoxib on incorporation of radioactive precursors into macromolecules in Staphylococcus aureus was examined. The primary antimicrobial mechanism of action of celecoxib was the dose-dependent inhibition of RNA, DNA, and protein synthesis. Further, we demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of celecoxib in a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infected Caenorhabditis elegans whole animal model. Topical application of celecoxib (1 and 2%) significantly reduced the mean bacterial count in a mouse model of MRSA skin infection. Further, celecoxib decreased the levels of all inflammatory cytokines tested, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-1 beta, and monocyte chemo attractant protein-1 in wounds caused by MRSA infection. Celecoxib also exhibited synergy with many conventional antimicrobials when tested against four clinical isolates of S. aureus. Collectively, these results demonstrate that celecoxib alone, or in combination with traditional antimicrobials, has a potential to use as a topical drug for the treatment of bacterial skin infections. PMID:26284040

  5. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail.

  6. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail. PMID:26991442

  7. Auto Mechanics I. Learning Activity Packets (LAPs). Section D--Suspension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains six learning activity packets (LAPs) that outline the study activities for the "suspension" instructional area for an Auto Mechanics I course. The six LAPs cover the following topics: wheel bearings, tires and wheels, wheel balancing, suspension system, steering system, and wheel alignment. Each LAP contains a…

  8. Teaching Diversity and Aging through Active Learning Strategies: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Stephen B.; Mehrotra, Chandra M.

    Covering 10 topical areas, this annotated bibliography offers a guide to journal articles, book chapters, monographs, and books useful for teaching diversity and aging through active learning. Active learning experiences may help expand students' awareness of elements of their own diversity, broaden their world view, and enhance their culturally…

  9. Using Problem-Based Pre-Class Activities to Prepare Students for In-Class Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alayont, Feryal

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a problem-based approach that prepares students for future learning in the classroom. In this approach, students complete problem-based activities before coming to class to familiarize themselves with the topics to be covered. After the discussion on how the use of these activities relate to the learning and transfer…

  10. Earth Child: Games, Stories, Activities, Experiments & Ideas about Living Lightly on Planet Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Kathryn; Waidner, Mary

    This book is a collection of activities, stories, ideas, and games designed to help adults and young children develop a shared awareness of their environment. The material is presented in eight chapters. Activities and stories are interwoven throughout each chapter to provide a holistic view of the topic covered. The end of each chapter contains…

  11. An Active Learning Exercise for Product Design from an Operations Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Stephen; Baker, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Product design is a topic that is regularly covered in introductory operations management courses. However, a pedagogical challenge exists related to the presentation of introductory-level product design in a way that promotes active learning. The hands-on exercise presented in this article provides instructors with an activity that gives students…

  12. Assessment of land cover changes in Lampedusa Island (Italy) using Landsat TM and OLI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Alessandro; Manzo, Ciro; Fontinovo, Giuliano; Bassani, Cristiana; Allegrini, Alessia; Petracchini, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    The Lampedusa Island displays important socio-economic criticalities related to an intensive touristic activity, which implies an increase in electricity consumption and waste production. An adequate island conversion to a more environmental, sustainable community needs to be faced by the local Management Plans establishment. For this purpose, several thematic datasets have to be produced and evaluated. Socio-economic and bio-ecological components as well as land cover/use assessment are some of the main topics to be managed within the Decision Support Systems. Considering the lack of Land Cover (LC) and vegetation change detection maps in Lampedusa Island (Italy), this paper focuses on the retrieval of these topics by remote sensing techniques. The analysis was carried out by Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 8 OLI multispectral images from 1984 to 2014 in order to obtain spatial and temporal information of changes occurred in the island. Firstly, imagery was co-registered and atmospherically corrected; secondly, it was then classified for land cover and vegetation distribution analysis with the use of QGIS and Saga GIS open source softwares. The Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) was used for LC maps production, while the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used for vegetation examination and distribution. Topographic maps, historical aerial photos, ortophotos and field data are merged in the GIS for accuracy assessment. Finally, change detection of MLC and NDVI are provided respectively by Post-Classification Comparison (PCC) and Image Differencing (ID). The provided information, combined with local socio-economic parameters, is essential for the improvement of environmental sustainability of anthropogenic activities in Lampedusa.

  13. Decision Point 1 Topical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Yablonsky, Al; Barsoumian, Shant; Legere, David

    2013-05-01

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2a of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to elaborate proven SkyMine® process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of the current Phase (2a) is to complete the detailed design of the pilot plant to be built in Phase 2b.

  14. Six degree of freedom active vibration damping for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Leonard S.

    1993-01-01

    Work performed during the period 1 Jan. - 31 Mar. 1993 on six degree of freedom active vibration damping for space application is presented. A performance and cost report is included. Topics covered include: actuator testing; mechanical amplifier design; and neural network control system development and experimental evaluation.

