Science.gov

Sample records for activities tour space

  1. Space Station Live! Tour

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is using the Internet and smartphones to provide the public with a new inside look at what happens aboard the International Space Station and in the Mission Control Center. NASA Public Affairs...

  2. Virtual tour: INL's space battery facility

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This virtual tour shows how INL fuels and tests nuclear power systems for deep space missions. To learn more about INL's contribution to the Mars Science Laboratory, visit http://www.inl.gov/marsrover.

  3. Virtual tour: INL's space battery facility

    ScienceCinema

    Johnson, Steve

    2016-07-12

    This virtual tour shows how INL fuels and tests nuclear power systems for deep space missions. To learn more about INL's contribution to the Mars Science Laboratory, visit http://www.inl.gov/marsrover.

  4. Brian Dunlap Tours Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    W. Brain Dunlap (left), high school student from Youngstown, Ohio, is pictured here with Harry Coons of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) during a visit to the center. Dunlap was among 25 winners of a contest in which some 3,500 high school students proposed experiments for the following year's Skylab mission. The nationwide scientific competition was sponsored by the National Science Teachers Association and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The winning students, along with their parents and sponsor teachers, visited MSFC where they met with scientists and engineers, participated in design reviews for their experiments, and toured MSFC facilities. Of the 25 students, 6 did not see their experiments conducted on Skylab because the experiments were not compatible with Skylab hardware and timelines. Of the 19 remaining, 11 experiments required the manufacture of additional equipment.

  5. Gregory Merkel Tours Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Gregory A. Merkel (left), high school student from Springfield, Massachusetts, is pictured here with Harry Coons of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) during a visit to the center. Merkel was among 25 winners of a contest in which some 3,500 high school students proposed experiments for the following year's Skylab mission. The nationwide scientific competition was sponsored by the National Science Teachers Association and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The winning students, along with their parents and sponsor teachers, visited MSFC where they met with scientists and engineers, participated in design reviews for their experiments, and toured MSFC facilities. Of the 25 students, 6 did not see their experiments conducted on Skylab because the experiments were not compatible with Skylab hardware and timelines. Of the 19 remaining, 11 experiments required the manufacture of additional equipment.

  6. Representatives of countries participating in the International Space Station toured KSC's Space Sta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Senior government officials from 15 countries participating in the International Space Station (ISS) signed agreements in Washington D.C. on Jan. 29 to establish the framework of cooperation among the partners on the design, development, operation and utilization of the Space Station. Acting Secretary of State Strobe Talbott signed the 1998 Intergovernmental Agreement on Space Station Cooperation with representatives of Russia, Japan, Canada, and participating countries of the European Space Agency (ESA), including Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Some of these officials then toured KSC's Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) with NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, at front, sixth from the left. They are, left to right, front to back: Hidetoshi Murayama, National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA); Louis Laurent, Embassy of France; Haakon Blankenborg, Norwegian Parliament Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs; His Excellency Joris Vos, ambassador of the Netherlands; His Excellency Tom Vraalsen, ambassador of Norway; Daniel Goldin; Luigi Berlinguer, Italian minister for education, scientific, and technological research; Antonio Rodota, director general, European Space Agency (ESA); Yvan Ylieff, Belgian minister of science and chairman of the ESA Ministerial Council; Jacqueline Ylieff; Masaaki Komatsu, KSC local NASDA representative and interpreter; Serge Ivanets, space attache, Embassy of Russia; Hiroshi Fujita, Science and Technology Agency of Japan; Akira Mizutani, Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Peter Grognard, science attache, Royal Embassy of Belgium; Michelangelo Pipan, Italian diplomatic counselor to the minister; His Excellency Gerhard Fulda, German Federal Foreign Office; Jorg Feustel-Buechl, ESA director of manned space flight and microgravity; A. Yakovenko, Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs; JoAnn Morgan, KSC associate director for Advanced Development

  7. Diamond Tours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On April 24, a group traveling with Diamond Tours visited StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA John C. Stennis Space Center in South Mississippi. The trip marked Diamond Tours' return to StenniSphere since Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast on Aug. 29, 2005. About 25 business professionals from Georgia enjoyed the day's tour of America's largest rocket engine test complex, along with the many displays and exhibits at the museum. Before Hurricane Katrina, the nationwide company brought more than 1,000 visitors to StenniSphere each month. That contributed to more than 100,000 visitors from around the world touring the space center each year. In past years StenniSphere's visitor relations specialists booked Diamond Tours two or three times a week, averaging 40 to 50 people per visit. SSC was established in the 1960s to test the huge engines for the Saturn V moon rockets. Now 40 years later, the center tests every main engine for the space shuttle. SSC will soon begin testing the rocket engines that will power spacecraft carrying Americans back to the moon and on to Mars. For more information or to book a tour, visit http://www.nasa.gov/centers/stennis/home/index.html and click on the StenniSphere logo; or call 800-237-1821 or 228-688-2370.

  8. Application of multi-agent coordination methods to the design of space debris mitigation tours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Jeffrey; Howell, Kathleen; Wilson, Roby

    2016-04-01

    The growth in the number of defunct and fragmented objects near to the Earth poses a growing hazard to launch operations as well as existing on-orbit assets. Numerous studies have demonstrated the positive impact of active debris mitigation campaigns upon the growth of debris populations, but comparatively fewer investigations incorporate specific mission scenarios. Furthermore, while many active mitigation methods have been proposed, certain classes of debris objects are amenable to mitigation campaigns employing chaser spacecraft with existing chemical and low-thrust propulsive technologies. This investigation incorporates an ant colony optimization routing algorithm and multi-agent coordination via auctions into a debris mitigation tour scheme suitable for preliminary mission design and analysis as well as spacecraft flight operations.

  9. Pre-Trip Expectations and Post-Trip Satisfaction with Marine Tour Interpretation in Hawaii: Applying the Norm Activation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Kerrie; Needham, Mark D.; Szuster, Brian W.; Jordan, Evan J.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines environmental education by focusing on recreationist expectations for interpretation on marine tours, satisfaction with this interpretation and whether expectations were met, and how these perceptions correlate with components of the norm activation model. Recreationists surveyed before and after tours to Molokini, Hawaii (n…

  10. Science and Technology Tour

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronaut Ron Garan gives a tour of the space station's research facilities. These laboratories have contributed to advances in materials, environmental science, and medicine, as well as our unders...

  11. Station Tour: Russian Segment

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams concludes her tour of the International Space Station with a visit to the Russian segment, which includes Zarya, the first segment of the station launched in 1...

  12. A MASSive laboratory tour. An interactive mass spectrometry outreach activity for children.

    PubMed

    Jungmann, Julia H; Mascini, Nadine E; Kiss, Andras; Smith, Donald F; Klinkert, Ivo; Eijkel, Gert B; Duursma, Marc C; Cillero Pastor, Berta; Chughtai, Kamila; Chughtai, Sanaullah; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-07-01

    It is imperative to fascinate young children at an early stage in their education for the analytical sciences. The exposure of the public to mass spectrometry presently increases rapidly through the common media. Outreach activities can take advantage of this exposure and employ mass spectrometry as an exquisite example of an analytical science in which children can be fascinated. The presented teaching modules introduce children to mass spectrometry and give them the opportunity to experience a modern research laboratory. The modules are highly adaptable and can be applied to young children from the age of 6 to 14 y. In an interactive tour, the students explore three major scientific concepts related to mass spectrometry; the building blocks of matter, charged particle manipulation by electrostatic fields, and analyte identification by mass analysis. Also, the students carry out a mass spectrometry experiment and learn to interpret the resulting mass spectra. The multistage, inquiry-based tour contains flexible methods, which teach the students current-day research techniques and possible applications to real research topics. Besides the scientific concepts, laboratory safety and hygiene are stressed and the students are enthused for the analytical sciences by participating in "hands-on" work. The presented modules have repeatedly been successfully employed during laboratory open days. They are also found to be extremely suitable for (early) high school science classes during laboratory visit-focused field trips. PMID:23681852

  13. A MASSive Laboratory Tour. An Interactive Mass Spectrometry Outreach Activity for Children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungmann, Julia H.; Mascini, Nadine E.; Kiss, Andras; Smith, Donald F.; Klinkert, Ivo; Eijkel, Gert B.; Duursma, Marc C.; Cillero Pastor, Berta; Chughtai, Kamila; Chughtai, Sanaullah; Heeren, Ron M. A.

    2013-07-01

    It is imperative to fascinate young children at an early stage in their education for the analytical sciences. The exposure of the public to mass spectrometry presently increases rapidly through the common media. Outreach activities can take advantage of this exposure and employ mass spectrometry as an exquisite example of an analytical science in which children can be fascinated. The presented teaching modules introduce children to mass spectrometry and give them the opportunity to experience a modern research laboratory. The modules are highly adaptable and can be applied to young children from the age of 6 to 14 y. In an interactive tour, the students explore three major scientific concepts related to mass spectrometry; the building blocks of matter, charged particle manipulation by electrostatic fields, and analyte identification by mass analysis. Also, the students carry out a mass spectrometry experiment and learn to interpret the resulting mass spectra. The multistage, inquiry-based tour contains flexible methods, which teach the students current-day research techniques and possible applications to real research topics. Besides the scientific concepts, laboratory safety and hygiene are stressed and the students are enthused for the analytical sciences by participating in "hands-on" work. The presented modules have repeatedly been successfully employed during laboratory open days. They are also found to be extremely suitable for (early) high school science classes during laboratory visit-focused field trips.

  14. A MASSive laboratory tour. An interactive mass spectrometry outreach activity for children.

    PubMed

    Jungmann, Julia H; Mascini, Nadine E; Kiss, Andras; Smith, Donald F; Klinkert, Ivo; Eijkel, Gert B; Duursma, Marc C; Cillero Pastor, Berta; Chughtai, Kamila; Chughtai, Sanaullah; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-07-01

    It is imperative to fascinate young children at an early stage in their education for the analytical sciences. The exposure of the public to mass spectrometry presently increases rapidly through the common media. Outreach activities can take advantage of this exposure and employ mass spectrometry as an exquisite example of an analytical science in which children can be fascinated. The presented teaching modules introduce children to mass spectrometry and give them the opportunity to experience a modern research laboratory. The modules are highly adaptable and can be applied to young children from the age of 6 to 14 y. In an interactive tour, the students explore three major scientific concepts related to mass spectrometry; the building blocks of matter, charged particle manipulation by electrostatic fields, and analyte identification by mass analysis. Also, the students carry out a mass spectrometry experiment and learn to interpret the resulting mass spectra. The multistage, inquiry-based tour contains flexible methods, which teach the students current-day research techniques and possible applications to real research topics. Besides the scientific concepts, laboratory safety and hygiene are stressed and the students are enthused for the analytical sciences by participating in "hands-on" work. The presented modules have repeatedly been successfully employed during laboratory open days. They are also found to be extremely suitable for (early) high school science classes during laboratory visit-focused field trips.

  15. 26 CFR 1.513-7 - Travel and tour activities of tax exempt organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Examinations are given at the end of each tour and the P StateBoard of Education awards academic credit for..., lectures, report preparation, examinations and qualify for academic credit, the tours are substantially... within the meaning of section 513(a). Example 3. R is a section 501(c)(4) social welfare...

  16. 26 CFR 1.513-7 - Travel and tour activities of tax exempt organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Examinations are given at the end of each tour and the P StateBoard of Education awards academic credit for..., lectures, report preparation, examinations and qualify for academic credit, the tours are substantially... within the meaning of section 513(a). Example 3. R is a section 501(c)(4) social welfare...

  17. Launch Pad Tour Stop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Launch Pad tour stop at the Mississippi I-10 Welcome Center in Hancock County, Miss., is the point of origin for all tours of Stennis Space Center and StenniSphere. At the Launch Pad, visitors waiting to catch the shuttle buses are provided information and can see videos on StenniSphere exhibits and on the missions and programs of Stennis Space Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily, and buses depart from the Launch Pad to StenniSphere every 15 to 20 minutes.

  18. French space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanc, R.

    1982-01-01

    The four main points of research and development of space programs by France are explained. The National Center of Space Studies is discussed, listing the missions of the Center and describing the activities of the staff.

  19. Solar-Heliospheric-Interstellar Cosmic Ray Tour with the NASA Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory and the Space Physics Data Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John F.; Papitashvili, Natalia E.; Johnson, Rita C.; Lal, Nand; McGuire, Robert E.

    2015-04-01

    NASA now has a large collection of solar, heliospheric, and local interstellar (Voyager 1) cosmic ray particle data sets that can be accessed through the data system services of the NASA Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO) in collaboration with the NASA Space Physics Data Facility SPDF), respectively led by the first and last authors. The VEPO services were developed to enhance the long-existing OMNIWeb solar wind and energetic particle services of SPDF for on-line browse, correlative, and statistical analysis of NASA and ESA mission fields, plasma, and energetic particle data. In this presentation we take of tour through VEPO and SPDF of SEP reservoir events, the outer heliosphere earlier surveyed by the Pioneer, Voyager, and Ulysses spacecraft and now being probed by New Horizons, and the heliosheath-heliopause-interstellar regions now being explored by the Voyagers and IBEX. Implications of the latter measurements are also considered for the flux spectra of low to high energy cosmic rays in interstellar space.

  20. Station Tour: Harmony, Tranquility, Unity

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams starts off her tour of the International Space Station with a look at its nodes -- Harmony, Tranquility and Unity -- which include the crew's sleeping quarters...

  1. Station Tour: Cupola and Leonardo

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams continues the tour of the International Space Station with a look at the station's observation deck, the cupola, as well as the Advanced Resistive Exercise Dev...

  2. Space construction activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Center for Space Construction at the University of Colorado at Boulder was established in 1988 as a University Space Engineering Research Center. The mission of the Center is to conduct interdisciplinary engineering research which is critical to the construction of future space structures and systems and to educate students who will have the vision and technical skills to successfully lead future space construction activities. The research activities are currently organized around two central projects: Orbital Construction and Lunar Construction. Summaries of the research projects are included.

  3. 26 CFR 1.513-7 - Travel and tour activities of tax exempt organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... circumstances, including, but not limited to, how a travel tour is developed, promoted and operated. Section 513... various destinations around the world. Members of O pay $x to the organizing travel agency to participate... expeditions around the world, including in the Y region of country Z. In cooperation with the National...

  4. Planning activities in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Kai-Hsiung

    1987-01-01

    Three aspects of planning activities in space are presented. These include generating plans efficiently, coordinating actions among multiple agents, and recovering from plan execution errors. Each aspect is discussed separately.

  5. Crew activities in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluford, G. S., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    One of the mission requirements of the Space Shuttle is to serve as a working platform for experiments in space. Many of these experiments will be performed by crewmembers (mission specialists and payload specialists) in a general purpose laboratory called Spacelab. All nonexperiment-related activities or housekeeping activities will be done in the Orbiter, while most of the mission-related activities (experiments) will be done in Spacelab. In order for experimenters to design their experiments to best utilize the capabilities of the Orbiter, the Spacelab, and the crew, the working environment in the Orbiter and in Spacelab is described. In addition, the housekeeping activities required of the crew are summarized.

  6. Ongoing Space Nuclear Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    Most ongoing US activities related to space nuclear power and propulsion are sponsored by NASA. NASA-spons0red space nuclear work is currently focused on evaluating potential fission surface power (FSP) systems and on radioisotope power systems (RPS). In addition, significant efforts related to nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems have been completed and will provide a starting point for potential future NTP work.

  7. Tips for Choir Tours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Kenneth H.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines 15 suggestions for preplanning and implementing choir tours. Briefly discusses; booking and travel agencies, options for financing, establishing educational objectives, parental permission forms, chaperons, housing, and performance apparel. Recommends planning a tour at least a year in advance. (MJP)

  8. Virtually the Same: Comparing the Effectiveness of Online versus In-Person Library Tours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burhanna, Kenneth J.; Voelker, Tammy J. Eschedor; Gedeon, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of virtual or Web-based tours is on the rise in academic libraries, but with the loss of face-to-face contact and direct experience with the library's physical spaces, questions abound about this format's efficacy. Do online tour experiences measure up to those of a guided, face-to-face tour? Do online tours help mold students' perceptions…

  9. Canadian military space activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Geoffrey W.

    This paper outlines the Department of National Defence (DND) of Canada policy on the military use of space and discusses DND space systems. The NAVSTAR global positioning system will be the standard for future navigation systems. Canada is one of four founding nations of the international COSPAS/SARSAT satellite assisted search and rescue system. Three new earth stations will provide complete coverage of Canadian synthetic aperture radar (SAR) territory. In addition, funds have been committed for research and development of space based surveillance radar technology. The Canadian Forces Weather Service will receive digitalized satellite imagery and weather charts as part of the planned Meteorological Satellite Information System (METSIS). METSIS will provide weather information through Anik D satellite broadcast. A three phased approach is planned to satisfy satellite communications requirements. Leased point to point communications have been established for some locations. Mobile terminals are being developed and are being used to test technologies and operating techniques. Phase two will be the acquisition of a mix of fixed and mobile terminals to use existing commercial and military space bands. Encryption capabilities and antijamming technologies are being developed. Phase three calls for launching of several nongeostationary satellites to provide continuous coverage to the areas in the high Arctic which are below the horizon for geostationary satellites. DND policy can be summarized as follows: (1) the DND will enhance defence commitments by using space technology where appropriate and cost effective; (2) it will enhance the peaceful use of space; and (3) DND will use space programs to contribute to the Canadian economic and defence production base.

  10. Antibiotic activity in space.

    PubMed

    Lapchine, L; Moatti, N; Gasset, G; Richoilley, G; Templier, J; Tixador, R

    1986-01-01

    Environmental factors in space exert an influence on the behaviour of bacteria, particularly on their sensitivity to antibiotics. Thus, G. Taylor and S. Zaloguev observed that bacterial samples collected on the crew during flight in the Apollo-Soyouz Test Project Mission presented higher antibiotic resistance than controls. This paper presents the results of two experiments performed in 1982 and 1985 (Cytos 2 during the French-Soviet Mission and "Antibio" in the Biorack programme of the European Space Agency). The results show an increase of antibiotic resistance in bacteria growth in flight and a modification in the structure of the cell wall. All these modifications are transitory. Two hypotheses are put forward to explain the phenomenon.

  11. Antibiotic activity in space.

    PubMed

    Lapchine, L; Moatti, N; Gasset, G; Richoilley, G; Templier, J; Tixador, R

    1986-01-01

    Environmental factors in space exert an influence on the behaviour of bacteria, particularly on their sensitivity to antibiotics. Thus, G. Taylor and S. Zaloguev observed that bacterial samples collected on the crew during flight in the Apollo-Soyouz Test Project Mission presented higher antibiotic resistance than controls. This paper presents the results of two experiments performed in 1982 and 1985 (Cytos 2 during the French-Soviet Mission and "Antibio" in the Biorack programme of the European Space Agency). The results show an increase of antibiotic resistance in bacteria growth in flight and a modification in the structure of the cell wall. All these modifications are transitory. Two hypotheses are put forward to explain the phenomenon. PMID:3569006

  12. Effects of tour boats on dolphin activity examined with sensitivity analysis of Markov chains.

    PubMed

    Dans, Silvana Laura; Degrati, Mariana; Pedraza, Susana Noemí; Crespo, Enrique Alberto

    2012-08-01

    In Patagonia, Argentina, watching dolphins, especially dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus), is a new tourist activity. Feeding time decreases and time to return to feeding after feeding is abandoned and time it takes a group of dolphins to feed increase in the presence of boats. Such effects on feeding behavior may exert energetic costs on dolphins and thus reduce an individual's survival and reproductive capacity or maybe associated with shifts in distribution. We sought to predict which behavioral changes modify the activity pattern of dolphins the most. We modeled behavioral sequences of dusky dolphins with Markov chains. We calculated transition probabilities from one activity to another and arranged them in a stochastic matrix model. The proportion of time dolphins dedicated to a given activity (activity budget) and the time it took a dolphin to resume that activity after it had been abandoned (recurrence time) were calculated. We used a sensitivity analysis of Markov chains to calculate the sensitivity of the time budget and the activity-resumption time to changes in behavioral transition probabilities. Feeding-time budget was most sensitive to changes in the probability of dolphins switching from traveling to feeding behavior and of maintaining feeding behavior. Thus, an increase in these probabilities would be associated with the largest reduction in the time dedicated to feeding. A reduction in the probability of changing from traveling to feeding would also be associated with the largest increases in the time it takes dolphins to resume feeding. To approach dolphins when they are traveling would not affect behavior less because presence of the boat may keep dolphins from returning to feeding. Our results may help operators of dolphin-watching vessels minimize negative effects on dolphins. PMID:22624561

  13. Assisted Cycling Tours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses Assisted Cycling Tours (ACT), a Westminster, Colorado based 501(c)3, non-profit that is offering the joy of bicycle tours in breathtaking, scenic locations to children and adults with developmental and physical disabilities and their families. ACT was founded by Bob Matter and his son David with a goal of opening up the…

  14. Economic tour package model using heuristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Syariza Abdul; Benjamin, Aida Mauziah; Bakar, Engku Muhammad Nazri Engku Abu

    2014-07-01

    A tour-package is a prearranged tour that includes products and services such as food, activities, accommodation, and transportation, which are sold at a single price. Since the competitiveness within tourism industry is very high, many of the tour agents try to provide attractive tour-packages in order to meet tourist satisfaction as much as possible. Some of the criteria that are considered by the tourist are the number of places to be visited and the cost of the tour-packages. Previous studies indicate that tourists tend to choose economical tour-packages and aiming to visit as many places as they can cover. Thus, this study proposed tour-package model using heuristic approach. The aim is to find economical tour-packages and at the same time to propose as many places as possible to be visited by tourist in a given geographical area particularly in Langkawi Island. The proposed model considers only one starting point where the tour starts and ends at an identified hotel. This study covers 31 most attractive places in Langkawi Island from various categories of tourist attractions. Besides, the allocation of period for lunch and dinner are included in the proposed itineraries where it covers 11 popular restaurants around Langkawi Island. In developing the itinerary, the proposed heuristic approach considers time window for each site (hotel/restaurant/place) so that it represents real world implementation. We present three itineraries with different time constraints (1-day, 2-day and 3-day tour-package). The aim of economic model is to minimize the tour-package cost as much as possible by considering entrance fee of each visited place. We compare the proposed model with our uneconomic model from our previous study. The uneconomic model has no limitation to the cost with the aim to maximize the number of places to be visited. Comparison between the uneconomic and economic itinerary has shown that the proposed model have successfully achieved the objective that

  15. 14 CFR 93.319 - Commercial air tour limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial air tour limitations. 93.319... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.319 Commercial air tour limitations. (a) Unless...

  16. Jefferson Lab Virtual Tour

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-13

    Take a virtual tour of the campus of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. You can see inside our two accelerators, three experimental areas, accelerator component fabrication and testing areas, high-performance computing areas and laser labs.

  17. Jefferson Lab Virtual Tour

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Take a virtual tour of the campus of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. You can see inside our two accelerators, three experimental areas, accelerator component fabrication and testing areas, high-performance computing areas and laser labs.

  18. Extravehicular activity space suit interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoog, A. Ingemar; McBarron, James W.; Severin, Guy I.

    1995-10-01

    The European Agency (ESA) and the Russian Space Agency (RKA) are jointly developing a new space suit system for improved extravehicular activity (EVA) capabilities in support of the MIR Space Station Programme, the EVA Suit 2000. Recent national policy agreements between the U.S. and Russia on planned cooperations in manned space also include joint extravehicular activity (EVA). With an increased number of space suit systems and a higher operational frequency towards the end of this century an improved interoperability for both routine and emergency operations is of eminent importance. It is thus timely to report the current status of ongoing work on international EVA interoperability being conducted by the Committee on EVA Protocols and Operations of the International Academy of Astronautics initialed in 1991. This paper summarises the current EVA interoperability issues to be harmonised and presents quantified vehicle interface requirements for the current U.S. Shuttle EMU and Russian MIR Orlan DMA and the new European/Russian EVA Suit 2000 extravehicular systems. Major critical/incompatible interfaces for suits/mothercraft of different combinations arc discussed, and recommendations for standardisations given.

  19. Extravehicular activity space suit interoperability.

    PubMed

    Skoog, A I; McBarron JW 2nd; Severin, G I

    1995-10-01

    The European Agency (ESA) and the Russian Space Agency (RKA) are jointly developing a new space suit system for improved extravehicular activity (EVA) capabilities in support of the MIR Space Station Programme, the EVA Suit 2000. Recent national policy agreements between the U.S. and Russia on planned cooperations in manned space also include joint extravehicular activity (EVA). With an increased number of space suit systems and a higher operational frequency towards the end of this century an improved interoperability for both routine and emergency operations is of eminent importance. It is thus timely to report the current status of ongoing work on international EVA interoperability being conducted by the Committee on EVA Protocols and Operations of the International Academy of Astronauts initiated in 1991. This paper summarises the current EVA interoperability issues to be harmonised and presents quantified vehicle interface requirements for the current U.S. Shuttle EMU and Russian MIR Orlan DMA and the new European/Russian EVA Suit 2000 extravehicular systems. Major critical/incompatible interfaces for suits/mother-craft of different combinations are discussed, and recommendations for standardisations given.

  20. The architect's perspective on the tour and map perspective.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Athina

    2015-09-01

    Literature in linguistics suggests that when people are asked to provide an oral spatial description, they usually provide a body-centered narrative; they adopt a Tour Perspective, that is, an imaginary tour of the space rather than a Map Perspective, that is, a description focused on spatial relations as seen from above (Linde and Labov in Language 51(1):924-939, 1975; Howald in Discursive constraints on space in narrative: evidence from guilty plea discourse, eVox 3, 2009). I conducted a pilot experiment to address the following questions: Does the formal knowledge of architects--their familiarity with plan drawings and maps--override the tendency to adopt the tour perspective? Does the tour perspective depend on the actual experience of space? Twenty-two graduate students in architecture were asked to respond to the following questions: (1) "Can you describe the layout of your apartment?" (2) "Can you describe the layout of an ideal apartment?" In the responses to the first question most participants used the tour perspective. In the responses to the second question most participants used the map perspective. The results provide evidence that architects' formal knowledge does not override the preference of the tour perspective in descriptions of experienced space. Moreover, that the tour perspective is associated with the actual experience of space.

  1. Tours in Virtual Globes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treves, R.

    2009-12-01

    The most significant new feature to appear in Google Earth 5.0 in February was the tour feature, it can produce eye catching and appealing animations as was shown by the Apollo 11 Tour which shows a model of the lunar module descending to the surface of the moon. It allows users to record themselves navigating around Google Earth switching elements on and off. The use of the tour functionality goes beyond exciting animations, it has important applications as a way of; introducing users to a larger data set presented in a Virtual Globe, offering an alternative to PowerPoint as a platform to support presentations and as a quick way to produce powerful visualizations for education purposes. In this talk I will explore how best to use to tours to present a range of spatial data and examine how the Google Earth tour compares to similar functionality that is appearing in other Virtual Globes and other 3D environments such as Second Life.

  2. Co-op Essay - Tour 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, Derrick

    2014-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) is responsible for the training, planning and performance of all U.S. manned operations in space. Within this directorate all responsibilities are divided up into divisions. The EVA, Robotics & Crew Systems Operations Division performs ground operations and trains astronauts to carry out some of the more "high action" procedures in space. For example they orchestrate procedures like EVAs, or ExtraVehicular Activities (spacewalks), and robotics operations external to the International Space Station (ISS). The robotics branch of this division is responsible for the use of the Mobile Servicing System (MSS). This system is a combination of two robotic mechanisms and a series of equipment used to transport them on the ISS. The MSS is used to capture and position visiting vehicles, transport astronauts during EVAs, and perform external maintenance tasks on the ISS. This branch consists of two groups which are responsible for crew training and flight controlling, respectively. My first co-op tour took place Fall 2013. During this time I was given the opportunity to work in the robotics operations branch of the Mission Operations Directorate at NASA's Johnson Space Center. I was given a variety of tasks that encompassed, at a base level, all the aspects of the branch.

  3. DiTour

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaia, II, Thomas A.

    2014-06-05

    it is common for facilities to have a lobby with a display loop while also requiring an option for guided tours. Existing solutions have required expensive hardware and awkward software. Our solution is relative low cost as it runs on an iPad connected to an external monitor, and our software provides an intuitive touch interface. The media files are downloaded from a web server onto the device allowing a mobile option (e.g. displays at conferences). Media may include arbitrary sequences of images, movies or PDF documents. Tour guides can select different tracks of slides to display and the presentation will return to the default loop after a timeout.

  4. Visa Problems and Study Tours of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Marshall

    1981-01-01

    Describes the "study tour of the Soviet Union," for several years a feature of the three-week interim term at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa. Discusses tour organization, related orientation activities and itineraries, dwelling at length on problems encountered, especially recent last-minute denials of visa to group leaders. (MES)

  5. Bringing Art to Life through Multi-Sensory Tours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodek, Wendy L.

    2012-01-01

    Learning occurs in myriad ways yet most art museums remain wedded to visual instruction. Adult visitors touring the galleries are offered audio guides or lecture style tours to complement the visual but are there other ways to enhance learning? This article reports on a case study that found that active, multi-sensory experiences in art museums…

  6. INL Archeology Tour

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Check out this tour of the Idaho National Laboratory's archeological sites. The lab sits on 890-square miles of land and contains numerous archeological artifacts. Lots more content like this is available at INL's facebook page http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  7. Tell Me Tours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Maria Joint Union High School District, CA.

    A program description and supporting materials for the "Tell Me Tours" program of the Santa Maria Joint Union High School District (California) are presented. The program is described as mobile inservice training in which classified employees spend a day visiting two high schools, the district office, and several special programs in order to learn…

  8. International Study Tour Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Frances L.; Matt, John J.; McCaw, William P.; Kero, Patty; Stewart, Courtney; Haddouch, Reda

    2014-01-01

    Using the context of international study tour groups, this study examined the personal and professional transformation that occurred among host faculty and staff at The University of Montana-Missoula as a result of their interactions with traveling academics from other countries. Data were collected from participant responses (n = 27) using a…

  9. EBR-I Tour

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Don

    2011-01-01

    Sixty years ago, the first light bulb to be lit with nuclear energy got its juice right here in Idaho. Here's a virtual tour of the place where it all happened. To learn more visit http://www.inl.gov/ebr.

  10. INL Archeology Tour

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Check out this tour of the Idaho National Laboratory's archeological sites. The lab sits on 890-square miles of land and contains numerous archeological artifacts. Lots more content like this is available at INL's facebook page http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  11. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Don

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  12. EBR-I Tour

    ScienceCinema

    Miley, Don

    2016-07-12

    Sixty years ago, the first light bulb to be lit with nuclear energy got its juice right here in Idaho. Here's a virtual tour of the place where it all happened. To learn more visit http://www.inl.gov/ebr.

  13. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    ScienceCinema

    Miley, Don

    2016-07-12

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  14. Trends in space activities in 2014: The significance of the space activities of governments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paikowsky, Deganit; Baram, Gil; Ben-Israel, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the principal events of 2014 in the field of space activities, and extrapolates from them the primary trends that can be identified in governmental space activities. In 2014, global space activities centered on two vectors. The first was geopolitical, and the second relates to the matrix between increasing commercial space activities and traditional governmental space activities. In light of these two vectors, the article outlines and analyzes trends of space exploration, human spaceflights, industry and technology, cooperation versus self-reliance, and space security and sustainability. It also reviews the space activities of the leading space-faring nations.

  15. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities in the Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association received an award of Cooperative Agreement #NCC5-356 on September 29, 1998. The mission of this activity, know as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, USRA recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members.

  16. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities In the Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David

    2002-01-01

    The mission of this activity, known as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members. This paper is the final report from this now completed Cooperative Agreement.

  17. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities in the Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David; Marshall, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association received an award of Cooperative Agreement NCC5-356 on September 29, 1998. The mission of this activity, known as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, USRA recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members.

  18. Teaching Ideas Notebook: Student Airport Tours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Outlines, as recommended by the Aviation Distributors and Manufacturers Association, a cooperative program between schools and local airports. The Student Airport Tours Program for class and career study groups includes a field trip to an airport, free rides, and follow-up activities. (CS)

  19. DiTour

    2014-06-05

    it is common for facilities to have a lobby with a display loop while also requiring an option for guided tours. Existing solutions have required expensive hardware and awkward software. Our solution is relative low cost as it runs on an iPad connected to an external monitor, and our software provides an intuitive touch interface. The media files are downloaded from a web server onto the device allowing a mobile option (e.g. displays at conferences).more » Media may include arbitrary sequences of images, movies or PDF documents. Tour guides can select different tracks of slides to display and the presentation will return to the default loop after a timeout.« less

  20. Stargate GTM: Bridging Descriptor and Activity Spaces.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Héléna A; Baskin, Igor I; Marcou, Gilles; Horvath, Dragos; Varnek, Alexandre

    2015-11-23

    Predicting the activity profile of a molecule or discovering structures possessing a specific activity profile are two important goals in chemoinformatics, which could be achieved by bridging activity and molecular descriptor spaces. In this paper, we introduce the "Stargate" version of the Generative Topographic Mapping approach (S-GTM) in which two different multidimensional spaces (e.g., structural descriptor space and activity space) are linked through a common 2D latent space. In the S-GTM algorithm, the manifolds are trained simultaneously in two initial spaces using the probabilities in the 2D latent space calculated as a weighted geometric mean of probability distributions in both spaces. S-GTM has the following interesting features: (1) activities are involved during the training procedure; therefore, the method is supervised, unlike conventional GTM; (2) using molecular descriptors of a given compound as input, the model predicts a whole activity profile, and (3) using an activity profile as input, areas populated by relevant chemical structures can be detected. To assess the performance of S-GTM prediction models, a descriptor space (ISIDA descriptors) of a set of 1325 GPCR ligands was related to a B-dimensional (B = 1 or 8) activity space corresponding to pKi values for eight different targets. S-GTM outperforms conventional GTM for individual activities and performs similarly to the Lasso multitask learning algorithm, although it is still slightly less accurate than the Random Forest method.

  1. Stargate GTM: Bridging Descriptor and Activity Spaces.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Héléna A; Baskin, Igor I; Marcou, Gilles; Horvath, Dragos; Varnek, Alexandre

    2015-11-23

    Predicting the activity profile of a molecule or discovering structures possessing a specific activity profile are two important goals in chemoinformatics, which could be achieved by bridging activity and molecular descriptor spaces. In this paper, we introduce the "Stargate" version of the Generative Topographic Mapping approach (S-GTM) in which two different multidimensional spaces (e.g., structural descriptor space and activity space) are linked through a common 2D latent space. In the S-GTM algorithm, the manifolds are trained simultaneously in two initial spaces using the probabilities in the 2D latent space calculated as a weighted geometric mean of probability distributions in both spaces. S-GTM has the following interesting features: (1) activities are involved during the training procedure; therefore, the method is supervised, unlike conventional GTM; (2) using molecular descriptors of a given compound as input, the model predicts a whole activity profile, and (3) using an activity profile as input, areas populated by relevant chemical structures can be detected. To assess the performance of S-GTM prediction models, a descriptor space (ISIDA descriptors) of a set of 1325 GPCR ligands was related to a B-dimensional (B = 1 or 8) activity space corresponding to pKi values for eight different targets. S-GTM outperforms conventional GTM for individual activities and performs similarly to the Lasso multitask learning algorithm, although it is still slightly less accurate than the Random Forest method. PMID:26458083

  2. Space activities and global popular music culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, Allison Rae; Collins, Patrick

    During the "space age" era, space activities appear increasingly as a theme in Western popular music, as they do in popular culture generally. In combination with the electronics and tele-communications revolution, "pop/rock" music has grown explosively during the space age to become an effectively global culture. From this base a number of trends are emerging in the pattern of influences that space activities have on pop music. The paper looks at the use of themes and imagery in pop music; the role of space technology in the modern "globalization" of pop music; and current and future links between space activities and pop music culture, including how public space programmes are affected by its influence on popular attitudes.

  3. Space weather activities at NOAA s Space Environment Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunches, J.

    The NOAA Space Environment Center is the focal point for real-time space weather monitoring and prediction in the United States . The Space Weather Operations (SWO) division staffs a 24-hour/day operations center, through which both in-situ and remotely sensed data and imagery flow. These diverse data streams are analyzed continuously, and that information is applied to both predictions and specifications of various aspects of the space environment. These include the behavior of the geomagnetic field, the character of the ionosphere, and the strength of the near-earth radiation environment. Models are brought to bear in each of thes e areas, as SEC has an active research-to-operations transition effort. The Rapid Prototyping Center is the venue through which pertinent models and data must pass to be brought into the operational arena. The model outputs are then made available both internally and externally. SEC is a member of the International Space Environment Service (ISES), a partnership currently consisting of eleven nations. The mission of the ISES is to encourage and facilitate near-real-time international monitoring and prediction of the space environment by: the rapid exchange of space environment information; the standardization of the methodology for space environment observations and data reduction; the uniform publication of observations and statistics; and the application of standardized space environment products and services to assist users in reducing the impact of space weather on activities of human interest. An overview of the operational attributes of the SEC, and the function of the ISES, will be presented. Additional issues related to space weather customers, new data streams to be available in the near-term, and how these new data and imagery will be integrated int o operations will be discussed.

  4. History and Evolution of Active Learning Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beichner, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines active learning spaces as they have developed over the years. Consistently well-designed classrooms can facilitate active learning even though the details of implementing pedagogies may differ.

  5. European Mediaeval History Tour 1973

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Lascelles

    1973-01-01

    The tour was the outcome of a suggestion from an adult education class in medieval history. Plans for 25 tour members included air fare, accommodations, coach, driver, and multilingual hostess for 35 days on the continent plus nine days in England. (AG)

  6. Cassini Tour Atlas Automated Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grazier, Kevin R.; Roumeliotis, Chris; Lange, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    During the Cassini spacecraft s cruise phase and nominal mission, the Cassini Science Planning Team developed and maintained an online database of geometric and timing information called the Cassini Tour Atlas. The Tour Atlas consisted of several hundreds of megabytes of EVENTS mission planning software outputs, tables, plots, and images used by mission scientists for observation planning. Each time the nominal mission trajectory was altered or tweaked, a new Tour Atlas had to be regenerated manually. In the early phases of Cassini s Equinox Mission planning, an a priori estimate suggested that mission tour designers would develop approximately 30 candidate tours within a short period of time. So that Cassini scientists could properly analyze the science opportunities in each candidate tour quickly and thoroughly so that the optimal series of orbits for science return could be selected, a separate Tour Atlas was required for each trajectory. The task of manually generating the number of trajectory analyses in the allotted time would have been impossible, so the entire task was automated using code written in five different programming languages. This software automates the generation of the Cassini Tour Atlas database. It performs with one UNIX command what previously took a day or two of human labor.

  7. The Round Robin Library Tour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, A. Carolyn

    1980-01-01

    Describes an orientation tour allowing library staff to work together in introducing large numbers of students to library services and facilities. Groups of students move through a series of five stations in an hour's tour with a minimum of congestion and traffic. (Author/RAA)

  8. Stennis hosts Space Day activities at USM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Fallon Nettles (left), an Astro Camp counselor at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, assists a young fan attending the University of Southern Mississippi football game in Hattiesburg, Miss., on Oct. 17 in launching a balloon 'rocket.' Prior to the game, Stennis Space Center hosted hands-on activities and exhibits for families as part of its first-ever Space Day at USM. The activities were versions of those featured in the daylong and weeklong Astro Camp sessions sponsored by Stennis throughout each year. Stennis Space Center is located in nearby Hancock County and is the nation's premier rocket engine testing facility. The USM activities were part of Stennis' ongoing effort to educate people about the NASA mission and to introduce children and young people to space and space exploration.

  9. Space activities in 2009/2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagkratis, Spyros

    2011-09-01

    The global financial crisis of 2008 has created an economic environment unfavourable to public and corporate economic activity alike, which could not have left space activities unaffected. However, the effects of the crisis upon the space sector have been so far less damaging than anticipated. The following paper presents recent developments in the field of space policies, institutional budgets and commercial activity worldwide, in an effort to improve the understanding of the new trends in commercial and public space activities. It particularly explores the strategies followed by space stakeholders in different countries and regions in order to pursue their planned space programmes in view of difficult financial conditions. Finally, it highlights the differences in the outlook of space activities between established and emerging space-faring nations and attempts to explore their medium-term consequences on an international level. For this purpose, it was based on research conducted in the framework of a recent ESPI report on "Space Policies, Issues and trends in 2009/2010".

  10. Aeronautics and space report of the President: 1981 activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Achievements in the aeronautics and space program by function are summarized. Activities in communications, Earth's resources and environment, space science, space transportation, international activities, and aeronautics are included.

  11. 14 CFR 93.319 - Commercial air tour limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial air tour limitations. 93.319 Section 93.319 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ...

  12. Operational Space Weather Activities in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas; Singer, Howard; Onsager, Terrance; Viereck, Rodney; Murtagh, William; Rutledge, Robert

    2016-07-01

    We review the current activities in the civil operational space weather forecasting enterprise of the United States. The NOAA/Space Weather Prediction Center is the nation's official source of space weather watches, warnings, and alerts, working with partners in the Air Force as well as international operational forecast services to provide predictions, data, and products on a large variety of space weather phenomena and impacts. In October 2015, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy released the National Space Weather Strategy (NSWS) and associated Space Weather Action Plan (SWAP) that define how the nation will better forecast, mitigate, and respond to an extreme space weather event. The SWAP defines actions involving multiple federal agencies and mandates coordination and collaboration with academia, the private sector, and international bodies to, among other things, develop and sustain an operational space weather observing system; develop and deploy new models of space weather impacts to critical infrastructure systems; define new mechanisms for the transition of research models to operations and to ensure that the research community is supported for, and has access to, operational model upgrade paths; and to enhance fundamental understanding of space weather through support of research models and observations. The SWAP will guide significant aspects of space weather operational and research activities for the next decade, with opportunities to revisit the strategy in the coming years through the auspices of the National Science and Technology Council.

  13. Landsat: Space Activities for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Steven K.

    1979-01-01

    An aerospace education activity is described which is suitable for grades 3-12. Students piece together several images from the Landsat satellite to make a mosaic of their state. From the mosaic clear acetate overlay maps can be made relating to such subjects as agriculture, geology, hydrology, or urban planning. (BB)

  14. Active Control of Cryogenic Propellants in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, William

    2011-01-01

    A new era of space exploration is being planned. Exploration architectures under consideration require the long term storage of cryogenic propellants in space. This requires development of active control systems to mitigate the effect of heat leak. This work summarizes current state of the art, proposes operational design strategies and presents options for future architectures. Scaling and integration of active systems will be estimated. Ideal long range spacecraft systems will be proposed with Exploration architecture benefits considered.

  15. Measuring segregation: an activity space approach.

    PubMed

    Wong, David W S; Shaw, Shih-Lung

    2011-06-01

    While the literature clearly acknowledges that individuals may experience different levels of segregation across their various socio-geographical spaces, most measures of segregation are intended to be used in the residential space. Using spatially aggregated data to evaluate segregation in the residential space has been the norm and thus individual's segregation experiences in other socio-geographical spaces are often de-emphasized or ignored. This paper attempts to provide a more comprehensive approach in evaluating segregation beyond the residential space. The entire activity spaces of individuals are taken into account with individuals serving as the building blocks of the analysis. The measurement principle is based upon the exposure dimension of segregation. The proposed measure reflects the exposure of individuals of a referenced group in a neighborhood to the populations of other groups that are found within the activity spaces of individuals in the referenced group. Using the travel diary data collected from the tri-county area in southeast Florida and the imputed racial-ethnic data, this paper demonstrates how the proposed segregation measurement approach goes beyond just measuring population distribution patterns in the residential space and can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of segregation by considering various socio-geographical spaces.

  16. Measuring segregation: an activity space approach

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Shih-Lung

    2010-01-01

    While the literature clearly acknowledges that individuals may experience different levels of segregation across their various socio-geographical spaces, most measures of segregation are intended to be used in the residential space. Using spatially aggregated data to evaluate segregation in the residential space has been the norm and thus individual’s segregation experiences in other socio-geographical spaces are often de-emphasized or ignored. This paper attempts to provide a more comprehensive approach in evaluating segregation beyond the residential space. The entire activity spaces of individuals are taken into account with individuals serving as the building blocks of the analysis. The measurement principle is based upon the exposure dimension of segregation. The proposed measure reflects the exposure of individuals of a referenced group in a neighborhood to the populations of other groups that are found within the activity spaces of individuals in the referenced group. Using the travel diary data collected from the tri-county area in southeast Florida and the imputed racial–ethnic data, this paper demonstrates how the proposed segregation measurement approach goes beyond just measuring population distribution patterns in the residential space and can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of segregation by considering various socio-geographical spaces. PMID:21643546

  17. Canadian Activities in Space Debris Mitigation Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikanpour, Darius; Jiang, Xin Xiang; Goroshin, Samuel; Haddad, Emile; Kruzelecky, Roman; Hoa, Suong; Merle, Philippe; Kleiman, Jacob; Gendron, Stephane; Higgins, Andrew; Jamroz, Wes

    The space environment, and in particular the Low Earth Orbit (LEO), is becoming increasingly populated with space debris which include fragments of dysfunctional spacecraft parts and materials traveling at speeds up to 15 km per second. These pose an escalating potential threat to LEO spacecraft, the international space station, and manned missions. This paper presents the Canadian activities to address the concerns over space debris in terms of debris mitigation measures and technologies; these include novel spacecraft demise technologies to safely decommission the spacecraft at the end of the mission, integrated self-healing material technologies for spacecraft structures to facilitate self-repair and help maintain the spacecraft structural and thermal performance, hypervelocity ground test capability to predict the impact of space debris on spacecraft performance, and ways of raising awareness within the space community through participation in targeted Science and Technology conferences and international forums.

