Science.gov

Sample records for activity based chapter

  1. Chapter A9. Safety in Field Activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, Susan L.; Ray, Ronald G.

    1998-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols (requirements and recommendations) and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter of the manual addresses topics related to personal safety to be used in the collection of water-quality data, including: policies and general regulations on field safety; transportation of people and equipment; implementation of surface-water and ground-water activities; procedures for handling chemicals; and information on potentially hazardous environmental conditions, animals, and plants. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters will be announced on the USGS Home Page on the World Wide Web under 'New Publications of the U.S. Geological Survey.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/ index.html.

  2. From Literacy Activities to Entrepreneurship in Siete Pilas. Chapter 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacon, Antonio; Polo, Angel

    This chapter describes a community development project in Siete Pilas (Spain), a village whose economy is based primarily on small family farms and unskilled labor. The project grew out of the Sierra Education Program, which in 1980 sent adult-education teachers to five villages in the Sierra de Ronda region. The goal was to stimulate a socially…

  3. School-based Services. Chapter 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This collection of papers presented at a 1996 conference on children's mental health focuses on school-based services. The eight papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Facilitating the Social/Emotional Development of Middle School Students: A Model for Improving School-Based Curriculum" (Craig Barringer and Doug Cheney); (2)…

  4. Chapter 11. Community analysis-based methods

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Y.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Holden, P.A.

    2010-05-01

    Microbial communities are each a composite of populations whose presence and relative abundance in water or other environmental samples are a direct manifestation of environmental conditions, including the introduction of microbe-rich fecal material and factors promoting persistence of the microbes therein. As shown by culture-independent methods, different animal-host fecal microbial communities appear distinctive, suggesting that their community profiles can be used to differentiate fecal samples and to potentially reveal the presence of host fecal material in environmental waters. Cross-comparisons of microbial communities from different hosts also reveal relative abundances of genetic groups that can be used to distinguish sources. In increasing order of their information richness, several community analysis methods hold promise for MST applications: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), cloning/sequencing, and PhyloChip. Specific case studies involving TRFLP and PhyloChip approaches demonstrate the ability of community-based analyses of contaminated waters to confirm a diagnosis of water quality based on host-specific marker(s). The success of community-based MST for comprehensively confirming fecal sources relies extensively upon using appropriate multivariate statistical approaches. While community-based MST is still under evaluation and development as a primary diagnostic tool, results presented herein demonstrate its promise. Coupled with its inherently comprehensive ability to capture an unprecedented amount of microbiological data that is relevant to water quality, the tools for microbial community analysis are increasingly accessible, and community-based approaches have unparalleled potential for translation into rapid, perhaps real-time, monitoring platforms.

  5. 48 CFR Appendix F to Chapter 7 - Use of Collaborative Assistance Method for Title XII Activities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of Collaborative Assistance Method for Title XII Activities F Appendix F to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Ch. 7, App. F Appendix F to Chapter 7—Use of Collaborative Assistance Method for Title XII Activities...

  6. Active microwave remote sensing of earth/land, chapter 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Geoscience applications of active microwave remote sensing systems are examined. Major application areas for the system include: (1) exploration of petroleum, mineral, and ground water resources, (2) mapping surface and structural features, (3) terrain analysis, both morphometric and genetic, (4) application in civil works, and (5) application in the areas of earthquake prediction and crustal movements. Although the success of radar surveys has not been widely publicized, they have been used as a prime reconnaissance data base for mineral exploration and land-use evaluation in areas where photography cannot be obtained.

  7. CHAPTER 7. BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS BY NON-PLASMA BASED METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-04-20

    The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

  8. Getting the Most from Pi Sigma Alpha Chapters: Exploring the Chapter Activity Grant Program and Its Multiplier Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    The political science honor society, Pi Sigma Alpha, has chapters in nearly 700 institutions across the United States. The organization sponsors many programs that can contribute a great deal to students of political science; however, many students are unaware of these opportunities. This article encourages chapter advisors to make use of these…

  9. Chapter 18: Web-based Tools - NED VO Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzarella, J. M.; NED Team

    The NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) is a thematic, web-based research facility in widespread use by scientists, educators, space missions, and observatory operations for observation planning, data analysis, discovery, and publication of research about objects beyond our Milky Way galaxy. NED is a portal into a systematic fusion of data from hundreds of sky surveys and tens of thousands of research publications. The contents and services span the entire electromagnetic spectrum from gamma rays through radio frequencies, and are continuously updated to reflect the current literature and releases of large-scale sky survey catalogs. NED has been on the Internet since 1990, growing in content, automation and services with the evolution of information technology. NED is the world's largest database of crossidentified extragalactic objects. As of December 2006, the system contains approximately 10 million objects and 15 million multi-wavelength cross-IDs. Over 4 thousand catalogs and published lists covering the entire electromagnetic spectrum have had their objects cross-identified or associated, with fundamental data parameters federated for convenient queries and retrieval. This chapter describes the interoperability of NED services with other components of the Virtual Observatory (VO). Section 1 is a brief overview of the primary NED web services. Section 2 provides a tutorial for using NED services currently available through the NVO Registry. The "name resolver" provides VO portals and related internet services with celestial coordinates for objects specified by catalog identifier (name); any alias can be queried because this service is based on the source cross-IDs established by NED. All major services have been updated to provide output in VOTable (XML) format that can be accessed directly from the NED web interface or using the NVO registry. These include access to images via SIAP, Cone- Search queries, and services providing fundamental, multi

  10. Active microwave remote sensing of oceans, chapter 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A rationale is developed for the use of active microwave sensing in future aerospace applications programs for the remote sensing of the world's oceans, lakes, and polar regions. Summaries pertaining to applications, local phenomena, and large-scale phenomena are given along with a discussion of orbital errors.

  11. Nocturnal activity of nesting shrubland and grassland passerines: Chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slay, Christy M.; Ellison, Kevin S.; Ribic, Christine; Smith, Kimberly G.; Schmitz, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Nocturnal activity of nesting passerines is largely undocumented in field situations. We used video recordings to quantify sleep patterns of four shrubland and three grassland bird species during the nestling period. All species exhibited “back sleep” (bill tucked under scapular feathers); individuals woke frequently for vigils of their surroundings. Sleep-bout duration varied from 6 minutes (grasshopper sparrow) to 28 minutes (blue-winged warbler, field sparrow). Duration on nest varied from 6.4 hours (field sparrow) to 8.8 hours (indigo bunting). Adults woke 20–30 minutes before sunrise. First morning absence from the nest was short; nestlings were fed within 12 minutes of a parent’s departure. Further research is needed to understand energetic costs of sleep and behavioral adaptations to environmental pressures.

  12. An Overview of SIMBIOS Program Activities and Accomplishments. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fargion, Giulietta S.; McClain, Charles R.

    2003-01-01

    The SIMBIOS Program was conceived in 1994 as a result of a NASA management review of the agency's strategy for monitoring the bio-optical properties of the global ocean through space-based ocean color remote sensing. At that time, the NASA ocean color flight manifest included two data buy missions, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and Earth Observing System (EOS) Color, and three sensors, two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS) and the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR), scheduled for flight on the EOS-Terra and EOS-Aqua satellites. The review led to a decision that the international assemblage of ocean color satellite systems provided ample redundancy to assure continuous global coverage, with no need for the EOS Color mission. At the same time, it was noted that non-trivial technical difficulties attended the challenge (and opportunity) of combining ocean color data from this array of independent satellite systems to form consistent and accurate global bio-optical time series products. Thus, it was announced at the October 1994 EOS Interdisciplinary Working Group meeting that some of the resources budgeted for EOS Color should be redirected into an intercalibration and validation program (McClain et al., 2002).

  13. Chapter 11: Web-based Tools - VO Region Inventory Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, J. C.

    As the size and number of datasets available through the VO grows, it becomes increasingly critical to have services that aid in locating and characterizing data pertinent to a particular scientific problem. At the same time, this same increase makes that goal more and more difficult to achieve. With a small number of datasets, it is feasible to simply retrieve the data itself (as the NVO DataScope service does). At intermediate scales, "count" DBMS searches (searches of the actual datasets which return record counts rather than full data subsets) sent to each data provider will work. However, neither of these approaches scale as the number of datasets expands into the hundreds or thousands. Dealing with the same problem internally, IRSA developed a compact and extremely fast scheme for determining source counts for positional catalogs (and in some cases image metadata) over arbitrarily large regions for multiple catalogs in a fraction of a second. To show applicability to the VO in general, this service has been extended with indices for all 4000+ catalogs in CDS Vizier (essentially all published catalogs and source tables). In this chapter, we will briefly describe the architecture of this service, and then describe how this can be used in a distributed system to retrieve rapid inventories of all VO holdings in a way that places an insignificant load on any data supplier. Further, we show and this tool can be used in conjunction with VO Registries and catalog services to zero in on those datasets that are appropriate to the user's needs. The initial implementation of this service consolidates custom binary index file structures (external to any DBMS and therefore portable) at a single site to minimize search times and implements the search interface as a simple CGI program. However, the architecture is amenable to distribution. The next phase of development will focus on metadata harvesting from data archives through a standard program interface and distribution

  14. Program Evaluation Project Report, 1969-1973. Chapter Two: Activities of the Follow-Up Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audette, Donna M.

    The P.E.P. Report 1969-1973 focuses on the various findings and activities of the Program Evaluation Project. Followup is an integral part of a goal oriented evaluation, providing the opportunity for the collection of various forms of outcome data as well as consumer satisfaction information. This chapter discusses the history and implementation…

  15. Experience the magic of light and color: outreach activity by Universidad del Valle student chapter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes, Claudia; Reyes, Camilo; Osorio, Alberto; Solarte, Efrain

    2010-08-01

    During 2007, the Universidad del Valle Student Chapter presented a proposal for developing an educational outreach activity for children from an underprivileged zone to the Optical Society of America Foundation (OSAF) and to SPIE. The activity was carried out jointly by OSA and SPIE Universidad del Valle Student Chapters in the hillsides of Santiago de Cali, in a zone known as "Pueblo Joven" during 2008. It was aimed to boys and girls with ages between 8 and 13 years and was called "Experience the magic of light and color". The main purpose was to bring the children some basic concepts on optics and to encourage them to explore science through optics. The Universidad del Valle Student Chapters designed a series of talks and practical workshops where children participated in hands-on experiments that easily explain the fundamental concepts of light phenomena. Afterwards the children presented their achievements in a small science fair offered to the community and tried to explain in their own words what they learned and built. In this work, we present the most successful experimental designs and the educational standards we tried to develop with this activity.