  15. Student Activity Guide for "Business in an Information Economy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, David; And Others

    The 20 chapters of this student activity guide provide study guides (key terms and concepts reviews), projects, cases for analyses, and self-assessment exercises for business and career education classes. Topics covered include the following: business winners (entrepreneurship); growth of the U.S. economy, the basics of economics, comparing…

  16. Learning Activity Package, Physical Science 92, LAPs 1-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, G. J.

    This set of nine teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in physical science covers the topics of scientific equipment and procedures; measure of time, length, area, and volume; water; oxygen and oxidation; atmospheric pressure; motion; machines; carbon; and light and sound. Each unit contains a rationale…

  17. Microgravity: Teacher's Guide with Activities for Physical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Wargo, Michael J.

    This teacher's guide to microgravity contains 16 student science activities with full background information to facilitate an understanding of the concepts of microgravity for teachers and students. Topics covered in the background sections include the definitions of gravity and microgravity, creating microgravity, the fluid state, combustion…

  18. Wild Horses: Stories and Activities. The Wonder Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorehead, Carol Ann

    This curriculum guide is all about wild horses and provides information through the telling of stories about these animals and their history and folklore. The activities contained in this guide employ an interdisciplinary approach and use mazes, puzzles, model-building, and board games to interest and inform students. Topics covered include the…

  19. Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...

  20. Hot topics in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus disease.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Maximillian S; Patel, Sanjay; Openshaw, Peter

    2011-03-01

    The 7th International Respiratory Syncytial Virus Symposium took place in Hotel Blijdorp, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The series has been running since 1996; this meeting took place after a 3-year gap, and was attended by approximately 200 clinicians, scientists and industry representatives from all over the world. The conference covered all aspects of respiratory syncytial virus disease, including virology, cell biology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, immunology, vaccines, antivirals and other therapeutic approaches. Reviews by invited keynote speakers were accompanied by oral and poster presentations, with ample opportunity for discussion of unpublished work. This article summarizes a small selection of hot topics from the meeting, focused on pathogenesis, therapeutics and vaccine development.

  1. HierarchicalTopics: visually exploring large text collections using topic hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Dou, Wenwen; Yu, Li; Wang, Xiaoyu; Ma, Zhiqiang; Ribarsky, William

    2013-12-01

    Analyzing large textual collections has become increasingly challenging given the size of the data available and the rate that more data is being generated. Topic-based text summarization methods coupled with interactive visualizations have presented promising approaches to address the challenge of analyzing large text corpora. As the text corpora and vocabulary grow larger, more topics need to be generated in order to capture the meaningful latent themes and nuances in the corpora. However, it is difficult for most of current topic-based visualizations to represent large number of topics without being cluttered or illegible. To facilitate the representation and navigation of a large number of topics, we propose a visual analytics system--HierarchicalTopic (HT). HT integrates a computational algorithm, Topic Rose Tree, with an interactive visual interface. The Topic Rose Tree constructs a topic hierarchy based on a list of topics. The interactive visual interface is designed to present the topic content as well as temporal evolution of topics in a hierarchical fashion. User interactions are provided for users to make changes to the topic hierarchy based on their mental model of the topic space. To qualitatively evaluate HT, we present a case study that showcases how HierarchicalTopics aid expert users in making sense of a large number of topics and discovering interesting patterns of topic groups. We have also conducted a user study to quantitatively evaluate the effect of hierarchical topic structure. The study results reveal that the HT leads to faster identification of large number of relevant topics. We have also solicited user feedback during the experiments and incorporated some suggestions into the current version of HierarchicalTopics.

  2. Editors' preface for the topical issue on Seven papers on Noncommutative Geometry and Operator Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Daniele; Landi, Giovanni; Vassout, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    This topical issue grew out of the International Conference "Noncommutative Geometry and Applications" held 16-21 June 2014 at Villa Mondragone, Frascati (Roma). The main purpose of the conference was to have a unified view of different incarnations of noncommutative geometry and its applications. The seven papers collected in the present topical issue represent a good sample of the topics covered at the workshop. The conference itself was one of the climaxes of the Franco-Italian project GREFI-GENCO, which was initiated in 2007 by CNRS and INDAM to promote and enhance collaboration and exchanges between French and Italian researchers in the area of noncommutative geometry.

  3. Optical Society of America's 2010 Topical Meeting on Optical Interference Coatings: introduction by the feature editors.

    PubMed

    Stolz, Christopher J; Tilsch, Markus K; Ristau, Detlev

    2011-03-20

    This Applied Optics feature issue is dedicated to the eleventh topical meeting on Optical Interference Coatings held on 6-11 June 2010 in Tucson, Arizona, USA. This topical conference is held in a three year rotation with conferences in Europe and Asia and is a premier opportunity to discuss advances in research and development within the field of optical interference coatings. Papers from this meeting cover a broad range of topics ranging from deposition processes, thin film design, materials, metrology, and a wide array of practical applications.