  18. Space station freedom life sciences activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1994-01-01

    Life sciences activities being planned for Space Station Freedom (SSF) as of Fall 1992 are discussed. Planning for these activities is ongoing. Therefore, this description should be viewed as indicative of the prevailing ideas at one particular time in the SSF development cycle. The proposed contributions of the Canadian Space Agency (CSN) the European Space Agency (ESA), Japan, and the United States are all discussed in detail. In each case, the life sciences goals, and the way in which each partner proposes to achieve their goals, are reviewed.

  19. A Global Tour of Fire

    NASA Video Gallery

    Fire observations from around the world taken over nearly 10 years are shown in this visualization of NASA satellite data. This visualization leads viewers on a narrated global tour of fire detecti...

  20. Goddard Virtual Tour: Part 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    Goddard Chief Scientist Jim Garvin takes us on a tour of the life of a spacecraft, from the idea to the collection of data in orbit. Each segment looks at a different phase of the spacecraft and it...

  1. Space Activities for the Visually Impaired

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J. G.; Baguio, M.

    2005-12-01

    To a visually impaired person celestial objects or concepts of space exploration are likely to be more abstract than to other people, but they encounter news about the universe through their daily life. A partnership between Texas Space Grant Consortium, The University of Texas at Austin, and the Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired provided the opportunity to assist visually impaired students increase their understanding of astronomy and space science. The activities helped visually impaired students activity engage in inquiry-based, hands-on astronomy activities. The experiences provided during the educator workshops, adapted instructional classroom activities, and tactile learning aids will be shared in the hopes that others may be able to incorporate these lessons into their regular teaching activities.

  2. Vaulted Biaryls in Catalysis: A Structure-Activity Relationship Guided Tour of the Immanent Domain of the VANOL Ligand

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yong; Ding, Zhensheng

    2013-01-01

    The active site in the BOROX catalyst is a chiral polyborate anion (boroxinate) that is assembled in-situ from three equivalents of B(OPh)3 and one of the VANOL ligand by a molecule of substrate. The substrates are bound to the boroxinate by H-bonds to oxygens O1-O3. The effects of introducing substituents at each position of the naphthalene core of the VANOL ligand are systematically investigated in an aziridination reaction. Substituents in the 4,4′- and 8,8′-positions have a negative effect on catalyst performance, whereas, substituents in the 7- and 7′-positions have the biggest impact in a positive direction. PMID:24123264

  3. Concepts of disability: the Activity Space Model.

    PubMed

    Kopec, J A

    1995-03-01

    This paper describes a new conceptual framework for functional assessment, the Activity Space Model (ASM). According to this model, functional impairments may lead to restrictions in an individual's activity space, a multidimensional space that represents human potential for activity. For each elementary ability, restrictions in the corresponding dimension of the activity space can be evaluated by deriving a difficulty curve that depicts the relationship between the level of performance and the psychophysical cost of activity. The effect of disease on daily functioning is explained in terms of a tradeoff between the psychophysical cost and the value of each act of behavior to the disabled individual. These two constructs are measured on the same scale and expressed in units of difficulty. The location of each task within the activity space in relation to the difficulty curve determines whether it will be performed or avoided at a given point in time. The ASM has both theoretical and practical implications. It offers a new, integrated perspective on disability and suggests new strategies for developing and evaluating functional assessment measures.

  4. International study tours: an avenue for personal growth.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Frances L; McCaw, William; Matt, John J; Kero, Patty

    2013-01-01

    This article consists of four integral parts of a complex process leading to successful implementation of international study tours. Our role as faculty members, in the development of these study tours, began with the proactive, reflective practice of examining our cultural experiences, perceptions, and understandings of our cultural knowledge, dispositions, and skills. Through these tours, educators from other countries and cultures come to The University of Montana and experience a collaboration of ideas and acquire a better understanding of education in the United States. To be successful these study tours need to go beyond content and include a variety of less tangible aspects ranging from the Initial Request for Proposals to the culminating activities. These study tours have led to the empowerment of educational leaders becoming instruments of positive change in their homeland. In turn, the relationships developed have transformed the faculty presenters and the institution in ways that are both measurable and immeasurable. Human relationships based on mutual respect and dignity underlie the success of educational tours.

  5. Space based astronomy: Teacher's guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Carla B. (Editor); Weiler, Edward; Morrow, Cherilyn; Bacon, Pamela M.; Thorne, Muriel; Blanchard, Paul A.; Howard, Sethane; Pengra, Patricia R.; Brown, Deborah A.; Winrich, Ralph

    1994-01-01

    This curriculum guide uses hands-on activities to help students and teachers understand the significance of space-based astronomy - astronomical observations made from outer space. The guide contains few of the traditional activities found in many astronomy guides such as constellation studies, lunar phases, and planetary orbits. Instead, it tells the story of why it is important to observe celestial objects from outer space and how to study the entire electromagnetic spectrum. The guide begins with a survey of astronomy related NASA spacecraft. This is followed by a collection of activities in four units: (1) the atmospheric filter; (2) the electromagnetic spectrum; (3) collecting electromagnetic radiation; and (4) down to Earth. A curriculum index identifies the curriculum areas each activity addresses. The guide concludes with a glossary, reference list, a NASA Resources list, and an evaluation card. It is designed for students in grades 5 through 8.

  6. Activities of NICT space weather project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Ken T.; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Watari, Shinichi; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Mamoru

    NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) has been in charge of space weather forecast service in Japan for more than 20 years. The main target region of the space weather is the geo-space in the vicinity of the Earth where human activities are dominant. In the geo-space, serious damages of satellites, international space stations and astronauts take place caused by energetic particles or electromagnetic disturbances: the origin of the causes is dynamically changing of solar activities. Positioning systems via GPS satellites are also im-portant recently. Since the most significant effect of positioning error comes from disturbances of the ionosphere, it is crucial to estimate time-dependent modulation of the electron density profiles in the ionosphere. NICT is one of the 13 members of the ISES (International Space Environment Service), which is an international assembly of space weather forecast centers under the UNESCO. With help of geo-space environment data exchanging among the member nations, NICT operates daily space weather forecast service every day to provide informa-tion on forecasts of solar flare, geomagnetic disturbances, solar proton event, and radio-wave propagation conditions in the ionosphere. The space weather forecast at NICT is conducted based on the three methodologies: observations, simulations and informatics (OSI model). For real-time or quasi real-time reporting of space weather, we conduct our original observations: Hiraiso solar observatory to monitor the solar activity (solar flare, coronal mass ejection, and so on), domestic ionosonde network, magnetometer HF radar observations in far-east Siberia, and south-east Asia low-latitude ionosonde network (SEALION). Real-time observation data to monitor solar and solar-wind activities are obtained through antennae at NICT from ACE and STEREO satellites. We have a middle-class super-computer (NEC SX-8R) to maintain real-time computer simulations for solar and solar

  7. International aspects of commercial space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, K. S.

    1983-01-01

    Attention is given to problems in international cooperation that will arise if NASA proceeds with a Space Station. The rise in space budgets in many countries is cited as an indication of the growing importance being placed on space activities. It is also pointed out that these nations are emphasizing areas which hold promise for eventual commercial payoff. Developing countries are also paying greater attention to space. As part of the European Space Agency's development program, it is underwriting the development of up to six multiuser facilities dedicated to microgravity research; these include furnaces and thermostats for processing metallurgical samples and for crystal growth and botanical investigations. Competition from Europe is seen as a spur to efficiency. Attention is also given to the question whether international cooperation will interfere with research carried out by the US for military purposes.

  8. Activities of the Space Studies Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This 1993 annual report of the Space Studies Board of the National research Council (NRC) describes the activities of the Board during a year filled with questions and change in the nation's civil space program. The accounts contained in this report briefly describe the activities of the Board and its committees and sketch out major space research issues. Two major reports are summarized, and the full text of three letter reports is included. Items considered include: (1) robotic missions to explore the Earth, the solar system, and the far reaches of the universe; (2) instability in the human flight program; (3) the redesign of the International Space Station; and (4) federal funding of research in all fields, especially basic research.

  9. Activities of the Space Studies Board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This 1993 annual report of the Space Studies Board of the National research Council (NRC) describes the activities of the Board during a year filled with questions and change in the nation's civil space program. The accounts contained in this report briefly describe the activities of the Board and its committees and sketch out major space research issues. Two major reports are summarized, and the full text of three letter reports is included. Items considered include: (1) robotic missions to explore the Earth, the solar system, and the far reaches of the universe; (2) instability in the human flight program; (3) the redesign of the International Space Station; and (4) federal funding of research in all fields, especially basic research.

  10. Economic benefits of commercial space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the current and potential impact on the economy of selected private sector space activities including materials processing in space and satellite communications. Spacehab, a commercially developed and manufactured pressurized metal cylinder which fits in the Shuttle payload bay and connects to the crew compartment is examined along with potential uses of the Shuttle external tank. Private sector upper stage development, the privatization of expendable launch vehicles, and the transfer of NASA technology are discussed.

  11. Activities of the Space Studies Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Since its founding as the Space Science Board in 1958, the Space Studies Board has provided independent external scientific and technical advice on the nation's civil space program. This 1991 Annual Report of the SSB and its committees represents the first of its kind. The report contains a summary of the board's meetings, complete texts of letter reports, executive summaries of full reports issued during the year, and congressional testimony. It is intended to serve as a ready reference to board activities and advisory reports in 1991.

  12. Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viikari, L.

    these developments in way or another. In addition to national EIA regulations, there are also international agreements on EIA (i.a. the Espoo Convention) which establish their own EIA systems. In international law of outer space, environmental impact assessment is, however, not a well-established tool. The UN space treaties were drafted during a time when such consideratio ns were still not among the highest ranking items on national agendas. Therefore, these instruments fail to contain provisions regarding impact assessment, and also rest of the environmental content found in them is rather modest. The nearest equivalent to any impact assessment is contained in the Outer Space Treaty Article IX, namely the requirement of prior consultations in case of planned space activity or experiment that might cause "potentially harmful interference" with space activities of other St ates Parties. There also exist some applicable provisions on national level, such as the requirement of "formal assessment" on NASA programs of "[orbital] debris generation potential and debris mitigation options" in NASA Policy for Limiting Orbital Debris Generation (Art. 1.b). Also the national legislation of some space faring countries provides at least for the supply of some kind of information assessing the possible environmental consequences of proposed space activities. For instance, the Russian Statute on Lisencing Space Operations requires that for obtaining a license for space operation in the Russian Federation, the applicant has to supply, i.a. "documents confirming the safety of space operations (including ecological, fire and explosion safety) and the reliability of space equipment'"(Art.5.h). However, such provisions are obviously not enough for ensuring effective international regulation of the issue. The goal of this paper is to consider the usefulness of international environmental impact assessment for space activities. The space environment, however, is a unique arena in many ways

  13. 14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. 136.35 Section 136.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Mountain National Park. All commercial air tour operations in the airspace over the Rocky Mountain...

  14. 14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. 136.35 Section 136.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Mountain National Park. All commercial air tour operations in the airspace over the Rocky Mountain...

  15. 14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. 136.35 Section 136.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Mountain National Park. All commercial air tour operations in the airspace over the Rocky Mountain...

  16. 14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. 136.35 Section 136.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Mountain National Park. All commercial air tour operations in the airspace over the Rocky Mountain...

  17. 14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. 136.35 Section 136.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Mountain National Park. All commercial air tour operations in the airspace over the Rocky Mountain...

  18. Near-space airships against terrorist activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesenek, Ceylan

    2014-06-01

    Near-space is a region surrounding the earth which is too dense for a satellite to fly and also too thin for air breathing vehicles to fly. The near-space region which is located between 65,000 and 325,000 feet is really underutilized despite its unique potential. Near-Space airships can be used to exploit the potential of near space. Such a system can supply not only a great deal of information using ISR (Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance) sensors on board but also serve as a communication/data relay. Airships used in near space can cover a very wide footprint area for surveillance missions. Free of orbital mechanics these near-space assets can continue its mission for long period of time with a persistence of days and months. These assets can provide persistent intelligence for fight against terrorist activities. Terrorism is a non-state threat and doesn't have a static hierarchical structure. To fight against such an adversary an overwhelming intelligence activity must be applied. Therefore, intelligence collection and surveillance missions play a vital role in counter terrorism. Terrorists use asymmetric means of threat that require information superiority. In this study exploitation of near space by airships is analyzed for fight against terrorism. Near-space airships are analyzed according to the operational effectiveness, logistic structure and cost. Advantages and disadvantages of airships are argued in comparison with satellites and airplanes. As a result, by bridging the gap between the air and space, nearspace airships are considered to be the most important asset of warfighter especially with its operational effectiveness.

  19. 14 CFR 136.39 - Air tour management plans (ATMP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... forth in 40 CFR 1501.3 and 1501.5 through 1501.8 (for the purposes of complying with 40 CFR 1501.3 and... Section 136.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... curfews) for the adoption of quiet technology aircraft by commercial air tour operators...

  20. 14 CFR 136.39 - Air tour management plans (ATMP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... forth in 40 CFR 1501.3 and 1501.5 through 1501.8 (for the purposes of complying with 40 CFR 1501.3 and... Section 136.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... curfews) for the adoption of quiet technology aircraft by commercial air tour operators...

  1. 14 CFR 136.39 - Air tour management plans (ATMP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... forth in 40 CFR 1501.3 and 1501.5 through 1501.8 (for the purposes of complying with 40 CFR 1501.3 and... Section 136.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... curfews) for the adoption of quiet technology aircraft by commercial air tour operators...

  2. 14 CFR 136.39 - Air tour management plans (ATMP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... forth in 40 CFR 1501.3 and 1501.5 through 1501.8 (for the purposes of complying with 40 CFR 1501.3 and... Section 136.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... curfews) for the adoption of quiet technology aircraft by commercial air tour operators...

  3. Dr. Wernher Von Braun leads a tour of the S-IC checkout area.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Eberhard Rees, Charles Schultze, James Webb, Elmer Staats, Comptroller General of the United States, and Dr. Wernher Von Braun tour the S-IC checkout area in the Marshall Space Flight Center quality lab.

  4. How to Arrange Student Tours to the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Marshall

    The details of planning a student tour to the Soviet Union are described by an experienced tour organizer. Student tours of one to three weeks are presented as rewarding alternatives to lengthy overseas study. Recommendations are made regarding choice of tour type, length of tour, travel agencies, time of year to travel, advertising a tour,…

  5. Barents Tour for Geotourists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihlaja, Jouni; Johansson, Peter; Lauri, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Barents Tour for Geotourists is a guidebook for a circular route locating in northern Finland, northern Norway and north-western Russia. The targets along the route are all connected with different aspects of geology: there are localities presenting rare rock types and minerals, potholes, gorges, eskers, raised beaches and palsa mires. Total number of sites along the route is 26, 14 of them are locating in Finland, 4 in Norway and 8 in the Kola Peninsula, Russia. In addition to geological information on the sites, the guidebook features directions and information on local tourism services in four languages: English, Finnish, Russian and Norwegian. Good examples of the geological sites in northern Finland are the potholes at Aholanvaara, Salla. The largest pothole is called the "Drinking pot". With a diameter of 15.5 m and a depth of 9.5 m it is the largest known pothole in Finland. One famous target in northern Finland is also the Gold Prospector Museum and geological nature trail at Tankavaara, Sodankylä. The museum has an impressive mineral and jewellery stone collection and it is the only international museum in the world displaying past and present items of gold panning and prospecting. The Khibiny Tundra is the largest mountain massif on the Kola Peninsula, Russia. These mountains are best known for their unique landscapes, geology and mineralogy. With an experienced guide, minerals like apatite, nepheline, titanite, eudialyte and lamprophyllite can be found there. In north-eastern Norway, the palsas at Øvre Neiden and Færdesmyra are examples of a specific mire type in the cold climate area. The palsa mires are characterized by the presence of 2-5 m high peat mounds that consist of interleaved peat and ice layers. The route was planned and implemented in the ABCGheritage project (Arctic Biological, Cultural and Geological Heritage) partly funded by the Kolarctic ENPI CBC program of the European Union. The guidebook was written by researchers of the

  6. Active Space Telescope Systems - A New Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; Coulter, D. R.; Gallagher, D. B.; Hickey, G. S.; Laskin, R. A.; Redding, D. C.; Traub, W. A.; Werner, M. W.

    2010-01-01

    New active optics technologies are rapidly maturing that will enable outstanding scientific performance for the next generation of astronomical space telescopes, while dramatically reducing cost drivers such as mass and manufacturing time. Using these technologies, NASA can, with modest further development, field high-performance space telescopes at a cost, risk and development schedule substantially below historical norms. Many key elements of this new system architecture are currently, or soon will be, demonstrated at TRL 6 or even space qualified through previous and ongoing work at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This paper describes the overall architecture, discusses the current status of the relevant active optics technologies, and proposes a technology development path to address the remaining elements for some specific NASA science mission examples. Our approach is a new paradigm for moderate-to-large space telescopes, building on the advancements incorporated into the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) including primary and secondary mirror deployment, segmented optics and a modest level of active control. The primary new ingredients of the flight system are lightweight, easily replicable, mirror segments, incorporating actuators which can control the segment figure on orbit; a robust Wavefront Sensing and Control system to establish the overall figure, phasing, and alignment; and a real time, high dynamic range, high precision control system which maintains the rigid body alignment of the segments to the required precision. This controllability makes it possible to fabricate and assemble to looser tolerances, while reducing overall mission risk. In addition, the control system can greatly simplify the lengthy and expensive integration and test process that is faced by all large telescope missions. The research described in this talk was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National

  7. Learning and Personality on Study Tours Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miao, Shin Yu; Harris, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Study tours abroad are important arenas for post-compulsory education. This paper focuses on how personality affects students' learning on study tours abroad. The research involved 66 learners from one higher education institution in Taiwan on tours to the UK, the USA and Australia. Data were gathered using questionnaires and learning journals,…

  8. Selection of active spaces for multiconfigurational wavefunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Sebastian; Boguslawski, Katharina; Reiher, Markus; Janowski, Tomasz; Pulay, Peter

    2015-06-28

    The efficient and accurate description of the electronic structure of strongly correlated systems is still a largely unsolved problem. The usual procedures start with a multiconfigurational (usually a Complete Active Space, CAS) wavefunction which accounts for static correlation and add dynamical correlation by perturbation theory, configuration interaction, or coupled cluster expansion. This procedure requires the correct selection of the active space. Intuitive methods are unreliable for complex systems. The inexpensive black-box unrestricted natural orbital (UNO) criterion postulates that the Unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) charge natural orbitals with fractional occupancy (e.g., between 0.02 and 1.98) constitute the active space. UNOs generally approximate the CAS orbitals so well that the orbital optimization in CAS Self-Consistent Field (CASSCF) may be omitted, resulting in the inexpensive UNO-CAS method. A rigorous testing of the UNO criterion requires comparison with approximate full configuration interaction wavefunctions. This became feasible with the advent of Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) methods which can approximate highly correlated wavefunctions at affordable cost. We have compared active orbital occupancies in UNO-CAS and CASSCF calculations with DMRG in a number of strongly correlated molecules: compounds of electronegative atoms (F{sub 2}, ozone, and NO{sub 2}), polyenes, aromatic molecules (naphthalene, azulene, anthracene, and nitrobenzene), radicals (phenoxy and benzyl), diradicals (o-, m-, and p-benzyne), and transition metal compounds (nickel-acetylene and Cr{sub 2}). The UNO criterion works well in these cases. Other symmetry breaking solutions, with the possible exception of spatial symmetry, do not appear to be essential to generate the correct active space. In the case of multiple UHF solutions, the natural orbitals of the average UHF density should be used. The problems of the UNO criterion and their potential solutions

  9. Selection of active spaces for multiconfigurational wavefunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Sebastian; Boguslawski, Katharina; Janowski, Tomasz; Reiher, Markus; Pulay, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The efficient and accurate description of the electronic structure of strongly correlated systems is still a largely unsolved problem. The usual procedures start with a multiconfigurational (usually a Complete Active Space, CAS) wavefunction which accounts for static correlation and add dynamical correlation by perturbation theory, configuration interaction, or coupled cluster expansion. This procedure requires the correct selection of the active space. Intuitive methods are unreliable for complex systems. The inexpensive black-box unrestricted natural orbital (UNO) criterion postulates that the Unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) charge natural orbitals with fractional occupancy (e.g., between 0.02 and 1.98) constitute the active space. UNOs generally approximate the CAS orbitals so well that the orbital optimization in CAS Self-Consistent Field (CASSCF) may be omitted, resulting in the inexpensive UNO-CAS method. A rigorous testing of the UNO criterion requires comparison with approximate full configuration interaction wavefunctions. This became feasible with the advent of Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) methods which can approximate highly correlated wavefunctions at affordable cost. We have compared active orbital occupancies in UNO-CAS and CASSCF calculations with DMRG in a number of strongly correlated molecules: compounds of electronegative atoms (F2, ozone, and NO2), polyenes, aromatic molecules (naphthalene, azulene, anthracene, and nitrobenzene), radicals (phenoxy and benzyl), diradicals (o-, m-, and p-benzyne), and transition metal compounds (nickel-acetylene and Cr2). The UNO criterion works well in these cases. Other symmetry breaking solutions, with the possible exception of spatial symmetry, do not appear to be essential to generate the correct active space. In the case of multiple UHF solutions, the natural orbitals of the average UHF density should be used. The problems of the UNO criterion and their potential solutions are discussed

  10. Selection of active spaces for multiconfigurational wavefunctions.

    PubMed

    Keller, Sebastian; Boguslawski, Katharina; Janowski, Tomasz; Reiher, Markus; Pulay, Peter

    2015-06-28

    The efficient and accurate description of the electronic structure of strongly correlated systems is still a largely unsolved problem. The usual procedures start with a multiconfigurational (usually a Complete Active Space, CAS) wavefunction which accounts for static correlation and add dynamical correlation by perturbation theory, configuration interaction, or coupled cluster expansion. This procedure requires the correct selection of the active space. Intuitive methods are unreliable for complex systems. The inexpensive black-box unrestricted natural orbital (UNO) criterion postulates that the Unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) charge natural orbitals with fractional occupancy (e.g., between 0.02 and 1.98) constitute the active space. UNOs generally approximate the CAS orbitals so well that the orbital optimization in CAS Self-Consistent Field (CASSCF) may be omitted, resulting in the inexpensive UNO-CAS method. A rigorous testing of the UNO criterion requires comparison with approximate full configuration interaction wavefunctions. This became feasible with the advent of Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) methods which can approximate highly correlated wavefunctions at affordable cost. We have compared active orbital occupancies in UNO-CAS and CASSCF calculations with DMRG in a number of strongly correlated molecules: compounds of electronegative atoms (F2, ozone, and NO2), polyenes, aromatic molecules (naphthalene, azulene, anthracene, and nitrobenzene), radicals (phenoxy and benzyl), diradicals (o-, m-, and p-benzyne), and transition metal compounds (nickel-acetylene and Cr2). The UNO criterion works well in these cases. Other symmetry breaking solutions, with the possible exception of spatial symmetry, do not appear to be essential to generate the correct active space. In the case of multiple UHF solutions, the natural orbitals of the average UHF density should be used. The problems of the UNO criterion and their potential solutions are discussed

  11. Student-Created Virtual Tours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Sharon

    1995-01-01

    Describes a virtual museum tour project developed by Eastview Community School (Red Deer, Alberta) eighth grade students that used telecommunications and multimedia. Discusses the project's educational objectives, methods of collecting information, preparing hypertext documents, writing dialogue, the final presentation, and key components for a…

  12. Swift M31 Video Tour

    NASA Video Gallery

    Between May 25 and July 26, 2008, Swift's Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) acquired 330 images of M31 at wavelengths of 192.8, 224.6, and 260 nanometers. This video will take you on a tour of s...

  13. Designing a Virtual Grand Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Per Skafte

    2004-01-01

    The Virtual Grand Tour (VGT) is a paradigm for integrating a presentation of an overview of a larger subject with the possibility of launching at any time an exploratory study of a given sub-topic. The name derives from the paradigm's emulation of those 18th-century travels intended to educate (especially) young, affluent British men; today, with…

  14. Edible Earth and Space Science Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D.; Shupla, C.

    2014-07-01

    In this workshop we describe using Earth and Space Science demonstrations with edible ingredients to increase student interest. We show how to use chocolate, candy, cookies, popcorn, bagels, pastries, Pringles, marshmallows, whipped cream, and Starburst candy for activities such as: plate tectonics, the interior structure of the Earth and Mars, radioactivity/radioactive dating of rocks and stars, formation of the planets, lunar phases, convection, comets, black holes, curvature of space, dark energy, and the expansion of the Universe. In addition to creating an experience that will help students remember specific concepts, edible activities can be used as a formative assessment, providing students with the opportunity to create something that demonstrates their understanding of the model. The students often eat the demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool for all ages, and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  15. Automated Design of the Europa Orbiter Tour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaton, Andrew F.; Strange, Nathan J.; Longuski, James M.; Bonfiglio, Eugene P.; Taylor, Irene (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we investigate tours of the Jovian satellites Europa Ganymede, and Callisto for the Europa Orbiter Mission. The principal goal of the tour design is to lower arrival V_ for the final Europa encounter while meeting all of the design constraints. Key constraints arise from considering the total time of the tour and the radiation dosage of a tour. These tours may employ 14 or more encounters with the Jovian satellites. hence there is an enormous number of possible sequences of these satellites to investigate. We develop a graphical method that greatly aids the design process.

  16. Google Earth Grand Tour Themes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Bentley, C.; Dordevic, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    As part of an NSF TUES Type 3 project entitled "Google Earth for Onsite and Distance Education (GEODE)," we are assembling a "Grand Tour" of locations on Earth and other terrestrial bodies that every geoscience student should know about and visit at least in virtual reality. Based on feedback from colleagues at previous meetings, we have identified nine Grand Tour themes: "Plates and Plumes," "Rocks and Regions," "Geology Through Time," "The Mapping Challenge*," "U.S. National Parks*," "The Magical Mystery Tour*," "Resources and Hazards," "Planets and Moons," and "Top of the Pops." Themes marked with an asterisk are most developed at this stage and will be demonstrated in real time. The Mapping Challenge invites students to trace geological contacts, measure bedding strike and dip and the plunge, trend, and facing of a fold. There is an advanced tool for modeling periclinal folds. The challenge is presented in a game-like format with an emphasis on puzzle-solving that will appeal to students regardless of gender. For the tour of U.S. national parks, we divided the most geologically important parks into four groups—Western Pacific, West Coast, Rockies, and East Coast. We are combining our own team's GigaPan imagery with imagery already available on the Internet. There is a great deal of imagery just waiting to be annotated for geological education purposes. The Magical Mystery Tour takes students to Google Streetview locations selected by instructors. Students are presented with questions or tasks and are given automatic feedback. Other themes are under development. Within each theme, we are crowd-sourcing contributions from colleagues and inviting colleagues to vote for or against proposed locations and student interactions. The GEODE team includes the authors and: Heather Almquist, Stephen Burgin, Cinzia Cervato, Gene Cooper, Paul Karabinos, Terry Pavlis, Jen Piatek, Bill Richards, Jeff Ryan, Ron Schott, Kristen St. John, and Barb Tewksbury.

  17. A Guided Tour of Globular Clusters in the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarajedini, Ata

    2010-05-01

    I will lead a guided tour of the globular cluster systems of Local Group galaxies. Beginning with the Milky Way, I will attempt to compare and contrast the properties of the globular clusters in the Sagittarius and Fornax dwarf spheroidals, the LMC, M31, and M33. Along the way, I will concentrate on why these clusters are important and how our understanding of their properties has changed over time. Because of the limited time available, this tour will necessarily be incomplete, but I hope to give the audience a flavor for how active and vibrant this field continues to be.

  18. Space Science Curricula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Johnson High School, Huntsville, Alabama started an international magnet program in 1987. One of the courses in the curriculum was in space science. They appealed to Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) when they couldn't find a suitable textbook, nor locate other classes in space science to provide a guideline. MSFC agreed to help and placed the school under an official 'Adopt-A-School' program. MSFC's chief scientist and others at the space center helped prepare a very comprehensive space science program. Examples of the subjects covered include problems of space travel, materials processing in space, technology utilization, robotics, space colonization, etc. MSFC followed up by working with Johnson High to determine if the curriculum is generally usable and workable. If it is, MSFC may make it available to other schools. MSFC not only developed the space science curriculum; they continue to support the program by sponsoring hands- on activities and tours of space research facilities.

  19. Fostering Student Engagement through a Multi-Day Industry Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lorraine L.; Hartman, Cindy L.; Baldwin, Elizabeth D.

    2015-01-01

    Student engagement may be enhanced by providing educationally purposeful activities outside of the classroom. This study considers the influence of a multi-day industry tour on student engagement for undergraduates majoring in Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management. Data were collected from students' reflections in journal entries focused on an…

  20. Washington: A DC Circuit Tour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, Paul

    2010-12-01

    I explore the history of physics in Washington, D.C., and its environs through a tour of notable sites and personalities. Highlights include visits to the Smithsonian and Carnegie Institutions, stops at the Einstein Memorial, George Washington University, the University of Maryland, and the American Center for Physics, and biographical sketches of physicists Joseph Henry, George Gamow, Edward Teller, and others who worked in the District of Columbia.

  1. Development of a space activity suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annis, J. F.; Webb, P.

    1971-01-01

    The development of a series of prototype space activity suit (SAS) assemblies is discussed. The SAS is a new type of pressure suit designed especially for extravehicular activity. It consists of a set of carefully tailored elastic fabric garments which have been engineered to supply sufficient counterpressure to the body to permit subjects to breath O2 at pressures up to 200 mm Hg without circulatory difficulty. A closed, positive pressure breathing system (PPBS) and a full bubble helmet were also developed to complete the system. The ultimate goal of the SAS is to improve the range of activity and decrease the energy cost of work associated with wearing conventional gas filled pressure suits. Results are presented from both laboratory (1 atmosphere) and altitude chamber tests with subjects wearing various SAS assemblies. In laboratory tests lasting up to three hours, the SAS was worn while subjects breathed O2 at pressures up to 170 mm Hg without developing physiological problems. The only physiological symptoms apparent were a moderate tachycardia related to breathing pressures above 130 mm Hg, and a small collection of edema fluid in the hands. Both problems were considered to be related to areas of under-pressurization by the garments. These problems, it is suggested, can ultimately be corrected by the development of new elastic fabrics and tailoring techniques. Energy cost of activity, and mobility and dexterity of subjects in the SAS, were found to be superior to those in comparable tests on subjects in full pressure suits.

  2. Easy and effective virtual tour on the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Ilmi; Kang, Andrew; Roberts, John; Yoon, Sanghyuk

    2005-01-01

    Web-based Virtual Tour has become a desirable and demanded application, yet challenging due to the nature of web application's running environment such as limited bandwidth and no guarantee of high computation power on the client side. Image-based rendering approach has attractive advantages over traditional 3D rendering approach in such Web Applications. Traditional geometry-based approach, such as VRML, requires labor-intensive 3D modeling process, high bandwidth and computation power especially for photo-realistic virtual scenes. QuickTime VR and IPIX as examples of image-based approach, use panoramic photos and the virtual scenes that can be generated from photos directly skipping the modeling process. But, QuickTime VR and IPIX may not only require special cameras or effort to take panoramic views but also provide only one fixed-point navigation (look-around and zooming in-out) rather than "walk around", that is a very important feature to provide immersive experience to virtual tourists. Easy and Effective Virtual Tour constructs virtual tour using several snap shots of conventional photos without special tools, build simple 3D space within each photo using spidery mesh, and expand the virtual spaces by connecting each other using simple user intervention to specify correspondence. The expanded virtual space provides virtual tourists with free navigation and immersive experience of walking around through the WWW.

  3. Easy and effective virtual tour on the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Ilmi; Kang, Andrew; Roberts, John; Yoon, Sanghyuk

    2004-12-01

    Web-based Virtual Tour has become a desirable and demanded application, yet challenging due to the nature of web application"s running environment such as limited bandwidth and no guarantee of high computation power on the client side. Image-based rendering approach has attractive advantages over traditional 3D rendering approach in such Web Applications. Traditional geometry-based approach, such as VRML, requires labor-intensive 3D modeling process, high bandwidth and computation power especially for photo-realistic virtual scenes. QuickTime VR and IPIX as examples of image-based approach, use panoramic photos and the virtual scenes that can be generated from photos directly skipping the modeling process. But, QuickTime VR and IPIX may not only require special cameras or effort to take panoramic views but also provide only one fixed-point navigation (look-around and zooming in-out) rather than `walk around", that is a very important feature to provide immersive experience to virtual tourists. Easy and Effective Virtual Tour constructs virtual tour using several snap shots of conventional photos without special tools, build simple 3D space within each photo using spidery mesh, and expand the virtual spaces by connecting each other using simple user intervention to specify correspondence. The expanded virtual space provides virtual tourists with free navigation and immersive experience of walking around through the WWW.

  4. Actively controlled thin-shell space optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denoyer, Keith K.; Flint, Eric M.; Main, John A.; Lindler, Jason E.

    2003-08-01

    Increasingly, scientific and military missions require the use of space-based optical systems. For example, new capabilities are required for imaging terrestrial like planets, for surveillance, and for directed energy applications. Given the difficulties in producing and launching large optics, it is doubtful that refinements of conventional technology will meet future needs, particularly in a cost-effective manner. To meet this need, recent research has been investigating the feasibility of a new class of ultra-lightweight think-skin optical elements that combine recent advances in lightweight thermally formed materials, active materials, and novel sensing and control architectures. If successful, the approach may lead to an order of magnitude reduction in space optics areal density, improved large scale manufacturing capability, and dramatic reductions in manufacturing and launch costs. In a recent effort, a one meter thin-film mirror like structure was fabricated. This paper provides an overview of tools used to model and simulate this structure as well as results from structural dynamic testing. In addition, progress in the area of non-contact global shape control using smart materials is presented.

  5. The grandest tour - Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murrill, Mary B.

    1993-01-01

    The Voyager mission based on two spacecraft, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, launched on September 5, 1977 and August 20 1977, respectively, is reviewed. The mission was designed to take advantage of a rare geometric arrangement of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune that occurs only once every 176 years. Particular attention is given to data on Jupiter's ring and moons, the discovery of active volcanoes on Io, Jovian magnetism, Saturn's atmosphere, Titan and other moons, Uranus and Miranda, Uranian moons and rings, Triton's atmosphere.

  6. Space Industrialization: Manufacturing and Construction Activities. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Charles H.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how space industrialization will provide direct benefits for our nation and will transfer technology to the many diverse areas of human activity. Examples are the development of the Space Shuttle, the Space Studies Institute, and the LS Society (advocates for colonizing space). (NRJ)

  7. International Cooperation and Competition in Civilian Space Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report assesses the state of international competition in civilian space activities, explores United States civilian objectives in space, and suggests alternative options for enhancing the overall U.S. position in space technologies. It also investigated past, present, and projected international cooperative arrangements for space activities…

  8. Remarks on Sustainability of Space Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perek, Lubos

    2013-08-01

    Technical and legal difficulties may make the de-orbiting of space objects of large mass impractical in the near future. Traffic Separation may help in minimizing collisions while the space debris population is increasing.

  9. Virtual Tours of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fluke, C. J.; Mackie, G.; Maddison, S. T.

    2005-12-01

    Although primarily an astrophysics research group, the Swinburne Centre for Astrophysics & Supercomputing has placed a strong focus on providing quality public education in astronomy. Two of our biggest success stories have been the interactive AstroTour that uses stereoscopic (3D) projection to immerse the public in the Universe, and Swinburne Astronomy Online (SAO)-a nested online degree program aimed at a graduate level that is available to students from all over the world. We discuss our experiences with both of these programmes and how we have approached our goal of "inspiring a fascination in the Universe".

  10. Europe/United States space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bainum, P. M. (Editor); Von Bun, F. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Among the topics discussed are: the Olympus satellite program; trends in the Italian space technology; and ESA Space Station planning. Consideration is also given to cooperative international programs, including the Eurostar platform, the Tethered Satellite System, and the SPAS system; space science and applications programs; and the development of next generation space propulsion systems. Among the specific propulsion technologies discussed are: LOX/LR2 engines; the Ariane 5 solid propellant booster; and propulsion systems for earth-to-orbit vehicles.

  11. Ohio Senator John Glenn tours the Design Engineering lab at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Ohio Senator John Glenn enjoys a tour of the Engineering Development Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center. Senator Glenn arrived at KSC on Jan. 20 to tour KSC operational areas and to view the launch of STS-89. Glenn, who made history in 1962 as the first American to orbit the Earth, completing three orbits in a five-hour flight aboard Friendship 7, will fly his second space mission aboard Space Shuttle Discovery this October. Glenn is retiring from the Senate at the end of this year and will be a payload specialist aboard STS-95.

  12. Inside the Brain: An Interactive Tour

    MedlinePlus

    ... to move to the next slide. Take the Brain Tour in... الجولة دماغك (Arabic) Vodič kroz Mozak ( ... Alzheimer's Stages of Alzheimer's Treatments Virtual Library Interactive Brain Tour Learn how Alzheimer's affects the brain Join ...

  13. 7. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, IN SPACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, IN SPACE SUIT AFTER TESTING IN NEUTRAL BUOYANCY TANK. AVERAGE COST OF SUIT IS $1,000,000. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  14. International Space Station (ISS) Risk Reduction Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fodroci, Michael

    2011-01-01

    As the assembly of the ISS nears completion, it is worthwhile to step back and review some of the actions pursued by the Program in recent years to reduce risk and enhance the safety and health of ISS crewmembers, visitors, and space flight participants. While the ISS requirements and initial design were intended to provide the best practicable levels of safety, it is always possible to reduce risk -- given the determination and commitment to do so. The following is a summary of some of the steps taken by the ISS Program Manager, by our International Partners, by hardware and software designers, by operational specialists, and by safety personnel to continuously enhance the safety of the ISS. While decades of work went into developing the ISS requirements, there are many things in a Program like the ISS that can only be learned through actual operational experience. These risk reduction activities can be divided into roughly three categories: (1) Areas that were initially noncompliant which have subsequently been brought into compliance or near compliance (i.e., Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris [MMOD] protection, acoustics) (2) Areas where initial design requirements were eventually considered inadequate and were subsequently augmented (i.e., Toxicity Level 4 materials, emergency hardware and procedures) (3) Areas where risks were initially underestimated, and have subsequently been addressed through additional mitigation (i.e., Extravehicular Activity [EVA] sharp edges, plasma shock hazards) Due to the hard work and cooperation of many parties working together across the span of nearly a decade, the ISS is now a safer and healthier environment for our crew, in many cases exceeding the risk reduction targets inherent in the intent of the original design. It will provide a safe and stable platform for utilization and discovery.

  15. The "Radar-Progress" active space experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakhinov, Vitaly; Mikhalev, Alexander; Potekhin, Alexander; Alsatkin, Sergey; Podlesnyi, Alexey; Beletsky, Alexandr; Klunko, Evgeny; Tverdokhlebova, Ekaterina; Timofeeva, Nataliya; Lebedev, Valentin; Kushnarev, Dmitrii; Kurshakov, Mikhail; Manzheley, Andrey

    Central Research Institute of Machine Building and Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences have carried out the "Radar-Progress" active space experiment since 2006. After main mission, some of the “Progress” cargo vehicles have been for the experiment. The “Progress” starts orbital maneuvering subsystem engines during the flyby over Irkutsk Incoherent Scatter Radar at 340 - 410 km altitude. Engines operate for 5 - 11 s. Engines exhaust products are a source of ionosphere disturbances. The flow directions and amount of injected exhaust products varied from flight to flight. The flows directed to Irkutsk Radar are almost parallel to the geomagnetic field lines. The following measurements have been performed: - radar characteristics; - height profiles of electron density; - spatial-temporal structure of ionosphere disturbances; - intensity of nightglow emissions in several spectral lines; - onboard VHF transmitter signal parameters; - brightness of the “Progress” in optical ranges; - geomagnetic field variations. These results were obtained with unique research facilities of Center for collective using "Angara". The study has been supported by the grant 13-05-00456-a and 13-02-00957-a of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.

  16. Aeronautics and space report of the president, 1974 activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The U.S. Government activities for 1974 in aeronautics and space are presented. Significant contributions toward the fulfillment of the nation's goals in space and aeronautics are covered, including application of space systems and technology to beneficial uses on earth, exploration of space and increase of scientific knowledge, development of improved space systems and technology, international cooperation, and advancement of civil and military aeronautics. Also in 1974, space activities in the private sector expanded to provide additional services to the public. The accomplishments are summarized.

  17. Aeronautics and space report of the President, 1982 activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Achievements of the space program are summerized in the area of communication, Earth resources, environment, space sciences, transportation, aeronautics, and space energy. Space program activities of the various deprtments and agencies of the Federal Government are discussed in relation to the agencies' goals and policies. Records of U.S. and world spacecraft launchings, successful U.S. launches for 1982, U.S. launched applications and scientific satellites and space probes since 1975, U.S. and Soviet manned spaceflights since 1961, data on U.S. space launch vehicles, and budget summaries are provided. The national space policy and the aeronautical research and technology policy statements are included.

  18. Launch your Audience into Lunar Orbit - A case study of the Apollo 11 Google Earth Tour (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askay, S.

    2009-12-01

    Google Earth 5.0 added support for 'Touring' in KML which allows content creators to create narrated, guided flights in the virtual globe. Given the complexity of many geospatial visualizations in KML, even a simple tour can provide an introduction and contextual foundation that will empower users to explore your content. However, to-date few developers have taken full advantage of the touring language's capabilities to create truly engaging user experiences. For the launch of Moon in Google Earth, the presenter created a KML tour which harnesses some of these advanced features, particularly the ability to dynamically manipulate 2D/3D features through space and time. This case study of the "Apollo 11" KML tour will dissect some of these innovative techniques and provide considerations for creating your own cutting-edge KML tours. Some specific topics covered will include how to: fade-in and out photos on-screen, animate and follow a 3D model along a path (or GPS track), dynamically scale Sketchup models to compensate for clipping at high altitude, and considerations for pre-caching content for smooth tour playback. This session will include both conceptual explanations of what is possible with KML Touring and some in-depth technical explanations of the KML code required.

  19. Telerobotic activities at Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Charles R.

    1989-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center telerobotic efforts span three major thrusts: (1) sustaining and expanding the capability of the Shuttle manipulator; (2) developing and integrating the multiple telerobotic system of the Space Station; and (3) fostering and applying research in all areas of telerobotics technology within the government, private, and academic sectors.

  20. Living in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ray (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    In this educational video from the 'Liftoff to Learning' series, astronauts from the STS-56 Mission (Ken Cockrell, Mike Foale, Ellen Ochoa, Steve Oswald, and Ken Cameron) explain and show through demonstrations how microgravity affects the way astronauts live onboard the Space Shuttle, and how these same daily habits or processes differ on Earth. A tour of the Space Shuttle is given, including the sleeping compartments, the kitchen area, the storage compartments, and the Waste Collection System (or WCS, as they call it). Daily habits (brushing teeth, shampooing hair and bathing, eating,...) are explained and actively illustrated, along with reasons of how these applications differ from their employment on Earth.

  1. Activities of the Center for Space Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Center for Space Construction (CSC) at the University of Colorado at Boulder is one of eight University Space Engineering Research Centers established by NASA in 1988. The mission of the center is to conduct research into space technology and to directly contribute to space engineering education. The center reports to the Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences and resides in the College of Engineering and Applied Science. The college has a long and successful track record of cultivating multi-disciplinary research and education programs. The Center for Space Construction is prominent evidence of this record. At the inception of CSC, the center was primarily founded on the need for research on in-space construction of large space systems like space stations and interplanetary space vehicles. The scope of CSC's research has now evolved to include the design and construction of all spacecraft, large and small. Within this broadened scope, our research projects seek to impact the underlying technological basis for such spacecraft as remote sensing satellites, communication satellites, and other special purpose spacecraft, as well as the technological basis for large space platforms. The center's research focuses on three areas: spacecraft structures, spacecraft operations and control, and regolith and surface systems. In the area of spacecraft structures, our current emphasis is on concepts and modeling of deployable structures, analysis of inflatable structures, structural damage detection algorithms, and composite materials for lightweight structures. In the area of spacecraft operations and control, we are continuing our previous efforts in process control of in-orbit structural assembly. In addition, we have begun two new efforts in formal approach to spacecraft flight software systems design and adaptive attitude control systems. In the area of regolith and surface systems, we are continuing the work of characterizing the physical properties of lunar

  2. Dorothy Jorgensen - Co-Op Tour Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    NASA is a household name in this day and age, known commonly as America's government-run powerhouse of innovation and space exploration. It is a common dream for students to be a part of NASA's workforce, but I did not realize that it was my dream until I found that I could not imagine working anywhere else. From August to December, I had the privilege of a co-op tour with NASA at the Johnson Space Center. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) first formed in the early hysteria of the Cold War, and in its early days it received enormous funding and political support. It was America's response to the Russian Sputnik, which was a not only a stark symbol of what was suddenly possible, but also of how far behind the United States had fallen in the race for technology. The political atmosphere in the world has since changed, but NASA's drive to push the boundaries of the impossible has not faded: NASA's primary mission has been exploration for the betterment of mankind, and it works towards that mission to this day. The specific NASA site that I worked in was by a coast near Houston, TX, at the Johnson Space Center (Figure 1). I was led on my first day of work to a building dedicated to Structural Engineering (Building 13), which was where I would be spending most of my time in the months to come. It was here that I had my desk and cubicle, and would later do the bulk of my computer modeling and theoretical planning. Later that day we traveled to the Vibrations and Acoustics Test Facility (Building 49), and here I was shown the parts we would use for our technical project and the locations we would work in. I worked in the Loads and Dynamics Branch of the Structural Engineering Division, in the Engineering Directorate.

