Science.gov

Sample records for activity aw levels

  1. Preclinical immunogenicity and functional activity studies of an A+W meningococcal outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine and comparisons with existing meningococcal conjugate- and polysaccharide vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tunheim, G; Arnemo, M; Næss, L M; Fjeldheim, Å K; Nome, L; Bolstad, K; Aase, A; Mandiarote, A; González, H; González, D; García, L; Cardoso, D; Norheim, G; Rosenqvist, E

    2013-12-01

    Meningococci of serogroups A and W (MenA and MenW) are the main causes of epidemic bacterial meningitis outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study we prepared a detergent extracted outer membrane vesicle (dOMV) vaccine from representative African MenA and MenW strains, and compared the immunogenicity of this vaccine with existing meningococcal conjugate and polysaccharide (PS) vaccines in mice. NMRI mice were immunized with preclinical batches of the A+W dOMV vaccine, or with commercially available vaccines; a MenA conjugate vaccine (MenAfriVac(®), Serum Institute of India), ACYW conjugate vaccine (Menveo(®), Novartis) or ACYW PS vaccine (Mencevax(®), GlaxoSmithKline). The mice received 2 doses of 1/10 or 1/50 of a human dose with a three week interval. Immune responses were tested in ELISA, serum bactericidal activity (SBA) and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) assays. High levels of IgG antibodies against both A and W dOMV were detected in mice receiving the A+W dOMV vaccine. High SBA titers against both MenA and MenW vaccine strains were detected after only one dose of the A+W dOMV vaccine, and the titers were further increased after the second dose. The SBA and OPA titers in mice immunized with dOMV vaccine were significantly higher than in mice immunized with the ACYW-conjugate vaccine or the PS vaccine. Furthermore, the A+W dOMV vaccine was shown to induce SBA and OPA titers against MenA of the same magnitude as the titers induced by the A-conjugate vaccine. In conclusion, the A+W dOMV vaccine induced high levels of functional antibodies to both MenA and MenW strains, levels that were shown to be higher or equal to the levels induced by licensed meningococcal vaccines. Thus, an A+W dOMV vaccine could potentially serve as an alternative or a supplement to existing conjugate and PS vaccines in the African meningitis belt. PMID:24120679

  2. Impact of different water activities (aw) adjusted by solutes on high pressure high temperature inactivation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores

    PubMed Central

    Sevenich, Robert; Reineke, Kai; Hecht, Philipp; Fröhling, Antje; Rauh, Cornelia; Schlüter, Oliver; Knorr, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Much research has been conducted to comprehend the mechanisms of high pressure (HP) inactivation of spores in aqueous systems but for food model systems these information are scarce. In these systems spores can interact with ingredients which then could possibly lead to retarded or reduced inactivation, which can cause a problem for the sterilization process. The protective mechanism of a reduced aw-value is still unclear. HP processing might prove valuable to overcome protective effects of solutes and achieve shorter process times for sterilization under HP. To gain insight into the underlying mechanisms five aw-values (0.9, 0.92, 0.94, 0.96, 1) were adjusted with two different solutes (NaCl, sucrose). Solutions were inoculated with spores of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and treated at 105, 110, and 115°C at 600 MPa. Further a thermal inactivation was conducted at the same temperatures for a comparison with the HP data. Afterward, the influence of HP high temperature treatment on the inactivation, the dipicolinic acid (DPA)-release and membrane constitution was assessed by plate count, HPLC and flow cytometry (FCM). The results show that during HP treatments sucrose and salt both have a protective effect, in which the influence of sucrose on the retarded inactivation is higher. The threshold water activities (aw), which is 0.94, here salt and sucrose have a significant influence on the inactivation. The comparison of thermal (105–115°C) and HP and high temperature (600 MPa, 105–115°C) treated samples showed that the time needed to achieve a 4–5 log10 inactivation is reduced from 45 (aw = 1) to 75 (aw = 0.9) min at 105°C to 3 (aw = 1) to 15 (aw = 0.9) minutes at 600 MPa and 105°C. The release of DPA is the rate limiting step of the inactivation and therefore monitoring the release is of great interest. The DPA-release is slowed down in high concentrated solutions (e.g., sucrose, salt) in comparison to aw 1. Since there is a difference in the way the

  3. A polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill (ABP-AW1) as a potential Th1 immunity-stimulating adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    CUI, LIRAN; SUN, YONGXU; XU, HAO; XU, HUIYU; CONG, HUAN; LIU, JICHENG

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a low molecular weight polysaccharide, ABP-AW1, isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill was assessed for its potential adjuvant activity. ABP-AW1 is considered to create a ‘depot’ of antigen at a subcutaneous injection site. ICR mice were immunized with 100 μg ovalbumin (OVA) alone or with 100 μg OVA formulated in 0.9% saline containing 200 μg aluminum (alum) or ABP-AW1 (50, 100 and 200 μg) on days 1 and 15. Two weeks after the secondary immunization, splenocyte proliferation, the expression of surface markers, cytokine production and the OVA-specific antibody levels in the serum were determined. The OVA/ABP-AW1 vaccine, in comparison with OVA alone, markedly increased the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes and elicited greater antigen-specific CD4+ T cell activation, as determined by splenic CD4+CD69+ T cells and Th1 cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ release. The combination of ABP-AW1 and OVA also enhanced IgG2b antibody responses to OVA. In conclusion, these data indicated that ABP-AW1 significantly enhanced the humoral and cellular immune responses against OVA in the mice, suggesting that ABP-AW1 stimulated Th1-type immunity. We suggest that ABP-AW1 may serve as a new adjuvant. PMID:24137460

  4. Washing of the AW-101 entrained solids

    SciTech Connect

    GJ Lumetta

    2000-03-31

    BNFL Inc. (BNFL) is under contract with the US Department of Energy, River Protection Project (DOE-RPP) to design, construct, and operate facilities for treating wastes stored in the single-shell and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The DOE-BNFL RPP contract identifies two feeds to the waste treatment plant: (1) primarily liquid low-activity waste (LAW) consisting of less than 2 wt% entrained solids and (2) high-level waste (HLW) consisting of 10 to 200 g/L solids slurry. This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing on the composition of the entrained solids in the diluted AW-101 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. The objective of this work was to gather data on the solubility of the AW-101 entrained solids in 0.01 M NaOH, so that BNFL can evaluate whether these solids require caustic leaching. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-9, Rev. 0, LAW Entrained Solids Water Wash and Caustic Leach Testing. The test went according to plan, with no deviations from the test plan. Based on the results of the 0.01 M NaOH washing, a decision was made by BNFL to not proceed with the caustic leaching test. The composition of the washed solids was such that caustic leaching would not result in significant reduction in the immobilized HLW volume.

  5. AW-101 entrained solids - Solubility versus temperature

    SciTech Connect

    GJ Lumetta; RC Lettau; GF Piepel

    2000-03-31

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids entrained in the diluted AW-101 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. BNFL requested Battelle to dilute the AW-1-1 sample using de-ionized water to mimic expected plant operating conditions. BNFL further requested Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids present in the diluted AW-101 sample versus temperature conditions of 30, 40, and 50 C. BNFL requested these tests to assess the composition of the LAW supernatant and solids versus expected plant-operating conditions. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-7, Rev. 0, Determination of the Solubility of LAW Entrained Solids. The test went according to plan, with no deviations from the test plan.

  6. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rall, Jonathan A.R.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An autonomous, low-power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This compact, portable lidar will operate continuously in a temperature controlled enclosure, charge its own batteries through a combination of a small rugged wind generator and solar panels, and transmit its data from remote locations to ground stations via satellite. A network of these instruments will be established by co-locating them at remote Automatic Weather Station (AWS) sites in Antarctica under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF Office of Polar Programs provides support to place the weather stations in remote areas of Antarctica in support of meteorological research and operations. The AWS meteorological data will directly benefit the analysis of the lidar data while a network of ground based atmospheric lidar will provide knowledge regarding the temporal evolution and spatial extent of Type la polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). These clouds play a crucial role in the annual austral springtime destruction of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica, i.e. the ozone hole. In addition, the lidar will monitor and record the general atmospheric conditions (transmission and backscatter) of the overlying atmosphere which will benefit the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Prototype lidar instruments have been deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (1995-96, 2000) and to an Automated Geophysical Observatory site (AGO 1) in January 1999. We report on data acquired with these instruments, instrument performance, and anticipated performance of the AWS Lidar.

  7. Physical activity levels in adults with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dairo, Yetunde Marion; Collett, Johnny; Dawes, Helen; Oskrochi, G Reza

    2016-12-01

    Despite evidence that inactivity is a major factor causing ill health in people with intellectual disabilities (pwID) there are gaps in our knowledge of their physical activity (PA). To date, there is no published systematic review of their PA levels. Therefore, we performed a systematic review from January-October 2015, comprising studies from across the globe to establish PA levels, determine how they were measured, and what factors influenced PA in adults with intellectual disabilities (awID). Five databases were searched. Studies were included if written in English, peer-reviewed, had primary research data, and measured PA levels of awID. Quality was assessed using a 19-item checklist. Meta-summary of the findings was performed and a meta-analysis of factors influencing PA using multiple regression. Fifteen studies were included consisting of 3159 awID, aged 16-81 years, 54% male and 46% female. Only 9% of participants achieved minimum PA guidelines. PA levels were measured using objective and subjective methods. ID severity, living in care, gender, and age were independently significantly correlated with the number of participants achieving PA guidelines with the strongest predictor being ID severity (Beta 0.631, p < 0.001). Findings should be in the context that most of the participants were in the mild/moderate range of ID severity and none of the studies objectively measured PA in people with profound ID. To inform measurement and intervention design for improved PA, we recommend that there is an urgent need for future PA studies in awID population to include all disability severity levels. PROSPERO registration number CRD42015016675. PMID:27413684

  8. Surface Treatment of Sonotrode Material Aw 7075

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmer, Štefan; Baksa, Peter; Kováčik, Jaroslav

    2014-12-01

    Electro spark deposited TiB2 functional layer and composite functional layers Ni-TiB2 and INC713LC-TiB2 on the aluminium alloy substrate AW 7075 were evaluated with respect to achieved microhardness, roughness, and microstructure. The thicknesses of the layers were observed in the range of 30 to 50 microns. Hardness of the layers (HV) is several times higher than the hardness of the aluminium alloy substrate AW 7075.

  9. AIRS Observations of DomeC in Antarctica and Comparison with Automated Weather Stations (AWS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Gregorich, Dave; Broberg, Steve

    2006-01-01

    We compare the surface temperatures at Dome Concordia (DomeC) deduced from AIRS data and two Automatic Weather Stations at Concordia Station: AWS8989 , which has been in operation since December 1996, and AWS.it, for which data are available between January and November 2005. The AWS8989 readings are on average 3 K warmer than the AWS.it readings, with a warmer bias in the Antarctic summer than in the winter season. Although AIRS measures the skin brightness temperature, while the AWS reports the temperature of the air at 3 meter above the surface, the AIRS measurements agree well with the AWS.it readings for all data and separately for the summer and winter seasons, if data taken in the presence of strong surface inversions are filtered out. This can be done by deducing the vertical temperature gradient above the surface directly from the AIRS temperature sounding channels or indirectly by noting that extreme vertical gradients near the surface are unlikely if the wind speed is more than a few meters per second. Since the AIRS measurements are very well calibrated, the agreement with AWS.it is very encouraging. The warmer readings of AWS8989 are likely due to thermal contamination of the AWS8989 site by the increasing activity at Concordia Station. Data from an AWS.it quality station could be used for the evaluation of radiometric accuracy and stability of polar orbiting sounders at low temperatures. Unfortunately, data from AWS.it was available only for a limited time. The thermal contamination of the AWS8989 data makes long-term trends deduced from AWS8989 and possibly results about the rapid Antarctic warming deduced from other research stations on Antarctica suspect. AIRS is the first hyperspectral infrared sounder designed in support of weather forecasting and climate research. It was launched in May 2002 on the EOS Aqua spacecraft into a 704 km altitude polar sun-synchronous orbit. The lifetime of AIRS, estimated before launch to be at least 5 years is

  10. AWS breaks new ground with soldering specification.

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, Paul Thomas

    2008-08-01

    Joining technologies continue to advance with new materials, process innovations, and inspection techniques. An increasing number of high-valued, high-reliability applications -- from boilers and ship hulls to rocket motors and medical devices -- have required the development of industry standards and specifications in order to ensure that the best design and manufacturing practices are being used to produce safe, durable products and assemblies. Standards writing has always had an important role at the American Welding Society (AWS). The AWS standards and specifications cover such topics as filler materials, joining processes, inspection techniques, and qualification methods that are used in welding and brazing technologies. These AWS standards and specifications, all of which are approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), have also provided the basis for many similar documents used in Europe and in Pacific Rim countries.

  11. Introduction to the Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Robert M.; Woodson, Shawn H.

    2003-01-01

    The Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) Program has addressed the problem of uncommanded, transonic lateral motions, such as wing drop, with experimental, computational, and simulation tools. Background to the establishment of the AWS program is given as well as program objectives. In order to understand the fundamental flow mechanisms that caused the undesirable motions for a pre-production version of the F/A-18E, steady and unsteady flow field details were gathered from dedicated transonic wind-tunnel testing and computational studies. The AWS program has also adapted a free-to-roll (FTR) wind-tunnel testing technique traditionally used for low-speed studies of lateral dynamic stability to the transonic flow regime. This FTR capability was demonstrated first in a proof-of -concept study and then applied to an assessment of four different aircraft configurations. Figures of merit for static testing and for FTR testing have been evaluated for two configurations that demonstrated wing drop susceptibility during full-scale flight conditions (the pre-production F/A-18E and the AV-8B at the extremes of its flight envelope) and two configurations that do not exhibit wing drop (the F/A-18C and the F-16C). Design insights have been obtained from aerodynamic computational studies of the four aircraft configurations and from computations quantifying the impact of the various geometric wing differences between the F/A-18C and the F/A-18E wings. Finally, the AWS program provides guidance for assessing, in the simulator, the impact of experimentally determined lateral activity on flight characteristics before going to flight.

  12. Introduction to the Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Robert M.; Woodson, Shawn H.

    2003-01-01

    The Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) Program has addressed the problem of uncommanded, transonic lateral motions, such as wing drop, with experimental, computational, and simulation tools. Background to the establishment of the AWS program is given as well as program objectives. In order to understand the fundamental flow mechanisms that caused the undesirable motions for a pre-production version of the F/A-18E, steady and unsteady flow field details were gathered from dedicated transonic wind-tunnel testing and computational studies. The AWS program has also adapted a free-to- roll (FTR) wind-tunnel testing technique traditionally used for low-speed studies of lateral dynamic stability to the transonic flow regime. This FTR capability was demonstrated first in a proof-of-concept study and then applied to an assessment of four different aircraft configurations. Figures of merit for static testing and for FTR testing have been evaluated for two configurations that demonstrated wing drop susceptibility during full-scale flight conditions (the pre-production F/A-l8E and the AV-8B at the extremes of its flight envelope) and two configurations that do not exhibit wing drop (the F/A-l8C and the F-l6C). Design insights have been obtained from aerodynamic computational studies of the four aircraft configurations and from computations quantifying the impact of the various geometric wing differences between the F/A-18C and the F/A-l8E wings. Finally, the AWS program provides guidance for assessing, in the simulator, the impact of experimentally determined lateral activity on flight characteristics before going to flight.

  13. Mark Twain and "The Awful German Language."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedderich, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes Mark Twain's 1869 essay "The Awful German Language" in terms of Twain's comments on morphological, syntactical, lexical, and phonological features of German. The topic is presented in the context of Twain's German language learning experience. Relevance of the article for German language instruction today is also described. (Author/VWL)

  14. Effect of pH and water activity on the growth limits of Listeria monocytogenes in a cheese matrix at two contamination levels.

    PubMed

    Schvartzman, M S; Belessi, C; Butler, F; Skandamis, P N; Jordan, K N

    2011-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can proliferate at the beginning of cheesemaking as the conditions favor growth. The objective of this study was to establish the growth limits of L. monocytogenes in a cheese matrix, in case of potential contamination of the milk prior to cheese manufacture. A semisoft laboratory scale model cheese system was made at different initial pH and water activity (a(w)) levels with a mix of two strains of L. monocytogenes. A factorial design of five pH values (5.6 to 6.5), four a(w) values (0.938 to 0.96), and two L. monocytogenes inoculation levels (1 to 20 CFU/ml and 500 to 1,000 CFU/ml) was carried out. Each combination was evaluated in six independent replicates. In order to determine if there was a dominant strain, isolated colonies from the cheeses were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The data relating to growth initiation were fitted to a logistic regression model. The a(w) of milk influenced the probability of growth initiation of L. monocytogenes at both low and high contamination levels. The pH, at the concentrations tested, had a lower effect on the probability of growth initiation. At pH 6.5 and a(w) of 0.99 for low contamination levels and pH 6.5 and a(w) of 0.97 for high contamination levels, increases in population of up to 4 and 2 log were observed at low and high contamination levels, respectively. This shows that if conditions are favorable for growth initiation at the early stages of the cheesemaking process, contamination of milk, even with low numbers, could lead to L. monocytogenes populations that exceed the European Union's microbiological limit of 100 CFU/g of cheese. PMID:22054180

  15. Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels.

    PubMed

    Passone, María A; Girardi, Natalia S; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2012-10-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from boldo [Pëumus boldus Mol.], poleo [Lippia turbinata var. integrifolia (Griseb.)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum L.], anise [Pimpinella anisum] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris]) obtained by hydrodistillation were evaluated for their effectiveness against the growth of Aspergillus niger aggregate and A. carbonarius and accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA). The evaluation was performed by compound dissolution at the doses of 0, 500, 1500 and 2500μL/L in peanut meal extract agar (PMEA) and exposure to volatiles of boldo, poleo (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000μL/L) and clove oils (0, 1000, 3000 and 5000μL/L), taking into account the levels of the water activity of the medium (a(W) 0.98, 0.95, 0.93). Statistical analyses on growth of Aspergillus strains indicated that the major effect was produced by oil concentrations followed by substrate a(W), and that reductions in antifungal efficiency of the oils tested were observed in vapor exposure assay. At all a(W) levels, complete fungal growth inhibition was achieved with boldo EO at doses of 1500 and 2000μL/L by contact and volatile assays, respectively. Contact exposure by poleo and clove EOs showed total fungal inhibition at the middle level tested of 1500μL/L, regardless of a(W), while their antifungal effects in headspace volatile assay were closely dependent on medium a(W). The fumigant activity of poleo (2000μL/L) and clove oils (3000μL/L) inhibited growth rate by 66.0% and 80.6% at a(W) 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. OTA accumulation was closely dependent on a(W) conditions. The antiochratoxigenic property of the volatile fractions of boldo, poleo and clove EOs (1000μL/L) was more significant at low a(W) levels, inhibition percentages were estimated at 14.7, 41.7 and 78.5% at a(W) 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. Our results suggest that boldo, poleo and clove oils affect the OTA biosynthesis pathway of both Aspergillus species. This finding leaves open the possibility of their use by vapor exposure

  16. Thermal modeling of tanks 241-AW-101 and 241-AN-104 with the TEMPEST code

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniak, Z.I.; Recknagle, K.P.

    1995-07-01

    The TEMPEST code was exercised in a preliminary study of double-shell Tanks 241 -AW-101 and 241-AN-104 thermal behavior. The two-dimensional model used is derived from our earlier studies on heat transfer from Tank 241-SY-101. Several changes were made to the model to simulate the waste and conditions in 241-AW-101 and 241-AN-104. The nonconvective waste layer was assumed to be 254 cm (100 in.) thick for Tank 241-AW-101, and 381 cm (150 in.) in Tank 241-AN-104. The remaining waste was assumed, for each tank, to consist of a convective layer with a 7.6-cm (3-inch) crust on top. The waste heat loads for 241-AW-101 and 241-AN-104 were taken to be 10 kW (3.4E4 Btu/hr) and 12 kW (4.0E4 Btu/hr), respectively. Present model predictions of maximum and convecting waste temperatures are within 1.7{degrees}C (3{degrees}F) of those measured in Tanks 241-AW-101 and 241-AN-104. The difference between the predicted and measured temperature is comparable to the uncertainty of the measurement equipment. These models, therefore, are suitable for estimating the temperatures within the tanks in the event of changing air flows, waste levels, and/or waste configurations.

  17. Operational test report for 241-AW tank inlet air control stations

    SciTech Connect

    Minteer, D.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-03

    This document reports the results of operational testing on tank inlet air control stations in 241-AW tank farm. An air control station was installed on each of the six AW tanks. Operational testing consisted of a simple functional test of each station`s air flow controller, aerosol testing of each station`s HEPA filter, and final ventilation system balancing (i.e., tank airflows and vacuum level) using the air control stations. The test was successful and the units were subsequently placed into operation.

  18. Consumer participation in service planning--the AWS (All Wales Strategy) experience.

    PubMed

    McGrath, M

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides a case study of the involvement of carers in planning services for mentally handicapped people under the All Wales Strategy (AWS). After describing the structure for consumer participation in the AWS in Gwynedd, reasons for the low level of participation found are examined before considering what can be learnt from these early experiences. Major changes in the planning structure implemented after a review of the system are outlined. The paper ends with a discussion of the major operational principles which might underlie an effective system of consumer participation. PMID:10292255

  19. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for AW-tank farm

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, C.H., Stroup, J.L.; Funk, J.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on AW-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southeast Quadrant of the Hanford 200 Areas.

  20. 47 CFR 27.1160 - Cost-sharing requirements for AWS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... would occur. All AWS entities that benefit from the clearance of this spectrum by other AWS entities or... AWS licensee enters into a spectrum leasing arrangement (as set forth in part 1, subpart X of this chapter) and the spectrum lessee triggers a cost-sharing obligation, the licensee is the AWS...

  1. Relative survival of four serotypes of Salmonella enterica in low-water activity whey protein powder held at 36 and 70°C at various water activity levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica is the leading cause of health burdens in the United States. Although the pathogen is not able to grow at aw levels below 0.94, it can survive in low-moisture foods for long periods of time. Temperature, aw, substrate and serotype affect its persistence. The aim of this study was...

  2. Ultra Fine Microstructure and Properties Formation of EN AW 6082 Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvackaj, Tibor; Fujda, Martin; Besterci, Michal

    The influence of heat treatment conditions and severe plastic deformations (SPD) by ECAP on structural and mechanical properties development of EN AW 6082 aluminium alloy was investigated. The hardness and mechanical properties in dependence on two types of solution heat treatment (TSA=400°C+slow cooling and TSA = 550°C +quenching), natural or artificial ageing treatment (room temperature, 100°C, 170°C), several annealing temperatures (TA=100 - 300°C) and ageing or annealing times after SPD were tested. The best properties for EN AW 6082 material were achieved after processing by (TSA=550°C/1,5h + water quenching + 3xECAP/20°C + TAA=100°C/30h) on level: 0,2%YS=408MPa, UTS=427MPa, El.=20,1%, Re.=29,3%, KCVRT=16,5J.cm-2.

  3. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  4. [Pentax AWS-s200: Its Advantages and Possible Problems].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yuichi; Asai, Takashi; Arai, Takero; Okuda, Yasuhisa

    2016-02-01

    The Pentax AWS-s200 (Hoya, Japan : s-200) is a new videolaryngoscope. Its weight is 190 g, and it is lighter than the original AWS (AWS-s100L: s-100). It has a USB port, and its screen is wider and clearer than the s-100. The INTROCK for the s-100 is all usable with the s-200. The target mark is positioned at the center of the screen in the s-200. We used the s-200 in 20 patients, and could see a full view of the glottis, and tracheal intubation was successful in all patients. But tracheal intubation was not smooth in 10 of 20 patients, mainly because the tube impacted the right arytenoid. We felt the target mark of the s-200 may be incorrectly positioned. PMID:27017780

  5. Engagement in Pleasant Activities and Depression Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    1975-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a low rate of engagement in pleasant activities to be a concomitant of depression. The crucial question addressed by the Hammen and Glass study (1975) is whether an increase in pleasant-activity level will produce a decrease in depression level. (Editor)

  6. Factors Influencing Cypriot Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present selected findings from a larger study, which set out to examine the physical activity levels of Cypriot primary school children and determinants of their activity. Twenty parents of children who obtained high and low activity scores based on pedometer counts and self-reports scores were interviewed. By…

  7. Professor Bolesław Rutkowski's 70th birthday Laudatio

    PubMed Central

    Ostrowski, Janusz; Durlik, Magdalena; Dębska-Ślizień, Alicja; Klinger, Marian; Manitius, Jacek; Sułowicz, Władysław; Więcek, Andrzej; Zdrojewski, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    On 5 December 2014 Professor Bolesław Rutkowski, the outstanding Polish nephrologist, doctor and researcher, renowned organizer, our teacher, colleague and friend, will celebrate his 70th birthday. We would like to take this opportunity to present to you his life and his scientific achievements.

  8. Acceptance/operational test procedure 101-AW tank camera purge system and 101-AW video camera system

    SciTech Connect

    Castleberry, J.L.

    1994-09-19

    This procedure will document the satisfactory operation of the 101-AW Tank Camera Purge System (CPS) and the 101-AW Video Camera System. The safety interlock which shuts down all the electronics inside the 101-AW vapor space, during loss of purge pressure, will be in place and tested to ensure reliable performance. This procedure is separated into four sections. Section 6.1 is performed in the 306 building prior to delivery to the 200 East Tank Farms and involves leak checking all fittings on the 101-AW Purge Panel for leakage using a Snoop solution and resolving the leakage. Section 7.1 verifies that PR-1, the regulator which maintains a positive pressure within the volume (cameras and pneumatic lines), is properly set. In addition the green light (PRESSURIZED) (located on the Purge Control Panel) is verified to turn on above 10 in. w.g. and after the time delay (TDR) has timed out. Section 7.2 verifies that the purge cycle functions properly, the red light (PURGE ON) comes on, and that the correct flowrate is obtained to meet the requirements of the National Fire Protection Association. Section 7.3 verifies that the pan and tilt, camera, associated controls and components operate correctly. This section also verifies that the safety interlock system operates correctly during loss of purge pressure. During the loss of purge operation the illumination of the amber light (PURGE FAILED) will be verified.

  9. Growth, Sporulation, and Germination of Clostridium perfringens in Media of Controlled Water Activity1

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chunghee K.; Woodburn, Margy; Pagenkopf, Andrea; Cheney, Roberta

    1969-01-01

    Requirements in terms of water activity (aw) for the growth, sporulation, and germination of Clostridium perfringens were determined. Strain A48 was used in all phases, and in addition either NCTC 8239 or NCTC 8797 was used for growth, sporulation, and germination studies. The desired aw of the test media was obtained by the addition of one of three solutes: glycerol, sucrose, or sodium chloride. The freezing point depression method was used to determine the aw. The basal medium for growth and germination was Fluid Thioglycollate Medium. It had an aw of 0.995 and produced maximum growth and fastest growth rate among the six levels of aw tested. The lowest aw supporting growth and germination of C. perfringens was between 0.97 and 0.95 in the test media made with sucrose or sodium chloride and 0.93 or below in the test media adjusted with glycerol. Spore production by C. perfringens in Ellner's or modified medium required a higher aw than growth. PMID:4313168

  10. Curves of AW(k)-type in 4D Galilean space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Külahci, Mihriban

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate curves of AW(k)-type (1 ≤ k ≤ 3) in 4D Galilean space and we give curvature conditions of these kind of curves. Also, we study weak AW(2)-type curves. Furthermore, we express mannheim curves of AW(k)-type in 4D Galilean space.

  11. Conceptual design report for project W-457, AW tank farm monitoring and controls system

    SciTech Connect

    Mattichak, R.W.

    1996-10-10

    The 241-AW Tank Farm, located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site, contains six 1.16 Mgal double-shell tanks. The tanks are used primarily for storage of waste from facilities such as PUREX and B Plant. Tanks 102-AW and 106-AW commonly are used for staging waste concentrated by the evaporator.

  12. Genomic and Secondary Metabolite Analyses of Streptomyces sp. 2AW Provide Insight into the Evolution of the Cycloheximide Pathway.

    PubMed

    Stulberg, Elizabeth R; Lozano, Gabriel L; Morin, Jesse B; Park, Hyunjun; Baraban, Ezra G; Mlot, Christine; Heffelfinger, Christopher; Phillips, Gillian M; Rush, Jason S; Phillips, Andrew J; Broderick, Nichole A; Thomas, Michael G; Stabb, Eric V; Handelsman, Jo

    2016-01-01

    The dearth of new antibiotics in the face of widespread antimicrobial resistance makes developing innovative strategies for discovering new antibiotics critical for the future management of infectious disease. Understanding the genetics and evolution of antibiotic producers will help guide the discovery and bioengineering of novel antibiotics. We discovered an isolate in Alaskan boreal forest soil that had broad antimicrobial activity. We elucidated the corresponding antimicrobial natural products and sequenced the genome of this isolate, designated Streptomyces sp. 2AW. This strain illustrates the chemical virtuosity typical of the Streptomyces genus, producing cycloheximide as well as two other biosynthetically unrelated antibiotics, neutramycin, and hygromycin A. Combining bioinformatic and chemical analyses, we identified the gene clusters responsible for antibiotic production. Interestingly, 2AW appears dissimilar from other cycloheximide producers in that the gene encoding the polyketide synthase resides on a separate part of the chromosome from the genes responsible for tailoring cycloheximide-specific modifications. This gene arrangement and our phylogenetic analyses of the gene products suggest that 2AW holds an evolutionarily ancestral lineage of the cycloheximide pathway. Our analyses support the hypothesis that the 2AW glutaramide gene cluster is basal to the lineage wherein cycloheximide production diverged from other glutarimide antibiotics. This study illustrates the power of combining modern biochemical and genomic analyses to gain insight into the evolution of antibiotic-producing microorganisms. PMID:27199910

  13. Genomic and Secondary Metabolite Analyses of Streptomyces sp. 2AW Provide Insight into the Evolution of the Cycloheximide Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Stulberg, Elizabeth R.; Lozano, Gabriel L.; Morin, Jesse B.; Park, Hyunjun; Baraban, Ezra G.; Mlot, Christine; Heffelfinger, Christopher; Phillips, Gillian M.; Rush, Jason S.; Phillips, Andrew J.; Broderick, Nichole A.; Thomas, Michael G.; Stabb, Eric V.; Handelsman, Jo

    2016-01-01

    The dearth of new antibiotics in the face of widespread antimicrobial resistance makes developing innovative strategies for discovering new antibiotics critical for the future management of infectious disease. Understanding the genetics and evolution of antibiotic producers will help guide the discovery and bioengineering of novel antibiotics. We discovered an isolate in Alaskan boreal forest soil that had broad antimicrobial activity. We elucidated the corresponding antimicrobial natural products and sequenced the genome of this isolate, designated Streptomyces sp. 2AW. This strain illustrates the chemical virtuosity typical of the Streptomyces genus, producing cycloheximide as well as two other biosynthetically unrelated antibiotics, neutramycin, and hygromycin A. Combining bioinformatic and chemical analyses, we identified the gene clusters responsible for antibiotic production. Interestingly, 2AW appears dissimilar from other cycloheximide producers in that the gene encoding the polyketide synthase resides on a separate part of the chromosome from the genes responsible for tailoring cycloheximide-specific modifications. This gene arrangement and our phylogenetic analyses of the gene products suggest that 2AW holds an evolutionarily ancestral lineage of the cycloheximide pathway. Our analyses support the hypothesis that the 2AW glutaramide gene cluster is basal to the lineage wherein cycloheximide production diverged from other glutarimide antibiotics. This study illustrates the power of combining modern biochemical and genomic analyses to gain insight into the evolution of antibiotic-producing microorganisms. PMID:27199910

  14. Survival of Salmonella Tennessee, Salmonella Typhimurium DT104, and Enterococcus faecium in peanut paste formulations at two different levels of water activity and fat.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Ai; Enache, Elena; Black, D Glenn; Elliott, Philip H; Napier, Carla D; Podolak, Richard; Hayman, Melinda M

    2014-08-01

    Long-term survival of heat-stressed Salmonella Tennessee, Salmonella Typhimurium DT104, and Enterococcus faecium was evaluated in four model peanut paste formulations with a combination of two water activity (aw) levels (0.3 and 0.6) and two fat levels (47 and 56%) over 12 months at 20 ± 1°C. Prior to storage, the inoculated peanut paste formulations were heat treated at 75°C for up to 50 min to obtain an approximately 1.0-log reduction of each organism. The cell population of each organism in each formulation was monitored with tryptic soy agar plate counts, immediately after heat treatment, at 2 weeks for the first month, and then monthly for up to 1 year. The log reductions (log CFU per gram) following 12 months of storage were between 1.3 and 2.4 for Salmonella Tennessee, 1.8 and 2.8 for Salmonella Typhimurium, and 1.1 and 2.1 for E. faecium in four types of model peanut paste formulations. Enhanced survivability was observed in pastes with lower aw for all organisms, compared with those with higher aw (P < 0.05). In contrast, the effect of fat level (47 and 56%) on survival of all organisms was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Whereas survivability of Salmonella Tennessee and Typhimurium DT104 did not differ significantly (P > 0.05), E. faecium demonstrated higher survivability than Salmonella (P < 0.05). Salmonella survived in the model peanut pastes well over 12 months, which is longer than the expected shelf life for peanut butter products. The information from this study can be used to design safer food processing and food safety plans for peanut butter processing. PMID:25198585

  15. THE LONG-LIVED UV ''PLATEAU'' OF SN 2012aw

    SciTech Connect

    Bayless, Amanda J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Pritchard, Tyler A.; Kuin, Paul; Brown, Peter J.; Botticella, Maria Teresa; Dall'Ora, Massimo; Frey, Lucille H.; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L.; Maund, Justyn R.; Fraser, Morgan

    2013-02-10

    Observations with the Swift UV Optical Telescope have unambiguously uncovered for the first time a long-lived, UV ''plateau'' in a Type II-P supernova (SN). Although this flattening in slope is hinted at in a few other SNe, due to its proximity and minimal line-of-sight extinction, SN 2012aw has afforded the first opportunity to clearly observe this UV plateau. The observations of SN 2012aw revealed all Swift UV and u-band light curves initially declined rapidly, but 27 days after the explosion the light curves flattened. Some possible sources of the UV plateau are the same thermal process that causes the optical plateau, heating from radioactive decay, or a combination of both processes.

  16. Wrocław's motorway ring-road--noise protection.

    PubMed

    Rudno-Rudzińska, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The 35.4-km stretch of the A8 motorway, i.e., Wrocław's motorway ring-road (WMRR), passes through the north-west part of the city of Wrocław and 4 neighbouring districts. Analyses have shown that WMRR will be a source of noise in the environment, which may adversely affect large areas. Normative environmental protection acts mandate taking all the necessary technical and organizational measures to reduce noise generated by the operation of WMRR in order to comply with the acoustic environment quality standards. The paper presents the research methodology adopted for assessing noise impact and designing acoustic barriers, and proposed designs of acoustic barriers which take into account the acoustic requirements, technical limitations, urban development, and architectural conditions. PMID:18082022

  17. SN 2004aw: confirming diversity of Type Ic supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubenberger, S.; Pastorello, A.; Mazzali, P. A.; Valenti, S.; Pignata, G.; Sauer, D. N.; Arbey, A.; Bärnbantner, O.; Benetti, S.; Della Valle, A.; Deng, J.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Filippenko, A. V.; Foley, R. J.; Goobar, A.; Kotak, R.; Li, W.; Meikle, P.; Mendez, J.; Patat, F.; Pian, E.; Ries, C.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Salvo, M.; Stanishev, V.; Turatto, M.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2006-09-01

    Optical and near-infrared (near-IR) observations of the Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) 2004aw are presented, obtained from -3 to +413 d with respect to the B-band maximum. The photometric evolution is characterized by a comparatively slow post-maximum decline of the light curves. The peaks in redder bands are significantly delayed relative to the bluer bands, the I-band maximum occurring 8.4 d later than that in B. With an absolute peak magnitude of -18.02 in the V band the SN can be considered fairly bright, but not exceptional. This also holds for the U through I bolometric light curve, where SN 2004aw has a position intermediate between SNe 2002ap and 1998bw. Spectroscopically SN 2004aw provides a link between a normal SN Ic like SN 1994I and the group of broad-lined SNe Ic. The spectral evolution is rather slow, with a spectrum at day +64 being still predominantly photospheric. The shape of the nebular [OI] λλ6300, 6364 line indicates a highly aspherical explosion. Helium cannot be unambiguously identified in the spectra, even in the near-IR. Using an analytical description of the light-curve peak we find that the total mass of the ejecta in SN 2004aw is 3.5-8.0Msolar, significantly larger than that in SN 1994I, although not as large as in SN 1998bw. The same model suggests that about 0.3Msolar of 56Ni has been synthesized in the explosion. No connection to a GRB can be firmly established. Based on observations at ESO-Paranal, Prog. 074.D-0161(A). E-mail: tauben@mpa-garching.mpg.de

  18. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AW-105

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, L.M.

    1997-06-05

    One of the major functions of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize wastes in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis, along with other available information about a tank, are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendices serve as the TCR for double-shell tank 241-AW-105. The objectives of this report are to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with tank 241-AW-105 waste; and to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. The response to technical issues is summarized in Section 2.0, and the best-basis inventory estimate is presented in Section 3.0. Recommendations regarding safety status and additional sampling needs are provided in Section 4.0. Supporting data and information are contained in the appendices. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone Characterization. information presented in this report originated from sample analyses and known historical sources. While only the results of a recent sampling event will be used to fulfill the requirements of the data quality objectives (DQOs), other information can be used to support or question conclusions derived from these results. Historical information for tank 241-AW-105 is provided in Appendix A, including surveillance information, records pertaining to waste transfers and tank operations, and expected tank contents derived from a process knowledge model. The recent sampling event listed, as well as pertinent sample data obtained before 1996, are summarized in Appendix B along with the sampling results. The results of the 1996 grab sampling event satisfied the data requirements specified in the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for this tank. In addition, the tank headspace flammability was measured, which addresses

  19. Are Preschool Children Active Enough? Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Greet M.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe accelerometer-based physical activity levels in 4- and 5-year-old children (N = 76) on 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days. The children were sedentary for 9.6 hr (85%) daily, while they engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for 34 min (5%). Only 7% of the children engaged in MVPA for 60 min per…

  20. RX-26-AW/AX rifle bullet tests

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.D.

    1980-04-01

    A series of rifle bullet tests was performed at the request of LLL for two explosives, RX-26-AW and RX-26-AX, using the Pantex version of the Picatinny Arsenal test (PA-2). Both exposives tested displayed essentially the same low sensitivity to bullet impact. Slow burning of the explosive was the highest order of reaction observed. Also, in a continuing effort to improve the capability of the test facility, different rifle sighting and shot alignment procedures were implemented during this test series.

  1. Evaluation of tank waste transfers at 241-AW tank farm

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, W.L.

    1998-05-27

    A number of waste transfers are needed to process and feed waste to the private contractors in support of Phase 1 Privatization. Other waste transfers are needed to support the 242-A Evaporator, saltwell pumping, and other ongoing Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) operations. The purpose of this evaluation is to determine if existing or planned equipment and systems are capable of supporting the Privatization Mission of the Tank Farms and continuing operations through the end of Phase 1B Privatization Mission. Projects W-211 and W-314 have been established and will support the privatization effort. Equipment and system upgrades provided by these projects (W-211 and W-314) will also support other ongoing operations in the tank farms. It is recognized that these projects do not support the entire transfer schedule represented in the Tank Waste Remediation system Operation and Utilization Plan. Additionally, transfers surrounding the 241-AW farm must be considered. This evaluation is provided as information, which will help to define transfer paths required to complete the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) mission. This document is not focused on changing a particular project, but it is realized that new project work in the 241-AW Tank Farm is required.

  2. [WŁADYSŁAW KRETKOWSKI (1840-1910)].

    PubMed

    Ciesielska, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Władysław Kretkowski was a mathematician and an engineer. He graduated Ècole Imperiale des Ponts et Chauseés in Paris and also Sorbonne. He obtained PhD from the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, he was a private docent at the Polytechnic and University in Lvov. The first chapter of the paper contains a short biography of Kretkowski, including information about his education and interests. The participation of Kretkowski in the January Uprising is described here as well. In the main Chapter, i.e. Chapter 2, mathematical achievements of Kretkowski in the theory of determinants and their applications in mathematical analysis and geometry is presented. The history of his academic career is also presented in this chapter. The last chapters are devoted to the mathematical contests announced by Kretkowski (especially the most famous one on the problem which is nowadays known as the Third Hilbert Problem from 1900) and to the Dr Władysław Kretkowski Fundation. PMID:26454918

  3. Temperature resistance of Salmonella in low-water activity whey protein powder as influenced by salt content.

    PubMed

    Santillana Farakos, S M; Hicks, J W; Frank, J F

    2014-04-01

    Salmonella can survive in low-water activity (a(w)) foods for long periods of time. Water activity and the presence of solutes may affect its survival during heating. Low-a(w) products that contain sodium levels above 0.1 % (wt/wt) and that have been involved in major Salmonella outbreaks include peanut products and salty snacks. Reduced a(w) protects against thermal inactivation. There is conflicting information regarding the role of salt. The aim of this study was to determine whether NaCl influences the survival of Salmonella in low-a(w) whey protein powder independent of a(w) at 70 and 80 °C. Whey protein powders of differing NaCl concentrations (0, 8, and 17 % [wt/wt]) were equilibrated to target a(w) levels 0.23, 0.33, and 0.58. Powders were inoculated with Salmonella, vacuum sealed, and stored at 70 and 80 °C for 48 h. Cells were recovered on nonselective differential media. Survival data were fit with the Weibull model, and first decimal reduction times (δ) (measured in minutes) and shape factor values (β) were estimated. The influence of temperature, a(w), and salinity on Weibull model parameters (δ and β) was analyzed using multiple linear regression. Results showed that a(w) significantly influenced the survival of Salmonella at both temperatures, increasing resistance at decreasing a(w). Sodium chloride did not provide additional protection or inactivation of Salmonella at any temperature beyond that attributed to a(w). The Weibull model described the survival kinetics of Salmonella well, with R2 adj and root mean square error values ranging from 0.59 to 0.97 and 0.27 to 1.07, respectively. Temperature and a(w) influenced δ values (P < 0.05), whereas no significant differences were found between 70 and 80 °C among the different salt concentrations (P > 0.05). β values were not significantly influenced by temperature, a(w), or % NaCl (P > 0.05). This study indicates that information on salt content in food may not help improve predictions on the

  4. 241-AW Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.; Reeploeg, Gretchen E.

    2013-11-19

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for the 241-AW tank farm. The construction history of the 241-AW tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AW tank farm, the fourth double-shell tank farm constructed, similar issues as those with tank 241-AY-102 construction occured. The overall extent of similary and affect on 241-AW tank farm integrity is described herein.

  5. Applying the benefits of the AwM study in the clinic.

    PubMed

    Dodick, D W

    2008-09-01

    The Act when Mild (AwM) Study has illustrated the benefits to migraineurs of taking triptan medication when their migraine pain is still mild and within 1 h of the onset of symptoms. Yet many patients wait until the attack has fully developed before taking their medication, with potentially inferior outcomes. In order to reproduce the benefits of early intervention using the AwM paradigm in daily practice, a number of key barriers need to be addressed at both the physician and patient level. Notable physician-related barriers to be overcome, particularly at the primary care level, include accuracy of an early diagnosis of migraine in newly presenting patients, communication skills that generate a therapeutic engagement with migraine patients and enhance patient confidence, the application of knowledge about up-to-date strategies to optimize treatment outcomes, and the setting of achievable goals to avoid unrealistic expectations. Patient-related obstacles that need to be identified and overcome encompass patient attitude, expectations, and behaviour. Migraine patients may be reluctant to consult their physician, and, of those who do, many stop consulting because they perceive that physicians can do little to improve their situation. For this reason, migraine patients need to be counselled about the most appropriate medication for their level of symptoms. Moreover, patients need to be confident before they will adhere routinely to the advice they receive, and high in the priority of advice is the use of medication, particularly triptans, at the first sign of a migraine attack, rather than waiting until their attack has progressed to moderate or severe intensity. Patients who adhere to this advice are likely to experience a notable reduction in the pain, disability and time lost that they would otherwise suffer. The beneficial effects of early triptan intervention illustrated in the AwM Study can therefore be best reproduced in the clinic if the correct advice given

  6. 47 CFR 27.1160 - Cost-sharing requirements for AWS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... benefit from the clearance of this spectrum by other AWS entities or by a voluntarily relocating microwave... specified in §§ 22.602 and 101.69 of this chapter. If an AWS licensee enters into a spectrum leasing arrangement (as set forth in part 1, subpart X of this chapter) and the spectrum lessee triggers a...

  7. 47 CFR 27.1160 - Cost-sharing requirements for AWS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... benefit from the clearance of this spectrum by other AWS entities or by a voluntarily relocating microwave... specified in §§ 22.602 and 101.69 of this chapter. If an AWS licensee enters into a spectrum leasing arrangement (as set forth in part 1, subpart X of this chapter) and the spectrum lessee triggers a...

  8. 47 CFR 27.1160 - Cost-sharing requirements for AWS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... benefit from the clearance of this spectrum by other AWS entities or by a voluntarily relocating microwave... specified in § 22.602 and 101.69 of this chapter. If an AWS licensee enters into a spectrum leasing arrangement (as set forth in part 1, subpart X of this chapter) and the spectrum lessee triggers a...

  9. Inter and intrasite analyses of cultural materials from U20aw, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, P.A.; Pippin, L.C.; Henton, G.H.; Hemphill, M.L.; Lockett, C.L.

    1991-12-01

    In the Spring of 1986 Desert Research Institute (DRI) conducted a Class III archaeological survey of Drill Hole U20aw on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Seven archaeological sites were located during the course of this survey including two temporary camps, four lithic scatters, and a possible pinyon cache. This report presents the results of the analyses of the data derived from all sites investigated during the data recovery operations on Drill Hole U20aw. Detailed analyses were focused on the spatial distribution of artifacts and features within and between sites in the southern portion of the study area (26Ny4867, 26Ny4869, and 26Ny4871). These analyses indicate that 26Ny4871 served principally as a temporary camp, while the area around the canyonhead to the east (which includes 26Ny4867 and 26Ny4869) seems to have been used as a site for both temporary camps and special activity loci. Projectile point styles suggest that the area was occupied from the Early Archaic into the early Historic period. Analyses of the artifacts that were recovered indicate that obsidian was the preferred material for all classes of flaked stone tools. All stages of lithic reduction are represented on the sites, but core reduction and thinning of bifaces appear to have been the primary activities. Processing of floral foods is indicated by the presence of several ground stone artifacts. Pinyon nuts and other items appear to have been stored in the area of 26Ny4869 and to the north of the drill hole as evidenced by the presence of several rock features that may have served as caches.

  10. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual’s future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival. PMID:25279258

  11. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood.

    PubMed

    McCowan, Luke S C; Griffith, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual's entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual's future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival. PMID:25279258

  12. Job level risk assessment using task level ACGIH hand activity level TLV scores: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Drinkaus, Phillip; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Donald S; Mann, Clay; Bernard, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Existing upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder analytical tools are primarily intended for single or mono-task jobs. However, many jobs contain more than 1 task and some include job rotation. This case/control study investigates methods of modifying an existing tool, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Hand Activity Level (HAL) Threshold Limit Value (TLV), to assess the upper extremity risk of multi-task jobs. Various methods of combining the task differences and ratios into a job level assessment were explored. Two methods returned significant odds ratios, (p < .05) of 18.0 (95% CI 1.8-172) and 12.0 (95% CI 1.2-120). These results indicate that a modified ACGIH HAL TLV may provide insight into the work-related risk of multi-task jobs. Further research is needed to optimize this process. PMID:16219155

  13. AW Ursae Majoris: a semidetached mass-transferring system indeed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Joel A.

    2016-03-01

    I have reinterpreted Rucinski's line profiles (broadening functions) for the hot A-type W Ursae Majoris binary AW UMa in terms of various contact models, finding that the detached/semidetached geometry he postulates does not fit the system's light variation or its line profiles. The highly overcontact geometry that actually fits the system's ellipsoidal light variation reproduce the total breadth of the lines but give profiles too broad to fit their shapes. The best solution to this dilemma is differential rotation of both stars in which the mid-latitudes are rotating 20-30 per cent slower than synchronously. This approach preserves the traditional light-curve solution and explains the drift of ripples seen in the line profiles. In addition, there are obviously other flows superimposed on the rotation which make the profiles asymmetrical. Fitting the line profiles is complicated by uncertainties in how the equivalent widths of the lines change with effective temperature and how much they are limb darkened. The contribution of any point on the stellar surface to the equivalent width depends only very weakly on local temperature throughout the range of W UMa binaries. The limb darkening of the lines is probably small, although the effect remains unexplored. I also speculate about the nature of hypothetical star-spots in this system.

  14. AHR-related activities in a creosote-adapted population of adult atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, two decades post-EPA superfund status at the Atlantic Wood Site, Portsmouth, VA USA.

    PubMed

    Wojdylo, Josephine V; Vogelbein, Wolfgang; Bain, Lisa J; Rice, Charles D

    2016-08-01

    Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, are adapted to creosote-based PAHs at the US EPA Superfund site known as Atlantic Wood (AW) on the southern branch of the Elizabeth River, VA USA. Subsequent to the discovery of the AW population in the early 1990s, these fish were shown to be recalcitrant to CYP1A induction by PAHs under experimental conditions, and even to the time of this study, killifish embryos collected from the AW site are resistant to developmental deformities typically associated with exposure to PAHs in reference fish. Historically, however, 90 +% of the adult killifish at this site have proliferative hepatic lesions including cancer of varying severity. Several PAHs at this site are known to be ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). In this study, AHR-related activities in AW fish collected between 2011 and 2013 were re-examined nearly 2 decades after first discovery. This study shows that CYP1A mRNA expression is three-fold higher in intestines of AW killifish compared to a reference population. Using immunohistochemistry, CYP1A staining in intestines was uniformly positive compared to negative staining in reference fish. Livers of AW killifish were examined by IHC to show that CYP1A and AHR2 protein expression reflect lesions-specific patterns, probably representing differences in intrinsic cellular physiology of the spectrum of proliferative lesions comprising the hepatocarcinogenic process. We also found that COX2 mRNA expression levels were higher in AW fish livers compared to those in the reference population, suggesting a state of chronic inflammation. Overall, these findings suggest that adult AW fish are responsive to AHR signaling, and do express CYP1A and AHR2 proteins in intestines at a level above what was observed in the reference population. PMID:27262937

  15. 47 CFR 27.1160 - Cost-sharing requirements for AWS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... entities that benefit from the clearance of this spectrum by other AWS entities or by a voluntarily... spectrum leasing arrangement (as set forth in part 1, subpart X of this chapter) and the spectrum...

  16. Entry-Level Activities in System Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    System-level consultation or organizational development in schools is an area in great need of theoretical models and definitions. The three articles in this special issue provide a unique learning opportunity not only for consultation across borders but also for consultation within the same nation. In my commentary, I limit my remarks to a few…

  17. Hardee County Energy Activities - Middle School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Described are over 70 activities designed to help students develop writing skills by examining energy issues. Intended for middle school students, the lessons were developed by Hardee County, Florida teachers. Learning strategies employed include class discussions, analogies, word puzzles, letter writing, sentence completions, vocabulary building…

  18. Human Development Program: Level VI Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Geraldine

    The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for grade 6. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists to aid teachers in instilling responsibility and self-confidence in children. The nucleus of the Human Development Program is a circle session…

  19. Human Development Program: Level III Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessell, Harold

    The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for the third grade. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists to help teachers instill responsibility and self-confidence in children. Following a brief overview of the HDP and explanation of the Magic…

  20. Electron Cooling in a Young Radio Supernova: SN 2012aw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Naveen; Ray, Alak; Chakraborti, Sayan; Stockdale, Christopher; Chandra, Poonam; Smith, Randall; Roy, Rupak; Bose, Subhash; Dwarkadas, Vikram; Sutaria, Firoza; Pooley, David

    2014-02-01

    We present the radio observations and modeling of an optically bright Type II-P supernova (SN), SN 2012aw which exploded in the nearby galaxy Messier 95 (M95) at a distance of 10 Mpc. The spectral index values calculated using C, X, and K bands are smaller than the expected values for the optically thin regime. During this time, the optical bolometric light curve stays in the plateau phase. We interpret the low spectral-index values to be a result of electron cooling. On the basis of comparison between the Compton cooling timescale and the synchrotron cooling timescale, we find that the inverse Compton cooling process dominates over the synchrotron cooling process. We therefore model the radio emission as synchrotron emission from a relativistic electron population with a high energy cutoff. The cutoff is determined by comparing the electron cooling timescale, t cool, and the acceleration timescale, \\tilde{t}_{acc}. We constrain the mass-loss rate in the wind (\\dot{M}\\sim 1.9\\times 10^{-6}\\ M_{\\odot }\\,yr^{-1}) and the equipartition factor between relativistic electrons and the magnetic field (\\tilde{\\alpha }=\\epsilon _e/\\epsilon _B\\sim 1.12\\times 10^2) through our modeling of radio emission. Although the time of explosion is fairly well constrained by optical observations within about two days, we explore the effect of varying the time of explosion to best fit the radio light curves. The best fit is obtained for the explosion date as 2012 March 15.3 UT.

  1. Electron cooling in a young radio supernova: SN 2012aw

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Naveen; Ray, Alak; Chakraborti, Sayan; Stockdale, Christopher; Chandra, Poonam; Smith, Randall; Roy, Rupak; Bose, Subhash; Dwarkadas, Vikram; Sutaria, Firoza; Pooley, David E-mail: akr@tifr.res.in

    2014-02-10

    We present the radio observations and modeling of an optically bright Type II-P supernova (SN), SN 2012aw which exploded in the nearby galaxy Messier 95 (M95) at a distance of 10 Mpc. The spectral index values calculated using C, X, and K bands are smaller than the expected values for the optically thin regime. During this time, the optical bolometric light curve stays in the plateau phase. We interpret the low spectral-index values to be a result of electron cooling. On the basis of comparison between the Compton cooling timescale and the synchrotron cooling timescale, we find that the inverse Compton cooling process dominates over the synchrotron cooling process. We therefore model the radio emission as synchrotron emission from a relativistic electron population with a high energy cutoff. The cutoff is determined by comparing the electron cooling timescale, t {sub cool}, and the acceleration timescale, t-tilde {sub acc}. We constrain the mass-loss rate in the wind ( M-dot ∼1.9×10{sup −6} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) and the equipartition factor between relativistic electrons and the magnetic field ( α-tilde =ϵ{sub e}/ϵ{sub B}∼1.12×10{sup 2}) through our modeling of radio emission. Although the time of explosion is fairly well constrained by optical observations within about two days, we explore the effect of varying the time of explosion to best fit the radio light curves. The best fit is obtained for the explosion date as 2012 March 15.3 UT.

  2. Homogenization of EN AW 6005A Alloy for Improved Extrudability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birol, Yucel

    2013-01-01

    The homogenization practice for EN AW 6005A was investigated. It requires an 8-hour soaking at 853 K (580 °C) to even out the Mg and Si distribution in the aluminum matrix and to fully transform the monoclinic β-Al5FeSi plates into relatively small round αc-Al12(Fe,Mn)3Si particles with a "necklace" type configuration. It is predominantly the equilibrium β-Mg2Si phase that precipitates during subsequent cooling at 1000 K h-1 while orthogonal β'-Mg2Si platelets are also noted starting at 500 K h-1. The hardness decreases with decreasing cooling rate from 41.1 ± 1 HV to 35.8 ± 0.8 HV, by 15 pct, over the range investigated. The precipitation capacity retained in homogenized samples cooled to room temperature at less than 250 K h-1 is reduced substantially. The solvus temperatures of these samples are below 773 K (500 °C) ensuring full solutionizing of the Mg2Si precipitates below the press exit temperatures typically employed by extruders. An 8-hour soaking at 853 K (580 °C) followed by cooling at 250 K h-1 is identified to be the optimum homogenization treatment as it gives a homogeneous structure with predominantly spherical-shaped αc-Al12(Fe,Mn)3Si particles and sufficiently low hardness for improved extrudability and a solvus temperature below 773 K (500 °C) to ensure adequate age-hardening capacity.

  3. Directly Observed Physical Activity Levels in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; McIver, Kerry; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.; Addy, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Background: Millions of young children attend preschools and other structured child development programs, but little is known about their physical activity levels while in those settings. The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels and demographic and school-related correlates of physical activity in children attending…

  4. Inter and intrasite analyses of cultural materials from U20aw, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, P.A.; Pippin, L.C.; Henton, G.H.

    1991-12-01

    This archaeological presents the results of the analyses of the data derived from all sites investigated during the data recovery operations on Drill Hole U20aw on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County Nevada. These sites were determined to be potentially eligible for inclusion in the national Register of Historic Places. Detailed analyses were focused on the spatial distribution of artifacts and features within and between sites in the southern portion of the study area. These analyses indicate that one area served principally as a temporary camp, while the area around the canyonhead to the east seems to have been used as a site for both temporary camps and special activity loci. Projectile point styles suggest that the area was occupied from the Early Archaic into the early Historic period. Analyses of the artifacts that were recovered indicate that obsidian was the preferred material for all classes of flaked stone tools. All stages of lithic reduction are represented on the sites, but core reduction and thinning of bifaces appear to have been the primary activities. Processing of floral foods is indicated by the presence of several ground stone artifacts. Pinyon nuts and other items appear to have been stored in several areas as evidenced by the presence of several rock features that may have served as caches.

  5. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704... Allotments, Grants, and Use of Funds § 300.704 State-level activities. (a) State administration. (1) For the... may be used for the administration of Part C of the Act, if the SEA is the lead agency for the...