  16. Introduction to Radiation Issues for International Space Station Extravehicular Activities. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shavers, M. R.; Saganti, P. B.; Miller, J.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides significant challenges for radiation protection of the crew due to a combination of circumstances including: the extended duration of missions for many crewmembers, the exceptionally dynamic nature of the radiation environment in ISS orbit, and the necessity for numerous planned extravehicular activities (EVA) for station construction and maintenance. Radiation protection requires accurate radiation dose measurements and precise risk modeling of the transmission of high fluxes of energetic electrons and protons through the relatively thin shielding provided by the space suits worn during EVA. Experiments and analyses have been performed due to the necessity to assure complete radiation safety for the EVA crew and thereby ensure mission success. The detailed characterization described of the material and topological properties of the ISS space suits can be used as a basis for design of space suits used in future exploration missions. In radiation protection practices, risk from exposure to ionizing radiation is determined analytically by the level of exposure, the detrimental quality of the radiation field, the inherent radiosensitivity of the tissues or organs irradiated, and the age and gender of the person at the time of exposure. During low Earth orbit (LEO) EVA, the relatively high fluxes of low-energy electrons and protons lead to large variations in exposure of the skin, lens of the eye, and tissues in other shallow anatomical locations. The technical papers in this publication describe a number of ground-based experiments that precisely measure the thickness of the NASA extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and Russian Zvezda Orlan-M suits using medical computerized tomography (CT) X-ray analysis, and particle accelerator experiments that measure the minimum kinetic energy required by electrons and photons to penetrate major components of the suits. These studies provide information necessary for improving the

  17. Chapter 6: Implementation of Model-Based Instruction--The Induction Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurvitch, Rachel; Blankenship, Bonnie Tjeerdsma

    2008-01-01

    In previous chapters, student teachers' views and the use of model-based instruction (MBI) were determined to be largely positive. But do these positive attitudes and the actual use of MBI continue after completing a teacher education program? Many novice teachers experience "washout" when the attitudes and instructional practices they acquired…

  18. Chapter 8: The Diffusion of Model-Based Instruction by Establishing Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, Michael W.; Lund, Jacalyn L.; Gurvitch, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Previous chapters in this monograph have reported on a series of research studies that examined the adoption of an instructional innovation, model-based instruction (MBI), by teachers in three stages of career development: preservice/student teachers (STs), induction teachers (ITs), and experienced/cooperating teachers (CTs). All the teachers were…

  19. SPIE's School Outreach Activity Program (SOAP) by IIT Madras SPIE Student Chapter: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalikivayi, Lavanya; Kalikivayi, V.; Udayakumar, K.; Ganesan, A. R.

    2014-09-01

    One of the important aspects of SPIE is "Community Support and Outreach Education", which should raise awareness and interest in optics and photonics among the targeted communities and school children. Hence as part of SPIE IIT Madras student chapter, we carried out SPIE SOAP, a `School Outreach Activity Program'. Two types of schools were identified, one a high socio-economic status school and the other a low socio-economic status school having a majority of poor children. Optics related scientific experiments were demonstrated in these schools followed by oral quiz session to the students to assess the level of their knowledge before and after the experiments. We also clubbed this activity with "Vision Screening" and distribution of free spectacles for those children who live below poverty line. Out of the 415 children screened, 60.84% eyes were having normal vision, while 39.16% were found to have refractive errors (Myopia 35.78% and Hyperopia 3.38%) where some of them could not even read the board. Treatable eye diseases were also found in 0.72% of the children. The entire activity is been discussed and documented in this paper.

  20. Chapter 9: Pedagogical Content Knowing for Model-Based Instruction in Physical Education and Future Directions for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Jacalyn L.; Metzler, Michael W.; Gurvitch, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to advance the concept of pedagogical content knowledge in a manner that would better align it with the integrative type of knowledge needed by teachers at all three stages (preservice teachers, induction teachers, and cooperating teachers), allowing them to use model-based instruction (MBI) most effectively in…

  1. Documenting the Implementation of School Based Management/Shared Decision Making in a Non-Chapter 1 Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernas, Thomas G.

    The adoption of a school-based management/shared decision-making administrative process (SBM/SDM) was recommended for the Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) school district in June 1990. Findings of a study that determined the attitudes of three non-Chapter 1 elementary school communities in Philadelphia toward the adoption of SBM/SDM are presented in…

  2. Human Activity Behavior and Gesture Generation in Virtual Worlds for Long- Duration Space Missions. Chapter 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; Damer, Bruce; Brodsky, Boris; vanHoff, Ron

    2007-01-01

    A virtual worlds presentation technique with embodied, intelligent agents is being developed as an instructional medium suitable to present in situ training on long term space flight. The system combines a behavioral element based on finite state automata, a behavior based reactive architecture also described as subsumption architecture, and a belief-desire-intention agent structure. These three features are being integrated to describe a Brahms virtual environment model of extravehicular crew activity which could become a basis for procedure training during extended space flight.

  3. Chapter 6: Children's Environmental Access in Relation to Motor Competence, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Woods, Amelia Mays; Woods, Martha K.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine levels of physical activity engagement, motor competence, and physical fitness as related to child access to physical activity facilities in the home and school environments. The present investigation attempts to further efforts to examine the relationship between physical activity levels and access.…

  4. Chapter 4: A Comparison of Personal Attributes and Experiences among Physically Active and Inactive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Darla M.; Erwin, Heather E.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the researchers aim to compare the personal attributes and experiences of children who met or exceeded physical activity guidelines with those who did not. By creating profiles, the researchers could compare motor performance, physical fitness, self-efficacy, time spent outdoors during physical activity, social support from friends…

  5. Chapter 3: The Relationship of Physical Fitness and Motor Competence to Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Darla M.; Valley, Julia A.

    2007-01-01

    According to social cognitive theory, self-efficacy influences individual behaviors, such as physical activity engagement patterns, and as a result influences the physical and cognitive benefits that are outcomes from engagement. Children with higher self-efficacy are more likely to participate in physical activity than those with lower…

  6. Summary of the Active Microwave Workshop, chapter 1. [utilization in applications and aerospace programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An overview is given of the utility, feasibility, and advantages of active microwave sensors for a broad range of applications, including aerospace. In many instances, the material provides an in-depth examination of the applicability and/or the technology of microwave remote sensing, and considerable documentation is presented in support of these techniques. An assessment of the relative strengths and weaknesses of active microwave sensor data indicates that satisfactory data are obtainable for several significant applications.

  7. 48 CFR Appendix F to Chapter 7 - Use of Collaborative Assistance Method for Title XII Activities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... collaboration with eligible Title XII institutions and LDC counterparts for a problem-solving type activity to... much as a year or more. This stage recognizes the importance, for the problem-solving or ground..., 44 FR 56673; 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 435)...

  8. 48 CFR Appendix F to Chapter 7 - Use of Collaborative Assistance Method for Title XII Activities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... collaboration with eligible Title XII institutions and LDC counterparts for a problem-solving type activity to... much as a year or more. This stage recognizes the importance, for the problem-solving or ground..., 44 FR 56673; 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 435)...

  9. Chapter 1 Support for Instructional Development, 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaemper, Jack; Morse, Kathy

    Six of the 39 Albuquerque (New Mexico) Public Schools' Chapter 1 participating schools, as part of the school-based budgeting process, allocated a portion of their Chapter 1 resource allocation for on-site intensive staff development activities. Three schools--Alamosa, Chaparral, and Duranes--agreed to utilize the time of a Support for…

  10. Chapter 9: Performance-Limiting MHD Activity and Possibilities for Its Stabilization in ASDEX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Guenter, Sibylle; Zohm, Hartmut

    2003-11-15

    Performance-limiting magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities on ASDEX Upgrade are discussed. In the conventional H-mode scenario, the main MHD performance limitation is found to be the neoclassical tearing mode (NTM). The onset {beta} of NTMs in ASDEX Upgrade scales with the poloidal ion gyroradius, in agreement with theoretical expectations. At higher {beta} values, NTMs occur in a more benign form, the frequently-interrupted-regime NTMs, which lead to a smaller confinement degradation than normal NTMs. Active control of NTMs by electron cyclotron current drive in the island has been demonstrated on ASDEX Upgrade. In advanced tokamak regimes with reversed shear, a variety of performance-limiting instabilities has been observed. The shear reversal zone can be unstable to double tearing modes or to infernal modes; both have been identified in ASDEX Upgrade. Due to the broad current profile in advanced tokamak discharges, the ideal external kink mode can be unstable at relatively low {beta}{sub N} {<=} 2; this is a main limitation to strongly reversed shear discharges with peaked pressure profiles. Finally, it is shown that fast-particle-driven modes such as fishbones can also have beneficial effects, such as providing stationary current profiles or triggering internal transport barriers.

  11. Chapter 7: Influences on Cooperating Teachers' Adoption of Model-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Jacalyn L.; Gurvitch, Rachel; Metzler, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    This article considers another group of educators involved with the adoption of model-based instruction (MBI)--the cooperating teachers, who supervise physical education teacher education (PETE) student teachers in the Georgia State University (GSU) program. The university spends several semesters educating preservice teachers about the skills and…

  12. Base Flow Investigation of the Apollo AS-202 Command Module. Chapter 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walpot, Louis M. G.; Wright, Michael J.; Noeding, Peter; Schrijer, Ferry

    2011-01-01

    when attempting to rebuild measurements performed in "hot" ground facilities, where the difficulty level is increased by the addition of the free-flow characterization itself. The implementation of ever more sophisticated thermochemical models is no obvious cure to the aforementioned problems since their effect is often overwhelmed by the large measurement uncertainties incurred in both flight and ground high enthalpy facilities. Concurrent to the previous considerations, a major contributor to the overall vehicle mass of re-entry vehicles is the afterbody thermal protection system. This is due to the large acreage (equal or bigger than that of the forebody) to be protected. The present predictive capabilities for base flows are comparatively lower than those for windward flowfields and offer therefore a substantial potential for improving the design of future re-entry vehicles. To that end, it is essential to address the accuracy of high fidelity CFD tools exercised in the US and EU, which motivates a thorough investigation of the present status of hypersonic flight afterbody heating. This paper addresses the predictive capabilities of after body flow fields of re-entry vehicles investigated in the frame of the NATO/RTO - RTG-043 Task Group and is structured as follows: First, the verification of base flow topologies on the basis of available wind-tunnel results performed under controlled supersonic conditions (i.e., cold flows devoid of reactive effects) is performed. Such tests address the detailed characterization of the base flow with particular emphasis on separation/reattachment and their relation to Mach number effects. The tests have been performed on an Apollo-like re-entry capsule configuration. Second, the tools validated in the frame of the previous effort are exercised and appraised against flight-test data collected during the Apollo AS-202 re-entry.

  13. DataComm in Flight Deck Surface Trajectory-Based Operations. Chapter 20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakowski, Deborah L.; Foyle, David C.; Hooey, Becky L.; Meyer, Glenn R.; Wolter, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot-in-the-loop aircraft taxi simulation was to evaluate a NextGen concept for surface trajectory-based operations (STBO) in which air traffic control (ATC) issued taxi clearances with a required time of arrival (RTA) by Data Communications (DataComm). Flight deck avionics, driven by an error-nulling algorithm, displayed the speed needed to meet the RTA. To ensure robustness of the algorithm, the ability of 10 two-pilot crews to meet the RTA was tested in nine experimental trials representing a range of realistic conditions including a taxi route change, an RTA change, a departure clearance change, and a crossing traffic hold scenario. In some trials, these DataComm taxi clearances or clearance modifications were accompanied by preview information, in which the airport map display showed a preview of the proposed route changes, including the necessary speed to meet the RTA. Overall, the results of this study show that with the aid of the RTA speed algorithm, pilots were able to meet their RTAs with very little time error in all of the robustness-testing scenarios. Results indicated that when taxi clearance changes were issued by DataComm only, pilots required longer notification distances than with voice communication. However, when the DataComm was accompanied by graphical preview, the notification distance required by pilots was equivalent to that for voice.

  14. Participation of Private, Non-Profit Schools in ECIA Chapter 2 LEA Activities. Final Report. 1983-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. Div. of Quality Assurance.

    With the enactment of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act (ECIA) of 1981, private, nonprofit schools were rendered eligible to participate on an equitable basis in federally funded school programs. During the 1982-83 school year (the first year of ECIA Chapter 2) 44 private, nonprofit schools in the District of Columbia elected to…

  15. Activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Alfassi, Z.B. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains 16 chapters on the application of activation analysis in the fields of life sciences, biological materials, coal and its effluents, environmental samples, archaeology, material science, and forensics. Each chapter is processed separately for the data base.