  4. Selected topics of fluid mechanics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindsvater, Carl E.

    1958-01-01

    the Euler, Froude, Reynolds, Weber, and Cauchy numbers are defined as essential tools for interpreting and using experimental data. The derivations of the energy and momentum equations are treated in detail. One-dimensional equations for steady nonuniform flow are developed, and the restrictions applicable to the equations are emphasized. Conditions of uniform and gradually varied flow are discussed, and the origin of the Chezy equation is examined in relation to both the energy and the momentum equations. The inadequacy of all uniform-flow equations as a means of describing gradually varied flow is explained. Thus, one of the definitive problems of river hydraulics is analyzed in the light of present knowledge. This report is the outgrowth of a series of short schools conducted during the spring and summer of 1953 for engineers of the Surface Water Branch, Water Resources Division, U. S. Geological Survey. The topics considered are essentially the same as the topics selected for inclusion in the schools. However, in order that they might serve better as a guide and outline for informal study, the arrangement of the writer's original lecture notes has been considerably altered. The purpose of the report, like the purpose of the schools which inspired it, is to build a simple but strong framework of the fundamentals of fluid mechanics. It is believed that this framework is capable of supporting a detailed analysis of most of the practical problems met by the engineers of the Geological Survey. It is hoped that the least accomplishment of this work will be to inspire the reader with the confidence and desire to read more of the recent and current technical literature of modern fluid mechanics.

  5. Topical ocular delivery of NSAIDs.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Munish; Dhake, Avinash S; Sharma, Surendra K; Majumdar, Dipak K

    2008-06-01

    In ocular tissue, arachidonic acid is metabolized by cyclooxygenase to prostaglandins which are the most important lipid derived mediators of inflammation. Presently nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which are cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors are being used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. NSAIDs used in ophthalmology, topically, are salicylic-, indole acetic-, aryl acetic-, aryl propionic- and enolic acid derivatives. NSAIDs are weak acids with pKa mostly between 3.5 and 4.5, and are poorly soluble in water. Aqueous ophthalmic solutions of NSAIDs have been made using sodium, potassium, tromethamine and lysine salts or complexing with cyclodextrins/solubilizer. Ocular penetration of NSAID demands an acidic ophthalmic solution where cyclodextrin could prevent precipitation of drug and minimize its ocular irritation potential. The incompatibility of NSAID with benzalkonium chloride is avoided by using polysorbate 80, cyclodextrins or tromethamine. Lysine salts and alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate disrupt corneal integrity, and their use requires caution. Thus a nonirritating ophthalmic solution of NSAID could be formulated by dissolving an appropriate water-soluble salt, in the presence of cyclodextrin or tromethamine (if needed) in mildly acidified purified water (if stability permits) with or without benzalkonium chloride and polyvinyl alcohol. Amide prodrugs met with mixed success due to incomplete intraocular hydrolysis. Suspension and ocular inserts appear irritating to the inflamed eye. Oil drop may be a suitable option for insoluble drugs and ointment may be used for sustained effect. Recent studies showed that the use of colloidal nanoparticle formulations and the potent COX 2 inhibitor bromfenac may enhance NSAID efficacy in eye preparations.

  6. Topics in Extrasolar Planet Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Alex Ryan

    I present four papers exploring different topics in the area of characterizing the atmospheric and bulk properties of extrasolar planets. In these papers, I present two new codes, in various forms, for modeling these objects. A code to generate theoretical models of transit spectra of exoplanets is featured in the first paper and is refined and expanded into the APOLLO code for spectral modeling and parameter retrieval in the fourth paper. Another code to model the internal structure and evolution of planets is featured in the second and third papers. The first paper presents transit spectra models of GJ 1214b and other super-Earth and mini-Neptune type planets--planets with a "solid", terrestrial composition and relatively small planets with a thick hydrogen-helium atmosphere, respectively--and fit them to observational data to estimate the atmospheric compositions and cloud properties of these planets. The second paper presents structural models of super-Earth and mini-Neptune type planets and estimates their bulk compositions from mass and radius estimates. The third paper refines these models with evolutionary calculations of thermal contraction and ultraviolet-driven mass loss. Here, we estimate the boundaries of the parameter space in which planets lose their initial hydrogen-helium atmospheres completely, and we also present formation and evolution scenarios for the planets in the Kepler-11 system. The fourth paper uses more refined transit spectra models, this time for hot jupiter type planets, to explore the methods to design optimal observing programs for the James Webb Space Telescope to quantitatively measure the atmospheric compositions and other properties of these planets.

  7. Statistical analysis of multivariate atmospheric variables. [cloud cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tubbs, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    Topics covered include: (1) estimation in discrete multivariate distributions; (2) a procedure to predict cloud cover frequencies in the bivariate case; (3) a program to compute conditional bivariate normal parameters; (4) the transformation of nonnormal multivariate to near-normal; (5) test of fit for the extreme value distribution based upon the generalized minimum chi-square; (6) test of fit for continuous distributions based upon the generalized minimum chi-square; (7) effect of correlated observations on confidence sets based upon chi-square statistics; and (8) generation of random variates from specified distributions.