  3. Activity space environment and dietary and physical activity behaviors: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zenk, Shannon N; Schulz, Amy J; Matthews, Stephen A; Odoms-Young, Angela; Wilbur, JoEllen; Wegrzyn, Lani; Gibbs, Kevin; Braunschweig, Carol; Stokes, Carmen

    2011-09-01

    This study examined relationships among individual demographics, environmental features (e.g., fast food outlet density, park land use) of residential neighborhoods and activity spaces, and weight-related behaviors (diet, physical activity). Participants' movement was tracked for 7 days using global positioning systems (GPS). Two activity space measures (one standard deviation ellipse, daily path area) were derived from the GPS data. Activity spaces were generally larger than residential neighborhoods; environmental features of residential neighborhoods and activity spaces were weakly associated; and some activity space environmental features were related to dietary behaviors. Activity spaces may provide new insights into environmental influences on obesity-related behaviors.

  4. Activity Space Environment and Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Schulz, Amy J.; Matthews, Stephen A.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Wilbur, JoEllen; Wegrzyn, Lani; Gibbs, Kevin; Braunschweig, Carol; Stokes, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined relationships among individual demographics, environmental features (e.g., fast food outlet density, park land use) of residential neighborhoods and activity spaces, and obesity-related behaviors (diet, physical activity). Participants’ movement was tracked for seven days using global positioning systems (GPS). Two activity space measures (one standard deviation ellipse, daily path area) were derived from the GPS data. Activity spaces were generally larger than residential neighborhoods; environmental features of residential neighborhoods and activity spaces were weakly associated; and some activity space environmental features were related to dietary behaviors. Activity spaces may provide new insights into environmental influences on obesity-related behaviors. PMID:21696995

  5. Youth activity spaces and daily exposure to tobacco outlets.

    PubMed

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Morrison, Christopher; Grube, Joel W; Gaidus, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    We explored whether exposure to tobacco outlets in youths' broader activity spaces differs from that obtained using traditional geographic measures of exposure to tobacco outlet within buffers around homes and schools. Youths completed an initial survey, daily text-prompted surveys, and carried GPS-enabled phones for one week. GPS locations were geocoded and activity spaces were constructed by joining sequential points. We calculated the number of tobacco outlets around these polylines and around homes and schools. Results suggest that activity spaces provide a more accurate measure of tobacco outlet exposures than traditional measures. Assessing tobacco outlet exposure within activity spaces may yield significant information to advance the field.

  6. Space station group activities habitability module study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David

    1986-01-01

    This study explores and analyzes architectural design approaches for the interior of the Space Station Habitability Module (originally defined as Habitability Module 1 in Space Station Reference Configuration Decription, JSC-19989, August 1984). In the Research Phase, architectural program and habitability design guidelines are specified. In the Schematic Design Phase, a range of alternative concepts is described and illustrated with drawings, scale-model photographs and design analysis evaluations. Recommendations are presented on the internal architectural, configuration of the Space Station Habitability Module for such functions as the wardroom, galley, exercise facility, library and station control work station. The models show full design configurations for on-orbit performance.

  7. Individualized Instruction in Science, Earth Space Project, Learning Activities Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczma, R. M.

    Learning Activity Packages (LAP) relating to the earth and space are presented for use in sampling a new type of learning for a whole year. Eighteen topics are incorporated into five units: (1) introduction to individualized learning, (2) observation versus interpretation, (3) chemistry in the space age, (4) the space age interdisciplines, and (5)…

  8. Space transportation activities in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabris, Edward A.

    1994-01-01

    The status of the existing space transportation systems in the U.S. and options for increased capability is being examined in the context of mission requirements, options for new vehicles, cost to operate the existing vehicles, cost to develop new vehicles, and the capabilities and plans of other suppliers. This assessment is addressing the need to build and resupply the space station, to maintain necessary military assets in a rapidly changing world, and to continue a competitive commercial space transportation industry. The Department of Defense (DOD) and NASA each conducted an 'access to space' study using a common mission model but with the emphasis on their unique requirements. Both studies considered three options: maintain and improve the existing capability, build a new launch vehicle using contemporary technology, and build a new launch vehicle using advanced technology. While no decisions have been made on a course of action, it will be influenced by the availability of funds in the U.S. budget, the changing need for military space assets, the increasing competition among space launch suppliers, and the emerging opportunity for an advanced technology, low cost system and international partnerships to develop it.

  9. Space Adaptation of Active Mirror Segment Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Gregory H.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a three year effort by Blue Line Engineering Co. to advance the state of segmented mirror systems in several separate but related areas. The initial set of tasks were designed to address the issues of system level architecture, digital processing system, cluster level support structures, and advanced mirror fabrication concepts. Later in the project new tasks were added to provide support to the existing segmented mirror testbed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the form of upgrades to the 36 subaperture wavefront sensor. Still later, tasks were added to build and install a new system processor based on the results of the new system architecture. The project was successful in achieving a number of important results. These include the following most notable accomplishments: 1) The creation of a new modular digital processing system that is extremely capable and may be applied to a wide range of segmented mirror systems as well as many classes of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) control systems such as active structures or industrial automation. 2) A new graphical user interface was created for operation of segmented mirror systems. 3) The development of a high bit rate serial data loop that permits bi-directional flow of data to and from as many as 39 segments daisy-chained to form a single cluster of segments. 4) Upgrade of the 36 subaperture Hartmann type Wave Front Sensor (WFS) of the Phased Array Mirror, Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) testbed at MSFC resulting in a 40 to 5OX improvement in SNR which in turn enabled NASA personnel to achieve many significant strides in improved closed-loop system operation in 1998. 5) A new system level processor was built and delivered to MSFC for use with the PAMELA testbed. This new system featured a new graphical user interface to replace the obsolete and non-supported menu system originally delivered with the PAMELA system. The hardware featured Blue Line's new stackable

  10. DiTour 3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaia II, Thomas A.

    2015-06-30

    There is a need for software that allows a tour guide to present different tracks of slides and then return to the default slide show automatically upon completion. A mobile solution is needed for trade shows. DiTour is an iPad/iPhone app that pulls presentation content from a website, stores it on the device and presents it on a connected display. A tour guide can select a track to present and it will automatically return to the default track after a timeout. It offers a mobile solution which is ideal for trade shows.

  11. DiTour 3.1

    2015-06-30

    There is a need for software that allows a tour guide to present different tracks of slides and then return to the default slide show automatically upon completion. A mobile solution is needed for trade shows. DiTour is an iPad/iPhone app that pulls presentation content from a website, stores it on the device and presents it on a connected display. A tour guide can select a track to present and it will automatically return tomore » the default track after a timeout. It offers a mobile solution which is ideal for trade shows.« less

  12. Personalized Location-Based Recommendation Services for Tour Planning in Mobile Tourism Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chien-Chih; Chang, Hsiao-Ping

    Travel and tour planning is a process of searching, selecting, grouping and sequencing destination related products and services including attractions, accommodations, restaurants, and activities. Personalized recommendation services aim at suggesting products and services to meet users’ preferences and needs, while location-based services focus on providing information based on users’ current positions. Due to the fast growing of user needs in the mobile tourism domain, how to provide personalized location-based tour recommendation services becomes a critical research and practical issue. The objective of this paper is to propose a system architecture and design methods for facilitating the delivery of location-based recommendation services to support personalized tour planning. Based on tourists’ current location and time, as well as personal preferences and needs, various recommendations regarding sightseeing spots, hotels, restaurants, and packaged tour plans can be generated efficiently. An application prototype is also implemented to illustrate and test the system feasibility and effectiveness.

  13. Physics of Colloids in Space: Microgravity Experiment Launched, Installed, and Activated on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    The Physics of Colloids in Space (PCS) experiment is a Microgravity Fluids Physics investigation that is presently located in an Expedite the Process of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) Rack on the International Space Station. PCS was launched to the International Space Station on April 19, 2001, activated on May 31, 2001, and will continue to operate about 90 hr per week through May 2002.

  14. Space Activism as an Epiphanic Belief System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell

    2006-01-01

    Years of interaction with young people in the space industry and in space activists groups led to my observation that many such individuals can cite a quite specific life event that triggered a life-long interest in or commitment to creating a space future. I am particularly intrigued by parallels between such experiences and the phenomenon of epiphanic experiences among committed Christians. I see analogies between the puzzlement among space activists and among Christian groups as to the reasons for so many people being "unbelievers." At a small international meeting on lunar exploration in 2003, I heard two separate lunch speakers cite such personal experiences. At the beginning of a break in that meeting, I grabbed the microphone from the chairman and asked each person to write down on a pad by his chair whether or not he (or she) had experienced a specific event that led to their involvement in space. If the answer was positive, I asked for a brief narrative, for their age at the time, and for their current age. I received 53 submissions, 20% of which simply stated that their involvement in space exploration was happenstance. (Apollo astronaut John Young was among these.) The other 80% of the submissions had specific stories. The ages at the time of the epiphany ranged from 4 to 47; and their current ages ranged from 22 to 78. I will present a high-level characterization of these inputs. Interest in space exploration as a form of belief system is consistent with choosing NASA goals for the purpose of inspiration and with phenomena such as the "Overview Effect". More research might explore what form the transcendent experience takes and whether it might be associated with feelings of universal connection such as the noosphere or "The Force". From a pragmatic point of view, outreach strategies for exploration should focus on giving individuals access to personal, potentially transformational experiences as opposed to astronaut talks at civic clubs.

  15. The importance of space policy teaching in communicating space activities to society [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reibaldi, G. G.

    2003-12-01

    The governments' priority and budgets for space activities are steadily decreasing and the importance of space activities is not any longer reaching the front pages of the newspaper, as in the 1960s. On the other hand in Europe the people, at large, have shown an important interest and support for space activities. A contribution to bridge the gap between decreasing funding and important support of citizen can come from teaching space policy in universities as well as in special workshops for government, industrial and military circles. The paper will outline a course that fulfils this goal.

  16. Aeronautics and Space Report of the President: 1975 Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This report, submitted to the Congress by President Ford in accordance with the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, summarizes the United States' space and aeronautics activities for the year 1975. Detailed summaries of the activities of the following governmental departments or agencies are provided: National Aeronautics and Space…

  17. Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Saueressig

    2010-07-14

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

  18. Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site

    ScienceCinema

    Paul Saueressig

    2016-07-12

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

  19. Student Interns Tour Two NIH Facilities | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Thirty-five Werner H. Kirsten student interns toured the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda in August to learn about the services and opportunities available.

  20. BEST statistics of Markovian fluxes: a tale of Eulerian tours and Fermionic ghosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polettini, Matteo

    2015-09-01

    We provide an exact expression for the statistics of the fluxes of Markov jump processes at all times, improving on asymptotic results from large deviation theory. The main ingredient is a generalization of the BEST theorem in enumeratoric graph theory to Eulerian tours with open ends. In the long-time limit we reobtain Sanov’s theorem for Markov processes, which expresses the exponential suppression of fluctuations in terms of relative entropy. The finite-time power-law term, increasingly important with the system size, is a spanning-tree determinant that, by introducing Grassmann variables, can be absorbed into the effective Lagrangian of a Fermionic ghost field on a metric space, coupled to a gauge potential. With reference to concepts in nonequilibrium stochastic thermodynamics, the metric is related to the dynamical activity that measures net communication between states, and the connection is made to a previous gauge theory for diffusion processes.

  1. Taiwan's cooperative space activities at present and in future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, Wing-Huen

    2004-01-01

    Taiwan is developing a long-term space program which is entering its next 15 years of planning cycle. Since its establishment in 1992, the National Space Program Office has played a key role in introducing satellite technology and space experiments into Taiwan. In parallel, basic research in space science and remote-sensing observations are being promoted in different institutions. A combination of these efforts has earned Taiwan a compact but effective space program capable of mounting satellite missions and advanced study in various disciplines of space science. The satellite data receiving and data processing facilities are particularly valuable in addressing issues related to environmental protection, natural hazards and economic planning. At the present time, Taiwan's international cooperative space activities are still very limited in scope but there is a wide ranging of possibilities which could be pursued together with other developing nations in space research under the auspice of COSPAR.

  2. Communicating for Climate Change Adaptation: Lessons from a Case Study with Nature-Based Tour Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timm, K.; Sparrow, E. B.; Pettit, E. C.; Trainor, S. F.; Taylor, K.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing temperatures are projected to have a positive effect on the length of Alaska's tourism season, but the natural attractions that tourism relies on, such as glaciers, wildlife, fish, or other natural resources, may change. In order to continue to derive benefits from these resources, nature-based tour operators may have to adapt to these changes, and communication is an essential, but poorly understood, component of the climate change adaptation process. The goal of this study was to determine how to provide useful climate change information to nature-based tour operators by answering the following questions: 1. What environmental changes do nature-based tour operators perceive? 2. How are nature-based tour operators responding to climate and environmental change? 3. What climate change information do nature-based tour operators need? To answer these questions, twenty-four nature-based tour operators representing 20 different small and medium sized businesses in Juneau, Alaska were interviewed. The results show that many of Juneau's nature-based tour operators are observing, responding to, and in some cases, actively planning for further changes in the environment. The types of responses tended to vary depending on the participants' certainty in climate change and the perceived risks to their organization. Using these two factors, this study proposes a framework to classify climate change responses for the purpose of generating meaningful information and communication processes that promote adaptation and build adaptive capacity. During the course of the study, several other valuable lessons were learned about communicating about adaptation. The results of this study demonstrate that science communication research has an important place in the practice of promoting and fostering climate change adaptation. While the focus of this study was tour operators, the lessons learned may be valuable to other organizations striving to engage unique groups in climate

  3. Low-cost Active Structural Control Space Experiment (LASC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinett, Rush; Bukley, Angelia P.

    1992-01-01

    The DOE Lab Director's Conference identified the need for the DOE National Laboratories to actively and aggressively pursue ways to apply DOE technology to problems of national need. Space structures are key elements of DOD and NASA space systems and a space technology area in which DOE can have a significant impact. LASC is a joint agency space technology experiment (DOD Phillips, NASA Marshall, and DOE Sandia). The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: phase 4 investigator testbed; control of large flexible structures in orbit; INFLEX; Controls, Astrophysics; and structures experiments in space; SARSAT; and LASC mission objectives.

  4. Active rejection of persistent disturbances in flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Cheng-Neng; Jayasuriya, Suhada; Parlos, Alexander G.; Sunkel, John W.

    1990-01-01

    A dynamic compensator for active rejection of persistent disturbances in flexible space structures is designed on the principle of the H(infinity)-optimization of the sensitivity transfer function matrix. A general state space solution is formulated to the multiinput multioutput H(infinity)-optimal control problem, allowing the use of the H(infinity)-optimal synthesis algorithm for the state-space models of space structures that result from model order reduction. Disturbances encountered in flexible space structures, such as shuttle docking, are investigated using the high-mode and the reduced-order models of a cantilevered two-bay truss, demonstrating the applicability of the H(infinity)-optimal approach.

  5. Qualitative GIS and the Visualization of Narrative Activity Space Data

    PubMed Central

    Mennis, Jeremy; Mason, Michael J.; Cao, Yinghui

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative activity space data, i.e. qualitative data associated with the routine locations and activities of individuals, are recognized as increasingly useful by researchers in the social and health sciences for investigating the influence of environment on human behavior. However, there has been little research on techniques for exploring qualitative activity space data. This research illustrates the theoretical principles of combining qualitative and quantitative data and methodologies within the context of GIS, using visualization as the means of inquiry. Through the use of a prototype implementation of a visualization system for qualitative activity space data, and its application in a case study of urban youth, we show how these theoretical methodological principles are realized in applied research. The visualization system uses a variety of visual variables to simultaneously depict multiple qualitative and quantitative attributes of individuals’ activity spaces. The visualization is applied to explore the activity spaces of a sample of urban youth participating in a study on the geographic and social contexts of adolescent substance use. Examples demonstrate how the visualization may be used to explore individual activity spaces to generate hypotheses, investigate statistical outliers, and explore activity space patterns among subject subgroups. PMID:26190932

  6. Autonomous Motion Learning for Intra-Vehicular Activity Space Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yutaka; Yairi, Takehisa; Machida, Kazuo

    Space robots will be needed in the future space missions. So far, many types of space robots have been developed, but in particular, Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) space robots that support human activities should be developed to reduce human-risks in space. In this paper, we study the motion learning method of an IVA space robot with the multi-link mechanism. The advantage point is that this space robot moves using reaction force of the multi-link mechanism and contact forces from the wall as space walking of an astronaut, not to use a propulsion. The control approach is determined based on a reinforcement learning with the actor-critic algorithm. We demonstrate to clear effectiveness of this approach using a 5-link space robot model by simulation. First, we simulate that a space robot learn the motion control including contact phase in two dimensional case. Next, we simulate that a space robot learn the motion control changing base attitude in three dimensional case.

  7. The Global Space Geodesy Network: Activities Underway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, Michael R.; Ipatov, Alexander; Long, James; Ma, Chopo; Merkowitz, Stephen; Neilan, Ruth; Noll, Carey; Pavlis, Erricos; Shargorodsky, Victor; Stowers, David; Wetzel, Scott

    2014-05-01

    Several initiatives are underway that should make substantial improvement over the next decade to the international space geodesy network as the international community works toward the GGOS 2020 goal of 32 globally distributed Core Sites with co-located VLBI, SLR, GNSS and DORIS. The Russian Space Agency and the Russian Academy of Sciences are moving forward with an implementation of six additional SLR systems and a number of GNSS receivers to sites outside Russia to expand GNSS tracking and support GGOS. The NASA Space Geodesy program has completed its prototype development phase and is now embarking on an implementation phase that is planning for deployment of 6 - 10 core sites in key geographic locations to support the global network. Additional sites are in the process of implementation in Europe and Asia. Site evaluation studies are in progress, looking at some new potential sites and there are ongoing discussions for partnership arrangements with interested agencies for new sites in South America and Africa. Work continues on the site layout design to avoid RF interference issues among co-located instruments and with external communications and media system. The placement of new and upgraded sites is guided by appropriate Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) conducted under the support of the interested international agencies. The results will help optimize the global distribution of core geodetic observatories and they will lead to the improvement of the data products from the future network. During this effort it is also recognized that co-located sites with less than the full core complement will continue to play an important and critical role in filling out the global network and strengthening the connection among the techniques. This talk will give an update on the current state of expansion of the global network and the projection for the network configuration that we forecast over the next 10 years.

  8. Touring by Design: Using Information Architecture To Create a Virtual Library Tour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittelson, Pat; Jones, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development of a Web-based virtual tour of the University of Otago (New Zealand) science library. Highlights include information literacy learning outcomes; information architecture, including information organization and navigation; integrating the tour into course work; and evaluation results. (LRW)

  9. Humans in Space &Space Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legner, Klaus

    Inevitably, members of the human species will again walk on the face of the moon and ultimately establish a permanently occupied lunar base. Also, inevitably, humans will venture to the planets within the solar system, most likely beginning with Mars or the Martian satellite, Phobos. These missions will take place because the species that contemplates them is driven by an insatiable desire for knowledge and understanding and because the technical means to accomplish these objectives are possible. There is no question that humans will establish outposts on Earth's moon and make interplanetary journeys. The only uncertainties concern when and how these expeditions are to be made. Just as a 90- or 120-day tour onboard an international space station is fundamentally different from a brief space shuttle mission; a one-year lunar base tour or a two- or three-year mission to Mars will be unique. Despite superficial similarities to other space missions and analogues, the extended durations and astronomical distances involved in lunar and Martian missions will make these activities far more difficult and dangerous. Crowded conditions, language and cultural differences, logistics problems, radiation concerns, communications lag times, workloads, and a variety of additional issues will conspire to impair the performance and affect the behaviour of long duration crew personnel. Above all stressors, however, the durations of the missions will impose the greatest burdens and extract the most severe tolls on the humans involved. On long-duration space missions, time will be the factor that can compound all issues, however trivial, into serious problems.

  10. Aeronautics and space report of the President, 1983 activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Achievements in communication; space science; space transportation; aeronautics; and Earth resources and environment are summarized. Activities of the various Federal agencies and cooperation with NASA in these areas are described. The Presidential policy announcement on the endorsement of commercial operation of expendable launch vehicles is included. Tables show, the space activities budget; a historical budget summary, U.S. space launch vehicles; U.S. and Soviet manned spaceflights, 1961 to 1983; U.S. launched space probes, 1975 to 1983; U.S. launched scientific and applications satellites, 1978 to 1983; the U.S. spacecraft record; the world record of space launches successful in attaining Earth orbit or beyond; and successful U.S. launchings for 1983.

  11. Vehicle Engineering Development Activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Mark F.; Champion, Robert H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    New initiatives in the Space Transportation Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center include an emphasis on Vehicle Engineering to enhance the strong commitment to the Directorate's projects in the development of flight hardware and flight demonstrators for the advancement of space transportation technology. This emphasis can be seen in the activities of a newly formed organization in the Transportation Directorate, The Vehicle Subsystems Engineering Group. The functions and type of activities that this group works on are described. The current projects of this group are outlined including a brief description of the status and type of work that the group is performing. A summary section is included to describe future activities.

  12. Updates on CCMC Activities and GSFC Space Weather Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhengm Y.; Hesse, M.; Kuznetsova, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Rastaetter, L.; Maddox, M.; Taktakishvili, A.; Berrios, D.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Macneice, P.; Mays, L.; Mendoza, A. M.; Mullinix, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this presentation, we provide updates on CCMC modeling activities, CCMC metrics and validation studies, and other CCMC efforts. In addition, an overview of GSFC Space Weather Services (a sibling organization to the Community Coordinated Modeling Center) and its products/capabilities will be given. We show how some of the research grade models, if running in an operational mode, can help address NASA's space weather needs by providing forecasting/now casting capabilities of significant space weather events throughout the solar system.

  13. The New Universities: Activities, Space and Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Nicholas; And Others

    1970-01-01

    The authors, members of a group that has been studying university planning since 1965, describe a mathematical, computerized model of university activities which they are now constructing, using data from the University of Reading. (JW)

  14. Dr. Wernher Von Braun on Tour With U.S. congressman Armistead Seldon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    U.S. representative Armistead Seldon (D.-Al) tries on an astronaut maneuvering unit mockup during a tour of the Saturn I workshop at the Marshall Space Flight center. Explaining the unit and the workshop to Representative Seldon is Dr. Wernher Von Braun, director of the Marshall Center.

  15. Queer Choreographies of Care: A Guided Tour of an Arts and Social Welfare Initiative in Manchester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a guided tour of the Men's Room, an arts and social welfare project that works with young men with experiences of homelessness, sex work and the criminal justice system. Focusing on three "dwelling moments" that capture how the project occupies space and time, the article describes how a queer spatial practice supports the…

  16. Going on the Road: How to Make Touring Work for You and Your Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Matthew J.

    1994-01-01

    Presents an outline of six steps for touring with secondary school students. Describes the challenges of taking a show on the road, including creation of a theater space where none existed before, design and construction of a portable set, and doing and redoing the necessary "blocking." Includes a calendar for major steps in preparing for the…

  17. Reading the Urban Landscape: The Case of a Campus Tour at York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardekjian, Adrina; Classens, Michael; Sandberg, L. Anders

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a campus tour assignment in a first-year undergraduate environmental studies course at York University, Toronto, Canada. As a pedagogical tool, the assignment enables students to interrogate the dominant narratives of a university's immediate physical spaces and to apply broader theoretical and practical concepts to their…

  18. Space-Based Astronomy: A Teacher's Guide with Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This curriculum guide uses hands-on activities to help grade 5-8 students and teachers understand the significance of space-based astronomy--astronomical observations made from outside the Earth's atmosphere. The guide begins with a survey of astronomy-related spacecraft that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has sent into…

  19. CFD Modeling Activities at the NASA Stennis Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allgood, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on NASA Stennis Space Center's Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling activities is shown. The topics include: 1) Overview of NASA Stennis Space Center; 2) Role of Computational Modeling at NASA-SSC; 3) Computational Modeling Tools and Resources; and 4) CFD Modeling Applications.

  20. NASA SpaceWire Activities/Comments/Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's activities, and proposes recommendations for the further use of the SpaceWire (SpW). The areas covered in this presentation are: (1) Protocol ID assignment, (2) Protocol development, (3) Plug & Play (PnP), (4) Recommended additions t o SpW protocol and (5) SpaceFibre trade.

  1. Solar Activities and Space Weather Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hady, Ahmed A.

    2013-03-01

    Geomagnetic storms have a good correlation with solar activity and solar radiation variability. Many proton events and geomagnetic storms have occurred during solar cycles21, 22, and 23. The solar activities during the last three cycles, gave us a good indication of the climatic change and its behavior during the 21st century. High energetic eruptive flares were recorded during the decline phase of the last three solar cycles. The appearances of the second peak on the decline phase of solar cycles have been detected. Halloween storms during Nov. 2003 and its effects on the geomagnetic storms have been studied analytically. The data of amplitude and phase of most common indicators of geomagnetic activities during solar cycle 23 have been analyzed.

  2. Total Lightning Activity as Observed from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Hugh J.

    2004-01-01

    Our knowledge of the global distribution of lightning has improved dramatically since the 1995 launch of the Optical Transient Detector (OTD), followed in 1997 by the launch of the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). Together, these instruments have generated a continuous seven-year record of global lightning activity. These lightning observations have provided a new global perspective on total lightning activity. For the first time, total lightning activity (CG and IC) has been observed over large regions with high detection efficiencies and accurate geographic location. This has produced new insights into lightning distributions, times of occurrence and variability. It has produced a revised global flash rate estimate (44 flashes per second) and has lead to a new realization of the significance of total ligh&g activity in severe weather. Accurate flash rate estimates are now available for areas of the earth (+/- 72 deg. latitude). Ocean-land contrasts as a function of season are clearly reveled, as are orographic effects and seasonal and interannual variability. The data set indicates that air mass thunderstorms, not large storm system dominate global activity. The ability of LIS and OTD to detect total lightning has lead to improved insight into the correlation between lightning and storm development. The relationship between updraft development and lightning activity is now well established and presents an opportunity for providing a new mechanism for remotely monitoring storm development. In this concept, lightning would serve as a surrogate for updraft velocity. It is anticipated that this capability could lead to significantly improved severe weather warning times and reduced false warning rates.

  3. Total Lightning Activity as Observed from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Hugh J.

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Our knowledge of the global distribution of lightning has improved dramatically since the 1995 launch of the Optical Transient Detector (OTD), followed in 1997 by the launch of the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). Together, these instruments have generated a continuous seven-year record of global lightning activity. These lightning observations have provided a new global perspective on total lightning activity. For the first time, total lightning activity (CG and IC) has been observed over large regions with high detection efficiencies and accurate geographic location. This has produced new insights into lightning distributions, times of occurrence and variability. It has produced a revised global flash rate estimate (44 flashes per second) and has lead to a new realization of the significance of total ligh&g activity in severe weather. Accurate flash rate estimates are now available for areas of the earth (+/- 72 deg. latitude). Ocean-land contrasts as a function of season are clearly reveled, as are orographic effects and seasonal and interannual variability. The data set indicates that air mass thunderstorms, not large storm system dominate global activity. The ability of LIS and OTD to detect total lightning has lead to improved insight into the correlation between lightning and storm development. The relationship between updraft development and lightning activity is now well established and presents an opportunity for providing a new mechanism for remotely monitoring storm development. In this concept, lightning would serve as a surrogate for updraft velocity. It is anticipated that this capability could lead to significantly improved severe weather warning times and reduced false warning rates.

  4. ISODEX: An entry point for developing countries into space activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Mark Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Several threads current in the community of international space actors have led to calls at UN COPUOS Scientific & Technical Sub-Committee meetings for enhancing the scientific information available on man-made space objects, whilst fostering international space object data sharing. Growing awareness of the problems of space debris proliferation and space traffic management, especially amongst developing countries and non-traditional space faring nations, have fueled their desires to become involved in the areas of space object tracking, utilizing relatively modest astronomical instrumentation. Additionally, several commercial satellite operators, members of the Satellite Data Association, have called for augmentation of the information available from existing catalogs. This confluence of factors has led to an international discussion, at the UN and elsewhere, of the possibility of creating a clearing-house for parties willing to share data on space objects, with a working title of the “International Space Object Data Exchange” (ISODEX). We discuss the ideas behind this concept, how it might be implemented, and it might enhance the public’s knowledge of space activities, as well as providing an entry point into space for developing countries.

  5. Trajectory data analyses for pedestrian space-time activity study.

    PubMed

    Qi, Feng; Du, Fei

    2013-02-25

    It is well recognized that human movement in the spatial and temporal dimensions has direct influence on disease transmission(1-3). An infectious disease typically spreads via contact between infected and susceptible individuals in their overlapped activity spaces. Therefore, daily mobility-activity information can be used as an indicator to measure exposures to risk factors of infection. However, a major difficulty and thus the reason for paucity of studies of infectious disease transmission at the micro scale arise from the lack of detailed individual mobility data. Previously in transportation and tourism research detailed space-time activity data often relied on the time-space diary technique, which requires subjects to actively record their activities in time and space. This is highly demanding for the participants and collaboration from the participants greatly affects the quality of data(4). Modern technologies such as GPS and mobile communications have made possible the automatic collection of trajectory data. The data collected, however, is not ideal for modeling human space-time activities, limited by the accuracies of existing devices. There is also no readily available tool for efficient processing of the data for human behavior study. We present here a suite of methods and an integrated ArcGIS desktop-based visual interface for the pre-processing and spatiotemporal analyses of trajectory data. We provide examples of how such processing may be used to model human space-time activities, especially with error-rich pedestrian trajectory data, that could be useful in public health studies such as infectious disease transmission modeling. The procedure presented includes pre-processing, trajectory segmentation, activity space characterization, density estimation and visualization, and a few other exploratory analysis methods. Pre-processing is the cleaning of noisy raw trajectory data. We introduce an interactive visual pre-processing interface as well as an

  6. Trajectory data analyses for pedestrian space-time activity study.

    PubMed

    Qi, Feng; Du, Fei

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that human movement in the spatial and temporal dimensions has direct influence on disease transmission(1-3). An infectious disease typically spreads via contact between infected and susceptible individuals in their overlapped activity spaces. Therefore, daily mobility-activity information can be used as an indicator to measure exposures to risk factors of infection. However, a major difficulty and thus the reason for paucity of studies of infectious disease transmission at the micro scale arise from the lack of detailed individual mobility data. Previously in transportation and tourism research detailed space-time activity data often relied on the time-space diary technique, which requires subjects to actively record their activities in time and space. This is highly demanding for the participants and collaboration from the participants greatly affects the quality of data(4). Modern technologies such as GPS and mobile communications have made possible the automatic collection of trajectory data. The data collected, however, is not ideal for modeling human space-time activities, limited by the accuracies of existing devices. There is also no readily available tool for efficient processing of the data for human behavior study. We present here a suite of methods and an integrated ArcGIS desktop-based visual interface for the pre-processing and spatiotemporal analyses of trajectory data. We provide examples of how such processing may be used to model human space-time activities, especially with error-rich pedestrian trajectory data, that could be useful in public health studies such as infectious disease transmission modeling. The procedure presented includes pre-processing, trajectory segmentation, activity space characterization, density estimation and visualization, and a few other exploratory analysis methods. Pre-processing is the cleaning of noisy raw trajectory data. We introduce an interactive visual pre-processing interface as well as an

  7. Canada s activities on space debris mitigation technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikanpour, D.

    The threat of space debris to space activities is exponentially rising. Canada, as a space-faring nation having significant investment in space and astronauts participating in space missions, has recognized the risks arising from it and has been active as a participant in understanding and mitigate the problem. Since 1992, Canada has been involved with the creation of a sub-committee on space debris under the government's Interdepartmental Committee on Space (ICS) to deal with the policy and international cooperation on space debris. On the research front, Canadian Space Agency (CSA) has been coordinating the related researches within Canada. This paper outlines the major Canadian research activities on space debris and mitigation technologies along with CSA's future plan on the subject. Canadian research activities on space debris are in 3 major areas: (1) Measurement and modeling of space debris: The work has been led by the CSA (Space Technologies) with participations from research institutes and universities. The experiments cover the analysis and computational modeling of the space debris flux at orbital altitudes of interest for space activities. (2) Space debris mitigation: The technology for mitigating space debris is of key research interest and measures have been taken in the design and launch of LEO earth observation spacecraft, such as RADARSAT. RADARSAT-1, launched in 1995 and still operating, was one of the first commercial spacecraft to consider the effect of orbital debris in its design. Not only was the spacecraft designed to withstand a possible impact on orbit, and not be a source of debris from latches and tie-down mechanisms, but the launch of RADARSAT-1 was also delayed by 25 seconds in a very tight launch window, to avoid a possible impact on orbit. The design for the follow-on RADARSAT-2 spacecraft includes features to protect its Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) antenna against possible impact damage due to space debris as well as include

  8. Defining filled and empty space: reassessing the filled space illusion for active touch and vision.

    PubMed

    Collier, Elizabeth S; Lawson, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    In the filled space illusion, an extent filled with gratings is estimated as longer than an equivalent extent that is apparently empty. However, researchers do not seem to have carefully considered the terms filled and empty when describing this illusion. Specifically, for active touch, smooth, solid surfaces have typically been used to represent empty space. Thus, it is not known whether comparing gratings to truly empty space (air) during active exploration by touch elicits the same illusionary effect. In Experiments 1 and 2, gratings were estimated as longer if they were compared to smooth, solid surfaces rather than being compared to truly empty space. Consistent with this, Experiment 3 showed that empty space was perceived as longer than solid surfaces when the two were compared directly. Together these results are consistent with the hypothesis that, for touch, the standard filled space illusion only occurs if gratings are compared to smooth, solid surfaces and that it may reverse if gratings are compared to empty space. Finally, Experiment 4 showed that gratings were estimated as longer than both solid and empty extents in vision, so the direction of the filled space illusion in vision was not affected by the nature of the comparator. These results are discussed in relation to the dual nature of active touch.

  9. Defining filled and empty space: reassessing the filled space illusion for active touch and vision.

    PubMed

    Collier, Elizabeth S; Lawson, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    In the filled space illusion, an extent filled with gratings is estimated as longer than an equivalent extent that is apparently empty. However, researchers do not seem to have carefully considered the terms filled and empty when describing this illusion. Specifically, for active touch, smooth, solid surfaces have typically been used to represent empty space. Thus, it is not known whether comparing gratings to truly empty space (air) during active exploration by touch elicits the same illusionary effect. In Experiments 1 and 2, gratings were estimated as longer if they were compared to smooth, solid surfaces rather than being compared to truly empty space. Consistent with this, Experiment 3 showed that empty space was perceived as longer than solid surfaces when the two were compared directly. Together these results are consistent with the hypothesis that, for touch, the standard filled space illusion only occurs if gratings are compared to smooth, solid surfaces and that it may reverse if gratings are compared to empty space. Finally, Experiment 4 showed that gratings were estimated as longer than both solid and empty extents in vision, so the direction of the filled space illusion in vision was not affected by the nature of the comparator. These results are discussed in relation to the dual nature of active touch. PMID:27233286

  10. Brain in Space: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Neuroscience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Walter W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The lessons and activities in this guide will engage your students in the excitement of space life science investigations after the Neurolab Spacelab mission. It is the authors' goal that the information in this guide will inspire both you and your students to become interested and active participants in this space mission. Few experiences can compare with the excitement and thrill of watching a Shuttle launch. This guide provides an opportunity for you and your students to go one step further by conducting the experiments on Earth that are relevent to the research conducted in space.

  11. 51. Tour stop 2, Illinois Monument and Shirley House from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Tour stop 2, Illinois Monument and Shirley House from hill at intersection of Union Avenue and loop to tour stop 3, looking nw. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  12. 7. Tour stop 2, Illinois Monument and Shirley House from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Tour stop 2, Illinois Monument and Shirley House from hill at intersection of Union Avenue and loop to tour stop 3, looking NW. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  13. 10. Third Melan Bridge on tour route Union Avenue just ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Third Melan Bridge on tour route Union Avenue just beyond tour stop 6, detail from scaffold to the north. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  14. IHF study tour: a lesson in Swedish.

    PubMed

    Hands, D

    1980-08-01

    The International Health Federation paid its first visit to Sweden in June. The study tour, which involved 35 people from 15 countries, spent ten days studying Swedish health care with the particular brief--'Co-ordinating health services within a region". Here David Hands, assistant director, Kings Fund Centre, describes the tour which was organised by the Swedish Hospital Association and the Swedish Planning and Rationalisation Institute in conjunction with the National Board for Health and Welfare, and the Federation of Swedish County Councils.

  15. Perspectives from space: NASA classroom information and activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This booklet contains the information and classroom activities included on the backs of the eight poster series, 'Perspectives From Space'. The first series, Earth, An Integrated System, contains information on global ecology, remote sensing from space, data products, earth modeling, and international environmental treaties. The second series, Patterns Among Planets, contains information on the solar system, planetary processes, impacts and atmospheres, and a classroom activity on Jupiter's satellite system. The third series, Our Place In The Cosmos, contains information on the scale of the universe, origins of the universe, mission to the universe, and three classroom activities. The fourth series, Our Sun, The Nearest Star, contains information on the Sun. The fifth series, Oasis Of Life, contains information on the development of life, chemical and biological evolution on Earth and the search for other life in the universe. The sixth series, The Influence Of Gravity, contains information on Newton's Law of Gravity, space and microgravity, microgravity environment, and classroom activities on gravity. The seventh series, The Spirit Of Exploration, contains information on space exploration, the Apollo Program, future exploration activities, and two classroom activities. The eighth series, Global Cooperation, contains information on rocketry, the space race, and multi-nation exploration projects.

  16. Using Online Field Trips and Tours in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2010-01-01

    While not focusing directly on art, music, or literature, classroom teachers, students, and supervisors can find many virtual tours of museum offices, and agencies that do have art content. The use of virtual tours can be extremely effective--whether used as an entire classroom experience (such as the teacher guiding students through a tour using…

  17. Development of magnetostrictive active members for control of space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Bruce G.; Avakian, Kevin M.; Fenn, Ralph C.; Gaffney, Monique S.; Gerver, Michael J.; Hawkey, Timothy J.; Boudreau, Donald J.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this Phase 2 Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) project was to determine the technical feasibility of developing magnetostrictive active members for use as truss elements in space structures. Active members control elastic vibrations of truss-based space structures and integrate the functions of truss structure element, actively controlled actuator, and sensor. The active members must control structural motion to the sub-micron level and, for many proposed space applications, work at cryogenic temperatures. Under this program both room temperature and cryogenic temperature magnetostrictive active members were designed, fabricated, and tested. The results of these performance tests indicated that room temperature magnetostrictive actuators feature higher strain, stiffness, and force capability with lower amplifier requirements than similarly sized piezoelectric or electrostrictive active members, at the cost of higher mass. Two different cryogenic temperature magnetostrictive materials were tested at liquid nitrogen temperatures, both with larger strain capability than the room temperature magnetostrictive materials. The cryogenic active member development included the design and fabrication of a cryostat that allows operation of the cryogenic active member in a space structure testbed.

  18. An analysis of Space Shuttle countdown activities: Preliminaries to a computational model of the NASA Test Director

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    John, Bonnie E.; Remington, Roger W.; Steier, David M.

    1991-01-01

    Before all systems are go just prior to the launch of a space shuttle, thousands of operations and tests have been performed to ensure that all shuttle and support subsystems are operational and ready for launch. These steps, which range from activating the orbiter's flight computers to removing the launch pad from the itinerary of the NASA tour buses, are carried out by launch team members at various locations and with highly specialized fields of expertise. The liability for coordinating these diverse activities rests with the NASA Test Director (NTD) at NASA-Kennedy. The behavior is being studied of the NTD with the goal of building a detailed computational model of that behavior; the results of that analysis to date are given. The NTD's performance is described in detail, as a team member who must coordinate a complex task through efficient audio communication, as well as an individual taking notes and consulting manuals. A model of the routine cognitive skill used by the NTD to follow the launch countdown procedure manual was implemented using the Soar cognitive architecture. Several examples are given of how such a model could aid in evaluating proposed computer support systems.

  19. Present Research and Standardization Activities on Small Space Debris at Space Environment Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazawa, Yukihito; Hanada, Toshiya; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Akahoshi, Yasuhiro; Higashide, Masumi; Okudaira, Osamu; Kamiya, Koki; Nitta, Kumi

    2016-07-01

    The micro-debris of the size from 100 μm to several mm is expected to cause a spacecraft critical failures and troubles. However, the collision probability of the micro-debris and its effect on space equipment are hardly predicted due to lack knowledge regarding the debris distribution and experimental/numerical investigation on material and components. This paper introduce research and standardization activities related on micro-debris for space environmental prevention

  20. Assessing Built Environment Walkability using Activity-Space Summary Measures

    PubMed Central

    Tribby, Calvin P.; Miller, Harvey J.; Brown, Barbara B.; Werner, Carol M.; Smith, Ken R.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis on active transportation, such as walking, in transportation planning as a sustainable form of mobility and in public health as a means of achieving recommended physical activity and better health outcomes. A research focus is the influence of the built environment on walking, with the ultimate goal of identifying environmental modifications that invite more walking. However, assessments of the built environment for walkability are typically at a spatially disaggregate level (such as street blocks) or at a spatially aggregate level (such as census block groups). A key issue is determining the spatial units for walkability measures so that they reflect potential walking behavior. This paper develops methods for assessing walkability within individual activity spaces: the geographic region accessible to an individual during a given walking trip. We first estimate street network-based activity spaces using the shortest path between known trip starting/ending points and a travel time budget that reflects potential alternative paths. Based on objective walkability measures of the street blocks, we use three summary measures for walkability within activity spaces: i) the average walkability score across block segments (representing the general level of walkability in the activity space); ii) the standard deviation (representing the walkability variation), and; iii) the network autocorrelation (representing the spatial coherence of the walkability pattern). We assess the method using data from an empirical study of built environment walkability and walking behavior in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. We visualize and map these activity space summary measures to compare walkability among individuals’ trips within their neighborhoods. We also compare summary measures for activity spaces versus census block groups, with the result that they agree less than half of the time. PMID:27213027

  1. Aeronautics and space report of the President, 1980 activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The year's achievements in the areas of communication, Earth resources, environment, space sciences, transportation, and space energy are summarized and current and planned activities in these areas at the various departments and agencies of the Federal Government are summarized. Tables show U.S. and world spacecraft records, spacecraft launchings for 1980, and scientific payload anf probes launched 1975-1980. Budget data are included.

  2. "Michael Jackson World Tour:" Maps and Globes--Latitude and Longitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benscoter, Gloria Dee

    1988-01-01

    Presents a mapping activity which helps students understand the purpose of latitude and longitude lines. Gives students an opportunity to use longitude and latitude in a meaningful way by asking them to plan a world concert tour for a rock star. Includes a reproducible activity page. (LS)

  3. Space Weather Monitoring and Forecasting Activity in NICT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Watari, Shinichi; T. Murata, Ken

    Disturbances of Space environment around the Earth (geospace) is controlled by the activity of the Sun and the solar wind. Disturbances in geospace sometimes cause serious problems to satellites, astronauts, and telecommunications. To minimize the effect of the problems, space weather forecasting is necessary. In Japan, NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) is in charge of space weather forecasting services as a regional warning center of International Space Environment Service. With help of geospace environment data exchanging among the international cooperation, NICT operates daily space weather forecast service every day to provide information on nowcasts and forecasts of solar flare, geomagnetic disturbances, solar proton event, and radio-wave propagation conditions in the ionosphere. For prompt reporting of space weather information, we also conduct our original observation networks from the Sun to the upper atmosphere: Hiraiso solar observatory, domestic ionosonde networks, magnetometer & HF radar observations in far-east Siberia and Alaska, and south-east Asia low-latitude ionospheric network (SEALION). ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) and STEREO (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory) real-time beacon data are received using our antenna facilities to monitor the solar and solar wind conditions in near real-time. Our current activities and future perspective of space weather monitoring and forecasting will be introduced in this report.

  4. Skin blood flow with elastic compressive extravehicular activity space suit.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kunihiko; Gotoh, Taro M; Morita, Hironobu; Hargens, Alan R

    2003-10-01

    During extravehicular activity (EVA), current space suits are pressurized with 100% oxygen at approximately 222 mmHg. A tight elastic garment, or mechanical counter pressure (MCP) suit that generates pressure by compression, may have several advantages over current space suit technology. In this study, we investigated local microcirculatory effects produced with negative ambient pressure with an MCP sleeve. The MCP glove and sleeve generated pressures similar to the current space suit. MCP remained constant during negative pressure due to unchanged elasticity of the material. Decreased skin capillary blood flow and temperature during MCP compression was counteracted by greater negative pressure or a smaller pressure differential.

  5. Materials and Fuels Complex Tour

    ScienceCinema

    Miley, Don

    2016-07-12

    The Materials and Fuels Complex at Idaho National Laboratory is home to several facilities used for the research and development of nuclear fuels. Stops include the Fuel Conditioning Facility, the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (post-irradiation examination), and the Space and Security Power System Facility, where radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are assembled for deep space missions. You can learn more about INL research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  6. Materials and Fuels Complex Tour

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Don

    2011-01-01

    The Materials and Fuels Complex at Idaho National Laboratory is home to several facilities used for the research and development of nuclear fuels. Stops include the Fuel Conditioning Facility, the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (post-irradiation examination), and the Space and Security Power System Facility, where radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are assembled for deep space missions. You can learn more about INL research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  7. Are Grocery Store Tours Capturing the Right Audience? Characteristics of Students Who Volunteer to Receive a Grocery Store Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Elizabeth; Brunt, Ardith; Stangl, Christa; Borr, Mari

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research is to examine the demographics of students volunteering to receive a grocery store tour in order to assess if these students represent those most in need of the information. Dietetics students trained in giving grocery store tours through a Produce for Better Health grant provided store tours to college student…

  8. Genesee County REACH Windshield Tours: enhancing health professionals understanding of community conditions that influence infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Daniel J; French-Turner, Tonya; Brownlee, Shannon

    2013-06-01

    The Genesee County Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) program is a community-based program designed to reduce African American infant mortality rates in Flint, Michigan. Genesee County REACH activities address three core themes: fostering community mobilization, reducing racism, and enhancing the maternal-infant health care system. The REACH Community Action Plan was generated using a community-based participatory approach, and is based on a socio-ecological model with interventions focused at the individual, organizational, health system, and community levels. Genesee County REACH's Community Windshield Tours were developed to raise awareness of social and environmental barriers to health promotion among health care system staff in Flint, Michigan. These tours provide a close-up examination of the community's environmental conditions and the experiences of mothers, children, and families at risk for poor birth outcomes. In this article, we report our findings from pre-/post-tour surveys, as well as long-term follow-up surveys, to assess the impact of this REACH activity on participants' knowledge and beliefs about Genesee County residents, and to determine any resultant individual, policy, system, or environmental changes. We used t tests to compare participants' responses before and after the tours. We found that several individual- and systems-level changes have resulted from these tours, reflecting greater cultural sensitivity and increased understanding of patients' circumstances. African American infant mortality rates in Genesee County declined to a historic low in 2005, and they remain lower than in previous years. Although REACH coalition partners recognize that this reduction cannot be attributed to a single intervention or activity, REACH activities such as the Community Windshield Tours addressing multiple levels of the socio-ecological model may have had a synergistic effect.