  16. The activity-based anorexia mouse model.

    PubMed

    Klenotich, Stephanie J; Dulawa, Stephanie C

    2012-01-01

    Animals housed with running wheels and subjected to daily food restriction show paradoxical reductions in food intake and increases in running wheel activity. This phenomenon, known as activity-based anorexia (ABA), leads to marked reductions in body weight that can ultimately lead to death. Recently, ABA has been proposed as a model of anorexia nervosa (AN). AN affects about 8 per 100,000 females and has the highest mortality rate among all psychiatric illnesses. Given the reductions in quality of life, high mortality rate, and the lack of pharmacological treatments for AN, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying AN-like behavior is greatly needed. This chapter provides basic guidelines for conducting ABA experiments using mice. The ABA mouse model provides an important tool for investigating the neurobiological underpinnings of AN-like behavior and identifying novel treatments. PMID:22231828

  17. Chapter 9: Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-12-19

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  18. Chapter 6: Selenium Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter addresses the characteristics and nature of organic selenium (Se) toxicity to aquatic organisms, based on the most current state of scientific knowledge. As such, the information contained in this chapter relates to the 'toxicity assessment' phase of aquatic ecologi...

  19. Urban Image Classification: Per-Pixel Classifiers, Sub-Pixel Analysis, Object-Based Image Analysis, and Geospatial Methods. 10; Chapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myint, Soe W.; Mesev, Victor; Quattrochi, Dale; Wentz, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing methods used to generate base maps to analyze the urban environment rely predominantly on digital sensor data from space-borne platforms. This is due in part from new sources of high spatial resolution data covering the globe, a variety of multispectral and multitemporal sources, sophisticated statistical and geospatial methods, and compatibility with GIS data sources and methods. The goal of this chapter is to review the four groups of classification methods for digital sensor data from space-borne platforms; per-pixel, sub-pixel, object-based (spatial-based), and geospatial methods. Per-pixel methods are widely used methods that classify pixels into distinct categories based solely on the spectral and ancillary information within that pixel. They are used for simple calculations of environmental indices (e.g., NDVI) to sophisticated expert systems to assign urban land covers. Researchers recognize however, that even with the smallest pixel size the spectral information within a pixel is really a combination of multiple urban surfaces. Sub-pixel classification methods therefore aim to statistically quantify the mixture of surfaces to improve overall classification accuracy. While within pixel variations exist, there is also significant evidence that groups of nearby pixels have similar spectral information and therefore belong to the same classification category. Object-oriented methods have emerged that group pixels prior to classification based on spectral similarity and spatial proximity. Classification accuracy using object-based methods show significant success and promise for numerous urban 3 applications. Like the object-oriented methods that recognize the importance of spatial proximity, geospatial methods for urban mapping also utilize neighboring pixels in the classification process. The primary difference though is that geostatistical methods (e.g., spatial autocorrelation methods) are utilized during both the pre- and post

  20. The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project: Phase I Activities by a Global Community of Science. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Jones, James W.; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Antle, John M.; Ruane, Alexander C.; Mutter, Carolyn Z.

    2015-01-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) was founded in 2010. Its mission is to improve substantially the characterization of world food security as affected by climate variability and change, and to enhance adaptation capacity in both developing and developed countries. The objectives of AgMIP are to: Incorporate state-of-the-art climate, crop/livestock, and agricultural economic model improvements into coordinated multi-model regional and global assessments of future climate impacts and adaptation and other key aspects of the food system. Utilize multiple models, scenarios, locations, crops/livestock, and participants to explore uncertainty and the impact of data and methodological choices. Collaborate with regional experts in agronomy, animal sciences, economics, and climate to build a strong basis for model applications, addressing key climate related questions and sustainable intensification farming systems. Improve scientific and adaptive capacity in modeling for major agricultural regions in the developing and developed world, with a focus on vulnerable regions. Improve agricultural data and enhance data-sharing based on their intercomparison and evaluation using best scientific practices. Develop modeling frameworks to identify and evaluate promising adaptation technologies and policies and to prioritize strategies.

  1. Curricular Orientations. Chapter Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, James R.; Polloway, Edward A.

    The purpose of this chapter is to review the major curricular orientations which can be found in special education settings for students with mental disabilities. Program orientations differ along two primary dimensions: the amount of time students spend in special settings or with special education personnel, and the extent to which the…

  2. Chapter 2. Genetic Resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this chapter, four categories of plant genetic resources (PGR) are identified as important for breeding: Wild relatives, ecotypes, landraces, and cultivars. Fodder crops and amenity grasses differ from field crops in the relative importance of these categories, as well as in the relative importan...

  3. Chapter 3: Energy Security

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, Thomas D.; Arent, Doug; de Carvalho Macedo, Isaias; Goldemberg, Jose; Hoysala, Chanakya; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Nigro, Francisco E. B.; Richard, Tom L.; Saddler, Jack; Samseth, Jon; Somerville, Chris R.

    2015-04-01

    This chapter considers the energy security implications and impacts of bioenergy. We provide an assessment to answer the following questions: What are the implications for bioenergy and energy security within the broader policy environment that includes food and water security, development, economic productivity, and multiple foreign policy aspects? What are the conditions under which bioenergy contributes positively to energy security?

  4. Chapter 5: Introducing Innovation to Those Who Matter Most--The P-12 Pupils' Perceptions of Model-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, Michael W.; McCullick, Bryan A.

    2008-01-01

    The series of studies in this monograph examined the adoption of model-based instruction (MBI) as an innovative approach to teaching physical education. This innovation must be learned and used by preservice teachers, and then ultimately accepted by pupils in schools where student teachers plan for and implement MBI. Decisions by student teachers…

  5. 5 CFR 315.713 - Conversion based on service in a Pathways Program under part 362 of this chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Conversion to Career or Career-Conditional Employment From Other Types of Employment § 315.713 Conversion based on service... a career or career-conditional employment in the competitive service, without further...

  6. 5 CFR 315.713 - Conversion based on service in a Pathways Program under part 362 of this chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Conversion to Career or Career-Conditional Employment From Other Types of Employment § 315.713 Conversion based on service... a career or career-conditional employment in the competitive service, without further...

  7. Chapter IV - Safety During Payload Ground Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, Paul; Dollberg, John; Trinchero, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the typical hazards that can be expected to be encountered when processing payloads on the ground. Also described are some of the more common controls for these hazards. Many of these controls are based on hard requirements but they are also based on specific lessons learned. This chapter uses the term Flight Hardware (F/H) for all payloads regardless of size.

  8. Project on Social Architecture in Education. Final Report. Part II: Research Methods. Chapter 4: Project Overview. Chapter 5: Research Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Matthew B.

    This document contains chapters 4 and 5 of the final report of the Project on Social Architecture in Education. Chapter 4 provides a brief overview of the activities of the project in order to sketch the context out of which the case studies, conclusions, and learning materials emerged. Chapter 5 discusses and evaluates six major strands of…

  9. Advanced Concepts. Chapter 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Mulqueen, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Before there is a funded space mission, there must be a present need for the mission. Space science and exploration are expensive, and without a well-defined and justifiable need, no one is going to commit significant funding for any space endeavor. However, as discussed in Chapter 1, applications of space technology and many and broad, hence there are many ways to determine and establish a mission need. Robotic science missions are justified by their science return. To be selected for flight, questions like these must be addressed: What is the science question that needs answering, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to answer it? Why does answering the question require an expensive space flight, instead of some ground-based alternative? If the question can only be answered by flying in space, then why is this approach better than other potential approaches? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to answer the question in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? There are also many ways to justify human exploration missions, including science return, technology advancement, as well as intangible reasons, such as national pride. Nonetheless, many of the questions that need answering, are similar to those for robotic science missions: Where are the people going, why, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to get there? What is the safest method to achieve the goal? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to get there and keep the crew alive in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? Another reason for some groups sending spacecraft into space is for profit. Telecommunications, geospatial imaging, and tourism are examples of proven, market-driven space missions and applications. For this specific set of users, the

  10. Diagnostic and vaccine chapter.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, J H; Kokanov, S K; Verkhovsky, O A

    2010-10-01

    The first report in this chapter describes the development of a killed composite vaccine. This killed vaccine is non-infectious to humans, other animals, and the environment. The vaccine has low reactivity, is non-abortive, and does not induce pathomorphological alterations to the organs of vaccinated animals. The second report of this chapter describes the diagnostic value of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Brucella-specific antibodies and its ability to discriminate vaccinated cattle from infected cattle. The results indicated that the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is more sensitive than traditional tests for detecting antibodies to Brucella abortus in naturally and experimentally infected cattle. PMID:20850688

  11. Industry group assails climate chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, P.

    1996-06-21

    the scientific debate about whether human activity is warming global climate subsided late last year when the world`s leading climate researchers agreed that the answer is probably yes. But recently the political debate heated up by several degrees when an industry group charged that revisions to a crucial chapter in a UN report on climate change violated peer review and amounted to scientific cleansing of doubts about human influences on climate. This article describes the controversy from both points of view - the business group and the scientists involved.

  12. Chapter 1: Chapter 1/Migrant, 1992-93. Evaluation Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catterson, Shirin; And Others

    Chapter 1, a federally funded compensatory education program, provided funding to 29 elementary schools with high concentrations of low-income students in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District (AISD). Sixteen of the schools had so many disadvantaged students that they qualified to be Chapter 1 schoolwide projects (SWPs). Chapter 1…

  13. Evaluating Integrated Task Based Activities and Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwar, Khoirul; Husniah, Rohmy

    2016-01-01

    This study is to evaluate the implementation of Task Activities based on CALL which consist of observing, questioning, exploring, and communicating. The developed materials are nine chapters that had been implemented in two different classes of SMPN 1 Gresik and SMPM 4 Gresik in Indonesia. Of quesionnaires and interviews, the results indicate that…

  14. Nutrient dynamics: Chapter 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Likens, Gene E.; LaBaugh, James W.; Buso, Donald C.; Bade, Darren

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the variability and trends in chemical concentrations and fluxes at Mirror Lake during the period 1981–2000. It examines the water and chemical budgets of Mirror Lake to identify and understand better long-term trends in the chemical characteristics of the lake. It also identifies the causes of changes in nutrient concentrations and examines the contribution of hydrologic pathways to the contamination of Mirror Lake by road salt. The role of groundwater and precipitation on water and chemical budgets of the lake are also examined.

  15. Streamflow characteristics based on data through water year 2009 for selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana: Chapter E in Montana StreamStats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Chapter E of this Scientific Investigations Report documents results from a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality and the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, to provide an update of statewide streamflow characteristics based on data through water year 2009 for streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana. Streamflow characteristics are presented for 408 streamflow-gaging stations in Montana and adjacent areas having 10 or more years of record. Data include the magnitude and probability of annual low and high streamflow, the magnitude and probability of low streamflow for three seasons (March–June, July–October, and November–February), streamflow duration statistics for monthly and annual periods, and mean streamflows for monthly and annual periods. Streamflow is considered to be regulated at streamflow-gaging stations where dams or other large-scale human modifications affect 20 percent or more of the contributing drainage basin. Separate streamflow characteristics are presented for the unregulated and regulated periods of record for streamflow-gaging stations with sufficient data.

  16. The Identification of Factors Affecting the Development and Practice of School-Based Counseling in Different National Contexts: A Grounded Theory Study Using a Worldwide Sample of Descriptive Journal Articles and Book Chapters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ian; Lauterbach, Alexandra; Carey, John

    2015-01-01

    A grounded theory methodology was used to analyze articles and book chapters describing the development and practice of school-based counseling in 25 different countries in order to identify the factors that affect development and practice. An 11-factor analytic framework was developed. Factors include: Cultural Factors, National Needs, Larger…

  17. Melt inclusions: Chapter 6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Audétat A.; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Melt inclusions are small droplets of silicate melt that are trapped in minerals during their growth in a magma. Once formed, they commonly retain much of their initial composition (with some exceptions) unless they are re-opened at some later stage. Melt inclusions thus offer several key advantages over whole rock samples: (i) they record pristine concentrations of volatiles and metals that are usually lost during magma solidification and degassing, (ii) they are snapshots in time whereas whole rocks are the time-integrated end products, thus allowing a more detailed, time-resolved view into magmatic processes (iii) they are largely unaffected by subsolidus alteration. Due to these characteristics, melt inclusions are an ideal tool to study the evolution of mineralized magma systems. This chapter first discusses general aspects of melt inclusions formation and methods for their investigation, before reviewing studies performed on mineralized magma systems.