  8. Topical use of dexpanthenol in skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Fritz; Heller, Andreas; Rippke, Frank; Tausch, Irene

    2002-01-01

    Pantothenic acid is essential to normal epithelial function. It is a component of coenzyme A, which serves as a cofactor for a variety of enzyme-catalyzed reactions that are important in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids, proteins, gluconeogenesis, sterols, steroid hormones, and porphyrins. The topical use of dexpanthenol, the stable alcoholic analog of pantothenic acid, is based on good skin penetration and high local concentrations of dexpanthenol when administered in an adequate vehicle, such as water-in-oil emulsions. Topical dexpanthenol acts like a moisturizer, improving stratum corneum hydration, reducing transepidermal water loss and maintaining skin softness and elasticity. Activation of fibroblast proliferation, which is of relevance in wound healing, has been observed both in vitro and in vivo with dexpanthenol. Accelerated re-epithelization in wound healing, monitored by means of the transepidermal water loss as an indicator of the intact epidermal barrier function, has also been seen. Dexpanthenol has been shown to have an anti-inflammatory effect on experimental ultraviolet-induced erythema. Beneficial effects of dexpanthenol have been observed in patients who have undergone skin transplantation or scar treatment, or therapy for burn injuries and different dermatoses. The stimulation of epithelization, granulation and mitigation of itching were the most prominent effects of formulations containing dexpanthenol. In double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials, dexpanthenol was evaluated for its efficacy in improving wound healing. Epidermal wounds treated with dexpanthenol emulsion showed a reduction in erythema, and more elastic and solid tissue regeneration. Monitoring of transepidermal water loss showed a significant acceleration of epidermal regeneration as a result of dexpanthenol therapy, as compared with the vehicle. In an irritation model, pretreatment with dexpanthenol cream resulted in significantly less damage to the stratum

  9. Chaos: A Topic for Interdisciplinary Education in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Saebyok

    2009-01-01

    Since society and science need interdisciplinary works, the interesting topic of chaos is chosen for interdisciplinary education in physics. The educational programme contains various university-level activities such as computer simulations, chaos experiment and team projects besides ordinary teaching. According to the participants, the programme…

  10. Psychology and Nuclear Weapon Issues: Topics, Concepts, and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Linden, Comp.

    The document outlines 15 topics, each with concepts and selected references, to illustrate the relevance of psychology for understanding and coping with the threat of nuclear war. Awareness of the literature is intended to encourage psychologists to become more active in applying psychological concepts to nuclear weapons issues. The articles and…

  11. Topics in Finance: Part VIII--Mergers & Acquisitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2012-01-01

    In this series, three key axioms--stockholder wealth maximization, the risk-return tradeoff, and agency conflicts--are applied to the major topics in financial management. The current article looks at mergers and acquisitions, reviewing the presumed motivations, the ethical challenges, and the literature dedicated to this financial activity.

  12. Topics in Finance Part IX--Working Capital Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2012-01-01

    The final topic in a series looking at financial management from a theoretical perspective, working capital management provides the focus of the current article. We investigate how three key axioms--the risk-return tradeoff, agency conflicts, and stockholder wealth maximization--relate to this activity that occupies much of the financial manager's…

  13. Usage-Oriented Topic Maps Building Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellouze, Nebrasse; Lammari, Nadira; Métais, Elisabeth; Ben Ahmed, Mohamed

    In this paper, we present a collaborative and incremental construction approach of multilingual Topic Maps based on enrichment and merging techniques. In recent years, several Topic Map building approaches have been proposed endowed with different characteristics. Generally, they are dedicated to particular data types like text, semi-structured data, relational data, etc. We note also that most of these approaches take as input monolingual documents to build the Topic Map. The problem is that the large majority of resources available today are written in various languages, and these resources could be relevant even to non-native speakers. Thus, our work is driven towards a collaborative and incremental method for Topic Map construction from textual documents available in different languages. To enrich the Topic Map, we take as input a domain thesaurus and we propose also to explore the Topic Map usage which means available potential questions related to the source documents.

  14. Identifying Health-Related Topics on Twitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prier, Kyle W.; Smith, Matthew S.; Giraud-Carrier, Christophe; Hanson, Carl L.

    Public health-related topics are difficult to identify in large conversational datasets like Twitter. This study examines how to model and discover public health topics and themes in tweets. Tobacco use is chosen as a test case to demonstrate the effectiveness of topic modeling via LDA across a large, representational dataset from the United States, as well as across a smaller subset that was seeded by tobacco-related queries. Topic modeling across the large dataset uncovers several public health-related topics, although tobacco is not detected by this method. However, topic modeling across the tobacco subset provides valuable insight about tobacco use in the United States. The methods used in this paper provide a possible toolset for public health researchers and practitioners to better understand public health problems through large datasets of conversational data.