  6. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704... Allotments, Grants, and Use of Funds § 300.704 State-level activities. (a) State administration. (1) For the... may be used for the administration of Part C of the Act, if the SEA is the lead agency for the...

  7. Middle Level Activities To Involve the Invisible Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, Sue; Arico, Jim

    Involvement in student activities has many advantages for the middle level student. Such activities promote achievement, citizenship, and service to the community while developing self-esteem, self-confidence, and social cooperation. This book is intended as a tool for middle level schools to motivate, develop, guide, involve, and provide middle…

  8. Physical Activity Levels during Adventure-Physical Education Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehris, Jeffrey; Myers, Elizabeth; Whitaker, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Adventure-physical education has been proposed to promote adolescents' physical development, but little is known about physical activity levels during such lessons. Using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time, we observed students' (ages 11-14 years) physical activity levels in co-educational classes during 43 adventure-physical…

  9. NIR technology for on-line determination of superficial a(w) and moisture content during the drying process of fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Collell, Carles; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint; Muñoz, Israel; Comaposada, Josep

    2012-12-01

    Three different NIR equipment were evaluated based on their ability to predict superficial water activity (a(w)) and moisture content in two types of fermented sausages (with and without moulds on surface), using partial least squares (PLS) regression models. The instruments differed mainly in wavelength range, resolution and measurement configuration. The most accurate equipment was used in a new experiment to achieve robust models in sausages with different salt contents and submitted to different drying conditions. The models developed showed determination coefficients (R(2)(P)) values of 0.990, 0.910 and 0.984, and RMSEP values of 1.560%, 0.220% and 0.007% for moisture, salt and a(w) respectively. It was demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy could be a suitable non-destructive method for on-line monitoring and control of the drying process in fermented sausages. PMID:22953917

  10. Effects of temperature, water activity and incubation time on fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production by toxinogenic Aspergillus flavus isolates on sorghum seeds.

    PubMed

    Lahouar, Amani; Marin, Sonia; Crespo-Sempere, Ana; Saïd, Salem; Sanchis, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum, which is consumed in Tunisia as human food, suffers from severe colonization by several toxigenic fungi and contamination by mycotoxins. The Tunisian climate is characterized by high temperature and humidity that stimulates mold proliferation and mycotoxin accumulation in foodstuffs. This study investigated the effects of temperature (15, 25 and 37°C), water activity (aw, between 0.85 and 0.99) and incubation time (7, 14, 21 and 28 d) on fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production by three Aspergillus flavus isolates (8, 10 and 14) inoculated on sorghum grains. The Baranyi model was applied to identify the limits of growth and mycotoxin production. Maximum diameter growth rates were observed at 0.99 a(w) at 37°C for two of the isolates. The minimum aw needed for mycelial growth was 0.91 at 25 and 37°C. At 15°C, only isolate 8 grew at 0.99 a(w). Aflatoxin B1 accumulation could be avoided by storing sorghum at low water activity levels (≤0.91 a(w)). Aflatoxin production was not observed at 15°C. This is the first work on the effects of water activity and temperature on A. flavus growth and AFB1 production by A. flavus isolates on sorghum grains. PMID:26920121

  11. Pentax-AWS videolaryngoscope for awake nasal intubation in patients with unstable necks.

    PubMed

    Asai, T

    2010-01-01

    In patients with unstable necks and at risk of pulmonary aspiration, awake fibreoptic intubation is often appropriate. However, stabilization of the neck can make fibreoptic intubation more difficult. I report the use of awake nasal intubation using the Pentax-Aiway Scope (AWS) in three patients with restricted neck movement, in whom awake fibreoptic intubation had failed. Case 1: a 59-yr-old man, at risk of aspiration, required an emergency cervical laminectomy. Awake fibreoptic intubation was attempted while a Halo vest was being applied, but it was impossible to see the glottis, mainly due to pharyngeal and laryngeal oedema. The Pentax-AWS was easily inserted orally, and nasotracheal intubation was achieved within 20 s. Case 2: an 85-yr-old woman with neck injury required emergency surgical stabilization. A retropharyngeal haematoma prevented a fibreoptic bronchoscope from being advanced beyond the epiglottis. Nasotracheal intubation using the Pentax-AWS (with the aid of a gum elastic bougie) was achieved within 1 min. Case 3: a 22-yr-old man, with partial spinal cord damage, was undergoing cervical laminoplasty. He was at risk of aspiration and had an oedematous larynx. Although it was possible to insert a fibreoptic bronchoscope into the trachea while the neck was stabilized with a Halo vest, it was impossible to advance a tube over the fibrescope. Awake nasotracheal intubation using the Pentax-AWS was achieved within 15 s. The Pentax-AWS may be useful for nasotracheal intubation in awake patients with restricted necks. PMID:19923133

  12. Accomplishments of the Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) Program and Future Research Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Robert M.; Woodson, Shawn H.; Chambers, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    The Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) Program has addressed the problem of uncommanded lateral motions, such as wing drop and wing rock, at transonic speeds. The genesis of this Program was the experience of the F/A-18E/F Program in the late 199O's, when wing drop was discovered in the heart of the maneuver envelope for the pre-production aircraft. While the F/A-18E/F problem was subsequently corrected by a leading-edge flap scheduling change and the addition of a porous door to the wing fold fairing, the AWS Program was initiated as a national response to the lack of technology readiness available at the time of the F/A-18E/F Development Program. The AWS Program objectives were to define causal factors for the F/A-18E/F experience, to gain insights into the flow physics associated with wing drop, and to develop methods and analytical tools so that future programs could identify this type of problem before going to flight test. The paper reviews, for the major goals of the AWS Program, the status of the technology before the program began, the program objectives, accomplishments, and impacts. Lessons learned are presented for the benefit of future programs that must assess whether a vehicle will have uncommanded lateral motions before going to flight test. Finally, recommended future research needs are presented in light of the AWS Program experience.

  13. Radial velocity mapping of Paczyński's star AW UMa: not a contact binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribulla, T.; Rucinski, S. M.

    2008-05-01

    We present 2D (radial velocity, orbital phase) spectroscopic results for the very low mass-ratio close binary AW UMa which strongly indicate that the spectroscopic mass ratio (qsp = 0.10) does not agree with the photometrically derived one and that the widely adopted contact binary model appears to experience serious inconsistencies and limitations for this object. AW UMa is compared with V566 Oph (qsp = 0.26) which we found to behave according to the contact model. Observed broadening functions of AW UMa can be interpreted by a very strong limb darkening and/or non-solid-body rotation of the dominant primary component; the former assumption is unphysical while the differential rotation is not supported by an apparent stability of localized, dark features on the outer side of the primary. There are indications of the existence of an equatorial belt encompassing the whole system. All deficiencies in the interpretation and the discrepancy between the photometric and spectroscopic mass ratio of AW UMa can be solved within a new model of AW UMa where both components are detached and the system is submerged in a stream of hot, optically thick matter which mimics the stellar contact. While the masses and their ratio are correctly given by spectroscopy, the photometric picture is heavily modified by the matter engulfing both stars in the equatorial plane. Based on the data obtained at the David Dunlap Observatory, University of Toronto. E-mail: pribulla@ta3.sk (TP); rucinski@astro.utoronto.ca (SMR)

  14. Activity Levels in Healthy Older Adults: Implications for Joint Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Thorp, Laura E.; Orozco, Diego; Block, Joel A.; Sumner, Dale R.; Wimmer, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluated activity levels in a group of healthy older adults to establish a target activity level for adults of similar age after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). With the decreasing age of TJA patients, it is essential to have a reference for activity level in younger patients as activity level affects quality of life and implant design. 54 asymptomatic, healthy older adults with no clinical evidence of lower extremity OA participated. The main outcome measure, average daily step count, was measured using an accelerometer-based activity monitor. On average the group took 8813 ± 3611 steps per day, approximately 4000 more steps per day than has been previously reported in patients following total joint arthroplasty. The present work provides a reference for activity after joint arthroplasty which is relevant given the projected number of people under the age of 65 who will undergo joint arthroplasty in the coming years. PMID:23577274

  15. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    PubMed

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting. PMID:27029522

  16. Solar Activity, Different Geomagnetic Activity Levels and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Svetla; Jordanova, Malina; Stoilova, Irina; Taseva, Tatiana; Maslarov, Dimitar

    Results on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data covering the period from 1.12.1995 to 31.12.2004 and concerned daily distribution of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia region on the day of admission at the hospital. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms, those caused by Magnetic Clouds (MC) and by High Speed Solar Wind Streams (HSSWS), on AMI morbidity. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI. ANOVA revealed that AMI number was signifi- cantly increased from the day before (-1st) till the day after (+1st) geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day.

  17. Acoustic wave (AW) based moisture sensor for use with corrosive gases

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Frye, Gregory C.; Schneider, Thomas W.

    1996-01-01

    Moisture corrosive gas stream is measured as a function of the difference in resonant frequencies between two acoustic wave (AW) devices, each with a film which accepts at least one of the components of the gas stream. One AW is located in the gas stream while the other is located outside the gas stream but in the same thermal environment. In one embodiment, the film is a hydrophilic material such as SiO.sub.2. In another embodiment, the SiO.sub.2 is covered with another film which is impermeable to the corrosive gas, such that the AW device in the gas stream measures only the water vapor. In yet another embodiment, the film comprises polyethylene oxide which is hydrophobic and measures only the partial pressure of the corrosive gas. Other embodiments allow for compensation of drift in the system.

  18. Acoustic wave (AW) based moisture sensor for use with corrosive gases

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, K.B.; Frye, G.C.; Schneider, T.W.

    1996-11-05

    Moisture corrosive gas stream is measured as a function of the difference in resonant frequencies between two acoustic wave (AW) devices, each with a film which accepts at least one of the components of the gas stream. One AW is located in the gas stream while the other is located outside the gas stream but in the same thermal environment. In one embodiment, the film is a hydrophilic material such as SiO{sub 2}. In another embodiment, the SiO{sub 2} is covered with another film which is impermeable to the corrosive gas, such that the AW device in the gas stream measures only the water vapor. In yet another embodiment, the film comprises polyethylene oxide which is hydrophobic and measures only the partial pressure of the corrosive gas. Other embodiments allow for compensation of drift in the system. 8 figs.

  19. Ferromagnetic interaction model of activity level in workplace communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Yano, Kazuo

    2013-03-01

    The nature of human-human interaction, specifically, how people synchronize with each other in multiple-participant conversations, is described by a ferromagnetic interaction model of people’s activity levels. We found two microscopic human interaction characteristics from a real-environment face-to-face conversation. The first characteristic is that people quite regularly synchronize their activity level with that of the other participants in a conversation. The second characteristic is that the degree of synchronization increases as the number of participants increases. Based on these microscopic ferromagnetic characteristics, a “conversation activity level” was modeled according to the Ising model. The results of a simulation of activity level based on this model well reproduce macroscopic experimental measurements of activity level. This model will give a new insight into how people interact with each other in a conversation.

  20. LiDAR and 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomography as a Supplement of Geomorphological Investigations in Urban Areas: a Case Study from the City of Wrocław (SW Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzak, Marek; Traczyk, Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    In urbanized areas, particularly in lowland terrains and floors of large river valleys, the natural land configuration is often hard to recognize due to a long history of human activity. Accordingly, archaeological works in cities, which supply knowledge on settlement conditions, are usually accompanied by geological and geomophological research. Lately, data from light detection and ranging (LiDAR) have become a valuable source of information on urban land configuration. Geophysical methods are also becoming increasingly popular in background studies. The paper presents a method of using and linking these sources of spatial information about landforms in such areas. The main aim is to identify to what extent these complementary sources of data and the proposed method can be used in such a specific environment to reconstruct natural, buried terrain morphology. The city of Wrocław in Central Europe serves as an example. To this end geomorphometric studies were conducted with the use of digital elevation models (DEMs) based on LiDAR scanning and derivated land-surface parameters—SAGA Wetness Index, Channel Network Base Level and Altitude above Channel Network. The study also involved determining morphological edges and measurements of the meanders of the Odra, as well as expanding information on the spatial distribution of alluvia and the structure of slope breaks. To this end, geophysical measurements were conducted using the Two-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Tomography method. Additionally, five typical sequences of man-made ground present within the perimeter of the city were distinguished. As a result, a map of the main landforms of Wrocław is presented. Finally, we argue that although high resolution DEM and derivate land-surface parameters are very useful in terrain analysis, places with thick man-made ground or strongly levelled areas must be recognized by geoarchaeological excavations or geological bore holes. The geophysical survey is useful to

  1. Movement Activity Levels on Traditional and Contemporary Playground Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl P.; LeBlanc, Elizabeth

    This study investigated playground activity levels of children in grades K-4 and compared levels of use of traditional and creative playground apparatus. The traditional playground area consisted of climbing bars, slides, ladders, chin bars, swings, see saws, and a merry-go-round. The creative playground contained tire hurdles, tire walk, tire…

  2. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  3. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Md. Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p < 0.001)). Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand. PMID:27375903

  4. Seasonality in Children's Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Alderman, Brandon; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seasonality appears to have an impact on children's physical activity levels, but equivocal findings demand more study in this area. With the increased use of pedometers in both research and practice, collecting descriptive data in various seasons to examine the impact of seasonality on pedometer-measured physical activity among children is…

  5. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  6. The Role of Various Curriculum Models on Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Dean O.; Tarr, Susan J.; Killion, Lorraine E.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that physical education curricula can be highly effective in increasing physical activity levels at school (Sallis & Owen, 1999). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of various curriculum models on physical activity. Total steps were measured on 1,111 subjects and three curriculum models were studied…

  7. 75 FR 70739 - Domtar A.W. LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Domtar A.W. LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... the above-referenced proceeding of Domtar A.W. LLC's application for market-based rate authority,...

  8. 75 FR 70738 - Domtar A.W. LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Domtar A.W. LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... the above-referenced proceeding of Domtar A.W. LLC's application for market-based rate authority,...

  9. 14. Photocopy of a photographca. 1902taken by A.W. Peters showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of a photograph--ca. 1902--taken by A.W. Peters showing Eastwood and his party surveying for the Big Creek Project. The surveying party is visible in the upper right corner. Courtesy Mr. Charles Allan Whitney. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AW-105 Examination Completed April 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Weier, Dennis R.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Hathaway, John E.

    2009-05-31

    AREVA Federal Services LLC (AFS), under a contract from Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AW-105. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AFS ultrasonic examinations.

  11. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AW-101 Examination Completed February 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Weier, Dennis R.; Anderson, Kevin K.

    2009-03-18

    AREVA Federal Services LLC (AFS), under a contract from Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AW-101. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AFS ultrasonic examinations.

  12. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AW-106 Examination Completed July 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Weier, Dennis R.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Hathaway, John E.

    2009-08-28

    AREVA Federal Services LLC (AFS), under a contract from Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AW-106. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AFS ultrasonic examinations.

  13. Accomplishments of the Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) Program and Future Research Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Robert M.; Woodson, Shawn H.; Chambers, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    The Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) Program has addressed the problem of uncommanded lateral motions, such as wing drop and wing rock, at transonic speeds. The genesis of this Program was the experience of the F/A-1 8E/F Program in the late 1990's, when wing drop was discovered in the heart of the maneuver envelope for the pre-production aircraft. While the F/A-1 8E/F problem was subsequently corrected by a leading-edge flap scheduling change and the addition of a porous door to the wing fold fairing, the AWS Program was initiated as a national response to the lack of technology readiness available at the time of the F/A-18E/F Development Program. The AWS Program objectives were to define causal factors for the F/A-18E/F experience, to gain insights into the flow physics associated with wing drop, and to develop methods and analytical tools so that future programs could identify this type of problem before going to flight test. The paper reviews, for the major goals of the AWS Program, the status of the technology before the

  14. Women's Stereotypic Roles: A Replication and Standardization of the AWS and PAQ for Selected Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Edwin E.; And Others

    A replication of two previous studies, this study examined the effect of both sex and ethnicity on attitudes toward women, self-reported masculinity-femininity, and masculine-feminine stereotypic attitudes. The Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) were administered to 367 college students (112 Anglos,…

  15. Reliability of the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Jan D.; And Others

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in the volume of empirical research directed toward the issue of sex-roles, including the development of evaluative instruments such as the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ). The United States Military Academy's Project Athena, designed to examine…

  16. [Intestinal parasites in inhabitants of Wrocław and Wałbrzych].

    PubMed

    Lonc, E; Okulewicz, A; Kopczyńska-Maślej, J; Zaródzka, Z

    1999-01-01

    In the period 1990-1997 several thousand patients from Wrocław and Wałbrzych hospitals as well as inhabitants of Wrocław city were examined for intestinal parasites. The presence of parasites was noted in 12.3% of 2173 patients from the District Hospital of Infectious Diseases in Wrocław, 3.2% of 599 from Wałbrzych Hospital and 39.3% (mostly Enterobius vermicularis) of 746 ambulatory examined persons in the Private Analytical Laboratory in Wrocław. Among the intestinal protozoa the most frequent was Giardia intestinalis (from 5.7 to 18.1%) and Entamoeba coli (0.5-0.6%); the remaining amoebas (E. histolytica, E. hartmanni, E. polecki and Endolimax nana) as well as Chilomonas mesnili was present only in single cases. Enterobiosis was observed in nearly half of the total number of examined children (1808); the most rarely found helminths were Opisorchis felineus (! Adult patient), Strongyloides stercoralis (2) and Trichuris trichiura (8); Taenia saginata was found in 56 patients, which constituted 1.6% of the total number of examined cases and Ascaris lumbricoides in 40 (1.2%). PMID:16883717

  17. Loss, Failure, and an Awful Reputation: A Response to Jonathan Silin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Clare

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author responds to Jonathan Silin's article "At a Loss: Scared and Excited", and in doing so, takes up his ideas around the generative potential of loss. She uses these notions of loss to illuminate how, in one diverse school community in Australia, loss, failure and an "awful reputation" have opened up spaces for re-imagining…

  18. The 'Act when Mild' (AwM) study: a step forward in our understanding of early treatment in acute migraine.

    PubMed

    Goadsby, P J

    2008-09-01

    An important issue in the management of migraine is the advice given to patients as to when to take their treatment in the course of the attack. While it seems common sense almost to take treatment early in the attack, the evidence base for that advice is not as robust as could be expected. The 'Act when Mild' (AwM) Study was a randomized, four-arm, multicentre, multinational, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of almotriptan (12.5 mg) to compare outcomes after administration of treatment when pain intensity was mild and within 1 h of headache onset (mild/early) with outcomes when pain had become moderate or severe. Of 491 migraineurs enrolled, 403 were evaluable with an intention-to-treat population (ITT) of 404. At the primary end-point, 2 h pain free, on the ITT analysis 49% of patients in the almotriptan 12.5 mg treat early/mild group and 40% in the treat moderate/severe group had responded (P = 0.21). Of these patients, 43 did not take medication according to their randomly allocated baseline pain intensity (mild or moderate/severe) and were subsequently reassigned, prior to study unblinding, to the appropriate group (AwM population) for re-analysis of the primary outcome measure: 2-h pain-free rates. In the almotriptan arms, 53% of the mild/early group and 37.5% of the moderate/severe group were pain free at 2 h (P = 0.02; AwM population). The corresponding proportions in the placebo groups were 24.7% and 17.5% (significantly lower than the respective almotriptan arms; P

  19. Inter and intrasite analyses of cultural materials from U20aw, Nye County, Nevada. Technical report No. 66

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, P.A.; Pippin, L.C.; Henton, G.H.; Hemphill, M.L.; Lockett, C.L.

    1991-12-01

    In the Spring of 1986 Desert Research Institute (DRI) conducted a Class III archaeological survey of Drill Hole U20aw on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Seven archaeological sites were located during the course of this survey including two temporary camps, four lithic scatters, and a possible pinyon cache. This report presents the results of the analyses of the data derived from all sites investigated during the data recovery operations on Drill Hole U20aw. Detailed analyses were focused on the spatial distribution of artifacts and features within and between sites in the southern portion of the study area (26Ny4867, 26Ny4869, and 26Ny4871). These analyses indicate that 26Ny4871 served principally as a temporary camp, while the area around the canyonhead to the east (which includes 26Ny4867 and 26Ny4869) seems to have been used as a site for both temporary camps and special activity loci. Projectile point styles suggest that the area was occupied from the Early Archaic into the early Historic period. Analyses of the artifacts that were recovered indicate that obsidian was the preferred material for all classes of flaked stone tools. All stages of lithic reduction are represented on the sites, but core reduction and thinning of bifaces appear to have been the primary activities. Processing of floral foods is indicated by the presence of several ground stone artifacts. Pinyon nuts and other items appear to have been stored in the area of 26Ny4869 and to the north of the drill hole as evidenced by the presence of several rock features that may have served as caches.

  20. Magnetospheric impulse response for many levels of geomagnetic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bargatze, L. F.; Baker, D. N.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Mcpherron, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The temporal relationship between the solar wind and magnetospheric activity has been studied using 34 intervals of high time resolution IMP 8 solar wind data and the corresponding AL auroral activity index. The median values of the AL index for each interval were utilized to rank the intervals according to geomagnetic activity level. The linear prediction filtering technique was then applied to model magnetospheric response as measured by the AL index to the solar wind input function VB(s). The linear prediction filtering routine produces a filter of time-lagged response coefficients which estimates the most general linear relationship between the chosen input and output parameters of the magnetospheric system. It is found that the filters are composed of two response pulses speaking at time lags of 20 and 60 min. The amplitude of the 60-min pulse is the larger for moderate activity levels, while the 20-min pulse is the larger for strong activity levels. A possible interpretation is that the 20-min pulse represents magnetospheric activity driven directly by solar wind coupling and that the 60-min pulse represents magnetospheric activity driven by the release of energy previously stored in the magnetotail. If this interpretation is correct, the linear filtering results suggest that both the driven and the unloading models of magnetospheric response are important facets of a more comprehensive response model.

  1. Extraction of Children's Friendship Relation from Activity Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Aki; Shintani, Kimio; Katsuki, Takuya; Kihara, Shin'ya; Ueda, Mari; Kaneda, Shigeo; Haga, Hirohide

    Children learn to fit into society through living in a group, and it's greatly influenced by their friend relations. Although preschool teachers need to observe them to assist in the growth of children's social progress and support the development each child's personality, only experienced teachers can watch over children while providing high-quality guidance. To resolve the problem, this paper proposes a mathematical and objective method that assists teachers with observation. It uses numerical data of activity level recorded by pedometers, and we make tree diagram called dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering with recorded activity level. Also, we calculate children's ``breadth'' and ``depth'' of friend relations by using more than one dendrogram. When we record children's activity level in a certain kindergarten for two months and evaluated the proposed method, the results usually coincide with remarks of teachers about the children.

  2. Activity level and risk of overweight in male health professionals.

    PubMed Central

    Ching, P L; Willett, W C; Rimm, E B; Colditz, G A; Gortmaker, S L; Stampfer, M J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study undertook to examine relationships between nonsedentary activity level, time spent watching television (TV)/videocassette recorder (VCR), and risk of overweight among men. METHODS. Men participating in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study were mailed surveys. Cross-sectional analyses examined the prevalence and odds of being overweight, prospective analyses determined cumulative incidence rates and relative risks of becoming overweight over 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS. Cross-sectionally, odds of being overweight were 50% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 45%; 55%) lower for men in the highest quintile of nonsedentary activity level when compared with men in the lowest quintile. Among men watching 41 or more hours of TV/VCR per week, the odds of being overweight were 406 (95% CI = 2.67, 6.17) times greater than those for men watching no more than 1 hour per week. Prospectively, higher levels is of nonsedentary activity and lower levels of TV/VCR viewing were independently associated with lower relative risks for becoming overweight between survey years. CONCLUSIONS. Both a lack of nonsedentary activity and time spent watching TV/VCR contribute to the development of overweight in men. Sedentary and nonsedentary activities represent separate domains, each with independent risks for overweight. PMID:8561237

  3. Cascading Activation across Levels of Representation in Children's Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yi Ting; Snedeker, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in adult psycholinguistics has demonstrated that activation of semantic representations begins long before phonological processing is complete. This incremental propagation of information across multiple levels of analysis is a hallmark of adult language processing but how does this ability develop? In two experiments, we elicit…

  4. Education Finance Legislative Activity and Trends at the State Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crampton, Faith E.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews 1997 school finance legislation, comparing legislative activity levels from 1994 to 1997. In 1997, 32 states passed legislation pertaining to capital-outlay funding, tax bases, and taxation for education funding. Half passed legislation for state aid, technology, special-purpose education, budgeting/fiscal management, and school personnel…

  5. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Authorization,...

  6. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other State-level activities. 300.814 Section 300.814 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  7. Pedometer-Assessed Physical Activity Levels of Rural Appalachian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Rana, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to examine whether pedometer-assessed physical activity (PA) in Appalachian Ohio students differed by body mass index (BMI), school level (middle school vs. high school), and gender during school days and nonschool days and whether students met the recommended PA guidelines. Participants (N = 149) were…

  8. Cardiovascular effects of variations in habitual levels of physical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, C. G.; Mitchell, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in human cardiovascular adaption to stress, particularly adaption to different levels of physical activity are determined along with quantitative noninvasive methods for evaluation of cardiovascular function during stess in normal subjects and in individuals with latent or manifest cardiovascular disease. Results are summarized.

  9. N-acetyltransferase 2 activity and folate levels

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wen; Strnatka, Diana; McQueen, Charlene A.; Hunter, Robert J.; Erickson, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To determine whether increased N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity might have a toxic effect during development and an influence on folate levels since previous work has shown that only low levels of exogenous NAT can be achieved in constitutionally transgenic mice (Cao, et al, 2005) Main Methods A human NAT1 tet-inducible construct was used that would not be expressed until the inducer was delivered. Human NAT1 cDNA was cloned into pTRE2 and injected into mouse oocytes. Two transgenic lines were crossed to mouse line TgN(rtTahCMV)4Uh containing the CMV promoted “teton.”Measurements of red blood cell folate levels in inbred strains of mice were performed. Key findings Only low levels of human NAT1 could be achieved in kidney (highly responsive in other studies) whether the inducer, doxycycline, was given by gavage or in drinking water.An inverse correlation of folate levels with Nat2 enzyme activity was found. Significance Since increasing NAT1 activity decrease folate in at least one tissue, the detrimental effect of expression of human NAT1 in combination with endogenous mouse Nat2 may be a consequence of increased catabolism of folate. PMID:19932120

  10. Life at low water activity.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, W D

    2004-01-01

    Two major types of environment provide habitats for the most xerophilic organisms known: foods preserved by some form of dehydration or enhanced sugar levels, and hypersaline sites where water availability is limited by a high concentration of salts (usually NaCl). These environments are essentially microbial habitats, with high-sugar foods being dominated by xerophilic (sometimes called osmophilic) filamentous fungi and yeasts, some of which are capable of growth at a water activity (a(w)) of 0.61, the lowest a(w) value for growth recorded to date. By contrast, high-salt environments are almost exclusively populated by prokaryotes, notably the haloarchaea, capable of growing in saturated NaCl (a(w) 0.75). Different strategies are employed for combating the osmotic stress imposed by high levels of solutes in the environment. Eukaryotes and most prokaryotes synthesize or accumulate organic so-called 'compatible solutes' (osmolytes) that have counterbalancing osmotic potential. A restricted range of bacteria and the haloarchaea counterbalance osmotic stress imposed by NaCl by accumulating equivalent amounts of KCl. Haloarchaea become entrapped and survive for long periods inside halite (NaCl) crystals. They are also found in ancient subterranean halite (NaCl) deposits, leading to speculation about survival over geological time periods. PMID:15306380

  11. Can nursing students' confidence levels increase with repeated simulation activities?

    PubMed

    Cummings, Cynthia L; Connelly, Linda K

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, nursing faculty conducted a study with undergraduate nursing students on their satisfaction, confidence, and educational practice levels, as it related to simulation activities throughout the curriculum. The study was a voluntary survey conducted on junior and senior year nursing students. It consisted of 30 items based on the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning and the Educational Practices Questionnaire (Jeffries, 2012). Mean averages were obtained for each of the 30 items from both groups and were compared using T scores for unpaired means. The results showed that 8 of the items had a 95% confidence level and when combined the items were significant for p <.001. The items identified were those related to self-confidence and active learning. Based on these findings, it can be assumed that repeated simulation experiences can lead to an increase in student confidence and active learning. PMID:26599594

  12. Effects of Curricular Activity on Students' Situational Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students' situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve…

  13. Physical Activity Levels in American-Indian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Storti, Kristi L.; Arena, Vincent C.; Barmada, M. Michael; Bunker, Clareann H.; Hanson, Robert L.; Laston, Sandra L.; Yeh, Jeun-Liang; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Howard, Barbara V.; Kriska, Andrea M.

    2009-01-01

    Background A limited body of evidence, mostly based on self-report, is available regarding physical activity levels among American-Indian adults. Purpose This study aims to examine physical activity levels objectively by pedometer among a large cohort of American Indian adult participants in the Strong Heart Family Study. Methods Physical activity levels in 2604 American-Indian adults, aged 18–91 years, from 13 American-Indian communities were assessed using an Accusplit AE120 pedometer over a period of 7 days during 2001–2003. Anthropometric measurements were also assessed. All data analyses were conducted in 2008. Age-adjusted Pearson correlations were used to examine the relationship between average steps per day and age and anthropometric variables. Subjects were placed in age and BMI categories (according to NHLBI cutpoints) to examine trends in PA with increasing age and BMI. Results Daily pedometer steps ranged from 1001 to 38,755. Mean step counts by age group for men were: 5384 (18–29 years), 5120 (30–39 years), 5040 (40–49 years), 4561(50–59 years),4321 (60–69 years), and 3768 (≥70 years) and for women: 5038 (18–29 years), 5112 (30– 39 years), 5054 (40–49 years), 4582 (50–59 years), 3653 (60–69 years), and 3770 (>70 years). A significant linear trend in physical activity was noted with increasing age (P= 0.002 for men, P<0.0001 for women) and with increasing BMI (P = 0.05 for men, P = 0.04 for women). Conclusions Objectively measured data suggest that inactivity is a problem among American Indian adults and that a majority of American Indian adults in the SHFS may not be meeting the minimum physical activity public health recommendations. Efforts to increase physical activity levels in this population are warranted. PMID:19944912

  14. Tissue Plasminogen Activator and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Levels in Patients with Acute Paraquat Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Su-Jin; Kim, Su-Ji; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) plasma levels, and their possible implications on clinical outcome, we measured tPA and PAI-1 levels in 101 patients with acute paraquat (PQ) intoxication. The control group consisted of patients who ingested non-PQ pesticides during the same period. tPA and PAI-1 levels were higher in the PQ group than in the controls. PQ levels were significantly correlated with ingested amount, timelag to hospital, tPA level, and hospitalization duration. tPA levels were correlated with PAI-1, fibrin degradation product (FDP), and D-dimer. D-dimer levels were lower in the PQ group than in the controls. Univariate analysis indicated the following significant determinants of death: age, ingested amount, PQ level, timelag to hospital, serum creatinine, lipase, pH, pCO2, HCO3-, WBC, FDP, PAI-1, and tPA. However, multivariate analysis indicated that only PQ level was significant independent factor predicting death. In conclusion, tPA and PAI-1 levels were higher, while D-dimer levels were lower in the PQ group than in the controls, implying that ROS stimulate tPA and PAI-1, but PAI-1 activity overrides tPA activity in this setting. Decreased fibrinolytic activity appears to be one of the clinical characteristics of acute PQ intoxication. PMID:21468253

  15. Structural analysis of color video camera installation on tank 241AW101 (2 Volumes)

    SciTech Connect

    Strehlow, J.P.

    1994-08-24

    A video camera is planned to be installed on the radioactive storage tank 241AW101 at the DOE` s Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The camera will occupy the 20 inch port of the Multiport Flange riser which is to be installed on riser 5B of the 241AW101 (3,5,10). The objective of the project reported herein was to perform a seismic analysis and evaluation of the structural components of the camera for a postulated Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) per the reference Structural Design Specification (SDS) document (6). The detail of supporting engineering calculations is documented in URS/Blume Calculation No. 66481-01-CA-03 (1).

  16. Silicon waveguide infrared photodiodes with >35 GHz bandwidth and phototransistors with 50 AW-1 response.

    PubMed

    Geis, M W; Spector, S J; Grein, M E; Yoon, J U; Lennon, D M; Lyszczarz, T M

    2009-03-30

    SOI CMOS compatible Si waveguide photodetectors are made responsive from 1100 to 1750 nm by Si+ implantation and annealing. Photodiodes have a bandwidth of >35 GHz, an internal quantum efficiency of 0.5 to 10 AW-1, and leakage currents of 0.5 nA to 0.5 microA. Phototransistors have an optical response of 50 AW-1 with a bandwidth of 0.2 GHz. These properties are related to carrier mobilities in the implanted Si waveguide. These detectors exhibit low optical absorption requiring lengths from <0.3 mm to 3 mm to absorb 50% of the incoming light. However, the high bandwidth, high quantum efficiency, low leakage current, and potentially high fabrication yields, make these devices very competitive when compared to other detector technologies. PMID:19333283

  17. Tank characterization report for double-shell Tank 241-AW-105

    SciTech Connect

    DiCenso, A.T.; Amato, L.C.; Franklin, J.D.; Lambie, R.W.; Stephens, R.H.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-28

    In May 1990, double-shell Tank 241-AW-105 was sampled to determine proper handling of the waste, to address corrosivity and compatibility issues, and to comply with requirements of the Washington Administrative Code. This Tank Characterization Report presents an overview of that tank sampling and analysis effort, and contains observations regarding waste characteristics. It also addresses expected concentration and bulk inventory data for the waste contents based on this latest sampling data and background tank information. This report summarizes the available information regarding the waste in Tank 241-AW-105, and using the historical information to place the analytical data in context, arranges this information in a useful format for making management and technical decisions concerning this waste tank. In addition, conclusions and recommendations are given based on safety issues and further characterization needs.

  18. Genome sequence of a native-feather degrading extremely thermophilic Eubacterium, Fervidobacterium islandicum AW-1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Jik; Jeong, Haeyoung; Park, Gun-Seok; Kwak, Yunyoung; Lee, Sang-Jae; Lee, Sang Jun; Park, Min-Kyu; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Kang, Hwan Ku; Shin, Jae-Ho; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Fervidobacterium islandicum AW-1 (KCTC 4680) is an extremely thermophilic anaerobe isolated from a hot spring in Indonesia. This bacterium could degrade native chicken feathers completely at 70 °C within 48 h, which is of potential importance on the basis of relevant environmental and agricultural issues in bioremediation and development of eco-friendly bioprocesses for the treatment of native feathers. However, its genomic and phylogenetic analysis remains unclear. Here, we report the high-quality draft genome sequence of an extremely thermophilic anaerobe, F. islandicum AW-1. The genome consists of 2,359,755 bp, which encodes 2,184 protein-coding genes and 64 RNA-encoding genes. This may reveal insights into anaerobic metabolism for keratin degradation and also provide a biological option for poultry waste treatments. PMID:26421103

  19. Air and Water System (AWS) Design and Technology Selection for the Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Kliss, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers technology selection for the crew air and water recycling systems to be used in long duration human space exploration. The specific objectives are to identify the most probable air and water technologies for the vision for space exploration and to identify the alternate technologies that might be developed. The approach is to conduct a preliminary first cut systems engineering analysis, beginning with the Air and Water System (AWS) requirements and the system mass balance, and then define the functional architecture, review the International Space Station (ISS) technologies, and discuss alternate technologies. The life support requirements for air and water are well known. The results of the mass flow and mass balance analysis help define the system architectural concept. The AWS includes five subsystems: Oxygen Supply, Condensate Purification, Urine Purification, Hygiene Water Purification, and Clothes Wash Purification. AWS technologies have been evaluated in the life support design for ISS node 3, and in earlier space station design studies, in proposals for the upgrade or evolution of the space station, and in studies of potential lunar or Mars missions. The leading candidate technologies for the vision for space exploration are those planned for Node 3 of the ISS. The ISS life support was designed to utilize Space Station Freedom (SSF) hardware to the maximum extent possible. The SSF final technology selection process, criteria, and results are discussed. Would it be cost-effective for the vision for space exploration to develop alternate technology? This paper will examine this and other questions associated with AWS design and technology selection.

  20. Cloud Computing for Pharmacometrics: Using AWS, NONMEM, PsN, Grid Engine, and Sonic

    PubMed Central

    Sanduja, S; Jewell, P; Aron, E; Pharai, N

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing allows pharmacometricians to access advanced hardware, network, and security resources available to expedite analysis and reporting. Cloud-based computing environments are available at a fraction of the time and effort when compared to traditional local datacenter-based solutions. This tutorial explains how to get started with building your own personal cloud computer cluster using Amazon Web Services (AWS), NONMEM, PsN, Grid Engine, and Sonic. PMID:26451333

  1. Cloud Computing for Pharmacometrics: Using AWS, NONMEM, PsN, Grid Engine, and Sonic.

    PubMed

    Sanduja, S; Jewell, P; Aron, E; Pharai, N

    2015-09-01

    Cloud computing allows pharmacometricians to access advanced hardware, network, and security resources available to expedite analysis and reporting. Cloud-based computing environments are available at a fraction of the time and effort when compared to traditional local datacenter-based solutions. This tutorial explains how to get started with building your own personal cloud computer cluster using Amazon Web Services (AWS), NONMEM, PsN, Grid Engine, and Sonic. PMID:26451333

  2. Impact of automatization in temperature series in Spain and comparison with the POST-AWS dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Enric; López-Díaz, José Antonio; Prohom Duran, Marc; Gilabert, Alba; Luna Rico, Yolanda; Venema, Victor; Auchmann, Renate; Stepanek, Petr; Brandsma, Theo

    2016-04-01

    Climate data records are most of the times affected by inhomogeneities. Especially inhomogeneities introducing network-wide biases are sometimes related to changes happening almost simultaneously in an entire network. Relative homogenization is difficult in these cases, especially at the daily scale. A good example of this is the substitution of manual observations (MAN) by automatic weather stations (AWS). Parallel measurements (i.e. records taken at the same time with the old (MAN) and new (AWS) sensors can provide an idea of the bias introduced and help to evaluate the suitability of different correction approaches. We present here a quality controlled dataset compiled under the DAAMEC Project, comprising 46 stations across Spain and over 85,000 parallel measurements (AWS-MAN) of daily maximum and minimum temperature. We study the differences between both sensors and compare it with the available metadata to account for internal inhomogeneities. The differences between both systems vary much across stations, with patterns more related to their particular settings than to climatic/geographical reasons. The typical median biases (AWS-MAN) by station (comprised between the interquartile range) oscillate between -0.2°C and 0.4 in daily maximum temperature and between -0.4°C and 0.2°C in daily minimum temperature. These and other results are compared with a larger network, the Parallel Observations Scientific Team, a working group of the International Surface Temperatures Initiative (ISTI-POST) dataset, which comprises our stations, as well as others from different countries in America, Asia and Europe.

  3. Determinants affecting physical activity levels in animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Wade, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play an underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multifactorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked, making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination, or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to the ventral medial hypothalamus, and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  4. Determinants Affecting Physical Activity Levels In Animal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C. L.; Wade, Charles E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play all underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multi-factorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to tile ventral medial hypothalamus and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  5. Low level laser therapy reduces inflammation in activated Achilles tendinitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjordal, Jan M.; Iversen, Vegard; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.

    2006-02-01

    Objective: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been forwarded as therapy for osteoarthritis and tendinopathy. Results in animal and cell studies suggest that LLLT may act through a biological mechanism of inflammatory modulation. The current study was designed to investigate if LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated tendinitis of the Achilles tendon. Methods: Seven patients with bilateral Achilles tendonitis (14 tendons) who had aggravated symptoms by pain-inducing activity immediately prior to the study. LLLT (1.8 Joules for each of three points along the Achilles tendon with 904nm infrared laser) and placebo LLLT were administered to either Achilles tendons in a random order to which patients and therapist were blinded. Inflammation was examined by 1) mini-invasive microdialysis for measuring the concentration of inflammatory marker PGE II in the peritendinous tissue, 2) ultrasound with Doppler measurement of peri- and intratendinous blood flow, 3) pressure pain algometry and 4) single hop test. Results: PGE 2- levels were significantly reduced at 75, 90 and 105 minutes after active LLLT compared both to pre-treatment levels (p=0.026) and to placebo LLLT (p=0.009). Changes in pressure pain threshold (PPT) were significantly different (P=0.012) between groups. PPT increased by a mean value of 0.19 kg/cm2 [95%CI:0.04 to 0.34] after treatment in the active LLLT group, while pressure pain threshold was reduced by -0.20 kg/cm2 [95%CI:-0.45 to 0.05] after placebo LLLT. Conclusion: LLLT can be used to reduce inflammatory musculskeletal pain as it reduces inflammation and increases pressure pain threshold levels in activity-induced pain episodes of Achilles tendinopathy.

  6. Effect of Learning Activity on Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels and Effort/Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Lee, Amelia M.; Xiang, Ping; Kosma, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The type of learning activity offered in physical education may influence students' motivational beliefs, physical activity participation and effort/persistence in class. However, most empirical studies have focused on the individual level rather than on the learner-content interactions. Accordingly, the potential effects of learning activities on…

  7. Cultural Heritage Protection Issues In Leśnica, The Settlement Of Wrocław

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononowicz, Alena

    2015-09-01

    Leśnica, today the settlement on the western edge of Wrocław, formerly was an independent town, located on a previously wooded area, with a linear street system. It developed in the Middle Ages around the castle and church playing a service role for the Silesian Piast court on their way to Legnica and during hunting. In the thirteenth century it received city rights, and lost them in the eighteenth century. After the Piast dynasty had died out, it was sold by John of Luxembourg, and repeatedly changed its owners. In the nineteenth century it developed thanks to the industry, tourism and a convenient railway connection to Wrocław as well as hotel and restaurant facilities. In 1928, Leśnica was incorporated into Wrocław. After the Second World War, it lost its cultural continuity. In the 1970's, middle-heigh and high prefabricated buildings were built in the vicinity of a residential district. At the end of the twentieth and early twenty-first century, local industries were liquidated, and intensive land development started, causing the systematic blurring of its small-town character and its urban space started to acquire a character of a big city. In 2004, the old part of Leśnica was entered in the Register of Monuments. Also a ring road was planned, moving the cumbersome and dangerous transit traffic away from historic Średzka Street beyond the southern border of the settlement.

  8. Period studies and photometric models for two EB-type binaries EU Hya and AW Vul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Gui; Li, Qun; Li, Hua-Li; Dai, Hai-Feng

    2016-02-01

    New photometry for two Algol-type binaries, EU Hya (P = 0.7782 d) and AW Vul (P = 0.8065 d), was carried out using the 60-cm telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. With the updated Wilson-Devinney code, photometric elements were derived from the multi-color light curves. The modeled results indicate that the two systems are near-contact binaries, whose secondary components fill their Roche lobes. The fill-out factors of the primaries are fp = 81.2 (±0.2)% for EU Hya and fp = 82.4 (±0.3)% for AW Vul. Period analysis implies that there exists a downward parabola with a light-time orbit from the (O - C) curve. This kind of periodic oscillation may be attributed to the light-time orbit effect of a third companion. The long-term period decrease may be caused by mass and angular momentum loss. When the orbital period decreases, the fill-out factor of fp will increase. Our results indicate that the primaries will also eventually fill their Roche lobes. EU Hya and AW Vul may possibly evolve from semi-detached binaries into contact ones.

  9. Identification and description of the axillary web syndrome (AWS) by clinical signs, MRI and US imaging.

    PubMed

    Leduc, O; Fumière, E; Banse, S; Vandervorst, C; Clément, A; Parijs, T; Wilputte, F; Maquerlot, F; Ezquer Echandia, M; Tinlot, A; Leduc, A

    2014-12-01

    The Axillary Web Syndrome (AWS) follows surgery for breast neoplasia and consists of one, or more frequently two or three, cords of subcutaneous tissue. Cords originate from the axilla, spread to the antero-medial surface of the arm down to the elbow and then move into the antero-medial aspect of the forearm and sometimes into the root of the thumb. The purpose of this study was to compare two techniques, ultrasound (US) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for their sensitivity and accuracy in identifying AWS cords and to provide insights to the origin of this pathology. US examinations were performed on fifteen patients using a high frequency probe (17 MHz). We first palpated and marked the cord with location aided by maximum abduction. To identify the cord with MRI (1.5 Tesla), a catheter filled with a gel detectable under MRI was placed on the skin at the site of the cord. We found that in some US cases, the dynamic abduction maneuver was essential to facilitate detection of the cord. This dynamic method on ultrasound confirmed the precise location of the cord even if it was located deeper in the hypodermis fascia junction. US and MRI images revealed features of the cords and surrounding tissues. Imaging the cords was difficult with either of the imaging modalities. However, US seemed to be more efficient than MRI and allowed dynamic evaluation. Overall analysis of our study results supports a lymphatic origin of the AWS cord. PMID:25915977

  10. [Genetic analysis of the putative remains of general Władysław Sikorski].

    PubMed

    Kupiec, Tomasz; Branicki, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents results of genetic identification studies carried out in material collected during exhumation of the putative body of general Władysław Sikorski, buried in a sarcophagus in Saint Leonard's crypt in the Wawel Cathedral. The analysis of STR-type autosomal markers, Y-STR markers and sequences of HVI and HVII regions of mitochondrial DNA carried out in samples collected for genetic analysis--fragments of the thigh bone and a tooth--yielded a full set of results. The same mtDNA profile was also determined in hair revealed on the underpants and shirt secured from the studied body. The mitochondrial DNA profile determined in the bone material and also in the hair matched the profile characteristic for a female relative through the maternal line of general Władysław Sikorski. The obtained evidence supports the hypothesis that the studied body is that of general Sikorski. An additional analysis of position SNP rs12913832 located on the HERC2 gene revealed the presence of genotype C/C, which suggests that general Władysław Sikorski had light (most probably blue) eyes. PMID:19711812

  11. Tight Chk1 Levels Control Replication Cluster Activation in Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, Jennifer M.; Barbosa, Pedro; Libeau, Pierre; Priam, Pierre; Narassimprakash, Hemalatha; Grodzenski, Xenia; Marheineke, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication in higher eukaryotes initiates at thousands of origins according to a spatio-temporal program. The ATR/Chk1 dependent replication checkpoint inhibits the activation of later firing origins. In the Xenopus in vitro system initiations are not sequence dependent and 2-5 origins are grouped in clusters that fire at different times despite a very short S phase. We have shown that the temporal program is stochastic at the level of single origins and replication clusters. It is unclear how the replication checkpoint inhibits late origins but permits origin activation in early clusters. Here, we analyze the role of Chk1 in the replication program in sperm nuclei replicating in Xenopus egg extracts by a combination of experimental and modelling approaches. After Chk1 inhibition or immunodepletion, we observed an increase of the replication extent and fork density in the presence or absence of external stress. However, overexpression of Chk1 in the absence of external replication stress inhibited DNA replication by decreasing fork densities due to lower Cdk2 kinase activity. Thus, Chk1 levels need to be tightly controlled in order to properly regulate the replication program even during normal S phase. DNA combing experiments showed that Chk1 inhibits origins outside, but not inside, already active clusters. Numerical simulations of initiation frequencies in the absence and presence of Chk1 activity are consistent with a global inhibition of origins by Chk1 at the level of clusters but need to be combined with a local repression of Chk1 action close to activated origins to fit our data. PMID:26046346

  12. Microgravity: a Teacher's Guide with Activities, Secondary Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L. (Editor); Wargo, Michael J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This NASA Educational Publication is a teacher's guide that focuses on microgravity for the secondary level student. The introduction answers the question 'What is microgravity?', as well as describing gravity and creating microgravity. Following the introduction is a microgravity primer which covers such topics as the fluid state, combustion science, materials science, biotechnology, as well as microgravity and space flight. Seven different activities are described in the activities section and are written by authors prominent in the field. The concluding sections of the book include a glossary, microgravity references, and NASA educational resources.

  13. 47 CFR 27.1176 - Cost-sharing requirements for AWS in the 2150-2160/62 MHz band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... from this spectrum, including BRS incumbents occupying the 2150-2162 MHz band on a primary basis, must... § 27.1190. If an AWS licensee enters into a spectrum leasing arrangement and the spectrum...

  14. Acetylcholinesterase modulates presenilin-1 levels and γ-secretase activity.

    PubMed

    Campanari, Maria-Letizia; García-Ayllón, María-Salud; Belbin, Olivia; Galcerán, Joan; Lleó, Alberto; Sáez-Valero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The cholinergic enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the catalytic component of the γ-secretase complex, presenilin-1 (PS1), are known to interact. In this study, we investigate the consequences of AChE-PS1 interactions, particularly the influence of AChE in PS1 levels and γ-secretase activity. PS1 is able to co-immunoprecipitate all AChE variants (AChE-R and AChE-T) and molecular forms (tetramers and light subunits) present in the human brain. Overexpression of AChE-R or AChE-T, or their respective inactive mutants, all trigger an increase in PS1 protein levels. The AChE species capable of triggering the biggest increase in PS1 levels is a complex of AChE with the membrane anchoring subunit proline-rich membrane anchor (PRiMA), which restricts the localization of the resulting AChE tetramer to the outer plasma membrane. Incubation of cultured cells with soluble AChE demonstrates that AChE is able to increase PS1 at both the protein and transcript levels. However, the increase of PS1 caused by soluble AChE is accompanied by a decrease in γ-secretase activity as shown by the reduction of the processing of the amyloid-β protein precursor. This inhibitory effect of AChE on γ-secretase activity was also demonstrated by directly assessing accumulation of CTF-AβPP in cell-free membrane preparations incubated with AChE. Our data suggest that AChE may function as an inhibitor of γ-secretase activity. PMID:24699279

  15. Activity-dependent regulation of astrocyte GAT levels during synaptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Muthukumar, Allie K.; Stork, Tobias; Freeman, Marc R.

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytic uptake of GABA through GABA transporters (GATs) is an important mechanism regulating excitatory/inhibitory balance in the nervous system, however mechanisms by which astrocytes regulate GAT levels are undefined. Here we show at mid-pupal stages the Drosophila CNS neuropil is devoid of astrocyte membranes and synapses. Astrocyte membranes subsequently infiltrate the neuropil coordinate with synaptogenesis and a strocyte ablation reduces synapse numbers by half, indicating that Drosophila astrocytes are pro-synaptogenic. Shortly after synapses form in earnest, the GABA transporter, GAT, is up-regulated in astrocytes. Ablation or silencing of GABAergic neurons or disruption of metabotropic GABA receptor (GABABR1/2) signaling in astrocytes leads to decreased astrocytic GAT levels. Interestingly, developmental depletion of astrocytic GABABR1/2 signaling suppresses mechanosensory-induced seizure activity in mutants with hyperexcitable neurons. These data reveal astrocytes actively modulate GAT expression via metabotropic GABA receptor signaling, and highlight the importance of precise regulation of astrocytic GAT in modulation of seizure activity. PMID:25151265

  16. Modelling of effects of water activity and temperature on germination and growth of ochratoxigenic isolates of Aspergillus ochraceus on a green coffee-based medium.

    PubMed

    Pardo, E; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V; Marín, S

    2005-01-15

    Influence of water activity (0.75-0.99 a(w)) and temperature (10, 20 and 30 degrees C) on germination and mycelial growth on green coffee extract agar medium of three ochratoxigenic isolates of Aspergillus ochraceus was studied. Optimal conditions for germination and growth were observed at 0.95-0.99 a(w) and 20-30 degrees C for the three isolates. Minimum a(w) level for germination was 0.80, and 0.85 for mycelial growth. At marginal a(w) and temperature levels assayed, the lag phases prior to germination increased and the growth rates showed a significant decrease in comparison with the optimal conditions. Data were modelled by a multiple linear regression (MLR) and response surface models were obtained. Germination and growth of A. ochraceus in green coffee beans could be prevented or at least inhibited to some extent by minimising the time that coffee beans are exposed to temperature and humidity conditions near to the optimum during processing and storage. This could be an empirical approach to predict the effects of water activity and temperature conditions on the development of ochratoxigenic isolates of A. ochraceus during handling and storage of green coffee. PMID:15617796

  17. Exploring human epileptic activity at the single-neuron level.

    PubMed

    Tankus, Ariel

    2016-05-01

    Today, localization of the seizure focus heavily relies on EEG monitoring (scalp or intracranial). However, current technology enables much finer resolutions. The activity of hundreds of single neurons in the human brain can now be simultaneously explored before, during, and after a seizure or in association with an interictal discharge. This technology opens up new horizons to understanding epilepsy at a completely new level. This review therefore begins with a brief description of the basis of the technology, the microelectrodes, and the setup for their implantation in patients with epilepsy. Using these electrodes, recent studies provide novel insights into both the time domain and firing patterns of epileptic activity of single neurons. In the time domain, seizure-related activity may occur even minutes before seizure onset (in its current, EEG-based definition). Seizure-related neuronal interactions exhibit complex heterogeneous dynamics. In the seizure-onset zone, changes in firing patterns correlate with cell loss; in the penumbra, neurons maintain their spike stereotypy during a seizure. Hence, investigation of the extracellular electrical activity is expected to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the disease; it may, in the future, serve for a more accurate localization of the seizure focus; and it may also be employed to predict the occurrence of seizures prior to their behavioral manifestation in order to administer automatic therapeutic interventions. PMID:26994366

  18. Relationship between immunoglobulin levels and extremes of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoupel, Elijahu G.; Abramson, Eugene; Gabbay, Uri; Pick, Albert I.

    1995-06-01

    The possible relationship between epidemics and extremes of solar activity has been discussed previously. The purpose of the present study was to verify whether differences in the levels of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM) could be noted at the highest (July 1989) and lowest (September 1986) points of the last (21st) and present (22nd) 11-year solar cycle. The work was divided into a 1-month study (covering the month of minimal or maximal solar activity), a 3-month study (1 month before and after the month of minimal or maximal solar activity) and a 5-month study (2 months before and after the month of minimal or maximal solar activity). A trend of a drop-off for all three immunoglobulins was seen on the far side of the maximal point of the solar cycle. Statistical significance was achieved in the 5-month study for IgM ( P=0.04), and a strong trend was shown for IgG ( P=0.07). Differences between the sexes were also noted.

  19. Inter and intrasite analyses of cultural materials from U20aw, Nye County, Nevada. Technical report No. 66

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, P.A.; Pippin, L.C.; Henton, G.H.

    1991-12-01

    This archaeological presents the results of the analyses of the data derived from all sites investigated during the data recovery operations on Drill Hole U20aw on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County Nevada. These sites were determined to be potentially eligible for inclusion in the national Register of Historic Places. Detailed analyses were focused on the spatial distribution of artifacts and features within and between sites in the southern portion of the study area. These analyses indicate that one area served principally as a temporary camp, while the area around the canyonhead to the east seems to have been used as a site for both temporary camps and special activity loci. Projectile point styles suggest that the area was occupied from the Early Archaic into the early Historic period. Analyses of the artifacts that were recovered indicate that obsidian was the preferred material for all classes of flaked stone tools. All stages of lithic reduction are represented on the sites, but core reduction and thinning of bifaces appear to have been the primary activities. Processing of floral foods is indicated by the presence of several ground stone artifacts. Pinyon nuts and other items appear to have been stored in several areas as evidenced by the presence of several rock features that may have served as caches.

  20. ON ABSORPTION BY CIRCUMSTELLAR DUST, WITH THE PROGENITOR OF SN 2012aw AS A CASE STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Kochanek, C. S.; Khan, R.; Dai, X.

    2012-11-01

    We use the progenitor of SN 2012aw to illustrate the consequences of modeling circumstellar dust using Galactic (interstellar) extinction laws that (1) ignore dust emission in the near-IR and beyond, (2) average over dust compositions, and (3) mischaracterize the optical/UV absorption by assuming that scattered photons are lost to the observer. The primary consequences for the progenitor of SN 2012aw are that both the luminosity and the absorption are significantly overestimated. In particular, the stellar luminosity is most likely in the range 10{sup 4.8} < L {sub *}/L {sub Sun} < 10{sup 5.0} and the star was not extremely massive for a Type IIP progenitor, with M {sub *} < 15 M {sub Sun }. Given the properties of the circumstellar dust and the early X-ray/radio detections of SN 2012aw, the star was probably obscured by an ongoing wind with M-dot {approx}10{sup -5.5} to 10{sup -5.0} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1} at the time of the explosion, roughly consistent with the expected mass-loss rates for a star of its temperature (T{sub *} {approx_equal} 3600{sup +300} {sub -200} K) and luminosity. In the spirit of Galactic extinction laws, we supply simple interpolation formulae for circumstellar extinction by dusty graphitic and silicate shells as a function of wavelength ({lambda} {>=} 0.3 {mu}m) and total (absorption plus scattering) V-band optical depth ({tau}{sub V} {<=} 20). These do not include the contributions of dust emission, but provide a simple, physical alternative to incorrectly using interstellar extinction laws.

  1. Activity profile of high-level Australian lacrosse players.

    PubMed

    Polley, Chris S; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Polglaze, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Despite lacrosse being one of the fastest growing team sports in the world, there is a paucity of information detailing the activity profile of high-level players. Microtechnology systems (global positioning systems and accelerometers) provide the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the activity profile in lacrosse. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the activity profile of lacrosse match-play using microtechnology. Activity profile variables assessed relative to minutes of playing time included relative distance (meter per minute), distance spent standing (0-0.1 m·min), walking (0.2-1.7 m·min), jogging (1.8-3.2 m·min), running (3.3-5.6 m·min), sprinting (≥5.7 m·min), number of high, moderate, low accelerations and decelerations, and player load (PL per minute), calculated as the square root of the sum of the squared instantaneous rate of change in acceleration in 3 vectors (medio-lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical). Activity was recorded from 14 lacrosse players over 4 matches during a national tournament. Players were separated into positions of attack, midfield, or defense. Differences (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval) between positions and periods of play were considered likely positive when there was ≥75% likelihood of the difference exceeding an ES threshold of 0.2. Midfielders had likely covered higher (mean ± SD) meters per minute (100 ± 11) compared with attackers (87 ± 14; ES = 0.89 ± 1.04) and defenders (79 ± 14; ES = 1.54 ± 0.94) and more moderate and high accelerations and decelerations. Almost all variables across positions were reduced in quarter 4 compared with quarter 1. Coaches should accommodate for positional differences when preparing lacrosse players for competition. PMID:25264672

  2. Extensions and amplifications of a traffic model of Aw and Rascle

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, J. M.