  9. Genesee County REACH Windshield Tours: enhancing health professionals understanding of community conditions that influence infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Daniel J; French-Turner, Tonya; Brownlee, Shannon

    2013-06-01

    The Genesee County Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) program is a community-based program designed to reduce African American infant mortality rates in Flint, Michigan. Genesee County REACH activities address three core themes: fostering community mobilization, reducing racism, and enhancing the maternal-infant health care system. The REACH Community Action Plan was generated using a community-based participatory approach, and is based on a socio-ecological model with interventions focused at the individual, organizational, health system, and community levels. Genesee County REACH's Community Windshield Tours were developed to raise awareness of social and environmental barriers to health promotion among health care system staff in Flint, Michigan. These tours provide a close-up examination of the community's environmental conditions and the experiences of mothers, children, and families at risk for poor birth outcomes. In this article, we report our findings from pre-/post-tour surveys, as well as long-term follow-up surveys, to assess the impact of this REACH activity on participants' knowledge and beliefs about Genesee County residents, and to determine any resultant individual, policy, system, or environmental changes. We used t tests to compare participants' responses before and after the tours. We found that several individual- and systems-level changes have resulted from these tours, reflecting greater cultural sensitivity and increased understanding of patients' circumstances. African American infant mortality rates in Genesee County declined to a historic low in 2005, and they remain lower than in previous years. Although REACH coalition partners recognize that this reduction cannot be attributed to a single intervention or activity, REACH activities such as the Community Windshield Tours addressing multiple levels of the socio-ecological model may have had a synergistic effect. PMID:23605377

  10. Determination Of The Activity Space By The Stereometric Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloison, Y.; Crete, N.; Mollard, R.

    1980-07-01

    To determine the activity space of a sitting subject, it is necessary to go beyond the mere statistical description of morphology and the knowledge of the displacement volume. An anlysis of the positions or variations of the positions of the diverse segmental elements (arms, hands, lower limbs, etc...) in the course of a given activity is required. Of the various methods used to locate quickly and accurately the spatial positions of anatomical points, stereometry makes it possible to plot the three-dimensional coordinates of any point in space in relation to a fixed trirectangle frame of reference determined by the stereome-tric measuring device. Thus, regardless of the orientation and posture of the subject, his segmental elements can be easily pin-pointed, throughout the experiment, within the space they occupy. Using this method, it is possible for a sample of operators seated at an operation station and applying either manual controls or pedals and belonging to a population statistically defined from the data collected and the analyses produced by the anthropometric study to determine a contour line of reach capability marking out the usable working space and to know, within this working space, a contour line of preferential activity that is limited, in space, by the whole range of optimal reach capability of all the subjects.

  11. Activities on Space Debris in U.S.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2001-01-01

    In the U.S. space debris activities are addressed at all government levels, from the Executive Office of the President to the individual federal agencies to specialized centers, laboratories, organizations, and research groups. U.S. Space Policy specifically challenges government agencies to seek to minimize the creation of space debris and to promote debris minimization practices both domestically and internationally. A set of space debris mitigation standard practices has been developed and adopted by relevant US government agencies, and their application by the commercial aerospace community is highly encouraged. A growing number of US government agencies have issued their own space debris mitigation policies, directives, regulations, and standards. Space debris research, including the definition and modeling of the current and future near-Earth space environment and the development of debris protection technologies, is principally conducted by NASA and the Department of Defense. The U.S. Space Surveillance Network continues to provide the most complete and timely characterization of the population of space debris larger than 10 cm. During the past several years major advancements have been achieved in extending this environment definition in LEO to include particles as small as only a few millimeters. The inspection of returned spacecraft surfaces continues to shed light on the even smaller debris population. With improvements in computer technology, new and more capable programs have been and are being developed to solve a number of operational and research problems. Finally, the academic and industrial sectors of the U.S. are also increasing their participation in and contributions to space debris operations and research. The cooperation of satellite and launch vehicle developers and operators is essential to the U.S. objective of promoting the preservation of the space environment for future generations.

  12. A New Tour Design Technique to Enable an Enceladus Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strange, N.; Campagnola, S.; Russell, R.

    2009-12-01

    As a result of discoveries made by the Cassini spacecraft, Saturn's moon Enceladus has emerged as a high science-value target for a future orbiter mission. [1] However, past studies of an Enceladus orbiter mission [2] found that entering Enceladus orbit either requires a prohibitively large orbit insertion ΔV (> 3.5 km/s) or a prohibitively long flight time. In order to reach Enceladus with a reasonable flight time and ΔV budget, a new tour design method has been developed that uses gravity-assists of the low-mass moons Rhea, Dione, and Tethys combined with v-infinity leveraging maneuvers. This new method can achieve Enceladus orbit with a combined leveraging and insertion ΔV of ~1 km/s and a 2.5 year Saturn tour. Among many challenges in designing a trajectory for an Enceladus mission, the two most prominent arise because Enceladus is a low mass moon (its GM is only ~7 km^2/s^2), deep within Saturn's gravity well (its orbit is at 4 Saturn radii). Designing ΔV-efficient rendezvous with Enceladus is the first challenge, while the second involves finding a stable orbit which can achieve the desired science measurements. A paper by Russell and Lara [3] has recently addressed the second problem, and a paper this past August by Strange, Campagnola, and Russell [4] has adressed the first. This method developed to solve the second problem, the leveraging tour, and the science possibilities of this trajectory will be the subject of this presentation. the new methods in [4], a leveraging tour with Titan, Rhea, Dione, and Tethys can reach Enceladus orbit with less than half of the ΔV of a direct Titan-Enceladus transfer. Starting from the TSSM Saturn arrival conditions [5], with a chemical bi-prop system, this new tour design technique could place into Enceladus orbit ~2800 kg compared to ~1100 kg from a direct Titan-Enceladus transfer. Moreover, the 2.5 year leveraging tour provides many low-speed and high science value flybys of Rhea, Dione, and Tethys. This exciting

  13. Behavioural Responses of Dusky Dolphin Groups (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) to Tour Vessels off Kaikoura, New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Lundquist, David; Gemmell, Neil J.; Würsig, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Background Commercial viewing and swimming with dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) near Kaikoura, New Zealand began in the late 1980s and researchers have previously described changes in vocalisation, aerial behaviour, and group spacing in the presence of vessels. This study was conducted to assess the current effects that tourism has on the activity budget of dusky dolphins to provide wildlife managers with information for current decision-making and facilitate development of quantitative criteria for management of this industry in the future. Methodology/Principal Findings First-order time discrete Markov chain models were used to assess changes in the behavioural state of dusky dolphin pods targeted by tour vessels. Log-linear analysis was conducted on behavioural state transitions to determine whether the likelihood of dolphins moving from one behavioural state to another changed based on natural and anthropogenic factors. The best-fitting model determined by Akaike Information Criteria values included season, time of day, and vessel presence within 300 m. Interactions with vessels reduced the proportion of time dolphins spent resting in spring and summer and increased time spent milling in all seasons except autumn. Dolphins spent more time socialising in spring and summer, when conception occurs and calves are born, and the proportion of time spent resting was highest in summer. Resting decreased and traveling increased in the afternoon. Conclusions/Significance Responses to tour vessel traffic are similar to those described for dusky dolphins elsewhere. Disturbance linked to vessels may interrupt social interactions, carry energetic costs, or otherwise affect individual fitness. Research is needed to determine if increased milling is a result of acoustic masking of communication due to vessel noise, and to establish levels at which changes to behavioural budgets of dusky dolphins are likely to cause long-term harm. Threshold values from these studies

  14. ConTour: Data-Driven Exploration of Multi-Relational Datasets for Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Partl, Christian; Lex, Alexander; Streit, Marc; Strobelt, Hendrik; Wassermann, Anne-Mai; Pfister, Hanspeter; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2014-12-01

    Large scale data analysis is nowadays a crucial part of drug discovery. Biologists and chemists need to quickly explore and evaluate potentially effective yet safe compounds based on many datasets that are in relationship with each other. However, there is a lack of tools that support them in these processes. To remedy this, we developed ConTour, an interactive visual analytics technique that enables the exploration of these complex, multi-relational datasets. At its core ConTour lists all items of each dataset in a column. Relationships between the columns are revealed through interaction: selecting one or multiple items in one column highlights and re-sorts the items in other columns. Filters based on relationships enable drilling down into the large data space. To identify interesting items in the first place, ConTour employs advanced sorting strategies, including strategies based on connectivity strength and uniqueness, as well as sorting based on item attributes. ConTour also introduces interactive nesting of columns, a powerful method to show the related items of a child column for each item in the parent column. Within the columns, ConTour shows rich attribute data about the items as well as information about the connection strengths to other datasets. Finally, ConTour provides a number of detail views, which can show items from multiple datasets and their associated data at the same time. We demonstrate the utility of our system in case studies conducted with a team of chemical biologists, who investigate the effects of chemical compounds on cells and need to understand the underlying mechanisms.

  15. Changes in gastric myoelectric activity during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Sandoz, Gwenn R.; Stern, Robert M.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine postprandial myoelectric activity of the stomach and gastric activity associated with space motion sickness using electrogastrography. Three crewmembers participated in this investigation. Preflight, subjects exhibited normal postprandial responses to the ingestion of a meal. Inflight, crewmembers exhibited an abnormal decrease in the power of the normal gastric slow wave after eating on flight day 1, but had a normal postprandial response by flight day 3. Prior to and during episodes of nausea and vomiting, the electrical activity of the stomach became dysrhythmic with 60-80% of the spectral power in the bradygastric and tachygastric frequency ranges. These findings indicate that gastric motility may be decreased during the first few days of space flight. In addition, changes in the frequency of the gastric slow wave associated with space motion sickness symptoms are consistent with those reported for laboratory-induced motion sickness.

  16. Neuromuscular activation patterns during treadmill walking after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layne, C. S.; McDonald, P. V.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    Astronauts adopt a variety of neuromuscular control strategies during space flight that are appropriate for locomoting in that unique environment, but are less than optimal upon return to Earth. We report here the first systematic investigation of potential adaptations in neuromuscular activity patterns associated with postflight locomotion. Astronaut-subjects were tasked with walking on a treadmill at 6.4 km/h while fixating a visual target 30 cm away from their eyes after space flights of 8-15 days. Surface electromyography was collected from selected lower limb muscles and normalized with regard to mean amplitude and temporal relation to heel strike. In general, high correlations (more than 0.80) were found between preflight and postflight activation waveforms for each muscle and each subject: however relative activation amplitude around heel strike and toe off was changed as a result of flight. The level of muscle cocontraction and activation variability, and the relationship between the phasic characteristics of the ankle musculature in preparation for toe off also were altered by space flight. Subjects also reported oscillopsia during treadmill walking after flight. These findings indicate that, after space flight, the sensory-motor system can generate neuromuscular-activation strategies that permit treadmill walking, but subtle changes in lower-limb neuromuscular activation are present that may contribute to increased lower limb kinematic variability and oscillopsia also present during postflight walking.

  17. Aeronautics and Space Report of the President: Fiscal Year 1996 Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Topics considered include: (1) Space launch activities: space shuttle missions; expendable launch vehicles. (2) Space science: astronomy and space physics; solar system exploration. (3) Space flight and technology: life and microgravity sciences; space shuttle technology; reuseable launch vehicles; international space station; energy; safety and mission assurance; commercial development and regulation of space; surveillance. (4) Space communications: communications satellites; space network; ground networks; mission control and data systems. (5) Aeronautical activities: technology developments; air traffic control and navigation; weather-related aeronautical activities; flight safety and security; aviation medicine and human factors. (6) Studies of the planet earth: terrestrial studies and applications: atmospheric studies: oceanographic studies; international aeronautical and space activities; and appendices.

  18. Tropical Animal Tour Packet. Metro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metro Washington Park Zoo, Portland, OR. Educational Services Div.

    This packet is designed to assist teachers in creating a tropical animals lesson plan that centers around a visit to the zoo. A teacher packet is divided into eight parts: (1) goals and objectives; (2) what to expect at the zoo; (3) student activities (preparatory activities, on-site activities, and follow-up activities); (4) background…

  19. Ohio Senator John Glenn tours the Design Engineering lab at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Ohio Senator John Glenn, at left, enjoys a tour of the Engineering Development Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center. Standing with Senator Glenn are, left to right, Chief Engineer Hugo Delgado and Design Engineer David Kruhm, both of NASA Advanced Development and Shuttle Upgrades. Senator Glenn arrived at KSC on Jan. 20 to tour KSC operational areas and to view the launch of STS-89. Glenn, who made history in 1962 as the first American to orbit the Earth, completing three orbits in a five- hour flight aboard Friendship 7, will fly his second space mission aboard Space Shuttle Discovery this October. Glenn is retiring from the Senate at the end of this year and will be a payload specialist aboard STS-95.

  20. Ohio Senator John Glenn tours the Design Engineering lab at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Ohio Senator John Glenn, at left, enjoys a tour of the Engineering Development Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center. Standing with Senator Glenn is Design Engineer David Kruhm of NASA Advanced Development and Shuttle Upgrades. Senator Glenn arrived at KSC on Jan. 20 to tour KSC operational areas and to view the launch of STS-89. Glenn, who made history in 1962 as the first American to orbit the Earth, completing three orbits in a five-hour flight aboard Friendship 7, will fly his second space mission aboard Space Shuttle Discovery this October. Glenn is retiring from the Senate at the end of this year and will be a payload specialist aboard STS-95.

  1. Waves In Space Plasmas (WISP): A space plasma lab active experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredricks, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP) series of Spacelab Space Plasma Labs devoted to active experimentation, are introduced. Space Plasma Lab-1 is keyed to active probing of the ionosphere and magnetosphere using controlled wave injections by the WISP VLF and HF transmitters, supported by a free-flying plasma diagnostics package instrumented with wave receivers and particle probe diagnostics, designed to measure radiation and propagation of plasma waves, precipitated particle fluxes due to wave/particle interactions, and similar phenomena resulting from wave injectons. The VLF transmitter delivers up to 1 kW of RF power into the antenna terminals over the range from 0.3 to 30 kHz. The HF transmitter delivers up to 500 W to the antenna over the range from 1 to 30 MHz. A dipole antenna commandable to any extension up to 300 m tip-to-tip is available.

  2. Learning Activity Models for Multiple Agents in a Smart Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandall, Aaron; Cook, Diane J.

    With the introduction of more complex intelligent environment systems, the possibilities for customizing system behavior have increased dramatically. Significant headway has been made in tracking individuals through spaces using wireless devices [1, 18, 26] and in recognizing activities within the space based on video data (see chapter by Brubaker et al. and [6, 8, 23]), motion sensor data [9, 25], wearable sensors [13] or other sources of information [14, 15, 22]. However, much of the theory and most of the algorithms are designed to handle one individual in the space at a time. Resident tracking, activity recognition, event prediction, and behavior automation becomes significantly more difficult for multi-agent situations, when there are multiple residents in the environment.

  3. Collaborative Human Engineering Work in Space Exploration Extravehicular Activities (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSantis, Lena; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on extravehicular activities in space exploration in collaboration with other NASA centers, industries, and universities is shown. The topics include: 1) Concept of Operations for Future EVA activities; 2) Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS); 3) Advanced EVA Walkback Test; 4) Walkback Subjective Results; 5) Integrated Suit Test 1; 6) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS); 7) Flex PLSS Design Process; and 8) EVA Information System; 9)

  4. Space Station Freedom. An Activity Book for Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This booklet was prepared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for use by teachers in the classroom or by parents at home. The descriptions, classroom activities and illustrations are designed for elementary-level school children. On each right-hand page is a simple line drawing that illustrates the narrative and the…

  5. Activity Spaces and Urban Adolescent Substance Use and Emotional Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.; Korpela, Kalevi

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzed routine locations (activity spaces) of urban adolescents enrolled in a substance abuse treatment program to understand the relationship between their spatial lives and health outcomes such as substance use and mental health. Sixty-eight adolescents were interviewed and produced a list of 199 locations identified as most…

  6. Six degree of freedom active vibration damping for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Leonard S.

    1993-01-01

    Work performed during the period 1 Jan. - 31 Mar. 1993 on six degree of freedom active vibration damping for space application is presented. A performance and cost report is included. Topics covered include: actuator testing; mechanical amplifier design; and neural network control system development and experimental evaluation.

  7. Draft position paper on knowledge management in space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, Jeanne; Moura, Denis

    2003-01-01

    As other fields of industry, space activities are facing the challenge of Knowledge Management and the International Academy of Astronautics decided to settle in 2002 a Study Group to analyse the problem and issue general guidelines. This communication presents the draft position paper of this group in view to be discussed during the 2003 IAF Congress.

  8. Innovative Ideas for Coordinating International Space Activities: International Center for Space Medicine, International Space Authority, and other Global Youth Space Initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, W.

    2002-01-01

    The Space Generation Forum SGF, at UNISPACE-III, as one of its ten formal recommendations to the United Nations in 1999, put forward the suggestion that the an international space authority should be created. Other recommendations were the establishment of an International Center for Space Medicine, creation of a global space exploration and development program, establishment of a global space (Nobel) prize, and a global space library. These projects are being further developed at the Space Generation Summit (SGS), an event at World Space Congress (WSC) which shall unite international students and young professionals to develop a youth vision and strategy for the peaceful uses of space. SGS, endorsed by the United Nations, will take place from October 11- 13th, during which the 200 delegates will discuss ongoing youth space activities, particularly those stemming from the UNISPACE-III/SGF and taken forward by the Space Generation Advisory Council. Delegates will address a variety of topics with the goal of devising new recommendations according to the theme, 'Accelerating Our Pace in Space'. The material presented here and in other technical sessions throughout WSC includes the findings of these discussions. In this paper, we present the International Space Authority idea together with recommendations on how that might be taken forward. The purpose of such an organization would be to allow: 1. Oversight and enforcement for the balanced regulation of multiple interests in space 2. Access for all peoples to the material benefits and knowledge and understanding enabled by the exploration and 3. Pooling of national and industry resources for the creation of space infrastructure, missions and enterprises for Operating principles: 1. The ISA regulatory regime would encourage commercialization and the harnessing of competitive market 2. Consistent with its charter to ensure access to all peoples, all UN member states and appropriate NGOs would 3. Close coordination with

  9. Radiation Protection Studies of International Space Station Extravehicular Activity Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A. (Editor); Shavers, Mark R. (Editor); Saganti, Premkumar B. (Editor); Miller, Jack (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This publication describes recent investigations that evaluate radiation shielding characteristics of NASA's and the Russian Space Agency's space suits. The introduction describes the suits and presents goals of several experiments performed with them. The first chapter provides background information about the dynamic radiation environment experienced at ISS and summarized radiation health and protection requirements for activities in low Earth orbit. Supporting studies report the development and application of a computer model of the EMU space suit and the difficulty of shielding EVA crewmembers from high-energy reentrant electrons, a previously unevaluated component of the space radiation environment. Chapters 2 through 6 describe experiments that evaluate the space suits' radiation shielding characteristics. Chapter 7 describes a study of the potential radiological health impact on EVA crewmembers of two virtually unexamined environmental sources of high-energy electrons-reentrant trapped electrons and atmospheric albedo or "splash" electrons. The radiological consequences of those sources have not been evaluated previously and, under closer scrutiny. A detailed computational model of the shielding distribution provided by components of the NASA astronauts' EMU is being developed for exposure evaluation studies. The model is introduced in Chapters 8 and 9 and used in Chapter 10 to investigate how trapped particle anisotropy impacts female organ doses during EVA. Chapter 11 presents a review of issues related to estimating skin cancer risk form space radiation. The final chapter contains conclusions about the protective qualities of the suit brought to light form these studies, as well as recommendations for future operational radiation protection.

  10. Recent Activities on the Embrace Space Weather Regional Warning Center: the New Space Weather Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dal Lago, Alisson; Mendes, Odim; Batista, Inez S.; SantAnna, Nilson; Gatto, Rubens; Takahashi, Hisao; Costa, D. Joaquim; Banik Padua, Marcelo; Campos Velho, Haroldo

    2016-07-01

    On August 2007 the National Institute for Space Research started a task force to develop and operate a space weather program, which is known by the acronyms Embrace that stands for the Portuguese statement "Estudo e Monitoramento BRAasileiro de Clima Espacial" Program (Brazilian Space Weather Study and Monitoring program). The mission of the Embrace/INPE program is to monitor the Solar-Terrestrial environment, the magnetosphere, the upper atmosphere and the ground induced currents to prevent effects on technological and economic activities. The Embrace/INPE system monitors the physical parameters of the Sun-Earth environment, such as Active Regions (AR) in the Sun and solar radiation by using radio telescope, Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) information by satellite and ground-based cosmic ray monitoring, geomagnetic activity by the magnetometer network, and ionospheric disturbance by ionospheric sounders and using data collected by four GPS receiver network, geomagnetic activity by a magnetometer network, and provides a forecasting for Total Electronic Content (TEC) - 24 hours ahead - using a version of the SUPIM model which assimilates the two latter data using nudging approach. Most of these physical parameters are daily published on the Brazilian space weather program web portal, related to the entire network sensors available. Regarding outreach, it has being published a daily bulletin in Portuguese and English with the status of the space weather environment on the Sun, the Interplanetary Medium and close to the Earth. Since December 2011, all these activities are carried out at the Embrace Headquarter, a building located at the INPE's main campus. Recently, a comprehensive data bank and an interface layer are under commissioning to allow an easy and direct access to all the space weather data collected by Embrace through the Embrace web Portal. The information being released encompasses data from: (a) the Embrace Digisonde Network (Embrace DigiNet) that monitors

  11. Active Radiation Monitoring on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelfer, T.; Semones, E.; Johnson, S.; Zapp, N.; Weyland, M.; Riman, F.; Flanders, J.; Golightly, M.; Smith, G.

    The space radiation environment in and around the International Space Station (ISS) is currently being monitored by a variety of active and passive radiation measurement systems. There are currently three permanent NASA active radiation monitoring systems onboard the ISS. The first instrument is the ISS Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (ISS TEPC) that was activated November 9, 2000. The next instrument brought online was the Intra-Vehicular Charged Particle Directional Spectrometer (IV-CPDS) that was activated April 21, 2001. The last instrument to be activated was the Extra-Vehicular Charged Particle Directional Spectrometer (EV-CPDS) that was turned on April 26, 2002. These three instruments provide the Space Radiation Analysis Group at NASA/Johnson Space Center with real-time radiation environment data, as well as detailed science data that is downloaded on a regular basis. The real-time data is used primarily for flight operations support in the Mission Control Center - Houston. The detailed science data is currently used in support of crew radiation dosemetry efforts, to validate the radiation environment model at the ISS orbit, and to validate shield distribution and interaction models for the ISS. We plan to present data collected by the ISS TEPC, IV-CPDS, and EV-CPDS for the Expedition 3 (August 10, 2001 - December 17, 2001) and Expedition 4 (December 5, 2001 - June 11, 2002)) time periods. Our preliminary measurement results will be presented in terms of environment variables such as orbital altitude and space weather, and shielding variables such as location inside the ISS and orientation of the ISS complex. In addition, the measured radiation dose will be divided into contributions from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and trapped particles.

  12. Legal regime of human activities in outer space law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golda, Carlo

    1994-01-01

    Current developments in space activities increasingly involve the presence of humans on board spacecraft and, in the near future, on the Moon, on Mars, on board Space Stations, etc. With respect to these challenges, the political and legal issues connected to the status of astronauts are largely unclear and require a new doctrinal attention. In the same way, many legal and political questions remain open in the structure of future space crews: the need for international standards in the definition and training of astronauts, etc.; but, first of all, an international uniform legal definition of astronauts. Moreover, the legal structure for human life and operations in outer space can be a new and relevant paradigm for the definition of similar rules in all the situations and environments in which humans are involved in extreme frontiers. The present article starts from an overview on the existing legal and political definitions of 'astronauts', moving to the search of a more useful definition. This is followed by an analysis of the concrete problems created by human space activities, and the legal and political responses to them (the need for a code of conduct; the structure of the crew and the existing rules in the US and ex-USSR; the new legal theories on the argument; the definition and structure of a code of conduct; the next legal problems in fields such as privacy law, communications law, business law, criminal law, etc.).

  13. Securing Field Learning Using a Twenty-First Century Cook's Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Ian C.; France, Derek

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of incorporating digital video into a traditional Cook's Tour as part of a 7-day road trip around the east coast of New Zealand's North Island over a 4-year period. Student-generated video diaries summarized landscape features and processes at fieldsites, empowering students through active learning…

  14. Improving active space telescope wavefront control using predictive thermal modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersh-Range, Jessica; Perrin, Marshall D.

    2015-01-01

    Active control algorithms for space telescopes are less mature than those for large ground telescopes due to differences in the wavefront control problems. Active wavefront control for space telescopes at L2, such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), requires weighing control costs against the benefits of correcting wavefront perturbations that are a predictable byproduct of the observing schedule, which is known and determined in advance. To improve the control algorithms for these telescopes, we have developed a model that calculates the temperature and wavefront evolution during a hypothetical mission, assuming the dominant wavefront perturbations are due to changes in the spacecraft attitude with respect to the sun. Using this model, we show that the wavefront can be controlled passively by introducing scheduling constraints that limit the allowable attitudes for an observation based on the observation duration and the mean telescope temperature. We also describe the implementation of a predictive controller designed to prevent the wavefront error (WFE) from exceeding a desired threshold. This controller outperforms simpler algorithms even with substantial model error, achieving a lower WFE without requiring significantly more corrections. Consequently, predictive wavefront control based on known spacecraft attitude plans is a promising approach for JWST and other future active space observatories.

  15. Integrating Multiple Space Ground Sensors to Track Volcanic Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Davies, Ashley; Doubleday, Joshua; Tran, Daniel; Jones, Samuel; Kjartansson, Einar; Thorsteinsson, Hrobjartur; Vogfjord, Kristin; Guomundsson, Magnus; Thordarson, Thor; Mandl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic activity can occur with little or no warning. Increasing numbers of space borne assets can enable coordinated measurements of volcanic events to enhance both scientific study and hazard response. We describe the use of space and ground measurements to target further measurements as part of a worldwide volcano monitoring system. We utilize a number of alert systems including the MODVOLC, GOESVOLC, US Air Force Weather Advisory, and Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) alert systems. Additionally we use in-situ data from ground instrumentation at a number of volcanic sites, including Iceland.

  16. Benefits of advanced space suits for supporting routine extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alton, L. R.; Bauer, E. H.; Patrick, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Technology is available to produce space suits providing a quick-reaction, safe, much more mobile extravehicular activity (EVA) capability than before. Such a capability may be needed during the shuttle era because the great variety of missions and payloads complicates the development of totally automated methods of conducting operations and maintenance and resolving contingencies. Routine EVA now promises to become a cost-effective tool as less complex, serviceable, lower-cost payload designs utilizing this capability become feasible. Adoption of certain advanced space suit technologies is encouraged for reasons of economics as well as performance.

  17. Crew activity and motion effects on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochon, Brian V.; Scheer, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Among the significant sources of internal disturbances that must be considered in the design of space station vibration control systems are the loads induced on the structure from various crew activities. Flight experiment T013, flown on the second manned mission of Skylab, measured force and moment time histories for a range of preplanned crew motions and activities. This experiment has proved itself invaluable as a source of on-orbit crew induced loads that has allowed a space station forcing function data base to be built. This will enable forced response such as acceleration and deflections, attributable to crew activity, to be calculated. The flight experiment, resultant database and structural model pre-processor, analysis examples and areas of combined research shall be described.

  18. Attendees of a women's forum tour the OPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Attendees of a women's forum held at the Apollo/Saturn V Center, get a guided tour of the Orbiter Processing Facility and a closeup look at an orbiter overhead. The forum included a welcome by Center Director Roy Bridges, remarks by NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, and a panel discussion, 'Past, Present and Future of Space.' The attendees are planning to view the launch of STS- 93 at the Banana Creek viewing sight. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. Liftoff is scheduled for July 20 at 12:36 a.m. EDT.

  19. Attendees of a women's forum tour the OPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Attendees of a women's forum held at the Apollo/Saturn V Center, get a guided tour of the Orbiter Processing Facility. The forum included a welcome by Center Director Roy Bridges, remarks by NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, and a panel discussion, 'Past, Present and Future of Space.' The attendees are planning to view the launch of STS-93 at the Banana Creek viewing sight. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. Liftoff is scheduled for July 20 at 12:36 a.m. EDT.

  20. Space activities - A review and a look ahead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrani, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    The paper reviews the progress made in manned and unmanned space programs during the last 25 years and names several major accomplishments. The ingredients of success are identified as good engineering, good technology, and good management of a very complex enterprise. An argument is made that the pace of progress will be governed not by technological advances, which can be very rapid, but rather by future institutional arrangements, which are much slower to evolve. It is predicted that the most likely space activities for the next 20 years will be those relating to space commercialization, and several examples are cited. A hope is expressed that policy makers and entrepreneurs will match the spirit of adventure and risk-taking exhibited by engineers in exploring uncharted territory.

  1. Ohio Senator John Glenn tours the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility in Cape Canaveral

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Ohio Senator John Glenn, second from right, enjoys a tour of the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility in Cape Canaveral. Joining Senator Glenn are, left to right, Dr. Bernard Harris, SPACEHAB vice president, microgravity and life sciences; Dale Steffey, SPACEHAB vice president, operations; and Dr. Shelley Harrison, SPACEHAB chairman and chief executive officer. Senator Glenn arrived at KSC on Jan. 20 to tour KSC operational areas and to view the launch of STS-89 later this week. Glenn, who made history in 1962 as the first American to orbit the Earth, completing three orbits in a five-hour flight aboard Friendship 7, will fly his second space mission aboard Space Shuttle Discovery this October. Glenn is retiring from the Senate at the end of this year and will be a payload specialist aboard STS-95.

  2. Ohio Senator John Glenn tours the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility in Cape Canaveral

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Ohio Senator John Glenn, at left, enjoys a tour of the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility in Cape Canaveral. Joining Senator Glenn are, left to right, Dale Steffey, SPACEHAB vice president, operations; Dr. Shelley Harrison, SPACEHAB chairman and chief executive officer; and Dr. Bernard Harris, SPACEHAB vice president, microgravity and life sciences. Senator Glenn arrived at KSC on Jan. 20 to tour KSC operational areas and to view the launch of STS-89 later this week. Glenn, who made history in 1962 as the first American to orbit the Earth, completing three orbits in a five-hour flight aboard Friendship 7, will fly his second space mission aboard Space Shuttle Discovery this October. Glenn is retiring from the Senate at the end of this year and will be a payload specialist aboard STS-95.

  3. Ohio Senator John Glenn tours the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility in Cape Canaveral

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Ohio Senator John Glenn, second from left, enjoys a tour of the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility in Cape Canaveral. Joining Senator Glenn are, left to right, Dale Steffey, SPACEHAB vice president, operations; Dr. Shelley Harrison, SPACEHAB chairman and chief executive officer; and Dr. Bernard Harris, SPACEHAB vice president, microgravity and life sciences. Senator Glenn arrived at KSC on Jan. 20 to tour KSC operational areas and to view the launch of STS-89 later this week. Glenn, who made history in 1962 as the first American to orbit the Earth, completing three orbits in a five-hour flight aboard Friendship 7, will fly his second space mission aboard Space Shuttle Discovery this October. Glenn is retiring from the Senate at the end of this year and will be a payload specialist aboard STS-95.

  4. Overview of Advanced Space Propulsion Activities in the Space Environmental Effects Team at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David; Carruth, Ralph; Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd; Kamenetzky, Rachel; Gray, Perry

    2000-01-01

    Exploration of our solar system, and beyond, requires spacecraft velocities beyond our current technological level. Technologies addressing this limitation are numerous. The Space Environmental Effects (SEE) Team at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is focused on three discipline areas of advanced propulsion; Tethers, Beamed Energy, and Plasma. This presentation will give an overview of advanced propulsion related activities in the Space Environmental Effects Team at MSFC. Advancements in the application of tethers for spacecraft propulsion were made while developing the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS). New tether materials were developed to meet the specifications of the ProSEDS mission and new techniques had to be developed to test and characterize these tethers. Plasma contactors were developed, tested and modified to meet new requirements. Follow-on activities in tether propulsion include the Air-SEDS activity. Beamed energy activities initiated with an experimental investigation to quantify the momentum transfer subsequent to high power, 5J, ablative laser interaction with materials. The next step with this experimental investigation is to quantify non-ablative photon momentum transfer. This step was started last year and will be used to characterize the efficiency of solar sail materials before and after exposure to Space Environmental Effects (SEE). Our focus with plasma, for propulsion, concentrates on optimizing energy deposition into a magnetically confined plasma and integration of measurement techniques for determining plasma parameters. Plasma confinement is accomplished with the Marshall Magnetic Mirror (M3) device. Initial energy coupling experiments will consist of injecting a 50 amp electron beam into a target plasma. Measurements of plasma temperature and density will be used to determine the effect of changes in magnetic field structure, beam current, and gas species. Experimental observations will be compared to

  5. Legal considerations and cooperative opportunities for space commercial activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1984-01-01

    It is a national policy to make the capabilities of the Space Transportation System available to a wide range of potential users. This includes its availability as a space manufacturing facility for commercial activities, which may be carried out on a reimbursable basis or as a joint endeavor with NASA, but with substantial private investment. In any high risk, long lead-time research and development activity directed towards commercialization, the protection afforded the results of the research and development under the laws relating to intellectual property rights may provide an important incentive for private investment. The policies and practices of NASA directed towards the protection of privately-established intellectual property rights involved in STS use are reviewed with particular emphasis on reimbursable launch agreements and joint endeavor agreements.

  6. Space station group activities habitability module study: A synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David; Glassman, Terry

    1987-01-01

    Space station habitability was studied by investigating crew activity routines, proximities, ergonomic envelopes, and group volumes. Ten alternative schematic interior designs were proposed. Preliminary conclusions include: (1) in-service interior modifications may be necessary and should be planned for; (2) design complexity will be increased if the module cluster is reduced from five to three; (3) the increased crew circulation attendant upon enhancement of space station activity may produce human traffic bottlenecks and should be planned for; (4) a single- or two-person quiet area may be desirable to provide crew members with needed solitude during waking hours; and (5) the decision to choose a two-shift or three-shift daily cycle will have a significant impact on the design configuration and operational efficiency of the human habitat.

  7. Close-spaced thermionic converters with active spacing control and heat-pipe isothermal emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, G.O.; Koester, J.K.; Chang, J.; Britt, E.J.; McVey, J.B.

    1996-12-31

    Thermionic converters with interelectrode gaps smaller than 10 microns are capable of substantial performance improvements over conventional ignited mode diodes. Previous devices which have demonstrated operation at such small gaps have done so at low power densities and emitter temperatures. Higher power operation requires overcoming two primary design issues: thermal distortion of the emitter due to temperature gradients and degradation of the in-gap spacers at higher emitter temperatures. This work describes two innovations for solution of these issues. The issue of thermal distortion was addressed by an isothermal emitter incorporating a heat-pipe into its structure. Such a heat-pipe emitter, with a single-crystal emitting surface, was fabricated and characterized. Finite-element computational modeling was used to analyze its distortion with an applied heat flux. The calculations suggested that thermal distortion would be significantly reduced as compared with a solid emitter. Ongoing work and preliminary experimental results are described for a system of active interelectrode gap control. In the present design an integral transducer determines the interelectrode gap of the converter. Initial designs for spacing actuators and their required cesium vapor seals are discussed. A novel hot-shell converter design incorporating active spacing control and low-temperature seals is presented. A converter incorporating the above features would be capable of near ideal-converter performance at high power densities. In addition, active spacing control can potentially completely eliminate short-circuit failures in thermionic converter systems.

  8. The Brain in Space: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Neuroscience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLeish, Marlene Y.; McLean, Bernice R.

    This educators guide discusses the brain and contains activities on neuroscience. Activities include: (1) "The Space Life Sciences"; (2) "Space Neuroscience: A Special Area within the Space Life Sciences"; (3) "Space Life Sciences Research"; (4) "Neurolab: A Special Space Mission to Study the Nervous System"; (5) "The Nervous System"; (6)…

  9. Corrosion Activities at the NASA Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidersbach, Robert H.

    2002-01-01

    This report documents summer faculty fellow efforts in the corrosion test bed at the NASA Kennedy Space Center. During the summer of 2002 efforts were concentrated on three activities: a short course on corrosion control for KSC personnel, evaluation of commercial wash additives used for corrosion control on Army aircraft, and improvements in the testing of a new cathodic protection system under development at KSC.

  10. Active vibration control techniques for flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Jayasuriya, Suhada

    1990-01-01

    Two proposed control system design techniques for active vibration control in flexible space structures are detailed. Control issues relevant only to flexible-body dynamics are addressed, whereas no attempt was made to integrate the flexible and rigid-body spacecraft dynamics. Both of the proposed approaches revealed encouraging results; however, further investigation of the interaction of the flexible and rigid-body dynamics is warranted.

  11. Using experienced activity spaces to measure foodscape exposure.

    PubMed

    Kestens, Yan; Lebel, Alexandre; Daniel, Mark; Thériault, Marius; Pampalon, Robert

    2010-11-01

    Researchers are increasingly interested in understanding how food environments influence eating behavior and weight-related health outcomes. Little is known about the dose-response relationship between foodscapes and behavior or weight, with measures of food exposure having mainly focused on fixed anchor points including residential neighborhoods, schools, or workplaces. Recent calls have been made to extend the consideration of environmental influences beyond local neighborhoods and also to shift away from place-based, to people-based, measures of exposure. This report presents analyses of novel activity-space measures of exposure to foodscapes, combining travel survey data with food store locations in Montreal and Quebec City, Canada. The resulting individual activity-space experienced foodscape exposure measures differ from traditional residential-based measures, and show variations by age and income levels. Furthermore, these activity-space exposure measures once modeled, can be used as predictors of health outcomes. Hence, travel surveys can be used to estimate environmental exposure for health survey participants.

  12. NASA Stennis Space Center Test Technology Branch Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solano, Wanda M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides a short history of NASA Stennis Space Center's Test Technology Laboratory and briefly describes the variety of engine test technology activities and developmental project initiatives. Theoretical rocket exhaust plume modeling, acoustic monitoring and analysis, hand held fire imaging, heat flux radiometry, thermal imaging and exhaust plume spectroscopy are all examples of current and past test activities that are briefly described. In addition, recent efforts and visions focused on accomodating second, third, and fourth generation flight vehicle engine test requirements are discussed.

  13. Chickamauga National Military Park Tour Roads, Gordon's Slough Bridge, At ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chickamauga National Military Park Tour Roads, Gordon's Slough Bridge, At the confluence of Alexander's Bridge Road and Gordon's Slough, southeast of Alexander's Bridge, Fort Oglethorpe, Catoosa County, GA

  14. A hybrid systems strategy for automated spacecraft tour design and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Jeffrey R.

    As the number of operational spacecraft increases, autonomous operations is rapidly evolving into a critical necessity. Additionally, the capability to rapidly generate baseline trajectories greatly expands the range of options available to analysts as they explore the design space to meet mission demands. Thus, a general strategy is developed, one that is suitable for the construction of flight plans for both Earth-based and interplanetary spacecraft that encounter multiple objects, where these multiple encounters comprise a ``tour''. The proposed scheme is flexible in implementation and can readily be adjusted to a variety of mission architectures. Heuristic algorithms that autonomously generate baseline tour trajectories and, when appropriate, adjust reference solutions in the presence of rapidly changing environments are investigated. Furthermore, relative priorities for ranking the targets are explicitly accommodated during the construction of potential tour sequences. As a consequence, a priori, as well as newly acquired, knowledge concerning the target objects enhances the potential value of the ultimate encounter sequences. A variety of transfer options are incorporated, from rendezvous arcs enabled by low-thrust engines to more conventional impulsive orbit adjustments via chemical propulsion technologies. When advantageous, trajectories are optimized in terms of propellant consumption via a combination of indirect and direct methods; such a combination of available technologies is an example of hybrid optimization. Additionally, elements of hybrid systems theory, i.e., the blending of dynamical states, some discrete and some continuous, are integrated into the high-level tour generation scheme. For a preliminary investigation, this strategy is applied to mission design scenarios for a Sun-Jupiter Trojan asteroid tour as well as orbital debris removal for near-Earth applications.

  15. The LATT way towards large active primaries for space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briguglio, Runa; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Xompero, Marco; Lisi, Franco; Riccardi, Armando; Biasi, Roberto; Patauner, Christian; Gallieni, Daniele; Lazzarini, Paolo; Tintori, Matteo; d'Amato, Francesco; Pucci, Mauro; Duò, Fabrizio; Vettore, Christian; Zuccaro Marchi, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    The Large Aperture Telescope Technology (LATT) goes beyond the current paradigm of future space telescopes, based on a deformable mirror in the pupil relay. Through the LATT project we demonstrated the concept of a low-weight active primary mirror, whose working principle and control strategy benefit from two decades of advances in adaptive optics for ground-based telescopes. We developed a forty centimeter spherical mirror prototype, with an areal density lower than 17 kg/m2, controlled through contactless voice coil actuators with co-located capacitive position sensors. The prototype was subjected to thermo-vacuum, vibration and optical tests, to push its technical readiness toward level 5. In this paper we present the background and the outcomes of the LATT activities under ESA contract (TRP programme), exploring the concept of a lightweight active primary mirror for space telescopes. Active primaries will open the way to very large segmented apertures, actively shaped, which can be lightweight, deployable and accurately phased once in flight.

  16. A New Active Space Radiation Instruments for the International Space Station, A-DREAMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchihori, Yukio; Kodaira, Satoshi; Kitamura, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Shingo

    For future space experiments in the International Space Station (ISS) or other satellites, radiation detectors, A-DREAMS (Active Dosimeter for Radiation Environment and Astronautic Monitoring in Space), using single or multiple silicon semi-conductor detectors have been developed. The first version of the detectors were produced and calibrated with particle accelerators. National Institute of Radiological Sciences has a medical heavy ion accelerator (HIMAC) for cancer therapy and a cyclotron accelerator. The detector was irradiated with high energy heavy ions and protons in HIMAC and the cyclotron and calibrated the energy resolution and linearity for deposited energies of these particles. We are planned to be going to use the new instrument in an international project, the new MATROSHKA experiment which is directed by members in the Institute of Bio-Medical Problem (IBMP) in Russia and German Space Center (DLR) in Germany. In the project, the dose distribution in human torso phantom will be investigated for several months in the ISS. For the project, a new type of the instruments is under development in NIRS and the current situation will be reported in this paper.

  17. Understanding human activity patterns based on space-time-semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Li, Songnian

    2016-11-01

    Understanding human activity patterns plays a key role in various applications in an urban environment, such as transportation planning and traffic forecasting, urban planning, public health and safety, and emergency response. Most existing studies in modeling human activity patterns mainly focus on spatiotemporal dimensions, which lacks consideration of underlying semantic context. In fact, what people do and discuss at some places, inferring what is happening at the places, cannot be simple neglected because it is the root of human mobility patterns. We believe that the geo-tagged semantic context, representing what individuals do and discuss at a place and a specific time, drives a formation of specific human activity pattern. In this paper, we aim to model human activity patterns not only based on space and time but also with consideration of associated semantics, and attempt to prove a hypothesis that similar mobility patterns may have different motivations. We develop a spatiotemporal-semantic model to quantitatively express human activity patterns based on topic models, leading to an analysis of space, time and semantics. A case study is conducted using Twitter data in Toronto based on our model. Through computing the similarities between users in terms of spatiotemporal pattern, semantic pattern and spatiotemporal-semantic pattern, we find that only a small number of users (2.72%) have very similar activity patterns, while the majority (87.14%) show different activity patterns (i.e., similar spatiotemporal patterns and different semantic patterns, similar semantic patterns and different spatiotemporal patterns, or different in both). The population of users that has very similar activity patterns is decreased by 56.41% after incorporating semantic information in the corresponding spatiotemporal patterns, which can quantitatively prove the hypothesis.

  18. NASA Aerosciences Activities to Support Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBeau, Gerald J.

    2011-01-01

    The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has been a critical element of the United State's human space flight program for over 50 years. It is the home to NASA s Mission Control Center, the astronaut corps, and many major programs and projects including the Space Shuttle Program, International Space Station Program, and the Orion Project. As part of JSC's Engineering Directorate, the Applied Aeroscience and Computational Fluid Dynamics Branch is charted to provide aerosciences support to all human spacecraft designs and missions for all phases of flight, including ascent, exo-atmospheric, and entry. The presentation will review past and current aeroscience applications and how NASA works to apply a balanced philosophy that leverages ground testing, computational modeling and simulation, and flight testing, to develop and validate related products. The speaker will address associated aspects of aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, rarefied gas dynamics, and decelerator systems, involving both spacecraft vehicle design and analysis, and operational mission support. From these examples some of NASA leading aerosciences challenges will be identified. These challenges will be used to provide foundational motivation for the development of specific advanced modeling and simulation capabilities, and will also be used to highlight how development activities are increasing becoming more aligned with flight projects. NASA s efforts to apply principles of innovation and inclusion towards improving its ability to support the myriad of vehicle design and operational challenges will also be briefly reviewed.