  15. Tracking topic birth and death in LDA.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Andrew T.; Robinson, David Gerald

    2011-09-01

    Most topic modeling algorithms that address the evolution of documents over time use the same number of topics at all times. This obscures the common occurrence in the data where new subjects arise and old ones diminish or disappear entirely. We propose an algorithm to model the birth and death of topics within an LDA-like framework. The user selects an initial number of topics, after which new topics are created and retired without further supervision. Our approach also accommodates many of the acceleration and parallelization schemes developed in recent years for standard LDA. In recent years, topic modeling algorithms such as latent semantic analysis (LSA)[17], latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA)[10] and their descendants have offered a powerful way to explore and interrogate corpora far too large for any human to grasp without assistance. Using such algorithms we are able to search for similar documents, model and track the volume of topics over time, search for correlated topics or model them with a hierarchy. Most of these algorithms are intended for use with static corpora where the number of documents and the size of the vocabulary are known in advance. Moreover, almost all current topic modeling algorithms fix the number of topics as one of the input parameters and keep it fixed across the entire corpus. While this is appropriate for static corpora, it becomes a serious handicap when analyzing time-varying data sets where topics come and go as a matter of course. This is doubly true for online algorithms that may not have the option of revising earlier results in light of new data. To be sure, these algorithms will account for changing data one way or another, but without the ability to adapt to structural changes such as entirely new topics they may do so in counterintuitive ways.

  16. Flammable gas project topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.

    1997-01-29

    The flammable gas safety issue was recognized in 1990 with the declaration of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) by the U. S. Department of Energy as a result of the behavior of the Hanford Site high-level waste tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gas that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years there has been a considerable amount of knowledge gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-1 01 and other tanks associated with the flammable gas safety issue. This report was prepared to provide an overview of that knowledge and to provide a description of the key information still needed to resolve the issue. Items covered by this report include summaries of the understanding of gas generation, retention and release mechanisms, the composition and flammability behavior of the gas mixture, the amounts of stored gas, and estimated gas release fractions for spontaneous releases. `Me report also discusses methods being developed for evaluating the 177 tanks at the Hanford Site and the problems associated with these methods. Means for measuring the gases emitted from the waste are described along with laboratory experiments designed to gain more information regarding rates of generation, species of gases emitted and modes of gas storage and release. Finally, the process for closing the USQ is outlined as are the information requirements to understand and resolve the flammable gas issue.

  17. Topical hemostatic agents in otolaryngologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Acar, Baran; Babademez, Mehmet Ali; Karabulut, Hayriye

    2010-01-01

    Topical hemostatic agents are largely used to reduce blood loss during otolaryngologic surgery. These agents play an important role in both keeping the patient's hemodynamic equilibrium and allowing for a better view of the surgical field. These agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, and include physical or mechanical agents. Most complications of topical hemostatic agents are sustained because of the antigenic reaction of those products. This paper reviews traditional and newer topical hemostatic agents with regard to their chemical properties, their mechanisms of action, and the benefits and complications of topical agents.

  18. The treatment of rosacea with topical ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Ali, S T; Alinia, H; Feldman, S R

    2015-04-01

    The treatment of rosacea is challenging because several pathophysiologic processes may be involved, including neurovascular dysregulation and alterations in innate immune status. Demodex mites may play a role in the latter mechanism. Topical ivermectin is a new therapeutic modality which demonstrates antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory properties. This article reviews published evidence related to the efficacy and safety of topical ivermectin. PubMed was utilized to search for key words "topical ivermectin", "ivermectin cream" and "rosacea". Three clinical trials were found that studied topical ivermectin as a treatment option for rosacea. Ivermectin was effective, safe and well tolerated.

  19. Recent developments in silicones for topical and transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Aliyar, Hyder; Schalau, Gerald

    2015-07-01

    Silicones have been used in medicines, cosmetics and medical devices for over 60 years. Polydimethylsiloxanes are polymers that are typically used either as an active in oral drug products or as excipients in topical and transdermal drug products. Inherent characteristics like hydrophobicity, adhesion and aesthetics allow silicones to offer function and performance to drug products. Recent technologies like swollen crosslinked silicone elastomer blend networks, sugar siloxanes, amphiphilic resin linear polymers and silicone hybrid pressure sensitive adhesives promise potential performance advantages and improved drug delivery efficacy. This article presents a review of recent silicone material developments focusing on their function as excipients influencing drug delivery in topical and transdermal systems.

  20. Midwest Cover Crops Field Guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers who want to prevent soil erosion, improve nutrient cycling, sustain their soils, and protect/maintain the environment have been returning to a very old practice: planting cover crops. Cover crops are effective tools for reducing soil erosion and increasing nutrient recycling on farmlands, ...