    2000-08-01

    In a recent paper [1] Aw and Rascle introduced a new model of traffic on a uni-directional highway. Here the author studies an extension of this model, one which accounts for drivers attempting to travel at their maximum allowable speed. The author looks at a Lagrangian reformulation of this problem; a formulation that leads to an effective computational algorithm for solving the resulting system. He also investigates approximation scheme introduced by Dafermos [5] for scalar conservation laws and demonstrates that this Dafermos scheme works well on this 2 x 2 system.

  3. Analysis of the Foundation Slab Settlement of the "Africa Pavilion" Facility in Wrocław

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicki, Eugeniusz; Strzelecki, Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the results of numerical calculations of soil consolidation underneath the "Africa Pavilion" structure in Wrocław Zoo, Poland. To determine the deformations of the baseplate of the "Africa Pavilion" and deformations of the subsoil, Biot's consolidation theory for two-phase medium was applied. The calculations were carried out using the professional program FlexPDE v.6, which is based on the Finite Element Method. Numerical calculations performed were used to evaluate the design assumptions allowing for the laying of hydraulic conduits under the slab.

  4. Fundamental data for contact binaries: RZ Comae, RZ Tauri, and AW UMa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.; Devinney, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    Differential corrections analyses of three W UMa type binaries show that RZ Tau and AW UMa have common envelopes and the relatively small gravity darkening predicted by Lucy, while RZ Comae seems to have a larger gravity effect and is only marginally in contact. Some details of the method for computing contact binary light curves are given. It is suggested that W UMa binaries which have occultation primary eclipses may, in general, have large amplitudes for gravity darkening or a photometric surface brightness effect which simulates large gravity darkening.

  5. An Overview of the Components of AW-IPM Campaigns against the New World Screwworm

    PubMed Central

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Welch, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The New World Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), is one of the most damaging parasites of livestock, causing millions of dollars in annual losses to producers. The fly is an obligate parasite of warm-blooded animals, including humans. After a successful 50-year eradication campaign, C. hominivorax has been eradicated from the USA, Mexico and Central America by an area-wide integrated pest management approach. Recently, Caribbean and South American countries have expressed an interest in this approach. Aiming to support forthcoming projects in these countries, this review describes the main technical components of past and ongoing AW-IPM campaigns against C. hominivorax. PMID:26466720

  6. Boildown Study on Supernatant Liquid Retrieved from AW-106 in December 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Jason S.

    2013-06-04

    This document reports the results of a boildown study using a composite created from supernatant liquid grab samples retrieved from tank 241-AW-106 in December of 2012. The composite was made using predetermined volumes of the grab samples which accounted for layering of the supernatant liquid in the tank. The finished composite was a clear, yellow liquid containing no visible solids at hot cell ambient temperatures (24 - 27 °C). The density of the test composite was measured in the hot cell immediately before the boildown study and was 1.266 g/mL at 27.1 °C.

  7. Physical Activity Levels in College Students With Chronic Ankle Instability

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard-Turner, Tricia; Turner, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Context Ankle sprains are the most common orthopaedic pathologic condition, and more concerning is the high percentage of persons who develop chronic ankle instability (CAI). Researchers have reported that patients with CAI are restricted occupationally, have more functional limitations, and have a poorer health-related quality of life. We do not know if these limitations decrease physical activity levels. Objective To assess total weekly steps taken between persons with CAI and persons with healthy ankles. Design Case-control study. Setting University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A total of 20 participants with unilateral CAI (9 men, 11 women; age = 21.2 ± 1.9 years, height = 174.3 ± 6.9 cm, mass = 71.9 ± 11.7 kg) and 20 healthy participants (9 men, 11 women; age = 20.4 ± 2.1 years, height = 172.1 ± 5.5 cm, mass = 73.1 ± 13.4 kg) volunteered. Main Outcome Measure(s) We provided all participants with a pedometer and instructed them to wear it every day for 7 days and to complete a daily step log. They also completed the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), the FAAM Sport version, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A 2-way analysis of variance (group × sex) was used to determine if differences existed in the total number of weekly steps, ankle laxity, and answers on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire between groups and between sexes. Results We found no group × sex interaction for step count (F range = 0.439–2.108, P = .08). A main effect for group was observed (F1,38 = 10.45, P = .04). The CAI group took fewer steps than the healthy group (P = .04). The average daily step count was 6694.47 ± 1603.35 for the CAI group and 8831.01 ± 1290.01 for the healthy group. The CAI group also scored lower on the FAAM (P = .01) and the FAAM Sport version (P = .01). Conclusions The decreased step count that the participants with CAI demonstrated is concerning. This decreased physical activity may be secondary

  8. The Effect of Gender and Level of Vision on the Physical Activity Level of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakci; Kitis, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between…

  9. Guide for the Training and Qualification of Welding Personnel. Level III - Expert Welders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Welding Society, Miami, FL.

    This guide is designed to help education and training facilities develop and administer competency-based training programs to qualify and certify trainees in accordance with American Welding Society (AWS) requirements for level III (expert) welders. Presented first are the scope/objectives/requirements of the AWS qualification/certification…

  10. Idaho Senior Center Activities, Activity Participation Level, and Managers' Perceptions of Activity Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girvan, James T.; Harris, Frances

    A survey completed by managers of 77 senior centers in Idaho revealed that meals, blood pressure screening, and games and trips were the most successful activities offered. Alzheimer's support groups, library books for loan, and exercise classes were the least successful. Possible reasons for the success or failure of these activities were…

  11. Surgery, fame, and misfortune: the life of Bronisław Kader.

    PubMed

    Magowska, Anita

    2012-08-01

    Bronisław Kader (1863-1937) introduced one of the traditional methods of gastrostomy. He was a Polish doctor who had been trained by such eminent surgeons as Ernst von Bergmann, Otto E. Küstner, Jan Mikulicz, and Eduard von Wahl. The Kader method implies blunt division of the left rectus muscle and opening of the stomach by a very small incision. A drainage tube is then inserted and fastened to the stomach wall by a stitch. Next, the stomach wall is sutured to the abdominal wall in a manner that places the tube in a tunnel surrounded by serosa. In comparison to others, Kader's method of gastrostomy was considered simpler, cheaper (fewer stitches), speedy, and safe. Although recommendations to perform gastric fistula were limited at the time, the value of gastrostomy remains undisputable. This is a method of choice for securing alimentation in cases of intractable stenosis of the pharynx or esophagus, which are usually due to cancer, chemical burns, trauma, or congenital defects. Nowadays, it is performed endoscopically or laparoscopically. This article presents the life history of Bronisław Kader, the eponymous of this method and a gifted surgeon who lost his eyesight at the height of his fame. PMID:22488328

  12. Historical Allotment Gardens in Wrocław - The Need to Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononowicz, Wanda; Gryniewicz-Balińska, Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    Since about the mid-nineteenth century, together with the changing socio-economic situation, different types of allotments appeared in Wrocław. Initially, they were rented gardens, gardens for the poor or for factory workers. At the beginning of the twentieth century, school gardens and the so called Schreber gardens with a large common square were set up as part of Dr. Schreber's educational health program. In 1914-1918, "war" vegetable gardens were commonly cultivated. In the 1920s allotment gardens began to be systematically introduced to the city plan as permanent, purposefully designed elements of urban greenery. They were often designed together with urban parks, or so called "Folk Parks" of a recreational and sport character. In the 1930s, during the economic crisis, allotments with garden houses were adapted for the unemployed and the homeless to live in. Wrocław allotment gardens have undeniable historical, social, recreational, economic and compositional value. These gardens are a cultural heritage that should be protected. In Western Europe we are witnessing a renaissance of the idea of allotments, while in Poland - a tendency to eliminate them from urban landscapes.

  13. Promoters maintain their relative activity levels under different growth conditions

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Leeat; Zackay, Ora; Lotan-Pompan, Maya; Barenholz, Uri; Dekel, Erez; Sasson, Vered; Aidelberg, Guy; Bren, Anat; Zeevi, Danny; Weinberger, Adina; Alon, Uri; Milo, Ron; Segal, Eran

    2013-01-01

    Most genes change expression levels across conditions, but it is unclear which of these changes represents specific regulation and what determines their quantitative degree. Here, we accurately measured activities of ∼900 S. cerevisiae and ∼1800 E. coli promoters using fluorescent reporters. We show that in both organisms 60–90% of promoters change their expression between conditions by a constant global scaling factor that depends only on the conditions and not on the promoter's identity. Quantifying such global effects allows precise characterization of specific regulation—promoters deviating from the global scale line. These are organized into few functionally related groups that also adhere to scale lines and preserve their relative activities across conditions. Thus, only several scaling factors suffice to accurately describe genome-wide expression profiles across conditions. We present a parameter-free passive resource allocation model that quantitatively accounts for the global scaling factors. It suggests that many changes in expression across conditions result from global effects and not specific regulation, and provides means for quantitative interpretation of expression profiles. PMID:24169404

  14. Promoters maintain their relative activity levels under different growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Keren, Leeat; Zackay, Ora; Lotan-Pompan, Maya; Barenholz, Uri; Dekel, Erez; Sasson, Vered; Aidelberg, Guy; Bren, Anat; Zeevi, Danny; Weinberger, Adina; Alon, Uri; Milo, Ron; Segal, Eran

    2013-01-01

    Most genes change expression levels across conditions, but it is unclear which of these changes represents specific regulation and what determines their quantitative degree. Here, we accurately measured activities of ~900 S. cerevisiae and ~1800 E. coli promoters using fluorescent reporters. We show that in both organisms 60-90% of promoters change their expression between conditions by a constant global scaling factor that depends only on the conditions and not on the promoter's identity. Quantifying such global effects allows precise characterization of specific regulation-promoters deviating from the global scale line. These are organized into few functionally related groups that also adhere to scale lines and preserve their relative activities across conditions. Thus, only several scaling factors suffice to accurately describe genome-wide expression profiles across conditions. We present a parameter-free passive resource allocation model that quantitatively accounts for the global scaling factors. It suggests that many changes in expression across conditions result from global effects and not specific regulation, and provides means for quantitative interpretation of expression profiles. PMID:24169404

  15. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during and after closure

  16. Levels of physical activity and predictors of mortality in COPD*

    PubMed Central

    Nyssen, Samantha Maria; dos Santos, Júlia Gianjoppe; Barusso, Marina Sallum; de Oliveira, Antônio Delfino; Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires Di; Jamami, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the Body mass index, airway Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise capacity (BODE) index scores and its individual components between COPD patients with and without severe physical inactivity, as well as to correlate the number of steps/day with scores of physical activity questionnaires, age, and the BODE index (including its components). METHODS: We included 30 patients, who were evaluated for body composition, pulmonary function (FEV1), perception of dyspnea (modified Medical Research Council scale), and exercise capacity (six-minute walk distance [6MWD]). The patients also completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), short version, and the modified Baecke questionnaire (mBQ). The level of physical activity was assessed by the number of steps/day (as determined by pedometer), using the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day to form two groups: no severe physical inactivity (SPI−) and severe physical inactivity (SPI+). We used the Mann-Whitney test or t-test, as well as Pearson's or Spearman's correlation tests, in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: In comparison with the SPI− group, the SPI+ group showed more advanced age, higher mBQ scores (leisure domain), lower 6MWD (in m and % of predicted), and lower IPAQ scores (metabolic equivalent-walk/week domain and total). The IPAQ scores showed weak correlations with steps/day (r = 0.399), age (r = −0.459), and 6MWD-in m (r = 0.446) and in % of predicted (r = 0.422). CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day was not sensitive enough to identify differences between the groups when compared with the predictors of mortality. The IPAQ, short version score correlated with steps/day. PMID:24473759

  17. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  18. Adolescent physical activity and perceived competence: does change in activity level impact self-perception?

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Cynthia J.; Fisher, Laurie; Berkey, Catherine; Colditz, Graham A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether change in physical activity level impacts adolescents' self-perceptions. Methods Using questionnaire responses from the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) in 1997 and 1999, we evaluated data from 5,260 girls and 3,410 boys. Physical activity changes were compared to changes in perceived competence in 3 domains (social, athletic, and scholastic) as well as in global self-worth. Analyses controlled for sibling clustering as well as for potential confounders, including body mass index, cigarette smoking, baseline activity levels, and baseline self-perception scores. Results For girls and boys, increase in physical activity was positively associated with change in social and athletic (p<0.0001), but not scholastic or global. self-perception. Compared to those with little or no change in activity, those who increased physical activity were more likely to have increased self-perception measures. Girls who increased physical activity by 5 or more hours/week were at least 33% more likely to have increased social self-perception, and at least 44% more likely to have increased athletic self-perception. In boys, those who increased activity by 10 or more hours/week were 45% more likely to have increased social self-perception. The reverse was also true; for both girls and boys, those with decreased physical activity were more likely to have decreased self-perception scores. Conclusions This research indicates that increased physical activity has a positive impact on athletic and social self-perception in girls and boys. PMID:17448405

  19. Aspects of activity behavior as a determinant of the physical activity level.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, A G; Plasqui, G; Goris, A H C; Westerterp, K R

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated which aspects of the individuals' activity behavior determine the physical activity level (PAL). Habitual physical activity of 20 Dutch adults (age: 26-60 years, body mass index: 24.5 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) was measured using a tri-axial accelerometer. Accelerometer output was used to identify the engagement in different types of daily activities with a classification tree algorithm. Activity behavior was described by the daily duration of sleeping, sedentary behavior (lying, sitting, and standing), walking, running, bicycling, and generic standing activities. Simultaneously, the total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labeled water. PAL was calculated as TEE divided by sleeping metabolic rate. PAL was significantly associated (P<0.05) with sedentary time (R=-0.72), and the duration of walking (R=0.49), bicycling (R=0.77), and active standing (R=0.62). A negative association was observed between sedentary time and the duration of active standing (R=-0.87; P<0.001). A multiple-linear regression analysis showed that 75% of the variance in PAL could be predicted by the duration of bicycling (Partial R(2) =59%; P<0.01), walking (Partial R(2) =9%; P<0.05) and being sedentary (Partial R(2) =7%; P<0.05). In conclusion, there is objective evidence that sedentary time and activities related to transportation and commuting, such as walking and bicycling, contribute significantly to the average PAL. PMID:20536909

  20. High quality draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain AW19M42 isolated from a sea squirt in Northern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Bjerga, Gro Elin Kjæreng; Hjerde, Erik; De Santi, Concetta; Williamson, Adele Kim; Smalås, Arne Oskar; Willassen, Nils Peder

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the 8 Mb high quality draft genome of Streptomyces sp. strain AW19M42, together with specific properties of the organism and the generation, annotation and analysis of its genome sequence. The genome encodes 7,727 putative open reading frames, of which 6,400 could be assigned with COG categories. Also, 62 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA operons were identified. The genome harbors several gene clusters involved in the production of secondary metabolites. Functional screening of the isolate was positive for several enzymatic activities, and some candidate genes coding for those activities are listed in this report. We find that this isolate shows biotechnological potential and is an interesting target for bioprospecting. PMID:25197453

  1. High quality draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain AW19M42 isolated from a sea squirt in Northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Bjerga, Gro Elin Kjæreng; Hjerde, Erik; De Santi, Concetta; Williamson, Adele Kim; Smalås, Arne Oskar; Willassen, Nils Peder; Altermark, Bjørn

    2014-06-15

    Here we report the 8 Mb high quality draft genome of Streptomyces sp. strain AW19M42, together with specific properties of the organism and the generation, annotation and analysis of its genome sequence. The genome encodes 7,727 putative open reading frames, of which 6,400 could be assigned with COG categories. Also, 62 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA operons were identified. The genome harbors several gene clusters involved in the production of secondary metabolites. Functional screening of the isolate was positive for several enzymatic activities, and some candidate genes coding for those activities are listed in this report. We find that this isolate shows biotechnological potential and is an interesting target for bioprospecting. PMID:25197453

  2. Paired galaxies with different activity levels and their supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazaryan, T. A.; Petrosian, A. R.; Hakobyan, A. A.; Adibekyan, V. Z.; Kunth, D.; Mamon, G. A.; Turatto, M.; Aramyan, L. S.

    2013-10-01

    We investigate the influence of close neighbor galaxies on the properties of supernovae (SNe) and their host galaxies using 56 SNe located in pairs of galaxies with different levels of star formation (SF) and nuclear activity. The statistical study of SN hosts shows that there is no significant difference between morphologies of hosts in our sample and the larger general sample of SN hosts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). The mean distance of type II SNe from nuclei of hosts is greater by about a factor of 2 than that of type Ibc SNe. The distributions and mean distances of SNe are consistent with previous results compiled with the larger sample. For the first time it is shown that SNe Ibc are located in pairs with significantly smaller difference of radial velocities between components than pairs containing SNe Ia and II. We consider this as a result of higher star formation rate (SFR) of these closer systems of galaxies. SN types are not correlated with the luminosity ratio of host and neighbor galaxies in pairs. The orientation of SNe with respect to the preferred direction toward neighbor galaxy is found to be isotropic and independent of kinematical properties of the galaxy pair.

  3. Plasma lipid levels in active and sedentary premenopausal females.

    PubMed

    Perry, A C; Shaw, M H; Hsia, L; Nash, M S; Kaplan, T; Signorile, J F; Appleyate, B

    1992-04-01

    Cross-sectional data on 19 long-distance runners (LD), 17 aerobic dancers (AD), 19 recreational joggers (RJ), and 15 inactive controls (IC) were examined for cardiovascular endurance and determination of plasma lipoproteins. Subjects included premenopausal eumenorrheic females who were non-smokers and presently not using oral contraceptives. Results indicated that all groups were similar in age, height and weight. Only the AD group had a significantly lower percent body fat (p less than .001) than the other groups. The LD, AD and RJ groups had a significantly higher VO2max than the IC group (p less than .05), and the LD and AD groups had a significantly higher VO2max than the RJ group (p less than .05). Analysis of a one-day food log indicated that the only difference in diet among the groups was a significantly lower intake of total and monounsaturated fat in the AD group (p less than .05) and a significantly lower intake of carbohydrates in the IC group than the AD group (p less than .05). Analysis of plasma lipids revealed no significant differences in any lipid variables among the groups. These findings indicate that healthy premenopausal eumenorrheic females with similar physical characteristics also have similar plasma lipid profiles regardless of their physical activity level. PMID:1601555

  4. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AW-103. Examination Completed September 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.; Weier, Dennis R.

    2007-04-01

    AREVA NC Inc. (AREVA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AW-103. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA ultrasonic examinations. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary and secondary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-AW-103 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks that might be present in the wall of the primary tank and the wall of the secondary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP-Plan-27202 (Jensen 2005) and summarized on page 1 of this document, are to be reported to CH2M Hill and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M Hill, all data is to be recorded on electronic media and paper copies of all measurements are provided to PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA ultrasonic examinations. The results of the examination of Tank 241-AW-103 have been evaluated by PNNL personnel. The primary tank ultrasonic examination consisted of two vertical 15-in.-wide scan paths over the entire height of the tank, the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of four vertical welds and one horizontal weld from Riser 29 and two vertical 15-in.-wide scan paths over the entire height of the tank from Riser 28. Additionally, two vertical 15-in.-wide scan paths over the entire height of the secondary tank from Riser 28 were performed. The examinations were performed to detect any wall thinning, pitting, or cracking in the primary tank wall.

  5. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AW-103 Examination Completed September 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.

    2006-11-06

    AREVA NC Inc. (AREVA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AW-103. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA ultrasonic examinations. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary and secondary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-AW-103 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks that might be present in the wall of the primary tank and the wall of the secondary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP-Plan-27202 (Jensen 2005) and summarized on page 1 of this document, are to be reported to CH2M Hill and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M Hill, all data is to be recorded on electronic media and paper copies of all measurements are provided to PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA ultrasonic examinations. The results of the examination of Tank 241-AW-103 have been evaluated by PNNL personnel. The primary tank ultrasonic examination consisted of two vertical 15-in.-wide scan paths over the entire height of the tank, the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of four vertical welds and one horizontal weld from Riser 29 and two vertical 15-in.-wide scan paths over the entire height of the tank from Riser 28. Additionally, two vertical 15-in.-wide scan paths over the entire height of the secondary tank from Riser 28 were performed. The examinations were performed to detect any wall thinning, pitting, or cracking in the primary tank wall.

  6. Millimeter-Wave Measurements of High Level and Low Level Activity Glass Melts

    SciTech Connect

    Woskov, Paul P.; Sundaram, S.K.; Daniel, William E., Jr.

    2006-06-01

    The primary objectives of the current research is to develop on-line sensors for characterizing molten glass in high-level and low-activity waste glass melters using millimeter-wave (MMW) technology and to use this technology to do novel research of melt dynamics. Existing and planned waste glass melters lack sophisticated diagnostics due to the hot, corrosive, and radioactive melter environments. Without process control diagnostics, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction at Hanford operate by a feed forward process control scheme that relies on predictive models with large uncertainties. This scheme severely limits production throughput and waste loading. Also operations at DWPF have shown susceptibility to anomalies such as pouring, foaming, and combustion gas build up, which can seriously disrupt operations. Future waste chemistries will be even more challenging. The scientific goals of this project are to develop new reliable on-line monitoring capability for important glass process parameters such as temperature profiles, emissivity, density, viscosity, and other characteristics using the unique advantages of millimeter wave electromagnetic radiation that can be eventually implemented in the operating melters. Once successfully developed and implemented, significant cost savings would be realized in melter operations by increasing production through put, reduced storage volumes (through higher waste loading), and reduced risks (prevention or mitigation of anomalies).

  7. Past-time Radar Rainfall Estimates using Radar AWS Rainrate system with Local Gauge Correction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, D.; Lee, M. H.; Suk, M. K.; Nam, K. Y.; Hwang, J.; Ko, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Weather Radar Center at Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) has radar network for warnings for heavy rainfall and severe storms. We have been operating an operational real-time adjusted the Radar-Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Rainrate (RAR) system developed by KMA in 2006 for providing radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) to meteorologists. This system has several uncertainty in estimating precipitation by radar reflectivity (Z) and rainfall intensity (R) relationship. To overcome uncertainty of the RAR system and improve the accuracy of QPE, we are applied the Local Gauge Correction (LGC) method which uses geo-statistical effective radius of errors of the QPE to RAR system in 2012. According to the results of previous study in 2014 (Lee et al., 2014), the accuracy of the RAR system with LGC method improved about 7.69% than before in the summer season of 2012 (from June to August). It has also improved the accuracy of hydrograph when we examined the accuracy of flood simulation using hydrologic model and data derived by the RAR system with LGC method. We confirmed to have its effectiveness through these results after the application of LGC method. It is required for high quality data of long term to utilize in hydrology field. To provide QPE data more precisely and collect past-time data, we produce that calculated by the RAR system with LGC method in the summer season from 2006 to 2009 and investigate whether the accuracy of past-time radar rainfall estimation enhance or not. Keywords : Radar-AWS Rainrate system, Local gauge correction, past-time Radar rainfall estimation Acknowledgements : This research is supported by "Development and application of Cross governmental dual-pol radar harmonization (WRC-2013-A-1)" project of the Weather Radar Center, Korea Meteorological Administration in 2015.

  8. Biodegradation of medium chain hydrocarbons by Acinetobacter venetianus 2AW immobilized to hair-based adsorbent mats.

    PubMed

    Luckarift, Heather R; Sizemore, Susan R; Farrington, Karen E; Fulmer, Preston A; Biffinger, Justin C; Nadeau, Lloyd J; Johnson, Glenn R

    2011-01-01

    The natural attenuation of hydrocarbons can be hindered by their rapid dispersion in the environment and limited contact with bacteria capable of oxidizing hydrocarbons. A functionalized composite material is described herein, that combines in situ immobilized alkane-degrading bacteria with an adsorbent material that collects hydrocarbon substrates, and facilitates biodegradation by the immobilized bacterial population. Acinetobacter venetianus 2AW was isolated for its ability to utilize hydrophobic n-alkanes (C10-C18) as the sole carbon and energy source. Growth of strain 2AW also resulted in the production of a biosurfactant that aided in the dispersion of complex mixtures of hydrophobic compounds. Effective immobilization of strain 2AW to the surface of Ottimat™ adsorbent hair mats via vapor phase deposition of silica provided a stable and reproducible biocatalyst population that facilitates in situ biodegradation of n-alkanes. Silica-immobilized strain 2AW demonstrated ca. 85% removal of 1% (v/v) tetradecane and hexadecane within 24 h, under continuous flow conditions. The methodology for immobilizing whole bacterial cells at the surface of an adsorbent, for in situ degradation of hydrocarbons, has practical application in the bioremediation of oil in water emulsions. Published 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol Prog., 2011. PMID:21948333

  9. 47 CFR 27.1176 - Cost-sharing requirements for AWS in the 2150-2160/62 MHz band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... clearance of BRS incumbents from this spectrum, including BRS incumbents occupying the 2150-2162 MHz band on... relocation until the end of the period specified in § 27.1190. If an AWS licensee enters into a spectrum leasing arrangement and the spectrum lessee triggers a cost-sharing obligation, the licensee is the...

  10. [Successful awake tracheal intubation in the sitting position using the Pentax-AWS Airwayscope in a patient with hypopharyngeal cancer and gastroesophageal regurgitation].

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yu; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Omoto, Haruka; Miyazaki, Shinichiro; Kido, Haruki; Minami, Toshiaki

    2014-06-01

    We report the successful awake tracheal intubation in a patient with hypopharyngeal cancer and gastroesophageal regurgitation with the TaperGuard Evac tracheal tube (TaperGuard) and Pentax-AWS Airwayscope (AWS). A 63-year-old man with hypopharyngeal cancer with invasion to the glottis was scheduled for total laryngectomy under general anesthesia. He had undergone thoracic esophagectomy and could not maintain supine position due to severe gastroesophageal regurgitation. To avoid vomiting after induction of anesthesia, we planned awake intubation in the sitting position with the AWS. After topical anesthesia with 8% lidocaine and infusion of fentanyl and continuous dexmedetomidine, the AWS was inserted into his mouth in the sitting position from the cranial side. The AWS allowed visualizing the glottis avoiding the cancer, leading to safe placement of the tracheal tube. PMID:24979861

  11. Calcium ion interactions with insoluble phospholipid monolayer films at the A/W interface. External reflection-absorption IR studies.

    PubMed Central

    Flach, C R; Brauner, J W; Mendelsohn, R

    1993-01-01

    External reflection Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) experiments are reported for insoluble monomolecular films of an equimolar mixture of 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine (DPPS) at the A/W interface as a function of surface pressure and Ca2+ ion presence. The separate components showed a surface pressure-induced conformational ordering of the acyl chains. The conformational ordering occurred more cooperatively for the DPPS. Acyl chain perdeuteration of the DPPC permitted the observation of the response of the individual components in the binary mixture to changes in surface tension and to the presence of Ca2+. Plots of surface pressure versus CH2 or CD2 stretching frequencies were analyzed with a two-state model. At each surface pressure within the two-state region, the fraction of disordered form was the same for each lipid component, suggesting that they are well mixed on the surface. Calcium ion (5 mM in the subphase) produces almost no effect on the pressure-induced acyl chain ordering of the DPPC in a single component film, whereas the same levels of Ca2+ induce acyl chain ordering at all surface pressures in both components of the binary mixture. Thus, unlike the bulk phase mixture of DPPC/DPPS, the binary lipids in this mixed monolayer film appear to retain their miscibility in the presence of Ca2+. Finally, Ca(2+)-induced dehydration of the phosphate group was observed through characteristic frequency shifts in the asymmetric PO2- stretching mode. PMID:8298029

  12. Infant Temperament and Genetics: An Objective Twin Study of Motor Activity Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saudino, Kimberly J.; Eaton, Warren O.

    1991-01-01

    The activity level of 60 pairs of infant twins was measured for 2 days. Differences in activity level for monozygotic and dizygotic twins, as indicated by motion recorders and parent ratings, showed evidence of genetic influences. (BC)

  13. Mutagenicity of organic pollutants adsorbed on suspended particulate matter in the center of Wrocław (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bełcik, Maciej; Trusz-Zdybek, Agnieszka; Galas, Ewa; Piekarska, Katarzyna

    2014-10-01

    Mutagenicity of pollutants adsorbed on suspended dust of the PM10 fraction, collected in winter and summer season alike over the Wrocław city centre (Poland) was studied using the standard Salmonella assay (plate-incorporation) and the Kado modified assay (microsuspension method). The dust was collected using Staplex high volume air sampler. Further on it was extracted with dichloromethane in a Soxhlet apparatus. PAH content in extracts was determined by the high performance liquid chromatography technique using fluorescence detection, whereas the nitro-PAH content- by the gas chromatography using mass detection. Two Salmonella typhimurium strains, TA98 and YG1041, were used in the assays. The assays were conducted with and without a metabolic activation. Investigated air pollution extracts differed against each other with regard to a total content as well as to a percentage of individual compounds, depending on the sampling season. Both the total PAH content and the nitro-PAH content in the tested samples, and their spectrum as well, were found the highest in winter season. Higher mutagenic effect was noted for the dust extract from samples collected in wintertime than from those collected in summer. Pollutants directly affecting the genetic material and those showing such indirect action were present in the examined samples. The YG1041 strain turned out to be the most sensitive, which was the sign that large amounts of nitro-aromatic compounds were present in the tested samples. Obtained results proved that the Kado modified Salmonella assay would be useful for the atmospheric air pollution monitoring in urban agglomerations. Mutagenic effect in assays conducted according to the Kado procedure was obtained by using in the assays lower concentrations of tested extracts, compared to the classical assay.

  14. Postgraduation Activities: All Degree Levels in Pennsylvania, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehman, George E., Jr.

    The employment of 1981 graduates at all degree levels in Pennsylvania's colleges and universities was surveyed, based on data for 47,996 graduates of 147 institutions, or 65.9 percent of all graduates. It was found that the 1981 full-time employment rate for all graduates, regardless of degree level, decreased from the 1980 value of 72.3 percent…

  15. A factor confirmation and convergent validity of the “areas of worklife scale” (AWS) to Spanish translation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Perceived incongruity between the individual and the job on work-life areas such as workload, control, reward, fairness, community and values have implications for the dimensions of burnout syndrome. The “Areas of Work-life Scale” (AWS) is a practical instrument to measure employees´ perceptions of their work environments. AIMS: Validate a Spanish translation of the AWS, and it relationship with Masclach Burnout Inventory dimensions. Methods The study was conducted in three medium-sized hospitals and seven rural and urban Primary Care centres (N = 871) in Spain. The “Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey” (MBI-GS) and AWS were applied. We developed a complete psychometric analysis of its reliability, and validity. Results Data on the reliability supported a good internal consistency (Cronbach α between .71, and .85). Construct validity was confirmed by a six factor model of the AWS as a good measure of work environments (χ2(352) = 806.21, p < 0.001; χ2/df = 2.29; CFI = 0.935, RMSEA = 0.039); concurrent validity was analysed for its relationship with other measures (opposing dimensions to burnout, and MBI), and each correlation between dimensions and sub-dimensions were statistically significant; as well, predictive validity, by a series of Multiple Regression Analysis examined the resulting patterns of the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) confirms the relationship between the work-life areas and burnout dimensions. Conclusions Leiter and Maslach’s AWS has been an important instrument in exploring several work-life factors that contribute to burnout. This scale can now be used to assess the quality of work-life in order to design and assess the need for intervention programs in Spanish-speaking countries. PMID:23596987

  16. Distant Interactions and Their Effects on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra L.; van der Mars, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Background: It has been observed that physical activity patterns of health-related behavior are established in childhood and may continue into adulthood. Recent findings showing a relationship between the onset of chronic diseases and sedentary lifestyles support the importance of examining Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA). One…

  17. Human Development Program: Level IV Activity Guide, Revised 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessell, Harold; Ball, Geraldine

    The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for grade four. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists to help teachers instill responsibility and self-confidence in children. The activity guide presents topics and directions for 180 sequential…

  18. Playground Designs to Increase Physical Activity Levels during School Recess: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escalante, Yolanda; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Backx, Karianne; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    School recess provides a major opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. Various studies have described strategies to increase levels of physical activity. The purpose of this systematic review is therefore to examine the interventions proposed as forms of increasing children's physical activity levels during recess. A…

  19. Final Report for the Erosion-Corrosion Anaysis of Tank 241-AW-02E Feed Pump Pit Jumpers B-2 and 1-4 Removed from Service in 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Jason S.

    2014-04-07

    This document is the final report summarizing the results in the examination of two pipe sections (jumpers) from the tank 241-AW-02E feed pump pit in the 241-AW tank farm. These pipe section samples consisted of jumper AW02E-WT-J-[B – 2] and jumper AW02E-WT-J-[1 – 4]. For the remainder of this report, these jumpers will be referred to as B – 2 and 1 – 4.

  20. Modelling the growth boundaries of Staphylococcus aureus: Effect of temperature, pH and water activity.

    PubMed

    Valero, A; Pérez-Rodríguez, F; Carrasco, E; Fuentes-Alventosa, J M; García-Gimeno, R M; Zurera, G

    2009-07-31

    The microbial behaviour of five enterotoxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus was studied in the growth/no growth domain. A polynomial logistic regression equation was fitted using a stepwise method to study the interaction of temperature (8, 10, 13, 16 and 19 degrees C), pH (4.5; 5.0; 5.5; 6.0; 6.5 7.0 and 7.5) and water activity (A(w)) (19 levels ranging from 0.867 to 0.999) on the probability of growth. Out of the 284 conditions tested, 146 were chosen for model data and 138 intermediate conditions for validation data. A growth/no growth transition was obtained by increasing the number of replicates per condition (n=30) in comparison to other published studies. The logistic regression model showed a good performance since 96.6% (141 out of 146 conditions) of the conditions for model data and 92.0% (127 out of 138 conditions) for validation data were correctly classified. The predictions indicated an abrupt growth/no growth interfaces occurred at low levels of temperature, pH and A(w). At 8 degrees C, S. aureus grew only at optimum levels of pH and A(w) while at temperatures above 13 degrees C, growth of S. aureus was observed at pH=4.5 and A(w)=0.96 (13 degrees C), 0.941 (16 degrees C) and 0.915 (19 degrees C). The optimal pH at which growth of S. aureus was detected earlier was 6.5. However, a slight decrease of the probability of growth was noticed in the pH interval of 7.0-7.5 at more stringent conditions. The ability of S. aureus to grow at low A(w) was shown since growth was detected at A(w)=0.867 (T=19 degrees C; pH=7.0). Finally, a comparison of model predictions with literature data on growth/no growth responses of S. aureus in culture media and cooked meat was made. Model predictions agreed with published data in 94% of growth cases and in 62% of no growth cases. The latter discordance is highly associated to other environmental factors (such as other preservatives, strains etc.) included in published models that did not match the ones included in

  1. Electrophysiological characteristics according to activity level of myofascial trigger points.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seong Hun; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the differences in electrophysiological characteristics of normal muscles versus muscles with latent or active myofascial trigger points, and identified the neuromuscular physiological characteristics of muscles with active myofascial trigger points, thereby providing a quantitative evaluation of myofascial pain syndrome and clinical foundational data for its diagnosis. [Subjects] Ninety adults in their 20s participated in this study. Subjects were equally divided into three groups: the active myofascial trigger point group, the latent myofascial trigger point group, and the control group. [Methods] Maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), endurance, median frequency (MDF), and muscle fatigue index were measured in all subjects. [Results] No significant differences in MVIC or endurance were revealed among the three groups. However, the active trigger point group had significantly different MDF and muscle fatigue index compared with the control group. [Conclusion] Given that muscles with active myofascial trigger points had an increased MDF and suffered muscle fatigue more easily, increased recruitment of motor unit action potential of type II fibers was evident. Therefore, electrophysiological analysis of these myofascial trigger points can be applied to evaluate the effect of physical therapy and provide a quantitative diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome. PMID:26504306

  2. Electrophysiological characteristics according to activity level of myofascial trigger points

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Seong Hun; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the differences in electrophysiological characteristics of normal muscles versus muscles with latent or active myofascial trigger points, and identified the neuromuscular physiological characteristics of muscles with active myofascial trigger points, thereby providing a quantitative evaluation of myofascial pain syndrome and clinical foundational data for its diagnosis. [Subjects] Ninety adults in their 20s participated in this study. Subjects were equally divided into three groups: the active myofascial trigger point group, the latent myofascial trigger point group, and the control group. [Methods] Maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), endurance, median frequency (MDF), and muscle fatigue index were measured in all subjects. [Results] No significant differences in MVIC or endurance were revealed among the three groups. However, the active trigger point group had significantly different MDF and muscle fatigue index compared with the control group. [Conclusion] Given that muscles with active myofascial trigger points had an increased MDF and suffered muscle fatigue more easily, increased recruitment of motor unit action potential of type II fibers was evident. Therefore, electrophysiological analysis of these myofascial trigger points can be applied to evaluate the effect of physical therapy and provide a quantitative diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome. PMID:26504306

  3. The effect of water activity and storage temperature on the growth of Aspergillus flavus in medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Kulshrestha, Rashmi; Gupta, Chandra Prakash; Shukla, Gyanesh; Kundu, Madan Gopal; Bhatnagar, Satyendra Prasad; Katiyar, Chandra Kant

    2008-08-01

    The quality control of medicinal herbs post harvesting or after collection becomes very critical because of susceptibility to fungal invasion during storage depending on the temperature and humidity of the storage area. The information on moisture equilibrium is important on the process and storage of foods which can be extended to medicinal herbs. In the present study, the growth of Aspergillus flavus was observed on selected ten medicinal herbs with water activity aw above 0.81 when stored at 25 +/- 2 degrees C, 30 +/- 2 degrees C and 40 +/- 2 degrees C except for Picrorhiza kurrooa and Alpinia galanga which were found to have anti-fungal properties. Aspergillus flavus did not grow in any samples of medicinal herbs with water activity aw below 0.81 at temperatures of 25 +/- 2 degrees C, 30 +/- 2 degrees C and 40 +/- 2 degrees C. Also Aspergillus flavus did not grow in any samples of medicinal herbs with water activity aw above 0.81 when stored below 10 +/- 2 degrees C. Therefore it can be concluded that the contamination of medicinal herbs with aflatoxins can be minimized by controlling water activity and storage temperature. Sorption isotherms (desorption) can be interpreted to determine the optimum drying which can lower the water activity to the level required for preventing growth of Aspergillus flavus and also for ensuring quality of medicinal herbs which may get destroyed upon over drying. Furthermore, it also saves incremental cost in prolonged drying over the optimum drying. PMID:18553273

  4. Online Activity Levels Are Related to Caffeine Dependency.

    PubMed

    Phillips, James G; Landhuis, C Erik; Shepherd, Daniel; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2016-05-01

    Online activity could serve in the future as behavioral markers of emotional states for computer systems (i.e., affective computing). Hence, this study considered relationships between self-reported stimulant use and online study patterns. Sixty-two undergraduate psychology students estimated their daily caffeine use, and this was related to study patterns as tracked by their use of a Learning Management System (Blackboard). Caffeine dependency was associated with less time spent online, lower rates of file access, and fewer online activities completed. Reduced breadth or depth of processing during work/study could be used as a behavioral marker of stimulant use. PMID:27096737

  5. Physical Activity Enjoyment and Self-Efficacy As Predictors of Cancer Patients' Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Nadine; Wiskemann, Joachim; Sieverding, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) can support cancer patients during medical treatment by reducing side-effects and increasing quality of life. However, PA levels mostly decline after diagnosis. Which factors can explain if patients are able to remain or even increase their PA level? Self-efficacy is an important cognitive factor that has been linked to cancer patients' PA across many studies. In contrast, affective factors such as PA enjoyment have rarely been examined. We compare the influence of self-efficacy and PA enjoyment on cancer patients' PA levels after completion of an exercise or stress-management intervention. Methods: Outpatient cancer patients [N = 72; 54% female; M = 56 years, SD = 12.34; most with breast or colon cancer (34%, 15%)] were enrolled in the MOTIVACTION study, a 4-week intervention (1 h counseling followed by weekly phone calls), with pre-test (T1), post-test (T2), and a 10-week follow-up (T3). Participants were randomized to either an exercise intervention (emphasizing self-regulatory strategies for behavior change) or to a stress management intervention (coping and relaxation techniques). Sixty-seven patients remained in the study and completed the SQUASH assessment of PA, a measure of maintenance self-efficacy (7 items, Cronbach's α = 0.88) and PA enjoyment (2 items, Cronbach's α = 0.89). Regression analyses were calculated with PA level (at T2 and T3) as dependent variable and relative weight analyses were conducted. The study was registered at clinicalTrials.gov (unique identifier:NCT01576107; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01576107?term=motivaction&rank=1). Results: Baseline self-efficacy and change in PA enjoyment significantly predicted cancer patients' PA level at T2 adjusting for baseline PA and type of intervention. Relative weight (RW) analysis revealed that PA enjoyment (baseline and change together) explained 34.3% of the dependent variable, self-efficacy (baseline and change) explained 38.4%. At follow

  6. Comparison of Pentax-AWS Airwayscope, Airtraq and Miller laryngoscope for tracheal intubation by novice doctors during infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation simulation: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Ueki, Ryusuke; Yamamoto, Noriyasu; Nishi, Shin-ichi; Kaminoh, Yoshiroh; Tashiro, Chikara

    2013-10-01

    Recent guidelines for infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation emphasize that all rescuers should minimize interruption of chest compressions, even for endotracheal intubation. We compared the utility of the Pentax-AWS Airway Scope (AWS) with an infant-sized Intlock (AWS-I), Airtraq laryngoscope (ATQ) and Miller laryngoscope during chest compressions on an infant manikin. Twenty-three novice doctors performed tracheal intubation on an infant manikin using the AWS-I, ATQ and Miller laryngoscope, with or without chest compressions. In Miller laryngoscope trials, one participant failed to secure the airway without chest compressions, while nine failed with compressions (P < 0.05). In ATQ trials, none of the participants failed without compressions, while six failed with compressions (P < 0.05). In AWS-I trials, all participants succeeded regardless of chest compressions. Intubation time was significantly longer with chest compressions with the Miller laryngoscope and ATQ, but not with the AWS-I. The AWS-I is an effective device for endotracheal intubation during chest compressions in infant simulations managed by novice doctors. PMID:23568017

  7. Motoneuron and sensory neuron plasticity to varying neuromuscular activity levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishihara, Akihiko; Roy, Roland R.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    2002-01-01

    The size and phenotypic properties of the neural and muscular elements of the neuromuscular unit are matched under normal conditions. When subjected to chronic decreases or increases in neuromuscular activity, however, the adaptations in these properties are much more limited in the neural compared with the muscular elements.

  8. Highlands County Energy Education Activities--High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Presented are five instructional units, developed by the Tri-County Teacher Education Center, for the purpose of educating secondary school students on Florida's unique energy problems. Unit one provides a series of value clarification and awareness activities as an introduction to energy. Unit two uses mathematics exercises to examine energy…

  9. Teachers' Perception Levels of Activities Directed towards Professional Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayindir, Nida

    2009-01-01

    This research tries to bring up teachers' opinions about Professional progress. This research aims at revealing the problems about how the teachers perceive Professional progress activities corrected with the opinions of teachers who work at primary schools. This research is designed with the model of survey is realized on 108 teachers who Works…

  10. Okeechobee County Energy Education Activities--Middle School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Over 60 energy education activities related to mathematics, science, social studies, and English comprise this manual for middle school teachers. Included are issues for discussion, puzzles, science investigations, story writing exercises, and energy cost calculation problems. Among the topics covered in these lessons are energy consumption…

  11. Middle Level Activities Programs: Helping Achieve Academic Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovland, Don

    1990-01-01

    The middle school athletic program should be based on the same philosophy governing academics and nonathletic activities. Essential criteria include total participation, no emphasis on winning, administrative and staff encouragement, short athletic sessions providing several choices, no tournaments or community "all-star" teams, appropriately…

  12. Plant lipases: biocatalyst aqueous environment in relation to optimal catalytic activity in lipase-catalyzed synthesis reactions.

    PubMed

    Caro, Yanis; Pina, Michel; Turon, Fabrice; Guilbert, Stephane; Mougeot, Estelle; Fetsch, David V; Attwool, Philip; Graille, Jean

    2002-03-20

    Adsorption and desorption isotherms of two commercial enzyme preparations of papain and bromelain were determined with a Dynamic Vapor System. The Guggenheim-Anderson-deBoer (GAB) modeling of the obtained sorption isotherms allowed the definition of different levels of hydration of those samples. Afterward, these enzyme preparations were used as biocatalysts in water and solvent-free esterification and alcoholysis reactions. The evolution of the obtained fatty acid ester level as a function of the initial hydration level of the biocatalyst, i.e., thermodynamic water activity (a(w)) and water content, was studied. The results show an important correlation between the initial hydration level of the biocatalyst and its catalytic activity during the lipase-catalyzed synthesis reactions. Thus, the Carica papaya lipase (crude papain preparation) catalytic activity is highly dependent on the biocatalyst hydration state. The optimized synthesis reaction yield is obtained when the a(w) value of the enzyme preparation is stabilized at 0.22, which corresponds to 2% water content. This optimal level of hydration occurs on the linear part of the biocatalyst's sorption isotherm, where the water molecules can form a mono- or multiple layer with the protein network. The synthesis reaction yield decreases when the a(w) of the preparation is higher than 0.22, because the excess water molecules modify the system equilibrium leading to the reverse and competitive reaction, i.e., hydrolysis. These results show also that an optimal storage condition for the highly hydrophilic crude papain preparation is a relative humidity strictly lower than 70% to avoid an irreversible structural transition leading to a useless biocatalyst. Concerning the bromelain preparation, no effect of the hydration level on the catalytic activity during esterification reactions was observed. This biocatalyst has too weak a catalytic activity which makes it difficult to observe any differences. Furthermore, the

  13. Ecological concerns following Superstorm Sandy: stressor level and recreational activity levels affect perceptions of ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Coastal habitats are vulnerable to storms, and with increasing urbanization, sea level rise, and storm frequency, some urban populations are at risk. This study examined perceptions of respondents in coastal and central New Jersey to Superstorm Sandy, including: 1) concerns about ecological resources and effects (open-ended question), 2) information sources for ecology of the coast (open-ended), and 3) ratings of a list of ecological services as a function of demographics, location (coastal, central Jersey), stressor level (power outages, high winds, flooding) and recreational rates. “Wildlife” and “fish” were the ecological concerns mentioned most often, while beaches and dunes were most often mentioned for environmental concerns. Television, radio, and web/internet were sources trusted for ecological information. The data indicate 1) stressor level was a better predictor of ratings of ecological services than geographical location, but days engaged in recreation contributed the most to variations in ratings, 2) ecological services were rated the highest by respondents with the highest stressor levels, and by those from the coast, compared to others, 3) Caucasians rated ecological services higher than all others, and 4) recreational rates were highest for coastal respondents, and ratings for ecological services increased with recreational rates. Only 20 % of respondents listed specific ecological services as one of their three most important environmental concerns. These data will be useful for increasing preparedness, enhancing educational strategies for shore protection, and providing managers and public policy makers with data essential to developing resiliency strategies. PMID:27011729

  14. [Level of nitric oxide in the kidneys during apoptosis activation].

    PubMed

    Komarievtseva, I O; Orlova, O A; Blahodarenko, Ie A

    2002-01-01

    The content of nitric oxide stable metabolites in a tissue of kidneys of rats in conditions of activation of apoptosis was investigated. Research was carried out in two models: acute renal failure and a hypertrophy of a unique kidney after a unilateral nephrectomy. Detection of apoptosis was carried out by definition of DNA fragmentation. Substantial increase of the nitric oxide stable metabolites contents is revealed at activation of apoptosis in both models. Change of a ratio of the contents of nitrite--anions in relation to the general contents of NO2- + NO3- is revealed, indicating the role of peroxide processes in effect of nitric oxide and its metabolites on the cell. PMID:14964872

  15. Stellar Forensics VI: A post-explosion view of the progenitor of SN 2012aw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maund, Justyn

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies have used high spatial resolution HST observations of supernova (SN) sites to directly identify the progenitors of core-collapse SNe in pre-explosion images. These studies have set constraints about the nature of massive stars and their evolution just prior to explosion. Now, at late-times when the SNe have faded sufficiently, it is possible to return to the sites of these core-collapse SNe to search for clues about the nature of their progenitors.We request time to conduct deep, late-time, high-resolution imaging with ACS/WFC of the site of the core-collapse SN 2012aw. We aim to: 1) Confirm our original identification, made in pre-explosion images, by confirming that the progenitor is now missing; 2) Apply image subtraction techniques for this late-time imaging with our pre-explosion images to determine accurate photometry of the progenitor to constrain the temperature and luminosity. HST provides the unique combination of high-resolution optical imaging at very faintmagnitudes that will facilitate this study.

  16. Structural Homogeneity of Direct-Chill Cast Ingots of Aluminum Alloy EN AW-5083

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolić, Natalija; Markotić, Ante; Unkić, Faruk

    2007-06-01

    Structural homogeneity of direct-chill (DC) cast ingots of aluminum alloy EN AW-5083 was investigated in terms of grain size and grain distribution using the Latin square experimental design. The ingot cross-sectional homogeneity, the grain sizes, and the mean grain number per unit area were determined at precise, statistically defined locations in the slice by means of a semiautomatic method for measuring mean lineal intercept lengths. Based on the analysis of the differences in the number and distribution of grains between the slices cut from the ingot front and those from its rear, a general assessment of the ingot structural homogeneity was made. Analysis of variance showed the highly significant differences, in grain number in specimens taken from the ingot front section to be related to slice height/ingot depth and in those taken from the ingot rear section to individual charges and slice height. The grand means of the mean number of grains per unit area for the ingot front and rear sections show relatively high values with respect to ingot size. The obtained correlation coefficient, which suggests a good agreement between the number and distribution of grains at the ingot front and those at its rear, is indicative of good structural homogeneity of the ingot in general.

  17. Tank 214-AW-105, grab samples, analytical results for the finalreport

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-02-20

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AW-105 grab samples. Twenty grabs samples were collected from risers 10A and 15A on August 20 and 21, 1996, of which eight were designated for the K Basin sludge compatibility and mixing studies. This document presents the analytical results for the remaining twelve samples. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DO). The results for the previous sampling of this tank were reported in WHC-SD-WM-DP-149, Rev. 0, 60-Day Waste Compatibility Safety Issue and Final Results for Tank 241-A W-105, Grab Samples 5A W-95-1, 5A W-95-2 and 5A W-95-3. Three supernate samples exceeded the TOC notification limit (30,000 microg C/g dry weight). Appropriate notifications were made. No immediate notifications were required for any other analyte. The TSAP requested analyses for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) for all liquids and centrifuged solid subsamples. The PCB analysis of the liquid samples has been delayed and will be presented in a revision to this document.

  18. The nebular spectra of SN 2012aw and constraints on stellar nucleosynthesis from oxygen emission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerkstrand, A.; Smartt, S. J.; Fraser, M.; Fransson, C.; Sollerman, J.; Taddia, F.; Kotak, R.

    2014-04-01

    We present nebular-phase optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of the Type IIP supernova SN 2012aw combined with non-local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative transfer calculations applied to ejecta from stellar evolution/explosion models. Our spectral synthesis models generally show good agreement with the ejecta from a MZAMS = 15 M⊙ progenitor star. The emission lines of oxygen, sodium, and magnesium are all consistent with the nucleosynthesis in a progenitor in the 14-18 M⊙ range. We also demonstrate how the evolution of the oxygen cooling lines of [O I] λ5577, [O I] λ6300, and [O I] λ6364 can be used to constrain the mass of oxygen in the non-molecularly cooled ashes to <1 M⊙, independent of the mixing in the ejecta. This constraint implies that any progenitor model of initial mass greater than 20 M⊙ would be difficult to reconcile with the observed line strengths. A stellar progenitor of around MZAMS = 15 M⊙ can consistently explain the directly measured luminosity of the progenitor star, the observed nebular spectra, and the inferred pre-supernova mass-loss rate. We conclude that there is still no convincing example of a Type IIP supernova showing the nucleosynthesis products expected from an MZAMS > 20 M⊙ progenitor.

  19. Objectively-Measured Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education among Homeschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Sarah; Pope, Zachary; Zeng, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Despite a growing population of homeschool children in the United States, little is known regarding their physical activity (PA) levels. Without access to physical education, homeschool children may engage in inadequate PA levels. The purpose of this study was to objectively examine the activity levels of homeschool students participating in a…

  20. The impact of sport and active recreation injuries on physical activity levels at 12 months post-injury.

    PubMed

    Andrew, N; Wolfe, R; Cameron, P; Richardson, M; Page, R; Bucknill, A; Gabbe, B

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of serious sport and active recreation injury on 12-month physical activity levels. Adults admitted to hospital with sport and active recreation-related injuries, and captured by the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry were recruited to the study. Changes between preinjury and 12 month post-injury physical activity was assessed using the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Independent demographic, injury, and hospital variables were assessed for associations with changes in physical activity levels, using multivariate linear regression. A total of 324 patients were recruited, of which 98% were followed up at 12 months. Mean short IPAQ scores decreased from 7650 METS (95% CI: 7180, 8120) preinjury to 3880 METS; (95% CI: 3530, 4250) post-injury, independent of functional recovery. Education level and occupation group were the only variables independently associated with changes in physical activity levels post-injury. These results highlighted that sport and active recreation injuries lead to significant reductions in physical activity levels. Hence, the prevention of sport and active recreation injuries is important when considering promotion of activity at a population level. PMID:22937749

  1. Sampling and Analysis for Tank 241-AW-104 Waste in Support of Evaporator Campaign 2001-1

    SciTech Connect

    MCKINNEY, S.G.

    2000-05-23

    This Tank Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) identifies sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC), and reporting objectives for the characterization of tank 241-AW-104 waste. Technical bases for these objectives are specified in the 242-A Evaporator Data Quality Objectives (Bowman 2000a and Von Bargen 1998), 242-A Evaporator Quality Assurance Project Plan (Bowman 1998 and Bowman 2000b), Tank 241-AW-104 Sampling Requirements in Support of Evaporator Campaign 2000-1 (Le 2000). Characterization results will be used to support the evaporator campaign currently planned for early fiscal year 2001. No other needs (or issues) requiring data for this tank waste apply to this sampling event.

  2. Activity of extracellular enzymes on the marine beach differing in the level of antropopressure.

    PubMed

    Perliński, P; Mudryk, Z J

    2016-03-01

    The level of activity of extracellular enzymes was determined on two transects characterised by different anthropic pressure on a sandy beach in Ustka, the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. Generally, the level of activity of the studied enzymes was higher on the transect characterised by high anthropic pressure. The ranking order of the mean enzyme activity rates in the sand was as follows: lipase > phosphatase > aminopeptidase > β-glucosidase > α-glucosidase > chitinase. Each enzyme had its characteristic horizontal profile of activity. The levels of activity of the studied enzymes were slightly higher in the surface than subsurface sand layer. Extracellular enzymatic activities were strongly influenced by the season. PMID:26911592

  3. Liquid-Phase Adsorption of Phenol onto Activated Carbons Prepared with Different Activation Levels.

    PubMed

    Hsieh; Teng

    2000-10-01

    The influence of the pore size distribution of activated carbon on the adsorption of phenol from aqueous solutions was explored. Activated carbons with different porous structures were prepared by gasifying a bituminous coal char to different extents of burn-off. The results of adsorption experiments show that the phenol capacity of these carbons does not proportionally increase with their BET surface area. This reflects the heterogeneity of the carbon surface for adsorption. The pore size distributions of these carbons, determined according to the Dubinin-Stoeckli equation, were found to vary with the burn-off level. By incorporating the distribution with the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation using an inverse proportionality between the micropore size and the adsorption energy, the isotherms for the adsorption of phenol onto these carbons can be well predicted. The present study has demonstrated that the heterogeneity of carbon surface for the phenol adsorption can be attributed to the different energies required for adsorption in different-size micropores. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10998301

  4. Patterns of 12-Year Change in Physical Activity Levels in Community-Dwelling Older Women: Can Modest Levels of Physical Activity Help Older Women Live Longer?

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Qian-Li; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Mielenz, Thelma J.; Seplaki, Christopher L.; Szanton, Sarah L.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Kalyani, Rita R.; Chaves, Paulo H. M.; Dam, Thuy-Tien L.; Ornstein, Katherine; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; Varadhan, Ravi; Yao, Wenliang; Fried, Linda P.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have addressed changes in physical activity participation over time among the elderly. The authors hypothesized that there were distinct trajectories of physical activity level over time and identifiable predictors of such trajectories, as well as that the maintenance of regular physical activity, even below recommended levels, was associated with lower mortality risk. Using longitudinal data (1994–2009) from 433 initially high-functioning older women aged 70–79 years at baseline, a joint latent class and survival mixture model identified 4 activity trajectory classes: always active (16.6%), fast declining (19.2%), stable moderate (32.3%), and always sedentary (31.9%). Obesity, coronary artery disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depressive symptoms, low self-efficacy, mobility disability, and low energy were associated with sedentary behavior and/or a fast decline in activity. Women in the fast declining and always sedentary classes had hazard ratios for death of 2.34 (95% confidence interval: 1.20, 4.59) and 3.34 (95% confidence interval: 1.72, 6.47), respectively, compared with the always active class; no mortality difference was found between the stable moderate and always active groups (hazard ratio = 1.24, 95% confidence interval: 0.63, 2.47). Our findings suggest that physical activity does not have to be vigorous to be beneficial and that the gain may be the greatest among women who reported the lowest levels of activity. PMID:22935515

  5. Relationship Between Kernel Moisture Content and Water Activity in Different Maturity Stages of Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water activity (aw) and moisture content (KMC) of individual peanut kernels representing five different maturity stages were measured during a period of late-season drought stress leading up to normal harvest time. Curves were generated describing the relationship between aw and KMC for yellow 1...