  18. Effects of a competency-based professional development training on children's physical activity and staff physical activity promotion in summer day camps.

    PubMed

    Weaver, R Glenn; Beets, Michael W; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Webster, Collin A; Moore, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The YMCA of the USA serves more than nine million youth in its summer day camping programs nationwide. In spring 2011, the YMCA of Columbia, SC, with support from the University of South Carolina, adopted a competency-based staff-level training approach in an attempt to align staff behaviors with the YMCA of the USA new physical activity standards for summer camp programs. This chapter presents findings from a multiyear evaluation of a competency-based training approach using a single group design with preassessments and multiple postassessments. Training consisted of participatory exercises and video demonstrations. Data on staff physical activity promotion behaviors were collected using SOSPAN, an instrument that utilizes momentary time sampling to record instances of staff physical activity promotion behaviors consistent with physical activity standards. This chapter describes how a competency-based professional development training may be effective at increasing physical activity promoting and decreasing physical activity discouraging staff behaviors and related child activity levels. PMID:25530241

  19. Chapter 20: Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    Graphite is truly a unique material. Its structure, from the nano- to the millimeter scale give it remarkable properties that lead to numerous and diverse applications. Graphite bond anisotropy, with strong in-plane covalent bonds and weak van der Waals type bonding between the planes, gives graphite its unique combination of properties. Easy shear of the crystal, facilitated by weak interplaner bonds allows graphite to be used as a dry lubricant, and is responsible for the substances name! The word graphite is derived from the Greek to write because of graphites ability to mark writing surfaces. Moreover, synthetic graphite contains within its structure, porosity spanning many orders of magnitude in size. The thermal closure of these pores profoundly affects the properties for example, graphite strength increases with temperature to temperatures in excess of 2200 C. Consequently, graphite is utilized in many high temperature applications. The basic physical properties of graphite are reviewed here. Graphite applications include metallurgical; (aluminum and steel production), single crystal silicon production, and metal casting; electrical (motor brushes and commutators); mechanical (seals, bearings and bushings); and nuclear applications, (see Chapter 91, Nuclear Graphite). Here we discuss the structure, manufacture, properties, and applications of Graphite.

  20. Chapter 12: spatial or area repellents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spatial repellents a three-dimensional zone of protection around a host from attacks by biting arthropods. This chapter reviews current knowledge and outlines future directions for utilization of spatial repellents. Current knowledge includes the kinds of products, both active and passive devices,...

  1. Marine West Coast Forests, Chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven S.; Geiser, Linda H.; Lilleskov, Erik A.

    2011-01-01

    Human activities have greatly increased nitrogen emissions and deposition across large areas of Earth. Although nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth, too much nitrogen in excess of critical loads leads to losses of biodiversity, soil and stream acidification, nutrient imbalances, and other deleterious effects. In a new report quantifying critical loads of nitrogen deposition across the United States, USGS scientist Steve Perakis and co-authors provided a chapter about responses of marine west coast forests. Much of this region is understudied with respect to nitrogen deposition, and in this chapter the authors identify known adverse effects and estimate critical loads of nitrogen deposition for western Oregon and Washington and southeast Alaska forests. Perakis also contributed to the synthesis chapter, which includes background, objectives, advantages and uncertainties of critical loads, an overview of critical loads across U.S. ecoregions, and other topics.

  2. Effectiveness of School-Based Environmental vs. Individual Approaches to Diet, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior Change Among Youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Schools offer unique channels for youth obesity prevention. School-based programs can be categorized as having an individual, environmental, or a combined (individual + environmental) focus. This chapter reviews the literature on school-based interventions focusing on diet, physical activity, and/or...

  3. Collective Intelligence. Chapter 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Many systems of self-interested agents have an associated performance criterion that rates the dynamic behavior of the overall system. This chapter presents an introduction to the science of such systems. Formally, collectives are defined as any system having the following two characteristics: First, the system must contain one or more agents each of which we view as trying to maximize an associated private utility; second, the system must have an associated world utility function that rates the possible behaviors of that overall system. In practice, collectives are often very large, distributed, and support little, if any, centralized communication and control, although those characteristics are not part of their formal definition. A naturally occurring example of a collective is a human economy. One can identify the agents and their private utilities as the human individuals in the economy and the associated personal rewards they are each trying to maximize. One could then identify the world utility as the time average of the gross domestic product. ("World utility" per se is not a construction internal to a human economy, but rather something defined from the outside.) To achieve high world utility it is necessary to avoid having the agents work at cross-purposes lest phenomena like liquidity traps or the Tragedy of the Commons (TOC) occur, in which agents' individually pursuing their private utilities lowers world utility. The obvious way to avoid such phenomena is by modifying the agents utility functions to be "aligned" with the world utility. This can be done via punitive legislation. A real-world example of an attempt to do this was the creation of antitrust regulations designed to prevent monopolistic practices.

  4. Recommended Research on Artificial Gravity. Chapter 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, Joan; Paloski, William; Fuller, Charles; Clement, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    Based on the summaries presented in the above sections of what is still to be learned on the effects of artificial gravity on human functions, this chapter will discuss the short- and long-term steps of research required to understand fundamentals and to validate operational aspects of using artificial gravity as an effective countermeasure for long-duration space travel.

  5. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog was developed to aid in defining the environmental impacts of U.S. industrial activity. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the catalog. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the catalog and identifies a number of expected uses f...

  6. Chapter 1 Introduction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention is past years due to their enormous potential across a broad range of research disciplines. Harnessing nanoscale activity and selectivity can potentially provide extremely efficient systems for energy storage applications, en...

  7. Chapter 1: Biomedical Knowledge Integration

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Philip R. O.

    2012-01-01

    The modern biomedical research and healthcare delivery domains have seen an unparalleled increase in the rate of innovation and novel technologies over the past several decades. Catalyzed by paradigm-shifting public and private programs focusing upon the formation and delivery of genomic and personalized medicine, the need for high-throughput and integrative approaches to the collection, management, and analysis of heterogeneous data sets has become imperative. This need is particularly pressing in the translational bioinformatics domain, where many fundamental research questions require the integration of large scale, multi-dimensional clinical phenotype and bio-molecular data sets. Modern biomedical informatics theory and practice has demonstrated the distinct benefits associated with the use of knowledge-based systems in such contexts. A knowledge-based system can be defined as an intelligent agent that employs a computationally tractable knowledge base or repository in order to reason upon data in a targeted domain and reproduce expert performance relative to such reasoning operations. The ultimate goal of the design and use of such agents is to increase the reproducibility, scalability, and accessibility of complex reasoning tasks. Examples of the application of knowledge-based systems in biomedicine span a broad spectrum, from the execution of clinical decision support, to epidemiologic surveillance of public data sets for the purposes of detecting emerging infectious diseases, to the discovery of novel hypotheses in large-scale research data sets. In this chapter, we will review the basic theoretical frameworks that define core knowledge types and reasoning operations with particular emphasis on the applicability of such conceptual models within the biomedical domain, and then go on to introduce a number of prototypical data integration requirements and patterns relevant to the conduct of translational bioinformatics that can be addressed via the design and

  8. Chapter 1: Biomedical knowledge integration.

    PubMed

    Payne, Philip R O

    2012-01-01

    The modern biomedical research and healthcare delivery domains have seen an unparalleled increase in the rate of innovation and novel technologies over the past several decades. Catalyzed by paradigm-shifting public and private programs focusing upon the formation and delivery of genomic and personalized medicine, the need for high-throughput and integrative approaches to the collection, management, and analysis of heterogeneous data sets has become imperative. This need is particularly pressing in the translational bioinformatics domain, where many fundamental research questions require the integration of large scale, multi-dimensional clinical phenotype and bio-molecular data sets. Modern biomedical informatics theory and practice has demonstrated the distinct benefits associated with the use of knowledge-based systems in such contexts. A knowledge-based system can be defined as an intelligent agent that employs a computationally tractable knowledge base or repository in order to reason upon data in a targeted domain and reproduce expert performance relative to such reasoning operations. The ultimate goal of the design and use of such agents is to increase the reproducibility, scalability, and accessibility of complex reasoning tasks. Examples of the application of knowledge-based systems in biomedicine span a broad spectrum, from the execution of clinical decision support, to epidemiologic surveillance of public data sets for the purposes of detecting emerging infectious diseases, to the discovery of novel hypotheses in large-scale research data sets. In this chapter, we will review the basic theoretical frameworks that define core knowledge types and reasoning operations with particular emphasis on the applicability of such conceptual models within the biomedical domain, and then go on to introduce a number of prototypical data integration requirements and patterns relevant to the conduct of translational bioinformatics that can be addressed via the design and

  9. Volcanism on Mars. Chapter 41

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimbelman, J. R.; Garry, W. B.; Bleacher, J. E.; Crown, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft exploration has revealed abundant evidence that Mars possesses some of the most dramatic volcanic landforms found anywhere within the solar system. How did a planet half the size of Earth produce volcanoes like Olympus Mons, which is several times the size of the largest volcanoes on Earth? This question is an example of the kinds of issues currently being investigated as part of the space-age scientific endeavor called "comparative planetology." This chapter summarizes the basic information currently known about volcanism on Mars. The volcanoes on Mars appear to be broadly similar in overall morphology (although, often quite different in scale) to volcanic features on Earth, which suggests that Martian eruptive processes are not significantly different from the volcanic styles and processes on Earth. Martian volcanoes are found on terrains of different age, and Martian volcanic rocks are estimated to comprise more than 50% of the Martian surface. This is in contrast to volcanism on smaller bodies such as Earth's Moon, where volcanic activity was mainly confined to the first half of lunar history (see "Volcanism on the Moon"). Comparative planetology supports the concept that volcanism is the primary mechanism for a planetary body to get rid of its internal heat; smaller bodies tend to lose their internal heat more rapidly than larger bodies (although, Jupiter's moon Io appears to contradict this trend; Io's intense volcanic activity is powered by unique gravitational tidal forces within the Jovian system; see "Volcanism on Io"), so that volcanic activity on Mars would be expected to differ considerably from that found on Earth and the Moon.

  10. CHAPTER IV-2 BACTERIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic bacteria provide an alternative to chemical pesticides used in insect control programs. Today, the principal microbial insecticides utilize spore forming bacteria or toxins produced by these bacteria as their active ingredients, either in formulations or by incorporation of toxin g...

  11. Chapter II. Taxonomy and Phylogeny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book chapter presents a review of the taxonomic distribution of ornamental geophytic plants (bulbs, tubers, corms, rhizomes) and the modern classification of the families within which they belong....

  12. Using activity-based costing in surgery.

    PubMed

    Grandlich, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING is an accounting technique that allows organizations to determine actual costs associated with their services based on the resources they consume. THIS TECHNIQUE can be used in a variety of ways, including targeting high-cost activities, forecasting financial baselines, and supporting resource allocation. FOUR STEPS should be followed when applying activity-based costing to surgical procedures. THIS ARTICLE explores how Froedtert Memorial Lutheran Hospital, Milwaukee, used activity-based costing. PMID:14763586

  13. A Cell-Based Fluorescent Assay to Detect the Activity of Shiga Toxin and Other Toxins That Inhibit Protein Synthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, a major cause of food-borne illness, produces Shiga toxins that block protein synthesis by inactivating the ribosome. In this chapter we describe a simple cell-based fluorescent assay to detect Shiga toxins and inhibitors of toxin activity. The assay can also be used to d...