  19. Carbon Nanotube Activities at NASA-Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arepalli, Sivaram

    2006-01-01

    Research activities on carbon nanotubes at NASA-Johnson Space Center include production, purification, characterization and their applications for human space flight. In-situ diagnostics during nanotube production by laser oven process include collection of spatial and temporal data of passive emission and laser induced fluorescence from C2, C3 and Nickel atoms in the plume. Details of the results from the "parametric study" of the pulsed laser ablation process indicate the effect of production parameters including temperature, buffer gas, flow rate, pressure, and laser fluence. Improvement of the purity by a variety of steps in the purification process is monitored by characterization techniques including SEM, TEM, Raman, UV-VIS-NIR and TGA. A recently established NASA-JSC protocol for SWCNT characterization is undergoing revision with feedback from nanotube community. Efforts at JSC over the past five years in composites have centered on structural polymednanotube systems. Recent activities broadened this focus to multifunctional materials, supercapacitors, fuel cells, regenerable CO2 absorbers, electromagnetic shielding, radiation dosimetry and thermal management systems of interest for human space flight. Preliminary tests indicate improvement of performance in most of these applications because of the large surface area as well as high electrical and thermal conductivity exhibited by SWCNTs.

  20. Stellar Imager (SI) Space Mission: Stellar Magnetic Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. G.

    2006-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a UV-Optical, Space-Based interferometer designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and stellar interiors (via asteroseismology) and of the Universe in general. SI is identified as a "Flagship and Landmark Discovery Mission" in the 2005 Sun Solar System Connection (SSSC) Roadmap and as a candidate for a "Pathways to Life Observatory" in the Exploration of the Universe Division (EUD) Roadmap (May, 2005). The ultra-sharp images of the Stellar Imager will revolutionize our view of many dynamic astrophysical processes: The 0.1 mas resolution of this deep-space telescope will transform point sources into extended sources, and snapshots into evolving views. SI'S science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe, particularly on magnetic activity on the surfaces of stars like the Sun. SI'S prime goal is to enable long-term forecasting of solar activity and the space weather that it drives in support of the Living With a Star program in the Exploration Era. SI will also revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. In this paper we will discuss the science goals of the SI Mission and a mission architecture that could meet those goals.

  1. Did Georges de la Tour use optical projections while painting Christ in the Carpenter"s Studio?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stork, David G.

    2005-03-01

    Recently it has been theorized that some painters as early as 1420 used concave mirrors (and, later, converging lenses) to project real inverted images onto their supports which they then traced and painted over. We consider a specific painting adduced as evidence for this bold theory, the Lorainnese Baroque master Georges de la Tour"s Christ in the carpenter"s studio (1645). We perform analyses of the reflections and shadows -- "cast" shadows and "form" shadows -- to infer the source(s) of illumination. We find compelling evidence that this source is the candle flame depicted within the painting and held by Christ. We find it implausible that the source is direct solar illumination, which has the intensity demanded by the projection theory, or artificial illumination as hypothesized by theory proponents. Similar analyses of several other paintings by de la Tour uniformly support the conclusion that the illumination is small and artificial within the space of the tableau (i.e., a candle), not extremely powerful illumination from outside the tableau. We created a very simple computer graphics model to test and illustrate part of our conclusions. Our research is the first application of technical shadow analysis to the question whether artists as early as the 15th century used optical projections when painting. Careful reading of the historical record of de la Tour"s working methods supports our technical results and extend the growing image analytic methods and historical sources rebutting the theory.

  2. European Space Agency detector development for space science: present and future activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvet, L.; Bavdaz, M.; Crouzet, P. E.; Nelms, N.; Nowicki-Bringuier, Y. R.; Shortt, B.; Verhoeve, P.

    2014-07-01

    We report on the present and future detector development activities for the European Space Agency Science Programme. The development of European technology in that field is a key mission enabler for the program, which requires TRL6 (ISO scale) by end of the definition phase, so called "mission adoption". This is particularly true for Astronomy and fundamental physics type missions. Current activities are in particular targeting large format and p-channel CCD, NIR and MWIR, LWIR wavelength ranges as well as related ASIC controller. For the longer term future mission plan (so called M4, M5 and L2 missions, M3 being PLATO and L1 JUICE), the extreme ends of the spectrum will be addressed. An overview of the detector status for the Earth Observation program is given in appendix, as most of the technologies are directly applicable to some extent to science missions, in particular for Planetary missions. The specific validation activities in place in the future mission preparation office in support to the space science program will be eventually briefly detailed.

  3. Saudi payload specialists during tour of center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud and Abdulmohsen Hamad Al-Bassan, payload specialists from Saudi Arabia, are briefed in one of the mission control center support rooms by Kathleen V. Cannon (facing camera), payloads officer. Looking on is Erlinda Stevenson, secretary in the payload specialist coordination office (29713); Visitors tour the payload operations control center (POCC) in the mission control center during a Spacelab 3 simulation (29714); Visitors pose for picture in one of the Mission Control Center support rooms (29715); Visitors briefed by Kathleen V. Cannon (right) in one of the Mission Control Center support rooms. Erlinda Stevenson is also pictured (29716).

  4. Spacing of Rocky Mountain foreland arches and Laramide magmatic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, C.J.; Evans, J.P.; Fletcher, R.C.; Spang, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    First-order Late Cretaceous and Paleocene folds in the Rocky Mountain foreland have a spacing (S) ranging from 45 to 300 km. Spacing of folds and major mountain flank thrusts was controlled in part by the depth of the brittle-ductile transition (BDT). Analysis of folding of a brittle layer of thickness H above a ductile substrate suggests S/H approx. = 4-6. Experimental data indicate that the BDT in quartz rich rock occurs at 300/sup 0/ +/- 50/sup 0/C and therefore its depth depends on geothermal gradient. Regions with high Laramide geothermal gradients should have had a shallower depth to the BDT and a shorter spacing of first-order folds than regions with low gradients. A regional compilation for the Montana and Wyoming foreland shows a correlation between the value of S and syntectonic magmatic activity. The mean S value for southwestern Montana, where Late Cretaceous and Paleocene magmatic activity was widespread, is 65 km. This value of S indicates a relatively shallow (11-16 km) depth of the BDT and suggests a relatively high (16-32/sup 0/C/km) Laramide geothermal gradient. The mean S value for the Wyoming foreland, where no syntectonic magmatic activity is indicated, is 150 km. Measurements of S may allow some predictions of depth to rheologically-controlled mid-crustal decoupling zones. They may also indicate areas where the depth to the BDT was not a major control on S. Structures with S < 40 km correspond to inadmissably shallow BDT zones and were probably controlled by other factors such as preexisting fault zones or basement lithology.

  5. A precision, thermally-activated driver for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Robert C.; Walsh, Robert F.; Kinard, William H.

    1986-01-01

    A space qualified, precision, large force, thermally-activated driver that has been developed jointly by the NASA Langley Research Center and PRC Kentron is described. The driver consists of a sealed hydraulic cylinder containing a metal bellows, a bellows plug, a coil spring, a spring retainer, and output shaft, a shaft guide, and a quantity of silicone oil. Temperature changes cause the silicone oil to expand or contract thus contracting or expanding the bellows/spring assembly thereby extending or retracting the output shaft.

  6. Space Power Amplification with Active Linearly Tapered Slot Antenna Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1993-01-01

    A space power amplifier composed of active linearly tapered slot antennas (LTSA's) has been demonstrated and shown to have a gain of 30 dB at 20 GHz. In each of the antenna elements, a GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) three-stage power amplifier is integrated with two LTSA's. The LTSA and the MMIC power amplifier has a gain of 11 dB and power added efficiency of 14 percent respectively. The design is suitable for constructing a large array using monolithic integration techniques.

  7. Optimum mix of passive and active control of space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Lynn; Richards, Ken

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this research was to test vibration suppression (settling time and jitter) of a large space structure (LSS) characterized by low frequency high global vibration modes. Five percent passive damping in a large truss was analyzed, tested and correlated. A representative system article re-target analysis shows that modest levels of passive damping dramatically reduce the control energy required. LSS must incorporate passive damping from the outset. The LSS system performance will not be met by either active or passive damping alone.

  8. Factors Affecting Healthful Eating Among Touring Popular Musicians and Singers.

    PubMed

    Cizek, Erin; Kelly, Patrick; Kress, Kathleen; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred

    2016-06-01

    Maintaining good health is essential for touring musicians and singers. The stressful demands of touring may impact food choices, leading to detrimental effects on health and performance. This exploratory pilot study aimed to assess factors affecting healthful eating of touring musicians and singers. A 46-item survey was used to assess food- and nutrition-related attitudes, knowledge and behaviors, and environmental factors, as well as lifestyle, musical background, and demographic data. Participants (n=35) were recruited from a musicians' assistance foundation as well as touring musical theater productions and a music festival. Results indicate that touring musicians and singers had positive attitudes regarding healthful foods. Of 35 respondents, 80.0% indicated eating healthful food was important to them. Respondents reported feeling confident selecting (76.5%) and preparing (82.4%) healthful foods; however, they showed uncertainty when determining if carbohydrate-containing foods should be consumed or avoided. Respondents indicated environmental factors including availability and cost of healthy food options and tour schedules limited access to healthful foods. Venues (73.5%), fast food restaurants (67.6%), and airports (64.7%) were the most frequently identified locations in need of offering more healthful food choices. Respondents (52.9%) indicated more support from others while touring would help them make healthier food choices. More research is needed to develop mobile wellness programs as well as performance-based nutrition guidelines for musicians and singers that address the unique demands associated with touring.

  9. A Reflective Learning Taxonomy for an Educational Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Samuel Kin Tak; Ho, Kwok Keung

    2012-01-01

    This study is to investigate the reflective learning in a group of secondary school students who participated in an educational tour to Liannan, which is located in a rural area in Guangdong Province, Mainland China. The specific aim is to develop a framework to describe the learning in an educational tour. For this purpose, data were collected…

  10. Factors Affecting Healthful Eating Among Touring Popular Musicians and Singers.

    PubMed

    Cizek, Erin; Kelly, Patrick; Kress, Kathleen; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred

    2016-06-01

    Maintaining good health is essential for touring musicians and singers. The stressful demands of touring may impact food choices, leading to detrimental effects on health and performance. This exploratory pilot study aimed to assess factors affecting healthful eating of touring musicians and singers. A 46-item survey was used to assess food- and nutrition-related attitudes, knowledge and behaviors, and environmental factors, as well as lifestyle, musical background, and demographic data. Participants (n=35) were recruited from a musicians' assistance foundation as well as touring musical theater productions and a music festival. Results indicate that touring musicians and singers had positive attitudes regarding healthful foods. Of 35 respondents, 80.0% indicated eating healthful food was important to them. Respondents reported feeling confident selecting (76.5%) and preparing (82.4%) healthful foods; however, they showed uncertainty when determining if carbohydrate-containing foods should be consumed or avoided. Respondents indicated environmental factors including availability and cost of healthy food options and tour schedules limited access to healthful foods. Venues (73.5%), fast food restaurants (67.6%), and airports (64.7%) were the most frequently identified locations in need of offering more healthful food choices. Respondents (52.9%) indicated more support from others while touring would help them make healthier food choices. More research is needed to develop mobile wellness programs as well as performance-based nutrition guidelines for musicians and singers that address the unique demands associated with touring. PMID:27281376

  11. Study Tours and the Diversification of Cultural Capital Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slotkin, Michael H.; Vamosi, Alexander R.; Perez, Enrique M.; Durie, Christopher J.; Eisenberg, Jarin R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide evidence on the role study tours play in expanding student cultural capital via increased confidence in international travel. Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, survey data from individuals who participated in a study tour experience offered by a Florida-based university are analyzed for the assessment…

  12. Battlefield Tours and Staff Rides: A Useful Learning Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Nick

    2009-01-01

    A key component of current British military education is the battlefield tour and staff ride. These tours allow students to visit the location of military events, most commonly the battlefields of the First and Second World Wars in northern Europe, to facilitate their understanding of military history and draw contemporary parallels from the…

  13. 14 CFR 93.319 - Commercial air tour limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.319 Commercial air tour limitations. (a) Unless excepted... 119 for part 121 or 135 operations may conduct more commercial air tours in the Grand Canyon National... conformance with the routes and airspace authorizations as specified in its Grand Canyon National Park...

  14. 14 CFR 93.319 - Commercial air tour limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.319 Commercial air tour limitations. (a) Unless excepted... 119 for part 121 or 135 operations may conduct more commercial air tours in the Grand Canyon National... conformance with the routes and airspace authorizations as specified in its Grand Canyon National Park...

  15. 14 CFR 93.319 - Commercial air tour limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.319 Commercial air tour limitations. (a) Unless excepted... 119 for part 121 or 135 operations may conduct more commercial air tours in the Grand Canyon National... conformance with the routes and airspace authorizations as specified in its Grand Canyon National Park...

  16. Students as Tour Guides: Innovation in Fieldwork Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Neil M.; Smyth, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces and details an innovative mode of fieldcourse assessment in which students take on the role of tour guides to offer their lecturer and peers a themed, theoretically informed journey through the urban landscape of Havana, Cuba. Informed by notions of student-centered learning and mobile methods, the tour offers an enjoyable,…

  17. Passive and active optical fibers for space and terrestrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Mansoor; Abramczyk, Jaroslaw; Farroni, Julia; Manyam, Upendra; Guertin, Douglas

    2006-08-01

    Being the new frontier of science and technology, as the near earth space begins to attract attention, low cost and rapidly deployable earth observation satellites are becoming more important. Among other things these satellites are expected to carry out missions in the general areas of science and technology, remote sensing, national defense and telecommunications. Except for critical missions, constraints of time and money practically mandate the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components as the only viable option. The near earth space environment (~50-50000 miles) is relatively hostile and among other things components/devices/systems are exposed to ionizing radiation. Photonic devices/systems are and will continue to be an integral part of satellites and their payloads. The ability of such devices/systems to withstand ionizing radiation is of extreme importance. Qualification of such devices/systems is time consuming and very expensive. As a result, manufacturers of satellites and their payloads have started to ask for radiation performance data on components from the individual vendors. As an independent manufacturer of both passive and active specialty silica optical fibers, Nufern is beginning to address this issue. Over the years, Nufern has developed fiber designs, compositions and processes to make radiation hard fibers. Radiation performance data (both gamma and proton) of a variety of singlemode (SM), multimode (MM), polarization maintaining (PM) and rare-earth doped (RED) fibers that find applications in space environment are presented.

  18. Searching the Future for the Legal Regime of Space Activities: the Need for Unification of National Space Legislation' Provisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negoda, S. A.

    2002-01-01

    space activities. For the future legal regime of space activities it is vital to preserve the existed principles and main provisions of the international space law. related legislations are developing rapidly. They become serious instrument for legal regulation of space activities. those projects with a foreign party involvement. Quite often partners in international space projects agree to choice a domestic law of one of them. They do this for defining a certain organizational and/or contractual issue (disputes settlement, for example) of the project. that such practice will spread widely. could help to preserve the existed important provisions of international space law (responsibility of states for their national activities, for instance). development of international space private law. We believe that solely special laws and regulations of national legislations could not regulate modern space activities. Being more and more commercial, space activities are becoming a real part of "downed to Earth" commercial activities. Therefore, in many countries provisions of civil, commercial, investment and other branches of national law are applied to such activities. which could low possible risks of such activities and to control them. Such unification seems to be suitable in the following fields: 1)implementation of provisions of international space law in national space laws; 2)definition of unified terminology, accepted by national laws of all parties; 3)unification in national legislations of a certain standards (insurance rates and rules, for instance); 4)unification in national laws of issues related to liability (for instance, a mutual wave of liability in certain types of 5)implementation in national laws of unified rules and procedures of space-related commercial disputes settlement; 6)unification of mechanisms for protection of space-related intellectual property. unification of their provisions. Special attention is paid to provisions of private law

  19. Space Suit CO2 Washout During Intravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustine, Phillip M.; Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Sargusingh, Miriam M.

    2010-01-01

    Space suit carbon dioxide (CO2) washout refers to the removal of CO2 gas from the oral-nasal area of a suited astronaut's (or crewmember's) helmet using the suit's ventilation system. Inadequate washout of gases can result in diminished mental/cognitive abilities as well as headaches and light headedness. In addition to general discomfort, these ailments can impair an astronaut s ability to perform mission-critical tasks ranging from flying the space vehicle to performing lunar extravehicular activities (EVAs). During design development for NASA s Constellation Program (CxP), conflicting requirements arose between the volume of air flow that the new Orion manned space vehicle is allocated to provide to the suited crewmember and the amount of air required to achieve CO2 washout in a space suit. Historically, space suits receive 6.0 actual cubic feet per minute (acfm) of air flow, which has adequately washed out CO2 for EVAs. For CxP, the Orion vehicle will provide 4.5 acfm of air flow to the suit. A group of subject matter experts (SM Es) among the EVA Systems community came to an early consensus that 4.5 acfm may be acceptable for low metabolic rate activities. However, this value appears very risky for high metabolic rates, hence the need for further analysis and testing. An analysis was performed to validate the 4.5 acfm value and to determine if adequate CO2 washout can be achieved with the new suit helmet design concepts. The analysis included computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling cases, which modeled the air flow and breathing characteristics of a human wearing suit helmets. Helmet testing was performed at the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to provide a gross-level validation of the CFD models. Although there was not a direct data correlation between the helmet testing and the CFD modeling, the testing data showed trends that are very similar to the CFD modeling. Overall, the analysis yielded

  20. Robot free-flyers in space extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigl, Harald J.; Alexander, Harold L.

    1992-11-01

    The Laboratory for Space Teleoperation and Robotics is developing a neutrally buoyant robot for research into the automatic and teleoperated (remote human) control of unmanned robotic vehicles for use in space. The goal of this project is to develop a remote robot with maneuverability and dexterity comparable to that of a space-suited astronaut with a manned maneuvering unit, able to assume many of the tasks currently planned for astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA). Such a robot would be able to spare the great expense and hazards associated with human EVA, and make possible much less expensive scientific and industrialization exploitation of orbit. Both autonomous and teleoperated control experiments will require the vehicle to be able to automatically control its position and orientation. The laboratory has developed a real-time vision-based navigation and control system for its underwater space robot simulator, the Submersible for Telerobotic and Astronautical Research (STAR). The system, implemented with standard, inexpensive computer hardware, has excellent performance and robustness characteristics for a variety of applications, including automatic station-keeping and large controlled maneuvers. Experimental results are presented indicating the precision, accuracy, and robustness to disturbances of the vision-based control system. The study proves the feasibility of using vision-based control and navigation for remote robots and provides a foundation for developing a system for general space robot tasks. The complex vision sensing problem is reduced through linearization to a simple algorithm, fast enough to be incorporated into a real-time vehicle control system. Vision sensing is structured to detect small changes in vehicle position and orientation from a nominal positional state relative to a target scene. The system uses a constant, linear inversion matrix to measure the vehicle positional state from the locations of navigation features in an

  1. HANFORDS PUBLIC TOUR PROGRAM - AN EXCELLENT EDUCATIONAL TOOL

    SciTech Connect

    SINCLAIR KM

    2010-12-07

    Prior to 2001, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored limited tours of the Hanford Site for the public, but discontinued the program after the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the U.S. In 2003, DOE's Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) requested the site's prime contractor to reinstate the public tour program starting in 2004 under strict controls and security requirements. The planning involved a collaborative effort among the security, safety and communications departments of DOE-RL and the site's contracting companies. This paper describes the evolution of, and enhancements to, Hanford's public tours, including the addition of a separate tour program for the B Reactor, the first full-scale nuclear reactor in the world. Topics included in the discussion include the history and growth of the tour program, associated costs, and visitor surveys and assessments.

  2. Automating the Generation of the Cassini Tour Atlas Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grazier, Kevin R.; Roumeliotis, Chris; Lange, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    The Tour Atlas is a large database of geometrical tables, plots, and graphics used by Cassini science planning engineers and scientists primarily for science observation planning. Over time, as the contents of the Tour Atlas grew, the amount of time it took to recreate the Tour Atlas similarly grew--to the point that it took one person a week of effort. When Cassini tour designers estimated that they were going to create approximately 30 candidate Extended Mission trajectories--which needed to be analyzed for science return in a short amount of time--it became a necessity to automate. We report on the automation methodology that reduced the amount of time it took one person to (re)generate a Tour Atlas from a week to, literally, one UNIX command.

  3. Plasma Hazards and Acceptance for International Space Station Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Extravehicular activity(EVA) is accepted by NASA and other space faring agencies as a necessary risk in order to build and maintain a safe and efficient laboratory in space. EVAs are used for standard construction and as contingency operations to repair critical equipment for vehicle sustainability and safety of the entire crew in the habitable volume. There are many hazards that are assessed for even the most mundane EVA for astronauts, and the vast majority of these are adequately controlled per the rules of the International Space Station Program. The need for EVA repair and construction has driven acceptance of a possible catastrophic hazard to the EVA crewmember which cannot currently be controlled adequately. That hazard is electrical shock from the very environment in which they work. This paper describes the environment, causes and contributors to the shock of EVA crewmembers attributed to the ionospheric plasma environment in low Earth orbit. It will detail the hazard history, and acceptance process for the risk associated with these hazards that give assurance to a safe EVA. In addition to the hazard acceptance process this paper will explore other factors that go into the decision to accept a risk including criticality of task, hardware design and capability, and the probability of hazard occurrence. Also included will be the required interaction between organizations at NASA(EVA Office, Environments, Engineering, Mission Operations, Safety) in order to build and eventually gain adequate acceptance rationale for a hazard of this kind. During the course of the discussion, all current methods of mitigating the hazard will be identified. This paper will capture the history of the plasma hazard analysis and processes used by the International Space Station Program to formally assess and qualify the risk. The paper will discuss steps that have been taken to identify and perform required analysis of the floating potential shock hazard from the ISS environment

  4. Nanotube Activities at NASA-Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arepalli, Sivaram

    2004-01-01

    Nanotube activities at NASA-Johnson Space Center include production, purification, characterization as well as applications of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). A parametric study of the pulsed laser ablation process is recently completed to monitor the effect of production parameters including temperature, buffer gas, flow rate, pressure, and laser fluence. Enhancement of production is achieved by rastering the graphite target and by increasing the target surface temperature with a cw laser. In-situ diagnostics during production included time resolved passive emission and laser induced fluorescence from the plume. The improvement of the purity by a variety of steps in the purification process is monitored by characterization techniques including SEM, TEM, Raman, UV-VIS-NIR and TGA. A recently established NASA-JSC protocol for SWCNT characterization is undergoing revision with feedback from nanotube community. Efforts at JSC over the past five years in composites have centered on structural polymer/nanotube systems. Recent activities broadened this focus to multifunctional materials, supercapacitors, fuel cells, regenerable CO2 absorbers, electromagnetic shielding, radiation dosimetry and thermal management systems of interest for human space flight. Preliminary tests indicate improvement of performance in most of these applications because of the large Surface area as well as high electrical and thermal conductivity exhibited by SWCNTs. Comparison with existing technologies and possible future improvements in the SWCNT materials sill be presented.

  5. Active space debris charging for contactless electrostatic disposal maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaub, Hanspeter; Sternovsky, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    The remote charging of a passive object using an electron beam enables touchless re-orbiting of large space debris from geosynchronous orbit (GEO) using electrostatic forces. The advantage of this method is that it can operate with a separation distance of multiple craft radii, thus reducing the risk of collision. The charging of the tug-debris system to high potentials is achieved by active charge transfer using a directed electron beam. Optimal potential distributions using isolated- and coupled-sphere models are discussed. A simple charging model takes into account the primary electron beam current, ultra-violet radiation induced photoelectron emission, collection of plasma particles, secondary electron emission and the recapture of emitted particles. The results show that through active charging in a GEO space environment high potentials can be both achieved and maintained with about a 75% transfer efficiency. Further, the maximum electrostatic tractor force is shown to be insensitive to beam current levels. This latter later result is important when considering debris with unknown properties.

  6. Space Station - An overview of current U.S. activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freitag, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has begun developing a permanently manned Space Station as mandated by President Reagan. The Space Station will be operational within a decade and is the 'Next Logical Step' in America's space program. This paper presents a summary of the Space Station status, current planning guidelines, and the possibilities for international participation in the program. The conceptual architecture and evolutionary development options for the Space Station are also briefly discussed.

  7. 48 CFR 1828.371 - Clauses incorporating cross-waivers of liability for International Space Station activities and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cross-waivers of liability for International Space Station activities and Science or Space Exploration... Station activities and Science or Space Exploration activities unrelated to the International Space Station. (a) In contracts covering International Space Station activities, or Science or Space...

  8. 48 CFR 1828.371 - Clauses incorporating cross-waivers of liability for International Space Station activities and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cross-waivers of liability for International Space Station activities and Science or Space Exploration... Station activities and Science or Space Exploration activities unrelated to the International Space Station. (a) In contracts covering International Space Station activities, or Science or Space...

  9. NASA plans and opportunities. [space flight activities throughout the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA plans for the Life Science program of a series of space flight activities throughout the decade of the 1990s are discussed with particular attention given to the NASA life science goals and objectives and to the particular space missions which will carry out these objectives. These space missions and specially designed facilities for experiments in space include Space Station Freedom, Space Biology Initiative, Gravitational Biology Facility, Life Sciences Centrifuge Facility, Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems Test Facility, and Exobiology Facility.

  10. The Tour de France: a physiological review.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Alejandro; Earnest, Conrad; Arribas, Carlos

    2003-10-01

    On 5 July 2003, the Tour de France (TDF) has celebrated 100th running. Instead of a chimney sweep competing during his free time (as in 1903), the recent winner is a highly trained, professional cyclist whose entire life-style has been dedicated to reach his pinnacle during this event. The TDF has been held successfully for 100 years, but the application of the physiologic sciences to the sport is a relatively recent phenomenon. Although some historical reports help to understand the unique physiological characteristics of this race, scientific studies were not available in Sports Science/Applied Physiology journals until the 1990s. The aim of this article is to review the history of the TDF. Special emphasis is placed on the last decade where classic physiology has been integrated into applied scientific cycling data.

  11. The design of sport and touring aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, R.; Guenther, W.

    1984-01-01

    General considerations concerning the design of a new aircraft are discussed, taking into account the objective to develop an aircraft can satisfy economically a certain spectrum of tasks. Requirements related to the design of sport and touring aircraft included in the past mainly a high cruising speed and short take-off and landing runs. Additional requirements for new aircraft are now low fuel consumption and optimal efficiency. A computer program for the computation of flight performance makes it possible to vary automatically a number of parameters, such as flight altitude, wing area, and wing span. The appropriate design characteristics are to a large extent determined by the selection of the flight altitude. Three different wing profiles are compared. Potential improvements with respect to the performance of the aircraft and its efficiency are related to the use of fiber composites, the employment of better propeller profiles, more efficient engines, and the utilization of suitable instrumentation for optimal flight conduction.

  12. The Greening Role of Tour Operators.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Javier; Arbulú, Italo; Rey-Maquieira, Javier

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that the tour operators (TOs) can play a coordinating role in the adoption of environmental management upstream the tourism supply chain. This is done using a dynamic model to analyze the environmental management adoption by hotels in a tourism destination induced by a TO. The TO can create incentives to greening hotels' management through the sharing of an environmental price premium. We show that the extent of green management adoption depends on interest rate, the willingness to pay for environmental quality, and hotels' organizational inertia. We also show how the financial yields from green management are shared between TOs and hotels. Finally, we consider a destination manager that subsidizes hotels' green management. If the destination manager does not take the greening role of TOs into account, she could mistake the true trade-off that she faces between the destination's economic and environmental outcomes for the win-win setting that characterizes the general problem.

  13. The Greening Role of Tour Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, Javier; Arbulú, Italo; Rey-Maquieira, Javier

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that the tour operators (TOs) can play a coordinating role in the adoption of environmental management upstream the tourism supply chain. This is done using a dynamic model to analyze the environmental management adoption by hotels in a tourism destination induced by a TO. The TO can create incentives to greening hotels' management through the sharing of an environmental price premium. We show that the extent of green management adoption depends on interest rate, the willingness to pay for environmental quality, and hotels' organizational inertia. We also show how the financial yields from green management are shared between TOs and hotels. Finally, we consider a destination manager that subsidizes hotels' green management. If the destination manager does not take the greening role of TOs into account, she could mistake the true trade-off that she faces between the destination's economic and environmental outcomes for the win-win setting that characterizes the general problem.

  14. The Greening Role of Tour Operators.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Javier; Arbulú, Italo; Rey-Maquieira, Javier

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that the tour operators (TOs) can play a coordinating role in the adoption of environmental management upstream the tourism supply chain. This is done using a dynamic model to analyze the environmental management adoption by hotels in a tourism destination induced by a TO. The TO can create incentives to greening hotels' management through the sharing of an environmental price premium. We show that the extent of green management adoption depends on interest rate, the willingness to pay for environmental quality, and hotels' organizational inertia. We also show how the financial yields from green management are shared between TOs and hotels. Finally, we consider a destination manager that subsidizes hotels' green management. If the destination manager does not take the greening role of TOs into account, she could mistake the true trade-off that she faces between the destination's economic and environmental outcomes for the win-win setting that characterizes the general problem. PMID:26253501

  15. Real-time interactive virtual tour on the World Wide Web (WWW)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sanghyuk; Chen, Hai-jung; Hsu, Tom; Yoon, Ilmi

    2003-12-01

    Web-based Virtual Tour has become a desirable and demanded application, yet challenging due to the nature of web application's running environment such as limited bandwidth and no guarantee of high computation power on the client side. Image-based rendering approach has attractive advantages over traditional 3D rendering approach in such Web Applications. Traditional approach, such as VRML, requires labor-intensive 3D modeling process, high bandwidth and computation power especially for photo-realistic virtual scenes. QuickTime VR and IPIX as examples of image-based approach, use panoramic photos and the virtual scenes that can be generated from photos directly skipping the modeling process. But, these image-based approaches may require special cameras or effort to take panoramic views and provide only one fixed-point look-around and zooming in-out rather than 'walk around', that is a very important feature to provide immersive experience to virtual tourists. The Web-based Virtual Tour using Tour into the Picture employs pseudo 3D geometry with image-based rendering approach to provide viewers with immersive experience of walking around the virtual space with several snap shots of conventional photos.

  16. Land reclamation on the Nevada Test Site: A field tour

    SciTech Connect

    Winkel, V.K.; Ostler, W.K.

    1993-12-31

    An all-day tour to observe and land reclamation on the Nevada Test Site was conducted in conjunction with the 8th Wildland Shrub and Arid Land Restoration Symposium. Tour participants were introduced to the US Department of Energy reclamation programs for Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project and Treatability Studies for Soil Media (TSSM) Project. The tour consisted of several stops that covered a variety of topics and studies including revegetation by seeding, topsoil stockpile stabilization, erosion control, shrub transplanting, shrub herbivory, irrigation, mulching, water harvesting, and weather monitoring.

  17. Looking at Earth from Space: Teacher's Guide with Activities for Earth and Space Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen (Editor); Steele, Colleen; Ryan, William F.

    1995-01-01

    The Maryland Pilot Earth Science and Technology Education Network (MAPS-NET) project was sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to enrich teacher preparation and classroom learning in the area of Earth system science. This publication includes a teacher's guide that replicates material taught during a graduate-level course of the project and activities developed by the teachers. The publication was developed to provide teachers with a comprehensive approach to using satellite imagery to enhance science education. The teacher's guide is divided into topical chapters and enables teachers to expand their knowledge of the atmosphere, common weather patterns, and remote sensing. Topics include: weather systems and satellite imagery including mid-latitude weather systems; wave motion and the general circulation; cyclonic disturbances and baroclinic instability; clouds; additional common weather patterns; satellite images and the internet; environmental satellites; orbits; and ground station set-up. Activities are listed by suggested grade level and include the following topics: using weather symbols; forecasting the weather; cloud families and identification; classification of cloud types through infrared Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) imagery; comparison of visible and infrared imagery; cold fronts; to ski or not to ski (imagery as a decision making tool), infrared and visible satellite images; thunderstorms; looping satellite images; hurricanes; intertropical convergence zone; and using weather satellite images to enhance a study of the Chesapeake Bay. A list of resources is also included.

  18. A Space Analysis of Physical Education Activity and Ancillary Areas in Big Ten Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Bradford N.

    This study compared both physical education "Type A" (activity) space and ancillary space at the Big Ten Universities with the physical education space guidelines established in 1967 by the National Facilities Conference and the assigned guidelines for the seven ancillary space types. The data were obtained through the use of a questionnaire,…

  19. Space Center Co-Exists With Nature

    NASA Video Gallery

    As part of Kennedy Space Center’s first Innovation Expo on Sept. 6, aquatic biologists with Inomedic Health Applications took employees on a field-guided boat tour of the unique estuarine ecosyst...

  20. Active Volcano Monitoring using a Space-based Hyperspectral Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipar, J. J.; Dunn, R.; Cooley, T.

    2010-12-01

    Active volcanoes occur on every continent, often in close proximity to heavily populated areas. While ground-based studies are essential for scientific research and disaster mitigation, remote sensing from space can provide rapid and continuous monitoring of active and potentially active volcanoes [Ramsey and Flynn, 2004]. In this paper, we report on hyperspectral measurements of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. Hyperspectral images obtained by the US Air Force TacSat-3/ARTEMIS sensor [Lockwood et al, 2006] are used to obtain estimates of the surface temperatures for the volcano. ARTEMIS measures surface-reflected light in the visible, near-infrared, and short-wave infrared bands (VNIR-SWIR). The SWIR bands are known to be sensitive to thermal radiation [Green, 1996]. For example, images from the NASA Hyperion hyperspectral sensor have shown the extent of wildfires and active volcanoes [Young, 2009]. We employ the methodology described by Dennison et al, (2006) to obtain an estimate of the temperature of the active region of Kilauea. Both day and night-time images were used in the analysis. To improve the estimate, we aggregated neighboring pixels. The active rim of the lava lake is clearly discernable in the temperature image, with a measured temperature exceeding 1100o C. The temperature decreases markedly on the exterior of the summit crater. While a long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensor would be ideal for volcano monitoring, we have shown that the thermal state of an active volcano can be monitored using the SWIR channels of a reflective hyperspectral imager. References: Dennison, Philip E., Kraivut Charoensiri, Dar A. Roberts, Seth H. Peterson, and Robert O. Green (2006). Wildfire temperature and land cover modeling using hyperspectral data, Remote Sens. Environ., vol. 100, pp. 212-222. Green, R. O. (1996). Estimation of biomass fire temperature and areal extent from calibrated AVIRIS spectra, in Summaries of the 6th Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, Pasadena, CA

  1. Spatial Polygamy and Contextual Exposures (SPACEs): Promoting Activity Space Approaches in Research on Place and Health.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Stephen A; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2013-08-01

    Exposure science has developed rapidly and there is an increasing call for greater precision in the measurement of individual exposures across space and time. Social science interest in an individual's environmental exposure, broadly conceived, has arguably been quite limited conceptually and methodologically. Indeed, we appear to lag behind our exposure science colleagues in our theories, data, and methods. In this paper we discuss a framework based on the concept of spatial polygamy to demonstrate the need to collect new forms of data on human spatial behavior and contextual exposures across time and space. Adopting new data and methods will be essential if we want to better understand social inequality in terms of exposure to health risks and access to health resources. We discuss the opportunities and challenges focusing on the potential seemingly offered by focusing on human mobility, and specifically the utilization of activity space concepts and data. A goal of the paper is to spatialize social and health science concepts and research practice vis-a-vis the complexity of exposure. The paper concludes with some recommendations for future research focusing on theoretical and conceptual development, promoting research on new types of places and human movement, the dynamic nature of contexts, and on training. "When we elect wittingly or unwittingly, to work within a level … we tend to discern or construct - whichever emphasis you prefer - only those kinds of systems whose elements are confined to that level."Otis Dudley Duncan (1961, p. 141)."…despite the new ranges created by improved transportation, local government units have tended to remain medieval in size."Torsten Hägerstrand (1970, p.18)"A detective investigating a crime needs both tools and understanding. If he has no fingerprint powder, he will fail to find fingerprints on most surfaces. If he does not understand where the criminal is likely to have put his fingers, he will not look in the right

  2. Spatial Polygamy and Contextual Exposures (SPACEs): Promoting Activity Space Approaches in Research on Place and Health

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Stephen A.; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Exposure science has developed rapidly and there is an increasing call for greater precision in the measurement of individual exposures across space and time. Social science interest in an individual’s environmental exposure, broadly conceived, has arguably been quite limited conceptually and methodologically. Indeed, we appear to lag behind our exposure science colleagues in our theories, data, and methods. In this paper we discuss a framework based on the concept of spatial polygamy to demonstrate the need to collect new forms of data on human spatial behavior and contextual exposures across time and space. Adopting new data and methods will be essential if we want to better understand social inequality in terms of exposure to health risks and access to health resources. We discuss the opportunities and challenges focusing on the potential seemingly offered by focusing on human mobility, and specifically the utilization of activity space concepts and data. A goal of the paper is to spatialize social and health science concepts and research practice vis-a-vis the complexity of exposure. The paper concludes with some recommendations for future research focusing on theoretical and conceptual development, promoting research on new types of places and human movement, the dynamic nature of contexts, and on training. “When we elect wittingly or unwittingly, to work within a level … we tend to discern or construct – whichever emphasis you prefer – only those kinds of systems whose elements are confined to that level.”Otis Dudley Duncan (1961, p. 141). “…despite the new ranges created by improved transportation, local government units have tended to remain medieval in size.”Torsten Hägerstrand (1970, p.18) “A detective investigating a crime needs both tools and understanding. If he has no fingerprint powder, he will fail to find fingerprints on most surfaces. If he does not understand where the criminal is likely to have put his fingers, he will not

  3. Activity of the Russian Federation on the Space Debris Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loginov, S.; Yakovlev, M.; Mikhailov, M.; Garlov, A.; Feldstein, V.; Oleynikov, I.; Makarov, Y.; Bulynin, Y.; Trushlyakov, V.

    2013-08-01

    Research of space debris problems in the Russian Federation is carried out in following aspects 1) observation, 2) modelling, 3) protection and 4) mitigation. The Russian Federation is devoted to the international efforts on space debris problem resolution and is already implementing practical steps on space debris mitigation on a voluntary basis within its own national mechanisms taking into account the COPUOS UN and IADC Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines.

  4. Utilisation of Wearable Computing for Space Programmes Test Activities Optimasation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, V.; Lazzari, D.; Alemanni, M.

    2004-08-01

    New technologies are assuming a relevant importance in the Space business domain also in the Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) activities allowing process optimization and capability that were unthinkable only few years ago. This paper has the aim to describe Alenia Spazio (ALS) gained experience on the remote interaction techniques as a results of collaborations established both on European Communities (EC) initiatives, with Alenia Aeronautica (ALA) and Politecnico of Torino (POLITO). The H/W and S/W components performances increase and costs reduction due to the home computing massive utilization (especially demanded by the games business) together with the network technology possibility (offered by the web as well as the hi-speed links and the wireless communications) allow today to re-think the traditional AIT process activities in the light of the multimedia data exchange: graphical, voice video and by sure more in the future. Aerospace business confirm its innovation vocation which in the year '80 represents the cradle of the CAD systems and today is oriented to the 3D data visualization/ interaction technologies and remote visualisation/ interaction in collaborative way on a much more user friendly bases (i.e. not for specialists). Fig. 1 collects AIT extended scenario studied and adopted by ALS in these years. ALS experimented two possibilities of remote visualization/interaction: Portable [e.g. Fig.2 Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), Wearable] and walls (e.g.VR-Lab) screens as both 2D/3D visualisation and interaction devices which could support many types of traditional (mainly based on EGSE and PDM/CAD utilisation/reports) company internal AIT applications: 1. design review support 2. facility management 3. storage management 4. personnel training 5. integration sequences definition 6. assembly and test operations follow up 7. documentation review and external access to AIT activities for remote operations (e.g. tele-testing) EGSE Portable Clean room

  5. 14 CFR 136.39 - Air tour management plans (ATMP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... curfews) for the adoption of quiet technology aircraft by commercial air tour operators conducting... forth in 40 CFR 1501.3 and 1501.5 through 1501.8 (for the purposes of complying with 40 CFR 1501.3...

  6. “Open Hatch” Tour of Offshore Wind Buoy

    SciTech Connect

    Zayas, Jose

    2015-09-18

    Wind and Water Power Technologies Office Director, Jose Zayas gives a behind the scenes tour of the AXYS WindSentinel research buoy, which uses high-tech instruments to measure conditions for potential offshore wind energy development.

  7. 17. Sixth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Sixth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area of park, elevation view to the south. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  8. 20. Seventh Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Seventh Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area of park near Indiana encampment, deck view to the north. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  9. 23. Eighth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Eighth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area of park, deck view to the north. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  10. 18. Sixth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Sixth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area of park, deck view to the east. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  11. 26. Ninth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Ninth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area of park, looking to the SW back to eighth bridge. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  12. 19. Seventh Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Seventh Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area of park near Indiana encampment, deck view to the north. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  13. 24. Ninth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Ninth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area of park, elevation view to the north. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  14. 22. Eighth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Eighth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area of park, elevation view to the NW. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  15. 25. Ninth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Ninth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area of park, deck view to the east. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  16. Long-Term International Space Station (ISS) Risk Reduction Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forroci, Michael P.; Gafka, George K.; Lutomski, Michael G.; Maher, Jacilyn S.

    2011-01-01

    As the assembly of the ISS nears completion, it is worthwhile to step back and review some of the actions pursued by the Program in recent years to reduce risk and enhance the safety and health of ISS crewmembers, visitors, and space flight participants. While the initial ISS requirements and design were intended to provide the best practicable levels of safety, it is always possible to further reduce risk given the determination, commitment, and resources to do so. The following is a summary of some of the steps taken by the ISS Program Manager, by our International Partners, by hardware and software designers, by operational specialists, and by safety personnel to continuously enhance the safety of the ISS, and to reduce risk to all crewmembers. While years of work went into the development of ISS requirements, there are many things associated with risk reduction in a Program like the ISS that can only be learned through actual operational experience. These risk reduction activities can be divided into roughly three categories: Areas that were initially noncompliant which have subsequently been brought into compliance or near compliance (i.e., Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris [MMOD] protection, acoustics) Areas where initial design requirements were eventually considered inadequate and were subsequently augmented (i.e., Toxicity hazard level-4 materials, emergency procedures, emergency equipment, control of drag-throughs) Areas where risks were initially underestimated, and have subsequently been addressed through additional mitigation (i.e., Extravehicular Activity [EVA] sharp edges, plasma shock hazards). Due to the hard work and cooperation of many parties working together across the span of more than a decade, the ISS is now a safer and healthier environment for our crew, in many cases exceeding the risk reduction targets inherent in the intent of the original design. It will provide a safe and stable platform for utilization and discovery for years to come.

  17. Passive and active protection from ionizing radiation in space: new activities and perspectives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillantini, Piero

    Very intense Solar Cosmic Ray (SCR) events are rare, but not predictable, and can be lethal to a not protected crew in deep space. A ‘life saving’ system must therefore be provided also in short duration manned missions. Passive and active ‘life saving’ system will be revised and discussed. Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) instead flow continuously, have a moderate intensity but the accumulation of their effects can have consequences to human health in long duration (≥one year) mission in deep space, and a ‘health saving’ system should be provided. Passive systems are not applicable and recourse has to be made to active systems based on powerful magnetic fields for deviating particles from the habitat where crew members live and work. The activities of last decade are revised and two scenarios are evaluated and discussed: (1) magnetic toroidal systems for mitigating the radiation dose in the relatively large (≅100m3) habitat of interplanetary spaceships; (2) very large magnetic systems for protecting a large habitat (≈500m3) of an inhabited station that should operate for many decades in deep space. Effectiveness, complexity, involved engineering problems and perspectives are outlined and discussed for both the scenarios. They are nowadays studied and evaluated by a cooperative project supported by the European Union that will be illustrated in a dedicated talk.

  18. The association between objectively measured physical activity and life-space mobility among older people.

    PubMed

    Tsai, L-T; Portegijs, E; Rantakokko, M; Viljanen, A; Saajanaho, M; Eronen, J; Rantanen, T

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity and life-space mobility in community-dwelling older people. Life-space refers to the spatial area a person purposefully moves through in daily life (bedroom, home, yard, neighborhood, town, and beyond) and life-space mobility to the frequency of travel and the help needed when moving through different life-space areas. The study population comprised community-living 75- to 90-year-old people {n = 174; median age 79.7 [interquartile range (IQR) 7.1]}, participating in the accelerometer substudy of Life-Space Mobility in Old Age (LISPE) project. Step counts and activity time were measured by an accelerometer (Hookie "AM20 Activity Meter") for 7 days. Life-space mobility was assessed with Life-Space Assessment (LSA) questionnaire. Altogether, 16% had a life-space area restricted to the neighborhood when moving independently. Participants with a restricted life space were less physically active and about 70% of them had exceptionally low values in daily step counts (≤ 615 steps) and moderate activity time (≤ 6.8 min). Higher step counts and activity time correlated positively with life-space mobility. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the temporal order of low physical activity level and restriction in life-space mobility.