  1. Topics in elementary particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiang

    The author of this thesis discusses two topics in elementary particle physics: n-ary algebras and their applications to M-theory (Part I), and functional evolution and Renormalization Group flows (Part II). In part I, Lie algebra is extended to four different n-ary algebraic structure: generalized Lie algebra, Filippov algebra, Nambu algebra and Nambu-Poisson tensor; though there are still many other n-ary algebras. A natural property of Generalized Lie algebras — the Bremner identity, is studied, and proved with a totally different method from its original version. We extend Bremner identity to n-bracket cases, where n is an arbitrary odd integer. Filippov algebras do not focus on associativity, and are defined by the Fundamental identity. We add associativity to Filippov algebras, and give examples of how to construct Filippov algebras from su(2), bosonic oscillator, Virasoro algebra. We try to include fermionic charges into the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebra, but the attempt fails because fermionic charges keep generating new charges that make the algebra not closed. We also study the Bremner identity restriction on Nambu algebras and Nambu-Poisson tensors. So far, the only example 3-algebra being used in physics is the BLG model with 3-algebra A4, describing two M2-branes interactions. Its extension with Nambu algebra, BLG-NB model, is believed to describe infinite M2-branes condensation. Also, there is another propose for M2-brane interactions, the ABJM model, which is constructed by ordinary Lie algebra. We compare the symmetry properties between them, and discuss the possible approaches to include these three models into a grand unification theory. In Part II, we give an approximate solution for Schroeder's equations, based on series and conjugation methods. We use the logistic map as an example, and demonstrate that this approximate

  2. Automatic design of magazine covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  3. Topical hemostatic agents in surgery: a surgeon's perspective.

    PubMed

    Samudrala, Srinath

    2008-09-01

    Good hemostasis in surgery can provide multiple advantages to the patient, surgical team, and health care facility. Active and passive hemostatic agents have been widely used for many years and have extensive history supporting effective and safe use in a wide variety of surgical procedures. The type of surgical procedure, type of bleeding, hemostatic agent availability, and patient characteristics will influence the choice of topical hemostatic agent that is used by the surgeon. By actively participating in the coagulation cascade, active topical hemostatic agents are more able to meet the criteria of an ideal hemostatic agent in cases of oozing blood and minor bleeding during surgical procedures. Active agents can be used alone or in combination with passive agents. Familiarity with the products used to achieve hemostasis and their preparation can facilitate optimal use by surgical teams.

  4. Template-free synthesis of core-shell TiO2 microspheres covered with high-energy {116}-facet-exposed N-doped nanosheets and enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qifeng; Ren, Baosheng; Zhao, Yubao; Xu, Xun; Ge, Heyi; Guan, Ruifang; Zhao, Jincai

    2014-12-15

    Core-shell TiO2 microspheres possess a unique structure and interesting properties, and therefore, they have received much attention. The high-energy facets of TiO2 also are being widely studied for the high photocatalytic activities they are associated with. However, the synthesis of the core-shell structure is difficult to achieve and requires multiple-steps and/or is expensive. Hydrofluoric acid (HF), which is highly corrosive, is usually used in the controlling high-energy facet production. Therefore, it is still a significant challenge to develop low-temperature, template-free, shape-controlled, and relative green self-assembly routes for the formation of core-shell-structured TiO2 microspheres with high-energy facets. Here, we report a template- and hydrofluoric acid free solvothermal self-assembly approach to synthesize core-shell TiO2 microspheres covered with high-energy {116}-facet-exposed nanosheets, an approach in which 1,4-butanediamine plays a key role in the formation of nanosheets with exposed {116} facets and the doping of nitrogen in situ. In the structure, nanoparticle aggregates and nanosheets with {116} high-energy facets exposed act as core and shell, respectively. The photocatalytic activity for degradation of 2,4,6-tribromophenol and Rhodamine B under visible irradiation and UV/Vis irradiation has been examined, and improved photocatalytic activity under visible light owing to the hierarchical core-shell structure, {116}-plane-oriented nanosheets, in situ N doping, and large surface areas has been found.

  5. Cellular uptake, antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of entrapped α-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol in poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and chitosan covered PLGA nanoparticles (PLGA-Chi).

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Saeed; Simon, Lacey; Astete, Carlos E; Alayoubi, Alaadin; Sylvester, Paul W; Nazzal, Sami; Shen, Yixiao; Xu, Zhimin; Kaddoumi, Amal; Sabliov, Cristina M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate and characterize α-tocopherol (α-T) and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) entrapped in poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and chitosan covered PLGA (PLGA-Chi) based nanoparticles. The resultant nanoparticles were characterized and the effect of nanoparticles entrapment on the cellular uptake, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activity of α-T and TRF were tested. In vitro uptake studies in Caco2 cells showed that PLGA and PLGA-Chi nanoparticles displayed a greater enhancement in the cellular uptake of α-T and TRF when compared with the control without causing toxicity to the cells (p<0.0001). Furthermore, the cellular internalization of both PLGA and PLGA-Chi nanoparticles labeled with FITC was investigated by fluorescence microscopy; both types of nanoparticles were able to get internalized into the cells with reasonable amounts. However, PLGA-Chi nanoparticles showed significantly higher (3.5-fold) cellular uptake compared to PLGA nanoparticles. The antioxidant activity studies demonstrated that entrapment of α-T and TRF in PLGA and PLGA-Chi nanoparticles exhibited greater ability in inhibiting cholesterol oxidation at 48 h compared to the control. In vitro antiproliferative studies confirmed marked cytotoxicity of TRF on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines when delivered by PLGA and PLGA-Chi nanoparticles after 48 h incubation compared to control. In summary, PLGA and PLGA-Chi nanoparticles may be considered as an attractive and promising approach to enhance the bioavailability and activity of poorly water soluble compounds such as α-tocopherol and tocotrienols.