  6. The type IIP supernova 2012aw in M95: Hydrodynamical modeling of the photospheric phase from accurate spectrophotometric monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Dall'Ora, M.; Botticella, M. T.; Della Valle, M.; Pumo, M. L.; Zampieri, L.; Tomasella, L.; Cappellaro, E.; Benetti, S.; Pignata, G.; Bufano, F.; Bayless, A. J.; Pritchard, T. A.; Taubenberger, S.; Benitez, S.; Kotak, R.; Inserra, C.; Fraser, M.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Haislip, J. B.; Harutyunyan, A.; and others

    2014-06-01

    We present an extensive optical and near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic campaign of the Type IIP supernova SN 2012aw. The data set densely covers the evolution of SN 2012aw shortly after the explosion through the end of the photospheric phase, with two additional photometric observations collected during the nebular phase, to fit the radioactive tail and estimate the {sup 56}Ni mass. Also included in our analysis is the previously published Swift UV data, therefore providing a complete view of the ultraviolet-optical-infrared evolution of the photospheric phase. On the basis of our data set, we estimate all the relevant physical parameters of SN 2012aw with our radiation-hydrodynamics code: envelope mass M {sub env} ∼ 20 M {sub ☉}, progenitor radius R ∼ 3 × 10{sup 13} cm (∼430 R {sub ☉}), explosion energy E ∼ 1.5 foe, and initial {sup 56}Ni mass ∼0.06 M {sub ☉}. These mass and radius values are reasonably well supported by independent evolutionary models of the progenitor, and may suggest a progenitor mass higher than the observational limit of 16.5 ± 1.5 M {sub ☉} of the Type IIP events.

  7. Transketolase activity modulates glycerol-3-phosphate levels in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Vimala, A; Harinarayanan, R

    2016-04-01

    Transketolase activity provides an important link between the metabolic pathways of glycolysis and pentose phosphate shunt and catalyzes inter-conversions between pentose phosphates and glycolytic intermediates. It is widely conserved in life forms. A genetic screen for suppression of the growth defect of Escherichia coli tktA tktB mutant in LB medium revealed two mutations, one that rendered the glpK expression constitutive and another that inactivated deoB. Characterizing these mutations aided in uncovering the role of ribose-5-P (a transketolase substrate) as an inhibitor of glycerol assimilation and de novo glycerol-3-P synthesis. Using lacZ fusions, we show that ribose-5-P enhances GlpR-mediated repression of the glpFKX operon and inhibits glycerol assimilation. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) showed ribose-5-P made the DNA-GlpR complex less sensitive to the inducer glycerol-3-P. In addition to inhibition of glycerol assimilation, obstruction of ribose-5-P metabolism retards growth from glycerol-3-P limitation. Glucose helps to overcome this limitation through a mechanism involving catabolite repression. To our knowledge, this report is the first to show ribose-5-P can modulate glycerol-3-P concentration in the cell by regulation of glycerol assimilation as well as its de novo synthesis. This regulation could be prevalent in other organisms. PMID:26691989

  8. The Contribution of Former Work-Related Activity Levels to Predict Physical Activity and Sedentary Time during Early Retirement: Moderating Role of Educational Level and Physical Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Background The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined. Methods In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models. Results More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal. Conclusions Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during

  9. [Intubation using the Pentax-AWS Airwayscope with an infant-size Intlock in a patient with increased intracranial pressure due to acute hydrocephalus].

    PubMed

    Matsunami, Sayuri; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Nakao, Kenta; Nakano, Shoko; Tatsumi, Shinichi; Minami, Toshiaki

    2014-04-01

    We report our experience with the Pentax-AWS Airwayscope with an infant-size Intlock (AWS-I) in a patient with increased intracranial pressure due to acute hydrocephalus. A 12-month-old female infant with increased intracranial pressure due to acute hydrocephalus was scheduled to undergo emergent ventriculoperitoneal shunting under general anesthesia. She had a clonic convulsion and was sedated with midazolam. As her head was enlarged, head-tilting was difficult. Tracheal intubation while preventing an intracranial pressure increase was needed. After induction of general anesthesia with thiamylal and fentanyl the AWS-I was inserted to obtain a laryngoscopic view without excessive force. Under AWS observation, tracheal intubation was uneventful, and no vital sign change was observed. PMID:24783606

  10. An analytical investigation of the effect of crack depth (a) and crack depth to width (a/W) ratio on the fracture toughness of A533-B steel

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.A.; Rolfe, S.T.

    1997-12-01

    The use of various crack depths (a) and crack-depth to specimen-width (a/W) ratios in laboratory tests to model flawed structural components has led to considerable interest in the role of both the crack depth (a) and the a/W ratio on fracture toughness. To investigate the separate roles of crack depth and the a/W ratio, three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analyses, (EA) of square SE(B) specimens with a/W ratios ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 [crack depths ranging from 2.0 mm (0.08 in.) to 50.8 mm (2.0 in.)] have been conducted. The specimen dimensions were chosen such that the results for specimens having a fixed crack depth and varying a/W ratios could be compared to the results for specimens with a fixed a/W ratio and varying crack depths. The results of the experimental studies had indicated that both the crack depth and the a/W ratio each have a significant effect on the fracture toughness. Both the lower bound toughness and the transition temperature were affected. Three-dimensional elastic-plastic FEA were used to model each specimen geometry, and the predicted stresses, CTOD, and J-integral for the various crack depths and a/W ratios were compared. The results of the FEA support the findings of the previous experimental study. For a high-constraint geometry (a/W = 0.5), there is not a significant change in the near tip stresses for different size specimens. However, for low-constraint geometries (a/W = 0.1), the near tip stresses are significantly affected by the actual crack depth and specimen size. The findings of this study are significant in helping to understand the relative role of crack depth, a/W ratio, and specimen size on fracture toughness. Future studies are expected to extend the findings of this study to the behavior of actual structures with cracks.

  11. Compendium of Interdisciplinary Activities for an Introductory Course in Communication Systems at the Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasko, David J.

    This compendium of interdisciplinary learning activities is designed to assist technology education instructors who are conducting an introductory secondary-level course in communication technology. The 12 activities, which are sequenced from introductory, low-cost activities to more advanced and more involved activities, deal with the following…

  12. RED AND DEAD: THE PROGENITOR OF SN 2012aw IN M95

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, M.; Maund, J. R.; Smartt, S. J.; Inserra, C.; Kotak, R.; Reilly, E.; Botticella, M.-T.; Dall'Ora, M.; Tomasella, L.; Benetti, S.; Ciroi, S.; Ochner, P.; Pastorello, A.; Valenti, S.; Eldridge, J. J.; Ergon, M.; Sollerman, J.; Taddia, F.; Mattila, S.; Stephens, A.

    2012-11-01

    Core-collapse supernovae (SNe) are the spectacular finale to massive stellar evolution. In this Letter, we identify a progenitor for the nearby core-collapse SN 2012aw in both ground-based near-infrared and space-based optical pre-explosion imaging. The SN itself appears to be a normal Type II Plateau event, reaching a bolometric luminosity of 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} and photospheric velocities of {approx}11,000 km s{sup -1} from the position of the H{beta} P-Cygni minimum in the early SN spectra. We use an adaptive optics image to show that the SN is coincident to within 27 mas with a faint, red source in pre-explosion HST+WFPC2, VLT+ISAAC, and NTT+SOFI images. The source has magnitudes F555W = 26.70 {+-} 0.06, F814W = 23.39 {+-} 0.02, J = 21.1 {+-} 0.2, K = 19.1 {+-} 0.4, which, when compared to a grid of stellar models, best matches a red supergiant. Interestingly, the spectral energy distribution of the progenitor also implies an extinction of A{sub V} > 1.2 mag, whereas the SN itself does not appear to be significantly extinguished. We interpret this as evidence for the destruction of dust in the SN explosion. The progenitor candidate has a luminosity between 5.0 and 5.6 log L/L{sub Sun }, corresponding to a zero-age main-sequence mass between 14 and 26 M{sub Sun} (depending on A{sub V} ), which would make this one of the most massive progenitors found for a core-collapse SN to date.

  13. THE RED SUPERGIANT PROGENITOR OF SUPERNOVA 2012aw (PTF12bvh) IN MESSIER 95

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; and others

    2012-09-10

    We report on the direct detection and characterization of the probable red supergiant (RSG) progenitor of the intermediate-luminosity Type II-Plateau (II-P) supernova (SN) 2012aw in the nearby (10.0 Mpc) spiral galaxy Messier 95 (M95; NGC 3351). We have identified the star in both Hubble Space Telescope images of the host galaxy, obtained 17-18 yr prior to the explosion, and near-infrared ground-based images, obtained 6-12 yr prior to the SN. The luminous supergiant showed evidence for substantial circumstellar dust, manifested as excess line-of-sight extinction. The effective total-to-selective ratio of extinction to the star was R'{sub V} Almost-Equal-To 4.35, which is significantly different from that of diffuse interstellar dust (i.e., R{sub V} = 3.1), and the total extinction to the star was therefore, on average, A{sub V} Almost-Equal-To 3.1 mag. We find that the observed spectral energy distribution for the progenitor star is consistent with an effective temperature of 3600 K (spectral type M3), and that the star therefore had a bolometric magnitude of -8.29. Through comparison with recent theoretical massive-star evolutionary tracks we can infer that the RSG progenitor had an initial mass 15 {approx}< M{sub ini}(M{sub Sun }) < 20. Interpolating by eye between the available tracks, we surmise that the star had initial mass {approx}17-18 M{sub Sun }. The circumstellar dust around the progenitor must have been destroyed in the explosion, as the visual extinction to the SN is found to be low (A{sub V} = 0.24 mag with R{sub V} = 3.1).

  14. A Computational Study of the Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) Characteristics for Various Fighter Jets. Part 1; F/A-18E and F-16C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, Paresh; Chung, James

    2003-01-01

    Steady state Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations are used to gain an understanding of the physics behind the Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) phenomenon and to arrive at static Figures of Merit (FOMs). Navier-Stokes simulations are conducted using the NASA Langley developed TetrUSS simulation suite which is based on tetrahedral, unstructured grids. The physics of the AWS phenomenon is understood by comparing CFD simulation results on two aircraft; a pre-production F/A-18E configuration which exhibits AWS phenomenon under certain geometric and flow conditions, and an F-16C aircraft configuration that does not. The CFD code is first validated against two sets of experimental data to build confidence in its use for the problem of AWS. An attempt is then made to understand the possible causes of AWS by analyzing and comparing the detailed flow fields between the two configurations under a variety of flow conditions. Based on this approach, a number of static Figures of Merit are developed to predict the potential existence of AWS. The FOMs include the break in the lift and wing root bending moment versus angle-of-attack (AoA) curves and the rate of change of sectional lift with respect to AoA. A companion paper, in Part II, describes a similar CFD study on two other aircraft, the AV-8B Harrier and F/A-18C. Results from both these studies, as well as other CFD studies conducted as part of the AWS program are used to recommend a CFD procedure for predicting the existence of AWS in future aerospace designs.

  15. Relationship of lipoprotein(a) levels to physical activity and family history of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Martín, S; Elosua, R; Covas, M I; Pavesi, M; Vila, J; Marrugat, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the association of physical activity with serum lipoprotein(a) [La(a)] levels in individuals according to whether they had a family history of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Lp(a) levels in 332 healthy Spanish men aged 20 to 60 years were measured. Physical activity and family history of CHD were assessed. RESULTS: For men with a family history of CHD, the odds ratio for Lp(a) levels above the median value was 0.13 (95% confidence interval = 0.03, 0.50) in very active men (energy expended in physical activity > 300 kcal/day) compared with active men (energy expended in physical activity < 300 kcal/day). CONCLUSIONS: Regular daily physical activity in individuals with a family history of CHD could be useful for controlling Lp(a) levels. PMID:10076490

  16. [RELATIONS BETWEEN STANISŁAW ESTREICHER AND THE ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES AND THE POLISH ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES (IN THE LIGHT OF ITS FILES)].

    PubMed

    Skrzyński, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Stanisław Estreicher, member of the Estreicher family, which rendered great service to Polish science and culture, was one of the most prominent Polish researchers in the history of law and vice-chancellor of the Jagiellonian University. This future professor for the first time appeared in the files of the Academy already in 1888. In 1914 he was elected associate member and in 1930--full member of the Academy. Because of his diverse interests, Estreicher's activity in the Academy included, i.a., his involvement with the Academy's authorities and the Department of History and Philosophy, his work dealing with general publications of the Academy, publishing his own writings and source editions, activity on the forums of six commissions, representing the Academy and giving opinions on scientific works to be published by the Academy. His involvement in the Academy was growing but these ties did not dominate his diverse activities. From the point of view of the Academy, the most of important was Professor Estreicher's participation in general publications' issues and his increasing influence on the institution's authorities, on the Department of History and Philosophy and the Legal Committee. On the other hand, from the point of view of Professor Estreicher himself, the most significant was "Polish Bibliography". PMID:26455001

  17. Levels of Engagement and Barriers to Physical Activity in a Population of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Andrew; Look, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This study examined levels of, and barriers to, physical activity in a population of 19 adults with learning disabilities living in community supported accommodation, using diary records and semi-structured interviews with staff. The levels of physical activity were higher in the sample population than previous figures for adults with learning…

  18. Correlation between the Physical Activity Level and Grade Point Averages of Faculty of Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imdat, Yarim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to find the correlation that exists between physical activity level and grade point averages of faculty of education students. The subjects consist of 359 (172 females and 187 males) under graduate students To determine the physical activity levels of the students in this research, International Physical Activity…

  19. A Comparison between Children's Physical Activity Levels at School and Learning in an Outdoor Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mygind, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Physical activity levels were measured with an accelerometer in a case study including 19 children, from nine to ten years of age, in a Danish primary school. The teachers conducted their teaching in a forest every Thursday from 2000 to 2003. The purpose of this study was to measure the students' activity levels during outdoor learning days in the…

  20. Impact of water activity of diverse media on spore germination of Aspergillus and Penicillium species.

    PubMed

    Nanguy, Sidjè Paule-Marina; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; Bensoussan, Maurice; Dantigny, Philippe

    2010-08-15

    The effects of water activity (a(w)) of diverse media i/ culture medium for sporogenesis, a(w sp) ii/ liquid spore suspension medium, a(w su) and iii/ medium for germination, a(w ge), on the germination time t(G) of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium expansum were assessed according to a screening matrix at 0.95 and 0.99 a(w). It was shown that i/ reduced t(G)s were obtained at 0.95 a(w sp) except for P. expansum ii/ a significant effect of a(w su) on t(G) was demonstrated for A. carbonarius, P. chrysogenum and P. expansum iii/ the most important factor for controlling the germination time was the medium for germination except for A. carbonarius (a(w su)). In accordance with the fact that fungal spores can swell as soon as they are suspended in an aqueous solution it is recommended to re-suspend fungal spores in a solution at the same water activity as that of subsequent germination studies. PMID:20673593

  1. Misclassification of Physical Activity Level Due to Exclusion of Workplace Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boslaugh, Sarah E.; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Weaver, Nancy L.; Naleid, Kimberly S.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effect of including workplace physical activity in calculating the proportion of adults meeting Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines for physical activity. Data on leisure-time and workplace activity were collected from 1,090 Black and White adults in St. Louis, MO. A series of assumptions were used to equate…

  2. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  3. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581), Psychological Domain (r = –0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  4. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age.

    PubMed

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Linek, Pawel; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = -0.581), Psychological Domain (r = -0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = -0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = -0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  5. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    PubMed Central

    Bitencourt, C.S.; Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production. PMID:22370704

  6. Correlation of diacylglycerol level and protein kinase C activity in rat retina to retinal circulation.

    PubMed

    Shiba, T; Inoguchi, T; Sportsman, J R; Heath, W F; Bursell, S; King, G L

    1993-11-01

    The increases in diacylglycerol (DAG) level and protein kinase C (PKC) activity have been characterized biochemically and functionally in the retina and the brain of diabetic rats as well as in cultured vascular cells. PKC specific activities were increased in the membraneous fraction of retina from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and the genetically determined diabetic BB rats, respectively, after 1 or 2 wk of diabetes, compared with control. The ratio of total PKC activities from membraneous and cytosol fractions was also increased in the retina of diabetic rats. With diabetes, all the isoenzymes and the total DAG level were increased in the rat retina, whereas no changes were found in the rat brain. Insulin treatment normalized plasma glucose levels and partially prevented the increases in the membraneous PKC activity and all the isoenzymes in the retina. In the retinal endothelial cells, the total DAG level and PKC specific activities are increased by 36 and 22%, respectively, in the membraneous pool when the glucose levels are changed from 5.5 to 22 mM. Activation of PKC activity and isoform beta II by the vitreal injection of phorbol dibutyrate mimicked the abnormal retinal blood circulation observed in diabetic rats (2.22 +/- 0.24 vs. 1.83 +/- 0.40 s). Thus diabetes and elevated glucose levels will increase DAG level and PKC activities and its isoenzyme specifically in vascular cells and may affect retinal hemodynamics. PMID:8238505

  7. Boildown Study on Supernatant Liquid Retrieved from AW-106 in December 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Jason S.

    2013-06-04

    This document reports the results of a boil down study using a composite created from supernatant liquid grab samples retrieved from tank 241-AW-I06 in December of 2012. The composite was made using predetermined volumes of the grab samples which accounted for layering of the supernatant liquid in the tank. The finished composite was a clear, yellow liquid containing no visible solids at hot cell ambient temperatures (24 - 27°C). The density of the test composite was measured in the hot cell immediately before the boildown study and was 1.266 g/mL at 27.1 °C. The boiling temperature of the composite was measured at three different pressures (40, 60, and 80 Torr) throughout the volume reduction, and the results show steadily increasing boiling temperatures with increasing volume reduction and no significant discontinuities. Moderate foaming was observed at the onset of the boildown. The foaming disappeared during the first reduction step, and minimal foaming was observed throughout the rest of the study. The bulk densities at 18.0 °C (D{sub Bulk}{sup 18 °C}) and quantities of settled and centrifuged solids were measured on samples of the boildown concentrates. Estimated values of the bulk densities at the 60-Torr boiling temperatures (D{sub Bulk}{sup 60 Torr}) were also calculated. Solids were first observed at boildown temperatures when the % VWR reached 39.3%. The quantity of solids in the composite quickly increased after this initial formation; the amount of centrifuged solids increased by 22% as the %WVR increased from 39.3 to 44.1 %. A small amount of solids did appear in the samples collected prior to the initial formation during the boildown. These solids precipitated while they sat at hot cell ambient temperature and in the 18. 0 °C water bath. Analysis of boil down test samples indicated that natrophosphate (Na7{sub 3}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}{centerdot} 19 H{sub 2}O) and kogarkoite (Na3FS04) accounted for a majority of the initial solids (~80% of the

  8. Levels and Characteristics of Physical Activity among a College Student Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kim; Staten, Ruth R.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Noland, Melody

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess physical activity levels and the relationships between activity and personal characteristics among a cohort of college students and to determine personal characteristics that predict activity. A sample of 1,700 undergraduates was mailed a survey that requested demographic information and assessed health…

  9. Motor Performance of Women as a Function of Age and Physical Activity Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikli, Roberta; Busch, Sharman

    Two studies compared motor skills of women in terms of the influence of age and activity level. In the first study, simple and choice reaction time, balance, flexibility, and grip strength of older active women were compared with that of older inactive women, and active and inactive younger women. Except for grip strength, scores of older active…

  10. Parent's Interests, Current Involvement and Level of Parental Involvement in School Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gbadamosi, Tara; Lin, Huey-Ling

    This study examined what school activities parents were involved in and the relationship between parents' interests and level of participation. Parents completed self-report questionnaires examining activities they were currently involved in and activities they would like to do in their children's classrooms. Out of 208 surveys distributed, 114…

  11. Changes in physical activity levels following 12-week family intervention in Hispanic girls: Bounce study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem among Hispanic girls. Physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. To examine the changes in physical activity level pre- and post-intervention. Hispanic girls in control (CG; N=26, ...

  12. Mediators Affecting Girls’ Levels of Physical Activity Outside of School: Findings from the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Murray, David M.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Moody, Jamie; Pratt, Charlotte A.; Metcalfe, Lauve; Parra-Medina, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Background Providing after school activities is a community level approach for reducing the decline in physical activity of girls as they reach early adolescence. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial, environmental, and behavioral factors as potential mediators of after school physical activity in adolescent girls. Methods We assessed objectively measured levels of physical activity occurring outside of school and potential predictors and mediators of activity in girls participating in the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls (TAAG). Results We found that the TAAG intervention had a statistically significant and positive effect on out of school activity in the 2006 cohort. Self-efficacy, friends’ social support, total social support, and difficulty getting to and from community activities mediated the level of moderate to vigorous physical activity in girls. Conclusions Parents, communities, and schools should provide and enhance opportunities outside of the school day for adolescents to be active. Reducing transportation barriers and enlisting social support appear to be key. PMID:20012810

  13. The influence of active seating on car passengers' perceived comfort and activity levels.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S; Kamp, I; van Veen, S A T; Vink, P; Bosch, T

    2015-03-01

    New technologies have led to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary behaviour is characterised by physical inactivity and is associated with several health risks. This excessive sitting does not only take place in the office or at home, but also during daily commute. Therefore, BMW AG developed an active seating system for the back seat of a car, consisting of sensors in the back rest that register upper body movements of the passenger, with which the passenger controls a game. This study evaluated three different aspects of active seating compared to other tasks (reading, working on laptop, and gaming on tablet). First, discomfort and comfort perception were measured in a 30-minute driving test. Discomfort was very low for all activities and participants felt significantly more challenged, more fit and more refreshed during active seating. Second, heart rate was measured, indicating a light intensity, but nevertheless non-sedentary, activity. Third, average and variability in activity of six postural muscles was measured by electromyography (EMG), showing a higher muscle activity and higher muscle variability for active seating compared to other activities. Active seating might stimulate movements, thereby increasing comfort and well-being. PMID:25479990

  14. Attempting to be active: Self-efficacy and barrier limitation differentiate activity levels of working mothers.

    PubMed

    Gierc, Madelaine; Locke, Sean; Jung, Mary; Brawley, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    Working mothers are less physically active than working women without children and mothers who do not work. The purpose of this study was to examine concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and barriers to physical activity in a sample of working mothers. Women completed a mixed-methods survey which included measures of physical activity, concurrent self-regulatory efficacy, and barriers. Sufficiently active women experienced significantly greater concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and significantly less barrier limitation and frequency. No significant group differences were found for age, domestic duties performed, and children's extracurricular activities. Thematic analysis of barriers revealed six themes of common and unique factors, including limited time and family activities. PMID:27357921

  15. Distribution and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Gebhard, Christiane; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Miller, Ingrid; Walter, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been associated with increased tumor aggressiveness and metastasis dissemination. We investigated whether the contrasting metastatic behavior of feline and canine osteosarcoma is related to levels and activities of MMP2 and MMP9. Zymography and immunohistochemistry were used to determine expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma. Using immunohistochemistry, increased MMP9 levels were identified in most canine osteosarcomas, whereas cat samples more often displayed moderate levels. High levels of pro-MMP9, pro-MMP2, and active MMP2 were detected by gelatin zymography in both species, with significantly higher values for active MMP2 in canine osteosarcoma. These findings indicate that MMP2 is probably involved in canine and feline osteosarcoma and their expression and activity could be associated with the different metastatic behavior of canine and feline osteosarcoma. PMID:26733734

  16. Distribution and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Gebhard, Christiane; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Miller, Ingrid; Walter, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been associated with increased tumor aggressiveness and metastasis dissemination. We investigated whether the contrasting metastatic behavior of feline and canine osteosarcoma is related to levels and activities of MMP2 and MMP9. Zymography and immunohistochemistry were used to determine expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma. Using immunohistochemistry, increased MMP9 levels were identified in most canine osteosarcomas, whereas cat samples more often displayed moderate levels. High levels of pro-MMP9, pro-MMP2, and active MMP2 were detected by gelatin zymography in both species, with significantly higher values for active MMP2 in canine osteosarcoma. These findings indicate that MMP2 is probably involved in canine and feline osteosarcoma and their expression and activity could be associated with the different metastatic behavior of canine and feline osteosarcoma. PMID:26733734

  17. Solute Transport Proteins and the Outer Membrane Protein NmpC Contribute to Heat Resistance of Escherichia coli AW1.7▿

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Lifang; Pleitner, Aaron; Gänzle, Michael G.; McMullen, Lynn M.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to elucidate determinants of heat resistance in Escherichia coli by comparing the composition of membrane lipids, as well as gene expression, in heat-resistant E. coli AW1.7 and heat-sensitive E. coli GGG10 with or without heat shock. The survival of E. coli AW1.7 at late exponential phase was 100-fold higher than that of E. coli GGG10 after incubation at 60°C for 15 min. The cytoplasmic membrane of E. coli AW1.7 contained a higher proportion of saturated and cyclopropane fatty acids than that of E. coli GGG10. Microarray hybridization of cDNA libraries obtained from exponentially growing or heat-shocked cultures was performed to compare gene expression in these two strains. Expression of selected genes from different functional groups was quantified by quantitative PCR. DnaK and 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits were overexpressed in E. coli GGG10 relative to E. coli AW1.7 upon heat shock at 50°C, indicating improved ribosome stability. The outer membrane porin NmpC and several transport proteins were overexpressed in exponentially growing E. coli AW1.7. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of membrane properties confirmed that NmpC is present in the outer membrane of E. coli AW1.7 but not in that of E. coli GGG10. Expression of NmpC in E. coli GGG10 increased survival at 60°C 50- to 1,000-fold. In conclusion, the outer membrane porin NmpC contributes to heat resistance in E. coli AW1.7, but the heat resistance of this strain is dependent on additional factors, which likely include the composition of membrane lipids, as well as solute transport proteins. PMID:21398480

  18. Physical Activity in Deprived Communities in London: Examining Individual and Neighbourhood-Level Factors

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Paul; Phillips, Gemma; Petticrew, Mark; Hayes, Richard; Bottomley, Christian; Yu, Ge; Schmidt, Elena; Tobi, Patrick; Moore, Derek; Frostick, Caroline; Lock, Karen; Renton, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The objectives of this study were to examine relationships between neighbourhood-level and individual-level characteristics and physical activity in deprived London neighbourhoods. Methods In 40 of the most deprived neighbourhoods in London (ranked in top 11% in London by Index of Multiple Deprivation) a cross-sectional survey (n = 4107 adults aged > = 16 years), neighbourhood audit tool, GIS measures and routine data measured neighbourhood and individual-level characteristics. The binary outcome was meeting the minimum recommended (CMO, UK) 5×30 mins moderate physical activity per week. Multilevel modelling was used to examine associations between physical activity and individual and neighbourhood-level characteristics. Results Respondents living more than 300 m away from accessible greenspace had lower odds of achieving recommended physical activity levels than those who lived within 300 m; from 301–600 m (OR = 0.7; 95% CI 0.5–0.9) and from 601–900 m (OR = 0.6; 95% CI 0.4–0.8). There was substantial residual between-neighbourhood variance in physical activity (median odds ratio = 1.7). Other objectively measured neighbourhood-level characteristics were not associated with physical activity levels. Conclusions Distance to nearest greenspace is associated with meeting recommended physical activity levels in deprived London neighbourhoods. Despite residual variance in physical activity levels between neighbourhoods, we found little evidence for the influence of other measured neighbourhood-level characteristics. PMID:23922717

  19. [The problem of cancer in the work of Władysław Kopaczewski (1886-1953)].

    PubMed

    Daszkiewicz, P

    1994-01-01

    Having left Lódź in 1906 Władysław Kopaczewski (1886-1953) studied physics, chemistry and biology at Swiss universities. In 1911 he moved to France where he conducted research in coloidal chemistry simultaneously obtaining a physician's diploma and an MD. During 42 years he spent in France he was dealing with biological systems physics, doing research in medicine, nutritive chemistry and cosmetology. He created an original conception of cancer disease. His theory allowed him to provide the theoretical bases of the cancer physics and to suggest a diagnositic method to direct the search for means of the cancer therapy. PMID:11624929

  20. Possibilities of modelling of local and global hydrological changes from high-resolution Global Hydrological Model in the absolute gravity observations - the case of Józefosław Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszak, Tomasz; Barlik, Marcin; Pachuta, Andrzej; Próchniewicz, Dominik

    2014-05-01

    Geodynamical use of epoch gravimetric relative and absolute observations requires the elimination of one from the most significant effect related to local and global changes of hydrological conditions. It is understood that hydrological effect is associated with changes in groundwater levels and soil moisture around the gravimetric station. In Poland, the quasi - permanent observations of gravity changes by absolute method carried out since 2005 on gravity station located in the Astronomical - Geodetic Observatory in Józefosław. In the poster will be shortly described measurement strategy of absolute observations and different approaches to the elimination of the local and global effects associated with changes in hydrology. This paper will discuss the results of the analysis of tidal observations relevant to the development of absolute observations - seasonal changes in barometric correction factor and differences in the locally designated tidal corrections model. Analysis of the possibility of elimination the impact of global hydrological influence is based on the model GLDAS a spatial resolution of 0.25 degree independently on a local scale and global. Józefosław Observatory is equipped with additional sensors linked to the monitoring of local hydrological conditions. It gives a possibility to verify the quality of modeling of hydrological changes using global models in local and global scale.

  1. Physical activity parenting: A systematic review of questionnaires and their associations with child activity levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insufficient physical activity (PA) is considered a critical contributor to childhood overweight. Parents are a key in influencing their child's PA through various mechanisms of PA parenting, including support, restriction of PA, and facilitation of enrollment in PA classes or activities. However, s...

  2. Predictors of Activity Level Two years after ACL Reconstruction: MOON ACLR Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Warren R.; Spindler, Kurt P.; Amendola, Annunziato; Andrish, Jack T.; Bergfeld, John A.; Flanigan, David C.; Jones, Morgan H.; Kaeding, Christopher C.; Marx, Robert G.; Matava, Matthew J.; McCarty, Eric C.; Parker, Richard D.; Wolcott, Michelle; Vidal, Armando; Wolf, Brian R.; Wright, Rick W.; Harrell, Frank E.; Dittus, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective ACL deficient subjects are at risk of knee injury with cutting and pivoting activities; in accord, ACL reconstructions (ACLR) are performed to restore stability to allow for return to cutting and pivoting activities. The Marx activity level is a validated patient-reported measure to quantify the amount and frequency of running, cutting, decelerating, and pivoting performed. Our objective was to quantify activity level 2 yrs after ACLR and identify explanatory variables measured at baseline (demographics, concomitant meniscal/articular cartilage injuries and their treatment) associated with activity level at short-term follow-up (2 yrs). Methods In 2002, the multicenter consortium began enrolling subjects undergoing ACLR at six recruitment sites. This ongoing multicenter cohort study targets follow-up at 2, 6, and 10 years. The current study reports two-year follow-up of subjects enrolled in 2002. Participants in the multicenter ACLR cohort completed a series of validated, patient-oriented questionnaires that included activity level assessment. Follow-up questionnaires were collected by mail between 1/01/04 and 6/01/05 to assess changes. Measurement of intraarticular pathology, techniques of ACLR, and secondary procedures were recorded at baseline by participating surgeons. Multivariable proportional odds ordinal logistic regression was used to assess predictors of activity level after adjusting for baseline patient characteristics. Interquartile range (IQR) odds ratios (OR) are given for continuous variables, IQROR demonstrate the effect of increasing a baseline variable from its first quartile to its third quartile. The fitted model that used OR to specify predicted probabilities of exceeding any activity level was translated into predicted mean activity level and is presented in a nomogram for more interpretability. Results Of the 446 subjects that underwent unilateral ACLR, follow-up was obtained on 393 (88%). The cohort is 56% male, median age 23 yrs

  3. Do quality of life, participation and environment of older adults differ according to level of activity?

    PubMed Central

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Desrosiers, Johanne; St-Cyr Tribble, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Background Activity limitation is one of the most frequent geriatric clinical syndromes that have significant individual and societal impacts. People living with activity limitations might have fewer opportunities to be satisfied with life or experience happiness, which can have a negative effect on their quality of life. Participation and environment are also important modifiable variables that influence community living and are targeted by health interventions. However, little is known about how quality of life, participation and environment differ according to activity level. This study examines if quality of life, participation (level and satisfaction) and perceived quality of the environment (facilitators or obstacles in the physical or social environment) of community-dwelling older adults differ according to level of activity. Methods A cross-sectional design was used with a convenience sample of 156 older adults (mean age = 73.7; 76.9% women), living at home and having good cognitive functions, recruited according to three levels of activity limitations (none, slight to moderate and moderate to severe). Quality of life was estimated with the Quality of Life Index, participation with the Assessment of Life Habits and environment with the Measure of the Quality of the Environment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) or Welch F-ratio indicated if the main variables differed according to activity level. Results Quality of life and satisfaction with participation were greater with a higher activity level (p < 0.001). However, these differences were clinically significant only between participants without activity limitations and those with moderate to severe activity limitations. When activity level was more limited, participation level was further restricted (p < 0.001) and the physical environment was perceived as having more obstacles (p < 0.001). No differences were observed for facilitators in the physical and social environment or for obstacles in the social

  4. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-06-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=-0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=-0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115

  5. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=−0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=−0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115

  6. The role of domestic dogs and cats in the zoonotic cycles of ticks and pathogens. Preliminary studies in the Wrocław Agglomeration (SW Poland).

    PubMed

    Król, Nina; Kiewra, Dorota; Szymanowski, Mariusz; Lonc, Elżbieta

    2015-11-30

    The collection of 729 tick specimens (Ixodes ricinus, 88.6%; Ixodes hexagonus, 9.2%; Dermacentor reticulatus, 2.2%) removed from 373 dogs and 78 cats, along with 201 ticks from vegetation (I. ricinus, 75.6%; D. reticulatus, 24.4%), allows one to say that pets play an important role in maintaining tick life cycles in different urban area. It shows the lack of statistical differences between tick intensity in high-impact anthropogenic areas (HIAA), low-impact anthropogenic areas (LIAA) and mixed areas designed, in an objective way, by GIS techniques. The comparable (statistically insignificant) level of infection with Borrelia spp. of I. ricinus from pets (22.5%) and vegetation (24.8%), shows that dogs and cats do not have zooprophylactic competence for Borrelia spp. in different urban areas. Moreover, Borrelia spp. was detected in I. hexagonues (1.5%) collected from pets, and in D. reticulatus (2%) obtained from vegetation. The presence of D. reticulatus in the Wrocław Agglomeration confirms its expansion and the distribution range in Poland. PMID:26464069

  7. High IL-23 level is a marker of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Abu Al Fadl, Esam M; Fattouh, Mona; Allam, Ahmed A

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune systemic disorder characterized by inflammatory responses mainly affecting the synovial joints. Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is a heterodimeric pro-inflammatory cytokine secreted by activated dendritic cells and activated macrophages. IL-23 is the key cytokine controlling inflammation in peripheral tissues leading to the development of autoimmune diseases. The objective of our study was to determine the relationship between the IL-23 level and disease activity in RA patients. Sixty RA patients were included in the study with mean age of 40 years; they included 44 (73.3 %) females and 16 males (26.7 %). The clinical parameters of disease activity were determined, including the 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28), serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), Anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA), rheumatoid factor (RF), and TNF-alpha and the degree of bony erosions based on X-rays. Patients were subdivided into active disease group (n = 30) with DAS28 score higher than 5.1 (Group I); and remission group (n = 30) with DAS28 score less than 2.6 (Group II). Thirty healthy individuals in the same age group of RA patients including 22 (73.3%) females and 8 males (26.7%) were randomly selected as the control group (Group III). The levels of IL-23 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the correlations between the serum levels of IL-23 and disease activity parameters of patients with RA were determined. Serum levels of IL-23 were significantly higher in RA patients during active stage of the disease in comparison to the patients in remission and the control group. There was a significant positive correlation between serum IL-23 levels in RA patients and individual disease activity parameters. It is concluded that elevated serum IL-23 level may be a useful marker to detect active RA and disease progression in patients with RA. PMID:24617049

  8. COMPARISON OF CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY, RESIDUE LEVELS, AND URINARY METABOLITE EXCRETION OF RATS EXPOSED TO ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blood cholinesterase activity, urinary levels of phenolic and organophosphorus metabolites, and residues of intact compounds in blood and fat were determined following exposure of rats to organophosphorus pesticides. The eight pesticides studied included representative halogenate...

  9. Pupillometric Signs of Brain Activation Vary with Level of Cognitive Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Jackson; Wagoner, Brennis L.

    1978-01-01

    Reports increased central nervous system vigilance and activation was observed as indicated by pupillary dilation during the decision interval of a letter matching task as higher levels of processing were performed. (SL)

  10. [Pentax-AWS Airwayscope for awake tracheal intubation in the face-to-face sitting position in an emergency patient with acute exacerbation of aortic stenosis].

    PubMed

    Seno, Hisayo; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Tatsumi, Shinichi; Ohchi, Fumihiro; Miyazaki, Yu; Minami, Toshiaki

    2014-08-01

    We report a successful awake tracheal intubation in an emergency patient with acute exacerbation of aortic stenosis using the Pentax-AWS Airwayscope (AWS). An 83-year-old woman was admitted to our emergency department for severe dyspnea due to exacerbation of aortic stenosis. Her Sp(O2) was 92-93% even after administration of 10 l x min(-1) oxygen through a reservoir-attached face mask. As she could not remain in the supine position, emergency tracheal intubation in the sitting position was required. After topical anesthesia with 8% lidocaine and careful administration of midazolam, the AWS was inserted into her mouth in the sitting, face-to-face position. The AWS allowed for visualization of the glottis and safe placement of the tracheal tube. Sufficient spontaneous ventilation was maintained during interventions with minimum vital sign changes. Awake intubation in the sitting position with the AWS may be helpful in resolving cardiovascular crisis in patients unable to maintain the supine position. PMID:25199329

  11. [Successful nasotracheal intubation with the Pentax-AWS Airwayscope and gum-elastic bougie in a patient with recurrent tongue cancer].

    PubMed

    Kitano, Manabu; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Nakahira, Junko; Fujiwara, Shunsuke; Tatsumi, Shinichi; Minami, Toshiaki

    2014-04-01

    We report our experience of successful nasotracheal intubation with a spiral tube, by using the Pentax-AWS Airwayscope (AWS) with a gum-elastic bougie (GEB) in a patient with invasive recurrent tongue cancer. The patient was a 55-year-old man who had undergone partial resection of the tongue and cervical lymphadenectomy, and was scheduled for extended resection of the tongue and larynx under general anesthesia. Sufficient mask ventilation with the head-tilt and chin-lift maneuver was achieved. We first inserted AWS gently and visualized the glottis. Next, we inserted the 15 Fr GEB through his nasal aperture and placed it in the trachea under the guidance of the AWS monitor. This allowed us to place the spiral tube uneventfully through the GEB. No evidence of bleeding or damage of the tumor was found. Nasotracheal intubation with the GEB under the guidance of the AWS monitor may be useful in cases such as those involving tongue cancer in which oral space is either narrowed or restricted. PMID:24783605

  12. Variables associated with children's physical activity levels during recess: the A-CLASS project

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background School recess provides a daily opportunity for children to engage in physically active behaviours. However, few studies have investigated what factors may influence children's physical activity levels in this context. Such information may be important in the development and implementation of recess interventions. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between a range of recess variables and children's sedentary, moderate and vigorous physical activity in this context. Methods One hundred and twenty-eight children (39% boys) aged 9-10 years old from 8 elementary schools had their physical activity levels observed during school recess using the System for Observing Children's Activity and Relationships during Play (SOCARP). Playground variables data were also collected at this time. Multilevel prediction models identified variables that were significantly associated with children's sedentary, moderate and vigorous physical activity during recess. Results Girls engaged in 13.8% more sedentary activity and 8.2% less vigorous activity than boys during recess. Children with no equipment provision during recess engaged in more sedentary activity and less moderate activity than children provided with equipment. In addition, as play space per child increased, sedentary activity decreased and vigorous activity increased. Temperature was a significant negatively associated with vigorous activity. Conclusions Modifiable and unmodifiable factors were associated with children's sedentary, moderate and vigorous physical activity during recess. Providing portable equipment and specifying areas for activities that dominate the elementary school playground during recess may be two approaches to increase recess physical activity levels, though further research is needed to evaluate the short and long-term impact of such strategies. PMID:20937142

  13. Investigation of the relationships between seismic activities and radon level in western Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tarakçı, M; Harmanşah, C; Saç, M M; İçhedef, M

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of radon activity is determined from pre-earthquake data. Analysis using Normal, Gamma, Weibull and Rayleigh distributions indicates that the variation of radon levels in seismically active regions is best described by a normal distribution. It was observed that radon levels would change in compressive fault lines prior to earthquake. Besides that it tended to increase before the earthquake and then decrease towards the time of earthquake occurrences. PMID:24215813

  14. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  15. Association between physical activity level and consumption of fruit and vegetables among adolescents in northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between low levels of physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 2,057 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years from the city of Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. We analyzed the level of physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables by standardized and validated questionnaires. The control variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, maternal education, alcohol consumption and smoking. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of low levels of physical activity was 81.9%; the inadequate consumption of fruits ocurred in 79.1% and the inadequate consumption of vegetables in 90.6%. Adolescents who consumed few fruits daily had an increase in 40% of chance of being insufficiently active and, for those who consumed few vegetable's the likelihood of being insufficiently active was 50% higher, compared to those who had adequate intake of these foods. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of physical activity were associated with inadequate fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents in a city in northeastern Brazil. These findings suggest that insufficiently active adolescents have other unhealthy behaviors that may increase the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. PMID:25887930

  16. Presenting Theoretical Ideas Prior to Inquiry Activities Fosters Theory-Level Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wecker, Christof; Rachel, Alexander; Heran-Dörr, Eva; Waltner, Christine; Wiesner, Hartmut; Fischer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In the course of inquiry activities similar to those of real scientists, learners are supposed to develop knowledge both on the level of observable phenomena and on the level of explanatory theories. However, some theories involve theoretical entities (e.g., "Weiss domains") that cannot be observed directly and therefore may be hard to…

  17. Children's Physical Activity Levels during Indoor Recess Dance Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Koufoudakis, Ryann; Beighle, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children's physical activity (PA) levels remain low, and schools are being asked to assume a leadership role in PA promotion. Research suggests outdoor recess contributes to children's overall PA levels. However, similar research is not available for indoor recess, which occurs frequently due to a variety of factors. The…

  18. Effectiveness of the Sport Education Fitness Model on Fitness Levels, Knowledge, and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; Hansen, Andrew; Scarboro, Shot; Melnic, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in fitness levels, content knowledge, physical activity levels, and participants' perceptions following the implementation of the sport education fitness model (SEFM) at a high school. Thirty-two high school students participated in 20 lessons using the SEFM. Aerobic capacity, muscular…

  19. Is the serum cholesterol-coronary heart disease relationship modified by activity level in older persons?

    PubMed

    Harris, T B; Makuc, D M; Kleinman, J C; Gillum, R F; Curb, J D; Schatzkin, A; Feldman, J J

    1991-08-01

    Although coronary heart disease remains a leading cause of death and disability in old age, the relationship of serum cholesterol level to risk of coronary heart disease in old age is controversial. Data for 2,388 white persons aged 65-74 who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (NHEFS) were examined to determine the relationship of serum cholesterol level to coronary heart disease incidence and whether activity level would modify this relationship. While there was no overall relationship between serum cholesterol level and coronary heart disease risk in either men or women, the relationship between serum cholesterol level and coronary heart disease differed within activity groups. For persons who were more active, serum cholesterol level was associated with a graded increase in risk of coronary heart disease, from 1.3 (95% CI 0.7, 2.3) in those with serum cholesterol level of 4.7-5.1 to 1.7 in those with serum cholesterol level of 6.2 mmol/L or more (95% CI 1.0, 2.7), when compared with those with serum cholesterol level below 4.7. For the least active persons, all levels of cholesterol were associated with a significant inverse relative risk, including cholesterol of 6.2 mmol/L or more (Relative risk = 0.4 (95% CI 0.2, 0.7]. These data suggest that factors such as activity level may modify the serum cholesterol-coronary heart disease association in old age. The serum cholesterol-coronary heart disease association in more active older persons resembles that seen in younger populations, whereas the association in less active persons is that of serum cholesterol level and risk of cancer or death. The modification of the serum cholesterol-coronary heart disease association by activity level may have implications for appropriate clinical management as well as appropriate design of research studies of this association. PMID:2071804

  20. Reinforcing Constructivist Teaching in Advanced Level Biochemistry through the Introduction of Case-Based Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartfield, Perry J.

    2010-01-01

    In the process of curriculum development, I have integrated a constructivist teaching strategy into an advanced-level biochemistry teaching unit. Specifically, I have introduced case-based learning activities into the teaching/learning framework. These case-based learning activities were designed to develop problem-solving skills, consolidate…

  1. Promoting Higher Level Thinking in Psychology: Is Active Learning the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Hagan, Lisa Kindelberger

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate which common instructional methods (active vs. direct) best promote higher level thinking in a psychology course. Over a 5-week period, 71 undergraduates were taught psychology using both active learning and direct instruction. Pre- and post-course assessments were coded as either higher or lower level…

  2. Taking a New Look at the Physical Activity Program on the College and University Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPoint, James D., Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Physical activity programs at the college level should aim toward: (1) maintenance of physical fitness; (2) refinement of skills; (3) introduction to new skills; and (4) development of healthy lifestyles. Innovative activity courses such as aerobic dance, weight lifting, and adventure programs are also being offered to reach these goals. (JN)

  3. The Physical Activity Levels of Preschool-Aged Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This systematic review presents research on the physical activity levels of preschool-aged children (aged 2-6 years). Thirty-nine primary studies (published 1986-2007) representing a total of 10,316 participants (5236 male and 5080 female), from seven countries are described and the physical activity behaviors of this population are considered in…

  4. Intraocular pressure (IOP) in relation to four levels of daily geomagnetic and extreme yearly solar activity.

    PubMed

    Stoupel, E; Goldenfeld, M; Shimshoni, M; Siegel, R

    1993-02-01

    The link between geomagnetic field activity (GMA), solar activity and intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy individuals was investigated. The IOP of 485 patients (970 eyes) was recorded over three nonconsecutive years (1979, 1986, 1989) which were characterized by maximal solar activity (1979, 1989) or minimal solar activity (1986). The measurements were also correlated with four categories of GMA activity: quiet (level I0), unsettled (II0), active (III0), and stormy (IV0). Participants were also differentiated by age and sex. We found that IOP was lowest on days of level IV0 (stromy) GMA. The drop in IOP concomitant with a decrease in GMA level was more significant during periods of low solar activity and in persons over 65 years of age. There was a trend towards higher IOP values on days of levels II0 and IV0 GMA in years of high solar activity. Differences between the sexes and among individuals younger than 65 years were not significant. Our results show an interesting aspect of environmental influence on the healthy population. PMID:8468099

  5. Be Your Own Hero: Activities for Middle-Level Social Studies Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benes, Clarance H.; Steinbrink, John E.

    1998-01-01

    Offers instructional activities (in the form of a three-day lesson plan and extension activities) for middle-level students that allow adolescents to recognize heroic people and actions, and then explore their own characters and behaviors for signs of courage, leadership, and sincerity. Lists resources about heroes. (SR)

  6. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  7. Activities Coordinator. A Competency-Based Curriculum Designed To Prepare Students for Entry-Level Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Curriculum Resource Center of Maine, Fairfield.

    This curriculum was developed to assist instructors in planning and implementing a comprehensive, competency-based activities program to teach students skills for entry-level jobs as activities coordinators in nursing homes or extended-care facilities for older persons. The guide contains instructional units for each task listed on the job…

  8. The Strength of Motivation and Physical Activity Level during Leisure Time among Youth in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Min-Haeng

    2004-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between the perceived strength of motivation and level of physical activity during their leisure time of youth. The randomly selected 1,097 (boys = 342, girls = 755) youth reported their duration, frequency, and intensity of physical activity and also indicated their strength of motivation in…

  9. Activity Level, Organization, and Social-Emotional Behaviors in Post-Institutionalized Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadlec, Mary Beth; Cermak, Sharon A.

    2002-01-01

    Compared activity and behaviors of 36- to 82-month-olds adopted from Romanian orphanages and with varying lengths of institutionalization (more than 6 months or less than 2 months) with those of age- and gender-matched American-born control groups. Found that each Romanian group exhibited more problems in activity level, organization, and…

  10. Individual and School-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Physical Activity in Australian School children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lucy; Maher, Carol; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Olds, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background: We attempted to determine whether there was a socioeconomic gradient in 9- to 11-year-old Australian children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and whether school facilities or policies supporting physical activity were associated with school-level socioeconomic status (SES) and MVPA. Methods: Children (N = 528) from 26…

  11. Self-Rated Activity Levels and Longevity: Evidence from a 20 Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullee, Mark A.; Coleman, Peter G.; Briggs, Roger S. J.; Stevenson, James E.; Turnbull, Joanne C.

    2008-01-01

    The study reports on factors predicting the longevity of 328 people over the age of 65 drawn from an English city and followed over 20 years. Both the reported activities score and the individual's comparative evaluation of their own level of activity independently reduced the risk of death, even when health and cognitive status were taken into…

  12. The Effect of Gambling Activities on Happiness Levels of Nursing Home Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Mark R.; Nastally, Becky L.; Waterman, Amber

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of participating in simulated gambling activities on happiness levels of 3 nursing home residents. A 4-component analysis was used to measure objective responses associated with happiness during baseline, varying durations of engagement in simulated gambling activities, and 2 follow-up periods. Results…

  13. Metal Ion Adsorption by Activated Carbons Made from Pecan Shells: Effect of Oxygen Level During Activation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural by-products represent a considerable quantity of harvested commodity crops. The use of by-products as precursors for the production of widely used adsorbents, such as activated carbons, may impart a value-added component of the overall biomass harvested. Our objective in this presenta...

  14. Feasibility and Effects of Short Activity Breaks for Increasing Preschool-Age Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Mendoza, Albert; Shitole, Sanyog; Puleo, Elaine; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We examined the effects of short bouts of structured physical activity (SBS-PA) implemented within the classroom setting as part of designated gross-motor playtime on preschoolers PA. Methods: Preschools were randomized to SBS-PA (centers, N = 5; participants, N = 141) or unstructured free playtime (UPA) (centers, N = 5; participants,…

  15. Elevated homocysteine levels in suction-induced blister fluid of active vitiligo lesions.

    PubMed

    Anbar, Tag; Zuel-Fakkar, Nehal Mohamed; Matta, Mary Fikry; Arbab, Mai Mohammed Ibrahim

    2016-02-01

    Vitiligo is the most prevalent acquired pigmentary disorder as a result of destruction of melanocytes. Several studies have reported increased serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) in vitiligo patients which may be the result of decreased Vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. In addition, homocystinuria is associated with pigmentary dilution. On the other hand, other studies reported normal serum homocysteine levels. Our aim was to study the Hcy level in active vitiligo patients both in serum and in suction blister fluid obtained from the lesional skin. A total of 30 patients with active vitiligo of both sexes and 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Sera from the blood and from lesional induced bullae were obtained from the patients and controls and were assayed for Hcy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 17. There were no significant differences in the serum levels of Hcy between patients and healthy controls, however, the increase in Hcy level was highly statistically significant in the patients' lesional induced bulla compared to the healthy controls. There was no significant difference in Hcy levels between males and females and between patients with negative or positive family histories of vitiligo. The presence of a high homocysteine level in active vitiligo lesions points to a local event occurring in this lesion, which is not reflected as an increase in the patient's serum level. PMID:26678812

  16. Level and length of cyclic solar activity during the Maunder minimum as deduced from the active-day statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, J. M.; Kovaltsov, G. A.; Usoskin, I. G.; Carrasco, V. M. S.; Gallego, M. C.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: The Maunder minimum (MM) of greatly reduced solar activity took place in 1645-1715, but the exact level of sunspot activity is uncertain because it is based, to a large extent, on historical generic statements of the absence of spots on the Sun. Using a conservative approach, we aim to assess the level and length of solar cycle during the MM on the basis of direct historical records by astronomers of that time. Methods: A database of the active and inactive days (days with and without recorded sunspots on the solar disc) is constructed for three models of different levels of conservatism (loose, optimum, and strict models) regarding generic no-spot records. We used the active day fraction to estimate the group sunspot number during the MM. Results: A clear cyclic variability is found throughout the MM with peaks at around 1655-1657, 1675, 1684, 1705, and possibly 1666, with the active-day fraction not exceeding 0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 during the core MM, for the three models. Estimated sunspot numbers are found to be very low in accordance with a grand minimum of solar activity. Conclusions: For the core MM (1650-1700), we have found that (1) A large portion of no-spot records, which correspond to the solar meridian observations, may be unreliable in the conventional database. (2) The active-day fraction remained low (below 0.3-0.4) throughout the MM, indicating the low level of sunspot activity. (3) The solar cycle appears clearly during the core MM. (4) The length of the solar cycle during the core MM appears for 9 ± 1 years, but this is uncertain. (5) The magnitude of the sunspot cycle during MM is assessed to be below 5-10 in sunspot numbers. A hypothesis of the high solar cycles during the MM is not confirmed.

  17. Physical Activity Level and Physical Functionality in Nonagenarians Compared to Individuals Aged 60–74 Years

    PubMed Central

    Frisard, Madlyn I.; Fabre, Jennifer M.; Russell, Ryan D.; King, Christina M.; DeLany, James P.; Wood, Robert H.; Ravussin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Background Functional dependence and the risks of disability increase with age. The loss of independence is thought to be partially due to a decrease in physical activity. However, in populations, accurate measurement of physical activity is challenging and may not provide information on functional impairment. Methods This study therefore assessed physical functionality and physical activity level in a group of nonagenarians (11 men/11 women; 93 ± 1 years, 66.6 ± 2.4 kg, body mass index [BMI] = 24 ± 1 kg/m2) and a group of participants aged 60–74 years (17 men/15 women; 70 ± 1 years, 83.3 ± 3.0 kg, BMI = 29 ± 1 kg/m2) from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study. Physical activity level was calculated from total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR). Physical functionality was assessed using the Reduced Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance Test (CS-PFP10). Results Nonagenarians had lower absolute ( p < .001) and adjusted ( p < .007) TEE compared to participants aged 60–74 years which was attributed to a reduction in both RMR and physical activity level. Nonagenarians also had reduced functional performance ( p < .001) which was correlated with activity level (r = 0.68, p < .001). Conclusions When compared to individuals aged 60–74 years, 73% of the reduction in TEE in nonagenarians can be attributed to a reduction in physical activity level, the remaining being accounted for by a reduction in RMR. The reduced physical activity in nonagenarians is associated with less physical functionality. This study provides the first objective comparison of physical functionality and actual levels of physical activity in older individuals. PMID:17634327

  18. Modeling the influence of temperature, water activity and water mobility on the persistence of Salmonella in low-moisture foods.