  14. VUV thin films, chapter 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zukic, Muamer; Torr, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    The application of thin film technology to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelength region from 120 nm to 230 nm has not been fully exploited in the past because of absorption effects which complicate the accurate determination of the optical functions of dielectric materials. The problem therefore reduces to that of determining the real and imaginary parts of a complex optical function, namely the frequency dependent refractive index n and extinction coefficient k. We discuss techniques for the inverse retrieval of n and k for dielectric materials at VUV wavelengths from measurements of their reflectance and transmittance. Suitable substrate and film materials are identified for application in the VUV. Such applications include coatings for the fabrication of narrow and broadband filters and beamsplitters. The availability of such devices open the VUV regime to high resolution photometry, interferometry and polarimetry both for space based and laboratory applications. This chapter deals with the optics of absorbing multilayers, the determination of the optical functions for several useful materials, and the design of VUV multilayer stacks as applied to the design of narrow and broadband reflection and transmission filters and beamsplitters. Experimental techniques are discussed briefly, and several examples of the optical functions derived for selected materials are presented.

  15. Game-Based Virtual Worlds as Decentralized Virtual Activity Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scacchi, Walt

    There is widespread interest in the development and use of decentralized systems and virtual world environments as possible new places for engaging in collaborative work activities. Similarly, there is widespread interest in stimulating new technological innovations that enable people to come together through social networking, file/media sharing, and networked multi-player computer game play. A decentralized virtual activity system (DVAS) is a networked computer supported work/play system whose elements and social activities can be both virtual and decentralized (Scacchi et al. 2008b). Massively multi-player online games (MMOGs) such as World of Warcraft and online virtual worlds such as Second Life are each popular examples of a DVAS. Furthermore, these systems are beginning to be used for research, deve-lopment, and education activities in different science, technology, and engineering domains (Bainbridge 2007, Bohannon et al. 2009; Rieber 2005; Scacchi and Adams 2007; Shaffer 2006), which are also of interest here. This chapter explores two case studies of DVASs developed at the University of California at Irvine that employ game-based virtual worlds to support collaborative work/play activities in different settings. The settings include those that model and simulate practical or imaginative physical worlds in different domains of science, technology, or engineering through alternative virtual worlds where players/workers engage in different kinds of quests or quest-like workflows (Jakobsson 2006).

  16. Chapter 7. Celebrate Victory

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Loretta; Wells, Kenneth; Meade, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The promise of a community-partnered participatory research (CPPR) initiative to build capacity and reinforce assets is realized through a fully implemented Victory stage. This article reviews the process to plan for victory by including its goals in the main action plans and reviews several key activities that comprise the main accomplishments, which might include products for the community and scientific articles and presentations that are coauthored and co-presented; as well as partnered conferences and reflection retreats on major accomplishments and transitions. Because dealing with conflict is an important part of the work of projects in general and of developing victories, this article also reviews strategies to turn conflicts into celebrations of growth that can set the stage for the next phase of partnership development as well as for further partnered research. PMID:20088082

  17. Haramekhala - tantra (the first chapter on medicine).

    PubMed

    Sharma, P V

    1986-01-01

    This translation of Haramekhala - tantra of the author is based on Banaras Hindu University manuscript which seems to be a novel one. The manuscript runs into 133 stanzas in all in the form of dialogue between lord Siva and goddess Parvati. This is only the first chapter (of the great work) dealing with medicine. From stanza 109 onwards some magic spells are described and as such those have not been included in this translation. PMID:22557515

  18. Chapter 30: Drug allergy.

    PubMed

    Greenberger, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Drug allergy describes clinical adverse reactions that are proved or presumed to be immunologically based. Allergic drug reactions do not resemble pharmacologic actions of the incriminated drug and may occur at fractions of what would be the therapeutic dosage. Allergic drug reactions are unpredictable; nevertheless, there is increased risk of drug hypersensitivity in (1) patients with cystic fibrosis who receive antibiotics; (2) patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) who receive trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole of if HLA-B*5701(+) and receive the antiretroviral agent, abacavir; (3) other genetically susceptible populations such as Han-Chinese who are HLA-B*1502(+) who develop Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis from carbamazepine or if HLA-B*5801(+) are at increased risk for such reactions from allopurinol; and (4) patients with a history of previous compatible allergic reaction to the same medication, similar class, or potentially unrelated medication. Specific patient groups at higher risk for drug allergy include those with Ebstein-Barr virus infection, chronic lymphatic leukemia, HIV/AIDS, cystic fibrosis, patients with seizures being treated with antiepileptic medications, and patients with asthma (especially severe asthma) who are at increased risk of anaphylaxis from any cause including drugs compared with patients without asthma. In patients with a history of penicillin allergy, skin testing helps clarify the current level of risk for anaphylaxis by using the major (penicilloyl-polylysine) and minor penicillin determinants where sensitivity is 99%. If penicilloyl-polylysine and penicillin G are used for skin testing, the sensitivity is ∼85%. When skin tests are negative, graded challenges are performed to administer optimal or truly essential antibiotics. PMID:22794703

  19. Chapter A7. Biological Indicators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Donna N.; Wilde, Franceska D.

    2003-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) provides guidelines and standard procedures for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter of the manual includes procedures for the (1) determination of biochemical oxygen demand using a 5-day bioassay test; (2) collection, identification, and enumeration of fecal indicator bacteria; (3) collection of samples and information on two laboratory methods for fecal indicator viruses (coliphages); and (4) collection of samples for protozoan pathogens. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters are posted on the World Wide Web on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/ (accessed November 25, 2003).

  20. Chapter A6. Field Measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By); Radtke, Dean B.

    1998-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) provides guidelines and standard procedures for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. Chapter A6 presents procedures and guidelines for the collection of data on air and water temperature, and on dissolved-oxygen concentrations, specific electrical conductance, pH, reduction-oxidation potential, alkalinity, and turbidity in water. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters are posted on the World Wide Web on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A (accessed August 6, 2005).

  1. Chapter 1: Chapter 1/Migrant, 1993-94. Evaluation Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catterson, Shirin; And Others

    Chapter 1, a federally funded compensatory education program, provided funding to 31 elementary schools with high concentrations of low-income students in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District (AISD) through the following components: (1) nonschoolwide projects of supplementary instruction; (2) schoolwide projects (SWP) in the most…

  2. POLLUTION PREVENTION AND LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (CHAPTER 15): BOOK CHAPTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    BOOK NRMRL-CIN-1088 Curran*, M.A., and Schenck, R.C. "Pollution Prevention and Life Cycle Assessment (Chapter 15)." Published in: Handbook of Pollution Control and Waste Minimization, A. Ghassemi (Ed.),New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2001, p. 289-320. /2000 Much has been ac...

  3. Chapter 2: Theoretical Models for Understanding Physical Activity Behavior among Children and Adolescents--Social Cognitive Theory and Self-Determination Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The study of physical activity behavior in youth generally lacks a sufficient theoretical foundation for examining variables that influence that behavior. This is a major limitation because theory guides the search for determinants of behavior and the subsequent interplay between research findings and application. Theory offers a systematically…

  4. The Role of Students in the Inception and Implementation of Chapter 74-312(3), Laws of Florida (Student Activity Fee), 1974 to 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Joseph Edward

    The study presents an analysis of the inception and implementation of the Florida law governing college student activity fees. After an introduction and review of the literature, it is explained that the data were obtained through focused research interviews with 41 participants. The following four conclusions were reached: (1) the student…

  5. Activity Based Curriculum for Elementary Education. Additional Activities, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Public Schools, KS.

    This elementary curriculum is a vehicle to provide manipulative activities that reinforce academic skills through meaningful, relevant, activity-based awareness of modern society. The twenty-six activity plans included in the curriculum place a major emphasis upon realistic or concrete experiences that deal with the manipulation and exploration of…

  6. Chapter 2: Official Programmatic Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roholt, Ross VeLure; Hildreth, R. W.; Baizerman, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Youth civic engagement is a diverse field of practice, with each initiative claiming it has a unique approach. This chapter describes three initiatives, Youth-in-Government, Youth Science Center, and Public Achievement from the point-of-view of program staff. Their view is often privileged; it is the one used for official communication and public…

  7. Chapter 17 Berries and Cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major objective of this book is to review in detail health problems occurring with significant frequency in aging adults which are proposed to be treated or ameliorated using nutriceuticals as foods and dietary supplements as well as other complementary and alternative therapies. Chapters primar...

  8. Data base management systems activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Data Management System-1100 is designed to operate in conjunction with the UNIVAC 1100 Series Operating System on any 1100 Series computer. DMS-1100 is divided into the following four major software components: (1) Data Definition Languages (DDL); (2) Data Management Routine (DMR); (3) Data Manipulation Languages (DML); and (4) Data Base Utilities (DBU). These software components are described in detail.

  9. The theoretical study of passive and active optical devices via planewave based transfer (scattering) matrix method and other approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuo, Ye

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, we theoretically study the electromagnetic wave propagation in several passive and active optical components and devices including 2-D photonic crystals, straight and curved waveguides, organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), and etc. Several optical designs are also presented like organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells and solar concentrators. The first part of the thesis focuses on theoretical investigation. First, the plane-wave-based transfer (scattering) matrix method (TMM) is briefly described with a short review of photonic crystals and other numerical methods to study them (Chapter 1 and 2). Next TMM, the numerical method itself is investigated in details and developed in advance to deal with more complex optical systems. In chapter 3, TMM is extended in curvilinear coordinates to study curved nanoribbon waveguides. The problem of a curved structure is transformed into an equivalent one of a straight structure with spatially dependent tensors of dielectric constant and magnetic permeability. In chapter 4, a new set of localized basis orbitals are introduced to locally represent electromagnetic field in photonic crystals as alternative to planewave basis. The second part of the thesis focuses on the design of optical devices. First, two examples of TMM applications are given. The first example is the design of metal grating structures as replacements of ITO to enhance the optical absorption in OPV cells (chapter 6). The second one is the design of the same structure as above to enhance the light extraction of OLEDs (chapter 7). Next, two design examples by ray tracing method are given, including applying a microlens array to enhance the light extraction of OLEDs (chapter 5) and an all-angle wide-wavelength design of solar concentrator (chapter 8). In summary, this dissertation has extended TMM which makes it capable of treating complex optical systems. Several optical designs by TMM and ray tracing method are also given as a full complement of this

  10. Peak-flow frequency analyses and results based on data through water year 2011 for selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana: Chapter C in Montana StreamStats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sando, Steven K.; McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-01-01

    Chapter C of this Scientific Investigations Report documents results from a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Transportation and the Montana Department of Natural Resources, to provide an update of statewide peak-flow frequency analyses and results for Montana. The purpose of this report chapter is to present peak-flow frequency analyses and results for 725 streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana based on data through water year 2011. The 725 streamflow-gaging stations included in this study represent nearly all streamflowgaging stations in Montana (plus some from adjacent states or Canadian Provinces) that have at least 10 years of peak-flow records through water year 2011. For 29 of the 725 streamflow-gaging stations, peak-flow frequency analyses and results are reported for both unregulated and regulated conditions. Thus, peak-flow frequency analyses and results are reported for a total of 754 analyses. Estimates of peak-flow magnitudes for 66.7-, 50-, 42.9-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities are reported. These annual exceedance probabilities correspond to 1.5-, 2-, 2.33-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals.