  19. Synchrotron X-ray footprinting on tour

    PubMed Central

    Bohon, Jen; D’Mello, Rhijuta; Ralston, Corie; Gupta, Sayan; Chance, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Synchrotron footprinting is a valuable technique in structural biology for understanding macromolecular solution-state structure and dynamics of proteins and nucleic acids. Although an extremely powerful tool, there is currently only a single facility in the USA, the X28C beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), dedicated to providing infrastructure, technology development and support for these studies. The high flux density of the focused white beam and variety of specialized exposure environments available at X28C enables footprinting of highly complex biological systems; however, it is likely that a significant fraction of interesting experiments could be performed at unspecialized facilities. In an effort to investigate the viability of a beamline-flexible footprinting program, a standard sample was taken on tour around the nation to be exposed at several US synchrotrons. This work describes how a relatively simple and transportable apparatus can allow beamlines at the NSLS, CHESS, APS and ALS to be used for synchrotron footprinting in a general user mode that can provide useful results. PMID:24365913

  20. Aeronautics and Space Report of the President: 1977 Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The national programs in aeronautics and space made steady progress in 1977 toward their long-term objectives. In aeronautics the goals were improved performance, energy efficiency, and safety in aircraft. In space the goals were: (1) better remote sensing systems to generate more sophisticated information about the Earth's environment; (2)…

  1. Medical operations and life sciences activities on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C. (Editor); Mason, J. A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Space station health maintenance facilities, habitability, personnel, and research in the medical sciences and in biology are discussed. It is assumed that the space station structure will consist of several modules, each being consistent with Orbiter payload bay limits in size, weight, and center of gravity.

  2. Space Weather Activities of IONOLAB Group: IONOLAB-TEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikan, F.; Sezen, U.; Arikan, O.; Ugurlu, O.; Nayir, H.

    2009-04-01

    Space Weather (SW) is the concept of changing environmental conditions in outer space and affect Earth and its technological systems. SW is a consequence of the solar activities and the coupling of solar energy on Earth's atmosphere due to the Earth's magnetic field. The monitoring and prediction of SW has utmost importance for HF communication, Satellite communication, navigation and guidance systems, Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite systems, Space Craft exit and entry into the atmosphere. Ionosphere is the plasma layer of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation and it is a key player of SW. Ionosphere is a temporally and spatially varying, dispersive, anisotropic and inhomogeneous medium that is characterized primarily by its electron density distribution. IONOLAB is a group of researchers of various disciplines, getting together to handle challenges of the Earth's ionosphere. The team has researchers from Hacettepe University and Bilkent University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering and General Command of Mapping of Turkish Army. One of the most important contributions of IONOLAB group is the automated web-based computation service for Total Electron Content (TEC). TEC corresponds to the line integral of electron density distribution on a given path. TEC can also be expressed as the amount of free electrons within 1 m2 cross-sectional area of the cylinder on the ray path. Global Position System (GPS) provides a cost-effective medium for monitoring of ionosphere using the signals recorded by stationary GPS receivers in estimating TEC. IONOLAB group has developed IONOLAB-TEC for reliable and robust estimates for all latitudes and both calm and disturbed days by using RINEX, IONEX and satellite ephemeris data provided from the IGS centers. IONOLAB-TEC consists of a regularized signal estimation algorithm which combines signals from all GPS satellites for a given instant and a given receiver, for a desired time period or for 24 hours

  3. Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Mavoa, Suzanne; Villanueva, Karen; Sugiyama, Takemi; Badland, Hannah; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Owen, Neville; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-05-01

    Public open spaces such as parks and green spaces are key built environment elements within neighbourhoods for encouraging a variety of physical activity behaviours. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning number of active living research studies examining the influence of public open space on physical activity. However, the evidence shows mixed associations between different aspects of public open space (e.g., proximity, size, quality) and physical activity. These inconsistencies hinder the development of specific evidence-based guidelines for urban designers and policy-makers for (re)designing public open space to encourage physical activity. This paper aims to move this research agenda forward, by identifying key conceptual and methodological issues that may contribute to inconsistencies in research examining relations between public open space and physical activity.

  4. Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Mavoa, Suzanne; Villanueva, Karen; Sugiyama, Takemi; Badland, Hannah; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Owen, Neville; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-05-01

    Public open spaces such as parks and green spaces are key built environment elements within neighbourhoods for encouraging a variety of physical activity behaviours. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning number of active living research studies examining the influence of public open space on physical activity. However, the evidence shows mixed associations between different aspects of public open space (e.g., proximity, size, quality) and physical activity. These inconsistencies hinder the development of specific evidence-based guidelines for urban designers and policy-makers for (re)designing public open space to encourage physical activity. This paper aims to move this research agenda forward, by identifying key conceptual and methodological issues that may contribute to inconsistencies in research examining relations between public open space and physical activity. PMID:25779691

  5. 48 CFR 1852.228-78 - Cross-waiver of liability for science or space exploration activities unrelated to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for science or space exploration activities unrelated to the International Space Station. 1852.228-78... Cross-waiver of liability for science or space exploration activities unrelated to the International... Liability for Science or Space Exploration Activities Unrelated to the International Space Station (OCT...

  6. 48 CFR 1852.228-78 - Cross-waiver of liability for science or space exploration activities unrelated to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for science or space exploration activities unrelated to the International Space Station. 1852.228-78... Cross-waiver of liability for science or space exploration activities unrelated to the International... Liability for Science or Space Exploration Activities Unrelated to the International Space Station (OCT...

  7. Climate Change Adaptation Science Activities at NASA Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Lulla, Kamlesh

    2012-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC), located in the southeast metropolitan region of Houston, TX is the prime NASA center for human spaceflight operations and astronaut training, but it also houses the unique collection of returned extraterrestrial samples, including lunar samples from the Apollo missions. The Center's location adjacent to Clear Lake and the Clear Creek watershed, an estuary of Galveston Bay, puts it at direct annual risk from hurricanes, but also from a number of other climate-related hazards including drought, floods, sea level rise, heat waves, and high wind events all assigned Threat Levels of 2 or 3 in the most recent NASA Center Disaster/Risk Matrix produced by the Climate Adaptation Science Investigator Working Group. Based on prior CASI workshops at other NASA centers, it is recognized that JSC is highly vulnerable to climate-change related hazards and has a need for adaptation strategies. We will present an overview of prior CASI-related work at JSC, including publication of a climate change and adaptation informational data brochure, and a Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Risks Workshop that was held at JSC in early March 2012. Major outcomes of that workshop that form a basis for work going forward are 1) a realization that JSC is embedded in a regional environmental and social context, and that potential climate change effects and adaptation strategies will not, and should not, be constrained by the Center fence line; 2) a desire to coordinate data collection and adaptation planning activities with interested stakeholders to form a regional climate change adaptation center that could facilitate interaction with CASI; 3) recognition that there is a wide array of basic data (remotely sensed, in situ, GIS/mapping, and historical) available through JSC and other stakeholders, but this data is not yet centrally accessible for planning purposes.

  8. Destination state screening of active spaces in spin dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzystyniak, M.; Edwards, Luke J.; Kuprov, Ilya

    2011-06-01

    We propose a novel avenue for state space reduction in time domain Liouville space spin dynamics simulations, using detectability as a selection criterion - only those states that evolve into or affect other detectable states are kept in the simulation. This basis reduction procedure (referred to as destination state screening) is formally exact and can be applied on top of the existing state space restriction techniques. As demonstrated below, in many cases this results in further reduction of matrix dimension, leading to considerable acceleration of many spin dynamics simulation types. Destination state screening is implemented in the latest version of the Spinach library (http://spindynamics.org).

  9. A fast tour design method using non-tangent v-infinity leveraging transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagnola, Stefano; Strange, Nathan J.; Russell, Ryan P.

    2010-10-01

    The announced missions to the Saturn and Jupiter systems renewed the space community interest in simple design methods for gravity assist tours at planetary moons. A key element in such trajectories are the V-Infinity Leveraging Transfers (VILT) which link simple impulsive maneuvers with two consecutive gravity assists at the same moon. VILTs typically include a tangent impulsive maneuver close to an apse location, yielding to a desired change in the excess velocity relative to the moon. In this paper we study the VILT solution space and derive a linear approximation which greatly simplifies the computation of the transfers, and is amenable to broad global searches. Using this approximation, Tisserand graphs, and heuristic optimization procedure we introduce a fast design method for multiple-VILT tours. We use this method to design a trajectory from a highly eccentric orbit around Saturn to a 200-km science orbit at Enceladus. The trajectory is then recomputed removing the linear approximation, showing a Δ v change of <4%. The trajectory is 2.7 years long and comprises 52 gravity assists at Titan, Rhea, Dione, Tethys, and Enceladus, and several deterministic maneuvers. Total Δ v is only 445 m/s, including the Enceladus orbit insertion, almost 10 times better then the 3.9 km/s of the Enceladus orbit insertion from the Titan-Enceladus Hohmann transfer. The new method and demonstrated results enable a new class of missions that tour and ultimately orbit small mass moons. Such missions were previously considered infeasible due to flight time and Δ v constraints.

  10. 48 CFR 1852.228-76 - Cross-waiver of liability for space station activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... broad cross-waiver provision to encourage participation in the exploration and use of outer space... for space station activities. 1852.228-76 Section 1852.228-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND...

  11. Advanced planning activity. [for interplanetary flight and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Selected mission concepts for interplanetary exploration through 1985 were examined, including: (1) Jupiter orbiter performance characteristics; (2) solar electric propulsion missions to Mercury, Venus, Neptune, and Uranus; (3) space shuttle planetary missions; (4) Pioneer entry probes to Saturn and Uranus; (5) rendezvous with Comet Kohoutek and Comet Encke; (6) space tug capabilities; and (7) a Pioneer mission to Mars in 1979. Mission options, limitations, and performance predictions are assessed, along with probable configurational, boost, and propulsion requirements.

  12. Angelo State Society of Physics Students Road Tour 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Stephen; Sauncy, Toni

    2011-10-01

    For the past seven years at the end of each spring semester, the ASU Society of Physics Students has journied throughout Texas for a week long outreach to various K-12 schools. During the week long outreach effort, a variety of physics demonstrations were presented to over 1300 students, teachers and school administrators. The goal of this public engagement activity is to both encourage younger students to consider following STEM related career paths and to spark an overall interest in science. Demonstrations focused on several aspects of physics. For the 2011 Road Tour, we paid special homage to the 100th anniversary of Ernest Rutherford's postulation of his model of the atom by explaining his results and their implications in 1911. In addition to adding several new demonstrations, the tradition of having a custom laser light show for each school was continued. As always, the fan favorite ``Nitrogen Bomb'' and a new nitrogen thunder cloud were added to our grand finales. The team, consisting of two faculty advisors and eleven students, was able to leave lasting impressions in a new and exciting way across central Texas.

  13. Activities of the Japanese space weather forecast center at Communications Research Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Watari, Shinichi; Tomita, Fumihiko

    2002-12-01

    The International Space Environment Service (ISES) is an international organization for space weather forecasts and belongs to the International Union of Radio Science (URSI). There are eleven ISES forecast centers in the world, and Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) runs the Japanese one. We make forecasts on the space environment and deliver them over the phones and through the Internet. Our forecasts could be useful for human activities in space. Currently solar activity is near maximum phase of the solar cycle 23. We report the several large disturbances of space environment occurred in 2001, during which low-latitude auroras were observed several times in Japan. PMID:12793730

  14. Activities of the Japanese space weather forecast center at Communications Research Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Watari, Shinichi; Tomita, Fumihiko

    2002-12-01

    The International Space Environment Service (ISES) is an international organization for space weather forecasts and belongs to the International Union of Radio Science (URSI). There are eleven ISES forecast centers in the world, and Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) runs the Japanese one. We make forecasts on the space environment and deliver them over the phones and through the Internet. Our forecasts could be useful for human activities in space. Currently solar activity is near maximum phase of the solar cycle 23. We report the several large disturbances of space environment occurred in 2001, during which low-latitude auroras were observed several times in Japan.

  15. Activities of the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This 1993 annual report of the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council chronicles the activities of the board during a year filled with questioning and change in the country's civil space program. The brief accounts contained herein of the activities of the board and of its committees, together with summaries of two major reports and the complete texts of three letter reports, sketch out major space research issues that faced the nation's space scientists and engineers during the year, including scientific prerequisites for the human exploration of space, improving NASA's technology for space science, the space station and prerequisites for the human exploration program, several issues in the space life sciences, and the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility.

  16. Differences in associations between active transportation and built environmental exposures when expressed using different components of individual activity spaces.

    PubMed

    van Heeswijck, Torbjorn; Paquet, Catherine; Kestens, Yan; Thierry, Benoit; Morency, Catherine; Daniel, Mark

    2015-05-01

    This study assessed relationships between built environmental exposures measured within components of individual activity spaces (i.e., travel origins, destinations and paths in-between), and use of active transportation in a metropolitan setting. Individuals (n=37,165) were categorised as using active or sedentary transportation based on travel survey data. Generalised Estimating Equations analysis was used to test relationships with active transportation. Strength and significance of relationships between exposures and active transportation varied for different components of the activity space. Associations were strongest when including travel paths in expression of the built environment. Land use mix and greenness were negatively related to active transportation.

  17. Outreach Education Modules on Space Sciences in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, I.-Te; Tiger Liu, Jann-Yeng; Chen, Chao-Yen

    2013-04-01

    The Ionospheric Radio Science Laboratory (IRSL) at Institute of Space Science, National Central University in Taiwan has been conducting a program for public outreach educations on space science by giving lectures, organizing camps, touring exhibits, and experiencing hand-on experiments to elementary school, high school, and college students as well as general public since 1991. The program began with a topic of traveling/living in space, and was followed by space environment, space mission, and space weather monitoring, etc. and a series of course module and experiment (i.e. experiencing activity) module was carried out. For past decadal, the course modules have been developed to cover the space environment of the Sun, interplanetary space, and geospace, as well as the space technology of the rocket, satellite, space shuttle (plane), space station, living in space, observing the Earth from space, and weather observation. Each course module highlights the current status and latest new finding as well as discusses 1-3 key/core issues/concepts and equip with 2-3 activity/experiment modules to make students more easily to understand the topics/issues. Meanwhile, scientific camps are given to lead students a better understanding and interesting on space science. Currently, a visualized image projecting system, Dagik Earth, is developed to demonstrate the scientific results on a sphere together with the course modules. This system will dramatically improve the educational skill and increase interests of participators.

  18. Aeronautics and Space Report of the President: Fiscal Year 1998 Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 directed the annual Aeronautics and Space Report to include a "comprehensive description of the programmed activities and the accomplishments of all agencies of the United States in the field of aeronautics and space activities during the preceding calendar year. In recent years, the reports have been prepared on a fiscal year (FY) basis, consistent with the budgetary period now used in programs of the Federal Government. This year's report covers activities that took place from October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998. The activities of agencies included are NASA, the Department of Defense, The Federal Aviation Administration, the Department of Commerce, the Department of the Interior, the Federal Communications Commission, the Department of Agriculture, the National Science Foundation, the Department of State, the Department of Energy, the Smithsonian Institution, the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Information Agency. Appendices cover the U.S. Government Spacecraft Record, World Record of Space Launches Successful in Attaining Earth Orbit or Beyond , Successful Launches to Orbit on U.S. Launch Vehicles, October 1, 1997-September 30, 1998, U.S. and Russian Human Space Flights, 1961-September 30, 1998, U.S. Space Launch Vehicles, Space Activities of the U.S. Government-Historical Budget Summary, Space Activities of the U.S. Government-Budget Authority in Equivalent FY 1998 Dollars, Federal Space Activities Budget, Federal Aeronautics Budget, and a glossary

  19. Conceptualizing and Comparing Neighborhood and Activity Space Measures for Food Environment Research

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Thomas W.; Pitts, Stephanie B. Jilcott; McGuirt, Jared T.; Keyserling, Thomas C.; Ammerman, Alice S.

    2014-01-01

    Greater accessibility to geospatial technologies has led to a surge of spatialized public health research, much of which has focused on food environments. The purpose of this study was to analyze differing spatial measures of exposure to supermarkets and farmers’ markets among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina. Exposure measures were derived using participant-defined neighborhoods, investigator-defined road network neighborhoods, and activity spaces incorporating participants’ time space behaviors. Results showed that mean area for participant-defined neighborhoods (0.04 sq. miles) was much smaller than 2.0 mile road network neighborhoods (3.11 sq. miles) and activity spaces (26.36 sq. miles), and that activity spaces provided the greatest market exposure. The traditional residential neighborhood concept may not be particularly relevant for all places. Time-space approaches capturing activity space may be more relevant, particularly if integrated with mixed methods strategies. PMID:25306420

  20. Conceptualizing and comparing neighborhood and activity space measures for food environment research.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Thomas W; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; McGuirt, Jared T; Keyserling, Thomas C; Ammerman, Alice S

    2014-11-01

    Greater accessibility to geospatial technologies has led to a surge of spatialized public health research, much of which has focused on food environments. The purpose of this study was to analyze differing spatial measures of exposure to supermarkets and farmers׳ markets among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina. Exposure measures were derived using participant-defined neighborhoods, investigator-defined road network neighborhoods, and activity spaces incorporating participants׳ time space behaviors. Results showed that mean area for participant-defined neighborhoods (0.04 sq. miles) was much smaller than 2.0 mile road network neighborhoods (3.11 sq. miles) and activity spaces (26.36 sq. miles), and that activity spaces provided the greatest market exposure. The traditional residential neighborhood concept may not be particularly relevant for all places. Time-space approaches capturing activity space may be more relevant, particularly if integrated with mixed methods strategies.

  1. Detection from Space of Active Volcanism on Earth and, Potentially, on Venus and Rocky Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.

    2015-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions (lava flows, lava lakes, and explosive activity) on Earth have been monitored from space for >3 decades. Such observations are extrapolated to understand how volcanic activity on Venus and rocky exoplanets may be detected.

  2. Standardization by ISO to Ensure the Sustainability of Space Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, A.; Lazare, B.; Oltrogge, D.; Stokes, H.

    2013-08-01

    The ISO / Technical Committee 20 / Sub-committee 14 develops debris-related standards and technical reports to mitigate debris and help ensure mission and space sustainability. While UN Guidelines and the IADC Guidelines encourage national governments and agencies to promote debris mitigation design and operation, the ISO standards will help the global space industry promote and sustain its space-related business. In this paper the scope and status of each ISO standard is discussed within an overall framework. A comparison with international guidelines is also provided to demonstrate the level of consistency. Finally, as a case study, the ISO standards are applied to a CubeSat mission, thus demonstrating their usability on a relatively recent and popular class of satellite.

  3. Youth Initiatives and Projects on Human Rights and Ethics in Space Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, W.; Delegates, Sgs

    2002-01-01

    The `Declaration of Human Rights in Outer Space' project was initiated at the Space Generation Forum (SGF), at UNISPACE-III in 1999. These projects are being further developed at the Space Generation Summit (SGS), an event at World Space Congress (WSC) that will unite international students and young professionals to develop a youth vision and strategy for the peaceful uses of space. SGS, endorsed by the United Nations, will take place from October 11- 13th, during which the 200 delegates will discuss ongoing youth space activities, particularly those stemming from the UNISPACE-III/SGF and taken forward by the Space Generation Advisory Council. Delegates will address a variety of topics with the goal of devising new recommendations according to the theme, 'Accelerating Our Pace in Space'. The material presented here and in other technical sessions throughout WSC includes the findings of these discussions. In this paper, we present the work of the SGS delegates relating to ethical issues arising in space activities, and we discuss plans to organize a space ethics conference. This international and inter-generational event would aim to develop a vision and series of recommendations for how the space sector should proceed with regard to ethical issues. We present also the results of the Space Generation Summit with regards to initiating a declaration of human rights in space.

  4. Space Resources for Teachers, Space Science, A Guide Outlining Understandings, Fundamental Concepts, and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Malcolm

    This instructional and resource guide is designed so that it may be used in the secondary school or in the first two years of college to present a series of units in space science, or to supplement existing science and mathematics courses. The guide consists of six units: (1) measurement, distance, and size in astronomy, (2) atoms, spectra, and…

  5. Looking at Earth from Space: Teacher's Guide with Activities for Earth and Space Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The Maryland Pilot Earth Science and Technology Education Network (MAPS-NET) project was sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to enrich teacher preparation and classroom learning in the area of Earth system science. This publication includes a teacher's guide that replicates material taught during a graduate-level…

  6. Production of the next-generation library virtual tour.

    PubMed

    Duncan, J M; Roth, L K

    2001-10-01

    While many libraries offer overviews of their services through their Websites, only a small number of health sciences libraries provide Web-based virtual tours. These tours typically feature photographs of major service areas along with textual descriptions. This article describes the process for planning, producing, and implementing a next-generation virtual tour in which a variety of media elements are integrated: photographic images, 360-degree "virtual reality" views, textual descriptions, and contextual floor plans. Hardware and software tools used in the project are detailed, along with a production timeline and budget, tips for streamlining the process, and techniques for improving production. This paper is intended as a starting guide for other libraries considering an investment in such a project. PMID:11837254

  7. Jovian tour design for orbiter and lander missions to Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagnola, Stefano; Buffington, Brent B.; Petropoulos, Anastassios E.

    2014-07-01

    Europa is one of the most interesting targets for solar system exploration, as its ocean of liquid water could harbor life. Following the recommendation of the Planetary Decadal Survey, NASA commissioned a study for a multiple flyby only mission, an orbiter mission, and a lander mission. This paper presents the moon tours for the lander and orbiter concepts. The total Δv and radiation dose would be reduced when compared to previous designs by exploiting multi-body dynamics and avoiding multi-revolution transfers in the Ganymede-to-Europa transfer. Tours 11-O3, 12-L1 and 12-L4 and their performances compared to other tours from previous Europa mission studies are presented in detail.

  8. Framed 4-graphs: Euler tours, Gauss circuits and rotating circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Il'yutko, Denis P

    2011-09-30

    We consider connected finite 4-valent graphs with the structure of opposite edges at each vertex (framed 4-graphs). For any of such graphs there exist Euler tours, in travelling along which at each vertex we turn from an edge to a nonopposite one (rotating circuits); and at the same time, it is not true that for any such graph there exists an Euler tour passing from an edge to the opposite one at each vertex (a Gauss circuit). The main result of the work is an explicit formula connecting the adjacency matrices of the Gauss circuit and an arbitrary Euler tour. This formula immediately gives us a criterion for the existence of a Gauss circuit on a given framed 4-graph. It turns out that the results are also valid for all symmetric matrices (not just for matrices realisable by a chord diagram). Bibliography: 24 titles.

  9. Conscientization and Third Space: A Case Study of Tunisian Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boumlik, Habiba; Schwartz, Joni

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines, "Al Bawsala," a nongovernmental organization and a female cyber social activist, Amira Yahyaoui, in the aftermath of Tunisia's Jasmine Revolution through the lens of adult education. The theoretical frameworks of conscientization and third space are employed to describe Yahyaoui's development of the watchdog…

  10. Active control of large space structures: An introduction and overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, G. B., III; Tollison, D. K.; Waites, H. B.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of the large space structure (LSS) control system design problem is presented. The LSS is defined as a class of system, and LSS modeling techniques are discussed. Model truncation, control system objectives, current control law design techniques, and particular problem areas are discussed.

  11. MilleMiglia in Automatico tour: results and critical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertozzi, Massimo; Broggi, Alberto; Fascioli, Alessandra

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the extensive test that has been performed to validate the vision-based automatic vehicle guidance system developed within the ARGO project at the University of Parma. After a brief introduction dealing with the main characteristics of the system installed onto the ARGO vehicle, the paper describes the 'MilleMiglia in Automatico' tour, its schedule and features. Finally the paper discusses the results collected during the tour and analyzes possible solutions that may be implemented in the future to make the system more robust with respect to the problems encountered during the test.

  12. 14 CFR § 1266.104 - Cross-waiver of liability for launch agreements for science or space exploration activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agreements for science or space exploration activities unrelated to the International Space Station. § 1266... exploration activities unrelated to the International Space Station. (a) The purpose of this section is to... exploration activities that are not related to the International Space Station (ISS) but involve a launch....

  13. Virtual tours as a new teaching tool in geoscience: an example from the Western Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Antoine; Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Nomade, Jérome

    2013-04-01

    Since almost two decades, numerical tools allowed to spread the science to the people at large, worldwide. Within a few minutes, it is now easy to find a detailed course on one technical or scientific topic. A teacher can lead students to online contents (created by his/her own or by others) to complement his/her own course, with videos, maps or any other content that would remain accessible for the students a long time after the course itself. In geosciences, many national and international institutions provide real time monitoring of the Earth (e.g. seismicity, climate, volcanisms...) and / or scientific content based on active research or more mature results. There is little doubt that this new scientific content is a great step forward for the students and the researchers alike. Geosciences (and especially geology), however, usually require field observations and in situ measurements, and a good student curriculum cannot be achieved without a significant amount of walking, observations, and questions answered on the field. We, as geologists, all experienced days and days of sun, dust and pouring rain... Most of the universities provide the students with field courses that allow them to (try to) apply what they have learnt in the universities' buildings. However, these few days (often reduced to cut the costs and fit teachers' schedules) may not be sufficient given the complexity of the area visited and the possible lack of some parts of the teacher's explanations for various reasons. It is therefore important to build a virtual suite to the field itself to provide a cost-free support available year round, to eventually achieve or complete the field course. The new images technologies now offer amazing visualization capabilities to "show" the field in an interactive fashion. For instance, a few tens of pictures taken with a good SRL camera equipped with an ultra wide angle lens permit to build a 360° panorama with no deformation of a point of interest. Moreover

  14. Report on Advanced Life Support Activities at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2004-01-01

    Plant studies at Kennedy Space Center last year focused on selecting cultivars of lettuce, tomato, and pepper for further testing as crops for near-term space flight applications. Other testing continued with lettuce, onion, and radish plants grown at different combinations of light (PPF), temperature, and CO2 concentration. In addition, comparisons of mixed versus mono culture approaches for vegetable production were studied. Water processing testing focused on the development and testing of a rotating membrane bioreactor to increase oxygen diffusion levels for reducing total organic carbon levels and promoting nitrification. Other testing continued to study composting testing for food wastes (NRA grant) and the use of supplemental green light with red/blue LED lighting systems for plant production (NRC fellowship).

  15. Russian Activities in Space Photovoltaic Power Modules with Concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, Vyacheslav M.; Rumyantsev, Valeri D.

    2004-01-01

    Space concentrator modules with point-and line-focus Fresnel lenses and with reflective parabolic troughs have been developed recently at Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute. PV receivers for these modules are based: on the single junction LPE and MOCVD AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells characterized by AM0 efficiencies of 23.5 - 24% at 20 - 50 suns and 24 - 24.75 at 50 - 200 suns; on the mechanically stacked tandem AlGaAs/GaAs-GaSb cells with efficiency of 27 - 28 at 20 - 100 suns. MOCVD AlGaAs/GaAs cells with internal Bragg reflector have shown a higher radiation resistance as compared to a traditional structure. Monolithic two-terminal tandems AlGaAs (top)-GaAs (bottom) for space application and GaSb (top) - InGaAsSb (bottom) for TRV application are under development as well.

  16. Recent and Future Stratospheric Balloon Activities at Esrange Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemi, Stig

    Esrange Space Center located in northern Sweden has during 45 years been a leading launch site for both sounding rockets and stratospheric balloons. We have a unique combination of maintaining both stratospheric balloons and sounding rockets launch operations. Most balloon flights are normally handled inside Scandinavia but since 2005 PersonNamesemi-circular flights are performed with recovery in northern Canada. The Swedish Government and Swedish National Space Board are now finaliz-ing an agreement with Russia for peaceful uPersonNamese of space, which will permit circumpolar balloon flights. Within this agreement we will soon be able to of-fer the science community long duration balloon flights with durations for PersonNameseveral weeks. The balloon operations at Esrange Space Center are yearly expanding. Both NASA and CNES have long term plans for balloon flights from northern Sweden. We have also received a request from JAXA for future balloon missions. To handle balloon campaigns with large numbers of payloads or build up for two different campaigns a new big assembly hall will be ready for use at the beginning of 2011. January 24 we made an historical balloon flight in a very cold stratosphere with a Zodiac metricconverterProductID402?000 m3402ü ınbsp;000 m3402 000 m3 balloon carrying a 750kg gondola with the German Mipas-B/Telis instrument. The balloon reached 34kms alti-tude after a carefully piloted ascent in temperature levels down to -89 degrees Centigrade. The scientists received unique data during the 13 hours and 30 minutes long sailing at different altitudes during slow descent. The payload was recovered in very good condition 80 kms from the border between country-regionFinland and Russia.

  17. Aerospace Battery Activities at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2006-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center has "pioneered" rechargeable secondary battery design, test, infusion and in-orbit battery management among NASA installations. Nickel cadmium batteries of various designs and sizes have been infused for LEO, GEO and Libration Point spacecraft. Nickel-Hydrogen batteries have currently been baselined for the majority of our missions. Li-Ion batteries from ABSL, JSB, SaFT and Lithion have been designed and tested for aerospace application.

  18. Mathematical analysis techniques for modeling the space network activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Lisa M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to explore and identify mathematical analysis techniques, and in particular, the use of linear programming. This topic was then applied to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) in order to understand the space network better. Finally, a small scale version of the system was modeled, variables were identified, data was gathered, and comparisons were made between actual and theoretical data.

  19. Enhancing the Entertainment Experience of Blind and Low-Vision Theatregoers through Touch Tours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udo, J. P.; Fels, D. I.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how universal design theory and the research available on museum-based touch tours can be used to develop a touch tour for blind and low-vision theatregoers. We discuss these theoretical and practical approaches with reference to data collected and experience gained from the creation and execution of a touch tour for…

  20. Theoretical Explanation for Success of Deep-Level-Learning Study Tours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergsteiner, Harald; Avery, Gayle C.

    2008-01-01

    Study tours can help internationalize curricula and prepare students for global workplaces. We examine benefits of tours providing deep-level learning experiences rather than industrial tourism using five main theoretical frameworks to highlight the diverse learning benefits associated with intensive study tours in particular. Relevant theoretical…

  1. Does activity space size influence physical activity levels of adolescents?—A GPS study of an urban environment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nolan C.; Voss, Christine; Frazer, Amanda D.; Hirsch, Jana A.; McKay, Heather A.; Winters, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is closely linked with child and youth health, and active travel may be a solution to enhancing PA levels. Activity spaces depict the geographic coverage of one's travel. Little is known about activity spaces and PA in adolescents. Objective To explore the relation between adolescent travel (using a spatial measure of activity space size) and daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), with a focus on school days. Methods We used Global Positioning Systems to manually identify trips and generate activity spaces for each person-day; quantified by area for 39 students (13.8 ± 0.6 years, 38% female) attending high school in urban Downtown Vancouver, Canada. We assessed the association between activity space area and MVPA using multi-level regression. We calculated total, school-day and trip-based MVPA for each valid person-day (accelerometry; ≥ 600 min wear time). Results On school days, students accrued 68.2 min/day (95% CI 60.4–76.0) of MVPA. Daily activity spaces averaged 2.2 km2 (95% CI 1.3–3.0). There was no association between activity space size and school-day MVPA. Students accrued 21.8 min/day (95% CI 19.2–24.4) of MVPA during school hours, 19.4 min/day (95% CI 15.1–23.7) during travel, and 28.3 min/day (95% CI 22.3–34.3) elsewhere. Conclusion School and school travel are important sources of PA in Vancouver adolescents, irrespective of activity space area covered. PMID:26807349

  2. Preserving the Environment of Outer Space - Legal, Regulatory and Institutional Aspects of Active Orbital Debris Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankata Nyampong, Y. O.

    2012-01-01

    In view of the massive quantities of space debris already deposited in outer space, any effort aimed at guaranteeing the sustainability of mankind's access to outer space and the continued safety of space operations must not be limited exclusively to mitigating the creation of new debris, but must also focus on the active removal of existing pieces of debris from space (remediation) as a matter of necessity. Presently, technologies that will enable active debris removal (ADR) are only just emerging. As the technology develops, however, several legal, regulatory and institutional issues that may hinder the conduct of ADR activities must also be addressed. This paper highlights and explores some of the foregoing issues in an effort to draw international attention to these matters and ultimately to pave the way for the smooth conduct of ADR activities once the technology matures.

  3. Application of the French Space Operation Act and the Development of Space Activities in the Field of Launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahuzac, F.; Biard, A.

    2012-01-01

    The development of space activities has led France to define a new legal framework: French Space Operation Act (FSOA). The aim of this act, is to define the conditions according to which the French government authorizes and checks the spatial operations under its jurisdiction or its international responsibility as State of launch, according to the international treaties of the UN on space, in particular the Treaty (1967) on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, the Convention ( 1972 ) on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects, and the Convention (1975) on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space. The main European space centre is the Guiana Space Centre (CSG), settled in France. A clarification of the French legal framework was compulsory to allow the arrival of new launchers (Soyuz and Vega). This act defines the competent authority, the procedure of authorization and licenses, the regime for operations led from foreign countries, the control of spatial objects, the enabling of inspectors, the delegation of monitoring to CNES, the procedure for urgent measures necessary for the safety, the registration of spatial objects. In this framework, the operator is fully responsible of the operation that he leads. He is subjected to a regime of authorization and to governmental technical monitoring delegated to CNES. In case of litigation, the operator gets the State guarantee above a certain level of damage to third party. The introduction of FSOA has led to issue a Technical Regulation set forth, in particular for the safety of persons and property, the protection of public health and the environment. This general regulation is completed by a specific regulation applicable to CSG that covers the preparation phase of the launch, and all specificities of the launch range, as regards the beginning of the launch. The Technical Regulation is based on 30 years of Ariane's activities and on the

  4. Photonic muscle active optics for space telescopes (active optics with 1023 actuators)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Joe

    2009-08-01

    Presented is a novel optical system using Cis-Trans photoisomerization where nearly every molecule of a mirror substrate is itself an optically powered actuator. Primary mirrors require sub-wavelength figure (shape) error in order to achieve acceptable Strehl ratios. Traditional telescopy methods require rigid and therefore heavy mirrors and reaction structures as well as proportionally heavy and expensive spacecraft busses and launch vehicles. Areal density can be reduced by increasing actuation density. Making every molecule of a substrate an actuator approaches the limit of the areal density vs actuation design trade space. Cis-Trans photoisomerization, a reversible reorganization of molecular structure induced by light, causes a change in the shape and volume of azobenzene based molecules. Induced strain in these "photonic muscles" can be over 40%. Forces are pico-newtons/molecule. Although this molecular limit is not typically multiplied in aggregate materials we have made, considering the large number of molecules in a mole, future optimized systems may approach this limit In some π-π* mixed valence azo-polymer membranes we have made photoisomerization causes a highly controllable change in macroscopic dimension with application of light. Using different wavelengths and polarizations provides the capability to actively reversibly and remotely control membrane mirror shape and dynamics using low power lasers, instead of bulky actuators and wires, thus allowing the substitution of optically induced control for rigidity and mass. Areal densities of our photonic muscle mirrors are approximately 100 g/m2. This includes the substrate and actuators (which are of course the same). These materials are thin and flexible (similar to saran wrap) so high packing ratios are possible, suggesting the possibility of deployable JWST size mirrors weighing 6 kilograms, and the possibility of ultralightweight space telescopes the size of a football field. Photons weigh nothing

  5. Republic of Kazakhstan: Capacity Building through the Increasing of Space Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omarova, G.

    Currently, a new space policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan is being formulated. Basic directions are: Adherence to principal agreements of the International Space Law. Optimal utilization and modernization of the Baikonur spaceport launch infrastructure. Creation of the national satellite communication system In accordance with the above listed goals and objectives, the following priority actions should be taken in national level: Increasing of the National activities in COPUOS Developing of the National space activities Program and Space activities Act; Funding of a new and upgraded facilities at the Baikonur spaceport; Creating of the educational and training system for national space industry In 2004 Kazakhstan-Russia cooperation in space activities has entered to a new perspectives. Both countries proceeded to develop joint projects in the field of space activities connected to modernization of existing space infrastructure of the Baikonur spaceport for launchers that meet requirements of ecological security. Three relevant bilateral agreements were signed. All signed documents ensure more wide participation of the Republic of Kazakhstan in realization of space programs and projects implemented at the Baikonur spaceport through shared financing and realization jointly with Russia of projects on building of the space missile complex ``Baiterek'' and launching of geostationary communication satellite. It opens great opportunities for Kazakhstan in terms of capacity building. Implementation of the mentioned two projects will allow to use the available scientific, technical and intellectual potential of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the field of space activities, and to utilize effectively the infrastructure of Baikonur complex, to get affordable access to space technologies, to create conditions for development, test and operation of space facilities, new science --capacity technologies that will lead to close integration with Russian space industry and with

  6. Tour by Saudi prince Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud prior to mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Tour by Saudi prince Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud, payload specialists for STS 51-G mission, prior to mission. Al-Saud and Abdulmohsen Hamad Al-Bassam, the backup payload specialist, man the controls on the flight deck of the crew compartment trainer in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory (29788); the Saudi payload specialists share the hatch of the crew compartment trainer (29789); Portrait view of Abdulmohsen Hamad Al-Bassam during a visit to the Shuttle mockup and integraion laboratory (29790); Don Sirroco, left, explains the middeck facilities in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory (29791); Portrait view of Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud in the Shuttle Mockup and Integration laboratory (29792); The Saudi payload specialists witness a space food demonstration in the life sciences laboratory at JSC. Al-Saud (left) and Al-Bassam (second left) listen as Rita M. Rapp, food specialist, discusses three preparations of re-hydratable food for space travelers. Lynn S. Coll

  7. Effects of habitat and urbanization on the active space of brown-headed cowbird song.

    PubMed

    Gall, Megan D; Ronald, Kelly L; Bestrom, Eric S; Lucas, Jeffrey R

    2012-12-01

    The ability of a receiver to detect a signal is a product of the signal characteristics at the sender, habitat-specific degradation of the signal, and properties of the receiver's sensory system. Active space describes the maximum distance at which a receiver with a given sensory system can detect a signal in a given habitat. Here the effect of habitat structure and urbanization on brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) perched song active space was explored. The active space of the cowbird song was affected by both habitat type and level of urbanization. High frequency (4 to 6 kHz) portions of song resulted in the maximum active space. Surprisingly, the active space was the largest in open urban environments. The hard surfaces found in open urban areas (e.g., sidewalks, buildings) may provide a sound channel that enhances song propagation. When the introductory phrase and final phrase were analyzed separately, the active space of the introductory phrase was found to decrease in open urban environments but the active space of the final phrase increased in open urban environments. This suggests that different portions of the vocalization may be differentially influenced by habitat and level of urbanization.

  8. Active space heating and hot water supply with solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Karaki, S.; Loef, G. O.G.

    1981-04-01

    Technical and economic assessments are given of solar water heaters, both circulating, and of air-based and liquid-based solar space heating systems. Both new and retrofit systems are considered. The technical status of flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors and of thermal storage is also covered. Non-technical factors are also briefly discussed, including the participants in the use of solar heat, incentives and deterrents. Policy implications are considered as regards acceleration of solar use, goals for solar use, means for achieving goals, and interaction of governments, suppliers, and users. Government actions are recommended. (LEW)

  9. Space Weather Activities of IONOLAB Group: TEC Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikan, F.; Yilmaz, A.; Arikan, O.; Sayin, I.; Gurun, M.; Akdogan, K. E.; Yildirim, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    Being a key player in Space Weather, ionospheric variability affects the performance of both communication and navigation systems. To improve the performance of these systems, ionosphere has to be monitored. Total Electron Content (TEC), line integral of the electron density along a ray path, is an important parameter to investigate the ionospheric variability. A cost-effective way of obtaining TEC is by using dual-frequency GPS receivers. Since these measurements are sparse in space, accurate and robust interpolation techniques are needed to interpolate (or map) the TEC distribution for a given region in space. However, the TEC data derived from GPS measurements contain measurement noise, model and computational errors. Thus, it is necessary to analyze the interpolation performance of the techniques on synthetic data sets that can represent various ionospheric states. By this way, interpolation performance of the techniques can be compared over many parameters that can be controlled to represent the desired ionospheric states. In this study, Multiquadrics, Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW), Cubic Splines, Ordinary and Universal Kriging, Random Field Priors (RFP), Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP-NN), and Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBF-NN) are employed as the spatial interpolation algorithms. These mapping techniques are initially tried on synthetic TEC surfaces for parameter and coefficient optimization and determination of error bounds. Interpolation performance of these methods are compared on synthetic TEC surfaces over the parameters of sampling pattern, number of samples, the variability of the surface and the trend type in the TEC surfaces. By examining the performance of the interpolation methods, it is observed that both Kriging, RFP and NN have important advantages and possible disadvantages depending on the given constraints. It is also observed that the determining parameter in the error performance is the trend in the Ionosphere

  10. Project LASER Volunteer, Marshall Space Flight Center Education Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Through Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Education Department, over 400 MSFC employees have volunteered to support educational program during regular work hours. Project LASER (Learning About Science, Engineering, and Research) provides support for mentor/tutor requests, education tours, classroom presentations, and curriculum development. This program is available to teachers and students living within commuting distance of the NASA/MSFC in Huntsville, Alabama (approximately 50-miles radius). This image depicts students viewing their reflections in an x-ray mirror with Marshall optic engineer Vince Huegele at the Discovery Laboratory, which is an onsite MSFC laboratory facility that provides hands-on educational workshop sessions for teachers and students learning activities.

  11. Radiological health risks to astronauts from space activities and medical procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Leif E.; Nachtwey, D. Stuart

    1990-01-01

    Radiation protection standards for space activities differ substantially from those applied to terrestrial working situations. The levels of radiation and subsequent hazards to which space workers are exposed are quite unlike anything found on Earth. The new more highly refined system of risk management involves assessing the risk to each space worker from all sources of radiation (occupational and non-occupational) at the organ level. The risk coefficients were applied to previous space and medical exposures (diagnostic x ray and nuclear medicine procedures) in order to estimate the radiation-induced lifetime cancer incidence and mortality risk. At present, the risk from medical procedures when compared to space activities is 14 times higher for cancer incidence and 13 times higher for cancer mortality; however, this will change as the per capita dose during Space Station Freedom and interplanetary missions increases and more is known about the risks from exposure to high-LET radiation.

  12. Radiological health risks to astronauts from space activities and medical procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, L.E.; Nachtwey, D.S.

    1990-08-01

    Radiation protection standards for space activities differ substantially from those applied to terrestrial working situations. The levels of radiation and subsequent hazards to which space workers are exposed are quite unlike anything found on Earth. The new more highly refined system of risk management involves assessing the risk to each space worker from all sources of radiation (occupational and non-occupational) at the organ level. The risk coefficients were applied to previous space and medical exposures (diagnostic x ray and nuclear medicine procedures) in order to estimate the radiation-induced lifetime cancer incidence and mortality risk. At present, the risk from medical procedures when compared to space activities is 14 times higher for cancer incidence and 13 times higher for cancer mortality; however, this will change as the per capita dose during Space Station Freedom and interplanetary missions increases and more is known about the risks from exposure to high-LET radiation.

  13. Virtual Reality: Developing a VR space for Academic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaimaris, D.; Stylianidis, E.; Karanikolas, N.

    2014-05-01

    Virtual reality (VR) is extensively used in various applications; in industry, in academia, in business, and is becoming more and more affordable for end users from the financial point of view. At the same time, in academia and higher education more and more applications are developed, like in medicine, engineering, etc. and students are inquiring to be well-prepared for their professional life after their educational life cycle. Moreover, VR is providing the benefits having the possibility to improve skills but also to understand space as well. This paper presents the methodology used during a course, namely "Geoinformatics applications" at the School of Spatial Planning and Development (Eng.), Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, to create a virtual School space. The course design focuses on the methods and techniques to be used in order to develop the virtual environment. In addition the project aspires to become more and more effective for the students and provide a real virtual environment with useful information not only for the students but also for any citizen interested in the academic life at the School.

  14. Development and implementation of an electronic library tour for the NASA Langley Technical Library. M.S. Thesis, North Carolina Univ., Jul. 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinker, Nancy A.

    1994-01-01

    The role of librarians today is drastically influenced by the changing nature of information and library services. The museum-like libraries of yesterday are a thing of the past: today's libraries are bustling with life, activity, and the sounds of new technologies. Libraries are replacing their paper card catalogs with state-of-the-art online systems, which provide faster and more comprehensive search capabilities. Even the resources themselves are changing. New formats for information, such as CD-ROM's, are becoming popular for all types of publications, from bibliographic tools to encyclopedias to electronic journals, even replacing print materials completely in some cases. Today it is almost impossible to walk into a library and find the information you need without coming into contact with at least one computer system. Librarians are not only struggling to keep up with the technological advancements of the day, but they are becoming information intermediaries: they must teach library users how to use all of the new systems and electronic resources. Not surprisingly, bibliographic instruction itself has taken on a new look and feel in these electronically advanced libraries. Many libraries are experimenting with the development of expert systems and other computer aided instruction interfaces for teaching patrons how to use the library and its resources. One popular type of interface in library instruction programs is hypertext, which utilizes 'stacks' or linked pages of information. Hypertext stacks can incorporate color graphics along with text to provide a more interesting interface and entice users into trying out the system. Another advantage of hypertext is that it is generally easy to use, even for those unfamiliar with computers. As such, it lends itself well to application in libraries, which often serve a broad range of clientele. This paper will discuss the design, development, and implementation of a hypertext library tour in a special library

  15. Aeronautics and Space Report of the President: Fiscal Year 2001 Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 directed the annual Aeronautics and Space Report to include a 'comprehensive description of the programmed activities and the accomplishments of all agencies of the United States in the field of aeronautics and space activities during the preceding calendar year.' In recent years the reports have been prepared on a fiscal-year basis consistent with the budgetary period now used in programs of the Federal Government. This year's report covers activities that took place from October 1, 2000, through September 30, 2001.

  16. Aeronautics and Space Report of the President: Fiscal Year 2003 Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 directed the annual Aeronautics and Space Report to include a comprehensive description of the programmed activities and the accomplishments of all agencies of the United States in the field of aeronautics and space activities during the preceding calendar year. In recent years, the reports have been prepared on a fiscal-year basis, consistent with the budgetary period now used in programs of the Federal Government. This year's report covers activities that took place from October 1, 2002, through September 30, 2003.