    PubMed

    Farakos, S M Santillana; Frank, J F; Schaffner, D W

    2013-09-01

    Salmonella can survive in low-moisture foods for long periods of time. Reduced microbial inactivation during heating is believed to be due to the interaction of cells and water, and is thought to be related to water activity (a(w)). Little is known about the role of water mobility in influencing the survival of Salmonella in low-moisture foods. The aim of this study was to determine how the physical state of water in low-moisture foods influences the survival of Salmonella and to use this information to develop mathematical models that predict the behavior of Salmonella in these foods. Whey protein powder of differing water mobilities was produced by pH adjustment and heat denaturation, and then equilibrated to aw levels between 0.19±0.03 and 0.54±0.02. Water mobility was determined by wide-line proton-NMR. Powders were inoculated with a four-strain cocktail of Salmonella, vacuum-sealed and stored at 21, 36, 50, 60, 70 and 80°C. Survival data was fitted to the log-linear, the Geeraerd-tail, the Weibull, the biphasic-linear and the Baranyi models. The model with the best ability to describe the data over all temperatures, water activities and water mobilities (f(test)aw and water mobility on the survival of Salmonella was evaluated using multiple linear regression. Secondary models were developed and then validated in dry non-fat dairy and grain, and low-fat peanut and cocoa products within the range of the modeled data. Water activity significantly influenced the survival of Salmonella at all temperatures, survival increasing with decreasing a(w). Water mobility did not significantly influence survival independent of a(w). Secondary models were useful in predicting the survival of Salmonella in various low-moisture foods providing a correlation of R=0.94 and an acceptable prediction performance of 81

  19. Daily activity level buffers stress-glycemia associations in older sedentary NIDDM patients.

    PubMed

    Aikens, K S; Aikens, J E; Wallander, J L; Hunt, S

    1997-08-01

    Examined glycemic associations with medical variables, activity, daily stress, and mood state in 72 older patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). On three occasions over a 2-week observation period, subjects provided measures of everyday life stress, negative mood state, and daily activities. At the end of this period, fructosamine was assayed to measure glycemic control throughout the assessment period. After controlling for medical variables (age, illness duration, body mass index, caloric intake, and activity) and the main effects of psychological factors (stress; anxious, angry, and depressed mood states), stress interacted with activity such that glycemic elevation was positively associated with stress for subjects below the activity median but not for those above the median. This was unattributable to any overall activity-related differences in fructosamine, stress, or mood. None of the mood states interacted with activity. The findings suggest that extremely low levels of activity may strengthen life stress-glycemia associations in NIDDM. PMID:9298436

  20. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

  1. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

    PubMed Central

    Smart, D R; Ritchie, K; Stark, J M; Bugbee, B

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity. PMID:11536820

  2. Activity of Proteolytic Enzymes and Level of Cystatin C in the Peripartum Period.

    PubMed

    Cyganek, Anna; Wyczalkowska-Tomasik, Aleksandra; Jarmuzek, Patrycja; Grzechocinska, Barbara; Jabiry-Zieniewicz, Zoulikha; Paczek, Leszek; Wielgos, Miroslaw

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of cathepsin B, collagenases, trypsin, and plasmin and concentration of cystatin C in serum of healthy pregnant women in peripartum period. Study Design. The study group included 45 women in uncomplicated pregnancies. Blood samples were collected in four time points. Enzyme activity was measured by spectrofluorometric method. The level of cystatin C was measured using immunonephelometric method. Results. Mean activity of cathepsin B and the level of serum cystatin C were significantly higher in the study group. Collagenase activity was significantly lower in the study group than the control group. No differences in collagenase, plasmin, and trypsin activity on each day of the peripartum period were found. Conclusion. High activity of cathepsin B and increased level of cystatin C are typical for women in late pregnancy. Those levels significantly decrease after delivery which can be associated with potential role of those markers in placental separation. The insignificant changes of cystatin C level in the peripartum period seem to exclude the possibility of using cystatin C as a marker for renal insufficiency in the peripartum period but additional research is necessary to investigate the matter further. PMID:26904684

  3. Activity of Proteolytic Enzymes and Level of Cystatin C in the Peripartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Cyganek, Anna; Wyczalkowska-Tomasik, Aleksandra; Jarmuzek, Patrycja; Grzechocinska, Barbara; Jabiry-Zieniewicz, Zoulikha; Paczek, Leszek; Wielgos, Miroslaw

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of cathepsin B, collagenases, trypsin, and plasmin and concentration of cystatin C in serum of healthy pregnant women in peripartum period. Study Design. The study group included 45 women in uncomplicated pregnancies. Blood samples were collected in four time points. Enzyme activity was measured by spectrofluorometric method. The level of cystatin C was measured using immunonephelometric method. Results. Mean activity of cathepsin B and the level of serum cystatin C were significantly higher in the study group. Collagenase activity was significantly lower in the study group than the control group. No differences in collagenase, plasmin, and trypsin activity on each day of the peripartum period were found. Conclusion. High activity of cathepsin B and increased level of cystatin C are typical for women in late pregnancy. Those levels significantly decrease after delivery which can be associated with potential role of those markers in placental separation. The insignificant changes of cystatin C level in the peripartum period seem to exclude the possibility of using cystatin C as a marker for renal insufficiency in the peripartum period but additional research is necessary to investigate the matter further. PMID:26904684

  4. Minimum Detectable Activity in gamma spectrometry and its use in low level activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Done, L; Ioan, M-R

    2016-08-01

    In this paper there are described three different algorithms of Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) calculus, and its use in high resolution gamma spectrometry. In the first part, few introductive theoretical aspects related to the MDA are presented. Further, the theory was applied to real gamma rays spectrometry measurements and the results were compared with the activities reference values. Two different gamma spectrometry systems, both of them using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors, but having different efficiencies, were used. Samples having different geometries and radionuclides content were measured. The measured samples were made by dissolving of some acids containing anthropogenic radionuclides in water, obtaining a density of 1g/cm(3). Choosing this type of matrix was done because of its high homogeneity. PMID:27172893

  5. Sources and magnitude of variability in pedometer-determined physical activity levels of youth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So-Yeun; Park, Hye-Sang

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sources of variability in habitual physical activity of children, and the minimum number of days required for estimating children’s habitual physical activity levels using pedometers. A total of 31 children wore two pedometers during five weekdays and four weekend days. A two random facet completely crossed design was conducted with two-way analysis of variances across weekdays, weekends, and weekdays and weekend days combined. Moderate/high generalizability coefficients were estimated across all days. Primary sources of variability were variance components of the person and person by day interaction. Minimum numbers of days required for estimating habitual physical activity levels using a pedometer were five during weekdays. However, estimating habitual physical activity levels during weekends, and weekdays and weekend days combined was impractical. PMID:26730388

  6. Optics and Light Activities for Teachers of all Grade Levels from Easily Obtainable Supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Richard; Hendricks, Curtis; Lucatorto, Lynn; McNeilus, Thomas; Thornton, Stephen

    2010-02-01

    Several hands-on activities in light and optics covering selected topics will be discussed in the context of home labs and how such activities can be incorporated into a distance-learning or online web-based course utilizing the latest communication technologies and the Internet. The presentation will focus on activities that can be constructed from easy to obtain supplies as well as a commercially available kit that we are having made available. Activities for teachers at the elementary level will focus on understanding light rays, shadows, and reflection from plane surfaces; at the middle school level will focus on curved mirrors and lenses, dispersion, and drawing ray diagrams; at the high school level will focus on Snell's law, the lens equation, wave interference, polarization, Young's experiment, and diffraction. A distance-learning, web-based course based on these home labs will be described. )

  7. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women.

    PubMed

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  8. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    PubMed Central

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  9. Maintaining a High Physical Activity Level Over 20 Years and Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Hankinson, Arlene L.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Bouchard, Claude; Carnethon, Mercedes; Lewis, Cora E.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Context Data supporting physical activity guidelines to prevent long-term weight gain are sparse, particularly during the period when the highest risk of weight gain occurs. Objective To evaluate the relationship between habitual activity levels and changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference over 20 years. Design, Setting, and Participants The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study is a prospective longitudinal study with 20 years of follow-up, 1985-86 to 2005-06. Habitual activity was defined as maintaining high, moderate, and low activity levels based on sex-specific tertiles of activity scores at baseline. Participants comprised a population-based multi-center cohort (Chicago, Illinois; Birmingham, Alabama; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Oakland, California) of 3554 men and women aged 18 to 30 years at baseline. Main Outcome Measures Average annual changes in BMI and waist circumference Results Over 20 years, maintaining high levels of activity was associated with smaller gains in BMI and waist circumference compared with low activity levels after adjustment for race, baseline BMI, age, education, cigarette smoking status, alcohol use, and energy intake. Men maintaining high activity gained 2.6 fewer kilograms (+ 0.15 BMI units per year; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.18 vs +0.20 in the lower activity group; 95% CI, 0.17-0.23) and women maintaining higher activity gained 6.1 fewer kilograms (+0.17 BMI units per year; 95 % CI, 0.12-0.21 vs. +0.30 in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.25-0.34). Men maintaining high activity gained 3.1 fewer centimeters in waist circumference (+0.52 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.43-0.61 cm vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75) and women maintaining higher activity gained 3.8 fewer centimeters (+0.49 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.39-0.58 vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75). Conclusion Maintaining high activity levels through young adulthood may lessen

  10. Water permeation through Nafion membranes: the role of water activity.

    PubMed

    Majsztrik, Paul; Bocarsly, Andrew; Benziger, Jay

    2008-12-25

    The permeation of water through 1100 equivalent weight Nation membranes has been measured for film thicknesses of 51-254 microm, temperatures of 30-80 degrees C, and water activities (a(w)) from 0.3 to 1 (liquid water). Water permeation coefficients increased with water content in Nafion. For feed side water activity in the range 0 < a(w) < 0.8, permeation coefficients increased linearly with water activity and scaled inversely with membrane thickness. The permeation coefficients were independent of membrane thickness when the feed side of the membrane was in contact with liquid water (a(w) = 1). The permeation coefficient for a 127 microm thick membrane increased by a factor of 10 between contacting the feed side of the membrane to water vapor (a(w) = 0.9) compared to liquid water (a(w) = 1). Water permeation couples interfacial transport across the fluid membrane interface with water transport through the hydrophilic phase of Nafion. At low water activity the hydrophilic volume fraction is small and permeation is limited by water diffusion. The volume fraction of the hydrophilic phase increases with water activity, increasing water transport. As a(w) --> 1, the effective transport rate increased by almost an order of magnitude, resulting in a change of the limiting transport resistance from water permeation across the membrane to interfacial mass transport at the gas/membrane interface. PMID:19053672

  11. Effects of a Classroom-Based Physical Activity Program on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Tan Leng; Hannon, James; Webster, Collin Andrew; Podlog, Leslie William; Brusseau, Timothy; Newton, Maria

    2014-01-01

    High levels of physical inactivity are evident among many American children. To address this problem, providing physical activity (PA) during the school day within the CSPAP framework, is one strategy to increase children's PA. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a classroom-based PA program on children's PA.…

  12. Seasonality in circadian locomotor activity and serum testosterone level in the subtropical tree sparrow (Passer montanus).

    PubMed

    Dixit, Anand S; Singh, Namram S

    2016-05-01

    Seasonality in daily locomotor activity pattern was investigated in the subtropical tree sparrow by exposing a group of birds to natural day lengths (NDL) for 30days and another group to 12L/12D for 14days followed by transfer to constant dim light (LLdim) for another 15days in four different seasons of the year. Serum testosterone levels were also measured during different seasons. Sparrows, under NDL, exhibited distinct circadian rhythmicity in their locomotor activity with almost similar general pattern in different seasons that restricted mainly to the light hours. However, they showed season-dependent differences in the characteristics of circadian locomotor activity rhythm. Birds, when exposed to 12L/12D, showed entrainment of their locomotor activity rhythm with the activity confined mainly during the light phase. Though, tau (τ) under free run conditions did not show any significant difference, the activity period varied significantly in different seasons. The highest level of testosterone was recorded in the spring season that corresponded with the maximum locomotor activity in spring months. The seasonality in daily locomotor activity correlates with the seasonal changes in testosterone levels suggesting the influence of gonadal steroids on endogenous circadian system which is indicative of adaptation of tree sparrow to local photoperiodic conditions. PMID:26945648

  13. Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Differ According to Education Level in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kankaanpää, Anna; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (2009–2011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays. PMID:27403958

  14. Physical activity levels of economically disadvantaged women living in the Olympic city of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed. PMID:26496170

  15. Does activity space size influence physical activity levels of adolescents?—A GPS study of an urban environment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nolan C.; Voss, Christine; Frazer, Amanda D.; Hirsch, Jana A.; McKay, Heather A.; Winters, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is closely linked with child and youth health, and active travel may be a solution to enhancing PA levels. Activity spaces depict the geographic coverage of one's travel. Little is known about activity spaces and PA in adolescents. Objective To explore the relation between adolescent travel (using a spatial measure of activity space size) and daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), with a focus on school days. Methods We used Global Positioning Systems to manually identify trips and generate activity spaces for each person-day; quantified by area for 39 students (13.8 ± 0.6 years, 38% female) attending high school in urban Downtown Vancouver, Canada. We assessed the association between activity space area and MVPA using multi-level regression. We calculated total, school-day and trip-based MVPA for each valid person-day (accelerometry; ≥ 600 min wear time). Results On school days, students accrued 68.2 min/day (95% CI 60.4–76.0) of MVPA. Daily activity spaces averaged 2.2 km2 (95% CI 1.3–3.0). There was no association between activity space size and school-day MVPA. Students accrued 21.8 min/day (95% CI 19.2–24.4) of MVPA during school hours, 19.4 min/day (95% CI 15.1–23.7) during travel, and 28.3 min/day (95% CI 22.3–34.3) elsewhere. Conclusion School and school travel are important sources of PA in Vancouver adolescents, irrespective of activity space area covered. PMID:26807349

  16. Moderate Levels of Activation Lead to Forgetting In the Think/No-Think Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Detre, Greg J.; Natarajan, Annamalai; Gershman, Samuel J.; Norman, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Using the think/no-think paradigm (Anderson & Green, 2001), researchers have found that suppressing retrieval of a memory (in the presence of a strong retrieval cue) can make it harder to retrieve that memory on a subsequent test. This effect has been replicated numerous times, but the size of the effect is highly variable. Also, it is unclear from a neural mechanistic standpoint why preventing recall of a memory now should impair your ability to recall that memory later. Here, we address both of these puzzles using the idea, derived from computational modeling and studies of synaptic plasticity, that the function relating memory activation to learning is U-shaped, such that moderate levels of memory activation lead to weakening of the memory and higher levels of activation lead to strengthening. According to this view, forgetting effects in the think/no-think paradigm occur when the suppressed item activates moderately during the suppression attempt, leading to weakening; the effect is variable because sometimes the suppressed item activates strongly (leading to strengthening) and sometimes it does not activate at all (in which case no learning takes place). To test this hypothesis, we ran a think/no-think experiment where participants learned word-picture pairs; we used pattern classifiers, applied to fMRI data, to measure how strongly the picture associates were activating when participants were trying not to retrieve these associates, and we used a novel Bayesian curve-fitting procedure to relate this covert neural measure of retrieval to performance on a later memory test. In keeping with our hypothesis, the curve-fitting procedure revealed a nonmonotonic relationship between memory activation (as measured by the classifier) and subsequent memory, whereby moderate levels of activation of the to-be-suppressed item led to diminished performance on the final memory test, and higher levels of activation led to enhanced performance on the final test. PMID:23499722

  17. Serum Amyloid A Circulating Levels and Disease Activity in Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Giani, Teresa; Fioravanti, Antonella; Iacoponi, Francesca; Simonini, Gabriele; Pagnini, Ilaria; Spreafico, Adriano; Chellini, Federico; Galeazzi, Mauro; Cimaz, Rolando

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between circulating levels of serum amyloid A protein (SAA) and disease activity in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Our study group included 41 JIA patients (9 male, 32 female), classified according to the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) criteria (5); 16 had polyarticular onset disease and 25 had oligoarticular onset disease. Among 25 patients with oligoarticular disease, three had extended oligoarthritis. Serum amyloid A (SAA), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in both patients and 26 healthy controls. SAA levels were higher in JIA patients versus healthy controls (p<0.001). Significant positive correlations were found between SAA and the presence of active joints (rho=0.363, p<0.05), the number of active joints (rho=0.418, p<0.05), ESR (R=0.702, p<0.05) and CRP (R=0.827, p<0.05). No significant correlations between ESR and the presence of active joints (rho=0.221, p=0.225) or between ESR and the number of active joints (rho=0.118, p=0.520) were demonstrated in JIA patients. No significant correlations were obtained between CRP and the presence of active joints (rho=0.034, p=0.855) or between CRP and the number of active joints (rho=0.033, p=0.859). We discovered a significant increase in SAA levels in JIA patients, compared to controls, and a strong positive correlation between SAA level and JIA disease activity. We also discerned SAA to be a more sensitive laboratory marker than ESR and CRP for evaluating the presence and number of active joints. We suggest that SAA can be used as an additional indicator of disease activity in JIA. PMID:22869491

  18. A pediatric correlational study of stride interval dynamics, energy expenditure and activity level.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Denine; Sejdic, Ervin; Zabjek, Karl; Chau, Tom

    2014-08-01

    The strength of time-dependent correlations known as stride interval (SI) dynamics has been proposed as an indicator of neurologically healthy gait. Most recently, it has been hypothesized that these dynamics may be necessary for gait efficiency although the supporting evidence to date is scant. The current study examines over-ground SI dynamics, and their relationship with the cost of walking and physical activity levels in neurologically healthy children aged nine to 15 years. Twenty participants completed a single experimental session consisting of three phases: 10 min resting, 15 min walking and 10 min recovery. The scaling exponent (α) was used to characterize SI dynamics while net energy cost was measured using a portable metabolic cart, and physical activity levels were determined based on a 7-day recall questionnaire. No significant linear relationships were found between a and the net energy cost measures (r < .07; p > .25) or between α and physical activity levels (r = .01, p = .62). However, there was a marked reduction in the variance of α as activity levels increased. Over-ground stride dynamics do not appear to directly reflect energy conservation of gait in neurologically healthy youth. However, the reduction in the variance of α with increasing physical activity suggests a potential exercise-moderated convergence toward a level of stride interval persistence for able-bodied youth reported in the literature. This latter finding warrants further investigation. PMID:24722770

  19. Endogenous testosterone levels are associated with neural activity in men with schizophrenia during facial emotion processing.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ellen; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Catts, Stanley V; Vercammen, Ans; White, Christopher; Gur, Raquel E; Weickert, Thomas W

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that testosterone may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia given that testosterone has been linked to cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Here, we determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels are related to neural activity in affective processing circuitry in men with schizophrenia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal changes as 32 healthy controls and 26 people with schizophrenia performed a facial emotion identification task. Whole brain analyses were performed to determine regions of differential activity between groups during processing of angry versus non-threatening faces. A follow-up ROI analysis using a regression model in a subset of 16 healthy men and 16 men with schizophrenia was used to determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels were related to neural activity. Healthy controls displayed significantly greater activation than people with schizophrenia in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). There was no significant difference in circulating testosterone levels between healthy men and men with schizophrenia. Regression analyses between activation in the IFG and circulating testosterone levels revealed a significant positive correlation in men with schizophrenia (r=.63, p=.01) and no significant relationship in healthy men. This study provides the first evidence that circulating serum testosterone levels are related to IFG activation during emotion face processing in men with schizophrenia but not in healthy men, which suggests that testosterone levels modulate neural processes relevant to facial emotion processing that may interfere with social functioning in men with schizophrenia. PMID:25796490

  20. Matrix metalloproteinase levels and gelatinolytic activity in clinically healthy and inflamed human dental pulps.

    PubMed

    Gusman, Heloisa; Santana, Ronaldo B; Zehnder, Matthias

    2002-10-01

    The role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the breakdown of pulp tissue of teeth with severe caries has not yet been directly elucidated. This study was to determine the levels of selected MMPs and the overall gelatinolytic activity in clinically healthy and inflamed human dental pulps of 29 healthy subjects, aged 10-19 yr. Seventeen pulps were collected from subjects diagnosed with symptomatic pulpitis, and 18 control pulps were obtained from 12 subjects following premolar extraction for orthodontic reasons. The levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3 and MMP-9 were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Densitometric analysis of gelatin zymograms was used to assay gelatinolytic activity in pulp supernatants. The MMP-1 levels were below the detection limit for both groups. Levels of MMP-2 and MMP-3 were significantly lower in symptomatic vs. clinically healthy pulps. In contrast, levels of MMP-9 in inflamed pulps were significantly higher than those recorded in clinically normal pulps. The overall gelatinolytic activity was elevated in inflamed pulps compared with healthy counterparts. Further, the gelatinolytic activity was positively correlated with MMP-9 levels. The data obtained suggest a key role of MMP-9 in the breakdown of inflamed human dental pulp tissue. PMID:12664465

  1. Baseline acetylcholinesterase activity and serotonin plasma levels are not associated with delirium in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, Cristiane Damiani; Salluh, Jorge; Soares, Márcio; Vuolo, Francieli; Zanatta, Francieli; Constantino, Larissa de Souza; Zugno, Alexandra Ioppi; Ritter, Cristiane; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether plasma serotonin levels or acetylcholinesterase activities determined upon intensive care unit admission could predict the occurrence of acute brain dysfunction in intensive care unit patients. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted with a sample of 77 non-consecutive patients observed between May 2009 and September 2010. Delirium was determined using the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit tool, and the acetylcholinesterase and serotonin measurements were determined from blood samples collected up to a maximum of 24 h after the admission of the patient to the intensive care unit. Results In the present study, 38 (49.6%) patients developed delirium during their intensive care unit stays. Neither serum acetylcholinesterase activity nor serotonin level was independently associated with delirium. No significant correlations of acetylcholinesterase activity or serotonin level with delirium/coma-free days were observed, but in the patients who developed delirium, there was a strong negative correlation between the acetylcholinesterase level and the number of delirium/coma-free days, indicating that higher acetylcholinesterase levels are associated with fewer days alive without delirium or coma. No associations were found between the biomarkers and mortality. Conclusions Neither serum acetylcholinesterase activity nor serotonin level was associated with delirium or acute brain dysfunction in critically ill patients. Sepsis did not modify these relationships. PMID:26340158

  2. Time sequence spectroscopy of AW UMa. The 518 nm Mg I triplet region analyzed with broadening functions

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, Slavek M.

    2015-02-01

    High-resolution spectroscopic observations of AW UMa, obtained on three consecutive nights with a median time resolution of 2.1 minutes, have been analyzed using the broadening function method in the spectral window of 22.75 nm around the 518 nm Mg i triplet region. Doppler images of the system reveal the presence of vigorous mass motions within the binary system; their presence puts into question the solid-body rotation assumption of the contact binary model. AW UMa appears to be a very tight, semi-detached binary; the mass transfer takes place from the more massive to the less massive component. The primary, a fast-rotating star with Vsini=181.4±2.5 km s{sup −1}, is covered with inhomogeneities: very slowly drifting spots and a dense network of ripples more closely participating in its rotation. The spectral lines of the primary show an additional broadening component (called the “pedestal”) that originates either in the equatorial regions, which rotate faster than the rest of the star by about 50 km s{sup −1}, or in an external disk-like structure. The secondary component appears to be smaller than predicted by the contact model. The radial velocity field around the secondary is dominated by accretion of matter transferred from (and possibly partly returned to) the primary component. The parameters of the binary are Asini=2.73±0.11 R{sub ⊙} and M{sub 1}sin{sup 3}i=1.29±0.15 M{sub ⊙}, M{sub 2}sin{sup 3}i=0.128±0.016 M{sub ⊙}. The mass ratio, q{sub sp}=M{sub 2}/M{sub 1}=0.099±0.003, while still the most uncertain among the spectroscopic elements, is substantially different from the previous numerous and mutually consistent photometric investigations which were based on the contact model. It should be studied why photometry and spectroscopy give such discrepant results and whether AW UMa is an unusual object or if only very high-quality spectroscopy can reveal the true nature of W UMa-type binaries.

  3. Arecibo and Goldstone Radar Observations of the First-Recognized Binary Near-Earth Asteroid: (385186) 1994 AW1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, James E.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Naidu, Shantanu P.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Busch, Michael W.; Ghigo, Frank d.; Kobelski, Adam; Warner, Brian D.; Springmann, Alessondra; Marshall, Sean E.; Steckloff, Jordan K.; Sharkey, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    Near-Earth asteroid (385186) 1994 AW1 was discovered at Palomar Observatory on 11 January 1994. Subsequent observations of this Amor family, Sa-class asteroid also identified it as the first candidate binary NEA, as indicated by multiple periodicities and possible mutual eclipsing/occulting events in the object’s lightcurve. On 15 July 2015 this asteroid made its closest approach to Earth since its discovery, coming within 0.065 AU (25 lunar distances), and prompting an extended observation campaign using both the JPL-Goldstone and Arecibo Observatory planetary radars. Goldstone observations covered the 14-19 July period of closest approach (0.066-0.070 AU) while the object remained below Arecibo’s observing horizon, with Arecibo picking up the observations between 20-30 July, as the object moved from 0.075 to 0.126 AU distance. At Goldstone, we were able to observe this object with range resolutions of 150 m using a Goldstone (DSS-14) to Green Bank Telescope (GBT) bistatic configuration, while at Arecibo, we conducted monostatic observations of 1994 AW1 using the 2380 MHz (12.6 cm) radar at resolutions of 30 m and 75 m.As a result, and twenty years after its discovery, these observations have confirmed the binary nature of 1994 AW1, showing the primary body to be about 600 m in diameter, the secondary body to be about half the diameter of the primary, with the two orbiting a common center of mass at a distance of about 1.2 km apart. Delay-Doppler image comparisons of the primary over the course of six nights (at 30 m resolution) confirm a lightcurve-derived rotation period of 2.518 +/- 0.002 hr, as >90% longitude coverage was achieved, revealing a slightly elongated, irregular surface morphology. Delay-Doppler images of the secondary reveal an elongated, irregular body which appears to be tidally locked, with its long axis pointed towards the primary as it orbits with a period of about 22 hr (also consistent with the lightcurve analysis). These very early

  4. Elevated serum interleukin-23 levels in ankylosing spondylitis patients and the relationship with disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Ugur, Mahir; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Melikoglu, Meltem Alkan; Baygutalp, Fatih; Altas, Elif Umay; Seferoglu, Buminhan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum interleukin-23 (IL-23) levels and ankylosing spondylitis (AS).Twenty male patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis according to the 1984 modified New York criteria for AS and twenty male healthy controls were included in this study.The demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings of the patients were recorded. Serum IL-23 levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured in both the AS and control groups. The Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity ındex (BASDAI), the Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), and the Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) were evaluated as disease activity parameters. The AS patients were divided into two subgroups as active and inactive in respect of CRP, ESR levels and BASDAI scores. The mean serum IL-23 levels of the AS and control groups were 334.45±176.54 pg/ml and 166.49±177.50 pg/ml respectively, and there was a significant difference between the groups. Correlation analysis of serum IL-23 levels with clinical and laboratory parameters showed that there were positive correlations between serum IL-23 levels and the BASDAI, BASFI scores in total, active and inactive patients and the BASMI scores in total and inactive patients and negative correlations between serum IL-23 levels and ESR in inactive patients. It was shown that altered serum IL-23 levels were related to AS disease activity. Further studies in large patient series are necessary to investigate the role of IL-23 protein in etiopathogenesis of AS. PMID:26663940

  5. Playground designs to increase physical activity levels during school recess: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Yolanda; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Backx, Karianne; Saavedra, Jose M

    2014-04-01

    School recess provides a major opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. Various studies have described strategies to increase levels of physical activity. The purpose of this systematic review is therefore to examine the interventions proposed as forms of increasing children's physical activity levels during recess. A systematic search of seven databases was made from the July 1 to July 5, 2012, leading to a final set of eight studies (a total of 2,383 subjects-599 "preschoolers" and 1,784 "schoolchildren") meeting the inclusion criteria. These studies were classified according to the intervention used: playground markings, game equipment, playground markings plus physical structures, and playground markings plus game equipment. The results of these studies indicate that the strategies analyzed do have the potential to increase physical activity levels during recess. The cumulative evidence was (a) that interventions based on playground markings, game equipment, or a combination of the two, do not seem to increase the physical activity of preschoolers and schoolchildren during recess and (ii) that interventions based on playground markings plus physical structures do increase the physical activity of schoolchildren during recess in the short to medium term. PMID:23836828

  6. Effect of Cognitive Activity Level on Duration of Post-Concussion Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Naomi J.; Mannix, Rebekah C.; O’Brien, Michael J.; Gostine, David; Collins, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of cognitive activity level on duration of post-concussion symptoms. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients who presented to a Sports Concussion Clinic within 3 weeks of injury between October 2009 and July 2011. At each visit, patients completed a scale that recorded their average level of cognitive activity since the previous visit. The product of cognitive activity level and days between visits (cognitive activity-days) was calculated and divided into quartiles. Kaplan-Meier Product Limit method was used to generate curves of symptom duration based on cognitive activity level. To adjust for other possible predictors of concussion recovery, we constructed a Cox proportional hazard model with cognitive activity-days as the main predictor. RESULTS: Of the 335 patients included in the study, 62% were male, 19% reported a loss of consciousness, and 37% reported experiencing amnesia at the time of injury. The mean age of participants was 15 years (range, 8–23) and the mean number of previous concussions was 0.76; 39% of athletes had sustained a previous concussion. The mean Post-Concussion Symptom Scale score at the initial visit was 30 (SD, 26). The overall mean duration of symptoms was 43 days (SD, 53). Of all variables assessed, only total symptom burden at initial visit and cognitive activity level were independently associated with duration of symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Increased cognitive activity is associated with longer recovery from concussion. This study supports the use of cognitive rest and adds to the current consensus opinion. PMID:24394679

  7. Raised serum level of APRIL in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: correlations with disease activity indices.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, M; Darwish, H; Darweesh, H; El-Shehaby, A; Emad, Y

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess serum APRIL levels in SLE patients versus rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and normal control and to correlate serum APRIL levels in SLE patients with disease activity indices. Serum APRIL levels was measured in 40 SLE patients, 20 patients with RA and 20 healthy volunteers who served as control group. Disease activity in SLE patients was assessed by the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) index and SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), and results were correlated with serum APRIL levels. Significantly higher serum APRIL levels was observed in SLE patients compared to RA patients and normal controls (p=0.003 and p < or = 0.001, respectively). Positive correlations were found between serum APRIL levels and total BILAG index (r=0.486 and p=0.001), BILAG musculoskeletal score (r=0.848 and p < or = 0.001) and BILAG cardiorespiratory score (r=0.326 and 0.04). Serum APRIL was higher in SLE patients compared to RA patients and normal control subjects and positively correlates with BILAG index and higher levels may be associated with musculoskeletal manifestations of the disease. APRIL antagonism could be a potential therapeutic target in SLE. PMID:20116334

  8. Physical Activity Levels and Domains Assessed by Accelerometry in German Adolescents from GINIplus and LISAplus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maia P.; Berdel, Dietrich; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is a well-known and underused protective factor for numerous health outcomes, and interventions are hampered by lack of objective data. We combined accelerometers with diaries to estimate the contributions to total activity from different domains throughout the day and week in adolescents. Methods Accelerometric and diary data from 1403 adolescents (45% male, mean age 15.6 ± 0.5 years) were combined to evaluate daily levels and domains of sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) during a typical week. Freedson’s cutoff points were applied to determine levels of activity. Total activity was broken down into school physical education (PE), school outside PE, transportation to school, sport, and other time. Results About 2/3 of adolescents’ time was spent sedentary, 1/3 in light activity, and about 5% in MVPA. Boys and girls averaged 46 (SD 22) and 38 (23) minutes MVPA per day. Adolescents were most active during leisure sport, spending about 30% of it in MVPA, followed by PE (about 20%) transport to school (14%) and either school class time or other time (3%). PE provided 5% of total MVPA, while leisure sport provided 16% and transportation to school 8%. School was the most sedentary part of the day with over 75% of time outside PE spent sedentary. Conclusions These German adolescents were typical of Europeans in showing low levels of physical activity, with significant contributions from leisure sport, transportation and school PE. Leisure sport was the most active part of the day, and participation did not vary significantly by sex, study center (region of Germany) or BMI. Transportation to school was frequent and thus accounted for a significant fraction of total MVPA. This indicates that even in a population with good access to dedicated sporting activities, frequent active transportation can add significantly to total MVPA. PMID:27010227

  9. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r2 = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r2 = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year. PMID:27293890

  10. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michael J; Schmitt, Emily E; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r (2) = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r (2) = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year. PMID:27293890

  11. Changes in cyclic GMP level and phosphodiesterase activity during follicular development in the rat ovary.

    PubMed

    Fu, C Q; Shi, F X; Zhang, Z H; Li, J R; Huang, X H; Wang, Z C

    2014-01-01

    Guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), as a second messenger, plays potential roles in ovarian functions. To elucidate the role of phosphodiesterase (PDE) in cGMP signaling during ovarian follicular development, the present study was conducted to investigate ovarian cGMP level and cGMP-PDE activity by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in postnatal rats, immature rats during gonadotropin-primed follicular development, ovulation and luteinization, adult rats during normal estrous cycle, and aged rats that spontaneously developed persistent estrus (PE). All four rat models were confirmed by histological examination of one ovary, and the other ovary was used for RIA. In postnatal rats, cGMP level was high at birth and decreased dramatically by Day 5, and then, it increased maximally at Day 10 and declined at Day 21. However, cGMP-PDE activity did not significantly change during Days 1 to 10, but increased significantly on Day 21. In immature female rats, cGMP level markedly decreased upon treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), while cGMP-PDE activity did not show any significant changes; however, ovarian cGMP level and cGMP-PDE activity increased after injection of an ovulatory dose of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for induction of ovulation and luteinization. In adult rats during normal estrous cycle, cGMP level was high on proestrus and metestrus days, while cGMP-PDE activity was high on estrus day. In PE rats, ovarian cGMP level was similar to that in adult rats on estrus and diestrus days but lower than that on proestrus and metestrus days; ovarian cGMP-PDE activity was lower than that on estrus days but similar as the other estrous cycle days. In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between ovarian cGMP level and cGMP-PDE activity during normal estrous cycles in the adult rat (r = -0.7715, N = 16, P < 0.05), but not in the postnatal rat (r = -0.1055, N = 20, P > 0.05). Together, the results of our present study indicated that ovarian

  12. A system for measuring thermal activation energy levels in silicon by thermally stimulated capacitance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrum, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    One method being used to determine energy level(s) and electrical activity of impurities in silicon is described. The method is called capacitance transient spectroscopy (CTS). It can be classified into three basic categories: the thermally stimulated capacitance method, the voltage-stimulated capacitance method, and the light-stimulated capacitance method; the first two categories are discussed. From the total change in capacitance and the time constant of the capacitance response, emission rates, energy levels, and trap concentrations can be determined. A major advantage of using CTS is its ability to detect the presence of electrically active impurities that are invisible to other techniques, such as Zeeman effect atomic absorption, and the ability to detect more than one electrically active impurity in a sample. Examples of detection of majority and minority carrier traps from gold donor and acceptor centers in silicon using the capacitance transient spectrometer are given to illustrate the method and its sensitivity.

  13. LRE2, an active human L1 element, has low level transcriptional activity and extremely low reverse transcriptase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, S.E.; Dombroski, B.A.; Sassaman, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    Previously, we found a 2 kb insertion containing a rearranged L1 element plus a unique sequence component (USC) within exon 48 of the dystrophin gene of a patient with muscular dystrophy. We used the USC to clone the precursor of this insertion, the second known {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} human L1 element. The locus LRE2 (L1 Retrotransposable Element 2) has an allele derived from the patient which matches the insertion sequence exactly. LRE2 has a perfect 13-15 bp target site duplication, 2 open reading frames (ORFs), and an unusual 21 bp truncation of the 5{prime} end in a region known to be important for L1 transcription. The truncated LRE2 promoter has about 20% of the transcriptional activity of a previously studied L1 promoter after transfection into NTera2D1 cells of a construct in which the L1 promoter drives the expression of a lacZ gene. In addition, the reverse transcriptase (RT) encoded by LRE2 is active in an in vivo pseudogene assay in yeast and an in vitro assay. However, in both assays the RT of LRE2 is 1-5% as active as that of LRE1. These data demonstrate that multiple {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} L1 elements exist in the human genome, and that active elements can have highly variable rates of transcription and reverse transcriptase activity. That the RT of LRE2 has extremely low activity suggests the possibility that retrotransposition of an L1 element may in some cases involve an RT encoded by another L1 element.

  14. Trainability of muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction: comparison between bodybuilders and nonathletes.

    PubMed

    Maeo, Sumiaki; Takahashi, Takumi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Antagonistic muscle pairs cannot be fully activated simultaneously, even with maximal effort, under conditions of voluntary co-contraction, and their muscular activity levels are always below those during agonist contraction with maximal voluntary effort (MVE). Whether the muscular activity level during the task has trainability remains unclear. The present study examined this issue by comparing the muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction for highly experienced bodybuilders, who frequently perform voluntary co-contraction in their training programs, with that for untrained individuals (nonathletes). The electromyograms (EMGs) of biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles during maximal voluntary co-contraction of elbow flexors and extensors were recorded in 11 male bodybuilders and 10 nonathletes, and normalized to the values obtained during the MVE of agonist contraction for each of the corresponding muscles (% EMGMVE). The involuntary coactivation level in antagonist muscle during the MVE of agonist contraction was also calculated. In both muscles, % EMGMVE values during the co-contraction task for bodybuilders were significantly higher (P<0.01) than those for nonathletes (biceps brachii: 66±14% in bodybuilders vs. 46±13% in nonathletes, triceps brachii: 74±16% vs. 57±9%). There was a significant positive correlation between a length of bodybuilding experience and muscular activity level during the co-contraction task (r = 0.653, P = 0.03). Involuntary antagonist coactivation level during MVE of agonist contraction was not different between the two groups. The current result indicates that long-term participation in voluntary co-contraction training progressively enhances muscular activity during maximal voluntary co-contraction. PMID:24260233

  15. Arginase activity and nitric oxide levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yüksel, Meral; Okur, Hacer Kuzu; Pelin, Zerrin; Öğünç, Ayliz Velioğlu; Öztürk, Levent

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by repetitive obstruction of the upper airways, and it is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. There have been several studies demonstrating low levels of nitric oxide in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome compared with healthy controls. In this study, we hypothesized that reduced nitric oxide levels would result in high arginase activity. Arginase reacts with L-arginine and produces urea and L-ornithine, whereas L-arginine is a substrate for nitric oxide synthase, which produces nitric oxide. METHODS: The study group consisted of 51 obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients (M/F: 43/8; mean age 49±10 years of age) and 15 healthy control subjects (M/F: 13/3; mean age 46±14 years of age). Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients were divided into two subgroups based on the presence or absence of cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide levels and arginase activity were measured via an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of serum samples. RESULTS: Serum nitric oxide levels in the control subjects were higher than in the obstructive sleep apnea patients with and without cardiovascular diseases (p<0.05). Arginase activity was significantly higher (p<0.01) in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients without cardiovascular diseases compared with the control group. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients with cardiovascular diseases had higher arginase activity than the controls (p<0.001) and the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients without cardiovascular diseases (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Low nitric oxide levels are associated with high arginase activity. The mechanism of nitric oxide depletion in sleep apnea patients suggests that increased arginase activity might reduce the substrate availability of nitric oxide synthase and thus could reduce nitric oxide levels. PMID:24714832

  16. The influence of gemfibrozil on malondialdehyde level and paraoxonase 1 activity in wistar and fisher rats.

    PubMed

    Macan, Marija; Marija, Macan; Konjevoda, Paško; Paško, Konjevoda; Lovric, Jasna; Jasna, Lovrić; Koprivanac, Marijan; Marijan, Koprivanac; Kelava, Marta; Marta, Kelava; Vrkic, Nada; Nada, Vrkić; Bradamante, Vlasta; Vlasta, Bradamante

    2011-06-01

    There are diverse experimental data about the influence of gemfibrozil (GEM) on the production of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and antioxidant enzymes. We investigated the influence of GEM treatment on the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) level in tissues of normolipidaemic Wistar and Fisher rats which is an index of lipid peroxidation. Because serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an important enzyme with specific protective function on metabolism of lipid peroxides, we examined the influence of GEM on PON1 activity in liver and serum. MDA level and enzyme activities were also determined 10 days after withdrawal of GEM treatment. The significantly increased levels of MDA in liver, kidney and heart of both rat strains were obtained after 3 weeks of GEM treatment. We propose two possibilities for the increase of MDA levels caused by GEM, induction of peroxisome proliferation and activities of enzymes that participated in occurrence of H(2)O(2) and possible reduction of enzyme activities including in H(2)O(2) metabolism. Ten days after withdrawal of GEM treatment, MDA levels in all tissue levels of both rat strains were less in comparison with GEM treatment. GEM caused a significant drop of PON1 activity in serum and liver of Fisher rats, and in liver of Wistar rats. We suggest that GEM, through induction of lipid peroxidation, caused the damage of hepatocytes with consequent reduction of PON1 synthesis. The increase in PON1 activity in serum and tissues of both rat strains 10 days after withdrawal of GEM treatment shows the fast recovery of enzyme synthesis. PMID:21223511

  17. Effect of temperature and water activity on gene expression and aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus on almond medium.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Antonia; Solfrizzo, Michele; Epifani, Filomena; Panzarini, Giuseppe; Perrone, Giancarlo

    2016-01-18

    Almonds are among the commodities at risk of aflatoxin contamination by Aspergillus flavus. Temperature and water activity are the two key determinants in pre and post-harvest environments influencing both the rate of fungal spoilage and aflatoxin production. Varying the combination of these parameters can completely inhibit or fully activate the biosynthesis of aflatoxin, so it is fundamental to know which combinations can control or be conducive to aflatoxin contamination. Little information is available about the influence of these parameters on aflatoxin production on almonds. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of different combinations of temperature (20 °C, 28 °C, and 37 °C) and water activity (0.90, 0.93, 0.96, 0.99 aw) on growth, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production and expression of the two regulatory genes, aflR and aflS, and two structural genes, aflD and aflO, of the aflatoxin biosynthetic cluster in A. flavus grown on an almond medium solidified with agar. Maximum accumulation of fungal biomass and AFB1 production was obtained at 28 °C and 0.96 aw; no fungal growth and AFB1 production were observed at 20 °C at the driest tested conditions (0.90 and 0.93 aw). At 20° and 37 °C AFB1 production was 70-90% lower or completely suppressed, depending on aw. Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR showed that the two regulatory genes (aflR and aflS) were highly expressed at maximum (28 °C) and minimum (20 °C and 37 °C) AFB1 production. Conversely the two structural genes (aflD and aflO) were highly expressed only at maximum AFB1 production (28 °C and 0.96-0.99 aw). It seems that temperature acts as a key factor influencing aflatoxin production which is strictly correlated to the induction of expression of structural biosynthesis genes (aflD and aflO), but not to that of aflatoxin regulatory genes (aflR and aflS), whose functional products are most likely subordinated to other regulatory processes acting at post-translational level

  18. [The evaluation of soil contamination with geohelminth eggs in the area of Wrocław, Poland].

    PubMed

    Perec-Matysiak, Agnieszka; Hildebrand, Joanna; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Okulewicz, Anna; Fatuła, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The main source of many zoonoses is soil contaminated with feline and canine faeces. The aim of this study was to examine the degree of soil contamination with geohelminth eggs in the area of Wrocław. Within 2006-2007 a total of 185 soil samples (parks, backyards, playgrounds and city squares) from area were collected and then examined using flotation technique in saturated sodium nitrate. The helminth eggs were found in 37 (20%) samples. The highest rate of contamination was in the city squares (38.2%). The eggs were also found in 29.1% of backyards. Parks and playgrounds with sandpits were free of any contamination. The prevalence of helminth eggs in positive samples was as follows: Toxocara spp. 3.2%, Uncinaria stenocephala 7.0%, Ancylostoma caninum 4.9% and Trichuris vulpis 4.9%. PMID:19338223

  19. [Trends of faunistic-ecological researches in the Department of Parasitology in Wrocław University].

    PubMed

    Okulewicz, Anna; Lonc, Elzbieta

    2007-01-01

    Paper deals with the results of systematic-ecological investigations of host-parasite relationships in the context of 45 year history of the Parasitological Department at the University of Wrocław. Achievements are concentrated on the presentations of new taxonomic units and rearrangement of classification of parasitic protozoans and tapeworms (J. Janiszewska), nematodes (A. Okulewicz), lice (J. Złotorzycka, E. Lonc, M. Modrzejewska). Faunistic and biometrical data of parasitic commities of fishes, birds and mammals, mainly rodents as well as the vector role of ticks and mosquitoes at Wroclaw area are also discussed. Localities of those parasites and their hosts, collected mainly from the Lower Silesia region are rearranged according to new system of physicogeographic differentiation of Poland and its regional position at biogeographical map of world. PMID:18075153

  20. Comparisons of ANS, ASME, AWS, and NFPA standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800, and related documents

    SciTech Connect

    Ankrum, A.R.; Bohlander, K.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Spiesman, J.B.

    1995-11-01

    This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ANS, ASME, AWS and NFPA standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC`s Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review.

  1. The plasmapause revisited. [Explorer 45 observation at various magnetic activity levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, N. C.; Grebowsky, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A statistical investigation is conducted concerning the plasmapause behavior observed from Explorer 45 during various levels of magnetic activity. Aspects of data handling are reported and the implications of a constant density level for a plasmapause definition are discussed. The average local time dependence of the gradient saturation events and the sharp saturation events detected on Explorer 45 is shown with the aid of graphs. Other graphs show the results of the statistical processing operations. The significance of the obtained data is discussed.

  2. The gut microbiome and degradation enzyme activity of wild freshwater fishes influenced by their trophic levels

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Han; Guo, Xianwu; Gooneratne, Ravi; Lai, Ruifang; Zeng, Cong; Zhan, Fanbin; Wang, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate gut microbiome often underpins the metabolic capability and provides many beneficial effects on their hosts. However, little was known about how host trophic level influences fish gut microbiota and metabolic activity. In this study, more than 985,000 quality-filtered sequences from 24 16S rRNA libraries were obtained and the results revealed distinct compositions and diversities of gut microbiota in four trophic categories. PCoA test showed that gut bacterial communities of carnivorous and herbivorous fishes formed distinctly different clusters in PCoA space. Although fish in different trophic levels shared a large size of OTUs comprising a core microbiota community, at the genus level a strong distinction existed. Cellulose-degrading bacteria Clostridium, Citrobacter and Leptotrichia were dominant in the herbivorous, while Cetobacterium and protease-producing bacteria Halomonas were dominant in the carnivorous. PICRUSt predictions of metagenome function revealed that fishes in different trophic levels affected the metabolic capacity of their gut microbiota. Moreover, cellulase and amylase activities in herbivorous fishes were significantly higher than in the carnivorous, while trypsin activity in the carnivorous was much higher than in the herbivorous. These results indicated that host trophic level influenced the structure and composition of gut microbiota, metabolic capacity and gut content enzyme activity. PMID:27072196

  3. The gut microbiome and degradation enzyme activity of wild freshwater fishes influenced by their trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han; Guo, Xianwu; Gooneratne, Ravi; Lai, Ruifang; Zeng, Cong; Zhan, Fanbin; Wang, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate gut microbiome often underpins the metabolic capability and provides many beneficial effects on their hosts. However, little was known about how host trophic level influences fish gut microbiota and metabolic activity. In this study, more than 985,000 quality-filtered sequences from 24 16S rRNA libraries were obtained and the results revealed distinct compositions and diversities of gut microbiota in four trophic categories. PCoA test showed that gut bacterial communities of carnivorous and herbivorous fishes formed distinctly different clusters in PCoA space. Although fish in different trophic levels shared a large size of OTUs comprising a core microbiota community, at the genus level a strong distinction existed. Cellulose-degrading bacteria Clostridium, Citrobacter and Leptotrichia were dominant in the herbivorous, while Cetobacterium and protease-producing bacteria Halomonas were dominant in the carnivorous. PICRUSt predictions of metagenome function revealed that fishes in different trophic levels affected the metabolic capacity of their gut microbiota. Moreover, cellulase and amylase activities in herbivorous fishes were significantly higher than in the carnivorous, while trypsin activity in the carnivorous was much higher than in the herbivorous. These results indicated that host trophic level influenced the structure and composition of gut microbiota, metabolic capacity and gut content enzyme activity. PMID:27072196

  4. mef2 activity levels differentially affect gene expression during Drosophila muscle development

    PubMed Central

    Elgar, Stuart J.; Han, Jun; Taylor, Michael V.

    2008-01-01

    Cell differentiation is controlled by key transcription factors, and a major question is how they orchestrate cell-type-specific genetic programs. Muscle differentiation is a well studied paradigm in which the conserved Mef2 transcription factor plays a pivotal role. Recent genomic studies have identified a large number of mef2-regulated target genes with distinct temporal expression profiles during Drosophila myogenesis. However, the question remains as to how a single transcription factor can control such diverse patterns of gene expression. In this study we used a strategy combining genomics and developmental genetics to address this issue in vivo during Drosophila muscle development. We found that groups of mef2-regulated genes respond differently to changes in mef2 activity levels: some require higher levels for their expression than others. Furthermore, this differential requirement correlates with when the gene is first expressed during the muscle differentiation program. Genes that require higher levels are activated later. These results implicate mef2 in the temporal regulation of muscle gene expression, and, consistent with this, we show that changes in mef2 activity levels can alter the start of gene expression in a predictable manner. Together these results indicate that Mef2 is not an all-or-none regulator; rather, its action is more subtle, and levels of its activity are important in the differential expression of muscle genes. This suggests a route by which mef2 can orchestrate the muscle differentiation program and contribute to the stringent regulation of gene expression during myogenesis. PMID:18198273

  5. Digestive enzyme activity and mRNA level of trypsin in embryonic redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarnatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wen; Zhao, Yunlong; Zhou, Zhongliang; An, Chuanguang; Ma, Qiang

    2008-02-01

    The digestive enzyme activity and mRNA level of trypsin during the embryonic development of Cherax quadricarinatus were analyzed using biochemical and Fluorogenic Quantitative PCR (FQ—PCR) methods. The results show that the activities of trypsin and chymotrypsin had two different change patterns. Trypsin specific activity increased rapidly in the early stages of development and still remained high in preparation for the hatch stage. However, chymotrypsin activity peaked in stage 4 of embryonic development and decreased significantly in the last stage. The mRNA level of trypsin was elevated in all stages and two peak values were observed in stages 2 and 5 respectively. The results indicate that trypsin is very important for the utilization of the yolk during embryonic development and for the assimilation of dietary protein for larvae. The gene of trypsin is probably regulated at transcriptional level. The mRNA levels of trypsin can reflect not only trypsin activity, but also the regulatory mechanism for expression of trypsin gene to a certain degree.

  6. Comparison of doubly labeled water with respirometry at low- and high-activity levels

    SciTech Connect

    Westerterp, K.R.; Brouns, F.; Saris, W.H.; ten Hoor, F.

    1988-07-01

    In previous studies the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure in free-living humans has been validated against respirometry under sedentary conditions. In the present investigation, energy expenditure is measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water and respirometry at low- and high-activity levels. Over 6 days, five subjects were measured doing mainly sedentary activities like desk work; their average daily metabolic rate was 1.40 +/- 0.09 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. Four subjects were measured twice over 3.5 days, including 2 days with heavy bicycle ergometer work, resulting in an average daily metabolic rate of 2.61 +/- 0.25 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. At the low-activity level, energy expenditures from the doubly labeled water method were on the average 1.4 +/- 3.9% (SD) larger than those from respirometry. At the high-activity level, the doubly labeled water method yielded values that were 1.0 +/- 7.0% (SD) lower than those from respirometry. Results demonstrate the utility of the doubly labeled water method for the determination of energy expenditure in the range of activity levels in daily life.

  7. Mechanisms of gas retention and release: Experimental results for Hanford waste tanks 241-AW-101 and 241-AN-103

    SciTech Connect

    Rassat, S.D.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Bredt, P.R.; Mahoney, L.A.; Forbes, S.V.; Tingey, S.M.

    1997-09-01

    The 177 storage tanks at Hanford contain a vast array of radioactive waste forms resulting, primarily, from nuclear materials processing. Through radiolytic, thermal, and other decomposition reactions of waste components, gaseous species including hydrogen, ammonia, and the oxidizer nitrous oxide are generated within the waste tanks. Many of these tanks are known to retain and periodically release quantities of these flammable gas mixtures. The primary focus of the Flammable Gas Project is the safe storage of Hanford tank wastes. To this end, we strive to develop an understanding of the mechanisms of flammable gas retention and release in Hanford tanks through laboratory investigations on actual tank wastes. These results support the closure of the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) on the safe storage of waste tanks known to retain flammable gases and support resolution of the broader Flammable Gas Safety Issue. The overall purpose of this ongoing study is to develop a comprehensive and thorough understanding of the mechanisms of flammable gas retention and release. The first objective of the current study was to classify bubble retention and release mechanisms in two previously untested waste materials from Tanks 241-AN-103 (AN-103) and 241-AW-101 (AW-101). Results were obtained for retention mechanisms, release characteristics, and the maximum gas retention. In addition, unique behavior was also documented and compared with previously studied waste samples. The second objective was to lengthen the duration of the experiments to evaluate the role of slowing bubble growth on the retention and release behavior. Results were obtained for experiments lasting from a few hours to a few days.

  8. Chronic hyperammonemia alters the circadian rhythms of corticosteroid hormone levels and of motor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahabrach, Hanan; Piedrafita, Blanca; Ayad, Abdelmalik; El Mlili, Nisrin; Errami, Mohammed; Felipo, Vicente; Llansola, Marta

    2010-05-15

    Patients with liver cirrhosis may present hepatic encephalopathy with a wide range of neurological disturbances and alterations in sleep quality and in the sleep-wake circadian rhythm. Hyperammonemia is a main contributor to the neurological alterations in hepatic encephalopathy. We have assessed, in an animal model of chronic hyperammonemia without liver failure, the effects of hyperammonemia per se on the circadian rhythms of motor activity, temperature, and plasma levels of adrenal corticosteroid hormones. Chronic hyperammonemia alters the circadian rhythms of locomotor activity and of cortisol and corticosterone levels in blood. Different types of motor activity are affected differentially. Hyperammonemia significantly alters the rhythm of spontaneous ambulatory activity, reducing strongly ambulatory counts and slightly average velocity during the night (the active phase) but not during the day, resulting in altered circadian rhythms. In contrast, hyperammonemia did not affect wheel running at all, indicating that it affects spontaneous but not voluntary activity. Vertical activity was affected only very slightly, indicating that hyperammonemia does not induce anxiety. Hyperammonemia abolished completely the circadian rhythm of corticosteroid hormones in plasma, completely eliminating the peaks of cortisol and corticosterone present in control rats at the start of the dark period. The data reported show that chronic hyperammonemia, similar to that present in patients with liver cirrhosis, alters the circadian rhythms of corticosteroid hormones and of motor activity. This suggests that hyperammonemia would be a relevant contributor to the alterations in corticosteroid hormones and in circadian rhythms in patients with liver cirrhosis. PMID:19998493

  9. Effects of zinc levels on activities of gastrointestinal enzymes in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Jing, M Y; Sun, J Y; Weng, X Y; Wang, J F

    2009-10-01

    The present study investigated the effect of different zinc (Zn) levels on activities of gastrointestinal digestive enzymes of growing rats. Four diets including Zn-adequate (ZA; 46 mg/kg, control), Zn-deficient (ZD; 3 mg/kg), high Zn supply (ZH; 234 mg/kg) and pair-fed in which animals received the ZA diet at restricted amounts reflecting feed intake of the ZD group were fed to rats for 5 weeks. Dietary Zn was supplemented with ZnO. The results showed that Zn deficiency resulted in decreases in body weight, while ZH supply stimulated growth. The activities of sucrase, lactase and lipase were unaffected by dietary Zn levels. Maltase activity, however, was reduced in ZD group and elevated in ZH group. Amylase and protease activities were depressed by zinc deficiency. However, rats fed the Zn-repletion diet displayed higher activity of pepsin, pancreatic amylase and protease. In particular, ZH supply did have no effect on intestinal hydrolases activities. The present study suggested that zinc deficiency impaired the activities of digestive enzymes and growth of animals. However, ZH supply might improve the digestion of nutrients via increasing activities of gastrointestinal hydrolase and probably enhanced animal health. PMID:19178608

  10. Interleukin 35 Synovial Fluid Levels Are Associated with Disease Activity of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Šenolt, Ladislav; Šumová, Barbora; Jandová, Romana; Hulejová, Hana; Mann, Heřman; Pavelka, Karel; Vencovský, Jiří; Filková, Mária

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study the association of systemic and local interleukin-35 (IL-35) levels in rheumatoid arthritis. Methods 37 patients with treatment naïve early RA, 49 with established RA and 29 control patients with osteoarthritis (OA) were studied. Serum and paired synovial fluid samples were analysed for IL-35. Disease activity of RA patients was assessed according to the 28-Joint Count Disease Activity Score (DAS28). Results The levels of serum IL-35 were significantly higher in patients with treatment naïve early RA compared to those with established disease and control OA subjects. In addition, serum levels of IL-35 significantly decreased 12 weeks after initiation of glucocorticoids and conventional synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs in patients with treatment naïve early RA. Synovial fluid IL-35 levels were significantly higher in RA compared to OA patients, were significantly elevated compared to serum counterparts and correlated with synovial fluid leukocyte count (r=0.412; p<0.01), serum CRP levels (r=0.362; p<0.05) and DAS28 (r=0.430, p<0.01). Conclusion This is the first study showing elevated circulating levels of IL-35 in treatment naïve early RA, its significant decrease after treatment initiation and positive association between increased synovial fluid IL-35 and disease activity in patients with long-lasting RA. PMID:26204444

  11. [Comparison of eating habits among students according to sex and level of physical activity].