  11. Experiences gained by establishing the IAMG Student Chapter Freiberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Sebastian M.; Liesenberg, Veraldo; Shahzad, Faisal

    2013-04-01

    mentioned in regular lectures. To date, the major highlights of our activity are two international workshops: MatGeoS 2008 & 2009. During our second workshop, over thirty scientists representing government agencies, academia and non-profit research organizations worldwide participated. A number of interdisciplinary topics were intensively discussed. After the workshop, the decision was made to create a book based on the presented scientific work, which should be edited by the us, the students of the student chapter. Eventually, we called for papers, organized a full-scale peer-review and edited the book. It is scheduled to be published in the first quarter of 2013 and is entitled "Mathematical Geosciences: Theory, Methods and Applications". The whole organizing process proved to be another excellent lesson to us, as it interfered with our overwhelming studying and research activities. It was necessary to learn how to organize and handle the mandatory communication and editing, while pursuing our regular duties. We consider the activities of the IAMG Student Chapter Freiberg as an example of what a group of enthusiastic and dedicated young professionals can achieve. Therefore, we encourage every similar group of students or "scientists in training" to just try to do something beyond the requirements and learn, while doing it. We proved that this is possible.

  12. Active material based active sealing technology: Part 1. Active seal requirements vs. active material actuator properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Christopher P.; Carter, William; Herrera, Guillermo A.; McKnight, Geoffrey P.; Browne, Alan L.; Johnson, Nancy L.; Bazzi, Imad F.

    2010-04-01

    Current seals used for vehicle closures/swing panels are essentially flexible, frequently hollow structures whose designs are constrained by numerous requirements, many of them competing, including door closing effort (both air bind and seal compression), sound isolation, prevention of water leaks, and accommodation of variations in vehicle build. This paper documents the first portion of a collaborative research study/exploration of the feasibility of and approaches for using active materials with shape and stiffness changing attributes to produce active seal technologies, seals with improved performance. An important design advantage of an active material approach compared to previous active seal technologies is the distribution of active material regions throughout the seal length, which would enable continued active function even with localized failure. Included as a major focus of this study was the assessment of polymeric active materials because of their potential ease of integration into the current seal manufacturing process. In Part 1 of this study, which is documented in this paper, potential materials were evaluated in terms of their cost, activation mechanisms, and mechanical and actuation properties. Based on these properties, simple designs were proposed and utilized to help determine which materials are best suited for active seals. Shape memory alloys (SMA) and electroactive polymers (EAP) were judged to be the most promising.

  13. Why activity-based costing works.

    PubMed

    Gabram, S G; Mendola, R A; Rozenfeld, J; Gamelli, R L

    1997-01-01

    With advancing technology and the quest for delineating the true cost of a procedure or diagnostic test, cost accounting techniques are being re-explored in the health care setting. Activity-based costing (ABC), adopted from other businesses, is one such example that has applications in the health industry. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding of health care costs among physician providers, emphasizing a new approach--activity-based costing. PMID:10169347

  14. 31 CFR Appendixes to Chapter V - Note

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Note Appendixes to Chapter V Money... CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Ch. V, Nt. Appendixes to Chapter V—Note Notes: The alphabetical lists.... References to regulatory parts in chapter V or other authorities: : Western Balkans Stabilization...

  15. Chapter Innovators Guide, 2001: Models of Innovation Award Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National FFA Organization, Indianapolis, IN.

    This document presents the activities that received Future Farmers of America's (FFA's) Model of Innovation awards in 2001. The booklet begins with an overview of the FFA National Chapter Award program and a list of the 2001 Models of Innovation Winners. The next three sections profile award-winning activities in the following areas of the three…

  16. Chapter 4. A self-theoretical perspective on the use-misuse of alcohol and drugs based on qualitative and narrative data.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Sam; von Braun, Therese; Lilja, John; Sjöblom, Yvonne; Hamilton, David

    2013-11-01

    This article discusses different self-theoretical perspectives of the self that are of importance in the analysis of the use and misuse of alcohol and psychoactive drugs. The self-theories considered here include cognitive, psychodynamic, transpersonal, and social constructivist perspectives. A multidimensional perspective focusing on the connection between identity structures and analyzing the use/misuse of alcohol and psychoactive drugs is presented. The article argues for a self-theoretical analysis based on narrative data in order to reach an in-depth understanding of the use and misuse of alcohol and psychoactive drugs. PMID:24087866

  17. 26 CFR 31.3503-1 - Tax under chapter 21 or 22 paid under wrong chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax under chapter 21 or 22 paid under wrong... 1954) § 31.3503-1 Tax under chapter 21 or 22 paid under wrong chapter. If, for any period, an amount is paid as tax— (a) Under chapter 21 or corresponding provisions of prior law by a person who is...

  18. Chapter 1 and Chapter 1 Migrant. Evaluation Findings, 1990-91. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christner, Catherine; And Others

    This report describes an evaluation of the Austin (Texas) Independent School District's (AISD) Chapter 1 and Chapter 1 Migrant programs. Chapter 1 is a federally funded compensatory educational program that provided funding in 1990-91 to 25 AISD elementary schools with high concentrations of low-income students. Chapter 1 Migrant is also a…

  19. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 21, Rigid Motions and Vectors, Chapter 22, Computer and Programs. Teacher's Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    The teacher's guide for the eleventh unit in this SMSG series covers the chapter on rigid motions and vectors and the chapter on computers and programs. The overall purpose for each of the chapters is described, the prerequisite knowledge needed by students is specified, the mathematical development of each chapter is detailed, behavioral…

  20. Activated, coal-based carbon foam

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Darren Kenneth; Plucinski, Janusz Wladyslaw

    2004-12-21

    An ablation resistant, monolithic, activated, carbon foam produced by the activation of a coal-based carbon foam through the action of carbon dioxide, ozone or some similar oxidative agent that pits and/or partially oxidizes the carbon foam skeleton, thereby significantly increasing its overall surface area and concurrently increasing its filtering ability. Such activated carbon foams are suitable for application in virtually all areas where particulate or gel form activated carbon materials have been used. Such an activated carbon foam can be fabricated, i.e. sawed, machined and otherwise shaped to fit virtually any required filtering location by simple insertion and without the need for handling the "dirty" and friable particulate activated carbon foam materials of the prior art.

  1. Activated, coal-based carbon foam

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Darren Kenneth; Plucinski, Janusz Wladyslaw

    2009-06-09

    An ablation resistant, monolithic, activated, carbon foam produced by the activation of a coal-based carbon foam through the action of carbon dioxide, ozone or some similar oxidative agent that pits and/or partially oxidizes the carbon foam skeleton, thereby significantly increasing its overall surface area and concurrently increasing its filtering ability. Such activated carbon foams are suitable for application in virtually all areas where particulate or gel form activated carbon materials have been used. Such an activated carbon foam can be fabricated, i.e. sawed, machined and otherwise shaped to fit virtually any required filtering location by simple insertion and without the need for handling the "dirty" and friable particulate activated carbon foam materials of the prior art.

  2. Beyond Chapter 4.7.

    PubMed

    Bandler, Lilon Gretl

    2015-12-01

    Chapter 4.7 of the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research refers specifically to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. It lays out the points at which researchers working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders must consider their approach, and the engagement with individuals, communities or groups who are involved in or affected by their research. History, of Australia and of research involving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, has informed this approach. The response to that history has been a rational, institutionalised, systematic demand for a different perception of what should direct research and research processes to ensure engagement with and service to the community with whom the researchers wish to do the work. This paper considers whether these principles could inform the approach to other research work. PMID:27135116

  3. Volatile hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates: Chapter 12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates are among the most commonly occurring and widely distributed contaminants in the environment. This chapter presents a summary of the sources, transport, fate, and remediation of volatile fuel hydrocarbons and fuel additives in the environment. Much research has focused on the transport and transformation processes of petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes and methyl tert‐butyl ether, in groundwater following release from underground storage tanks. Natural attenuation from biodegradation limits the movement of these contaminants and has received considerable attention as an environmental restoration option. This chapter summarizes approaches to environmental restoration, including those that rely on natural attenuation, and also engineered or enhanced remediation. Researchers are increasingly combining several microbial and molecular-based methods to give a complete picture of biodegradation potential and occurrence at contaminated field sites. New insights into the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel additives have been gained by recent advances in analytical tools and approaches, including stable isotope fractionation, analysis of metabolic intermediates, and direct microbial evidence. However, development of long-term detailed monitoring programs is required to further develop conceptual models of natural attenuation and increase our understanding of the behavior of contaminant mixtures in the subsurface.

  4. Sample classroom activities based on climate science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miler, T.

    2009-09-01

    We present several activities developed for the middle school education based on a climate science. The first activity was designed to teach about the ocean acidification. A simple experiment can prove that absorption of CO2 in water increases its acidity. A liquid pH indicator is suitable for the demonstration in a classroom. The second activity uses data containing coordinates of a hurricane position. Pupils draw a path of a hurricane eye in a tracking chart (map of the Atlantic ocean). They calculate an average speed of the hurricane, investigate its direction and intensity development. The third activity uses pictures of the Arctic ocean on September when ice extend is usually the lowest. Students measure the ice extend for several years using a square grid printed on a plastic foil. Then they plot a graph and discuss the results. All these activities can be used to improve the natural science education and increase the climate change literacy.

  5. Chapter three: methodology of exposure modeling.

    PubMed

    Moschandreas, Demetrios J; Watson, John; D'Abreton, Peter; Scire, Joseph; Zhu, Tan; Klein, Werner; Saksena, Sumeet

    2002-12-01

    In this chapter, the concept of exposure assessment and its evolution is introduced, and evaluated by critically appraising the pertinent literature as it applies to exposures to Particulate Matter (PM). Exposure measurement or estimation methodologies and models are reviewed. Three exposure/measurement methodologies are assessed. Estimation methods focus on source evaluation and attribution, sources include those outdoors and indoors as well as in occupational and in-transit environments. Fate and transport models and their inputs are addressed to estimate concentrations outdoors and indoors; source attribution techniques help focus on the contributing sources. Activity pattern techniques are also reviewed and their use in exposure models to estimate inhalation exposure to PM is presented. Deterministic, regression and other stochastic models of exposure to PM are reviewed and evaluated. Strengths, limitations, assumptions and affirmations of the use of exposure assessment as an integral component of risk assessment and risk management are discussed in the conclusions and discussions section of this work. PMID:12492158

  6. Science-based management of public lands in southern Nevada: Chapter 11 in The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership science and research synthesis: science to support land management in southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Matthew L.; Chambers, Jeanne C.

    2013-01-01

    , science-based information can reduce uncertainties, increase knowledge, and improve decision making. However, the specific science information needed for effective management is often lacking or difficult to access or interpret. Science is typically reported in scientific journals as discrete units describing individual studies with other scientists as the primary audience. Translations of these studies an synthesis or multiple studies into formats that can be readily used in land management planning efforts are often lacking. Identifying and articulating the highest priority science and research needs is one of the primary purposes of the Southern Nevada Agency Partnership (SNAP; http://www.SNAP.gov) Science and Research Team (chapter 1; Turner and others 2009). The SNAP Science and Research Strategy (Strategy) calls for a synthesis report to be written every 5 years summarizing the state of knowledge, information gaps and management implications of scientific information as it relates to the SNAP Strategy goals (Turner and others 2009). This General Technical Report serves as the first SNAP Science and Research Synthesis Report (Synthesis Report) commissioned by the Science and Research Team. The Synthesis Report is mostly based on information form the peer-reviewed scientific literature, and is itself peer reviewed and constitutes a new contribution to the scientific literature. This final chapter addresses Sub-goal 2.3, which is to manage current and future authorized southern Nevada land uses in a manner that balances public need and ecosystem sustainability, and Sub-goal 2.5, which is to promote an effective conservation education and interpretation program to improve the quality of resources and enhance public use and enjoyment of southern Nevada public lands. It summarizes information form the previous chapters on what scientific information is known currently and what remains largely unknown, and it discusses how science can be used to make future management