  17. Aeronautics and Space Report of the President - Fiscal Year 2010 Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 directed the annual Aeronautics and Space Report to include a "comprehensive description of the programmed activities and the accomplishments of all agencies of the United States in the field of aeronautics and space activities during the preceding calendar year." In recent years, the reports have been prepared on a fiscal-year basis, consistent with the budgetary period now used in programs of the Federal Government. This year's report covers activities that took place from October 1, 2009, through September 30, 2010.

  18. Aeronautics and Space Report of the President - Fiscal Year 2008 Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 directed the annual Aeronautics and Space Report to include a "comprehensive description of the programmed activities and the accomplishments of all agencies of the United States in the field of aeronautics and space activities during the preceding calendar year." In recent years, the reports have been prepared on a fiscal-year basis, consistent with the budgetary period now used in programs of the Federal Government. This year's report covers activities that took place from October 1, 2007, through September 30, 2008.

  19. Aeronautics and Space Report of the President: Fiscal Year 2007 Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 directed the annual Aeronautics and Space Report to include a "comprehensive description of the programmed activities and the accomplishments of all agencies of the United States in the field of aeronautics and space activities during the preceding calendar year." In recent years, the reports have been prepared on a fiscal-year basis, consistent with the budgetary period now used in programs of the Federal Government. This year's report covers activities that took place from October 1, 2006, through September 30, 2007.

  20. Aeronautics and Space Report of the President: Fiscal Year 2000 Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 directed the annual Aeronautics and Space Report to include a "comprehensive description of the programmed activities and the accomplishments of all agencies of the United States in the field of aeronautics and space activities during the preceding calendar year." In recent years, the reports have been prepared on a fiscal year basis, consistent with the budgetary period now used in programs of the Federal Government. This year's report covers activities that took place from October 1, 1999, through September 30, 2000.

  1. Aeronautics and Space Report of the President: Fiscal Year 1999 Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 directed the annual Aeronautics and Space Report to include a "comprehensive description of the programmed activities and the accomplishments of all agencies of the United States in the field of aeronautics and space activities during the preceding calendar year." In recent years, the reports have been prepared on a fiscal year basis, consistent with the budgetary period now used in programs of the Federal Government. This year's report covers activities that took place from October 1, 1998, through September 30, 1999.

  2. Aeronautics and Space Report of the President: Fiscal Year 2005 Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 directed the annual Aeronautics and Space Report to include a "comprehensive description of the programmed activities and the accomplishments of all agencies of the United States in the field of aeronautics and space activities during the preceding calendar year." In recent years, the reports have been prepared on a fiscal-year basis, consistent with the budgetary period now used in programs of the Federal Government. This year's report covers activities that took place from October 1 , 2004, through September 30, 2005.

  3. Creating a Video Tour to Market Your Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellens, Suzanne; Mathews, Bobbie; Young, Shari

    2012-01-01

    Today, technology can be used to engage and communicate with others in ever-expanding ways. Many directors are embracing these technological advances to market their child care programs. In addition to printing up brochures and taking out ads in newspapers, directors can create a tour of their child care program that will attract new customers, as…

  4. Forestry Tour Educates Youth in North Central Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Randall H.; Moroney, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    The Clearwater County Sixth Grade Forestry Tour is a unique 3-day, 2-night program that provides participants an objective view of the importance and impact of natural resource-based industries while promoting an understanding of issues regarding natural resource uses. The targeted audience is 6th grade youth, but others interested in natural…

  5. The ACCE 2012 Study Tour: Reflections on Reoccurring Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Di; Grover, David; Grover, Pam; Hearne, Dominic; Knipe, Steven; Martin, Kim; Pazzi, Georgina; Pollard, Edward; Prestridge, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Transformational leadership is essential in education as it empowers educators to make positive changes to the way they think, feel and act in improving learning for all. Reflection is a vital element of leading the change process. In relation to participating in the ACCE study tour experience, reflection allows one to sit and think about the…

  6. How to Arrange Student Tours to the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Marshall

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the organization of trips to Russia that are more open than current college programs. A description is given of the types and cost of trips, the use of advertising to attract students, and the tour group composition. Suggested itineraries and a warning about possible problems in Russia are given. (PJM)

  7. 15. Fifth Melan Bridge on tour route, Union Avenue near ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Fifth Melan Bridge on tour route, Union Avenue near Park Boundary, deck view to the north. (bridge has now been replaced with box culvert.) - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  8. 16. Fifth Melan Bridge on tour route, Union Avenue near ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Fifth Melan Bridge on tour route, Union Avenue near Park Boundary, closer view of surface showing cracks, view to the south. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  9. 14. Fifth Melan Bridge on tour route, Union Avenue near ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Fifth Melan Bridge on tour route, Union Avenue near Park Boundary, elevation view to the north, showing Culvert beyond park boundary. (bridge has now been replaced with box culvert). - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  10. 21. Seventh Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Seventh Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area of park near Indiana encampment, detail of wall and stonework, view to the north. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  11. College and University Support of the Professional Touring Performing Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Richard

    Beginning as a pilot study in the spring of 1973, this analysis developed into a full study whose purpose was to determine how much of a financial subsidy the institutions of higher education do provide to the professional touring performing arts. The magnitude of expenditures as well as a measure of subsidies provided by sponsoring institutions…

  12. VIP Tours for Local Leaders Turn School Critics into Fans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Victor J.

    1991-01-01

    Angered by the poor press given his district and the nation's "feeble education system," the superintendent of Aurora (Colorado) Public Schools developed distinguished visitor tours to acquaint alleged critics with what the schools are offering. Visitors were impressed, and a mill increase passed shortly thereafter. (MLH)

  13. DNA replication origin activation in space and time.

    PubMed

    Fragkos, Michalis; Ganier, Olivier; Coulombe, Philippe; Méchali, Marcel

    2015-06-01

    DNA replication begins with the assembly of pre-replication complexes (pre-RCs) at thousands of DNA replication origins during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. At the G1-S-phase transition, pre-RCs are converted into pre-initiation complexes, in which the replicative helicase is activated, leading to DNA unwinding and initiation of DNA synthesis. However, only a subset of origins are activated during any S phase. Recent insights into the mechanisms underlying this choice reveal how flexibility in origin usage and temporal activation are linked to chromosome structure and organization, cell growth and differentiation, and replication stress.

  14. NASDA activities in space solar power system research, development and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuda, Sumio; Yamamoto, Yasunari; Uesugi, Masato

    1993-01-01

    NASDA activities in solar cell research, development, and applications are described. First, current technologies for space solar cells such as Si, GaAs, and InP are reviewed. Second, future space solar cell technologies intended to be used on satellites of 21st century are discussed. Next, the flight data of solar cell monitor on ETS-V is shown. Finally, establishing the universal space solar cell calibration system is proposed.

  15. Providing a virtual tour of a glacial watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, L.; Habermann, M.; Hood, E.; Fatland, R.; Heavner, M.; Knuth, E.

    2007-12-01

    SEAMONSTER, a NASA funded sensor web project, is the SouthEast Alaska MOnitoring Network for Science, Telecommunications, Education, and Research. Seamonster is leveraging existing open-source software and is an implementation of existing sensor web technologies intended to act as a sensor web testbed, an educational tool, a scientific resource, and a public resource. The primary focus area of initial SEAMONSTER deployment is the Lemon Creek watershed, which includes the Lemon Creek Glacier studied as part of the 1957-58 IPY. This presentation describes our year one efforts to maximize education and public outreach activities of SEAMONSTER. During the first summer, 37 sensors were deployed throughout two partially glaciated watersheds and facilitated data acquisition in temperate rain forest, alpine, lacustrine, and glacial environments. Understanding these environments are important for public understanding of climate change. These environments are geographically isolated, limiting public access to, and understanding of, such locales. In an effort to inform the general public and primary educators about the basic processes occurring in these unique natural systems, we are developing an interactive website. This web portal will supplement and enhance environmental science primary education by providing educators and students with interactive access to basic information from the glaciological, hydrological, and meteorological systems we are studying. In addition, we are developing an interactive virtual tour of the Lemon Glacier and its watershed. This effort will include Google Earth as a means of real-time data visualization and will take advantage of time-lapse movies, photographs, maps, and satellite imagery to promote an understanding of these unique natural systems and the role of sensor webs in education.

  16. Wireless Video System for Extra Vehicular Activity in the International Space Station and Space Shuttle Orbiter Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loh, Yin C.; Boster, John; Hwu, Shian; Watson, John C.; deSilva, Kanishka; Piatek, Irene (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Wireless Video System (WVS) provides real-time video coverage of astronaut extra vehicular activities during International Space Station (ISS) assembly. The ISS wireless environment is unique due to the nature of the ISS structure and multiple RF interference sources. This paper describes how the system was developed to combat multipath, blockage, and interference using an automatic antenna switching system. Critical to system performance is the selection of receiver antenna installation locations determined using Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) techniques.

  17. Moving through Life-Space Areas and Objectively Measured Physical Activity of Older People

    PubMed Central

    Portegijs, Erja; Tsai, Li-Tang; Rantanen, Taina; Rantakokko, Merja

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Physical activity–an important determinant of health and function in old age–may vary according to the life-space area reached. Our aim was to study how moving through greater life-space areas is associated with greater physical activity of community-dwelling older people. The association between objectively measured physical activity and life-space area reached on different days by the same individual was studied using one-week longitudinal data, to provide insight in causal relationships. Methods One-week surveillance of objectively assessed physical activity of community-dwelling 70–90-year-old people in central Finland from the “Life-space mobility in old age” cohort substudy (N = 174). In spring 2012, participants wore an accelerometer for 7 days and completed a daily diary including the largest life-space area reached (inside home, outside home, neighborhood, town, and beyond town). The daily step count, and the time in moderate (incl. walking) and low activity and sedentary behavior were assessed. Differences in physical activity between days on which different life-space areas were reached were tested using Generalized Estimation Equation models (within-group comparison). Results Participants’ mean age was 80.4±4.2 years and 63.5% were female. Participants had higher average step counts (p < .001) and greater moderate and low activity time (p < .001) on days when greater life-space areas were reached, from the home to the town area. Only low activity time continued to increase when moving beyond the town. Conclusion Community-dwelling older people were more physically active on days when they moved through greater life-space areas. While it is unknown whether physical activity was a motivator to leave the home, intervention studies are needed to determine whether facilitation of daily outdoor mobility, regardless of the purpose, may be beneficial in terms of promoting physical activity. PMID:26252537

  18. The Feasibility of a Galileo-Style Tour of the Uranian Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaton, Andrew F.; Longuski, James M.; Vanhooser, Teresa B. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Gravity-assist trajectories have been a key to outer Solar System exploration. In particular, the gravity-assist tour of the Jovian satellites has contributed significantly to the success of the Galileo mission. A comparison of the Jovian system to the Uranian system reveals that the two possess similar satellite/planet mass ratios. Tisserand graphs of the Uranian system also indicate the potential for tours at Uranus. In this paper. We devise tour strategies and design a prototypical tour of the Uranian satellites, proving that tours at Uranus are feasible.

  19. Active Solution Space and Search on Job-shop Scheduling Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Masato; Ida, Kenichi; Gen, Mitsuo

    In this paper we propose a new searching method of Genetic Algorithm for Job-shop scheduling problem (JSP). The coding method that represent job number in order to decide a priority to arrange a job to Gannt Chart (called the ordinal representation with a priority) in JSP, an active schedule is created by using left shift. We define an active solution at first. It is solution which can create an active schedule without using left shift, and set of its defined an active solution space. Next, we propose an algorithm named Genetic Algorithm with active solution space search (GA-asol) which can create an active solution while solution is evaluated, in order to search the active solution space effectively. We applied it for some benchmark problems to compare with other method. The experimental results show good performance.

  20. On-orbit Metrology and Calibration Requirements for Space Station Activities Definition Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotty, G. M.; Ranganathan, B. N.; Sorrell, A. L.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station is the focal point for the commercial development of space. The long term routine operation of the Space Station and the conduct of future commercial activities suggests the need for in-space metrology capabilities analogous when possible to those on-Earth. The ability to perform periodic calibrations and measurements with proper traceability is imperative for the routine operation of the Space Station. An initial review, however, indicated a paucity of data related to metrology and calibration requirements for in-space operations. This condition probably exists because of the highly developmental aspect of space activities to date, their short duration, and nonroutine nature. The on-orbit metrology and calibration needs of the Space Station were examined and assessed. In order to achieve this goal, the following tasks were performed: an up-to-date literature review; identification of on-orbit calibration techniques; identification of sensor calibration requirements; identification of calibration equipment requirements; definition of traceability requirements; preparation of technology development plans; and preparation of the final report. Significant information and major highlights pertaining to each task is presented. In addition, some general (generic) conclusions/observations and recommendations that are pertinent to the overall in-space metrology and calibration activities are presented.

  1. Review and comparison of active space debris capturing and removal methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Minghe; Guo, Jian; Gill, Eberhard

    2016-01-01

    Space debris is considered as a serious problem for operational space missions. Many enabling space debris capturing and removal methods have been proposed in the past decade and several methods have been tested on ground and/or in parabolic flight experiments. However, not a single space debris has been removed yet. A space debris object is usually non-cooperative and thus different with targets of on-orbit servicing missions. Thus, capturing and removal of space debris is significantly more challenging. One of the greatest challenges is how to reliably capture and remove a non-cooperative target avoiding to generate even more space debris. To motivate this research area and facilitate the development of active space debris removal, this paper provides review and comparison of the existing technologies on active space debris capturing and removal. It also reviews research areas worth investigating under each capturing and removal method. Frameworks of methods for capturing and removing space debris are developed. The advantages and drawbacks of the most relevant capturing and removal methods are addressed as well. In addition, examples and existing projects related to these methods are discussed.

  2. Advanced Embedded Active Assemblies for Extreme Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelCastillo, Linda; Moussessian, Alina; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Kolawa, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This work describes the development and evaluation of advanced technologies for the integration of electronic die within membrane polymers. Specifically, investigators thinned silicon die, electrically connecting them with circuits on flexible liquid crystal polymer (LCP), using gold thermo-compression flip chip bonding, and embedding them within the material. Daisy chain LCP assemblies were thermal cycled from -135 to +85degC (Mars surface conditions for motor control electronics). The LCP assembly method was further utilized to embed an operational amplifier designed for operation within the Mars surface ambient. The embedded op-amp assembly was evaluated with respect to the influence of temperature on the operational characteristics of the device. Applications for this technology range from multifunctional, large area, flexible membrane structures to small-scale, flexible circuits that can be fit into tight spaces for flex to fit applications.

  3. 14 CFR 1266.104 - Cross-waiver of liability for launch agreements for science or space exploration activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-waiver of liability for launch agreements for science or space exploration activities unrelated to the International Space Station. 1266.104 Section 1266.104 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CROSS-WAIVER...

  4. Individualized Instruction in Science, Time-Space-Matter, Learning Activity Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczma, R. M.

    Learning Activity Packages (LAP) relating to time, space, and matter are presented for use in sampling a new type of learning for a whole year. Besides the unit on introduction to individualized learning, 11 major topics are incorporated into three other units: (1) observation of the physical world, (2) space and exploration for environmental…

  5. Report to the Congress from The President of the United States. United States Aeronautics and Space Activities 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lyndon B.

    This report extensively reviews the progress of the United States in space during 1967, the tenth year of the space age. The first chapter of the report summarizes the 1967 space activities; and each of the remaining 13 chapters is devoted to reviewing the space-related activities of a particular federal agency (13 agencies included). Appendices…

  6. Young Adolescents’ Perceived Activity Space Risk, Peer Networks, and Substance use

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Michael; Mennis, Jeremy; Way, Thomas; Light, John; Rusby, Julie; Westling, Erika; Crewe, Stephanie; Flay, Brian; Campbell, Leah; Zaharakis, Nikola; McHenry, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent substance use is a developmentally contingent social practice that is constituted within the routine social-environment of adolescents’ lives. Few studies have examined peer networks, perceived activity space risk (risk of substance use at routine locations), and substance use. We examined the moderating influence of peer network characteristics on the relationship between perceived activity space risk and substance use among a sample of 250 urban adolescents. Significant interactions were found between peer networks and perceived activity space risk on tobacco and marijuana use, such that protective peer networks reduced the effect of activity place risk on substance use. A significant 3-way interaction was found on marijuana use indicating that gender moderated peer network's effect on activity space risk. Conditional effect analysis found that boys' peer networks moderated the effect of perceived activity space risk on marijuana use, whereas for girls, the effect of perceived activity space risk on marijuana use was not moderated by their peer networks. These findings could advance theoretical models to inform social-environmental research among adolescents. PMID:26026598

  7. Young adolescents' perceived activity space risk, peer networks, and substance use.

    PubMed

    Mason, Michael; Mennis, Jeremy; Way, Thomas; Light, John; Rusby, Julie; Westling, Erika; Crewe, Stephanie; Flay, Brian; Campbell, Leah; Zaharakis, Nikola; McHenry, Chantal

    2015-07-01

    Adolescent substance use is a developmentally contingent social practice that is constituted within the routine social-environment of adolescents' lives. Few studies have examined peer networks, perceived activity space risk (risk of substance use at routine locations), and substance use. We examined the moderating influence of peer network characteristics on the relationship between perceived activity space risk and substance use among a sample of 250 urban adolescents. Significant interactions were found between peer networks and perceived activity space risk on tobacco and marijuana use, such that protective peer networks reduced the effect of activity place risk on substance use. A significant 3-way interaction was found on marijuana use indicating that gender moderated peer network's effect on activity space risk. Conditional effect analysis found that boys' peer networks moderated the effect of perceived activity space risk on marijuana use, whereas for girls, the effect of perceived activity space risk on marijuana use was not moderated by their peer networks. These findings could advance theoretical models to inform social-environmental research among adolescents.

  8. INCORPORATING ROUTINE ACTIVITIES, ACTIVITY SPACES, AND SITUATIONAL DEFINITIONS INTO THE SOCIAL SCHEMATIC THEORY OF CRIME*

    PubMed Central

    BARR, ASHLEY B.; LEI, MAN-KIT; STEWART, ERIC

    2014-01-01

    Simons and Burt’s (2011) social schematic theory (SST) of crime posits that adverse social factors are associated with offending because they promote a set of social schemas (i.e., a criminogenic knowledge structure) that elevates the probability of situational definitions favorable to crime. This study extends the SST model by incorporating the role of contexts for action. Furthermore, the study advances tests of the SST by incorporating a measure of criminogenic situational definitions to assess whether such definitions mediate the effects of schemas and contexts on crime. Structural equation models using 10 years of panel data from 582 African American youth provided strong support for the expanded theory. The results suggest that childhood and adolescent social adversity fosters a criminogenic knowledge structure as well as selection into criminogenic activity spaces and risky activities, all of which increase the likelihood of offending largely through situational definitions. Additionally, evidence shows that the criminogenic knowledge structure interacts with settings to amplify the likelihood of situational definitions favorable to crime. PMID:26392633

  9. Young Scientists Explore Inner & Outer Space. Book 6--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of space (inner and outer). Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for…

  10. Integrated Modeling for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project: Structural Analysis Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, John; Mosier, Mark; Howard, Joe; Hyde, Tupper; Parrish, Keith; Ha, Kong; Liu, Frank; McGinnis, Mark

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs about structural analysis activities and integrated modeling for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The topics include: 1) JWST Overview; 2) Observatory Structural Models; 3) Integrated Performance Analysis; and 4) Future Work and Challenges.

  11. The Living Ocean. SeaWiFS: Studying Ocean Color from Space. Teacher's Guide with Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This educational document, designed for grades 9 to 10, discusses the observation of oceans from space. Topics covered include ocean color, the role of phytoplankton, the carbon cycle, and the greenhouse effect. Activities and discussion questions are presented.

  12. 48 CFR 1852.228-76 - Cross-waiver of liability for international space station activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of liability provision authorized by 14 CFR 1266.102. (2) “Damage” means: (i) Bodily injury to, or... facilities or services. “Protected Space Operations” also includes all activities related to evolution of...

  13. Second-Order Perturbation Theory for Generalized Active Space Self-Consistent-Field Wave Functions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dongxia; Li Manni, Giovanni; Olsen, Jeppe; Gagliardi, Laura

    2016-07-12

    A multireference second-order perturbation theory approach based on the generalized active space self-consistent-field (GASSCF) wave function is presented. Compared with the complete active space (CAS) and restricted active space (RAS) wave functions, GAS wave functions are more flexible and can employ larger active spaces and/or different truncations of the configuration interaction expansion. With GASSCF, one can explore chemical systems that are not affordable with either CASSCF or RASSCF. Perturbation theory to second order on top of GAS wave functions (GASPT2) has been implemented to recover the remaining electron correlation. The method has been benchmarked by computing the chromium dimer ground-state potential energy curve. These calculations show that GASPT2 gives results similar to CASPT2 even with a configuration interaction expansion much smaller than the corresponding CAS expansion.

  14. Emergent Public Spaces: Generative Activities on Function Interpolation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmona, Guadalupe; Dominguez, Angeles; Krause, Gladys; Duran, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    This study highlights ways in which generative activities may be coupled with network-based technologies in the context of teacher preparation to enhance preservice teachers' cognizance of how their own experience as students provides a blueprint for the learning environments they may need to generate in their future classrooms. In this study, the…

  15. Dynamics of hippocampal ensemble activity realignment: time versus space.

    PubMed

    Redish, A D; Rosenzweig, E S; Bohanick, J D; McNaughton, B L; Barnes, C A

    2000-12-15

    Whether hippocampal map realignment is coupled more strongly to position or time was studied in rats trained to shuttle on a linear track. The rats were required to run from a start box and to pause at a goal location at a fixed location relative to stable distal cues (room-aligned coordinate frame). The origin of each lap was varied by shifting the start box and track as a unit (box-aligned coordinate frame) along the direction of travel. As observed by Gothard et al. (1996a), on each lap the hippocampal activity realigned from a representation that was box-aligned to one that was room-aligned. We studied the dynamics of this transition using a measure of how well the moment-by-moment ensemble activity matched the expected activity given the location of the animal in each coordinate frame. The coherency ratio, defined as the ratio of the matches for the two coordinate systems, provides a quantitative measure of the ensemble activity alignment and was used to compare four possible descriptions of the realignment process. The elapsed time since leaving the box provided a better predictor of the occurrence of the transition than any of the three spatial parameters investigated, suggesting that the shift between coordinate systems is at least partially governed by a stochastic, time-dependent process.

  16. Life extension activities for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walyus, Keith D.; Pepe, Joyce; Prior, Michael

    2004-10-01

    Without an additional Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission (SM4), the HST Project will face numerous challenges to keep the telescope operating for as long as possible. As part of SM4, the HST Project planned to install various upgrades to the telescope including the installation of new batteries and new rate integrating gyros. Without these upgrades, reliability analyses and trend projections indicate that the spacecraft will lose the capability to conduct science operations later this decade. The HST team is being challenged to maximize the telescope's remaining operational lifetime, and also maximize its science output and quality. The two biggest areas of concern are the age and condition of the batteries and gyros. Together they comprise the largest risk to telescope productivity and safety and present the biggest challenges to the HST team. The six nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) batteries on HST are the original batteries from launch. With fourteen years of operational life, these batteries have -lasted longer than those on any comparable mission. Yet as with all batteries, their capacity has been declining. Engineers are examining various methods to prolong the life of these mission critical batteries, and retard the rate of degradation. In addition to the batteries, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) scheduled all six gyros to be replaced on SM4. Two of the six gyros have already failed, leaving four available for operational use. To be able to conduct science operations, the telescope currently needs three gyros. Efforts are underway to enable a guiding mode that will require only two gyros. In this mode, however, science target scheduling will be strongly driven by new factors (such as star tracker availability), which may ultimately reduce science gathering efficiency. The status on this effort and its potential impact on science operations will be discussed. This paper will focus on these and other efforts to prolong the life of

  17. Thermal Technology Development Activities at the Goddard Space Flight Center - 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Dan

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of thermal technology development activities carried out at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center during 2001. Specific topics covered include: two-phase systems (heat pipes, capillary pumped loops, vapor compression systems and phase change materials), variable emittance systems, advanced coatings, high conductivity materials and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) thermal coatings. The application of these activities to specific space missions is also discussed.

  18. Assessment of MSFCs Process for the Development and Activation of Space Act Agreement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Space Act Agreements (SAAs) are contractual agreements that NASA utilizes to form partnerships with researchers, industry, and academia to stimulate cutting-edge innovation within the science and technology communities. center dot This study assessed the current SAA development and activation process at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to determine if improvements could be implemented to increase productivity, decrease time to activation, and improve the quality of deliverables.

  19. Sky Luminaries in the Space Orienting Activity of Homo Sapiens in the Middle Palaeolithic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaurov, E. N.

    Data describing the beginnings of the space orienting activity of Homo sapiens is analysed and systematized: observation of the Pole and the recognition of Ursa Major were used as the basis of the determination of the points of the compass. Data and results from astronomy, history of astronomy, archaeology and palaeoanthropology were used for the reconstruction of the evolution of the space orienting activity of Homo sapiens.

  20. Life Extension Activities for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walyus, Keith D.; Pepe, Joyce A. K.; Prior, Michael

    2004-01-01

    With the cancellation of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission 4 (SM4), the HST Project will face numerous challenges to keep the Telescope operating during the remainder of the decade. As part of the SM4, the HST Project had planned to install various upgrades to the Telescope including the installation of new batteries and new rate integrating gyros. Without these upgrades, reliability analysis indicates that the spacecraft will lose the capability to conduct science operations later this decade. The HST team will be severely challenged to maximize the Telescope's remaining operational lifetime, while still trying to maximize - its science output and quality. Two of the biggest areas of concern are the age and condition of the batteries and gyros. Together they offer the largest potential extension in Telescope lifetime and present the biggest challenges to the HST team. The six Ni-H batteries on HST are the original batteries from launch. With fourteen years of operational life, these batteries have collectively lasted longer than any other comparable mission. Yet as with all batteries, their capacity has been declining. Engineers are examining various methods to prolong the life of these mission critical batteries, and retard the rate of degradation. This paper will focus on these and other efforts to prolong the life of the HST, thus enabling it to remain a world-class observatory for as long as possible.

  1. Fungal epoxide hydrolases: new landmarks in sequence-activity space.

    PubMed

    Smit, Martha S

    2004-03-01

    Epoxide hydrolases are useful catalysts for the hydrolytic kinetic resolution of epoxides, which are sought after intermediates for the synthesis of enantiopure fine chemicals. The epoxide hydrolases from Aspergillus niger and from the basidiomycetous yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis and Rhodosporidium toruloides have demonstrated potential as versatile, user friendly biocatalysts for organic synthesis. A recombinant A. niger epoxide hydrolase, produced by an overproducing A. niger strain, is already commercially available and recombinant yeast epoxide hydrolases expressed in Escherichia coli have shown excellent results. Within the vast body of activity information on the one hand and gene sequence information on the other hand, the epoxide hydrolases from the Rhodotorula spp. and A. niger stand out because we have sequence information as well as activity information for both the wild-type and recombinant forms of these enzymes.

  2. [A dynamic model of the extravehicular (correction of extravehicuar) activity space suit].

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng; Yuan, Xiu-gan

    2002-12-01

    Objective. To establish a dynamic model of the space suit base on the particular configuration of the space suit. Method. The mass of the space suit components, moment of inertia, mobility of the joints of space suit, as well as the suit-generated torques, were considered in this model. The expressions to calculate the moment of inertia were developed by simplifying the geometry of the space suit. A modified Preisach model was used to mathematically describe the hysteretic torque characteristics of joints in a pressurized space suit, and it was implemented numerically basing on the observed suit parameters. Result. A dynamic model considering mass, moment of inertia and suit-generated torques was established. Conclusion. This dynamic model provides some elements for the dynamic simulation of the astronaut extravehicular activity.

  3. CDPP activities: Promoting research and education in space physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genot, V. N.; Andre, N.; Cecconi, B.; Gangloff, M.; Bouchemit, M.; Dufourg, N.; Pitout, F.; Budnik, E.; Lavraud, B.; Rouillard, A. P.; Heulet, D.; Bellucci, A.; Durand, J.; Delmas, D.; Alexandrova, O.; Briand, C.; Biegun, A.

    2015-12-01

    The French Plasma Physics Data Centre (CDPP, http://cdpp.eu/) addresses for more than 15 years all issues pertaining to natural plasma data distribution and valorization. Initially established by CNES and CNRS on the ground of a solid data archive, CDPP activities diversified with the advent of broader networks and interoperability standards, and through fruitful collaborations (e.g. with NASA/PDS): providing access to remote data, designing and building science driven analysis tools then became at the forefront of CDPP developments. For instance today AMDA helps scientists all over the world accessing and analyzing data from ancient to very recent missions (from Voyager, Galileo, Geotail, ... to Maven, Rosetta, MMS, ...) as well as results from models and numerical simulations. Other tools like the Propagation Tool or 3DView allow users to put their data in context and interconnect with other databases (CDAWeb, MEDOC) and tools (Topcat). This presentation will briefly review this evolution, show technical and science use cases, and finally put CDPP activities in the perspective of ongoing collaborative projects (Europlanet H2020, HELCATS, ...) and future missions (Bepicolombo, Solar Orbiter, ...).

  4. Structural Dynamics Experimental Activities in Ultra-Lightweight and Inflatable Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Lassiter, John O.; Ross, Brian P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports recently completed structural dynamics experimental activities with new ultra-lightweight and inflatable space structures (a.k.a., "Gossamer" spacecraft) at NASA Langley Research Center, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Nine aspects of this work are covered: 1) inflated, rigidized tubes, 2) active control experiments, 3) photogrammetry, 4) laser vibrometry, 5) modal tests of inflatable structures, 6) in-vacuum modal tests, 7) tensioned membranes, 8) deployment tests, and 9) flight experiment support. Structural dynamics will play a major role in the design and eventually in-space deployment and performance of Gossamer spacecraft. Experimental research and development such as this is required to validate new analysis methods. The activities discussed in the paper are pathfinder accomplishments. conducted on unique components and prototypes of future spacecraft systems.

  5. Structural Dynamics Experimental Activities in Ultra-Lightweight and Inflatable Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Lassiter, John O.; Ross, Brian P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports recently completed structural dynamics experimental activities with new ultralightweight and inflatable space structures (a.k.a., "Gossamer" spacecraft) at NASA Langley Research Center, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Nine aspects of this work are covered, as follows: 1) inflated, rigidized tubes, 2) active control experiments, 3) photogrammetry, 4) laser vibrometry, 5) modal tests of inflatable structures, 6) in-vacuum modal tests, 7) tensioned membranes, 8) deployment tests, and 9) flight experiment support. Structural dynamics will play a major role in the design and eventual in-space deployment and performance of Gossamer spacecraft, and experimental R&D work such as this is required now to validate new analytical prediction methods. The activities discussed in the paper are pathfinder accomplishments, conducted on unique components and prototypes of future spacecraft systems.

  6. Relaxed active space: Fixing tailored-CC with high order coupled cluster. II

    SciTech Connect

    Melnichuk, Ann Bartlett, Rodney J.

    2014-02-14

    Due to the steep increase in computational cost with the inclusion of higher-connected cluster operators in coupled-cluster applications, it is usually not practical to use such methods for larger systems or basis sets without an active space partitioning. This study generates an active space subject to unambiguous statistical criteria to define a space whose size permits treatment at the CCSDT level. The automated scheme makes it unnecessary for the user to judge whether a chosen active space is sufficient to correctly solve the problem. Two demanding applications are presented: twisted ethylene and the transition states for the bicyclo[1,1,0]butane isomerization. As bi-radicals both systems require at least a CCSDT level of theory for quantitative results, for the geometries and energies.

  7. Enzyme activities and membrane lipids in artemia cysts after a long duration space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaubin, Y.; Prévost, M. C.; Cariven, C.; Pianezzi, B.; Planel, H.; Soleilhavoup, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    In the Free Flyer Biostack Experiment (L.D.E.F. mission) investigations have shown that biological objects in a resting state can survive more than 5.5 years of exposure to the space factors in particular microgravity and cosmic rays. We have measured enzyme activities involved in metabolic pathways of sugar and lipid degradation and determined phospholipid composition. Pyruvate kinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in space-exposed cysts were higher than in earth controls after 1 hour incubation. In controls, total phospholipids remained unchanged, on the contrary they increased significantly in space-exposed cysts. The rate of metabolism of various phospholipid components was unchanged in controls allowing the development while the level of most of them decreased in space-exposed cysts except for phosphatidylcholine. Enzyme activities (acetylhydrolase, phospholipase A_2 and lyso phospholipase) involved in phospholipid degradation increased ; however, activities were much higher in space-exposed cysts. In conclusion, the long duration space flight resulted in an increase of the metabolic activity correlated with a faster development within the first 20 hours of post flight incubation.

  8. Space activity in the 21 st century forum at unispace III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doetsch, Karl H.; Zhdanovich, Olga V.

    2000-07-01

    During the 21st Century, space activity will have a profound influence on life on Earth and on the development of society. Space activity will touch ever more firmly on the provision of the necessities and qualities of life and will accelerate the movement of nations towards the concept of the global village. A study by Prospective 2100, a group identifying major global trends for the next century, ranked space activity as one of the twelve most important factors for shaping the next century, alongside such items as education, ocean cities, the planetary garden, caring and sharing. The International Space University, ISU, the International Astronautical Federation, IAF, and Prospective 2100 joined forces to study in detail how this influence of space activity would be manifested in the next century. The one-day forum at UNISPACE III was one of a number of international, intercultural and interdisciplinary fora held during the past year to consider what would be the most appropriate space activity for the next century to meet the needs of humanity. The findings and recommendations of the forum are presented in this report.

  9. Lunar bases and space activities of the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    The present conference gives attention to such major aspects of lunar colonization as lunar base concepts, lunar transportation, lunar science research activities, moon-based astronomical researches, lunar architectural construction, lunar materials and processes, lunar oxygen production, life support and health maintenance in lunar bases, societal aspects of lunar colonization, and the prospects for Mars colonization. Specific discussions are presented concerning the role of nuclear energy in lunar development, achromatic trajectories and the industrial scale transport of lunar resources, advanced geologic exploration from a lunar base, geophysical investigations of the moon, moon-based astronomical interferometry, the irradiation of the moon by particles, cement-based composites for lunar base construction, electrostatic concentration of lunar soil minerals, microwave processing of lunar materials, a parametric analysis of lunar oxygen production, hydrogen from lunar regolith fines, metabolic support for a lunar base, past and future Soviet lunar exploration, and the use of the moons of Mars as sources of water for lunar bases.

  10. Space-Based Detection of Sinkhole Activity in Central Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver-Cabrera, T.; Kruse, S.; Wdowinski, S.

    2015-12-01

    Central Florida's thick carbonate deposits and hydrological conditions have made the area prone to sinkhole development. Sinkhole collapse is a major geologic hazard in central Florida threatening human life and causing substantial damage to property. According to the Florida Senate report in 2010, between 2006-2010 total insurance claims due to sinkhole activity were around $200 million per year. Detecting sinkhole deformation before a collapse is a very difficult task, due to small or sometimes unnoticeable surface changes. Most techniques used to monitor sinkholes provide very localized information and cannot be implemented to study broad areas. This is the case of central Florida, where the active zone spans over hundreds of square-kilometers. In this study we use Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations acquired over several locations in central Florida to detect possible pre-collapse deformation. The study areas were selected because they have shown suspicious sinkhole behavior. One of the sites collapsed on March 2013 destroying a property and killing a man. To generate the InSAR results we use six datasets acquired by the TerraSAR-X and Cosmo-SkyMed satellites with various acquisition modes reflecting pixel resolutions between 25cm and 2m. Preliminary InSAR results show good coherence over constructed areas and low coherence in vegetated zones, justifying our analysis that focuses on the man-made structures. After full datasets will be acquired, a Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) time series analysis will be performed for detecting localized deformation at spatial scale of 1-5 meters. The project results will be verified using Ground Penetrating Radar.

  11. Umea, Sweden--Saskatoon, Canada: Resource-Based Learning Study Tour. A Report of a Study Tour of Saskatoon School Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikstrom, Inger Edebro; Westerlund, Mari-Ann

    This report describes a study tour of Saskatoon (Canada) school libraries undertaken by a library director and the deputy director of the board of education of Umea, Sweden (October 13-21, 2001). The purpose of the study tour was to: (1) develop an awareness of the scope of modern school library programming; (2) discuss with principals and…

  12. The U.S. commercial air tour industry: a review of aviation safety concerns.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations defines commercial air tours as "flight[s] conducted for compensation or hire in an airplane or helicopter where a purpose of the flight is sightseeing." The incidence of air tour crashes in the United States is disproportionately high relative to similar commercial aviation operations, and air tours operating under Part 91 governance crash significantly more than those governed by Part 135. This paper reviews the government and industry response to four specific areas of air tour safety concern: surveillance of flight operations, pilot factors, regulatory standardization, and maintenance quality assurance. It concludes that the government and industry have successfully addressed many of these tenet issues, most notably by: advancing the operations surveillance infrastructure through implementation of en route, ground-based, and technological surveillance methods; developing Aeronautical Decision Making and cue-based training programs for air tour pilots; consolidating federal air tour regulations under Part 136; and developing public-private partnerships for raising maintenance operating standards and improving quality assurance programs. However, opportunities remain to improve air tour safety by: increasing the number and efficiency of flight surveillance programs; addressing pilot fatigue with more restrictive flight hour limitations for air tour pilots; ensuring widespread uptake of maintenance quality assurance programs, especially among high-risk operators not currently affiliated with private air tour safety programs; and eliminating the 25-mile exception allowing Part 91 operators to conduct commercial air tours without the safety oversight required of Part 135 operators. PMID:24597160

  13. The U.S. commercial air tour industry: a review of aviation safety concerns.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations defines commercial air tours as "flight[s] conducted for compensation or hire in an airplane or helicopter where a purpose of the flight is sightseeing." The incidence of air tour crashes in the United States is disproportionately high relative to similar commercial aviation operations, and air tours operating under Part 91 governance crash significantly more than those governed by Part 135. This paper reviews the government and industry response to four specific areas of air tour safety concern: surveillance of flight operations, pilot factors, regulatory standardization, and maintenance quality assurance. It concludes that the government and industry have successfully addressed many of these tenet issues, most notably by: advancing the operations surveillance infrastructure through implementation of en route, ground-based, and technological surveillance methods; developing Aeronautical Decision Making and cue-based training programs for air tour pilots; consolidating federal air tour regulations under Part 136; and developing public-private partnerships for raising maintenance operating standards and improving quality assurance programs. However, opportunities remain to improve air tour safety by: increasing the number and efficiency of flight surveillance programs; addressing pilot fatigue with more restrictive flight hour limitations for air tour pilots; ensuring widespread uptake of maintenance quality assurance programs, especially among high-risk operators not currently affiliated with private air tour safety programs; and eliminating the 25-mile exception allowing Part 91 operators to conduct commercial air tours without the safety oversight required of Part 135 operators.

  14. Active space debris removal by a hybrid propulsion module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, L. T.; Bernelli, F.; Maggi, F.; Tadini, P.; Pardini, C.; Anselmo, L.; Grassi, M.; Pavarin, D.; Francesconi, A.; Branz, F.; Chiesa, S.; Viola, N.; Bonnal, C.; Trushlyakov, V.; Belokonov, I.

    2013-10-01

    During the last 40 years, the mass of the artificial objects in orbit increased quite steadily at the rate of about 145 metric tons annually, leading to a total tally of approximately 7000 metric tons. Now, most of the cross-sectional area and mass (97% in LEO) is concentrated in about 4600 intact objects, i.e. abandoned spacecraft and rocket bodies, plus a further 1000 operational spacecraft. Simulations and parametric analyses have shown that the most efficient and effective way to prevent the outbreak of a long-term exponential growth of the catalogued debris population would be to remove enough cross-sectional area and mass from densely populated orbits. In practice, according to the most recent NASA results, the active yearly removal of approximately 0.1% of the abandoned intact objects would be sufficient to stabilize the catalogued debris in low Earth orbit, together with the worldwide adoption of mitigation measures. The candidate targets for removal would have typical masses between 500 and 1000 kg, in the case of spacecraft, and of more than 1000 kg, in the case of rocket upper stages. Current data suggest that optimal active debris removal missions should be carried out in a few critical altitude-inclination bands. This paper deals with the feasibility study of a mission in which the debris is removed by using a hybrid propulsion module as propulsion unit. Specifically, the engine is transferred from a servicing platform to the debris target by a robotic arm so to perform a controlled disposal. Hybrid rocket technology for de-orbiting applications is considered a valuable option due to high specific impulse, intrinsic safety, thrust throttle ability, low environmental impact and reduced operating costs. Typically, in hybrid rockets a gaseous or liquid oxidizer is injected into the combustion chamber along the axial direction to burn a solid fuel. However, the use of tangential injection on a solid grain Pancake Geometry allows for more compact design of

  15. A small active dosimeter for applications in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Birgit; Maršálek, Karel; Berger, Thomas; Burmeister, Sönke; Reitz, Günther; Heber, Bernd

    2014-06-01

    The radiation field in low Earth orbits (LEO) differs significantly from the radiation environment on Earth's surface. Exposures are by far higher and pose an additional health risk for astronauts. Continuous monitoring is therefore a necessary task in the frame of radiation protection measures. A small battery-driven active dosimeter telescope based on silicon detectors meeting the requirements for LEO applications has been developed. The instrument, the Mobile Dosimetric Telescope (MDT), is designed to measure the absorbed dose rate and the linear energy transfer (LET) spectra. From the latter the mean quality factor of the radiation field can be derived and hence an estimate of the dose equivalent as a measure of the exposure. The calibration of the device is done using radioactive isotopes and heavy ions. Fragmentation products of heavy ions are used to show the ability of the MDT to reliably detect energy depositions from high energetic nuclei. Radiation measurements inside aircraft during long distance flights, serving as field tests of the instrument, prove the good performance of the instrument.

  16. Redefining Neighborhoods Using Common Destinations: Social Characteristics of Activity Spaces and Home Census Tracts Compared

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Malia; Pebley, Anne R.

    2014-01-01

    Research on neighborhood effects has focused largely on residential neighborhoods, but people are exposed to many other places in the course of their daily lives—at school, at work, when shopping, and so on. Thus, studies of residential neighborhoods consider only a subset of the social-spatial environment affecting individuals. In this article, we examine the characteristics of adults’ “activity spaces”—spaces defined by locations that individuals visit regularly, in Los Angeles County, California. Using geographic information system (GIS) methods, we define activity spaces in two ways and estimate their socioeconomic characteristics. Our research has two goals. First, we determine whether residential neighborhoods represent the social conditions to which adults are exposed in the course of their regular activities. Second, we evaluate whether particular groups are exposed to a broader or narrower range of social contexts in the course of their daily activities. We find that activity spaces are substantially more heterogeneous in terms of key social characteristics, compared to residential neighborhoods. However, the characteristics of both home neighborhoods and activity spaces are closely associated with individual characteristics. Our results suggest that most people experience substantial segregation across the range of spaces in their daily lives, not just at home. PMID:24719273

  17. Environmental hazard and risk characterisation of petroleum substances: a guided "walking tour" of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Bierkens, Johan; Geerts, Lieve

    2014-05-01

    Petroleum substances are used in large quantities, primarily as fuels. They are complex mixtures whose major constituents are hydrocarbons derived from crude oil by distillation and fractionation. Determining the complete molecular composition of petroleum and its refined products is not feasible with current analytical techniques because of the huge number of molecular components. This complex nature of petroleum products, with their varied number of constituents, all of them exhibiting different fate and effect characteristics, merits a dedicated hazard and risk assessment approach. From a regulatory perspective they pose a great challenge in a number of REACH processes, in particular in the context of dossier and substance evaluation but also for priority setting activities. In order to facilitate the performance of hazard and risk assessment for petroleum substances the European oil company association, CONCAWE, has developed the PETROTOX and PETRORISK spreadsheet models. Since the exact composition of many petroleum products is not known, an underlying assumption of the PETROTOX and PETRORISK tools is that the behaviour and fate of a total petroleum substance can be simulated based on the physical-chemical properties of representative structures mapped to hydrocarbon blocks (HBs) and on the relative share of each HB in the total mass of the product. To assess how differing chemical compositions affect the simulated chemical fate and toxicity of hydrocarbon mixtures, a series of model simulations were run using an artificial petroleum substance, containing 386 (PETROTOX) or 160 (PETRORISK) HBs belonging to different chemical classes and molecular weight ranges, but with equal mass assigned to each of them. To this artificial petroleum substance a guided series of subsequent modifications in mass allocation to a delineated number of HBs belonging to different chemical classes and carbon ranges was performed, in what we perceived as a guided "walking tour

  18. Environmental hazard and risk characterisation of petroleum substances: a guided "walking tour" of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Bierkens, Johan; Geerts, Lieve

    2014-05-01

    Petroleum substances are used in large quantities, primarily as fuels. They are complex mixtures whose major constituents are hydrocarbons derived from crude oil by distillation and fractionation. Determining the complete molecular composition of petroleum and its refined products is not feasible with current analytical techniques because of the huge number of molecular components. This complex nature of petroleum products, with their varied number of constituents, all of them exhibiting different fate and effect characteristics, merits a dedicated hazard and risk assessment approach. From a regulatory perspective they pose a great challenge in a number of REACH processes, in particular in the context of dossier and substance evaluation but also for priority setting activities. In order to facilitate the performance of hazard and risk assessment for petroleum substances the European oil company association, CONCAWE, has developed the PETROTOX and PETRORISK spreadsheet models. Since the exact composition of many petroleum products is not known, an underlying assumption of the PETROTOX and PETRORISK tools is that the behaviour and fate of a total petroleum substance can be simulated based on the physical-chemical properties of representative structures mapped to hydrocarbon blocks (HBs) and on the relative share of each HB in the total mass of the product. To assess how differing chemical compositions affect the simulated chemical fate and toxicity of hydrocarbon mixtures, a series of model simulations were run using an artificial petroleum substance, containing 386 (PETROTOX) or 160 (PETRORISK) HBs belonging to different chemical classes and molecular weight ranges, but with equal mass assigned to each of them. To this artificial petroleum substance a guided series of subsequent modifications in mass allocation to a delineated number of HBs belonging to different chemical classes and carbon ranges was performed, in what we perceived as a guided "walking tour

  19. Threatened and Endangered Species: Tour Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coats, Victoria; Samia, Cory

    This resource unit contains a teacher information packet and a middle school student activity packet to be used in creating a threatened and endangered species unit. The packet of student activities is designed to help maximize a field trip to the zoo and build on students' zoo experience in the classroom. The teacher information packet covers the…

  20. TASK-SPECIFIC STABILITY IN MUSCLE ACTIVATION SPACE DURING UNINTENTIONAL MOVEMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Falaki, Ali; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Zhou, Tao; Latash, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    We used robot-generated perturbations applied during position-holding tasks to explore stability of induced unintentional movements in a multi-dimensional space of muscle activations. Healthy subjects held the handle of a robot against a constant bias force and were instructed not to interfere with hand movements produced by changes in the external force. Transient force changes were applied leading to handle displacement away from the initial position and then back towards the initial position. Inter-trial variance in the space of muscle modes (eigenvectors in the muscle activations space) was quantified within two sub-spaces, corresponding to unchanged handle coordinate and to changes in the handle coordinate. Most variance was confined to the former sub-space in each of the three phases of movement, the initial steady state, the intermediate position, and the final steady state. The same result was found when the changes in muscle activation were analyzed between the initial and final steady states. Changes in the dwell time between the perturbation force application and removal led to different final hand locations undershooting the initial position. The magnitude of the undershot scaled with the dwell time, while the structure of variance in the muscle activation space did not depend on the dwell time. We conclude that stability of the hand coordinate is ensured during both intentional and unintentional actions via similar mechanisms. Relative equifinality in the external space after transient perturbations may be associated with varying states in the redundant space of muscle activations. The results fit a hierarchical scheme for the control of voluntary movements with referent configurations and redundant mapping between the levels of the hierarchy. PMID:25092272

  1. Autonomous Sensorweb Operations for Integrated Space, In-Situ Monitoring of Volcanic Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; Doubleday, Joshua; Kedar, Sharon; Davies, Ashley G.; Lahusen, Richard; Song, Wenzhan; Shirazi, Behrooz; Mandl, Daniel; Frye, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    We have deployed and demonstrated operations of an integrated space in-situ sensorweb for monitoring volcanic activity. This sensorweb includes a network of ground sensors deployed to the Mount Saint Helens volcano as well as the Earth Observing One spacecraft. The ground operations and space operations are interlinked in that ground-based intelligent event detections can cause the space segment to acquire additional data via observation requests and space-based data acquisitions (thermal imagery) can trigger reconfigurations of the ground network to allocate increased bandwidth to areas of the network best situated to observe the activity. The space-based operations are enabled by an automated mission planning and tasking capability which utilizes several Opengeospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensorweb Enablement (SWE) standards which enable acquiring data, alerts, and tasking using web services. The ground-based segment also supports similar protocols to enable seamless tasking and data delivery. The space-based segment also supports onboard development of data products (thermal summary images indicating areas of activity, quicklook context images, and thermal activity alerts). These onboard developed products have reduced data volume (compared to the complete images) which enables them to be transmitted to the ground more rapidly in engineering channels.