  6. Topical Plasminogen as Adjunctive Treatment in Recurrent Ligneous Conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Ang, Michael J; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos I; Chang, Shu-Hong; Kohn, Jocelyn; Chokron Garneau, Helen; Goldberg, Robert A

    Ligneous conjunctivitis is a rare, autosomal recessive, membranous conjunctivitis characterized by a deficiency in type 1 plasminogen. The absence of normal plasmin activity results in the formation of fibrin-rich, membranous material that typically manifests on the palpebral conjunctiva. Surgical treatment often causes irritation of the conjunctiva and accelerated recurrence of pseudomembranes. In this interventional case report, the authors document the results of treatment with topical plasminogen following conjunctival pseudomembrane excision in a 32-year-old woman. The patient underwent pseudomembrane excision in the OS followed immediately by hourly topical application of plasminogen eye drops. The plasminogen was prepared from pooled human plasma purchased under Food and Drug Administration approval from DiaPharma. Follow-up evaluation at 1 week, 1 month, and 5 months showed no evidence of recurrent pseudomembranous change. Adjunctive topical plasminogen application appears to be an effective and safe method of controlling pseudomembrane recurrence in patients with ligneous conjunctivitis.

  7. The value of snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    only and not even the main outcome from snow cover use. The value of snow cover for agriculture, water resources, industry and transportation is so naturally inside the activities that is not often quantified. However, any considerations of adaptation strategies for climate change with changing snow conditions need such quantification.

  8. Topical Microbicides and HIV Prevention in the Female Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, Mackenzie L; Kashuba, Angela D. M.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, HIV disproportionately affects women who are often unable to negotiate traditional HIV preventive strategies such as condoms. In the absence of an effective vaccine or cure, chemoprophylaxis may be a valuable self-initiated alternative. Topical microbicides have been investigated as one such option. The first generation topical microbicides were non-specific, broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, including surfactants, polyanions, and acid buffering gels, that generally exhibited contraceptive properties. After extensive clinical study, none prevented HIV infection, and their development was abandoned. Second generation topical microbicides include agents with selective mechanisms of antiviral activity. Most are currently being used for, or have previously been explored as, drugs for treatment of HIV. The most advanced of these is tenofovir 1% gel: the first topical agent shown to significantly reduce HIV infection by 39% compared to placebo. This review summarizes the evolution of topical microbicides for HIV chemoprophylaxis, highlights important concepts learned, and offers current and future considerations for this area of research. PMID:24664786

  9. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph report presents an overview of activities and accomplishments of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group. Expertise in this group focuses on high-fidelity fluids design and analysis with application to space shuttle propulsion and next generation launch technologies. Topics covered include: computational fluid dynamics research and goals, turbomachinery research and activities, nozzle research and activities, combustion devices, engine systems, MDA development and CFD process improvements.

  10. Small Vertex Cover Makes Petri Net Coverability and Boundedness Easier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen, M.

    The coverability and boundedness problems for Petri nets are known to be Expspace-complete. Given a Petri net, we associate a graph with it. With the vertex cover number k of this graph and the maximum arc weight W as parameters, we show that coverability and boundedness are in ParaPspace. This means that these problems can be solved in space O(ef(k,W)poly(n)) where ef(k,W) is some exponential function and poly(n) is some polynomial in the size of the input. We then extend the ParaPspace result to model checking a logic that can express some generalizations of coverability and boundedness.

  11. Topical antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Enembe O; Verbeek, Jos H; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Ojo, Olumuyiwa A; Bakhoya, Victor Nyange

    2015-01-01

    Background Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is distributed worldwide. It commonly affects the scalp, face and flexures of the body. Treatment options include antifungal drugs, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, keratolytic agents and phototherapy. Objectives To assess the effects of antifungal agents for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and scalp in adolescents and adults. A secondary objective is to assess whether the same interventions are effective in the management of seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Search methods We searched the following databases up to December 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974) and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (from 1982). We also searched trials registries and checked the bibliographies of published studies for further trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of topical antifungals used for treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis in adolescents and adults, with primary outcome measures of complete clearance of symptoms and improved quality of life. Data collection and analysis Review author pairs independently assessed eligibility for inclusion, extracted study data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We performed fixed-effect meta-analysis for studies with low statistical heterogeneity and used a random-effects model when heterogeneity was high. Main results We included 51 studies with 9052 participants. Of these, 45 trials assessed treatment outcomes at five weeks or less after commencement of treatment, and six trials assessed outcomes over a longer time frame. We believe that 24 trials had some form of conflict of interest, such as funding by pharmaceutical companies. Among the included studies were 12 ketoconazole trials (N = 3253), 11 ciclopirox trials (N = 3029), two lithium trials (N = 141