  7. Chapter 4: Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, J; Herzog, H

    2006-06-14

    Carbon sequestration is the long term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. The largest potential reservoirs for storing carbon are the deep oceans and geological reservoirs in the earth's upper crust. This chapter focuses on geological sequestration because it appears to be the most promising large-scale approach for the 2050 timeframe. It does not discuss ocean or terrestrial sequestration. In order to achieve substantial GHG reductions, geological storage needs to be deployed at a large scale. For example, 1 Gt C/yr (3.6 Gt CO{sub 2}/yr) abatement, requires carbon capture and storage (CCS) from 600 large pulverized coal plants ({approx}1000 MW each) or 3600 injection projects at the scale of Statoil's Sleipner project. At present, global carbon emissions from coal approximate 2.5 Gt C. However, given reasonable economic and demand growth projections in a business-as-usual context, global coal emissions could account for 9 Gt C. These volumes highlight the need to develop rapidly an understanding of typical crustal response to such large projects, and the magnitude of the effort prompts certain concerns regarding implementation, efficiency, and risk of the enterprise. The key questions of subsurface engineering and surface safety associated with carbon sequestration are: (1) Subsurface issues: (a) Is there enough capacity to store CO{sub 2} where needed? (b) Do we understand storage mechanisms well enough? (c) Could we establish a process to certify injection sites with our current level of understanding? (d) Once injected, can we monitor and verify the movement of subsurface CO{sub 2}? (2) Near surface issues: (a) How might the siting of new coal plants be influenced by the distribution of storage sites? (b) What is the probability of CO{sub 2} escaping from injection sites? What are the attendant risks? Can we detect leakage if it occurs? (3) Will surface leakage negate or reduce the

  8. Space based astronomy: Teacher's guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Carla B. (Editor); Weiler, Edward; Morrow, Cherilyn; Bacon, Pamela M.; Thorne, Muriel; Blanchard, Paul A.; Howard, Sethane; Pengra, Patricia R.; Brown, Deborah A.; Winrich, Ralph

    1994-01-01

    This curriculum guide uses hands-on activities to help students and teachers understand the significance of space-based astronomy - astronomical observations made from outer space. The guide contains few of the traditional activities found in many astronomy guides such as constellation studies, lunar phases, and planetary orbits. Instead, it tells the story of why it is important to observe celestial objects from outer space and how to study the entire electromagnetic spectrum. The guide begins with a survey of astronomy related NASA spacecraft. This is followed by a collection of activities in four units: (1) the atmospheric filter; (2) the electromagnetic spectrum; (3) collecting electromagnetic radiation; and (4) down to Earth. A curriculum index identifies the curriculum areas each activity addresses. The guide concludes with a glossary, reference list, a NASA Resources list, and an evaluation card. It is designed for students in grades 5 through 8.

  9. Chapter 12: Human Microbiome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Xochitl C.; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2012-01-01

    Humans are essentially sterile during gestation, but during and after birth, every body surface, including the skin, mouth, and gut, becomes host to an enormous variety of microbes, bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and viral. Under normal circumstances, these microbes help us to digest our food and to maintain our immune systems, but dysfunction of the human microbiota has been linked to conditions ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to antibiotic-resistant infections. Modern high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatic tools provide a powerful means of understanding the contribution of the human microbiome to health and its potential as a target for therapeutic interventions. This chapter will first discuss the historical origins of microbiome studies and methods for determining the ecological diversity of a microbial community. Next, it will introduce shotgun sequencing technologies such as metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, the computational challenges and methods associated with these data, and how they enable microbiome analysis. Finally, it will conclude with examples of the functional genomics of the human microbiome and its influences upon health and disease. PMID:23300406

  10. Sediment transport measurements: Chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diplas, P.; Kuhnle, R.; Gray, J.; Glysson, D.; Edwards, T.

    2008-01-01

    Sediment erosion, transport, and deposition in fluvial systems are complex processes that are treated in detail in other sections of this book. Development of methods suitable for the collection of data that contribute to understanding these processes is a still-evolving science. Sediment and ancillary data are fundamental requirements for the proper management of river systems, including the design of structures, the determination of aspects of stream behavior, ascertaining the probable effect of removing an existing structure, estimation of bulk erosion, transport, and sediment delivery to the oceans, ascertaining the long-term usefulness of reservoirs and other public works, tracking movement of solid-phase contaminants, restoration of degraded or otherwise modified streams, and assistance in the calibration and validation of numerical models. This chapter presents techniques for measuring bed-material properties and suspended and bed-load discharges. Well-established and relatively recent, yet adequately tested, sampling equipment and methodologies, with designs that are guided by sound physical and statistical principles, are described. Where appropriate, the theory behind the development of the equipment and guidelines for its use are presented.

  11. History of Artificial Gravity. Chapter 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Gilles; Bukley, Angie; Paloski, William

    2006-01-01

    This chapter reviews the past and current projects on artificial gravity during space missions. The idea of a rotating wheel-like space station providing artificial gravity goes back in the writings of Tsiolkovsky, Noordung, and Wernher von Braun. Its most famous fictional representation is in the film 2001: A Space Odyssey, which also depicts spin-generated artificial gravity aboard a space station and a spaceship bound for Jupiter. The O Neill-type space colony provides another classic illustration of this technique. A more realistic approach to rotating the space station is to provide astronauts with a smaller centrifuge contained within a spacecraft. The astronauts would go into it for a workout, and get their gravity therapeutic dose for a certain period of time, daily or a few times a week. This simpler concept is current being tested during ground-based studies in several laboratories around the world.

  12. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 13. PLASTICIZERS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The Plasticizer ...

  13. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 8. PESTICIDES INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog was developed to aid in defining the environmental impacts of U.S. industrial activity. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the catalog. The pesticides industry produces organic chemicals used: to control agricultural pests...

  14. Missing Chapters II: West Virginia Women in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Frances S., Ed.

    This collection of essays chronicles the contributions of 14 West Virginia women active in individual and group endeavors from 1824 to the present. Because the achievements of these women are absent from previous histories of West Virginia, their stories constitute missing chapters in the state's history. Some of these women made contributions in…

  15. Secondary School Mathematics Special Edition, Chapter 1. Flow Charts, Chapter 2. Structuring Space, Chapter 3. Functions, Student's Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVenney, William S.; And Others

    Chapters 1-3 of the special materials written for low achieving students in grades 7-8 by SMSG include flow charting, elementary coordinate geometry, and functions. Included for student use are many tables which are to be used to shorten computational processes. Each chapter also includes pretest exercises, instructional lessons and exercises, and…

  16. Mirror Lake: Past, present and future: Chapter 6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Likens, Gene E.; LaBaugh, James W.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter discusses the hydrological and biogeochemical characteristics of Mirror Lake and the changes that resulted from air-land-water interactions and human activities. Since the formation of Mirror Lake, both the watershed and the lake have undergone many changes, such as vegetation development and basin filling. These changes are ongoing, and Mirror Lake is continuing along an aging pathway and ultimately, it will fill with sediment and no longer be a lake. The chapter also identifies major factors that affected the hydrology and biogeochemistry of Mirror Lake: acid rain, atmospheric deposition of lead and other heavy metals, increased human settlement around the lake, the construction of an interstate highway through the watershed of the Northeast Tributary, the construction of an access road through the West and Northeast watersheds to the lake, and climate change. The chapter also offers future recommendations for management and protection of Mirror Lake.

  17. DNA-based control of protein activity

    PubMed Central

    Engelen, W.; Janssen, B. M. G.

    2016-01-01

    DNA has emerged as a highly versatile construction material for nanometer-sized structures and sophisticated molecular machines and circuits. The successful application of nucleic acid based systems greatly relies on their ability to autonomously sense and act on their environment. In this feature article, the development of DNA-based strategies to dynamically control protein activity via oligonucleotide triggers is discussed. Depending on the desired application, protein activity can be controlled by directly conjugating them to an oligonucleotide handle, or expressing them as a fusion protein with DNA binding motifs. To control proteins without modifying them chemically or genetically, multivalent ligands and aptamers that reversibly inhibit their function provide valuable tools to regulate proteins in a noncovalent manner. The goal of this feature article is to give an overview of strategies developed to control protein activity via oligonucleotide-based triggers, as well as hurdles yet to be taken to obtain fully autonomous systems that interrogate, process and act on their environments by means of DNA-based protein control. PMID:26812623

  18. DNA-based control of protein activity.

    PubMed

    Engelen, W; Janssen, B M G; Merkx, M

    2016-03-01

    DNA has emerged as a highly versatile construction material for nanometer-sized structures and sophisticated molecular machines and circuits. The successful application of nucleic acid based systems greatly relies on their ability to autonomously sense and act on their environment. In this feature article, the development of DNA-based strategies to dynamically control protein activity via oligonucleotide triggers is discussed. Depending on the desired application, protein activity can be controlled by directly conjugating them to an oligonucleotide handle, or expressing them as a fusion protein with DNA binding motifs. To control proteins without modifying them chemically or genetically, multivalent ligands and aptamers that reversibly inhibit their function provide valuable tools to regulate proteins in a noncovalent manner. The goal of this feature article is to give an overview of strategies developed to control protein activity via oligonucleotide-based triggers, as well as hurdles yet to be taken to obtain fully autonomous systems that interrogate, process and act on their environments by means of DNA-based protein control. PMID:26812623

  19. Plant-based active photoprotectants for sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Cefali, L C; Ataide, J A; Moriel, P; Foglio, M A; Mazzola, P G

    2016-08-01

    Excessive exposure to the sun's radiation is the major exogenous mediator of skin damage, which accelerates skin ageing and increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Compounds with photoprotectant activity are extremely useful for decreasing the effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the skin; however, numerous sun filters, especially organic sunscreens, are allergenic. Therefore, the development of formulations containing plant extracts, which may be potentially safer, is extensively being explored. Plant-based cosmetics are commonly used to avoid skin ageing because they contain antioxidant agents that minimize free radical activity, and numerous studies have investigated the skin-protectant effects of related plant species. In addition to their antioxidant properties, plant-based cosmetics protect the skin against solar radiation because they contain polyphenols such as flavonoids and carotenoids. Therefore, this study aims to present a review of plant species commonly used in sunscreens to protect the skin against damage due to sunlight exposure. PMID:26919163

  20. Lunar base activities and the lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Moon is an attractive site for astronomical observatories and other facilities because of the absence of a substantial lunar atmosphere and the stability of the lunar surface. The present lunar atmosphere is sufficiently transparent that there is no significant image distortion due to absorption or refraction. This thin atmosphere results from a combination of small sources and prompt losses. The major source that has been identified is the solar wind, whose total mass input into the lunar atmosphere is approximately 50 gm/sec. The major components of the solar wind are light elements (H and He) that promptly escape from the lunar surface by exospheric evaporation (Jeans' escape). The principal atmospheric loss mechanism for heavier gases is photoionization within a period of weeks to months, followed by immediate loss to the solar wind. Lunar base activities will modify the lunar atmosphere if gas is released at a larger rate than that now occurring naturally. Possible gas sources are rocket exhaust, processing of lunar materials, venting of pressurized volumes, and astronaut life support systems. For even modest lunar base activity, such sources will substantially exceed natural sources, although effects are expected to be localized and transient. The Apollo database serves as a useful reference for both measurements of the natural lunar environment and its modification by lunar base activities.

  1. Chapter 16. Fine-root Growth Response

    SciTech Connect

    J. Devereux Joslin; Mark H. Wolfe

    2002-07-31

    As part of a multiyear study to evaluate the affects of altered water inputs to an upland forest many aspects of tree growth physiology were studied. Chapter 16 of this book deals with fine root growth as studied over a 7 year period using a variety of methods. This chapter summarizes the results and conclusions from those efforts.

  2. National ESEA Chapter 1 Schoolwide Projects Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland Public Schools, OH.