    PubMed

    Łagowska, Karolina; Woźniewicz, Małgorzata; Jeszka, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate nutritional habits of high school students, depending on their sex and physical activity. The investigated population included 147 students in age of 17.5 +/- 1.5 y (girls DZ = 98, boys CH = 49) with different level of physical activity (athletes SPO, moderate physical activity UAF, low physical activity NAF). Nutritional data were obtained by FFQ and calculated for selected food-groups and generally as young healthy eating index YHEI. International IPAQ was used to determine the level of physical activity and anthropometric measured were conducted to estimated BMI and body fat status. It was indicated the YHEI in athletes was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to rest of students. Moreover, a significant difference (p < 0.05) in YHEI in DZ compared to CH was also found. The significant differences (p < 0.05) in the frequency of consumption of red meat, vegetable oil and sweetned drinks was revealed between DZ and CH adolescents. The frequency of consumption of vegetable oil, fast - foods, sweets, alcoholic drinks, energy drinks and isotonic drinks varied with the level of physical activity. Frequency of consumption of sweets negatively correlated with skinfold thickness in DZ, whereas positive correlation between consumption frequency of energy drinks, BMI and skinfold thickness was found in CH. The results show, that nutritional habits of the athletes was most approached to nutritional guidelines. CH, nutritional habits may predicted to overweight and obesity in CH group more distinctly than in DZ group. PMID:22171526

  12. Investigation of the Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Academic Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkmen, Mutlu; Ozkan, Ali; Kul, Murat; Bozkus, Taner

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship of physical activity (PA) level and healthy life-style behaviors in academic staff in Bartin University, Turkey. The short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire was administered for the determination of physical activity level of academic staff. Their PA levels were…

  13. Endogenous cortisol level interacts with noradrenergic activation in the human amygdala.

    PubMed

    van Stegeren, Anda H; Wolf, Oliver T; Everaerd, Walter; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Rombouts, Serge A R B

    2007-01-01

    Animal studies show that high cortisol levels exert their effect on stressful task performance via modulation of the amygdala. Availability of noradrenaline in this brain region appears to be a critical prerequisite for this effect. This relationship between noradrenaline and cortisol is explained by an animal model where the amygdala constitutes a crucial region for this interaction. In humans this model has not been extensively tested so far. In a previously reported study human subjects (aged 20.93+/-2.38) were scanned using fMRI when watching sets of emotional and neutral pictures after taking the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol or placebo. Stimulus sets consisted of 92 pictures, divided in four emotional categories that ranged from neutral scenes of domestic objects (CAT1) to extremely negative scenes of mutilation or accidents (CAT4). Confrontation with arousing emotional pictures, accompanied by increased noradrenaline levels, evoked increased amygdala activation under placebo but not under betablocker condition. This new and additional analysis of this data set was carried out to determine the effect of differential endogenous cortisol levels on amygdala activation. Cortisol levels during scanning were determined using salivary samples and subjects were post hoc divided in a High (n=14) and Low cortisol group (n=14). When subjects were watching emotional stimuli, presumably associated with enhanced noradrenaline (NA) levels, amygdala activation was contrasted between the two cortisol groups. We hypothesized that emotional stimuli would elicit more amygdala activation in the High than in the Low cortisol group. Here we demonstrate indeed a significant interaction effect of the endogenous cortisol level with increasing activation in the amygdala under placebo but not under betablocker condition, thereby extending the rodent based model of a synergistic effect of the two stress hormones to the human. PMID:16884932

  14. Genistein upregulates LDLR levels via JNK-mediated activation of SREBP-2

    PubMed Central

    Kartawijaya, Medicia; Han, Hye Won; Kim, Yunhye; Lee, Seung-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Genistein has been proved in vitro and in vivo to lower LDLR level. It is also widely consumed and implicated for its anti-atherogenic effects. However, the molecular mechanism by which genistein lowers the LDL level is still unknown. Objective To understand the anti-atherogenic molecular mechanism of action, genistein was investigated for its impact on the expression of LDLR, the receptor for LDL cholesterol, and related signaling pathways in a human hepatoma cell line. Design HepG2 cell was used for the experiments. Genistein with different concentrations was diluted in media and was incubated for 24 h or more as indicated. Protein levels were measured by western blotting, and mRNA expression was detected by RT-qPCR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (CHIP) assay was used to determine protein binding levels, and luciferase assay was used to measure promoter activity. Result Genistein increased the mRNA and protein levels of LDLR in a time-dependent manner. Genistein increased the transcriptional activity of the LDLR promoter containing the reporter gene (pLDLR-luc, −805 to +50). But the sterol regulatory element deletion mutant construct failed to be activated by genistein. Genistein increased the nuclear fraction of SREBP-2 and the DNA-binding activity of SREBP-2 to LDLR promoter, as assessed by CHIP. The genistein-phosphorylated JNK inhibitor (SP600126) abolished the genistein-stimulated levels of LDLR and the nuclear SREBP-2. The addition of cholesterol up to 5 µg/mL for 24 h did not affect the effect of genistein on LDLR protein expression. Even the addition of 40 µM genistein increased the cholesterol uptake by more than 10% in the human hepatoma cell line. Conclusion Our data support the idea that genistein may have anti-atherogenic effects by activating JNK signals and SREBP-2 processing, which is followed by the upregulation of LDLR. PMID:27211318

  15. Reduced activity-dependent protein levels in a mouse model of the fragile X premutation.

    PubMed

    von Leden, Ramona E; Curley, Lindsey C; Greenberg, Gian D; Hunsaker, Michael R; Willemsen, Rob; Berman, Robert F

    2014-03-01

    Environmental enrichment results in increased levels of Fmrp in brain and increased dendritic complexity. The present experiment evaluated activity-dependent increases in Fmrp levels in the motor cortex in response to training on a skilled forelimb reaching task in the CGG KI mouse model of the fragile X premutation. Fmrp, Arc, and c-Fos protein levels were quantified by Western blot in the contralateral motor cortex of mice following training to reach for sucrose pellets with a non-preferred paw and compared to levels in the ipsilateral motor cortex. After training, all mice showed increases in Fmrp, Arc, and c-Fos protein levels in the contralateral compared to the ipsilateral hemisphere; however, the increase in CGG KI mice was less than wildtype mice. Increases in Fmrp and Arc proteins scaled with learning, whereas this relationship was not observed with the c-Fos levels. These data suggest the possibility that reduced levels of activity-dependent proteins associated with synaptic plasticity such as Fmrp and Arc may contribute to the neurocognitive phenotype reported in the CGG KI mice and the fragile X premutation. PMID:24462720

  16. Neighborhood level health risk assessment of lead paint removal activities from elevated steel bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, R.F.; Cohen, J.T.; Bowers, T.

    1999-07-01

    The New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) has adopted strict containment and monitoring procedures during paint removal activities on its bridges because of the increasing awareness about lead poisoning in children in urban environments and the potential risk of lead-based paint releases during those activities. NYCDOT owns nearly 800 bridges scattered throughout New York City. Before undertaking paint removal activities as part of its ongoing preventive maintenance and rehabilitation program, NYCDOT recently conducted an analysis to determine the public health risk posed to children living near them. The analysis the first of its kind to assess the actual public health risk potential during both routine operations and upset conditions, or accidental releases evaluated the total and incremental blood lead levels from paint removal activities on more than 5,000 children from 6 months to 6 years old. Increases in baseline blood lead levels were estimated using several models, including EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model. This model estimates steady-state blood lead levels in children, reflecting exposure to lead in multiple media over an extended period of time. Increases in lead exposure from paint removal activities in the area surrounding the bridges was estimated using EPA's Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) model to calculate ambient air and deposition levels. Potential releases from the containment and ancillary equipment used in the paint removal process were modeled based on different release scenarios ranging from routine operations to complete failure of containment. To estimate the paint removal activities' contribution to long-term exterior dust lead levels (and its related interior component), a stochastic simulation model was developed for each block in the study area.

  17. Activity engagement is related to level, but not change in cognitive ability across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bielak, Allison A M; Anstey, Kaarin J; Christensen, Helen; Windsor, Tim D

    2012-03-01

    It is unclear whether the longitudinal relation between activity participation and cognitive ability is due to preserved differentiation (active individuals have higher initial levels of cognitive ability), or differential preservation (active individuals show less negative change across time). This distinction has never been evaluated after dividing time-varying activity into its two sources of variation: between-person and within-person variability. Further, few studies have investigated how the association between activity participation and cognitive ability may differ from early to older adulthood. Using the PATH Through Life Project, we evaluated whether between- and within-person variation in activity participation was associated with cognitive ability and change within cohorts aged 20-24 years, 40-44 years, and 60-64 years at baseline (n = 7,152) assessed on three occasions over an 8-year interval. Multilevel models indicated that between-person differences in activity significantly predicted baseline cognitive ability for all age cohorts and for each assessed cognitive domain (perceptual speed, short-term memory, working memory, episodic memory, and vocabulary), even after accounting for sex, education, occupational status, and physical and mental health. In each case, greater average participation was associated with higher baseline cognitive ability. However, the size of the relationship involving average activity participation and baseline cognitive ability did not differ across adulthood. Between-person activity and within-person variation in activity level were both not significantly associated with change in cognitive test performance. Results suggest that activity participation is indeed related to cognitive ability across adulthood, but only in relation to the starting value of cognitive ability, and not change over time. PMID:21806303

  18. Force-endurance capabilities of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves at different pressure levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    The human hand is a very useful multipurpose tool in all environments. However, performance capabilities are compromised considerably when gloves are donned. This is especially true to extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves. The primary intent was to answer the question of how long a person can perform tasks requiring certain levels of exertion. The objective was to develop grip force-endurance relations. Six subjects participated in a factorial experiment involving three hand conditions, three pressure differentials, and four levels of force exertion. The results indicate that, while the force that could be exerted depended on the glove, pressure differential, and the level of exertion, the endurance time at any exertion level depended just on the level of exertion expressed as a percentage of maximum exertion possible at that condition. The impact of these findings for practitioners as well as theoreticians is discussed.

  19. [Potential of pharmacological modulation of level and activity incretins on diabetes mellitus type 2].

    PubMed

    Spasov, A A; Chepljaeva, N I

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes data on the main approaches used for the search of biologically active compounds modulating the level and physiological activity of incretins. Currently two groups of drugs are used in clinical practice: they either replenish the deficit of incretins (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists) or inhibit the degradation processes (dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors). In addition, new groups of substances are actively searched. These include non-peptide agonists of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors, agonists/antagonists of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, the hybrid polypeptides based on glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon. PMID:26350740

  20. 77 FR 44110 - Special Conditions: Agusta S.p.A. Model AW139 and AB139 Helicopter, Installation of a Search and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Agusta S.p.A. (Agusta) Model AW139 and AB139 helicopters. These model helicopters, as modified by Agusta, will have novel or unusual design features associated with installing an optional SAR AFCS. The applicable airworthiness standards do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for this design feature. These special conditions contain......

  1. Effect of different levels of alcohol consumption on natural killer and lymphokine activated killer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Klassen, L.W.; DeVasure, J.M.; Lemley-Gillespie, S.D.; Thiele, G.M. Omaha VA Hospital, NE )

    1991-03-11

    The effect of alcohol consumption on natural killer (NK) cell activity is controversial as both increased and decreased levels have been reported. It was the purpose of this study to determine the effects of feeding BDF1 mice different levels of alcohol on NK and lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cell activity. After four-six weeks of chronic alcohol feeding, mice were sacrificed, spleen cells obtained and assayed for NK and IL-2 boosted NK activity against YAC-1 cells in a traditional {sup 51}chromium release assay. Cells were also cultured in the presence of IL-2 for five days and tested for cytolytic activity using P815 cells as targets. Cells from each group were passed over a nylon wool column and the adherent (AD) and nonadherent (NAD) populations collected and tested as above. Increased NK, 24 hour IL-2 boosted NK and 5 day LAK activity were observed only in the spleen cells obtained from mice on 20% alcohol. Also, NAD populations had a 2-4 fold higher lytic unit values (LU{sub 20}) at all levels of alcohol consumption and in all assays, as compared with the unseparated spleen cells. Analysis of cell surface markers on these three populations of cells show that there were differences in MAC-2, Asialo GM-1, Thy 1.2, B220 and NK 1.1 that may correlate with the differences observed in the cytolytic assays. These data suggest that different levels of alcohol affect the cytolytic activity of NK and LAK cells and may result from alterations in the cell subset populations.

  2. "Go4Life" exercise counseling, accelerometer feedback, and activity levels in older people.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Warren G; Kuhle, Carol L; Koepp, Gabriel A; McCrady-Spitzer, Shelly K; Levine, James A

    2014-01-01

    Older people are more sedentary than other age groups. We sought to determine if providing an accelerometer with feedback about activity and counseling older subjects using Go4Life educational material would increase activity levels. Participants were recruited from independent living areas within assisted living facilities and the general public in the Rochester, MN area. 49 persons aged 65-95 (79.5±7.0 years) who were ambulatory but sedentary and overweight participated in this randomized controlled crossover trial for one year. After a baseline period of 2 weeks, group 1 received an accelerometer and counseling using Go4Life educational material (www.Go4Life.nia.nih.gov) for 24 weeks and accelerometer alone for the next 24 weeks. Group 2 had no intervention for the first 24 weeks and then received an accelerometer and Go4Life based counseling for 24 weeks. There were no significant baseline differences between the two groups. The intervention was not associated with a significant change in activity, body weight, % body fat, or blood parameters (p>0.05). Older (80-93) subjects were less active than younger (65-79) subjects (p=0.003). Over the course of the 48 week study, an increase in activity level was associated with a decline in % body fat (p=0.008). Increasing activity levels benefits older patients. However, providing an accelerometer and a Go4Life based exercise counseling program did not result in a 15% improvement in activity levels in this elderly population. Alternate approaches to exercise counseling may be needed in elderly people of this age range. PMID:24485546

  3. [Successful double-lumen tube insertion using Pentax-AWS Airwayscope with an infant-sized intlock in a rheumatoid arthritis patient with restricted mouth opening and head tilting].

    PubMed

    Ono, Naomi; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Nakano, Shoko; Kuwamura, Ayumu; Tatsumi, Shinichi; Minami, Toshiaki

    2014-04-01

    Successful tracheal intubation with a double-lumen tube was achieved using Pentax-AWS Airwayscope (AWS) with an infant-size Intlock in a patient with restricted mouth opening and head tilting. A 78-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis was scheduled for extended thymectomy under general anesthesia, with anticipated difficult airway. Sufficient mask ventilation with the jaw-thrust maneuver was achieved. The laryngoscopic view was defined as grade III (Cormack & Lehane's classification)with Macintosh laryngoscope. The AWS with an infant-size Intlock facilitated visualization of the glottis, leading to a successful placement of a 32-Fr double-lumen tube under the guidance of the AWS image. Double-lumen tube insertion assisted by the AWS with an infant-size Intlock may be useful for difficult airway management in patients with restricted mouth opening and head tilting. PMID:24783604

  4. The contribution of walking to work to adult physical activity levels: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To objectively examine the contribution to adult physical activity levels of walking to work. Methods Employees (n = 103; 36.3 ± 11.7 years) at 17 workplaces in south-west England, who lived within 2 miles (3.2 km) of their workplace, wore Actigraph accelerometers for seven days during waking hours and carried GPS receivers during the commute to and from work. Physical activity volume (accelerometer counts per minute (cpm)) and intensity (minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) were computed overall and during the walk to work. Results Total weekday physical activity was 45% higher in participants who walked to work compared to those travelling by car (524.6. ± 170.4 vs 364.6 ± 138.4 cpm) and MVPA almost 60% higher (78.1 ± 24.9 vs 49.8 ± 25.2 minutes per day). No differences were seen in weekend physical activity, and sedentary time did not differ between the groups. Combined accelerometer and GPS data showed that walking to work contributed 47.3% of total weekday MVPA. Conclusions Walking to work was associated with overall higher levels of physical activity in young and middle-aged adults. These data provide preliminary evidence to underpin the need for interventions to increase active commuting, specifically walking, in adults. PMID:24618001

  5. Level of habitual physical activity in children and adolescents from the Region of Murcia (Spain).

    PubMed

    López Sánchez, Guillermo Felipe; González Víllora, Sixto; Díaz Suárez, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The level of physical activity of people is a very important issue internationally. The aim of this study was to analyze the level of habitual physical activity in children and adolescents from the Region of Murcia (Spain). With this purpose, the questionnaire Physician-based Assessment and Counseling for Exercise (PACE) was administered to 1055 children and adolescents (532 males and 523 females), aged between 3 and 18 years. The results showed that the sample studied does not do enough physical activity, according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization, as they do at least 60 min of physical activity only an average of 3.29 days/week (SD = 1.84). Besides, 77 % of the schoolchildren studied is inactive according to the classification of PACE questionnaire. According to sex, there are more active boys (31.2 %) than active girls (14.9 %) and, on average, boys do more physical activity than girls, almost a day more per week. PMID:27047712

  6. The effects of dopamine on antioxidant enzymes activities and reactive oxygen species levels in soybean roots

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Bruno Ribeiro; Siqueira-Soares, Rita de Cássia; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Marchiosi, Rogério; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    In the current work, we investigated the effects of dopamine, an neurotransmitter found in several plant species on antioxidant enzyme activities and ROS in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) roots. The effects of dopamine on SOD, CAT and POD activities, as well as H2O2, O2•−, melanin contents and lipid peroxidation were evaluated. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (pH 6.0), without or with 0.1 to 1.0 mM dopamine, in a growth chamber (25°C, 12 h photoperiod, irradiance of 280 μmol m−2 s−1) for 24 h. Significant increases in melanin content were observed. The levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation decreased at all concentrations of dopamine tested. The SOD activity increased significantly under the action of dopamine, while CT activity was inhibited and POD activity was unaffected. The results suggest a close relationship between a possible antioxidant activity of dopamine and melanin and activation of SOD, reducing the levels of ROS and damage on membranes of soybean roots. PMID:25482756

  7. Tadpole swimming performance and activity affected by acute exposure to sublethal levels of carbaryl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    General activity and swimming performance (i.e., sprint speed and distance) of plains leopard frog tadpoles (Rana blairi) were examined after acute exposure to three sublethal concentrations of carbaryl (3.5, 5.0, and 7.2 mg/L). Both swimming performance and spontaneous swimming activity are important for carrying out life history functions (e.g., growth and development) and for escaping from predators. Measured tadpole activity diminished by nearly 90% at 3.5 mg/L carbaryl and completely ceased at 7.2 mg/L. Sprint speed and sprint distance also decreased significantly following exposure. Carbaryl affected both swimming performance and activity after just 24 h, suggesting that 24 h may be an adequate length of exposure to determine behavioral effects on tadpoles. Slight recovery of activity levels was noted at 24 and 48 h post-exposure; no recovery of swimming performance was observed. Reduction in activity and swimming performance may result in increased predation rates and, because activity is closely associated with feeding, may result in slowed growth leading to a failure to emerge before pond drying or an indirect reduction in adult fitness. Acute exposure to sublethal toxicants such as carbaryl may not only affect immediate survival of tadpoles but also impact critical life history functions and generate changes at the local population level.

  8. Physical activity levels of adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities during physical education and recess.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chien-Yu; Liu, Chin-Wen; Chung, I Chiao; Hsu, Po-Jen

    2014-11-16

    To compare physical activity levels in adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities during physical education and recess. Forty adolescents diagnosed with intellectual disabilities (inclusive classrooms, n=20; self-contained classrooms, n=20) and 40 age-matched typically developing peers (general classrooms) participated. All participants wore an Actigraph GT1M accelerometer for 5 consecutive weekdays during school hours. Three groups of adolescents were similarly active during physical education; however, adolescents with intellectual disabilities in self-contained classrooms were less active during recess than did the other two groups. In addition, they spent less percentage of time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during recess than did the typically developing adolescents. An inclusive, structured, and supportive environment promotes physical activity engagement in adolescents with intellectual disabilities. PMID:25462518

  9. Physical Activity Levels of Non-Overweight, Overweight, and Obese Children during Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathare, Neeti; Piche, Kelly; Nicosia, Andrea; Haskvitz, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) levels of young children classified by body mass index (BMI) (non-overweight, overweight, and obese) during physical education classes. Method: Participants included 82 children (45 boys, 37 girls; 7.5 ± 1.2 years). PA was determined by the number of steps measured with…

  10. Physical Activity Levels in Coeducational and Single-Gender High School Physical Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James; Ratliffe, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of coeducational (coed) and single-gender game-play settings on the activity levels of Caucasian and African American high school physical education students. Students participated in flag football, ultimate Frisbee, and soccer units. Classes were as follows: there were two coed classes, two…

  11. Physical Activity Levels of Overweight and Nonoverweight High School Students during Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined physical activity (PA) levels of overweight and nonoverweight African American and Caucasian students (n = 198) during game play in physical education classes. Methods: Body fat percentages (%BFs) were determined using the skinfold technique and Slaughter et al prediction equations. Girls were classified as…

  12. Ethnic and Socioeconomic Comparisons of Fitness, Activity Levels, and Barriers to Exercise in High School Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane M.; Hall, Heather L.; Lock, Robyn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if high school females differed in individual measures of health-related physical fitness, barriers to exercise, or activity level based on ethnicity or socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional sample consisting of African American (28%), Hispanic (23%), and white (49%) female high school students, 46%…

  13. Environmental Influences on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels in Various Early-Learning Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderloo, Leigh M.; Tucker, Patricia; Johnson, Andrew M.; Burke, Shauna M.; Irwin, Jennifer D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to: (a) compare the physical activity (PA) levels (i.e., moderate-to-vigorous PA [MVPA] and total PA [TPA]) of preschoolers in 3 different early-learning environments (center-based childcare, home-based childcare, and full-day kindergarten [FDK]); and (b) assess which characteristics (e.g., play equipment, policies, etc.)…

  14. 7 CFR 621.40 - Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN... activities at the national level. (a) Policy development in water and related land resources is coordinated... interested USDA agencies participate in water policy development through the USDA Committee on...

  15. 7 CFR 621.40 - Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN... activities at the national level. (a) Policy development in water and related land resources is coordinated... interested USDA agencies participate in water policy development through the USDA Committee on...

  16. 7 CFR 621.40 - Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN... activities at the national level. (a) Policy development in water and related land resources is coordinated... interested USDA agencies participate in water policy development through the USDA Committee on...

  17. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Distance Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özkan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between physical activity levels and healthy life-style behaviors in distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University. In total, 526 distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University participated in this study voluntarily. The short form of International Physical…

  18. The Influence of Activation Level on Belief Bias in Relational Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Adrian P.

    2013-01-01

    A novel explanation of belief bias in relational reasoning is presented based on the role of working memory and retrieval in deductive reasoning, and the influence of prior knowledge on this process. It is proposed that belief bias is caused by the believability of a conclusion in working memory which influences its activation level, determining…

  19. Metabolic factors, adipose tissue, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in Type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) production by adipose tissue is increased in obesity, and its circulating levels are high in type 2 diabetes. PAI-1 increases cardiovascular risk by favoring clot stability, interfering with vascular remodeling, or both. We investigated in obese diabetic per...

  20. 13 CFR 120.828 - Minimum level of 504 loan activity and restrictions on portfolio concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum level of 504 loan activity and restrictions on portfolio concentrations. 120.828 Section 120.828 Business Credit and Assistance... concentrations. (a) A CDC is required to receive SBA approval of at least four 504 loan approvals during...

  1. 13 CFR 120.828 - Minimum level of 504 loan activity and restrictions on portfolio concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum level of 504 loan activity and restrictions on portfolio concentrations. 120.828 Section 120.828 Business Credit and Assistance... concentrations. (a) A CDC is required to receive SBA approval of at least four 504 loan approvals during...

  2. 13 CFR 120.828 - Minimum level of 504 loan activity and restrictions on portfolio concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum level of 504 loan activity and restrictions on portfolio concentrations. 120.828 Section 120.828 Business Credit and Assistance... concentrations. (a) A CDC is required to receive SBA approval of at least four 504 loan approvals during...

  3. META-ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL ( PAL ) DATA FOR U.S. YOUTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes analytical research undertaken by EMRB staff to obtain age- and gender-specific distributions of Physical Activity Level (PAL) values for children measured in studies published between 1990-2004 in the clinical nutrition and exercise physiology literatures. ...

  4. NEDD4 Regulates PAX7 Levels Promoting Activation of the Differentiation Program in Skeletal Muscle Precursors.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Francisco; de la Vega, Eduardo; Cabezas, Felipe; Thompson, James; Cornelison, D D W; Olwin, Bradley B; Yates, John R; Olguín, Hugo C

    2015-10-01

    The transcription factor Pax7 regulates skeletal muscle stem cell (satellite cells) specification and maintenance through various mechanisms, including repressing the activity of the muscle regulatory factor MyoD. Hence, Pax7-to-MyoD protein ratios can determine maintenance of the committed-undifferentiated state or activation of the differentiation program. Pax7 expression decreases sharply in differentiating myoblasts but is maintained in cells (re)acquiring quiescence, yet the mechanisms regulating Pax7 levels based on differentiation status are not well understood. Here we show that Pax7 levels are directly regulated by the ubiquitin-ligase Nedd4. Our results indicate that Nedd4 is expressed in quiescent and activated satellite cells, that Nedd4 and Pax7 physically interact during early muscle differentiation-correlating with Pax7 ubiquitination and decline-and that Nedd4 loss of function prevented this effect. Furthermore, even transient nuclear accumulation of Nedd4 induced a drop in Pax7 levels and precocious muscle differentiation. Consequently, we propose that Nedd4 functions as a novel Pax7 regulator, which activity is temporally and spatially controlled to modulate the Pax7 protein levels and therefore satellite cell fate. PMID:26304770

  5. Biorhythms and Activity Level of Institutionalized Mentally Retarded Persons Diagnosed Hyperactive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Michael G.

    1973-01-01

    Five hyperactive, profoundly retarded children (two male and three female), 7 to 10 years of age who played in single sex groups in a playroom designed to elicit play behavior, were monitored by a heart rate telemetry system to measure biorhythms in the children's activity level. (Author/MC)

  6. 13 CFR 120.828 - Minimum level of 504 loan activity and restrictions on portfolio concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum level of 504 loan activity and restrictions on portfolio concentrations. 120.828 Section 120.828 Business Credit and Assistance... concentrations. (a) A CDC is required to receive SBA approval of at least four 504 loan approvals during...

  7. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and juvenile idiopathic arthritis: is there an association with disease activity?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine the association between serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), to determine the prevalence of vitamin D (VD) deficiency [25(OH)D=19 ng/ml] and insufficiency [25(OH)D 20-29 ng/ml], and to determine factors associated with ...

  8. EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF VITELLOGENIN EXPRESSION IN DIFFERENT AQUATIC MESOCOSM TROPIC LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic mesocosms were dosed with an environmentally relevant concentration of 17-a-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) to study the significance of trophic status (N, P levels) on the attenuation and bioavailability of synthetic estrogens in aquatic ecosystems. Estrogenic activity was asse...

  9. Technology Enabled Active Learning (TEAL) in Introductory Physics: Impact on Genders and Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Ruey S.; Chang, Wheijen; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the impact of "Technology Enabled Active Learning" (TEAL) on students learning general physics, focusing on differences between genders and among various achievement levels. A quasi-experimental investigation was conducted on two semesters of courses offered in 2008. Data sources consisted of pre-tests, post-tests, self-report…

  10. Measuring Students' Physical Activity Levels: Validating SOFIT for Use with High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Mars, Hans; Rowe, Paul J.; Schuldheisz, Joel M.; Fox, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to validate the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) for measuring physical activity levels of high-school students. Thirty-five students (21 girls and 14 boys from grades 9-12) completed a standardized protocol including lying, sitting, standing, walking, running, curl-ups, and push-ups. Heart rates and…

  11. Associations between Adolescents' Situational Motivation and Objectively-Determined Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Weihong; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine the predictive strength of adolescents' situational motivation to their physical activity levels in physical education. Method: A total of 259 middle school students ranging from 11 to 14 years old participated in the study. Participants completed the Situational Motivation Scale in one class. Their PA levels…

  12. 7 CFR 621.40 - Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level. 621.40 Section 621.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS...

  13. 13 CFR 120.828 - Minimum level of 504 loan activity and restrictions on portfolio concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum level of 504 loan activity and restrictions on portfolio concentrations. 120.828 Section 120.828 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Requirements for Cdc Certification and Operation §...

  14. Effects of Varying Team Sizes on Physical Activity Levels of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudreault, Karen Lux; Cluphf, David; Russell, Jared; Lecheminant, James

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine physical activity levels among various team sizes for basketball and soccer in a C/UIPAP setting. Twenty-eight university physical education majors participated in the study. Participants engaged in three-on-three and five-on-five basketball and five-on-five and 11-on-11 soccer games. All games…

  15. Living in a Global Age. A Simulation Activity for Upper Elementary and Secondary Level Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    Designed to introduce concepts in international trade and global economics to upper elementary and secondary level students, this simulation activity engages students in the group task of assembling flashlights. A variety of topics can be explored, such as energy shortages, international crises, relationships between rich and poor nations, foreign…

  16. Genetic Influences on Activity Level in Early Childhood: Do Situations Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saudino, Kimberly J.; Zapfe, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Although genetic influences on individual differences in activity level (AL) are well documented, few studies have considered the etiology of AL from a contextual perspective. In the present study, cross-situational and context-specific genetic effects on individual differences in AL at age 2 were examined. The AL of 312 twin pairs (144…

  17. MILLIMETER-WAVE MEASUREMENTS OF HIGH LEVEL AND LOW ACTIVITY GLASS MELTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of the proposed multi-organizational research are to develop new real-time sensors for characterizing glass melts in high level waste (HLW) and low activity waste (LAW) melters, and to understand the scientific basis and bridge the gap between glass melt model data...

  18. Effects of an Aerobic Activity Program on the Cholesterol Levels of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Rimmer, James H.

    1997-01-01

    Reports a study that examined the effects of a 15-week aerobic activity program on high school students' cholesterol levels. Analysis of control and participating students indicated that there were significant reductions in total cholesterol in the training group. There were no significant differences between groups in high density lipoprotein…

  19. Sources of Continuity and Change in Activity Level in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2012-01-01

    Actigraphs and parent and observer ratings were used to explore genetic influences on continuity and change in activity level (AL) in early childhood. Over 300 pairs of twins wore actigraphs for a 48-hr period in the home and laboratory at ages 2 and 3. AL was genetically influenced at both ages with little evidence of differential heritability…

  20. Effects of Classroom-Based Energizers on Primary Grade Students' Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Catherine Goffreda; DiPerna, James Clyde

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the effects of classroom-based exercise breaks (Energizers; Mahar, Kenny, Shields, Scales, & Collins, 2006) on students' physical activity levels during the school day. A multiple baseline design across first grade (N = 3) and second grade (N = 3) classrooms was used to examine the effects of the…

  1. Muscular activity level during pedalling is not affected by crank inertial load.

    PubMed

    Duc, S; Villerius, V; Bertucci, W; Pernin, J N; Grappe, F

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of gear ratio (GR) and thus crank inertial load (CIL), on the activity levels of lower limb muscles. Twelve competitive cyclists performed three randomised trials with their own bicycle equipped with a SRM crankset and mounted on an Axiom ergometer. The power output ( approximately 80% of maximal aerobic power) and the pedalling cadence were kept constant for each subject across all trials but three different GR (low, medium and high) were indirectly obtained for each trial by altering the electromagnetic brake of the ergometer. The low, medium and high GR (mean +/- SD) resulted in CIL of 44 +/- 3.7, 84 +/- 6.5 and 152 +/- 17.9 kg.m(2), respectively. Muscular activity levels of the gluteus maximus (GM), the vastus medialis (VM), the vastus lateralis (VL), the rectus femoris (RF), the medial hamstrings (MHAM), the gastrocnemius (GAS) and the soleus (SOL) muscles were quantified and analysed by mean root mean square (RMS(mean)). The muscular activity levels of the measured lower limb muscles were not significantly affected when the CIL was increased approximately four fold. This suggests that muscular activity levels measured on different cycling ergometers (with different GR and flywheel inertia) can be compared among each other, as they are not influenced by CIL. PMID:16032416

  2. Determining Intensity Levels of Selected Wii Fit Activities in College Aged Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieser, Joshua D.; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda; Simonson, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the intensity of Nintendo Wii Fit games using indirect calorimetry. Twenty-five college students completed Wii Fit activity sessions at two difficulty levels within aerobics, strength, and yoga categories. Resting metabolic rate and exercise oxygen uptake were measured, and metabolic equivalents were…

  3. Early vs. non-early intervention in acute migraine-'Act when Mild (AwM)'. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of almotriptan.

    PubMed

    Goadsby, P J; Zanchin, G; Geraud, G; de Klippel, N; Diaz-Insa, S; Gobel, H; Cunha, L; Ivanoff, N; Falques, M; Fortea, J

    2008-04-01

    The study was designed to compare the response to almotriptan in migraine patients who take medication early in the course of the attack with that when medication is taken after pain has become moderate or severe. A randomized, four-arm, multicentre, multinational, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of almotriptan (12.5 mg) comparing treatment administration when pain intensity was mild and within 1 h of headache onset vs. pain that had become moderate or severe was conducted. Of 491 migraineurs enrolled, 403 were evaluable [intention-to-treat population (ITT)]. Their mean age was 38 years, 84% were female and they had a mean of 3.7 attacks/month. Of these patients, 10% did not take medication according to their randomly allocated basal pain intensity (mild or moderate/severe) and were subsequently reassigned to that group for this analysis-'Act when Mild (AwM)' group. In the almotriptan arms, 53% of mild basal pain and 38% of moderate/severe basal pain patients were pain free at 2 h (P = 0.03; primary end-point). Corresponding proportions in the placebo groups were 25% and 17% (statistically significant vs. respective almotriptan arms). Secondary end-points (ITT) were also significantly in favour of early intervention with almotriptan, both between and across treatment groups, such as sustained pain free: 45.6% vs. 30.5% (P = 0.02). Adverse events were reported in < 5% of treated patients in all groups (NS), with no serious events. Treatment with almotriptan while migraine pain is still mild provides statistically significant and clinically relevant enhancements in efficacy compared with treatment when pain has reached higher severity levels. PMID:18294251

  4. Calpain expression in lymphoid cells. Increased mRNA and protein levels after cell activation.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, R V; Goust, J M; Chakrabarti, A K; Barbosa, E; Hogan, E L; Banik, N L

    1995-02-10

    Although calpain is ubiquitously present in human tissues and is thought to play a role in demyelination, its activity is very low in resting normal lymphocytes. To determine the nature of calpain expression at the mRNA and protein levels in human lymphoid cells, we studied human T lymphocytic, B lymphocytic, and monocytic lines as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Stimulation of cells with the phorbol ester phorbol myristate acetate and the calcium ionophore A23187 resulted in increased calpain mRNA and protein expression. Calpain mRNA expression is also increased in human T cells stimulated with anti-CD3. A dissociation between the increases of RNA and protein suggested that calpain could be released from the cells; the subsequent experiments showed its presence in the extracellular environment. 5,6-Dichloro-1b-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, a reversible inhibitor of mRNA synthesis, reduced calpain mRNA levels by 50-67% and protein levels by 72-91%. Its removal resulted in resumption of both calpain mRNA and protein synthesis. Cycloheximide, a translational inhibitor, reduced calpain protein levels by 77-81% and calpain mRNA levels by 96% in activated THP-1 cells. Interferon-gamma induced calpain mRNA and protein in U-937 and THP-1 cells. Dexamethasone increased mRNA expression in THP-1 cells. Our results indicate that activation of lymphoid cells results in de novo synthesis and secretion of calpain. PMID:7852311

  5. Environmental noise levels affect the activity budget of the Florida manatee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Donaghay, Percy L.; Miller, James H.; Tyack, Peter L.

    2005-09-01

    Manatees inhabit coastal bays, lagoons, and estuaries because they are dependent on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters. Food requirements force manatees to occupy the same areas in which human activities are the greatest. Noise produced from human activities has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. This study quantifies the behavioral responses of manatees to both changing levels of ambient noise and transient noise sources. Results indicate that elevated environmental noise levels do affect the overall activity budget of this species. The proportion of time manatees spend feeding, milling, and traveling in critical habitats changed as a function of noise level. More time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behaviors of feeding and traveling, while less time was spent milling when noise levels were highest. The animals also responded to the transient noise of approaching vessels with changes in behavioral state and movements out of the geographical area. This suggests that manatees detect and respond to changes in environmental noise levels. Whether these changes legally constitute harassment and produce biologically significant effects need to be addressed with hypothesis-driven experiments and long-term monitoring. [For Animal Bioacoustics Best Student Paper Award.

  6. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Yeoh, Si Han; Wong, Chee Piau

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3 to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviors. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term. PMID:25520676

  7. Physical activity levels and functional performance in the Osteoarthritis Initiative: a graded relationship

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Dorothy D.; Song, Jing; Semanik, Pamela A.; Sharma, Leena; Chang, Rowland W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Physical activity improves function for adults with arthritis, but it is unknown if there is a graded relationship with functional benefit. We examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between self-reported physical activity and observed functional performance in adults with knee osteoarthritis. Methods The Osteoarthritis Initiative cohort included 2589 persons with knee osteoarthritis (2301 having longitudinal follow-up) aged 45 to 79 years at baseline. Two years of prospective annual functional performance was assessed from timed 20 meter walk tests. We used linear regression to estimate differences across physical activity quartiles in subsequent function (baseline and 1-year activity predicts 1- and 2-year function, respectively) adjusted for demographics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, marital status) and health factors (osteoarthritis severity, knee symptoms, knee pain, knee injury, body mass index, comorbidity, depression, smoking, alcohol use, other joint pain). Results Increasing physical activity levels had a significant graded relationship with functional performance. Adults in physical activity quartile groups, from least to most active, had average gait speed of 4.0, 4.2, 4.3, 4.5 feet/second respectively at baseline (p-value for trend <.001) and 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.5 feet/second after one year (p-value for trend <.001); increasing trends remained significant after adjusting for covariates. Findings were similar within gender and age groups. Conclusion These prospective data showed a consistent graded relationship between physical activity level and better performance in adults with knee osteoarthritis. These findings support guidelines that encourage persons with arthritis who cannot attain minimum recommended physical activity to be as active as possible. PMID:20862681

  8. Dietary selenium increases the antioxidant levels and ATPase activity in the arteries and veins of poultry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Changyu; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Jinxin; Luan, Yilin; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-07-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. It has been shown that oxidative levels and ATPase activity were involved in Se deficiency diseases in humans and mammals; however, the mechanism by how Se influences the oxidative levels and ATPase activity in the poultry vasculature is unclear. We assessed the effects of dietary Se deficiency on the oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and hydroxyl radical) and ATPase (Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, Ca(++)-ATPase, Mg(++)-ATPase, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase) activity in broiler poultry. A total of 40 broilers (1-day old) were randomly divided into a Se-deficient group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.08 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a diet containing sodium selenite at 0.20 mg/kg Se). Then, arteries and veins were collected following euthanasia when typical symptoms of Se deficiency appeared. Antioxidant indexes and ATPase activity were evaluated using standard assays in arteries and veins. The results indicated that superoxide dismutase activity in the artery according to dietary Se deficiency was significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The catalase activity in the veins and hydroxyl radical inhibition in the arteries and veins by dietary Se deficiency were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The Se-deficient group showed a significantly lower (p < 0.05) tendency in Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, Ca(++)-ATPase activity, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase activity. There were strong correlations between antioxidant indexes and Ca(++)-ATPase activity. Thus, these results indicate that antioxidant indexes and ATPases may have special roles in broiler artery and vein injuries under Se deficiency. PMID:26637493

  9. Cooking techniques improve the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in kale and red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Murador, Daniella Carisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different home cooking techniques (boiling, steaming, and stir-frying) in kale and red cabbage, on the levels of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)), and on the antioxidant activity evaluated by ABTS, ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The steaming technique resulted in a significant increase in phenolic content in kale (86.1%; p<0.001) whereas in red cabbage it was significantly reduced (34.6%; p<0.001). In the kale, steaming resulted in significant increases in antioxidant activity levels in all of the evaluation methods. In the red cabbage, boiling resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity using the ABTS assay but resulted in a significant decrease using the ORAC assay. According to the CAA assay, the stir-fried sample displayed the highest levels of antioxidant activity. PMID:26593594

  10. Tissue plasminogen activator inhibits NMDA-receptor-mediated increases in calcium levels in cultured hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Samuel D.; Lee, Tet Woo; Christie, David L.; Birch, Nigel P.

    2015-01-01

    NMDA receptors (NMDARs) play a critical role in neurotransmission, acting as essential mediators of many forms of synaptic plasticity, and also modulating aspects of development, synaptic transmission and cell death. NMDAR-induced responses are dependent on a range of factors including subunit composition and receptor location. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease that has been reported to interact with NMDARs and modulate NMDAR activity. In this study we report that tPA inhibits NMDAR-mediated changes in intracellular calcium levels in cultures of primary hippocampal neurons stimulated by low (5 μM) but not high (50 μM) concentrations of NMDA. tPA also inhibited changes in calcium levels stimulated by presynaptic release of glutamate following treatment with bicucculine/4-aminopyridine (4-AP). Inhibition was dependent on the proteolytic activity of tPA but was unaffected by α2-antiplasmin, an inhibitor of the tPA substrate plasmin, and receptor-associated protein (RAP), a pan-ligand blocker of the low-density lipoprotein receptor, two proteins previously reported to modulate NMDAR activity. These findings suggest that tPA can modulate changes in intracellular calcium levels in a subset of NMDARs expressed in cultured embryonic hippocampal neurons through a mechanism that involves the proteolytic activity of tPA and synaptic NMDARs. PMID:26500501

  11. Nicotine Related Brain Activity: The Influence Of Smoking History and Blood Nicotine Levels, an Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Rinah T.; Rohan, Michael L.; Goletiani, Nathalie; Olson, David; Peltier, MacKenzie; Renshaw, Perry F.; Mello, Nancy K.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In this study, we sought to explore brain activity in nicotine-dependent men in response to acute intravenous nicotine using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI). METHODS phMRI was used to evaluate brain activity in response to 1.5 mg/70 kg intravenous nicotine or saline. The nicotine and saline were administered on different visits. The time courses of individual subjects’ nicotine levels were used as regressors to assess neural activity relating to the infusions. The influence of Smoking history and physiological measures on the response to nicotine were also investigated. RESULTS Greater lifetime exposure to cigarette smoking was significantly correlated with higher peak serum nicotine levels. PhMRI analysis of the differential response of nicotine compared to the saline condition showed distinctive activation patterns when analyzed with a) the nicotine time course, b) nicotine time course controlling for smoking history (pack years), and c) pack years controlling for nicotine. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that smoking exposure history influences serum nicotine levels and the brain’s response to nicotine. Alterations in brain activity may be a result of vascular and neuro-adaptations involved in drug exposure and addiction. PMID:23117126

  12. Revitalisation As a Force Promoting Spatial Changes in Wrocław/ Idea Rewitalizacji Motorem Przemian Przestrzennych Wrocławia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kożan, Aldona

    2015-06-01

    The idea of revitalization, which grew out of the need to repair degraded urban spaces, has taken on a new meaning in the context of contemporary development challenges. The work includes references to the basic programme documents and strategies. It shows regeneration activities carried out in Wrocław in connection with the organization of international events, cultural and sport events, and with the improvement of spatial order. These actions contributed to the revitalization of the image of the city. The paper contains the results of these changes, the complementarity of decisions and their impact on social behaviour. Idea rewitalizacji, wyrosła z konieczności naprawy zdegradowanych przestrzeni miejskich i zniesienia konfliktów społecznych, nabrała nowego znaczenia w kontekście współczesnych wyzwań rozwojowych. Władze Wrocławia opracowały strategię i szereg dokumentów programowych, których efektem są zrealizowane przedsięwzięcia rewitalizacyjne: obiekty stanowiące infrastrukturę techniczną dla realizacji imprez sportowo - kulturalnych (Stadion Miejski Euro 2012, obiekty Hali Stulecia, rozwoju nauki: kampusy uczelni wyższych i obiekty kultury). Rewitalizacji przestrzennej zostały poddane przestrzenie publiczne miasta: ulice i place, modernizacji i rozbudowie podlegały układy i obiekty transportowe: nowy terminal lotniczy, przebudowa Dworca Głównego we Wrocławiu. Działania rewitalizacyjne wpłynęły na nowy wizerunek miasta, podniosły jakość życia i wyzwoliły nowe zachowania społeczne. Praca zawiera wyniki tych przemian, komplementarności podjętych decyzji i ich wpływu na zachowania społeczne.

  13. High Levels of Physical Activity in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Gümmer, Ricarda; Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Schag, Kathrin; Resmark, Gaby; Junne, Florian Philipp; Becker, Sandra; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin

    2015-09-01

    High level physical activity is a frequent symptom in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), influencing the development, maintenance, complications, treatment success, relapse rate and severity of the disease. Accelerometry is assumed to be an objective method to assess physical activity (PA) in AN. We aimed to review objectively measured levels of PA in AN and to give an overview for clinical practice and future research. Data were searched in PubMed and PsychINFO until April 2015 following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses statement. Twenty studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A notable heterogeneity of measurements, outcomes, participants and settings was found. Overall, HLPA is not adressed enough by current evidence. A common valid terminology of HLPA is not available, and accurate criteria of different levels of PA must be defined to create comparability of future studies. Further objective PA assessments are needed to improve treatment outcome and relapse rate. PMID:26087044

  14. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2.

    PubMed

    Mi, Huaiyu; Schreiber, Falk; Moodie, Stuart; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Luna, Augustin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sorokin, Anatoly; Villéger, Alice

    2015-01-01

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Activity Flow language represents the influences of activities among various entities within a network. Unlike SBGN PD and ER that focus on the entities and their relationships with others, SBGN AF puts the emphasis on the functions (or activities) performed by the entities, and their effects to the functions of the same or other entities. The nodes (elements) describe the biological activities of the entities, such as protein kinase activity, binding activity or receptor activity, which can be easily mapped to Gene Ontology molecular function terms. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the activities, e.g., positive influence and negative influence. Among all three languages of SBGN, AF is the closest to signaling pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge. PMID:26528563

  15. Active Monte Carlo Localization in Outdoor Terrains Using Multi-level Surface Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kümmerle, Rainer; Pfaff, Patrick; Triebel, Rudolph; Burgard, Wolfram

    In this paper we consider the problem of active mobile robot localization with range sensors in outdoor environments. In contrast to passive approaches our approach actively selects the orientation of the laser range finder to improve the localization results. It applies a particle filter to estimate the full sixdimensional state of the robot. To represent the environment we utilize multi-level surface maps which allow the robot to represent vertical structures and multiple levels. To efficiently calculate the optimal orientation for the range scanner, we apply a clustering operation on the particles and only evaluate potential orientations based on these clusters. Experimental results obtained with a mobile robot in an outdoor environment indicate that the active control of the range sensor leads to more efficient localization results.

  16. Directionality of affective priming: effects of trait anxiety and activation level.

    PubMed

    Maier, Markus A; Berner, Michael P; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2003-01-01

    Among the most influential models of automatic affective processing is the spreading activation account (Fazio, Sanbonmatsu, Powell, & Kardes, 1986). However, investigations of this model by different research groups using the pronunciation task in an affective priming paradigm yielded contradictory results. Whereas one research group reported congruency effects, another obtained reversed priming effects (contrast effects), and still another found null effects. In Experiment 1, we were able to show an influence of trait anxiety on the direction of the affective priming effect. By using a multiple priming paradigm in Experiment 2, we were able to link the occurrence of reversed priming effects to increased levels of activation of affective representations. We propose that this relation might underlie the influence of trait anxiety on the direction of affective priming effects. Both experiments indicate that automatic evaluation in an affective network is substantially moderated by personality traits and activation level. PMID:12693196

  17. Increasing Level of Leisure Physical Activity Could Reduce the Risk of Hip Fracture in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Ke; Liu, Xiao-yu; Wu, Xu-hua; Li, Xiao-liu; Xia, Qing-quan; Chen, Jiong; Yin, Xiao-fan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We carried out the study to investigate and quantitatively assess the potential association between current level of physical activity and the risk of osteoporosis hip fracture in older women. Relevant publications before October 2015 were identified using the PubMed and Ovid searching tools. A dose–response meta-analysis was carried out to combine and analysis results. Fourteen prospective studies were included in the meta-analysis. A general analysis of 9 studies showed a significant inverse relationship between increasing level of physical activity and risk of hip fracture in older women [relative risk (RR) = 0.93, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.91–0.96]. The result of a sensitivity analysis was consistent with the general analysis (RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.93–0.96). The association between increasing level of physical activity and risk of wrist fracture was not statistically significant in a general analysis of three studies (RR = 1.004, 95% CI: 0.98–1.03). A potential direct association between increasing level of physical activity and risk of wrist fracture was observed after removing 1 study with the greatest weight (RR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00–1.03). No significant publication bias was observed in our analysis. Our results show that increasing level of physical activity within an appropriate range may reduce the risk of hip fracture but not the risk of wrist fracture in older women. PMID:26986111

  18. Locally constrained active contour: a region-based level set for ovarian cancer metastasis segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianfei; Yao, Jianhua; Wang, Shijun; Linguraru, Marius George; Summers, Ronald M.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of ovarian cancer metastases is clinically useful to evaluate tumor growth and determine follow-up treatment. We present a region-based level set algorithm with localization constraints to segment ovarian cancer metastases. Our approach is established on a representative region-based level set, Chan-Vese model, in which an active contour is driven by region competition. To reduce over-segmentation, we constrain the level set propagation within a narrow image band by embedding a dynamic localization function. The metastasis intensity prior is also estimated from image regions within the level set initialization. The localization function and intensity prior force the level set to stop at the desired metastasis boundaries. Our approach was validated on 19 ovarian cancer metastases with radiologist-labeled ground-truth on contrast-enhanced CT scans from 15 patients. The comparison between our algorithm and geodesic active contour indicated that the volume overlap was 75+/-10% vs. 56+/-6%, the Dice coefficient was 83+/-8% vs. 63+/-8%, and the average surface distance was 2.2+/-0.6mm vs. 4.4+/-0.9mm. Experimental results demonstrated that our algorithm outperformed traditional level set algorithms.

  19. Comparative Serum Levels and Protective Activity of Parenterally Administered Cephalosporins in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Fare, Louis R.; Actor, Paul; Sachs, Carl; Phillips, Lillian; Joloza, MacDonald; Pauls, John F.; Weisbach, Jerry A.

    1974-01-01

    Six cephalosporin antibiotics were administered subcutaneously to mice at a level of 20 mg/kg. The serum levels of each were determined at five time intervals ranging from 5 to 120 min after dosing. Urinary recovery and the presence of active metabolites in mouse urine were determined. The peak serum levels and serum half-lives in mice were found to be positively correlated with the mean effective dose values obtained after lethal challenge with Escherichia coli. The administration of cefazolin and cephanone resulted in the highest serum level and the best protection. Good protection was obtained with cephaloridine despite somewhat lower serum levels. The cephalosporins with the acetoxy side chain (cephalothin, cephapirin, and cephacetrile) showed lower serum levels and the poorest protection. Cefazolin, cephaloridine, and cephalothin serum levels were also determined in dogs, squirrel monkeys, and rabbits. A mixed response was obtained in these species, with cefazolin peak serum levels being highest in rabbits and cephaloridine peak highest in dogs. PMID:15828185

  20. Effect of hypoxic cell radiosensitizers on glutathione level and related enzyme activities in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Noguchi, K.; Hattori, T.; Igarashi, T.; Ueno, K.; Satoh, T.; Kitagawa, H.; Hori, H.; Shibata, T.; Inayama, S.

    1985-08-19

    A comparative study of the effect of misonidazole and novel radiosensitizers on glutathione (GSH) levels and related enzyme activities in isolated rat hepatocytes was performed. Incubation of hepatocytes with 5 mM radiosensitizers led to a decrease in the intracellular GSH level. The most pronounced decrease in cellular GSH was evoked by 2,4-dinitromidazole-1-ethanol (DNIE); after incubation for only 15 min, GSH was hardly detected. DNIE-mediated GSH loss was dependent upon its concentration. DNIE reacted with GSH nonenzymatically as well as with diethylmaleate, while misonidazole and 1-methyl-2-methyl-sulfinyl-5-methoxycarbonylimidazole (KIH-3) did not. Addition of partially purified glutathione S-transferase (GST) did not enhance DNIE-mediated GSH loss in a cell-free system. DNIE inhibited glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), GST, and glutathione reductase (GSSG-R) activities in hepatocytes, while misonidazole and KIH-3 did not. GSH-Px activity assayed with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ as substrate was the most inhibited. Inhibition of GSH-Px activity assayed with cumene hydroperoxide as substrate and GST was less than that of GSH-Px assayed with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ as substrate. GSSG-R activity was decreased by DNIE, but not significantly. Incubation of purified GSH-Px with DNIE resulted in a little change in the activity when assayed with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ as substrate. 26 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  1. Circulating ADAM17 Level Reflects Disease Activity in Proteinase-3 ANCA-Associated Vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Anna; Lovric, Svjetlana; Engel, Alissa; Beese, Michaela; Wyss, Kristin; Hertel, Barbara; Park, Joon-Keun; Becker, Jan U; Kegel, Johanna; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion; Kirsch, Torsten

    2015-11-01

    ANCA-associated vasculitides are characterized by inflammatory destruction of small vessels accompanied by enhanced cleavage of membrane-bound proteins. One of the main proteases responsible for ectodomain shedding is disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17). Given its potential role in aggravating vascular dysfunction, we examined the role of ADAM17 in active proteinase-3 (PR3)-positive ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). ADAM17 concentration was significantly increased in plasma samples from patients with active PR3-AAV compared with samples from patients in remission or from other controls with renal nonvascular diseases. Comparably, plasma levels of the ADAM17 substrate syndecan-1 were significantly enhanced in active AAV. We also observed that plasma-derived ADAM17 retained its specific proteolytic activity and was partly located on extracellular microparticles. Transcript levels of ADAM17 were increased in blood samples of patients with active AAV, but those of ADAM10 or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3, which inhibits ADAMs, were not. We also performed a microRNA (miR) screen and identified miR-634 as significantly upregulated in blood samples from patients with active AAV. In vitro, miR-634 mimics induced a proinflammatory phenotype in monocyte-derived macrophages, with enhanced expression and release of ADAM17 and IL-6. These data suggest that ADAM17 has a prominent role in AAV and might account for the vascular complications associated with this disease. PMID:25788529

  2. Upper Limb Muscle and Brain Activity in Light Assembly Task on Different Load Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadry, Hilma Raimona; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md.; Taha, Zahari

    2010-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of load on upper limb muscles and brain activities in light assembly task. The task was conducted at two levels of load (Low and high). Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure upper limb muscle activities of twenty subjects. Electroencephalography (EEG) was simultaneously recorded with EMG to record brain activities from Fz, Pz, O1 and O2 channels. The EMG Mean Power Frequency (MPF) of the right brachioradialis and the left upper trapezius activities were higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task. The EMG MPF values also decrease as time increases, that reflects muscle fatigue. Mean power of the EEG alpha bands for the Fz-Pz channels were found to be higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task, while for the O1-O2 channels, they were higher on the low-load task than on the high-load task. These results indicated that the load levels effect the upper limb muscle and brain activities. The high-load task will increase muscle activities on the right brachioradialis and the left upper tapezius muscles, and will increase the awareness and motivation of the subjects. Whilst the low-load task can generate drowsiness earlier. It signified that the longer the time and the more heavy of the task, the subjects will be more fatigue physically and mentally.

  3. Small Column Ion Exchange Testing of Superlig 644 for Removal of 137Cs from Hanford Tank Waste Envelope A (Tank 241-AW-101)

    SciTech Connect

    DE Kurath; DL Blanchard; JR Bontha

    2000-07-12

    The current BNFL Inc. flow sheet for the pretreatment of the Hanford High-Level tank wastes includes the use of Superlig{reg_sign} materials for the removal of {sup 137}Cs from the aqueous fraction of the waste. The Superlig materials applicable to cesium removal include the cesium selective Superlig 632 and Superlig 644. These materials have been developed and supplied by IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Fork, UT. The work contained in this report involves testing the Superlig 644 ion exchange material in a small dual column system (15 mL each; L/D = 5.7). The sample processed was approximately 2.5 L of diluted waste [Na{sup +}] = 4.6M from Tank 241-AW-101 (Envelope A). This waste had been previously clarified in a single tube cross-flow filtration unit. All ion exchange process steps were tested including resin bed preparation, loading, feed displacement water rinse, elution and resin regeneration. During the initial run, the lag column did not perform as expected so that the {sup 137}Cs concentration in the effluent composite was above the LAW treatment limits. This required a second column run with the partially decontaminated feed that was conducted at a higher flow rate. A summary of performance measures for both runs is shown in Table S1. The Cs {lambda} values represent a measure of the effective capacity of the SL-644 resin. The Cs {lambda} of 143 for the lead column in run 1 is very similar to the value obtained by the Savannah River Technology Center during Phase 1A testing. The larger Cs {lambda} value for run 2 reflects a general trend for the effective capacity of the SL-644 material to increase as the cesium concentration decreases. The low value for the lag column during the first run indicates that it did not perform as expected. This may have been due to insufficient conditioning of the bed prior to the start of the loading step or to air in the bed that caused channeling. Equilibrium data obtained with batch contacts using the AW-101 Cs

  4. Benchmark dose approach for low-level lead induced haematogenesis inhibition and associations of childhood intelligences with ALAD activity and ALA levels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Ye, L X; Zhao, H H; Chen, J W; Zhou, Y K

    2011-04-15

    Lead (Pb) levels, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activities, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in blood, and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and coproporphyrin (CP) concentrations were measured for 318 environmental Pb exposed children recruited from an area of southeast China. The mean of blood lead (PbB) levels was 75.0μg/L among all subjects. Benchmark dose (BMD) method was conducted to present a lower PbB BMD (lower bound of BMD) of 32.4μg/L (22.7) based on ALAD activity than those based on the other three haematological indices, corresponding to a benchmark response of 1%. Childhood intelligence degrees were not associated significantly with ALAD activities or ALA levels. It was concluded that blood ALAD activity is a sensitive indicator of early haematological damage due to low-level Pb exposures for children. PMID:21334730

  5. Temporal aspects of increases in eye-neck activation levels during visually deficient near work.

    PubMed

    Richter, Hans O; Camilla, Lodin; Forsman, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    In an experimental study two levels of oculomotor load were induced via optical trial lenses. Trapezius muscle activity was measured with bipolar surface electromyography and normalized to a submaximal contraction. Sixty-six subjects with a median age of 36 (range 19-47, std 8) viewed a black and white Gabor grating (5 c/deg) for two 7-min periods monocularly through a 0 D lens or binocularly through -3.5 D lenses. The effect of time was separately regressed to EMG in two different subgroups of responders: a High-Oculomotor-Load (HOL) and a Low-Oculomotor-Load (LOL) group. A linear regression model was fitted on group level with exposure time on the x-axis and normalized trapezius muscle EMG (%RVE) on the y-axis. The slope coefficient was significantly positive in the -D blur condition for only the HOL subgroup of responders: 0.926 + Time(min 1-7) × 0.088 (p = 0.002, r(2)=0.865). There was no obvious sign of this activity to level off or to stabilize. These results suggest that professional information technology users that are exposed to a high level of oculomotor load, during extended times, are at an increased risk of exhibiting an increased trap.m. activity. PMID:22317234

  6. Superoxide dismutase activity and gene expression levels in Saudi women with recurrent miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    GHNEIM, HAZEM K.; AL-SHEIKH, YAZEED A.; ALSHEBLY, MASHAEL M.; ABOUL-SOUD, MOURAD A. M.