  12. A survey of dark matter and related topics in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Bing-Lin

    2017-04-01

    This article presents an extensive review of the status of the search of the dark matter. The first eight sections are devoted to topics in dark matter and its experimental searches, and the rest to selected topics in astrophysics and cosmology, which are intended to supply some of the needed background for students in particle physics. Sections 9 and 13 are introductory cosmology. The three astrophysical topics, Big Bang nucleosynthesis Section 10, Boltzmann transport equation and freeze out of massive particles Section 11, and CMB anisotropy Section 12 can all be studied in analytical approaches when reasonable approximations are made. Their original analytically forms, to which this article follows very closely, were given by particle physicists. Dark matter is an evolving subject requiring timely update to stay current. Hence a review of such a subject matter would undoubtedly have something wanting when it appears in print. It is hoped that this review can form a humble basis for those graduate students who would like to pursue the subject of dark matter. The reader can use the extensive table of contents to see in some details the materials covered in the article.

  13. Topical Ranibizumab as a Treatment of Corneal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Giulio; Dastjerdi, Mohammad H.; Okanobo, Andre; Cheng, Sheng-Fu; Amparo, Francisco; Nallasamy, Nambi; Dana, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effect of topical ranibizumab on clinically stable corneal neovascularization (NV). Methods This was a prospective, open-label, monocentric, uncontrolled, non-comparative study. Ten eyes of 9 patients with corneal NV received topical ranibizumab (1%) 4 times a day for 3 weeks with a follow-up of 16 weeks. The main corneal neovascularization outcome measures were: neovascular area (NA), the area occupied by the corneal neovessels; vessel caliber (VC), the mean diameter of the corneal neovessels; and invasion area (IA), the fraction of the total cornea area covered by the vessels. This study was conducted at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA, USA. Results Statistically significant decreases in NA (55.3%, P<0.001), which lasted through 16 weeks, and VC (59%, P<0.001), which continued to improve up to week 16, were observed after treatment. No significant decrease was observed in IA (12.3%, P=0.49). There was no statistically significant change in visual acuity or intraocular pressure. No adverse events ascribed to the treatment were noted. Conclusions Topical application of ranibizumab is effective in reducing the severity of corneal NV in the context of established corneal NV, mostly through decrease in VC rather than IA. PMID:23407316

  14. Topical hemostatic agents for dermatologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Larson, P O

    1988-06-01

    Topical hemostatic agents are very helpful in attaining capillary and small vessel hemostasis in dermatologic surgery. The commonly used topical hemostatic agents, including oxidized cellulose, absorbable gelatin, and thrombin are reviewed, along with newer agents such as microfibrillar collagen, fibrin sealants, and acrylates. Agents best suited for certain situations are recommended.

  15. Some Teaching Topics from Space Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balding, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    Short notes on a variety of science topics provide information derived from space sciences that can be used to add interest and up-to-date data to science lessons. Topics are arranged alphabetically from Alpha particles to X-rays, and include some from each of the physical, earth, and biological sciences. (AL)

  16. Common Topics and Commonplaces of Environmental Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Derek G.

    2013-01-01

    Common topics are words or phrases used to develop argument, and commonplaces aid memory or catalyze frames of understanding. When used in argumentation, each may help interested parties more effectively communicate valuable scientific and environment-related information. This article describes 12 modern topics of environmental rhetoric,…

  17. Fostering Topic Knowledge: Essential for Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proske, Antje; Kapp, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers emphasize the role of the writer's topic knowledge for writing. In academic writing topic knowledge is often constructed by studying source texts. One possibility to support that essential phase of the writing process is to provide interactive learning questions which facilitate the construction of an adequate situation…

  18. Descriptive Discourse: Topic Familiarity and Disfluencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merlo, Sandra; Mansur, Leticia Lessa

    2004-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to address questions about topic familiarity and disfluencies during oral descriptive discourse of adult speakers. Participants expressed more attributes when the topic was familiar than when it was unfamiliar. Fillers and lexical pauses were the most frequent disfluencies. The mean duration of each hesitation…

  19. Value of Topics in Consumer Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garman, E. Thomas; Gummerson, Ronald R.

    1977-01-01

    Reports preliminary findings from students who have completed a course in consumer education which address this question: What value do you now place on selected topics in consumer education? Topics with the greatest value were budgeting, dishonest and deceptive sales schemes, automobile insurance, principles of wise buying, and value comparison.…

  20. Topic Maps e-Learning Portal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsevicova, Kamila

    2006-01-01

    Topic Maps, ISO/IEC 13250 standard, are designed to facilitate the organization and navigation of large collections of information objects by creating meta-level perspectives of their underlying concepts and relationships. The underlying structure of concepts and relations is expressed by domain ontologies. The Topics Maps technology can become…