  2. Systematic Expansion of Active Spaces beyond the CASSCF Limit: A GASSCF/SplitGAS Benchmark Study.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos D; Li Manni, Giovanni; Stoneburner, Samuel J; Ma, Dongxia; Gagliardi, Laura

    2015-07-14

    The applicability and accuracy of the generalized active space self-consistent field, (GASSCF), and (SplitGAS) methods are presented. The GASSCF method enables the exploration of larger active spaces than with the conventional complete active space SCF, (CASSCF), by fragmentation of a large space into subspaces and by controlling the interspace excitations. In the SplitGAS method, the GAS configuration interaction, CI, expansion is further partitioned in two parts: the principal, which includes the most important configuration state functions, and an extended, containing less relevant but not negligible ones. An effective Hamiltonian is then generated, with the extended part acting as a perturbation to the principal space. Excitation energies of ozone, furan, pyrrole, nickel dioxide, and copper tetrachloride dianion are reported. Various partitioning schemes of the GASSCF and SplitGAS CI expansions are considered and compared with the complete active space followed by second-order perturbation theory, (CASPT2), and multireference CI method, (MRCI), or available experimental data. General guidelines for the optimum applicability of these methods are discussed together with their current limitations. PMID:26575738

  3. Individualized Instruction in Science, Earth-Space Project, Self-Directed Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczma, R. M.

    As a supplement to Learning Activity Packages (LAP) of the earth-space project, this manual presents self-directed activities especially designed for individualized instruction. Besides an introduction to LAP characteristics, sets of instructions are given in connection with the metric system, the earth's dimensions, indirect evidence for atomic…

  4. Individualized Instruction in Science, Time-Space-Matter, Self-Directed Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczma, R. M.

    As a supplement to Learning Activity Packages (LAP) on the time-space-matter subject, details are presented for self-directed activities. Major descriptions are given on the background of LAP characteristics, metric system, profile graph construction, spectroscope operation, radiant energy measurement, sunspot effects, density determination,…

  5. Centralising Space: The Physical Education and Physical Activity Experiences of South Asian, Muslim Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stride, Annette

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the physical education (PE) and physical activity experiences of a group of South Asian, Muslim girls, a group typically marginalised in PE and physical activity research. The study responds to ongoing calls for research to explore across different spaces in young people's lives. Specifically, I draw on a…

  6. Communication: Active space decomposition with multiple sites: Density matrix renormalization group algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Shane M.; Shiozaki, Toru

    2014-12-07

    We extend the active space decomposition method, recently developed by us, to more than two active sites using the density matrix renormalization group algorithm. The fragment wave functions are described by complete or restricted active-space wave functions. Numerical results are shown on a benzene pentamer and a perylene diimide trimer. It is found that the truncation errors in our method decrease almost exponentially with respect to the number of renormalization states M, allowing for numerically exact calculations (to a few μE{sub h} or less) with M = 128 in both cases. This rapid convergence is because the renormalization steps are used only for the interfragment electron correlation.

  7. Outer planets grand tours: Planetary radio astronomy team report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Requirements related to scientific observations of planetary radio emissions during outer planets grand tours are discussed. Observations at low frequencies where non-thermal cooperative plasma phenomena play a major role are considered for determining dynamical processes and magnetic fields near a planet. Magnetic field measurements by spacecraft magnetometers, and by radio receivers in their harmonic modes are proposed for interpretation of planetary radio emission.

  8. Alfred Russel Wallace's North American tour: transatlantic evolutionism.

    PubMed

    Fichman, M

    2001-06-01

    Evolutionary theory aroused vigorous debate in the late-19th century, regarding both its scientific status and its sociocultural implications. Alfred Russel Wallace's lecture tour of North America, during 1886-1887, affords a striking insight into his particular interpretation of evolution and reveals the depth of his conviction that science was inseparable from ethical and political realities. Wallace's views on matters scientific and cultural were as controversial and significant in North America as they were in Great Britain and Europe. PMID:11468798

  9. Example Solar Electric Propulsion System asteroid tours using variational calculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Exploration of the asteroid belt with a vehicle utilizing a Solar Electric Propulsion System has been proposed in past studies. Some of those studies illustrated multiple asteroid rendezvous with trajectories obtained using approximate methods. Most of the inadequacies of those approximations are overcome in this paper, which uses the calculus of variations to calculate the trajectories and associated payloads of four asteroid tours. The modeling, equations, and solution techniques are discussed, followed by a presentation of the results.

  10. National Report Sweden: Swedish Space Activities- An Overview with a Focus on Balloons and Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannenberg, K.

    2015-09-01

    The paper gives a brief overview of Swedish space activities with a focus on balloon and rocket projects, launched or scheduled for launch in the near future from Esrange Space Center. Several on-going national balloon and rocket projects are described in brief. Sweden is also a major player in sounding rocket activities within the ESA Elips programme as provider of launch services and developer of modules for microgravity experiments. Another important activity, described below, is the student programme REXUS/BEXUS, carried out within the framework of bilateral agreement between DLR and SNSB, and in collaboration with ESA. It should also be noted that several other balloons and rockets have been launched from Esrange Space Center during the reporting period. The present paper focuses, however, on the projects led by Swedish Principal Investigators and activities with a major involvement of Swedish scientists and engineers.

  11. Meeting the Grand Challenge of Protecting Astronauts Health: Electrostatic Active Space Radiation Shielding for Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the research completed during 2011 for the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) project. The research is motivated by the desire to safely send humans in deep space missions and to keep radiation exposures within permitted limits. To this end current material shielding, developed for low earth orbit missions, is not a viable option due to payload and cost penalties. The active radiation shielding is the path forward for such missions. To achieve active space radiation shielding innovative large lightweight gossamer space structures are used. The goal is to deflect enough positive ions without attracting negatively charged plasma and to investigate if a charged Gossamer structure can perform charge deflections without significant structural instabilities occurring. In this study different innovative configurations are explored to design an optimum active shielding. In addition, to establish technological feasibility experiments are performed with up to 10kV of membrane charging, and an electron flux source with up to 5keV of energy and 5mA of current. While these charge flux energy levels are much less than those encountered in space, the fundamental coupled interaction of charged Gossamer structures with the ambient charge flux can be experimentally investigated. Of interest are, will the EIMS remain inflated during the charge deflections, and are there visible charge flux interactions. Aluminum coated Mylar membrane prototype structures are created to test their inflation capability using electrostatic charging. To simulate the charge flux, a 5keV electron emitter is utilized. The remaining charge flux at the end of the test chamber is measured with a Faraday cup mounted on a movable boom. A range of experiments with this electron emitter and detector were performed within a 30x60cm vacuum chamber with vacuum environment capability of 10-7 Torr. Experiments are performed with the charge flux aimed at the electrostatically inflated

  12. Harpoon technology development for the active removal of space debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudziak, Roger; Tuttle, Sean; Barraclough, Simon

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the results of preliminary empirical testing and numerical modelling carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of using a harpoon in an ADR application. Empirical testing involving the impact of blunt and conical shaped steel tips into 3 mm Al plate showed that the ballistic limit varies in proportion to the tip circumference, with conical shapes resulting in a higher relative ballistic limit due to the additional energy required for petaling. The creation of secondary debris was also monitored. It was found that blunt shapes created a plug during penetration as a result of shearing around the periphery of the projectile, whilst conical tips resulted in minor spalling and fragmentation. Preliminary oblique impact testing with conical and blunt tips showed that the ballistic limit increases with obliquity at a greater rate for blunt tips than conical ones. Impact testing of 3 mm Al plate with conical projectiles at low temperatures showed a more brittle fracture mode when compared with targets impacted at room temperature. As such, the fragmentation and spalling evident in room temperature targets was absent. The energy required to perforate the cooled plates also increased. Impact testing of Al panel obstructed with fixed heat pipes showed that the harpoon could successfully penetrate a target panel with such an obstruction due to shearing of the pipe flange. Testing of two lock on mechanisms showed that both a spring activated and integrated toggle could reliably open upon impact. This testing also used a tensile testing machine to show that both designs could withstand the force expected during deorbiting manoeuvres after impact with Al H/C panels. A parametric simulation comparing the diameter of conical tips with ballistic limits showed a good agreement with the predictions of De Marre's formula for normal impact. This suggests that the ballistic limit of plates impacted by conical projectiles can be successfully extrapolated with limited

  13. Space Colonization-Benefits for the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegfried, W. H.

    2003-01-01

    We have begun to colonize space, even to the extent of early space tourism. Our early Vostok, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Spacehab, Mir and now ISS are humankind's first ventures toward colonization. Efforts are underway to provide short space tours, and endeavors such as the X-Prize are encouraging entrepreneurs to provide new systems. Many believe that extended space travel (colonization) will do for the 21st century what aviation did for the 20th. Our current concerns including terrorism, hunger, disease, and problems of air quality, safe abundant water, poverty, and weather vagaries tend to overshadow long-term activities such as Space Colonization in the minds of many. Our leading ``think tanks'' such as the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Brookings Institute do not rate space travel high on lists of future beneficial undertakings even though many of the concerns listed above are prominently featured. It is the contention of this paper that Space Colonization will lead toward solutions to many of the emerging problems of our Earth, both technological and sociological. The breadth of the enterprise far exceeds the scope of our normal single-purpose missions and, therefore, its benefits will be greater.

  14. Space polypropulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellett, B. J.; Griffin, D. K.; Bingham, R.; Campbell, R. N.; Forbes, A.; Michaelis, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Hybrid space propulsion has been a feature of most space missions. Only the very early rocket propulsion experiments like the V2, employed a single form of propulsion. By the late fifties multi-staging was routine and the Space Shuttle employs three different kinds of fuel and rocket engines. During the development of chemical rockets, other forms of propulsion were being slowly tested, both theoretically and, relatively slowly, in practice. Rail and gas guns, ion engines, "slingshot" gravity assist, nuclear and solar power, tethers, solar sails have all seen some real applications. Yet the earliest type of non-chemical space propulsion to be thought of has never been attempted in space: laser and photon propulsion. The ideas of Eugen Saenger, Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz, Leik Myrabo, Claude Phipps and Robert Forward remain Earth-bound. In this paper we summarize the various forms of nonchemical propulsion and their results. We point out that missions beyond Saturn would benefit from a change of attitude to laser-propulsion as well as consideration of hybrid "polypropulsion" - which is to say using all the rocket "tools" available rather than possibly not the most appropriate. We conclude with three practical examples, two for the next decades and one for the next century; disposal of nuclear waste in space; a grand tour of the Jovian and Saturnian moons - with Huygens or Lunoxod type, landers; and eventually mankind's greatest space dream: robotic exploration of neighbouring planetary systems.

  15. The INAF contribution to the ASI Space Debris program: observational activities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pupillo, G.; Salerno, E.; Bartolini, M.; Di Martino, M.; Mattana, A.; Montebugnoli, S.; Portelli, C.; Pluchino, S.; Schillirò, F.; Konovalenko, A.; Nabatov, A.; Nechaeva, M.

    Space debris are man made objects orbiting around Earth that pose a serious hazard for both present and future human activities in space. Since 2007 the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF) carried out a number of radar campaigns in the framework of the ASI ``Space Debris'' program. The observations were performed by using bi- and multi-static radars, composed of the INAF 32-m Italian radiotelescopes located at Medicina and Noto (used as receivers) and the 70-m parabolic antenna at Evpatoria (Ukraine) used as transmitter. The 32 m Ventspils antenna in Latvia also participated in the last campaign at the end of June 2010. Several kinds of objects in various orbital regions (radar calibrators, rocket upper stages, debris of different sizes) were observed and successfully detected. Some unknown objects were also discovered in LEO during the beam-park sessions. In this paper we describe some results of the INAF-ASI space debris research activity.

  16. Single potential analysis of cavernous electrical activity (SPACE). Experiences, limitations and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Djamilian, M H; Truss, M C; Tan, H K; Anton, P; Stief, C G; Jonas, U

    1993-01-01

    Cavernous electromyography was first introduced by Wagner and Gerstenberg in 1989. The authors developed a refined method of cavernous electromyography by means of single potential analysis in introduced this method into clinical Urology as a diagnostic procedure for the evaluation of patients presenting with erectile dysfunction. To date, our experience with single potential analysis of cavernous electrical activity (SPACE) includes more than 500 patients with erectile dysfunction of various etiologies and 92 normal control subjects. Several technical modifications and refinements have been adopted during the last 4 years. In normal control subjects, SPACE shows a regular pattern of activity with long phases of electrical silence at the usual amplification interrupted by synchronous low frequency, high amplitude potentials. In patients with disruption of the peripheral autonomic supply, typical asynchronous potentials with higher frequencies and irregular shape are observed. In complete spinal cord lesions, abnormal as well as normal electrical activity is found. In patients with a long history of insulin-dependent diabetes and presumably cavernous smooth muscle degeneration, SPACE recordings show irregular potentials with low amplitudes and slow depolarization speed. Synchronization of electrical activity is usually absent. Recent studies on patients with venous leakage show that SPACE provides independent clinical information about the cavernous smooth musculature. The recording of cavernous electrical activity is possible and reproductible. In the future, a new software for one-line date processing, storage and interpretation of SPACE signals will be available.

  17. 14 CFR 1266.104 - Cross-waiver of liability for launch agreements for science or space exploration activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... agreements for science or space exploration activities unrelated to the International Space Station. 1266.104... LIABILITY § 1266.104 Cross-waiver of liability for launch agreements for science or space exploration... cross-waiver of liability between the parties to agreements for NASA's science or space...

  18. 14 CFR 1266.102 - Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... exploration, exploitation, and use of outer space through the International Space Station (ISS). The IGA... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station. 1266.102 Section 1266.102 Aeronautics...

  19. 14 CFR 1266.102 - Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... exploration, exploitation, and use of outer space through the International Space Station (ISS). The IGA... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station. 1266.102 Section 1266.102 Aeronautics...

  20. 14 CFR 1266.104 - Cross-waiver of liability for launch agreements for science or space exploration activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agreements for science or space exploration activities unrelated to the International Space Station. 1266.104... LIABILITY § 1266.104 Cross-waiver of liability for launch agreements for science or space exploration... cross-waiver of liability between the parties to agreements for NASA's science or space...

  1. 14 CFR 1266.104 - Cross-waiver of liability for launch agreements for science or space exploration activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agreements for science or space exploration activities unrelated to the International Space Station. 1266.104... LIABILITY § 1266.104 Cross-waiver of liability for launch agreements for science or space exploration... cross-waiver of liability between the parties to agreements for NASA's science or space...

  2. 26 CFR 1.863-8 - Source of income derived from space and ocean activity under section 863(d).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Source of income derived from space and ocean... to Taxable Years Prior to December 30, 1996 § 1.863-8 Source of income derived from space and ocean... space and ocean activity (space and ocean income) is sourced under the rules of this...

  3. 26 CFR 1.863-8 - Source of income derived from space and ocean activity under section 863(d).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Source of income derived from space and ocean... to Taxable Years Prior to December 30, 1996 § 1.863-8 Source of income derived from space and ocean... space and ocean activity (space and ocean income) is sourced under the rules of this...

  4. 26 CFR 1.863-8 - Source of income derived from space and ocean activity under section 863(d).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Source of income derived from space and ocean... to Taxable Years Prior to December 30, 1996 § 1.863-8 Source of income derived from space and ocean... space and ocean activity (space and ocean income) is sourced under the rules of this...

  5. 26 CFR 1.863-8 - Source of income derived from space and ocean activity under section 863(d).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Source of income derived from space and ocean... to Taxable Years Prior to December 30, 1996 § 1.863-8 Source of income derived from space and ocean... space and ocean activity (space and ocean income) is sourced under the rules of this...

  6. 14 CFR 1266.102 - Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station. 1266.102 Section 1266.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CROSS-WAIVER OF LIABILITY § 1266.102 Cross-waiver...

  7. Smart SPHERES: A Telerobotic Free-Flyer for Intravehicular Activities in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Micire, Mark J.; Morse, Ted; Park, Eric; Provencher, Chris; To, Vinh; Wheeler, D. W.; Mittman, David; Torres, R. Jay; Smith, Ernest

    2013-01-01

    Smart SPHERES is a prototype free-flying space robot based on the SPHERES platform. Smart SPHERES can be remotely operated by astronauts inside a spacecraft, or by mission controllers on the ground. We developed Smart SPHERES to perform a variety of intravehicular activities (IVA), such as operations inside the International Space Station (ISS). These IVA tasks include environmental monitoring surveys (radiation, sound levels, etc.), inventory, and mobile camera work. In this paper, we first discuss the motivation for free-flying space robots. We then describe the development of the Smart SPHERES prototype, including avionics, software, and data communications. Finally, we present results of initial flight tests on-board the ISS.

  8. Smart SPHERES: A Telerobotic Free-Flyer for Intravehicular Activities in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Micire, Mark J.; Morse, Ted; Park, Eric; Provencher, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Smart SPHERES is a prototype free-flying space robot based on the SPHERES platform. Smart SPHERES can be remotely operated by astronauts inside a spacecraft, or by mission controllers on the ground. We developed Smart SPHERES to perform a variety of intravehicular activities (IVA), such as operations inside the International Space Station (ISS). These IVA tasks include environmental monitoring surveys (radiation, sound levels, etc.), inventory, and mobile camera work. In this paper, we first discuss the motivation for free- flying space robots. We then describe the development of the Smart SPHERES prototype, including avionics, software, and data communications. Finally, we present results of initial flight tests on-board the ISS.

  9. Active control synthesis for flexible space structures excited by persistent disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Bong; Gonzalez, Marcelo

    1990-01-01

    Both classical and state-space synthesis methods for active control of flexible space structures in the presence of persistent disturbances are presented. The methods exploit the so-called internal model principle for asymptotic disturbance rejection. A generic example of flexible space structures is used to illustrate the simplicity of the proposed design methodologies. The concept of a disturbance rejection filter dipole is introduced from a classical control viewpoint. It is shown that the proposed design methods will invariably make use of non-minimum-phase compensation for a class of noncolocated control problems. The need for tradeoffs between performance and parameter robustness is discussed.

  10. Analyses of space environment effects on active fiber optic links orbited aboard the LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Edward W.; Monarski, T. W.; Berry, J. N.; Sanchez, A. D.; Padden, R. J.; Chapman, S. P.

    1993-01-01

    The results of the 'Preliminary Analysis of WL Experiment no. 701, Space Environment Effects on Operating Fiber Optic Systems,' is correlated with space simulated post retrieval terrestrial studies performed on the M0004 experiment. Temperature cycling measurements were performed on the active optical data links for the purpose of assessing link signal to noise ratio and bit error rate performance some 69 months following the experiment deployment in low Earth orbit. The early results indicate a high correlation between pre-orbit, orbit, and post-orbit functionality of the first known and longest space demonstration of operating fiber optic systems.

  11. Ecotourism, sustainable development, and conservation education: Development of a tour guide training program in Tortuguero, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Susan K.; Robles, Rafael

    1992-11-01

    A tour guide training program was developed for rural communities near Costa Rica's Tortuguero National Park to respond to the impacts of the 24-fold increase in park visitation in the past decade, to involve local communities in resource management, and to provide regional environmental education. The development of the training course involved a survey of scientists and park managers to ascertain resource management needs, priorities for information to be disseminated, and impacts of tourism on the resource base. Current and potential tour guides were surveyed to identify their information needs, solicit their input in the training program, and to determine their knowledge and skills. Written questionnaires were developed and given to 400 tourists to determine their activities and environmental information needs, and hotel owners were censused to examine the economic feasibility of a local guide program. A pilot training course and guide program involving 12 Tortuguero residents demonstrated that a tour guide program: (1) helped mitigate negative tourism impacts on Tortuguero National Park's natural resources, particularly by regulating tourists on the park's 35-km beach used for nesting by endangered sea turtles; (2) provided environmental education to an important segment of the local community not traditionally reached through school or government development projects; (3) provided environmental information to tourists, thus enhancing their visit; and (4) provided local economic benefits through lucrative part-time employment, thereby allowing local people to participate more fully in the tourism system. An extended training course is being planned to provide further environmental education programming and to increase year-round employment opportunities for the tour guides.

  12. Interference Mitigation Technique Using Active Spaceborne Sensor Antenna in EESS (Active) and Space Research Service (Active) for Use in 500 MHz Bandwidth Near 9.6 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huneycutt, Bryan L.

    2005-01-01

    This document presents an interference mitigation technique using the active spaceborne sensor SAR3 antenna in the Earth Exploration-Satellite Service (active) and Space Research Service (active) for use in a 500 MHz bandwidth near 9.6 GHz. The purpose of the document is present antenna designs which offer lower sidelobes and faster rolloff in the sidelobes which in turn mitigates the interference to other services from the EESS (active) and SRS (active) sensors.

  13. IVA the robot: Design guidelines and lessons learned from the first space station laboratory manipulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konkel, Carl R.; Powers, Allen K.; Dewitt, J. Russell

    1991-01-01

    The first interactive Space Station Freedom (SSF) lab robot exhibit was installed at the Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, AL, and has been running daily since. IntraVehicular Activity (IVA) the robot is mounted in a full scale U.S. Lab (USL) mockup to educate the public on possible automation and robotic applications aboard the SSF. Responding to audio and video instructions at the Command Console, exhibit patrons may prompt IVA to perform a housekeeping task or give a speaking tour of the module. Other exemplary space station tasks are simulated and the public can even challenge IVA to a game of tic tac toe. In anticipation of such a system being built for the Space Station, a discussion is provided of the approach taken, along with suggestions for applicability to the Space Station Environment.

  14. A panoramic view of the Space Station Processing Facility with Unity connecting module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this panoramic view of the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) can be seen (left to right) Unity connecting module, the Rack Insertion Device and the first Multi-Purpose Launch Module, the Leonardo. Windows at the right above Leonardo allow visitors on tour to watch the activities in the SSPF. The Unity, scheduled to be launched on STS-88 in December 1998, will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will already be in orbit. STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for the International Space Station. The Italian-built MPLM, scheduled to be launched on STS-100 on Dec. 2, 1999, will be carried in the payload bay of the Shuttle orbiter, and will provide storage and additional work space for up to two astronauts when docked to the International Space Station.

  15. Tour of a Simple Trigonometry Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kin-Keung

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on a simple trigonometric problem that generates a strange phenomenon when different methods are applied to tackling it. A series of problem-solving activities are discussed, so that students can be alerted that the precision of diagrams is important when solving geometric problems. In addition, the problem-solving plan was…

  16. Self-organising continuous attractor networks with multiple activity packets, and the representation of space.

    PubMed

    Stringer, S M; Rolls, E T; Trappenberg, T P

    2004-01-01

    'Continuous attractor' neural networks can maintain a localised packet of neuronal activity representing the current state of an agent in a continuous space without external sensory input. In applications such as the representation of head direction or location in the environment, only one packet of activity is needed. For some spatial computations a number of different locations, each with its own features, must be held in memory. We extend previous approaches to continuous attractor networks (in which one packet of activity is maintained active) by showing that a single continuous attractor network can maintain multiple packets of activity simultaneously, if each packet is in a different state space or map. We also show how such a network could by learning self-organise to enable the packets in each space to be moved continuously in that space by idiothetic (motion) inputs. We show how such multi-packet continuous attractor networks could be used to maintain different types of feature (such as form vs colour) simultaneously active in the correct location in a spatial representation. We also show how high-order synapses can improve the performance of these networks, and how the location of a packet could be read by motor networks. The multiple packet continuous attractor networks described here may be used for spatial representations in brain areas such as the parietal cortex and hippocampus.

  17. Streamlined design and self reliant hardware for active control of precision space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyland, David C.; King, James A.; Phillips, Douglas J.

    1994-01-01

    Precision space structures may require active vibration control to satisfy critical performance requirements relating to line-of-sight pointing accuracy and the maintenance of precise, internal alignments. In order for vibration control concepts to become operational, it is necessary that their benefits be practically demonstrated in large scale ground-based experiments. A unique opportunity to carry out such demonstrations on a wide variety of experimental testbeds was provided by the NASA Control-Structure Integration (CSI) Guest Investigator (GI) Program. This report surveys the experimental results achieved by the Harris Corporation GI team on both Phases 1 and 2 of the program and provides a detailed description of Phase 2 activities. The Phase 1 results illustrated the effectiveness of active vibration control for space structures and demonstrated a systematic methodology for control design, implementation test. In Phase 2, this methodology was significantly streamlined to yield an on-site, single session design/test capability. Moreover, the Phase 2 research on adaptive neural control techniques made significant progress toward fully automated, self-reliant space structure control systems. As a further thrust toward productized, self-contained vibration control systems, the Harris Phase II activity concluded with experimental demonstration of new vibration isolation hardware suitable for a wide range of space-flight and ground-based commercial applications.The CSI GI Program Phase 1 activity was conducted under contract NASA1-18872, and the Phase 2 activity was conducted under NASA1-19372.

  18. A review of UK space activity and historiography, 1957-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millard, Douglas

    2010-04-01

    In over 50 years the United Kingdom has designed, built, launched, operated or otherwise contributed to hundreds of spacecraft and space missions. Its scientists, engineers and officials have carved centres of astronautical excellence around the country, participated in a great number of international space programmes and missions and played a leading role in the establishment of the world's main pan-national space agency (ESA) and its two precursors, the European Launcher Development Organisation (ELDO) and the European Space Research Organization (ESRO). With its Skylark sounding rocket launch of November 1957 the UK was one of the first nations to gather new scientific data as part of the International Geophysical Year. Fifty years on, the UK is an enthusiastic supporter of the Global Exploration Strategy with major commitments to future missions to the moon and to the Mars that exploit the nation's expertise in small satellite and planetary robot technology. And while such mission involvement takes UK space technologies out into the solar system as never before the nation continues to excel in Earth orbit with its development and manufacture of large, increasingly powerful telecommunications satellites. The UK's space heritage and its ongoing and directed activities are rich and productive. And yet—the representation of UK space endeavour is all too often skewed—misleading and unduly pejorative: '…British space…more romance than reality.' Why does such partisan commentary occur and why has such an attitude prevailed for so long? This paper seeks some answers by reviewing UK space activity and its historiography in the wider and global context of astronautics between 1957 and 2007. In Praise of…the British Space Programme, The Guardian Newspaper, March 4th, 2008.

  19. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus)

    PubMed Central

    Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e. distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance) and activity budgets (e.g. resting, feeding, social activities) were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period). The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation. PMID:26657240

  20. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e., distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance) and activity budgets (e.g., resting, feeding, social activities) were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period). The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation.

  1. Tour of Planet with Extreme Temperature Swings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the movie

    This animation shows a computer simulation of the planet HD 80606b from an observer located at a point in space lying between the Earth and the HD 80606 system. The animation starts 2.2 days before the moment of close approach and ends 8.9 days later. The blue areas are reflected starlight (the blue color arises mainly from absorption by sodium and potassium in the planetary atmosphere). Red regions are areas of the planet that are glowing with their own intrinsic heat.

    The point of closest approach and maximum heating occurs about 4.5 seconds into the animation. As the planet whips around the star, we see the evolving thermal storm patterns across its unilluminated side. The planet's transit behind its star (as would be seen from Earth four seconds into the animation) is not shown in this simulation.

    These theoretical models allow astronomers to better understand weather patterns on distant planets. While direct telescopic observations of the atmospheres of such worlds may be many decades away, such simulations give us a clue to what we may see when it becomes possible.

  2. An Evaluation of Adult Education Activities of the Space Science Education Project in a Total Community Awareness Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hapke, Lawrence H.

    1976-01-01

    A group of adults were tested before and after witnessing a space science education presentation; a significant difference was found between the pre- and post-tests of their understanding and awareness of space activities. (MLH)

  3. The law applicable to the use of space for commercial activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    The general principles of space law that have an impact on commercial space activities are discussed. The Outer Space Treaty guaranteed the right of private enterprise in space, with jurisdiction over the participating parties residing in the country of origin. The liability for damages caused to a third party is also assigned to the country of origin. Government consent is necessary in the U.S. before a private firm is permitted to launch an object into space, with the relevant statute sections being part of the Arms Export Control Act; launches are legally treated as exports. FAA regulations define the safe area and flight conditions that must be satisfied for a private launch, although NASA, in the 1958 act which formed the agency, potentialy has the power to regulate space launch activities. The DoD must be notified of any launches in order to notify the U.S.S.R., filings must be made with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, and fees must be paid to the IRS. It is presently U.S. government policy to encourage and facilitate private sector development of commercial launch services.

  4. Education and Outreach on Space Sciences and Technologies in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiger Liu, Jann-Yeng; Chen, hao-Yen; Lee, I.-Te

    2014-05-01

    The Ionospheric Radio Science Laboratory (IRSL) at Institute of Space Science, National Central University in Taiwan has been conducting a program for public outreach educations on space science by giving lectures, organizing camps, touring exhibits, and experiencing hand-on experiments to elementary school, high school, and college students as well as general public since 1991. The program began with a topic of traveling/living in space, and was followed by space environment, space mission, and space weather monitoring, etc. and a series of course module and experiment (i.e. experiencing activity) module was carried out. For past decadal, the course modules have been developed to cover the space environment of the Sun, interplanetary space, and geospace, as well as the space technology of the rocket, satellite, space shuttle (plane), space station, living in space, observing the Earth from space, and weather observation. Each course module highlights the current status and latest new finding as well as discusses 1-3 key/core issues/concepts and equip with 2-3 activity/experiment modules to make students more easily to understand the topics/issues. Regarding the space technologies, we focus on remote sensing of Earth's surface by FORMOSAT-2 and occultation sounding by FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC of Taiwan space mission. Moreover, scientific camps are given to lead students a better understanding and interesting on space sciences/ technologies. Currently, a visualized image projecting system, Dagik Earth, is developed to demonstrate the scientific results on a sphere together with the course modules. This system will dramatically improve the educational skill and increase interests of participators.

  5. Task-specific stability in muscle activation space during unintentional movements.

    PubMed

    Falaki, Ali; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Zhou, Tao; Latash, Mark L

    2014-11-01

    We used robot-generated perturbations applied during position-holding tasks to explore stability of induced unintentional movements in a multidimensional space of muscle activations. Healthy subjects held the handle of a robot against a constant bias force and were instructed not to interfere with hand movements produced by changes in the external force. Transient force changes were applied leading to handle displacement away from the initial position and then back toward the initial position. Intertrial variance in the space of muscle modes (eigenvectors in the muscle activations space) was quantified within two subspaces, corresponding to unchanged handle coordinate and to changes in the handle coordinate. Most variance was confined to the former subspace in each of the three phases of movement, the initial steady state, the intermediate position, and the final steady state. The same result was found when the changes in muscle activation were analyzed between the initial and final steady states. Changes in the dwell time between the perturbation force application and removal led to different final hand locations undershooting the initial position. The magnitude of the undershot scaled with the dwell time, while the structure of variance in the muscle activation space did not depend on the dwell time. We conclude that stability of the hand coordinate is ensured during both intentional and unintentional actions via similar mechanisms. Relative equifinality in the external space after transient perturbations may be associated with varying states in the redundant space of muscle activations. The results fit a hierarchical scheme for the control of voluntary movements with referent configurations and redundant mapping between the levels of the hierarchy. PMID:25092272

  6. NASA Crew Personal Active Dosimeters (CPADs): Leveraging Novel Terrestrial Personal Radiation Monitoring Capabilities for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leitgab, Martin; Semones, Edward; Lee, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG) is developing novel Crew Personal Active Dosimeters (CAPDs) for upcoming crewed space exploration missions and beyond. To reduce the resource footprint of the project a COTS dosimeter base is used for the development of CPADs. This base was identified from evaluations of existing COTS personal dosimeters against the concept of operations of future crewed missions and tests against detection requirements for radiation characteristic of the space environment. CPADs exploit operations efficiencies from novel features for space flight personal dosimeters such as real-time dose feedback, and autonomous measuring and data transmission capabilities. Preliminary CPAD design, results of radiation testing and aspects of operational integration will be presented.

  7. Green spaces and General Health: Roles of mental health status, social support, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Dadvand, Payam; Bartoll, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Martinez, David; Ambros, Albert; Cirach, Marta; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Gascon, Mireia; Borrell, Carme; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    Green spaces are associated with improved health, but little is known about mechanisms underlying such association. We aimed to assess the association between greenness exposure and subjective general health (SGH) and to evaluate mental health status, social support, and physical activity as mediators of this association. This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based sample of 3461 adults residing in Barcelona, Spain (2011). We characterized outcome and mediators using the Health Survey of Barcelona. Objective and subjective residential proximity to green spaces and residential surrounding greenness were used to characterize greenness exposure. We followed Baron and Kenny's framework to establish the mediation roles and we further quantified the relative contribution of each mediator. Residential surrounding greenness and subjective residential proximity to green spaces were associated with better SGH. We found indications for mediation of these associations by mental health status, perceived social support, and to less extent, by physical activity. These mediators altogether could explain about half of the surrounding greenness association and one-third of the association for subjective proximity to green spaces. We observed indications that mental health and perceived social support might be more relevant for men and those younger than 65years. The results for objective residential proximity to green spaces were not conclusive. In conclusion, our observed association between SGH and greenness exposure was mediated, in part, by mental health status, enhanced social support, and physical activity. There might be age and sex variations in these mediation roles.

  8. ActiveSpaces on the grid: The construction of advanced visualization and interaction environments

    SciTech Connect

    Childers, L.; Disz, T.; Hereld, M.; Hudson, R.; Judson, I.; Olson, R.; Papka, M. E.; Paris, J.; Stevens, R.

    2000-07-24

    The Futures Lab group at Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago are designing, building, and evaluating a new type of interactive computing environment that couples in a deep way the concepts of direct manipulation found in virtual reality with the richness and variety of interactive devices found in ubiquitous computing. This environment provides the interactivity and collaboration support of teleimmersive environments with the exibility and availability of desktop collaboration tools. The authors call these environments ActiveSpaces. An ActiveSpace is a physical domain that has been augmented with multiscale multiscreen displays, environment-specific and device-specific sensors, body and object trackers, human-input and instrument-input interfaces, streaming audio and video capture devices, and force feedback devices--and has then been connected to other such spaces via the Grid.

  9. The 1859 Solar-Terrestrial Disturbance And the Current Limits of Extreme Space Weather Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliver, E. W.; Svalgaard, L.

    2004-10-01

    It is generally appreciated that the September 1859 solar-terrestrial disturbance, the first recognized space weather event, was exceptionally large. How large and how exceptional? To answer these questions, we compiled rank order lists of the various measures of solar-induced disturbance for events from 1859 to the present. The parameters considered included: magnetic crochet amplitude, solar energetic proton fluence (McCracken et al., 2001a), Sun-Earth disturbance transit time, geomagnetic storm intensity, and low-latitude auroral extent. While the 1859 event has close rivals or superiors in each of the above categories of space weather activity, it is the only documented event of the last ˜150 years that appears at or near the top of all of the lists. Taken together, the top-ranking events in each of the disturbance categories comprise a set of benchmarks for extreme space weather activity.

  10. Compound Structure-Independent Activity Prediction in High-Dimensional Target Space.

    PubMed

    Balfer, Jenny; Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2014-08-01

    Profiling of compound libraries against arrays of targets has become an important approach in pharmaceutical research. The prediction of multi-target compound activities also represents an attractive task for machine learning with potential for drug discovery applications. Herein, we have explored activity prediction in high-dimensional target space. Different types of models were derived to predict multi-target activities. The models included naïve Bayesian (NB) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers based upon compound structure information and NB models derived on the basis of activity profiles, without considering compound structure. Because the latter approach can be applied to incomplete training data and principally depends on the feature independence assumption, SVM modeling was not applicable in this case. Furthermore, iterative hybrid NB models making use of both activity profiles and compound structure information were built. In high-dimensional target space, NB models utilizing activity profile data were found to yield more accurate activity predictions than structure-based NB and SVM models or hybrid models. An in-depth analysis of activity profile-based models revealed the presence of correlation effects across different targets and rationalized prediction accuracy. Taken together, the results indicate that activity profile information can be effectively used to predict the activity of test compounds against novel targets.

  11. Looking Inside and Out: Perceptions of Physical Activity in Childcare Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberger, Nanci; Butler, Allison G.; Schumacher, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the need to better understand how providers' perceptions of indoor and outdoor childcare settings can set the stage for arranging play spaces to optimise children's moderate-to-vigorous physical play. Childcare providers' perceptions of the level of physical activity, safety, and quality that children experience…

  12. "Go Be a Writer": Intra-Activity with Materials, Time and Space in Literacy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuby, Candace R.; Rucker, Tara Gutshall; Kirchhofer, Jessica M.

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on research in a United States second-grade classroom during a multimodal literacy workshop. Observing students working with tissue paper, foam board, string, pipe cleaners and other materials, we asked how is intra-activity with materials, time and space influencing literacy learning in Room 203? While the research…

  13. Young Children's Literacy in the Activity Space of the Library: A Geosemiotic Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sue

    2011-01-01

    An ecological approach, emphasizing the importance of understanding multiple contexts for learning, underpins this study of libraries as activity spaces for young children's literacy participation. Five libraries serving a diversity of communities were the subject of ethnographic investigation incorporating participant observation, visual…

  14. Surveying User Activity as a Tool for Space Planning in an Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Susan L.; Nickel, Lisa T.

    University libraries, and specifically the University of South Florida (USF) Library, are used for many different purposes that go beyond traditional library services. Activities users engage in while in the library should factor into decisions regarding the allocation of library space or expenditure of resources. The results of this survey…

  15. [Research progress of thermal control system for extravehicular activity space suit].

    PubMed

    Wu, Z Q; Shen, L P; Yuan, X G

    1999-08-01

    New research progress of thermal control system for oversea Extravehicular Activity (EVA) space suit is presented. Characteristics of several thermal control systems are analyzed in detail. Some research tendencies and problems are discussed, which are worthwhile to be specially noted. Finally, author's opinion about thermal control system in the future is put forward.

  16. Adaptation of neuromuscular activation patterns during treadmill walking after long-duration space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layne, C. S.; Lange, G. W.; Pruett, C. J.; McDonald, P. V.; Merkle, L. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Smith, S. L.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    The precise neuromuscular control needed for optimal locomotion, particularly around heel strike and toe off, is known to be compromised after short duration (8- to 15-day) space flight. We hypothesized here that longer exposure to weightlessness would result in maladaptive neuromuscular activation during postflight treadmill walking. We also hypothesized that space flight would affect the ability of the sensory-motor control system to generate adaptive neuromuscular activation patterns in response to changes in visual target distance during postflight treadmill walking. Seven crewmembers, who completed 3- to 6-month missions, walked on a motorized treadmill while visually fixating on a target placed 30 cm (NEAR) or 2 m (FAR) from the subject's eyes. Electronic foot switch data and surface electromyography were collected from selected muscles of the right lower limb. Results indicate that the phasic features of neuromuscular activation were moderately affected and the relative amplitude of activity in the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris around toe off changed after space flight. Changes also were evident after space flight in how these muscles adapted to the shift in visual target distance.

  17. [Analysis of possible causes activation a stomach and pancreas excretory and incretory function after completion of space flight on the international space station].

    PubMed

    Afonin, B V

    2013-01-01

    The research excretory and incretory of activity of a stomach and pancreas is carried out at astronauts in the early period after completion of space flights of various duration. It is shown, that the increase of the contents of gastric and pancreatic enzymes and hormones (insulin and C-peptide) in blood reflects increased excretory and incretory activity of organs of gastroduodenal area which arises in weightlessness. The complex of countermeasures, which prevent ingress of subjects, infected by Helicobacter pylori in space flight crew, excluded participation of this microorganism in the mechanism of increase of secretory activity of a stomach. The absence of interrelation between increase of secretory activity of gastroduodenal area organs and space flights' duration has allowed to exclude the hypokinetic mechanism which determined by duration of stay in weightlessness. It was shown that after the end of space flights the increase ofbasal excretory activity of organs of gastroduodenal area occurs simultaneously with increase of a fasting insulin secretion. The changes in gastroduodenal area organs revealed after space flights were are compared to similar changes received in ground-based experiments, simulating hemodynamic reorganization in venous system of abdominal cavity, arising in weightlessness. The conclusion is made, that the basic mechanism of changes of a functional condition of digestive system in space flights, is determined by reorganization venous hemodynamic in abdominal cavity organs reproduced in ground experiments. Increase insulin and C-peptide after space flights are considered as hormonal component of this hemodynamic mechanism.

  18. AVATAR -- Adaptive Visualization Aid for Touring And Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    L. O. Hall; K. W. Bowyer; N. Chawla; T. Moore, Jr.; W. P. Kegelmeyer

    2000-01-01

    This document provides a report on the initial development of software which uses a standard visualization tool to determine, label and display salient regions in large 3D physics simulation datasets. This software uses parallel pattern recognition behind the scenes to handle the huge volume of data. This software is called AVATAR (Adaptive Visualization Aid for Touring and Recovery). It integrates approaches to gathering labeled training data, learning from large training sets utilizing parallelism and the final display of salient data in unseen visualization data sets. The paper uses vorticity fields for a large-eddy simulation to illustrate the method.

  19. Radiation effects on science instruments in Grand Tour type missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    The extent of the radiation effects problem is delineated, along with the status of protective designs for 15 representative science instruments. Designs for protecting science instruments from radiation damage is discussed for the various instruments to be employed in the Grand Tour type missions. A literature search effort was undertaken to collect science instrument components damage/interference effects data on the various sensitive components such as Si detectors, vidicon tubes, etc. A small experimental effort is underway to provide verification of the radiation effects predictions.

  20. Aeronautics and Space Report of the President, Fiscal Year 2002 Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Fiscal Year (FY) 2002 brought advances on many fronts in support of NASAs new vision, announced by Administrator Sean OKeefe on April 12, to improve life here, to extend life to there, to find life beyond. NASA successfully carried out four Space Shuttle missions, including three to the International Space Station (ISS) and one servicing mission to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). By the end of the fiscal year, humans had occupied the ISS continuously for 2 years. NASA also managed five expendable launch vehicle (ELV) missions and participated in eight international cooperative ELV launches. In the area of space science, two of the Great Observatories, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, continued to make spectacular observations. The Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey carried out their mapping missions of the red planet in unprecedented detail. Among other achievements, the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) Shoemaker spacecraft made the first soft landing on an asteroid, and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) monitored a variety of solar activity, including the largest sunspot observed in 10 years. The education and public outreach program stemming from NASAs space science missions continues to grow. In the area of Earth science, attention focused on completing the first Earth Observing Satellite series. Four spacecraft were successfully launched. The goal is to understand our home planet as a system, as well as how the global environment responds to change.