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and SOD2, as well as the levels of the oxidant superoxide anion (SOA) and the micronutrients zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn), were assayed in plasma, whole blood and placental tissue of non-pregnant (NP), healthy pregnant (HP) women and recurrent miscarriage (RM) patients. The results showed that SOD1 and SOD2 activities and the levels of Zn, Cu and Mn in plasma and whole blood of HP women were slightly, but significantly lower, and even more significantly decreased in RM patients compared to those observed in NP women (P<0.05 and P<0.0001, respectively). Additionally, whereas plasma SOD1 and SOD2 activities and Zn, Cu and Mn levels were significantly lower in RM patients, those of whole blood and placental tissue were significantly lower when compared to HP women (P<0.001 and P<0.0001, respectively). Concurrently, there were consistent increases of equal magnitude and statistical significance in SOA levels in all the assayed samples as identified by a comparison between the subjects. The findings thus supported oxidative metabolism and excessive reactive oxygen species generation. The resultant oxidative stress, identified in whole blood and placental tissues of RM patients, may have been a primary cause of RM. Dietary supplementation of Zn, Cu and Mn may be beneficial to these patients pre- and post-conception. PMID:26821085

  7. Children's physical activity levels during school recess: a quasi-experimental intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Ridgers, Nicola D; Stratton, Gareth; Fairclough, Stuart J; Twisk, Jos WR

    2007-01-01

    Background Recess provides a daily opportunity for children to engage in moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA). Limited research has investigated the effects of recess-based interventions on physical activity using large sample sizes whilst investigating variables that may influence the intervention effect. The aim of the study was to investigate the short-term effects of a playground markings and physical structures intervention on recess physical activity. A secondary aim was to investigate the effects of covariates on the intervention. Methods 150 boys and 147 girls were randomly selected from 26 elementary schools to wear uni-axial accelerometers that quantified physical activity every 5 seconds during recess. Fifteen schools located in deprived areas in one large urban city in England received funding through a national initiative to redesign the playground environment. Eleven schools served as matched socioeconomic controls. Data were collected at baseline and 6-weeks following playground intervention. Recess MVPA and VPA levels adjusted for pupil- and school-level covariates (baseline physical activity, age, gender, recess length, body mass index) were analysed using multilevel analyses. Results Positive but non-significant intervention effects were found for MVPA and VPA when confounding variables were added to the model. Gender was a significant predictor of recess physical activity, with boys engaging in more MVPA and VPA than girls. Significant interactions for MVPA revealed that the intervention effect was stronger for younger elementary aged school children compared to older children, and the intervention effect increased as daily recess duration increased. Conclusion The playground redesign intervention resulted in small but non-significant increases in children's recess physical activity when school and pupil level variables were added to the analyses. Changing the playground environment produced a stronger intervention

  8. Oxidized LDL levels are increased in HIV infection and may drive monocyte activation

    PubMed Central

    Zidar, David A.; Juchnowski, Steven; Ferrari, Brian; Clagett, Brian; Pilch-Cooper, Heather A.; Rose, Shawn; Rodriguez, Benigno; McComsey, Grace A.; Sieg, Scott F.; Mehta, Nehal N.; Lederman, Michael M.; Funderburg, Nicholas T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, and this risk correlates with markers of monocyte activation. We have shown that HIV is associated with a prothrombotic monocyte phenotype, which can be partially mitigated by statin therapy. We therefore explored the relationship between oxidized LDL particles and monocyte activation. Methods We performed phenotypic analysis of monocytes using flow cytometry on fresh whole blood in 54 patients with HIV and 24 controls without HIV. Plasma levels of oxLDL, soluble CD14, IL-6, soluble CD163 were measured by ELISA. In vitro experiments were performed using flow cytometry. Results Plasma levels of oxLDL were significantly increased in HIV-infection compared to controls (60.1 units vs 32.1 units, p<0.001). Monocyte expression of the oxLDL receptors, CD36 and Toll-like receptor 4, were also increased in HIV. OxLDL levels correlated with markers of monocyte activation, including soluble CD14, TF expression on inflammatory monocytes, and CD36. In vitro, stimulation with oxLDL, but not to LDL, resulted in expansion of inflammatory monocytes and increased monocyte expression of TF, recapitulating the monocyte profile we find in HIV disease. Conclusions OxLDL may contribute to monocyte activation and further study in the context of HIV disease is warranted. PMID:25647528

  9. Muscle activity, time to fatigue, and maximum task duration at different levels of production standard time

    PubMed Central

    Nur, Nurhayati Mohd; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Dahari, Mahidzal; Sanusi, Junedah

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the variations in muscle fatigue, time to fatigue, and maximum task duration at different levels of production standard time. [Methods] Twenty subjects performed repetitive tasks at three different levels of production standard time corresponding to “normal”, “hard” and “very hard”. Surface electromyography was used to measure the muscle activity. [Results] The results showed that muscle activity was significantly affected by the production standard time level. Muscle activity increased twice in percentage as the production standard time shifted from hard to very hard (6.9% vs. 12.9%). The muscle activity increased over time, indicating muscle fatigue. The muscle fatigue rate increased for the harder production standard time (Hard: 0.105; Very hard: 0.115), which indicated the associated higher risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Muscle fatigue was also found to occur earlier for hard and very hard production standard times. [Conclusion] It is recommended that the maximum task duration should not exceed 5.6, 2.9, and 2.2 hours for normal, hard, and very hard production standard times, respectively, in order to maintain work performance and minimize the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:26311974

  10. Measuring the level of activity in community built bio-ontologies.

    PubMed

    Malone, James; Stevens, Robert

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we explore the measurement of activity in ontology projects as an aspect of community ontology building. When choosing whether to use an ontology or whether to participate in its development, having some knowledge of how actively that ontology is developed is an important issue. Our knowledge of biology grows and changes and an ontology must adapt to keep pace with those changes and also adapt with respect to other ontologies and organisational principles. In essence, we need to know if there is an 'active' community involved with a project or whether a given ontology is inactive or moribund. We explore the use of additions, deletions and changes to ontology files, the regularity and frequency of releases, and the number of ontology repository updates to an ontology as the basis for measuring activity in an ontology. We present our results of this study, which show a dramatic range of activity across some of the more prominent community ontologies, illustrating very active and mature efforts through to those which appear to have become dormant for a number of possible reasons. We show that global activity within the community has remained at a similar level over the last 2 years. Measuring additions, deletions and changes, together with release frequency, appear to be useful metrics of activity and useful pointers towards future behaviour. Measuring who is making edits to ontologies is harder to capture; this raises issues of record keeping in ontology projects and in micro-credit, although we have identified one ontologist that appears influential across many community efforts; a Super-Ontologist. We also discuss confounding factors in our activity metric and discuss how it can be improved and adopted as an assessment criterion for community ontology development. Overall, we show that it is possible to objectively measure the activity in an ontology and to make some prediction about future activity. PMID:22554701

  11. A low-level activation technique for monitoring thermonuclear fusion plasma conditions.

    PubMed

    Gasparro, Joël; Hult, Mikael; Bonheure, Georges; Johnston, Peter N

    2006-01-01

    Optimisation of the confinement and sustainability of a thermonuclear plasma requires methods to monitor processes in the plasma. In this work three materials were used as activation targets (Ti, MgF2 and a TiVAl compound). They were placed inside the joint European Torus (JET) vacuum chamber. Certain gamma-ray emitting radionuclides (7Be, 54Mn, 56Co, 57Co, 58Co and 46Sc) were measured using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in an underground laboratory 1-2 months after activation. They were found to arise from neutron activation of bulk sample material and surface contaminants sputtered from other Tokamak parts. Decision thresholds for some activation products were determined in order to aid in giving upper bounds for the flux of charged particles. PMID:16580838

  12. Monocyte activation is a feature of common variable immunodeficiency irrespective of plasma lipopolysaccharide levels

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, R R; Silva, S P; Silva, S L; Tendeiro, R; Melo, A C; Pedro, E; Barbosa, M P; Santos, M C P; Victorino, R M M; Sousa, A E

    2012-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID), the most frequent cause of symptomatic primary immunodeficiency, are defined by impaired antibody production. Notwithstanding, T cell activation and granulomatous manifestations represent the main causes of CVID morbidity even in patients receiving immunoglobulin (Ig) G replacement therapy. Additionally, gut pathology is a frequent feature of CVID. In this study, we investigated monocyte imbalances and their possible relationship with increased microbial translocation in CVID patients. Monocyte subsets were defined according to CD14 and CD16 expression levels and evaluated in terms of human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR), CD86 and programmed death-1 molecule ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression by flow cytometry, in parallel with the quantification of plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and serum levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14), LPS-binding protein (LBP) and anti-LPS antibodies. CVID patients (n = 31) featured significantly increased levels of serum sCD14 and an expansion of CD14brightCD16+ monocytes in direct correlation with T cell and B cell activation, the latter illustrated by the frequency of the CD21lowCD38low subset. Such alterations were not observed in patients lacking B cells due to congenital agammaglobulinaemia (n = 4). Moreover, we found no significant increase in circulating LPS or LBP levels in CVID patients, together with a relative preservation of serum anti-LPS antibodies, in agreement with their presence in commercial IgG preparations. In conclusion, CVID was associated with monocyte imbalances that correlated directly with T cell activation markers and with B cell imbalances, without an association with plasma LPS levels. The heightened monocyte activated state observed in CVID may represent an important target for complementary therapeutic strategies. PMID:22861366

  13. Estradiol levels modulate brain activity and negative responses to psychosocial stress across the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Albert, Kimberly; Pruessner, Jens; Newhouse, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Although ovarian hormones are thought to have a potential role in the well-known sex difference in mood and anxiety disorders, the mechanisms through which ovarian hormone changes contribute to stress regulation are not well understood. One mechanism by which ovarian hormones might impact mood regulation is by mediating the effect of psychosocial stress, which often precedes depressive episodes and may have mood consequences that are particularly relevant in women. In the current study, brain activity and mood response to psychosocial stress was examined in healthy, normally cycling women at either the high or low estradiol phase of the menstrual cycle. Twenty eight women were exposed to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), with brain activity determined through functional magnetic resonance imaging, and behavioral response assessed with subjective mood and stress measures. Brain activity responses to psychosocial stress differed between women in the low versus high estrogen phase of the menstrual cycle: women with high estradiol levels showed significantly less deactivation in limbic regions during psychosocial stress compared to women with low estradiol levels. Additionally, women with higher estradiol levels also had less subjective distress in response to the MIST than women with lower estradiol levels. The results of this study suggest that, in normally cycling premenopausal women, high estradiol levels attenuate the brain activation changes and negative mood response to psychosocial stress. Normal ovarian hormone fluctuations may alter the impact of psychosocially stressful events by presenting periods of increased vulnerability to psychosocial stress during low estradiol phases of the menstrual cycle. This menstrual cycle-related fluctuation in stress vulnerability may be relevant to the greater risk for affective disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder in women. PMID:26123902

  14. [Physical activity level and home blood pressure measurement: Pilot study "Acti-HTA"].

    PubMed

    Sosner, P; Ott, J; Steichen, O; Bally, S; Krummel, T; Brucker, M; Lequeux, B; Dourmap, C; Llaty, P; Le Coz, S; Baguet, S; Miranne, A; Labrunée, M; Gremeaux, V; Lopez-Sublet, M

    2015-06-01

    While physical activity (PA) is recommended for high blood pressure management, the level of PA practice of hypertensive patients remains unclear. We aimed to assess the association between the level of both PA and blood pressure of individuals consulting in 9 hypertension specialist centres. Eighty-five hypertensive patients were included (59 ± 14 years, 61% men, 12% smokers, 29% with diabetes). Following their consultation, they performed home blood pressure measurement (HBPM) over 7 days (2 in the morning+2 in the evening), they wrote in a dedicated form their daily activities to estimate the additional caloric expenditure using Acti-MET device (built from International physical Activity Questionnaire [IPAQ]). Thus, patients completed a self-administered questionnaire "score of Dijon" (distinguishing active subjects with a score>20/30, from sedentary<10/30). Subjects with normal HBPM value (<135/85 mm Hg) (55% of them) compared to those with high HBPM were older, had a non-significant trend towards higher weekly caloric expenditure (4959 ± 5045 kcal/week vs. 4048 ± 4199 kcal/week, P=0.3755) and score of Dijon (19.44 ± 5.81 vs. 18.00 ± 4.32, P=0.2094) with a higher proportion of "active" subjects (48.9% vs. 34.2%, P=0.1773). In conclusion, our results demonstrate a "tendency" to a higher level of reported PA for subjects whose hypertension was controlled. This encourages us to continue with a study that would include more subjects, which would assess PA level using an objective method such as wearing an accelerometer sensor. PMID:26047874

  15. Increased Complement C1q Level Marks Active Disease in Human Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingxia; Liu, Haiying; Zhang, Guoliang; Deng, Qunyi; Huang, Jian; Gao, Zhiliang; Zhou, Boping; Feng, Carl G.; Chen, Xinchun

    2014-01-01

    Background Complement functions as an important host defense system and complement C5 and C7 have been implicated in immunopathology of tuberculosis. However, little is known about the role of other complement components in tuberculosis. Methods Complement gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of tuberculosis patients and controls were determined using whole genome transcriptional microarray assays. The mRNA and protein levels of three C1q components, C1qA, C1qB, and C1qC, were further validated by qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The percentages of C1q expression in CD14 positive cells were determined by flow cytometry. Finally, C1qC protein level was quantified in the pleural fluid of tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis pleurisy. Results C1q expression increases significantly in the peripheral blood of patients with active tuberculosis compared to healthy controls and individuals with latent TB infection. The percentage of C1q-expressing CD14 positive cells is significantly increased in active TB patients. C1q expression in the peripheral blood correlates with sputum smear positivity in tuberculosis patients and is reduced after anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy. Notably, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that C1qC mRNA levels in peripheral blood efficiently discriminate active from latent tuberculosis infection and healthy controls. Additionally, C1qC protein level in pleural effusion shows improved power in discriminating tuberculosis from non-tuberculosis pleurisy when compared to other inflammatory markers, such as IL-6 and TNF-α. Conclusions C1q expression correlates with active disease in human tuberculosis. C1q could be a potential diagnostic marker to discriminate active tuberculosis from latent tuberculosis infection as well as tuberculosis pleurisy from non-tuberculosis pleurisy. PMID:24647646

  16. Serum matrix metalloproteinase‐3 levels correlate with disease activity in relapsing‐remitting multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kanesaka, T; Mori, M; Hattori, T; Oki, T; Kuwabara, S

    2006-01-01

    Background Adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to be relevant to the ongoing development and disappearance of areas of demyelination in the white matter of the CNS of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. This study examined whether serum matrix metalloproteinase‐3 (MMP‐3) levels correlate with disease activity in MS. Methods Serum MMP‐3 levels in 47 consecutive patients with relapsing‐remitting MS were measured by immunoassay every 4 weeks over a 15 month period. Results During the study period, 48 clinical relapses occurred. Serum MMP‐3 levels within 1 month of relapse were significantly higher than during the remission phase. Sequential analysis showed that serum MMP‐3 levels had increased transiently at the time of clinical relapse but returned to the normal range within a month. Conclusions Circulatory MMP‐3 levels are correlated with disease activity in relapsing‐remitting MS. This may contribute to the breakdown of the blood‐brain barrier at the time of relapse. PMID:16421119

  17. Variation in cyclic nucleotide levels and lysosomal enzyme activities in the irradiated rat

    SciTech Connect

    Trocha, P.J.; Catravas, G.N.

    1980-09-01

    Whole-body irradiation of rats causes not only a release of hydrolases from the lysosomes but also fluctuations in the cyclic nucleotide levels in spleen and liver tissues. Significant increases in lysosomal enzyme activities were further observed in spleen following radiation treatment. At 3 to 6 hr after rats were exposed to ..gamma.. radiation, transient increases in both cGMP and cAMP levels were accompanied with the release of ..beta..-glucuronidase and acid phosphatase enzymes from lysosomes in liver and spleen tissues. A second transitory release and activation of lysosomal hydrolases and an increase in cAMP levels occurred between 2 and 5 days after irradiation in spleen but not in liver. On Days 7 and 8, there was a third release of lysosomal hydrolases and a slight increase in the spleen cAMP concentration before they returned to near-control values. Cyclic GMP levels in the spleen decreased on the third day after irradiation, remained suppressed until Day 9, and then increased to levels higher than normal physiological values. The liver cGMP concentration remained unchanged between 9 hr and 11 days after irradiation.

  18. At High Levels, Constitutively Activated STAT3 Induces Apoptosis of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Rozovski, Uri; Harris, David M; Li, Ping; Liu, Zhiming; Wu, Ji Yuan; Grgurevic, Srdana; Faderl, Stefan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Wierda, William G; Martinez, Matthew; Verstovsek, Srdan; Keating, Michael J; Estrov, Zeev

    2016-05-15

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the increment in PBLs is slower than the expected increment calculated from the cells' proliferation rate, suggesting that cellular proliferation and apoptosis are concurrent. Exploring this phenomenon, we found overexpression of caspase-3, higher cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase levels (p < 0.007), and a higher apoptosis rate in cells from patients with high counts compared with cells from patients with low counts. Although we previously found that STAT3 protects CLL cells from apoptosis, STAT3 levels were significantly higher in cells from patients with high counts than in cells from patients with low counts. Furthermore, overexpression of STAT3 did not protect the cells. Rather, it upregulated caspase-3 and induced apoptosis. Remarkably, putative STAT3 binding sites were identified in the caspase-3 promoter, and a luciferase assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and an EMSA revealed that STAT3 activated caspase-3 However, caspase-3 levels increased only when STAT3 levels were sufficiently high. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and EMSA, we found that STAT3 binds with low affinity to the caspase-3 promoter, suggesting that at high levels, STAT3 activates proapoptotic mechanisms and induces apoptosis in CLL cells. PMID:27076684

  19. Modeling and optimization of actively Q-switched Nd-doped quasi-three-level laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Renpeng; Yu, Xin; Li, Xudong; Chen, Deying; Gao, Jing

    2013-09-01

    The energy transfer upconversion and the ground state absorption are considered in solving the rate equations for an active Q-switched quasi-three-level laser. The dependence of output pulse characters on the laser parameters is investigated by solving the rate equations. The influence of the energy transfer upconversion on the pulsed laser performance is illustrated and discussed. By this model, the optimal parameters could be achieved for arbitrary quasi-three-level Q-switched lasers. An acousto-optical Q-switched Nd:YAG 946 nm laser is constructed and the reliability of the theoretical model is demonstrated.

  20. Relationship between self-reported activity levels and actual heart rates in teenagers

    SciTech Connect

    Terblanche, A.P.S.; Ozkaynak, H.; Spengler, J.D.; Butler, D.A. )

    1991-08-01

    A study was designed to explore the relationship between self-reported activity levels and actual heart rate (HR) as measured by a portable heart rate monitor. Twenty-two teenagers (8 boys, 14 girls, median age of 16) from Watertown High School, Massachusetts participated in this pilot study which involved continuous monitoring of HR during normal daily activities and simultaneous completion of a time-activity diary. There were 31 successful monitoring sessions ranging from 1.9 to 17 hours with a median monitoring time of 12.6 hours. Four unsuccessful monitoring sessions were experienced due to equipment failure. Apart from participant cooperation, the single most important factor affecting the feasibility of continuous heart rate monitoring was found to be equipment design. Th overall average heart rate observed was 88.4 bpm (SD = 24.3). An individual's correlation coefficient for perceived activity level (documented in half-hour intervals) and heart rate (averaged over the half-hour intervals) varied from 0.24 to 0.89. More than half of the correlation coefficients were below 0.40. There was a significant difference between average heart rate for time spent indoors (90 bpm) versus outdoors (103 bpm) even after correcting for sleeping time. It is concluded that continuous HR monitoring with simultaneous completion of a time/activity dairy is feasible and is a promising source of information for studies on exposure to air pollutants.

  1. Negative relationships between erythrocyte Ca-pump activity and lead levels in mothers and newborns.

    PubMed

    Campagna, D; Huel, G; Hellier, G; Girard, F; Sahuquillo, J; Fagot-Campagna, A; Godin, J; Blot, P

    2000-12-01

    Lead poisoning induces hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological dysfunctions. One of the potential mechanisms is the inhibition of calcium-pump (Ca-pump), a transport protein. We investigated the effects of an environmental low lead exposure on Ca-pump activity in 247 mothers and their newborns. Maternal and cord blood, and newborn and mother hair, were sampled at delivery. Geometric means for mother and cord blood lead (Pb-B), and for mother and newborn hair lead (Pb-H), were 6.3 and 4.8 microg/dl, and 1.7 and 1.1 microg/g. Means for mother and cord basal Ca-pump activities were 2,442 and 2,675 nM/mg/hr. Mother enzymatic activity was negatively related to her Pb-B and Pb-H and to the cord Pb-B and newborn Pb-H levels. Newborn enzymatic activity was negatively related to his Pb-H level only. Adjustment for gestational age, child's sex, mother's age at delivery, alcohol, coffee and tea consumption, and smoking habits during pregnancy did not modify these relationships. Our findings support the hypothesis that lead toxicity could be in part mediated by a reduction of Ca-pump activity. This effect could be observed at low environmental exposure, in mothers and newborns. PMID:11191638

  2. Automated {sup 99}Tc analysis in AW-101 and AN-107 ``diluted feed'' matrixes

    SciTech Connect

    OB Egorov; DE Kurath

    2000-03-29

    A process monitor is needed by British Nuclear Fuels Limited, Inc. (BNFL Inc.) to measure total {sup 99}Tc levels in column effluents during technetium removal from the aqueous fraction of the Hanford high-level tank wastes. The monitor must achieve detection limits of 1 x 10{sup {minus}8}Ci/mL (0.6 {micro}g/mL). Measurements must be done in near real time, with an analysis frequency of {approximately}15 min. The monitoring technology must be sufficiently simple and robust for unattended continuous operation in the plant settings.

  3. Is the activity level of HD 80606 influenced by its eccentric planet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, P.; Santerne, A.; Suárez Mascareño, A.; Gomes da Silva, J.; Abe, L.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Bendjoya, P.; Correia, A. C. M.; Delgado-Mena, E.; Faria, J. P.; Hebrard, G.; Lovis, C.; Oshagh, M.; Rivet, J.-P.; Santos, N. C.; Suarez, O.; Vidotto, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    Aims: Several studies suggest that the activity level of a planet-host star can be influenced by the presence of a close-by orbiting planet. Moreover, the interaction mechanisms that have been proposed, magnetic interaction and tidal interaction, exhibit a very different dependence on the orbital separation between the star and the planet. A detection of activity enhancement and characterization of its dependence on planetary orbital distance can, in principle, allow us to characterize the physical mechanism behind the activity enhancement. Methods: We used the HARPS-N spectrograph to measure the stellar activity level of HD 80606 during the planetary periastron passage and compared the activity measured to that close to apastron. Being characterized by an eccentricity of 0.93 and an orbital period of 111 days, the system's extreme variation in orbital separation makes it a perfect target to test our hypothesis. Results: We find no evidence for a variation in the activity level of the star as a function of planetary orbital distance, as measured by all activity indicators employed: log(R'HK), Hα, NaI, and HeI. None of the models employed, whether magnetic interaction or tidal interaction, provides a good description of the data. The photometry revealed no variation either, but it was strongly affected by poor weather conditions. Conclusions: We find no evidence for star-planet interaction in HD 80606 at the moment of the periastron passage of its very eccentric planet. The straightforward explanation for the non-detection is the absence of interaction as a result of a low magnetic field strength on either the planet or the star and of the low level of tidal interaction between the two. However, we cannot exclude two scenarios: i) the interaction can be instantaneous and of magnetic origin, being concentrated on the substellar point and its surrounding area; and ii) the interaction can lead to a delayed activity enhancement. In either scenario, a star

  4. Association of Day Length and Weather Conditions with Physical Activity Levels in Older Community Dwelling People

    PubMed Central

    Witham, Miles D.; Donnan, Peter T.; Vadiveloo, Thenmalar; Sniehotta, Falko F.; Crombie, Iain K.; Feng, Zhiqiang; McMurdo, Marion E. T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Weather is a potentially important determinant of physical activity. Little work has been done examining the relationship between weather and physical activity, and potential modifiers of any relationship in older people. We therefore examined the relationship between weather and physical activity in a cohort of older community-dwelling people. Methods We analysed prospectively collected cross-sectional activity data from community-dwelling people aged 65 and over in the Physical Activity Cohort Scotland. We correlated seven day triaxial accelerometry data with daily weather data (temperature, day length, sunshine, snow, rain), and a series of potential effect modifiers were tested in mixed models: environmental variables (urban vs rural dwelling, percentage of green space), psychological variables (anxiety, depression, perceived behavioural control), social variables (number of close contacts) and health status measured using the SF-36 questionnaire. Results 547 participants, mean age 78.5 years, were included in this analysis. Higher minimum daily temperature and longer day length were associated with higher activity levels; these associations remained robust to adjustment for other significant associates of activity: age, perceived behavioural control, number of social contacts and physical function. Of the potential effect modifier variables, only urban vs rural dwelling and the SF-36 measure of social functioning enhanced the association between day length and activity; no variable modified the association between minimum temperature and activity. Conclusions In older community dwelling people, minimum temperature and day length were associated with objectively measured activity. There was little evidence for moderation of these associations through potentially modifiable health, environmental, social or psychological variables. PMID:24497925

  5. [Vitamin D levels in ankylosing spondylitis: does deficiency correspond to disease activity?].

    PubMed

    Pokhai, Gabriel G; Bandagi, Sabiha; Abrudescu, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory disorder that presents with arthritis of the axial skeleton, including sacroiliac joints. Vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone with a long-established role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, and in the regulation of bone formation and resorption. It is now known that vitamin D plays an immunosuppressive role in the body, and there is interest of late in the role of vitamin D in autoimmune diseases. Inflammation may be responsible for some of the loss of bone mineral density seen in AS. We reviewed the literature for studies assessing vitamin D level as a marker of AS disease activity and those examining vitamin D levels in AS in comparison to healthy controls. Four of 7 studies found a significant negative correlation between vitamin D levels and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Index (BASDAI), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). In a review of 8 case-control studies, the mean level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was 22.8 ± 14.1 ng/mL in 555 AS patients versus 26.6 ± 12.5 ng/mL in 557 healthy controls. When compared with a 2-sample t test, vitamin D levels were significantly higher in healthy controls (p < 0.01). We conclude that patients with AS appear to have lower vitamin D levels versus healthy controls; however, the cause is unclear. Existing studies do not demonstrate a consistent link between vitamin D levels and disease activity in AS. Further studies are in need to determine if a causative link exists between vitamin D deficiency and AS. PMID:25627231

  6. Study of Serum Haptoglobin Level and its Relation to Erythropoietic Activity in Beta Thalassemia Children

    PubMed Central

    Ragab, Seham M.; Safan, Manal A.; Badr, Eman A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Serum haptoglobin (Hp) is a reliable marker for hemolysis regardless the inflammatory state. Objective We investigated the possible relation between Hp depletion and hemolysis severity, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and iron load in β-thalassemia children. Methods Twenty two β-thalassemia major (TM),20 β-thalassemia intermedia (TI) children with 20 age and sex matched healthy controls were involved. Pre-transfusion hemoglobin level was considered. Serum ferritin, Hp and transferrin receptor levels (sTfR) (by ELISA ), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (by colorimetric method) were assayed. Markers of hepatitis C virus (HCV) were done by PCR. Results The mean Hp levels among the studied groups were as follows; 8.02 ± 0.93 (mg/dl), 8.6 ±0.72 (mg/dl) and 122 ± 18.5(mg/dl) for TM, TI and the controls respectively. Both patient groups had significantly lower Hp level compared to the controls (P<0.0001) with significant lower level in TM compared to TI children ( P= 0.034). Significant inverse correlations were found between serum Hp and sTfR levels ( reflecting the erythropoietic activity) in thalassemia children combined and in each group (TM and TI) as well as among HCV infected children. STfR was the only significant independent predictor for serum Hp level (t= −5.585, P<0.0001). Among HCV infected patients, no significant correlation was found between serum Hp and serum transaminases. Conclusion Serum Hp depletion in thalassemia had significant relation to disease severity and correlated well with their erythropoietic activity, as assessed by the measurement of sTfR without significant relation to HCV infection. Extensive multicenter studies are recommended. PMID:25745546

  7. Effects of the soluble guanylyl cyclase activator, YC-1, on vascular tone, cyclic GMP levels and phosphodiesterase activity

    PubMed Central

    Galle, Jan; Zabel, Ulrike; Hübner, Ulrich; Hatzelmann, Armin; Wagner, Birgit; Wanner, Christoph; Schmidt, Harald H H W

    1999-01-01

    The vasomotor and cyclic GMP-elevating activity of YC-1, a novel NO-independent activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), was studied in isolated rabbit aortic rings and compared to that of the NO donor compounds sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and NOC 18.Similarly to SNP and NOC 18, YC-1 (0.3–300 μM) caused a concentration-dependent, endothelium-independent relaxation that was greatly reduced by the sGC inhibitor 1-H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ 10 μM; 59% inhibition of dilation induced by 100 μM YC-1) suggesting the activation of sGC as one mechanism of action.Preincubation with YC-1 (3 and 30 μM) significantly increased the maximal dilator responses mediated by endogenous NO in aortic rings that was released upon exposure to acetylcholine, and enhanced the dilator response to the exogenous NO-donors, SNP and NOC 18, by almost two orders of magnitude.Vasoactivity induced by SNP and YC-1 displayed different kinetics as evidenced by a long-lasting inhibition by YC-1 (300 μM) on the phenylephrine (PE)-induced contractile response, which was not fully reversible even after extensive washout (150 min) of YC-1, and was accompanied by a long-lasting elevation of intracellular cyclic GMP content. In contrast, SNP (30 μM) had no effect on the vasoconstrictor potency of PE, and increases in intravascular cyclic GMP levels were readily reversed after washout of this NO donor compound.Surprisingly, YC-1 not only activated sGC, but also affected cyclic GMP metabolism, as it inhibited both cyclic GMP break down in aortic extracts and the activity of phosphodiesterase isoforms 1–5 in vitro.In conclusion, YC-1 caused persistent elevation of intravascular cyclic GMP levels in vivo by activating sGC and inhibiting cyclic GMP break down. Thus, YC-1 is a highly effective vasodilator compound with a prolonged duration of action, and mechanisms that are unprecedented for any previously known sGC activator. PMID:10369473

  8. Comparisons of three practical field devices used to measure personal light exposures and activity levels

    PubMed Central

    Figueiro, M G; Hamner, R; Bierman, A; Rea, M S

    2012-01-01

    This paper documents the spectral and spatial performance characteristics of two new versions of the Daysimeter, devices developed and calibrated by the Lighting Research Center to measure and record personal circadian light exposure and activity levels, and compares them to those of the Actiwatch Spectrum (Philips Healthcare). Photometric errors from the Daysimeters and the Actiwatch Spectrum were also determined for various types of light sources. The Daysimeters had better photometric performance than the Actiwatch Spectrum. To assess differences associated with measuring light and activity levels at different locations on the body, older adults wore four Daysimeters and an Actiwatch Spectrum for five consecutive days. Wearing the Daysimeter or Actiwatch Spectrum on the wrist compromises accurate light measurements relative to locating a calibrated photosensor at the plane of the cornea. PMID:24443644

  9. Sleep Quality and Recommended Levels of Physical Activity in Older People.

    PubMed

    Hartescu, Iuliana; Morgan, Kevin; Stevinson, Clare D

    2016-04-01

    A minimum level of activity likely to improve sleep outcomes among older people has not previously been explored. In a representative UK sample aged 65+ (n = 926), cross-sectional regressions controlling for appropriate confounders showed that walking at or above the internationally recommended threshold of ≥ 150 min per week was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of reporting insomnia symptoms (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.45-0.91, p < .05). At a 4-year follow-up (n = 577), higher walking levels at baseline significantly predicted a lower likelihood of reporting sleep onset (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.42-0.97, p < .05) or sleep maintenance (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.41-0.95, p < .05) problems. These results are consistent with the conclusion that current physical activity guidelines can support sleep quality in older adults. PMID:26291553

  10. Intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) leaves by lambs using different levels of activated charcoal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 24-day feeding trial was conducted to assess the effect of feeding four levels of activated charcoal (0.0, 0.33, 0.67 and 1.00 g/kg of body weight) on intake of honey mesquite leaves (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) by 20 wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) that were randomly assigned to treatments. Lambs wer...

  11. Effects of copper supplementation on erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity levels in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Marten, J.T.; DiSilvestro, R.A. )

    1989-02-09

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients are reported to possess lower than normal levels of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The contribution of copper status to these low values has not been examined. To address this issue, blood samples were obtained from 10 RA patients before and after 28 days of daily oral copper supplementation (2 mg/day). All patients were receiving gold therapy. Each RA subject, before supplementation, displayed lower erythrocyte SOD values than any of 25 age matched controls. The mean value for the RA subjects was about 40% lower than the control mean, whether expressed as units per ml packed cells or per mg hemoglobin. Erythrocyte SOD activity levels were increased in all subjects by the 4 week copper supplementation, with 7 of the patients showing at least a 22% increase. Presupplement SOD activities showed no correlation with serum C-reactive protein contents, an indicator of acute phase response. Serum levels of the copper containing acute phase protein ceruloplasmin, showed variable responses to copper supplementation. The studies described here are currently being extended to include RA subjects not being treated with gold and to include supplemented controls.

  12. A Relationship Between Microbial Activity in Soils and Phosphate Levels in Tributaries to Lake Champlain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larose, R.; Lee, S.; Lane, T.

    2015-12-01

    Lake Champlain is a large natural freshwater lake. It forms the western boundary of Vermont and drains over half of the state. It is bordered by the state of New York on its western side and drains to the north into Quebec, Canada. Lake Champlain is the source of fresh drinking water for over quarter of a million people and provides for the livelihoods and recreational opportunities of many well beyond its borders. The health of this lake is important. During the summer month's algae blooms plague the lake. These unsightly growths, which affect other aquatic organisms, are the result of excess phosphate flowing into the lake from many sources. Examining whether there is a relationship between microbial activity in the soils bordering tributaries to Lake Champlain and phosphate levels in those tributaries sheds insight into the origins and paths by which phosphate moves into Lake Champlain. Understanding the how phosphate moves into the water system may assist in mitigation efforts.Total Phosphate levels and Total Suspended Solids were measured in second and third order streams in the Lake Champlain Basin over a three-year period. In addition microbial activity was measured within the toe, bank and upland riparian zone areas of these streams during the summer months. In general in areas showing greater microbial activity in the soil(s) there were increased levels of phosphate in the streams.

  13. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Do Kyung; Jang, Seok; Baek, Eun Hye; Kim, Mi Jin; Lee, Kyung Soon; Shin, Hea Soon; Chung, Myung Jun; Kim, Jin Eung; Lee, Kang Oh; Ha, Nam Joo

    2009-01-01

    Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old) to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml) were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet) every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p < 0.05), and slightly increased serum HDL. B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation. PMID:19515264

  14. Decreased glycogen synthase kinase-3 levels and activity contribute to Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Nogales, Marta; Hernández, Félix; Miguez, Andrés; Alberch, Jordi; Ginés, Silvia; Pérez-Navarro, Esther; Lucas, José J

    2015-09-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder characterized by brain atrophy particularly in striatum leading to personality changes, chorea and dementia. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase in the crossroad of many signaling pathways that is highly pleiotropic as it phosphorylates more than hundred substrates including structural, metabolic, and signaling proteins. Increased GSK-3 activity is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and GSK-3 inhibitors have been postulated as therapeutic agents for neurodegeneration. Regarding HD, GSK-3 inhibitors have shown beneficial effects in cell and invertebrate animal models but no evident efficacy in mouse models. Intriguingly, those studies were performed without interrogating GSK-3 level and activity in HD brain. Here we aim to explore the level and also the enzymatic activity of GSK-3 in the striatum and other less affected brain regions of HD patients and of the R6/1 mouse model to then elucidate the possible contribution of its alteration to HD pathogenesis by genetic manipulation in mice. We report a dramatic decrease in GSK-3 levels and activity in striatum and cortex of HD patients with similar results in the mouse model. Correction of the GSK-3 deficit in HD mice, by combining with transgenic mice with conditional GSK-3 expression, resulted in amelioration of their brain atrophy and behavioral motor and learning deficits. Thus, our results demonstrate that decreased brain GSK-3 contributes to HD neurological phenotype and open new therapeutic opportunities based on increasing GSK-3 activity or attenuating the harmful consequences of its decrease. PMID:26082469

  15. RNA-Seq-Based Transcriptome Analysis of Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus in Response to Water Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Guo, Zhenni; Zhong, Hong; Wang, Sen; Yang, Weiqiang; Liu, Yongfeng; Wang, Shihua

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is one of the most important producers of carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops, and the effect of water activity (aw) on growth and aflatoxin production of A. flavus has been previously studied. Here we found the strains under 0.93 aw exhibited decreased conidiation and aflatoxin biosynthesis compared to that under 0.99 aw. When RNA-Seq was used to delineate gene expression profile under different water activities, 23,320 non-redundant unigenes, with an average length of 1297 bp, were yielded. By database comparisons, 19,838 unigenes were matched well (e-value < 10−5) with known gene sequences, and another 6767 novel unigenes were obtained by comparison to the current genome annotation of A. flavus. Based on the RPKM equation, 5362 differentially expressed unigenes (with |log2Ratio| ≥ 1) were identified between 0.99 aw and 0.93 aw treatments, including 3156 up-regulated and 2206 down-regulated unigenes, suggesting that A. flavus underwent an extensive transcriptome response during water activity variation. Furthermore, we found that the expression of 16 aflatoxin producing-related genes decreased obviously when water activity decreased, and the expression of 11 development-related genes increased after 0.99 aw treatment. Our data corroborate a model where water activity affects aflatoxin biosynthesis through increasing the expression of aflatoxin producing-related genes and regulating development-related genes. PMID:25421810

  16. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors strongly regulate postsynaptic activity levels during optic nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kolls, Brad J; Meyer, Ronald L

    2013-10-01

    During development, neuronal activity is used as a cue to guide synaptic rearrangements to refine connections. Many studies, especially in the visual system, have shown that the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) plays a key role in mediating activity-dependent refinement through long-term potentiation (LTP)-like processes. Adult goldfish can regenerate their optic nerve and utilize neuronal activity to generate precise topography in their projection onto tectum. Although the NMDAr has been implicated in this process, its precise role in regeneration has not been extensively studied. In examining NMDAr function during regeneration, we found salient differences compared with development. By using field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) recordings, the contribution of the NMDAr at the primary optic synapse was measured. In contrast to development, no increase in NMDAr function was detectable during synaptic refinement. Unlike development, LTP could not be reliably elicited during regeneration. Unexpectedly, we found that NMDAr exerted a major effect on regulating ongoing tectal (postsynaptic) activity levels during regeneration. Blocking NMDAr strongly suppressed spontaneous activity during regeneration but had no significant effect in the normal projection. This difference could be attributed to an occlusion effect of strong optic drive in the normal projection, which dominated ongoing tectal activity. During regeneration, this optic drive is largely absent. Optic nerve stimulation further indicated that the NMDAr had little effect on the ability of optic fibers to evoke early postsynaptic impulse activity but was important for late network activity. These results indicate that, during regeneration, the NMDAr may play a critical role in the homeostatic regulation of ongoing activity and network excitability. PMID:23873725

  17. Relationship of species-specific filament levels to filamentous bulking in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jiangying; Lou, Inchio; de los Reyes, Francis L

    2004-04-01

    To examine the relationship between activated-sludge bulking and levels of specific filamentous bacteria, we developed a statistics-based quantification method for estimating the biomass levels of specific filaments using 16S rRNA-targeted fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes. The results of quantitative FISH for the filament Sphaerotilus natans were similar to the results of quantitative membrane hybridization in a sample from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant. Laboratory-scale reactors were operated under different flow conditions to develop bulking and nonbulking sludge and were bioaugmented with S. natans cells to stimulate bulking. Instead of S. natans, the filament Eikelboom type 1851 became dominant in the reactors. Levels of type 1851 filaments extending out of the flocs correlated strongly with the sludge volume index, and extended filament lengths of approximately 6 x 10(8) micro m ml(-1) resulted in bulking in laboratory-scale and full-scale activated-sludge samples. Quantitative FISH showed that high levels of filaments occurred inside the flocs in nonbulking sludge, supporting the "substrate diffusion limitation" hypothesis for bulking. The approach will allow the monitoring of incremental improvements in bulking control methods and the delineation of the operational conditions that lead to bulking due to specific filaments. PMID:15066840

  18. Laterality of brain activity during motor imagery is modulated by the provision of source level neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    Boe, Shaun; Gionfriddo, Alicia; Kraeutner, Sarah; Tremblay, Antoine; Little, Graham; Bardouille, Timothy

    2014-11-01

    Motor imagery (MI) may be effective as an adjunct to physical practice for motor skill acquisition. For example, MI is emerging as an effective treatment in stroke neurorehabilitation. As in physical practice, the repetitive activation of neural pathways during MI can drive short- and long-term brain changes that underlie functional recovery. However, the lack of feedback about MI performance may be a factor limiting its effectiveness. The provision of feedback about MI-related brain activity may overcome this limitation by providing the opportunity for individuals to monitor their own performance of this endogenous process. We completed a controlled study to isolate neurofeedback as the factor driving changes in MI-related brain activity across repeated sessions. Eighteen healthy participants took part in 3 sessions comprised of both actual and imagined performance of a button press task. During MI, participants in the neurofeedback group received source level feedback based on activity from the left and right sensorimotor cortex obtained using magnetoencephalography. Participants in the control group received no neurofeedback. MI-related brain activity increased in the sensorimotor cortex contralateral to the imagined movement across sessions in the neurofeedback group, but not in controls. Task performance improved across sessions but did not differ between groups. Our results indicate that the provision of neurofeedback during MI allows healthy individuals to modulate regional brain activity. This finding has the potential to improve the effectiveness of MI as a tool in neurorehabilitation. PMID:24999037

  19. Higher daily physical activity is associated with higher osteocalcin levels in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Saydi E.; Frohnert, Brigitte I.; Thomas, William; Kelly, Aaron S.; Nathan, Brandon M.; Polgreen, Lynda E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise stimulates bone remodeling and improves insulin sensitivity (Si), even without associated weight loss. Osteocalcin (OCN), a bone-derived protein, is associated with improved Si. Purpose We examined how daily physical activity is associated with OCN and Si. Methods Physical activity was measured through questionnaires completed in Minneapolis from 2010 to 2012. A physical activity score (PAQsum) was calculated to quantify physical activity (range 1–5). OCN and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were measured by ELISA. Si was measured by the insulin modified frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test. Results The mean PAQsum value was 2.4 ± 0.8 in 47 participants (12–17.9 years old). PAQsum was positively associated with OCN (p = 0.006). Participants with PAQsum <  2 had significantly lower OCN levels compared to participants with PAQsum >  2 (p < 0.02). Obesity did not modify the association between PAQsum and OCN. There was no statistically significant association between PAQsum and Si or between OCN and Si, even after adjustment for percent body fat. Conclusions OCN is higher in more physically active individuals. More research is needed to clarify the relationship between OCN, physical activity and Si. PMID:26236583

  20. Levels and Rates of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Klaren, Rachel E; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W

    2016-05-01

    There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of meeting public health guidelines for MVPA (i.e., ≥30 min/day) among young (i.e., ages 20-39 years), middle-aged (i.e., ages 40-59 years) and older adults (i.e., ages ≥60 years) with MS. The sample included 963 persons with MS who provided demographic and clinical information and wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period. The primary analysis involved a between-subjects ANOVA on accelerometer variables (i.e., accelerometer wear time; number of valid days; sedentary behavior in min/day; LPA in min/day; and MVPA in min/day). Collectively, our data indicated that older adults with MS engaged in less MVPA and more sedentary behavior than middle-aged and young adults with MS. Such results highlight the importance of developing physical activity interventions as an effective means for managing the progression and consequences of MS in older adults. PMID:27330842

  1. Relationship between lipoprotein lipase activity and plasma sex steroid level in obese women.

    PubMed Central

    Iverius, P H; Brunzell, J D

    1988-01-01

    In obese women (n = 16) at their weight, fasting adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, obtained by elution with serum and heparin at 4 degrees and 37 degrees C, was inversely correlated to plasma estradiol levels (r = -0.724; P = 0.002) and (r = -0.641; P = 0.010), respectively. Furthermore, fasting postheparin plasma LPL activity during a heparin infusion, showed an even stronger inverse correlation to plasma estradiol when measured at 60 min (r = -0.815; P less than 0.001). None of the above parameters was correlated to the body mass index. Postprandial LPL activity in postheparin plasma, measured 10 min after a heparin injection, showed a strong positive correlation with plasma free testosterone (r = 0.780; P = 0.001). Neither of these parameters was correlated with the body mass index. The origin of this LPL activity is presently unknown but could conceivably represent a pool of LPL from skeletal muscle. Since it has been shown convincingly that estrogen decreases adipose tissue LPL activity in the rat, the present studies strongly suggest that estradiol is a major negative regulator of fasting adipose tissue LPL activity in women. PMID:3417867

  2. Levels and Rates of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Klaren, Rachel E.; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of meeting public health guidelines for MVPA (i.e., ≥30 min/day) among young (i.e., ages 20-39 years), middle-aged (i.e., ages 40-59 years) and older adults (i.e., ages ≥60 years) with MS. The sample included 963 persons with MS who provided demographic and clinical information and wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period. The primary analysis involved a between-subjects ANOVA on accelerometer variables (i.e., accelerometer wear time; number of valid days; sedentary behavior in min/day; LPA in min/day; and MVPA in min/day). Collectively, our data indicated that older adults with MS engaged in less MVPA and more sedentary behavior than middle-aged and young adults with MS. Such results highlight the importance of developing physical activity interventions as an effective means for managing the progression and consequences of MS in older adults. PMID:27330842

  3. Moisture measurement for high-level-waste tanks using copper activation probe in cone penetrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Reeder, P.L.; Stromswold, D.C.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Reeves, J.H.; Wilson, W.E.

    1995-10-01

    Laboratory tests have established the feasibility of using neutron activation of copper as a means for measuring the moisture in Hanford`s high-level radioactive waste tanks. The performance of the neutron activation technique to measure moisture is equivalent to the neutron moisture gauges or neutron logs commonly used in commercial well-logging. The principle difference is that the activation of {sup 64}Cu (t{sub 1/2} = 12.7 h) replaces the neutron counters used in moisture gauges or neutron logs. For application to highly radioactive waste tanks, the Cu activation technique has the advantage that it is insensitive to very strong gamma radiation fields or high temperatures. In addition, this technique can be deployed through tortuous paths or in confined spaces such as within the bore of a cone penetrometer. However, the results are not available in ``real-time``. The copper probe`s sensitivity to moisture was measured using simulated tank waste of known moisture content. This report describes the preparation of the simulated waste mixtures and the experiments performed to demonstrate the capabilities of the neutron activation technique. These experiments included determination of the calibration curve of count rate versus moisture content using a single copper probe, measurement of the calibration curve based on ``near-field `` to ``far-field`` counting ratios using a multiple probe technique, and profiling the activity of the copper probe as a function of the vertical height within a simulated waste barrel.

  4. Dueling Volcanoes: How Activity Levels At Kilauea Influence Eruptions At Mauna Loa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trusdell, F.

    2011-12-01

    Loa inflates its flank is not buttressed on the southeast. Consequently, asymmetrical spreading occurs resulting in dilation of the shallow magma storage centers, which ultimately culminates in decreased magma pressure and therefore lessened ability to erupt. Whether or not this hypothesis is accurate, there is growing geologic evidence for inverse activity levels at both volcanoes. This hypothesis is readily testable and can have profound implications on how we monitor shield volcanoes, which impacts our ability to forecast eruptions, conduct hazard assessments, and risk analysis.

  5. Impact of Network Activity Levels on the Performance of Passive Network Service Dependency Discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Thomas E.; Chikkagoudar, Satish; Arthur-Durett, Kristine M.

    2015-11-02

    Network services often do not operate alone, but instead, depend on other services distributed throughout a network to correctly function. If a service fails, is disrupted, or degraded, it is likely to impair other services. The web of dependencies can be surprisingly complex---especially within a large enterprise network---and evolve with time. Acquiring, maintaining, and understanding dependency knowledge is critical for many network management and cyber defense activities. While automation can improve situation awareness for network operators and cyber practitioners, poor detection accuracy reduces their confidence and can complicate their roles. In this paper we rigorously study the effects of network activity levels on the detection accuracy of passive network-based service dependency discovery methods. The accuracy of all except for one method was inversely proportional to network activity levels. Our proposed cross correlation method was particularly robust to the influence of network activity. The proposed experimental treatment will further advance a more scientific evaluation of methods and provide the ability to determine their operational boundaries.

  6. Responses of Electromyogram Activity in Adductor Longus Muscle of Rats to the Altered Gravity Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, Takashi; Wang, Xiao Dong; Terada, Masahiro; Kawano, Fuminori; Higo, Yoko; Nakai, Naoya; Ochiai, Toshimasa; Gyotoku, Jyunichirou; Nishimoto, Norihiro; Ogura, Akihiko; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2008-06-01

    Responses of electromyogram (EMG) activities in the rostral and caudal regions of adductor longus (AL) muscle to altered gravity levels during parabolic flight of a jet airplane, as well as hindlimb suspension, were investigated in adult rats. Tonic EMGs in both regions were noted when the rats were exposed to hyper-G, as well as 1-G. The hip joints were adducted and the sedental quadrupedal position was maintained at these G levels. However, the EMG activities in these regions decreased and became phasic, when the hip joints were abducted and extended backward in μ-G environment. Such changes of joint angles caused passive shortening of sarcomeres only in the caudal region of AL. Atrophy and shift toward fast-twitch type were noted in fibers of the caudal region after 16-day unloading. Although fiber transformation was also induced in the rostral region, no atrophy was seen in fast-twitch fibers. The data may suggest that the atrophy and shift of phenotype caused by gravitational unloading in fibers of the caudal region may be related to the decrease in the neural and mechanical activities. Fiber type transformation toward fast-twitch type may be also related to the change of muscle activity from tonic to phasic patterns, which are the typical characteristics of fast-twitch muscle. However, the responses to unloading in fibers of rostral region were not related to the reduction of mechanical load.

  7. Smelling lavender and rosemary increases free radical scavenging activity and decreases cortisol level in saliva.

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Toshiko; Tonosaki, Keiichi

    2007-02-28

    Free radicals/reactive oxygen species are related to many biological phenomena such as inflammation, aging, and carcinogenesis. The body possesses various antioxidative systems (free radical scavenging activity, FRSA) for preventing oxidative stress, and saliva contains such activity. In the present study, we measured the total salivary FRSA induced after the smelling of lavender and rosemary essential oils that are widely used in aromatherapy. Various physiologically active substances in saliva such as cortisol, secretory IgA, and alpha-amylase activity were found to be correlated with aroma-induced FRSA. The subjects (22 healthy volunteers) sniffed aroma for 5 min, and each subject's saliva was collected immediately. FRSA was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. The FRSA values were increased by stimulation with low concentrations (1000 times dilution) of lavender or by high-concentrations (10 times dilution) of rosemary. In contrast, both lavender and rosemary stimulations decreased cortisol levels. A significant inverse correlation was observed between the FRSA values and the cortisol levels with each concentration of rosemary stimulation. No significant changes were noted in sIgA or alpha-amylase. These findings clarify that lavender and rosemary enhance FRSA and decrease the stress hormone, cortisol, which protects the body from oxidative stress. PMID:17291597

  8. Comparison of the level of residual coagulant activity in different cheese varieties.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Nidhi; Fox, Patrick F; McSweeney, Paul L H

    2009-08-01

    The coagulant retained in cheese curd is a major contributor to proteolysis during ripening. The objective of this study was to quantify residual coagulant in 9 cheese varieties by measuring its activity on a synthetic heptapeptide (Pro-Thr-Glu-Phe-[NO2-Phe]-Arg-Leu) assayed using reversed-phase HPLC. The level of residual coagulant activity was highest in Camembert cheese, probably due to its low pH at whey drainage and the high moisture content of the cheese, followed in order by Feta=Port du Salut=Cheddar>Gouda>Emmental=Parmigiano Reggiano=low-moisture part-skim Mozzarella=Mozzarella di Bufala Campana. The high cooking temperature (50-54 degrees C) used during the manufacture of Emmental and Parmigiano Reggiano cheeses and the cooking and stretching step in hot water during the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese may be the reasons for the lowest residual coagulant activity in these cheeses. The level of residual coagulant activity was higher in Feta cheese made from milk concentrated by ultrafiltration than in conventional Feta. PMID:19445824

  9. How the Venus flytrap actively snaps: hydrodynamic measurements at the cellular level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombani, Mathieu; Forterre, Yoel; GEP Team

    2012-11-01

    Although they lack muscle, plants have evolved a remarkable range of mechanisms to create rapid motion, from the rapid folding of sensitive plants to seed dispersal. Of these spectacular examples that have long fascinated scientists, the carnivorous plant Venus flytrap, whose leaves snap together in a fraction of second to capture insects, has long been a paradigm for study. Recently, we have shown that this motion involves a snap-buckling instability due to the shell-like geometry of the leaves of the trap. However, the origin of the movement that allows the plant to cross the instability threshold and actively bend remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigate this active motion using a micro-fluidic pressure probe that gives direct hydraulic and mechanical measurements at the cellular level (osmotic pressure, cell membrane permeability, cell wall elasticity). Our results challenge the role of osmotically-driven water flows usually put forward to explain Venus flytrap's active closure.

  10. Correlation of Solar Activities with the Telluric Currents Level in the Northern Region of Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razelan, Mazlina M.; Said, N. Masdiana Md; Aziz, A. H. A.; Chong, H. Y.; Nawawi, M.

    2010-07-01

    The relation between solar activities and the geomagnetic field induced currents (GIC) have been well studied in the auroral region and it usually occurs most frequently at high latitudes. However, during major geomagnetic storms, the auroral zone can extend substantially towards lower latitudes. Disturbance caused by solar activities can disrupt power grids and also increase the corrosion rate of buried natural gas pipelines. GIC are driven by the geomagnetic field induced by a geomagnetic disturbance. In this paper, we investigated the correlation between solar activities using the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and geomagnetic disturbance storm time (DST) index data with the telluric currents (also referred to as geomagnetic induced currents GIC) level through the disturbance pattern of geomagnetic field. The research areas are from Lunas in Kedah to Perlis. The pattern of geomagnetic field disturbance had been identified and analyzed to investigate the harmful effect of geomagnetic storms towards the performance of complex power grid in Malaysia.

  11. Photocatalytically Active Oligomeric Graphitic Carbon Nitride: Conformational Flexibility, Electronic Levels, Carrier Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Volker; Lau, Vincent; Botari, Tiago; Huhn, William; Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-03-01

    Polymers consisting of bridged heptazine units (often called ``graphitic carbon nitride'' or ``g-C3N4'') show considerable promise as photocatalysts for solar hydrogen evolution. Recent experimental evidence suggests that oligomeric rather than fully polymerized ``g-C3N4'' exhibits increased intrinsic photocatalytic activity. Using density-functional theory (DFT; van der Waals corrected PBE functional for conformers, hybrid DFT and GW for electronic levels), we show that considerable conformational flexibility exists for the heptazine trimers and tetramers. Analysis of HOMO and LUMO locations as well as trends in photocatalytic activity among heptazine oligomers and polymers reveals the NH2 groups of the oligomers as potential charge-transfer sites. We show that conformational variations of the oligomers can lead to significant, electrostatically motivated carrier localization effects. We suggest that NH2 side groups and the intrinsic conformational variations of the oligomeric species lead to the observed enhanced catalytic activity.

  12. Sensorimotor Encoding by Synchronous Neural Ensemble Activity at Multiple Levels of the Somatosensory System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocolelis, Miguel A. L.; Baccala, Luiz A.; Lin, Rick C. S.; Chapin, John K.

    1995-06-01

    Neural ensemble processing of sensorimotor information during behavior was investigated by simultaneously recording up to 48 single neurons at multiple relays of the rat trigeminal somatosensory system. Cortical, thalamic, and brainstem neurons exhibited widespread 7- to 12-hertz synchronous oscillations, which began during attentive immobility and reliably predicted the imminent onset of rhythmic whisker twitching. Each oscillatory cycle began as a traveling wave of neural activity in the cortex that then spread to the thalamus. Just before the onset of rhythmic whisker twitching, the oscillations spread to the spinal trigeminal brainstem complex. Thereafter, the oscillations at all levels were synchronous with whisker protraction. Neural structures manifesting these rhythms also exhibited distributed spatiotemporal patterns of neuronal ensemble activity in response to tactile stimulation. Thus, multilevel synchronous activity in this system may encode not only sensory information but also the onset and temporal domain of tactile exploratory movements.

  13. Level of Physical Activity and In-Hospital Course of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Juliana de Goes; Santos, Marcos Antonio Almeida; Barreto Filho, José Augusto Soares; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes; de Melo, Enaldo Vieira; de Oliveira, Norma Alves; Faro, Gustavo Baptista de Almeida; Sousa, Antônio Carlos Sobral

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the modern world. A sedentary lifestyle, present in 85% of the Brazilian population, is considered a risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease. However, the correlation of a sedentary lifestyle with cardiovascular events (CVE) during hospitalization for ACS is not well established. Objective To evaluate the association between physical activity level, assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), with in-hospital prognosis in patients with ACS. Methods Observational, cross-sectional, and analytical study with 215 subjects with a diagnosis of ACS consecutively admitted to a referral hospital for cardiac patients between July 2009 and February 2011. All volunteers answered the short version of the IPAQ and were observed for the occurrence of CVE during hospitalization with a standardized assessment conducted by the researcher and corroborated by data from medical records. Results The patients were admitted with diagnoses of unstable angina (34.4%), acute myocardial infarction (AMI) without ST elevation (41.4%), and AMI with ST elevation (24.2%). According to the level of physical activity, the patients were classified as non-active (56.3%) and active (43.7%). A CVE occurred in 35.3% of the cohort. The occurrence of in-hospital complications was associated with the length of hospital stay (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15) and physical inactivity (OR = 2.54), and was independent of age, systolic blood pressure, and prior congestive heart failure. Conclusion A physically active lifestyle reduces the risk of CVE during hospitalization in patients with ACS. PMID:26690692

  14. Community level predictors of physical activity among women in the preconception period.

    PubMed

    Vamos, Cheryl A; Sun, Haichun; Flory, Sara B; DeBate, Rita; Daley, Ellen M; Thompson, Erika; Bleck, Jennifer; Merrell, Laura

    2015-07-01

    Although physical activity is a key behavior targeted during the preconception period given its significant impact on pregnancy/birth outcomes and psychological well-being, few women meet national guidelines. While intrapersonal factors influencing physical activity among this population have been studied, community factors remain unexplored. The objective of this study was to examine community level predictors of physical activity among preconception women. Data from Add Health were limited to women (Wave III; age 18-28; n = 7,596) and excluded respondents who were pregnant, physically disabled, and missing data. The outcome variable was ≥5 instances of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in 1 week. Community predictor variables included neighborhood-level structural and social determinants (e.g., socio-demographic composition; landscape diversity; urbanization; access to resources; crime; vehicle availability). Multilevel logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the odds of engaging in ≥5 instances of MVPA. Few women (26 %) reported ≥5 instances of MVPA in 1 week. Adjusted multilevel analysis revealed women in the preconception period were more likely to report high MVPA when living in communities with larger population densities (OR 1.34, 95 % CI 1.02-1.77) and median household income greater than $50,000 (OR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.06-1.66). Additionally, a significant inverse trend was found between high MVPA and proportion of the community without a high school diploma. Findings suggest that neighborhood composition may have an impact on preconception physical activity status. Implications include increased efforts targeting community conditions for facilitating physical activity; ultimately, improving health among women and subsequent offspring. PMID:25636646

  15. Dimerization and activation of porcine pancreatic phospholipase A2 via substrate level acylation of lysine 56.

    PubMed

    Tomasselli, A G; Hui, J; Fisher, J; Zürcher-Neely, H; Reardon, I M; Oriaku, E; Kézdy, F J; Heinrikson, R L

    1989-06-15

    The porcine pancreatic phospholipase A2-catalyzed hydrolysis of the water-soluble chromogenic substrate 4-nitro-3-octanoyloxybenzoate shows an initial latency phase similar to the one observed in the hydrolysis of aggregated phospholipids by the same enzyme. We report here that during the latency phase the enzyme undergoes a slow, autocatalytic, substrate-level acylation whereby in a few of the catalytic events the scissile octanoyl group of the substrate, normally transferred to water, is transferred to the epsilon-amino group of lysine 56. The N epsilon 56-octanoylphospholipase shows a strong tendency to dimerize in solution and thus may be separated from the monomeric native enzyme by gel filtration. Octanoylation of Lys-56 activates the enzyme some 180-fold toward 4-nitro-3-octanoyloxybenzoate and more than 100-fold toward monolayers of 1,2-didecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. Acylation also attends the enzymatic hydrolysis of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine with the incorporation of 1 eq of palmitate. Kinetic analysis of the early phase of reaction with 4-nitro-3-octanoyloxybenzoate shows that in this initial step the rate of activation is first order with respect to enzyme and substrate. A much more rapid, autocatalytic activation occurs in the later phases of the reaction where the activation of the enzyme is catalyzed by the activated enzyme itself. These findings with porcine pancreatic phospholipase A2, together with those relative to a snake venom enzyme monomer (Cho, W., Tomasselli, A. G., Heinrikson, R. L., and Kézdy, F. J. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 11237-11241), strongly support the proposal that interfacial activation of monomeric phospholipases is due to substrate-level autoacylation resulting in fully potentiated dimeric enzymes. PMID:2498336

  16. Physical activity levels six months after a randomised controlled physical activity intervention for Pakistani immigrant men living in Norway

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, no studies have aimed at improving the PA level in south Asian immigrant men residing in Western countries, and few studies have considered the relevance of SCT constructs to the PA behaviour of this group in the long term. The observed low physical activity (PA) level among south Asian immigrants in Western countries may partly explain the high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in this group. We have shown previously in a randomised controlled trial, the Physical Activity and Minority Health study (PAMH) that a social cognitive based intervention can beneficially influence PA level and subsequently reduce waist circumference and insulin resistance in the short-term. In an extended follow-up of the PAMH study: we aimed 1) to determine if the intervention produced long-term positive effects on PA level six months after intervention (follow-up 2 (FU2)), and 2) to identify the social cognitive mediators of any intervention effects. Methods Physically inactive Pakistani immigrant men (n = 150) who were free of CVD and T2D were randomly assigned to a five months PA intervention or a control group. Six months after the intervention ended, we telephoned all those who attended FU1 and invited them for a second follow-up test (FU2) (n = 133). PA was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Statistical differences between groups were determined by use of ANCOVA. Results Significant differences (baseline to FU2) between the groups were found for all PA variables (e.g., total PA level, sedentary time, PA intensity). Support from family and outcome expectancies increased more in the intervention group compared with the control group. Self-efficacy did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions Our results show that a multi component PA programme can increase PA over the short and long term in a group of immigrant Pakistani men. However, we could not identify the factors that mediated these

  17. Water-Air Spray Cooling of Extruded Profiles: Process Integrated Heat Treatment of the Alloy EN AW-6082

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, M.; Golovko, O.; Nürnberger, F.; Frolov, I.; Schaper, M.

    2013-09-01

    Quenching by spray cooling in the press line is a promising way to harden Al-Mg-Si alloys with regard to reducing profile distortion. For alloys such as EN AW-6082, high cooling rates are required. A device for spray cooling by means of water and compressed air was integrated into a 10 MN horizontal, hydraulic, short-stroke extrusion press. Various spray parameters were investigated. By using 32 water-air nozzles having a total water deposition rate of about 15 L/min and extruding with a profile velocity of 2.5 m/min, high mechanical properties were imparted to 30 mm diameter extruded rods. This arrangement ensures the extruded alloy is cooled to almost room temperature. Comparable properties can be achieved by water quenching, although the water consumption will be tenfold higher. The distribution of water deposition density on the profiles' surfaces was determined. It was shown that an adjustment of the water-air pressure ratio allows the final temperature of the profiles to be controlled over a wide range. Minimization of temperature gradients in the cross section of complex profiles allows profile distortions to be reduced.

  18. Increased central microglial activation associated with peripheral cytokine levels in premanifest Huntington's disease gene carriers.

    PubMed

    Politis, Marios; Lahiri, Nayana; Niccolini, Flavia; Su, Paul; Wu, Kit; Giannetti, Paolo; Scahill, Rachael I; Turkheimer, Federico E; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Piccini, Paola

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown activation of the immune system and altered immune response in Huntington's disease (HD) gene carriers. Here, we hypothesized that peripheral and central immune responses could be concurrent pathophysiological events and represent a global innate immune response to the toxic effects of mutant huntingtin in HD gene carriers. We sought to investigate our hypothesis using [(11)C]PK11195 PET as a translocator protein (TSPO) marker of central microglial activation, together with assessment of peripheral plasma cytokine levels in a cohort of premanifest HD gene carriers who were more than a decade from predicted symptomatic conversion. Data were also compared to those from a group of healthy controls matched for age and gender. We found significantly increased peripheral plasma IL-1β levels in premanifest HD gene carriers compared to the group of normal controls (P=0.018). Premanifest HD gene carriers had increased TSPO levels in cortical, basal ganglia and thalamic brain regions (P<0.001). Increased microglial activation in somatosensory cortex correlated with higher plasma levels of IL-1β (rs=0.87, P=0.013), IL-6 (rs=0.85, P=0.013), IL-8 (rs=0.68, P=0.045) and TNF-α (rs=0.79; P=0.013). Our findings provide first in vivo evidence for an association between peripheral and central immune responses in premanifest HD gene carriers, and provide further supporting evidence for the role of immune dysfunction in the pathogenesis of HD. PMID:26297319

  19. Elevated Ornithine Decarboxylase Levels Activate ATM - DNA Damage Signaling in Normal Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Gang; DeFeo, Karen; Hayes, Candace S.; Woster, Patrick M.; Mandik-Nayak, Laura; Gilmour, Susan K.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effect of increased expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a key rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, on cell survival in primary cultures of keratinocytes isolated from the skin of K6/ODC transgenic mice (Ker/ODC) and their normal littermates (Ker/Norm). Although elevated levels of ODC and polyamines stimulate proliferation of keratinocytes, Ker/ODC undergo apoptotic cell death within days of primary culture unlike Ker/Norm that continue to proliferate. Phosphorylation of ATM and its substrate p53 are significantly induced both in Ker/ODC and in K6/ODC transgenic skin. ChIP analyses show that the increased level of p53 in Ker/ODC is accompanied by increased recruitment of p53 to the Bax proximal promoter. ATM activation is polyamine-dependent since DFMO, a specific inhibitor of ODC activity, blocks its phosphorylation. Ker/ODC also display increased generation of H2O2, acrolein-lysine conjugates, and protein oxidation products as well as polyamine-dependent DNA damage, as measured by the comet assay and the expression of the phosphorylated form of the histone variant γH2AX. Both ROS generation and apoptotic cell death of Ker/ODC may, at least in part, be due to induction of a polyamine catabolic pathway that generates both H2O2 and cytotoxic aldehydes, since spermine oxidase (SMO) levels are induced in Ker/ODC. In addition, treatment with MDL 72,527, an inhibitor of SMO, blocks the production of H2O2 and increases the survival of Ker/ODC. These results demonstrate a novel activation of the ATM/DNA damage signaling pathway in response to increased ODC activity in nontumorigenic keratinocytes. PMID:18381427

  20. Modelling the unexpected effect of acetic and lactic acid in combination with pH and aw on the growth/no growth interface of Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, A; Dang, T D T; Geeraerd, A H; Bernaerts, K; Debevere, J; Van Impe, J; Devlieghere, F

    2008-05-10

    Microbial spoilage of shelf-stable acidified sauces is predominantly caused by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. A specific spoilage yeast in these products is Zygosaccharomyces bailii, as this fructophilic, osmotolerant, and weak acid resistant yeast is difficult to control. A growth/no growth model was developed describing the influence of (i) pH in a range from pH 3.0 to pH 5.0 (5 levels), (ii) acetic acid in a range from 0 to 3.5% (w/v), and (iii) lactic acid in a range from 0 to 3.0% (w/v). aw was fixed at a level of 0.95 which is representative for acidified sauces with high sugar content. Modified Sabouraud medium was inoculated at +/- 10(4) CFU/ml, incubated at 30 degrees C and growth was assessed by optical density measurements. All combinations of environmental conditions were tested in at least twelve replicates, yielding precise values for the probability of growth. Results showed that replacing acetic acid by lactic acid, which has a milder taste, may imply some risks on food spoilage because, under some conditions, stimulation of growth by lactic acid was observed. This stimulation had also consequences on the model development: (i) only ordinary logistic regression models were able to describe this phenomenon due to their flexible behaviour, (ii) it was necessary to split up the data set into two subsets to have the best description of the obtained data. Two different ordinary logistic regression models were fitted on these data sets taking either the total acid concentration as one of the explanatory variables or differentiating between the undissociated and dissociated acid concentrations. The obtained models were compared with the CIMSCEE code [CIMSCEE, 1992. Code for the production of microbiologically safe and stable emulsified and non-emulsified sauces containing acetic acid. Comité des Industries des Mayonnaise et Sauces Condimentaires, de la Communauté Economique Européenne, Brussels, Belgium], a formula which is nowadays often used by the

  1. Significant Enhancement of Water Splitting Activity of N-Carbon Electrocatalyst by Trace Level Co Doping.

    PubMed

    Bayatsarmadi, Bita; Zheng, Yao; Tang, Youhong; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Replacement of precious metal electrocatalysts with highly active and cost efficient alternatives for complete water splitting at low voltage has attracted a growing attention in recent years. Here, this study reports a carbon-based composite co-doped with nitrogen and trace amount of metallic cobalt (1 at%) as a bifunctional electrocatalyst for water splitting at low overpotential and high current density. An excellent electrochemical activity of the newly developed electrocatalyst originates from its graphitic nanostructure and highly active Co-Nx sites. In the case of carefully optimized sample of this electrocatalyst, 10 mA cm(-2) current density can be achieved for two half reactions in alkaline solutions-hydrogen evolution reaction and oxygen evolution reaction-at low overpotentials of 220 and 350 mV, respectively, which are smaller than those previously reported for nonprecious metal and metal-free counterparts. Based on the spectroscopic and electrochemical investigations, the newly identified Co-Nx sites in the carbon framework are responsible for high electrocatalytic activity of the Co,N-doped carbon. This study indicates that a trace level of the introduced Co into N-doped carbon can significantly enhance its electrocatalytic activity toward water splitting. PMID:27246288

  2. Activity levels of some radionuclides in Mariout and Brullus lakes, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Dar, Mahmoud A; El Saharty, Abeer A

    2013-11-01

    Mariout and Brullus are two of the highly fish-productive lakes in the northern coast of Egypt along the Mediterranean Sea. They are widely used to drain industrial wastes, sewage and agriculture drainage. The activities of (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs were measured in the uppermost part of the surface sediments of the two lakes, using gamma-ray spectrophotometry. Brullus Lake recorded significantly higher (238)U and (232)Th and lower (40)K (17.22±2.49, 10.03±0.56 and 299.70±17.78 Bq kg(-1)) than Mariout Lake (12.65±1.53, 7.24±0.76 and 518.75±46.24 Bq kg(-1), respectively). Cesium-137 shows nearly equal activities in both lakes (3.33±0.46 and 3.68±0.70 Bq kg(-1), respectively). Activity distributions of (238)U and (232)Th in the sediments of Mariout Lake show a significant increase to the west, southwest and northeast, (40)K activity increased westwards, while the (137)Cs level was increased to the east and northeast, indicating agriculture drainage, industrial wastes and lands reclamation around the lake. At Brullus Lake, the activity trends of (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and(137)Cs were increasing to the west and south towards the agriculture and industrial waste-water-feeding drains. PMID:23630385

  3. Survival of Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee during simulated gastric passage is improved by low water activity and high fat content.

    PubMed

    Aviles, Bryan; Klotz, Courtney; Smith, Twyla; Williams, Robert; Ponder, Monica

    2013-02-01

    The low water activity (a(w) 0.3) of peanut butter prohibits the growth of Salmonella in a product; however, illnesses are reported from peanut butter contaminated with very small doses, suggesting the food matrix itself influences the infectious dose of Salmonella, potentially by improving Salmonella's survival in the gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of our study was to quantify the survival of a peanut butter outbreak-associated strain of Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee when inoculated into peanut butters with different fat contents and a(w) (high fat, high a(w); high fat, low a(w); low fat, high a(w); low fat, low a(w)) and then challenged with a simulated gastrointestinal system. Exposures to increased fat content and decreased a(w) both were associated with a protective effect on the survival of Salmonella Tennessee in the simulated gastric fluid compared with control cells. After a simulated intestinal phase, the populations of Salmonella Tennessee in the control and low-fat formulations were not significantly different; however, a 2-log CFU/g increase occurred in high-fat formulations. This study demonstrates that cross-protection from low-a(w) stress and the presence of high fat results in improved survival in the low pH of the stomach. The potential for interaction of food matrix and stress adaptations could influence the virulence of Salmonella and should be considered for risk analysis. PMID:23433384

  4. Glutathione cycle activity and pyridine nucleotide levels in oxidant-induced injury of cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schraufstätter, I U; Hinshaw, D B; Hyslop, P A; Spragg, R G; Cochrane, C G

    1985-01-01

    Exposure of target cells to a bolus of H2O2 induced cell lysis after a latent period of several hours, which was prevented only when the H2O2 was removed within the first 30 min of injury by addition of catalase. This indicated that early metabolic events take place that are important in the fate of the cell exposed to oxidants. In this study, we described two early and independent events of H2O2-induced injury in P388D1 macrophagelike tumor cells: activation of the glutathione cycle and depletion of cellular NAD. Glutathione cycle and hexose monophosphate shunt (HMPS) were activated within seconds after the addition of H2O2. High HMPS activity maintained glutathione that was largely reduced. However, when HMPS activity was inhibited--by glucose depletion or by incubation at 4 degrees C--glutathione remained in the oxidized state. Total pyridine nucleotide levels were diminished when cells were exposed to H2O2, and the breakdown product, nicotinamide, was recovered in the extracellular medium. Intracellular NAD levels fell by 80% within 20 min of exposure of cells to H2O2. The loss of NADP(H) and stimulation of the HMPS could be prevented when the glutathione cycle was inhibited by either blocking glutathione synthesis with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) or by inhibiting glutathione reductase with (1,3-bis) 2 chlorethyl-1-nitrosourea. The loss of NAD developed independently of glutathione cycle and HMPS activity, as it also occurred in BSO-treated cells. PMID:3840176

  5. Brain extraction from cerebral MRI volume using a hybrid level set based active contour neighborhood model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The extraction of brain tissue from cerebral MRI volume is an important pre-procedure for neuroimage analyses. The authors have developed an accurate and robust brain extraction method using a hybrid level set based active contour neighborhood model. Methods The method uses a nonlinear speed function in the hybrid level set model to eliminate boundary leakage. When using the new hybrid level set model an active contour neighborhood model is applied iteratively in the neighborhood of brain boundary. A slice by slice contour initial method is proposed to obtain the neighborhood of the brain boundary. The method was applied to the internet brain MRI data provided by the Internet Brain Segmentation Repository (IBSR). Results In testing, a mean Dice similarity coefficient of 0.95±0.02 and a mean Hausdorff distance of 12.4±4.5 were obtained when performing our method across the IBSR data set (18 × 1.5 mm scans). The results obtained using our method were very similar to those produced using manual segmentation and achieved the smallest mean Hausdorff distance on the IBSR data. Conclusions An automatic method of brain extraction from cerebral MRI volume was achieved and produced competitively accurate results. PMID:23587217

  6. Osmoregulation of Na(+)-inositol cotransporter activity and mRNA levels in brain glial cells.

    PubMed

    Paredes, A; McManus, M; Kwon, H M; Strange, K

    1992-12-01

    During plasma hypertonicity brain volume is regulated acutely by electrolyte uptake and chronically by accumulation of organic solutes such as inositol. Cultured rat C6 glioma cells, an astrocyte-like cell line, show a similar pattern of volume control. Volume regulatory accumulation of inositol requires external inositol, indicating that membrane transport plays a central role in this process. The inositol uptake pathway is Na+ dependent and exhibits Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Chronic hypertonic acclimation results in a twofold increase in the maximum velocity of the transporter without changing the Km. Hypertonic stress also results in a 17-fold increase in transporter mRNA. Elevation of mRNA levels precedes activation of the transporter by 4-6 h, suggesting that increased inositol uptake is mediated by synthesis and membrane insertion of new transport proteins. Reacclimation of hypertonic cells to isotonicity causes a rapid reduction of transporter mRNA levels to control levels within 4 h. In contrast, downregulation of transport activity does not begin until between 10 and 24 h after reexposure to isotonicity. PMID:1476169

  7. Meta-analysis of internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity levels

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Many internet-delivered physical activity behaviour change programs have been developed and evaluated. However, further evidence is required to ascertain the overall effectiveness of such interventions. The objective of the present review was to evaluate the effectiveness of internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity, whilst also examining the effect of intervention moderators. A systematic search strategy identified relevant studies published in the English-language from Pubmed, Proquest, Scopus, PsychINFO, CINHAL, and Sport Discuss (January 1990 – June 2011). Eligible studies were required to include an internet-delivered intervention, target an adult population, measure and target physical activity as an outcome variable, and include a comparison group that did not receive internet-delivered materials. Studies were coded independently by two investigators. Overall effect sizes were combined based on the fixed effect model. Homogeneity and subsequent exploratory moderator analysis was undertaken. A total of 34 articles were identified for inclusion. The overall mean effect of internet-delivered interventions on physical activity was d = 0.14 (p = 0.00). Fixed-effect analysis revealed significant heterogeneity across studies (Q = 73.75; p = 0.00). Moderating variables such as larger sample size, screening for baseline physical activity levels and the inclusion of educational components significantly increased intervention effectiveness. Results of the meta-analysis support the delivery of internet-delivered interventions in producing positive changes in physical activity, however effect sizes were small. The ability of internet-delivered interventions to produce meaningful change in long-term physical activity remains unclear. PMID:22546283

  8. Community Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP), Characterization and Microbial Activity of Soil Amended with Dairy Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Frąc, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the influence of organic amendment applications compared to mineral fertilization on soil microbial activity and functional diversity. The field experiment was set up on a soil classified as an Eutric Cambisol developed from loess (South-East Poland). Two doses of both dairy sewage sludge (20 Mg·ha−1 and 26 Mg·ha−1) and of mineral fertilizers containing the same amount of nutrients were applied. The same soil without any amendment was used as a control. The soil under undisturbed native vegetation was also included in the study as a representative background sample. The functional diversity (catabolic potential) was assessed using such indices as Average Well Color Development (AWCD), Richness (R) and Shannon–Weaver index (H). These indices were calculated, following the community level physiological profiling (CLPP) using Biolog Eco Plates. Soil dehydrogenase and respiratory activity were also evaluated. The indices were sensitive enough to reveal changes in community level physiological profiles due to treatment effects. It was shown that dairy sewage amended soil was characterized by greater AWCD, R, H and dehydrogenase and respiratory activity as compared to control or mineral fertilized soil. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to depict the differences of the soil bacterial functional diversity between the treatments. PMID:22737006

  9. In vitro antibacterial activity of seven Indian spices against high level gentamicin resistant strains of enterococci

    PubMed Central

    Bipin, Chapagain; Chitra, Pai (Bhat); Minakshi, Bhattacharjee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to explore the in vitro antibacterial activity of seven ethanolic extracts of spices against high level gentamicin resistant (HLGR) enterococci isolated from human clinical samples. Material and methods Two hundred and fifteen enterococcal strains were isolated from clinical samples. High level gentamicin resistance in ethanolic extracts of cumin (Cuminum cyminum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) and black pepper (Piper nigrum) were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. The antibacterial effect of the extracts was studied using the well diffusion method. Statistical analysis was carried out by χ2 test using SPSS 17 software. Results Only cinnamon and ginger were found to have activity against all the isolates, whereas cumin and cloves had a variable effect on the strains. Fenugreek, black pepper and cardamom did not show any effect on the isolates. The zone diameter of inhibition obtained for cinnamon, ginger, cloves and cumin was in the range 31–34 mm, 27–30 mm, 25–26 mm and 19–20 mm respectively. Conclusions Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Z. officinale showed the maximum antibacterial activity against the enterococcal isolates followed by S. aromaticum and C. cyminum. The findings of the study show that spices used in the study can contribute to the development of potential antimicrobial agents for inclusion in the anti-enterococcal treatment regimen. PMID:26322099

  10. On the Relationship between Variational Level Set-Based and SOM-Based Active Contours

    PubMed Central

    Abdelsamea, Mohammed M.; Gnecco, Giorgio; Gaber, Mohamed Medhat; Elyan, Eyad

    2015-01-01

    Most Active Contour Models (ACMs) deal with the image segmentation problem as a functional optimization problem, as they work on dividing an image into several regions by optimizing a suitable functional. Among ACMs, variational level set methods have been used to build an active contour with the aim of modeling arbitrarily complex shapes. Moreover, they can handle also topological changes of the contours. Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) have attracted the attention of many computer vision scientists, particularly in modeling an active contour based on the idea of utilizing the prototypes (weights) of a SOM to control the evolution of the contour. SOM-based models have been proposed in general with the aim of exploiting the specific ability of SOMs to learn the edge-map information via their topology preservation property and overcoming some drawbacks of other ACMs, such as trapping into local minima of the image energy functional to be minimized in such models. In this survey, we illustrate the main concepts of variational level set-based ACMs, SOM-based ACMs, and their relationship and review in a comprehensive fashion the development of their state-of-the-art models from a machine learning perspective, with a focus on their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25960736

  11. Entropy Generation and Human Aging: Lifespan Entropy and Effect of Physical Activity Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Carlos; Annamalai, Kalyan

    2008-06-01

    The first and second laws of thermodynamics were applied to biochemical reactions typical of human metabolism. An open-system model was used for a human body. Energy conservation, availability and entropy balances were performed to obtain the entropy generated for the main food components. Quantitative results for entropy generation were obtained as a function of age using the databases from the U.S. Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which provide energy requirements and food intake composition as a function of age, weight and stature. Numerical integration was performed through human lifespan for different levels of physical activity. Results were presented and analyzed. Entropy generated over the lifespan of average individuals (natural death) was found to be 11,404 kJ/ºK per kg of body mass with a rate of generation three times higher on infants than on the elderly. The entropy generated predicts a life span of 73.78 and 81.61 years for the average U.S. male and female individuals respectively, which are values that closely match the average lifespan from statistics (74.63 and 80.36 years). From the analysis of the effect of different activity levels, it is shown that entropy generated increases with physical activity, suggesting that exercise should be kept to a “healthy minimum” if entropy generation is to be minimized.

  12. On the Relationship between Variational Level Set-Based and SOM-Based Active Contours.

    PubMed

    Abdelsamea, Mohammed M; Gnecco, Giorgio; Gaber, Mohamed Medhat; Elyan, Eyad

    2015-01-01

    Most Active Contour Models (ACMs) deal with the image segmentation problem as a functional optimization problem, as they work on dividing an image into several regions by optimizing a suitable functional. Among ACMs, variational level set methods have been used to build an active contour with the aim of modeling arbitrarily complex shapes. Moreover, they can handle also topological changes of the contours. Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) have attracted the attention of many computer vision scientists, particularly in modeling an active contour based on the idea of utilizing the prototypes (weights) of a SOM to control the evolution of the contour. SOM-based models have been proposed in general with the aim of exploiting the specific ability of SOMs to learn the edge-map information via their topology preservation property and overcoming some drawbacks of other ACMs, such as trapping into local minima of the image energy functional to be minimized in such models. In this survey, we illustrate the main concepts of variational level set-based ACMs, SOM-based ACMs, and their relationship and review in a comprehensive fashion the development of their state-of-the-art models from a machine learning perspective, with a focus on their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25960736

  13. [Kinking of the endotracheal tube in a prone patient associated with the inadequate withdrawal maneuver of the Pentax-AWS Airway Scope].

    PubMed

    Ohata, Hiroto; Iida, Yuko; Kito, Kazuhiro; Kawamura, Michika; Yamashita, Mika; Ohta, Shuichiro; Ueda, Norio; Iida, Hiroki

    2013-06-01

    We report a case of intraoperative kinking of an endotracheal tube (ETT) in a prone patient during spine surgery. We postulate that one of the risk factors involved with kinking was the inadequate withdrawal maneuver of Pentax-AWS Airway Scope (AWS). Patient was a 69-year-old woman with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis, undergoing C4-6 laminoplasty under general anesthesia in the prone position. A 7.0-mm polyvinyl endotracheal tube (Paker Flex-Tip Tube) was placed to 21 cm at the right angle of the mouse without difficulty using the AWS. Both peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) and partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide began to rise gradually from 24 to 28 cmH2O and 38 to 44 mmHg, respectively. Although over 30 cmH2O in PIP repeatedly appeared after that, we did not find any remarkable change of ventilation except for weak breath sound. Thereafter, when we checked the tube with a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope, it could not pass through the tube. At first, we asked the surgeon to release neck flexion as much as possible. This procedure could not correct the kink completely but allowed the passage of bronchoscope in the ETT. Then, we tried to reposition the ETT by inserting the bronchoscope beyond the point of kinking for maintaining luminal patency and adequate ventilation. The subsequent anesthetic course was uneventful. Kinking of the ETT in the oral cavity is an uncommon problem but we must keep in mind as one of the differential diagnoses. When using the AWS for endotracheal intubation, we recommend the confirmation of the position of the ETT to be normal in the oral cavity by direct laryngoscopy. PMID:23814989

  14. Long-latency muscle activity reflects continuous, delayed sensorimotor feedback of task-level and not joint-level error

    PubMed Central

    Safavynia, Seyed A.

    2013-01-01

    In both the upper and lower limbs, evidence suggests that short-latency electromyographic (EMG) responses to mechanical perturbations are modulated based on muscle stretch or joint motion, whereas long-latency responses are modulated based on attainment of task-level goals, e.g., desired direction of limb movement. We hypothesized that long-latency responses are modulated continuously by task-level error feedback. Previously, we identified an error-based sensorimotor feedback transformation that describes the time course of EMG responses to ramp-and-hold perturbations during standing balance (Safavynia and Ting 2013; Welch and Ting 2008, 2009). Here, our goals were 1) to test the robustness of the sensorimotor transformation over a richer set of perturbation conditions and postural states; and 2) to explicitly test whether the sensorimotor transformation is based on task-level vs. joint-level error. We developed novel perturbation trains of acceleration pulses such that perturbations were applied when the body deviated from the desired, upright state while recovering from preceding perturbations. The entire time course of EMG responses (∼4 s) in an antagonistic muscle pair was reconstructed using a weighted sum of center of mass (CoM) kinematics preceding EMGs at long-latency delays (∼100 ms). Furthermore, CoM and joint kinematic trajectories became decorrelated during perturbation trains, allowing us to explicitly compare task-level vs. joint feedback in the same experimental condition. Reconstruction of EMGs was poorer using joint kinematics compared with CoM kinematics and required unphysiologically short (∼10 ms) delays. Thus continuous, long-latency feedback of task-level variables may be a common mechanism regulating long-latency responses in the upper and lower limbs. PMID:23803325

  15. Long-latency muscle activity reflects continuous, delayed sensorimotor feedback of task-level and not joint-level error.

    PubMed

    Safavynia, Seyed A; Ting, Lena H

    2013-09-01

    In both the upper and lower limbs, evidence suggests that short-latency electromyographic (EMG) responses to mechanical perturbations are modulated based on muscle stretch or joint motion, whereas long-latency responses are modulated based on attainment of task-level goals, e.g., desired direction of limb movement. We hypothesized that long-latency responses are modulated continuously by task-level error feedback. Previously, we identified an error-based sensorimotor feedback transformation that describes the time course of EMG responses to ramp-and-hold perturbations during standing balance (Safavynia and Ting 2013; Welch and Ting 2008, 2009). Here, our goals were 1) to test the robustness of the sensorimotor transformation over a richer set of perturbation conditions and postural states; and 2) to explicitly test whether the sensorimotor transformation is based on task-level vs. joint-level error. We developed novel perturbation trains of acceleration pulses such that perturbations were applied when the body deviated from the desired, upright state while recovering from preceding perturbations. The entire time course of EMG responses (∼4 s) in an antagonistic muscle pair was reconstructed using a weighted sum of center of mass (CoM) kinematics preceding EMGs at long-latency delays (∼100 ms). Furthermore, CoM and joint kinematic trajectories became decorrelated during perturbation trains, allowing us to explicitly compare task-level vs. joint feedback in the same experimental condition. Reconstruction of EMGs was poorer using joint kinematics compared with CoM kinematics and required unphysiologically short (∼10 ms) delays. Thus continuous, long-latency feedback of task-level variables may be a common mechanism regulating long-latency responses in the upper and lower limbs. PMID:23803325

  16. The feasibility of well-logging measurements of arsenic levels using neutron-activation analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oden, C.P.; Schweitzer, J.S.; McDowell, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic is an extremely toxic metal, which poses a significant problem in many mining environments. Arsenic contamination is also a major problem in ground and surface waters. A feasibility study was conducted to determine if neutron-activation analysis is a practical method of measuring in situ arsenic levels. The response of hypothetical well-logging tools to arsenic was simulated using a readily available Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNP). Simulations were made for probes with both hyperpure germanium (HPGe) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors using accelerator and isotopic neutron sources. Both sources produce similar results; however, the BGO detector is much more susceptible to spectral interference than the HPGe detector. Spectral interference from copper can preclude low-level arsenic measurements when using the BGO detector. Results show that a borehole probe could be built that would measure arsenic concentrations of 100 ppm by weight to an uncertainty of 50 ppm in about 15 min. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Potential Use of Radio Frequency Identification Devices for Active Monitoring of Blood Glucose Levels

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Bert

    2009-01-01

    Imagine a diabetes patient receiving a text message on his mobile phone warning him that his blood glucose level is too low or a patient's mobile phone calling an emergency number when the patient goes into diabetic shock. Both scenarios depend on automatic, continuous monitoring of blood glucose levels and transmission of that information to a phone. The development of advanced biological sensors and integration with passive radio frequency identification technologies are the key to this. These hold the promise of being able to free patients from finger stick sampling or externally worn devices while providing continuous blood glucose monitoring that allows patients to manage their health more actively. To achieve this promise, however, a number of technical issues need to be addressed. PMID:20046663

  18. Can Population Levels of Physical Activity be Increased? Global Evidence and Experience

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Michael; Perez, Lilian G.; Goenka, Shifalika; Brownson, Ross C.; Bauman, Adrian; Sarmiento, Olga Lucia; Hallal, Pedro C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important contributors to the global burden of disease and has become a global public health priority. We review the evidence on physical activity (PA) interventions, actions, and strategies that have the greatest potential to increase PA at the population level. Using the socio-ecological framework to conceptualize PA interventions, we show that PA can be targeted at multiple levels of influence and by multiple sectors outside the health system. Examples of promoting PA on a national scale are presented from Finland, Canada, Brazil, and Colombia. A strong policy framework, consistent investment in public health programs, multi-sectoral support and actions, and good surveillance characterize each of these success stories. Increasing PA globally will depend on successfully applying and adapting these lessons around the world taking into account country, culture, and context. PMID:25304047

  19. Race-related Disparities in Five-year Cognitive Level and Change in Untrained ACTIVE Participants

    PubMed Central

    Marsiske, Michael; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Thomas, Kelsey R.; Kasten, Linda; Jones, Rich; Johnson, Kathy; Willis, Sherry; Whitfield, Keith; Ball, Karlene; Rebok, George

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The current study examined five-year cognitive change in untrained African American and White participants from the ACTIVE study Methods Five year trajectories of memory, reasoning, visual processing speed/useful field of view, digit symbol substitution, and vocabulary were investigated. Education, health, gender, age and retest/practice effects were controlled for, and a missing data pattern mixture approach was used to adjust for dropout effects. Results After considering age, education health and gender, being African American uniquely explained 2% to 7% of the variance in cognitive performance. There were virtually no significant race differences in rates of change. Discussion Race-related results in the current study are consistent with previous research suggesting that social advantage factors like education have a stronger influence on level of performance than rate of change. The small remaining effects of being African American on performance levels likely reflect uncontrolled variation in factors like literacy and financial advantage. PMID:24385632

  20. Unprotected sex among heterosexually active homeless men: results from a multi-level dyadic analysis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David P; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Brown, Ryan; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela

    2013-06-01

    HIV is a serious public health problem for homeless populations. Homeless men who have sex with women have received less attention in the HIV risk literature than other homeless populations. This research uses multi-level modeling to investigate the context of unprotected sex among heterosexually active homeless men in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Based on interviews with 305 randomly selected men who discussed 665 of their recent female sexual relationships, this project investigates the correlates of unprotected sex during the past 6 months at the partnership, individual, and social network levels. Several different measures of relationship closeness and lack of communication about HIV/condoms were associated with unprotected sex. Controlling for relationship factors, men's negative attitudes towards condoms, mental health, and higher number of male sex partners also were associated with having unprotected sex with female partners. We discuss the implications of these findings for health interventions. PMID:23212852

  1. Relations between the school physical environment and school social capital with student physical activity levels

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The physical and social environments at schools are related to students’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels. The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive effects of the school physical environment and school social capital on the MVPA of students while at school. Methods Data from 18,875 grade 6–10 students from 331 schools who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey were analyzed using multi-level regression. Students answered questions on the amount of time they spend in MVPA at school and on their school’s social capital. Administrator reports were used to create a physical activity related physical environment score. Results The school physical environment score was positively associated with student MVPA at school (β = 0.040, p < .005). The association between the school social capital and MVPA was also positive (β = 0.074, p < .001). The difference in physical environments equated to about 20 minutes/week of MVPA for students attending schools with the lowest number of physical environment features and about 40 minutes/week for students attending schools with the lowest school social capital scores by comparison to students attending schools with the highest scores. Conclusions The findings suggest that school social capital may be a more important factor in increasing students MVPA than the school physical environment. The results of this study may help inform interventions aimed at increasing student physical activity levels. PMID:24341628

  2. Impact of varying physical activity levels on airway sensitivity and bronchodilation in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua R; Kurti, Stephanie P; Johnson, Ariel M; Kolmer, Sarah A; Harms, Craig

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the amount of physical activity influences airway sensitivity and bronchodilation in healthy subjects across a range of physical activity levels. Thirty healthy subjects (age, 21.9 ± 2.6 years; 13 men/17 women) with normal pulmonary function reported to the laboratory on 2 separate occasions where they were randomized to breathe either hypertonic saline (HS) (nebulized hypertonic saline (25%) for 20 min) or HS followed by 5 deep inspirations (DIs), which has been reported to bronchodilate the airways. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were performed prior to both conditions and following the HS breathing or 5 DIs. Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) level was measured via accelerometer worn for 7 days. Following the HS breathing, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) significantly decreased from baseline by -11.8% ± 8.4% and -9.3% ± 6.7%, respectively. A 2-segment linear model determined significant relationships between MVPA and percent change in FEV1 (r = 0.50) and FVC (r = 0.55). MVPA above ∼497 and ∼500 min/week for FEV1 and FVC, respectively, resulted in minor additional improvements (p > 0.05) in PFTs following the HS breathing. Following the DIs, FEV1 and FVC decreased (p < 0.05) by -7.3% ± 8.6% and -5.7% ± 5.7%, respectively, from baseline, but were not related (p > 0.05) to MVPA. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that higher MVPA levels attenuated airway sensitivity but not bronchodilation in healthy subjects. PMID:26575101

  3. Segmentation of hand radiographs by using multi-level connected active appearance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, Joost A.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Bernelot Moens, Hein J.

    2005-04-01

    Robust and accurate segmentation methods are important for the computerized evaluation of medical images. For treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, joint damage assessment in radiographs of hands is frequently used for monitoring disease progression. Current clinical scoring methods are based on visual measurements that are time-consuming and subject to intra and inter-reader variance. A solution may be found in the development of partially automated assessment procedures. This requires reliable segmentation algorithms. Our work demonstrates a segmentation method based on multiple connected active appearance models (AAM) with multiple search steps using different quality levels. The quality level can be regulated by setting the image resolution and the number of landmarks in the AAMs. We performed experiments using two models of different quality levels for shape and texture information. Both models included AAMs for the carpal region, the metacarpals, and all phalanges. By starting an iterative search with the faster, low-quality model, we were able to determine the initial parameters of the second, high-quality model. After the second search, the results showed successful segmentation for 22 of 30 test images. For these images, 70% of the landmarks were found within 1.3 mm difference from manual placement by an expert. The multi-level search approach resulted in a reduction of 50% in calculation time compared to a search using a single model. Results are expected to improve when the model is refined by increasing the number of training examples and the resolution of the models.

  4. Loneliness in elderly individuals, level of dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) and influential factors.

    PubMed

    Hacihasanoğlu, Rabia; Yildirim, Arzu; Karakurt, Papatya

    2012-01-01

    This study has been carried out to investigate the level of loneliness, determine the level of dependence in the ADL and influential factors in the elderly people. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 Family Healthcare Centers (FHC) located in central Erzincan, Turkey between March and June 2010. The data of the research was collected using a questionnaire that determined the descriptive and UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS). Mean score of the UCLA-LS was determined as 51.59 ± 4.44. It was determined that 2% of the elderly ADL were completely dependent, 14.5% were semi-dependent. Factors such as being old, a widow/divorced, having a lower level of education and/or income, living alone, having a chronic disease, poor self-perceived health, lack of visits by relatives or acquaintances, dissatisfaction with the place of living, and being fully dependent while performing daily activities were determined as factors which increased the level of loneliness. Furthermore, factors such as being old, a female, a widow/divorced, living together with a daughter/son, having a chronic disease and poor self-perceived health were found to be influential in dependency. Elderly people who are alone and dependent in fulfilling their ADL should be monitored more closely. PMID:21514680

  5. Role of Increased Guanosine Triphosphate Cyclohydrolase-1 Expression and Tetrahydrobiopterin Levels upon T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Li, Li; Brod, Torben; Saeed, Omar; Thabet, Salim; Jansen, Thomas; Dikalov, Sergey; Weyand, Cornelia; Goronzy, Jorg; Harrison, David G.

    2011-01-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential co-factor for the nitric-oxide (NO) synthases, and in its absence these enzymes produce superoxide (O2˙̄) rather than NO. The rate-limiting enzyme for BH4 production is guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1 (GTPCH-1). Because endogenously produced NO affects T cell function, we sought to determine whether antigen stimulation affected T cell GTPCH-1 expression and ultimately BH4 levels. Resting T cells had minimal expression of inducible NOS (NOS2), endothelial NOS (NOS3), and GTPCH-1 protein and nearly undetectable levels of BH4. Anti-CD3 stimulation of T cells robustly stimulated the coordinated expression of NOS2, NOS3, and GTPCH-1 and markedly increased both GTPCH-1 activity and T cell BH4 levels. The newly expressed GTPCH-1 was phosphorylated on serine 72 and pharmacological inhibition of casein kinase II reduced GTPCH-1 phosphorylation and blunted the increase in T cell BH4. Inhibition of GTPCH-1 with diaminohydroxypyrimidine (1 mmol/liter) prevented T cell BH4 accumulation, reduced NO production, and increased T cell O2˙̄ production, due to both NOS2 and NOS3 uncoupling. GTPCH-1 inhibition also promoted TH2 polarization in memory CD4 cells. Ovalbumin immunization of mice transgenic for an ovalbumin receptor (OT-II mice) confirmed a marked increase in T cell BH4 in vivo. These studies identify a previously unidentified consequence of T cell activation, promoting BH4 levels, NO production, and modulating T cell cytokine production. PMID:21343293

  6. On the apparent clustering of clonal albumin production and enzyme activity levels.

    PubMed

    Thaler, H T; Braun, H I

    1984-12-01

    This communication is a critique of a novel, but inappropriate, use of the correlation coefficient to demonstrate the clustering of biological activity levels about a purported geometric progression. The data are re-examined by using a Fourier analysis approach to test for periodicity on a logarithmic scale; this approach follows from the methods of Kendall (1974, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series A 276, 231-266) and Fisher (1929, Proceedings of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A 125, 54-59). PMID:6534411

  7. Integrating computational activities into the upper-level Paradigms in Physics curriculum at Oregon State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, David H.; Tate, Janet; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2008-04-01

    The Paradigms in Physics project at Oregon State University has reformed the entire upper-level physics curriculum. The reform has involved a rearrangement of content to better reflect the way physicists think about the field and the use of several new pedagogies that place responsibility for learning more firmly in the hands of the students. In particular, we employ a wide variety of computational examples and problems throughout the courses. Students use MAPLE, MATHEMATICA, JAVA, and other software packages to do calculations, visualizations, and simulations that develop their intuition and physical reasoning. These computational activities are indispensable to the success of the curriculum.

  8. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Level 4 Carbon (L4_C) Product Specification Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassy, Joe; Kimball, John S.; Jones, Lucas; Reichle, Rolf H.; Ardizzone, Joseph V.; Kim, Gi-Kong; Lucchesi, Robert A.; Smith, Edmond B.; Weiss, Barry H.

    2015-01-01

    This is the Product Specification Document (PSD) for Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) data for the Science Data System (SDS) of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) project. The L4_SM data product provides estimates of land surface conditions based on the assimilation of SMAP observations into a customized version of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) land data assimilation system (LDAS). This document applies to any standard L4_SM data product generated by the SMAP Project.

  9. Calibration of low activity caesium tubes and needles traceable to the therapy level standard.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, N A; Wilkinson, J M

    1994-02-01

    A technique for deriving the reference air kerma rate for low activity brachytherapy sources that is traceable to the therapy level standard at the National Physical Laboratory is presented. Correction factors have been generated to account for the finite source and detector size. The air kerma rate calibration of the secondary standard for caesium quality has been derived by polynomial curve fitting. The reference air kerma rates for several caesium tubes and needles have been determined and the results compared with the manufacturers' source test reports. For all the source types used the agreement between methods was within 2%. PMID:8130983

  10. Development of the flowsheet used for decontaminating high-activity-level water at TMI-2. Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.D.; Campbell, D.O.; King, L.J.; Knauer, J.B.; Wallace, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Using a few small samples of high-activity-level water from TMI-2, a chemical processing flowsheet was developed for decontamination of the water and concentration of the radioactive contaminants in a form suitable for disposal. The initially selected process was evaluated and significantly improved. The improved process included sorption of the bulk radioactive materials, cesium and strontium, onto a mixture of inorganic zeolites and sorption of the anionic contaminants, antimony and ruthenium, plus the remaining traces of cesium and strontium onto standard organic ion exchange resins. The latter step was accomplished by means of a special deionization/sorption technique.

  11. Stress hormone levels in a freshwater turtle from sites differing in human activity.

    PubMed

    Polich, Rebecca L

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone (CORT), commonly serve as a measure of stress levels in vertebrate populations. These hormones have been implicated in regulation of feeding behaviour, locomotor activity, body mass, lipid metabolism and other crucial behaviours and physiological processes. Thus, understanding how glucocorticoids fluctuate seasonally and in response to specific stressors can yield insight into organismal health and the overall health of populations. I compared circulating CORT concentrations between two similar populations of painted turtle, Chrysemys picta, which differed primarily in the level of exposure to human recreational activities. I measured basal CORT concentrations as well as the CORT stress response and did not find any substantive difference between the two populations. This similarity may indicate that painted turtles are not stressed by the presence of humans during the nesting season. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of CORT concentrations in freshwater reptiles, a group that is historically under-represented in studies of circulating hormone concentrations; specifically, studies that seek to use circulating concentrations of stress hormones, such as CORT, as a measure of the effect of human activities on wild populations. They also give insight into how these species as a whole may respond to human recreational activities during crucial life-history stages, such as the nesting season. Although there was no discernable difference between circulating CORT concentrations between the urban and rural populations studied, I did find a significant difference in circulating CORT concentrations between male and female C. picta. This important finding provides better understanding of the sex differences between male and female painted turtles and adds to our understanding of this species and other species of freshwater turtle. PMID:27293763

  12. Stress hormone levels in a freshwater turtle from sites differing in human activity

    PubMed Central

    Polich, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone (CORT), commonly serve as a measure of stress levels in vertebrate populations. These hormones have been implicated in regulation of feeding behaviour, locomotor activity, body mass, lipid metabolism and other crucial behaviours and physiological processes. Thus, understanding how glucocorticoids fluctuate seasonally and in response to specific stressors can yield insight into organismal health and the overall health of populations. I compared circulating CORT concentrations between two similar populations of painted turtle, Chrysemys picta, which differed primarily in the level of exposure to human recreational activities. I measured basal CORT concentrations as well as the CORT stress response and did not find any substantive difference between the two populations. This similarity may indicate that painted turtles are not stressed by the presence of humans during the nesting season. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of CORT concentrations in freshwater reptiles, a group that is historically under-represented in studies of circulating hormone concentrations; specifically, studies that seek to use circulating concentrations of stress hormones, such as CORT, as a measure of the effect of human activities on wild populations. They also give insight into how these species as a whole may respond to human recreational activities during crucial life-history stages, such as the nesting season. Although there was no discernable difference between circulating CORT concentrations between the urban and rural populations studied, I did find a significant difference in circulating CORT concentrations between male and female C. picta. This important finding provides better understanding of the sex differences between male and female painted turtles and adds to our understanding of this species and other species of freshwater turtle. PMID:27293763

  13. Thyroid sialyltransferase mRNA level and activity are increased in Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Kiljański, Jacek; Ambroziak, Michał; Pachucki, Janusz; Jazdzewski, Krystian; Wiechno, Wieslaw; Stachlewska, Elzbieta; Górnicka, Barbara; Bogdańska, Magdalena; Nauman, Janusz; Bartoszewicz, Zbigniew

    2005-07-01

    Sialylation of cell components is an important immunomodulating mechanism affecting cell response to hormones and adhesion molecules. To study alterations in sialic acid metabolism in Graves' disease (GD) we measured the following parameters in various human thyroid tissues: lipid-bound sialic acid (LBSA) content, ganglioside profile, total sialyltransferase activity, and the two major sialyltransferase mRNAs for sialyltransferase-1 (ST6Gal I) and for sialyltransferase-4A (ST3Gal I). Fragments of toxic thyroid nodules (TN), nontoxic thyroid nodules (NN) and nontumorous tissue from patients with nodular goiter or thyroid cancer were used as a control (C). The LBSA content and sialyltransferase activity were the highest in the GD group (164 +/- 4.44 versus 120 +/- 2.00 nmoL/g, p = 0.005 and 1625 +/- 283.5 versus 324 +/- 54.2 cpm/mg of protein, p < 0.005 compared to control group C). Ganglioside profile in the GD group was similar to that in control tissues. Sialyltransferase- 1 mRNA and sialyltransferase-4A mRNA levels were significantly higher in the GD group than in the control group (12.52 +/- 6.90 versus 2.54 +/- 1.24 arbitrary units, p < 0.005 and 2,49 +/- 1.16 versus 1.23 +/- 0.46 arbitrary units, p < 0.05, respectively). There was a positive correlation between the increased sialyltransferase-1 mRNA level and the TSH-receptor antibody titer determined by the TRAK test. These results indicate that sialyltransferases expression and activity are increased in GD. Exact mechanism of this upregulation remains unknown, though one of possible explanations is the activation of the thyrotropin (TSH) receptor. PMID:16053379

  14. Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Activation of the Primary Visual Cortex Predicts Size Adaptation Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Pooresmaeili, Arezoo; Arrighi, Roberto; Biagi, Laura; Morrone, Maria Concetta

    2016-01-01

    In natural scenes, objects rarely occur in isolation but appear within a spatiotemporal context. Here, we show that the perceived size of a stimulus is significantly affected by the context of the scene: brief previous presentation of larger or smaller adapting stimuli at the same region of space changes the perceived size of a test stimulus, with larger adapting stimuli causing the test to appear smaller than veridical and vice versa. In a human fMRI study, we measured the blood oxygen level-dependent activation (BOLD) responses of the primary visual cortex (V1) to the contours of large-diameter stimuli and found that activation closely matched the perceptual rather than the retinal stimulus size: the activated area of V1 increased or decreased, depending on the size of the preceding stimulus. A model based on local inhibitory V1 mechanisms simulated the inward or outward shifts of the stimulus contours and hence the perceptual effects. Our findings suggest that area V1 is actively involved in reshaping our perception to match the short-term statistics of the visual scene. PMID:24089504

  15. The twilight zone: ambient light levels trigger activity in primitive ants

    PubMed Central

    Narendra, Ajay; Reid, Samuel F.; Hemmi, Jan M.

    2010-01-01

    Many animals become active during twilight, a narrow time window where the properties of the visual environment are dramatically different from both day and night. Despite the fact that many animals including mammals, reptiles, birds and insects become active in this specific temporal niche, we do not know what cues trigger this activity. To identify the onset of specific temporal niches, animals could anticipate the timing of regular events or directly measure environmental variables. We show that the Australian bull ant, Myrmecia pyriformis, starts foraging only during evening twilight throughout the year. The onset occurs neither at a specific temperature nor at a specific time relative to sunset, but at a specific ambient light intensity. Foraging onset occurs later when light intensities at sunset are brighter than normal or earlier when light intensities at sunset are darker than normal. By modifying ambient light intensity experimentally, we provide clear evidence that ants indeed measure light levels and do not rely on an internal rhythm to begin foraging. We suggest that the reason for restricting the foraging onset to twilight and measuring light intensity to trigger activity is to optimize the trade-off between predation risk and ease of navigation. PMID:20129978

  16. The Awful Truth About Zero-Gravity: Space Acceleration Measurement System; Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Earth's gravity holds the Shuttle in orbit, as it does satellites and the Moon. The apparent weightlessness experienced by astronauts and experiments on the Shuttle is a balancing act, the result of free-fall, or continuously falling around Earth. An easy way to visualize what is happening is with a thought experiment that Sir Isaac Newton did in 1686. Newton envisioned a mountain extending above Earth's atmosphere so that friction with the air would be eliminated. He imagined a cannon atop the mountain and aimed parallel to the ground. Firing the cannon propels the cannonball forward. At the same time, Earth's gravity pulls the cannonball down to the surface and eventual impact. Newton visualized using enough powder to just balance gravity so the cannonball would circle the Earth. Like the cannonball, objects orbiting Earth are in continuous free-fall, and it appears that gravity has been eliminated. Yet, that appearance is deceiving. Activities aboard the Shuttle generate a range of accelerations that have effects similar to those of gravity. The crew works and exercises. The main data relay antenna quivers 17 times per second to prevent 'stiction,' where parts stick then release with a jerk. Cooling pumps, air fans, and other systems add vibration. And traces of Earth's atmosphere, even 200 miles up, drag on the Shuttle. While imperceptible to us, these vibrations can have a profound impact on the commercial research and scientific experiments aboard the Shuttle. Measuring these forces is necessary so that researchers and scientists can see what may have affected their experiments when analyzing data. On STS-107 this service is provided by the Space Acceleration Measurement System for Free Flyers (SAMS-FF) and the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE). Precision data from these two instruments will help scientists analyze data from their experiments and eliminate outside influences from the phenomena they are studying during the mission.

  17. [The blood glucose content in newborn rats depending on level and pattern of spontaneous motor activity].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, S V; Selina, E N; Kuznetsova, N N

    2011-01-01

    Earlier we have shown that administration to newborn rats of the pentose phosphate cycle inhibitor hydroquinone leads to a change in intensity and pattern of spontaneous periodic motor activity (SPMA) characteristic of early stages of development. The most typical was the disappearance of the rest period from the near-minute cycle "activity--rest" and the appearance of uninterrupted motor activity. In several cases, especially after 10 days of development, there was noted an enhancement in the SMPA pattern of the motor activity complexes following in the decasecond rhythm. In this study, on the 3-10-day old rats maintained under conditions of free behavior there was studied the blood glucose content in the animals at various periods of the activity-rest cycle. Apart from the SPMA phase, its composition (pattern) characterizing the maturity level and functional state of spinal motor centers was taken into account. In the 3, 7 and 10-day old rats at the rest period, the glucose concentration was established to differ depending on the motor activity pattern. In the case of the decasecond periodicity, it amounts to 5.7 +/- 0.2, 6.3 +/- +/- 0.3, and 7.7 +/- 0.3 mmol/l, while at the minute one--6.1 +/- 0.4, 7.8 +/- 0.3, and 7.8 +/- 0.1 mmol/l. At the moment of bursts of motor excitation, the glucose concentration falls to 5.2 +/- 0.1, 6.1 +/- 0.4, and 7.1 +/- +/- 0.3 mm at the decasecond and to 5.4 +/- 0.5, 6.7 +/- 0.2, and 7.6 +/- 0.3 mmol/l at the near-minute rhythm (for the 3, 7 and 10-day old animals, respectively). The results obtained on the 5-day rat pups differ qualitatively from those observed in other age groups. Thus, the glucose concentration at the rest period amounts to 6.8 +/- 0.2 at the decasecond and to 6.7 +/- 0.4 mmol/l at the nearminute periodicity. At the period of motor excitation accompanied by the presence of the decasecond activity rhythm, the glucose concentration falls to the level of 6.0 +/- 0.2 mmol/l by differing statistically significantly

  18. Irisin Levels are Not Affected by Physical Activity in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Tobias; Elbelt, Ulf; Ahnis, Anne; Kobelt, Peter; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Irisin was recently identified as muscle-derived hormone that increases energy expenditure. Studies in normal weight and obese subjects reported an increased irisin expression following physical activity, although inconsistent results were observed. Increased physical activity in a subgroup of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) complicates the course of the disease. Since irisin could account for differences in clinical outcomes, we investigated irisin levels in anorexic patients with high and moderate physical activity to evaluate whether irisin differs with increasing physical activity. Hospitalized female anorexic patients (n = 39) were included. Plasma irisin measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and locomotor activity were assessed at the same time. Patients were separated into two groups (n = 19/group; median excluded): moderate and high activity (6331 ± 423 vs. 13743 ± 1047 steps/day, p < 0.001). The groups did not differ in body mass index (14.2 ± 0.4 vs. 15.0 ± 0.4 kg/m2), irisin levels (558.2 ± 26.1 vs. 524.9 ± 25.2 ng/ml), and body weight-adjusted resting energy expenditure (17.6 ± 0.3 vs. 18.0 ± 0.3 kcal/kg/day, p > 0.05), whereas body weight-adjusted total energy expenditure (46.0 ± 1.4 vs. 41.1 ± 1.1 kcal/kg/day), metabolic equivalents (METs, 1.9 ± 0.1 vs. 1.7 ± 0.1 METs/day), body weight-adjusted exercise activity thermogenesis (1.8 ± 0.5 vs. 0.6 ± 0.3 kcal/kg/day), duration of exercise (18.6 ± 4.7 vs. 6.2 ± 3.1 min/day), and body weight-adjusted non-exercise activity thermogenesis (21.6 ± 1.0 vs. 18.8 ± 0.8 kcal/kg/day) were higher in the high activity compared to the moderate activity group (p < 0.05). No correlations were observed between irisin and activity parameters in the whole sample (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the current data do not support the concept of irisin being induced by exercise, at least not under

  19. Stable Relationships: Horse Care Activities. Level 3. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08055

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiberger-Miller, Ami

    2004-01-01

    This is the third in a series of five horse project activity guides for youth. Levels 1-3 focus on "horse-less" activities, while Levels 4 and 5 zero in on riding and horsemanship. Each guide has an achievement program to encourage youth to learn and develop life skills. The assistance of a horse project helper in completing the achievement…

  20. Research Note: Physical Activity Levels in Elementary-School Physical Education: A Comparison of Swimming and Nonswimming Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Greet; Verstraete, Stefanie; De Clercq, Dirk; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of the current study was to compare physical activity levels during swimming and nonswimming elementary physical education classes. We conducted a preliminary study and found that the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) could be used to register physical activity engagement levels in swimming classes. Thirty-nine…