    This document is a collection of schoolwide compensatory education project plans for 22 elementary schools in the Cleveland (Ohio) Public Schools system, with funding provided by Chapter 1 of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act. Chapter 1 project plans are included for the following schools: (1) Alfred A. Benesch; (2) Andrew J.…

  3. Chapter 1 Commission Issues Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Chapter 1, Baltimore, MD.

    This report presents an interim analysis by an independent commission of current moves to reform Chapter 1 of the Hawkins/Stafford Elementary and Secondary School Improvement Amendments of 1988. Chapter 1 is the largest federal assistance program to elementary school and secondary school education. The report responds to questions on strengthening…

  4. Chapter 622: A Guide for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston.

    Massachusetts's Chapter 622 and U.S. Title IX regulations both prohibit discrimination by educational institutions. This guide is designed to assist administrators, particularly in Massachusetts, in complying fully with the spirit and letter of these regulations. The guide is divided into thirteen chapters, seven of which use parallel format to…

  5. Elements of Mathematics, Book O: Intuitive Background. Chapter 5, Mappings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exner, Robert; And Others

    The sixteen chapters of this book provide the core material for the Elements of Mathematics Program, a secondary sequence developed for highly motivated students with strong verbal abilities. The sequence is based on a functional-relational approach to mathematics teaching, and emphasizes teaching by analysis of real-life situations. This text is…

  6. Chapter 4: 24-hour recall and diet record methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The two methods described in this chapter, the 24-hour dietary recall (24hdr) and the food record (FR) method, are the currently preferred methods of dietary intake assessment, and are based on foods and amounts actually consumed by an individual on one or more specific days. This minimizes some sou...

  7. CES Case Competition: A Newfoundland and Labrador Chapter Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courney, Bea; Etchegary, Holly

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Case Competition established by the Newfoundland and Labrador Chapter of the Canadian Evaluation Society based on the national Case Competition model. Describes the competition as an opportunity for students to gain skills, confidence, and contacts while working as teams. (SLD)

  8. Chapter 17: Estimating Net Savings: Common Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Violette, D. M.; Rathbun, P.

    2014-09-01

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to particular program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings, but does not prescribe particular methods.

  9. Chapter I, Chapter II, And State Compensatory Education Program Evaluations, 1983-84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Sherry; And Others

    This report contains administrative summaries for program evaluations of these 11 1983-84 Chapter I, Chapter II, and state compensatory education programs in the Fort Worth Independent School District, Texas. The programs evaluated are the Elementary Resource Teacher/Aide Program; the Chapter I Parochial Reading and Mathematics Program; the…

  10. Chapter 1 in Three Easy Steps: A Manual for Rural Chapter 1 Teachers and Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalkowski, Page; And Others

    This manual is designed to help rural Chapter 1 program staff effectively run their programs. Upon reviewing the history of the Chapter 1 legislation and program, the document stresses program design, evaluation, and improvement as three easy ways to understanding the Chapter 1 program. Program design should determine the district eligibility for…

  11. NAIS: Nuclear activation-based imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Günther, M. M.; Britz, A.; Harres, K.; Hoffmeister, G.; Nürnberg, F.; Otten, A.; Pelka, A.; Roth, M.; Clarke, R. J.; Vogt, K.

    2013-07-15

    In recent years, the development of high power laser systems led to focussed intensities of more than 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2} at high pulse energies. Furthermore, both, the advanced high power lasers and the development of sophisticated laser particle acceleration mechanisms facilitate the generation of high energetic particle beams at high fluxes. The challenge of imaging detector systems is to acquire the properties of the high flux beam spatially and spectrally resolved. The limitations of most detector systems are saturation effects. These conventional detectors are based on scintillators, semiconductors, or radiation sensitive films. We present a nuclear activation-based imaging spectroscopy method, which is called NAIS, for the characterization of laser accelerated proton beams. The offline detector system is a combination of stacked metal foils and imaging plates (IP). After the irradiation of the stacked foils they become activated by nuclear reactions, emitting gamma decay radiation. In the next step, an autoradiography of the activated foils using IPs and an analysis routine lead to a spectrally and spatially resolved beam profile. In addition, we present an absolute calibration method for IPs.

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Carbon-Based Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Maleki Dizaj, Solmaz; Mennati, Afsaneh; Jafari, Samira; Khezri, Khadejeh; Adibkia, Khosro

    2015-01-01

    Due to the vast and inappropriate use of the antibiotics, microorganisms have begun to develop resistance to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. So therefore, development of the new and effective antimicrobial agents seems to be necessary. According to some recent reports, carbon-based nanomaterials such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (especially single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)) and graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles show potent antimicrobial properties. In present review, we have briefly summarized the antimicrobial activity of carbon-based nanoparticles together with their mechanism of action. Reviewed literature show that the size of carbon nanoparticles plays an important role in the inactivation of the microorganisms. As major mechanism, direct contact of microorganisms with carbon nanostructures seriously affects their cellular membrane integrity, metabolic processes and morphology. The antimicrobial activity of carbon-based nanostructures may interestingly be investigated in the near future owing to their high surface/volume ratio, large inner volume and other unique chemical and physical properties. In addition, application of functionalized carbon nanomaterials as carriers for the ordinary antibiotics possibly will decrease the associated resistance, enhance their bioavailability and provide their targeted delivery. PMID:25789215

  13. Localizing Region-Based Active Contours

    PubMed Central

    Lankton, Shawn; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a natural framework that allows any region-based segmentation energy to be re-formulated in a local way. We consider local rather than global image statistics and evolve a contour based on local information. Localized contours are capable of segmenting objects with heterogeneous feature profiles that would be difficult to capture correctly using a standard global method. The presented technique is versatile enough to be used with any global region-based active contour energy and instill in it the benefits of localization. We describe this framework and demonstrate the localization of three well-known energies in order to illustrate how our framework can be applied to any energy. We then compare each localized energy to its global counterpart to show the improvements that can be achieved. Next, an in-depth study of the behaviors of these energies in response to the degree of localization is given. Finally, we show results on challenging images to illustrate the robust and accurate segmentations that are possible with this new class of active contour models. PMID:18854247

  14. Human body contour data based activity recognition.

    PubMed

    Myagmarbayar, Nergui; Yuki, Yoshida; Imamoglu, Nevrez; Gonzalez, Jose; Otake, Mihoko; Yu, Wenwei

    2013-01-01

    This research work is aimed to develop autonomous bio-monitoring mobile robots, which are capable of tracking and measuring patients' motions, recognizing the patients' behavior based on observation data, and providing calling for medical personnel in emergency situations in home environment. The robots to be developed will bring about cost-effective, safe and easier at-home rehabilitation to most motor-function impaired patients (MIPs). In our previous research, a full framework was established towards this research goal. In this research, we aimed at improving the human activity recognition by using contour data of the tracked human subject extracted from the depth images as the signal source, instead of the lower limb joint angle data used in the previous research, which are more likely to be affected by the motion of the robot and human subjects. Several geometric parameters, such as, the ratio of height to weight of the tracked human subject, and distance (pixels) between centroid points of upper and lower parts of human body, were calculated from the contour data, and used as the features for the activity recognition. A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is employed to classify different human activities from the features. Experimental results showed that the human activity recognition could be achieved with a high correct rate. PMID:24111015

  15. Ligand Biological Activity Predictions Using Fingerprint-Based Artificial Neural Networks (FANN-QSAR)

    PubMed Central

    Myint, Kyaw Z.; Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the fingerprint-based artificial neural networks QSAR (FANN-QSAR) approach to predict biological activities of structurally diverse compounds. Three types of fingerprints, namely ECFP6, FP2, and MACCS, were used as inputs to train the FANN-QSAR models. The results were benchmarked against known 2D and 3D QSAR methods, and the derived models were used to predict cannabinoid (CB) ligand binding activities as a case study. In addition, the FANN-QSAR model was used as a virtual screening tool to search a large NCI compound database for lead cannabinoid compounds. We discovered several compounds with good CB2 binding affinities ranging from 6.70 nM to 3.75 μM. The studies proved that the FANN-QSAR method is a useful approach to predict bioactivities or properties of ligands and to find novel lead compounds for drug discovery research. PMID:25502380

  16. Activity-Based Protein Profiling of Microbes

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, Natalie C.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2015-02-01

    Activity-Based Protein Profiling (ABPP) in conjunction with multimodal characterization techniques has yielded impactful findings in microbiology, particularly in pathogen, bioenergy, drug discovery, and environmental research. Using small molecule chemical probes that react irreversibly with specific proteins or protein families in complex systems has provided insights in enzyme functions in central metabolic pathways, drug-protein interactions, and regulatory protein redox, for systems ranging from photoautotrophic cyanobacteria to mycobacteria, and combining live cell or cell extract ABPP with proteomics, molecular biology, modeling, and other techniques has greatly expanded our understanding of these systems. New opportunities for application of ABPP to microbial systems include: enhancing protein annotation, characterizing protein activities in myriad environments, and reveal signal transduction and regulatory mechanisms in microbial systems.

  17. Active-imaging-based underwater navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnin, David; Schmitt, Gwenaël.; Fischer, Colin; Laurenzis, Martin; Christnacher, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are widely used for the localization and the navigation of unmanned and remotely operated vehicles (ROV). In contrast to ground or aerial vehicles, GNSS cannot be employed for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) without the use of a communication link to the water surface, since satellite signals cannot be received underwater. However, underwater autonomous navigation is still possible using self-localization methods which determines the relative location of an AUV with respect to a reference location using inertial measurement units (IMU), depth sensors and even sometimes radar or sonar imaging. As an alternative or a complementary solution to common underwater reckoning techniques, we present the first results of a feasibility study of an active-imaging-based localization method which uses a range-gated active-imaging system and can yield radiometric and odometric information even in turbid water.

  18. We Use Chapter 2 Funds as Seed Money for Teachers' Good Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofthouse, Russ

    1988-01-01

    Explains how Cherry Creek (Colorado) schools effectively used Chapter 2 funds provided thorugh the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act. Because these monies must be spent to supplement, not supplant, a school system's activities, the district devised two kinds of grants (minigrants and "skunk-works" grants) that fulfill Chapter 2…

  19. Searching for the Best: The Chapter 1 Experience in the U.S. Department of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Elois M.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the Chapter 1 program, the U.S. Department of Education conducts research activities and uses nominations from a variety of sources to identify promising practices and document their success. The department disseminates this information through its award process in the Chapter 1 School Recognition Program. (SLD)

  20. Market-based control of active surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlin, Andrew A.; Hogg, Tad; Jackson, Warren B.

    1998-12-01

    This paper describes a market-based approach to controlling a smart matter-based object transport system, in which an array of distributed air jets applies forces to levitate and control the motion of a planar object. In the smart matter regime, the effects of spatial and temporal variation of operating parameters among a multiplicity of sensor, actuators, and controllers make it desirable for a control strategy to exhibit a minimal dependence on system models, and to be able to arbitrate among conflicting goals. A market-based strategy is introduced that aggregates the control requirements of multiple relatively simple local controllers, each of which seeks to optimize the performance of the system within a limited spatial and temporal range. These local controllers act as the market's consumers, and two sets of distributed air jets act as the producers. Experiments are performed comparing the performance of the market-based strategy to a near-optimal model-derived benchmark, as well as to a hand-tuned PD controller. Results indicate that even though the local controllers in the market are not based on a detailed model of the system dynamics, the market is able to effectively approximate the performance of the model-based benchmark. In certain specialized cases, such as tracking a step trajectory, the performance of the market surpasses the performance of the model-based benchmark by balancing the needs of conflicting control goals. A brief overview of the active surface smart matter prototype being developed at Xerox PARC that is the motivation behind this work is also presented.

  1. Design of future surveys: chapter 13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, Jonathan; Smith, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This brief chapter addresses two related issues: how effort should be allocated to different parts of the sampling plan and, given optimal allocation, how large a sample will be required to achieve the PRISM accuracy target. Simulations based on data collected to date showed that 2 plots per cluster on rapid surveys, 2 intensive camps per field crew-year, 2-4 intensive plots per intensive camp, and 2-3 rapid surveys per intensive plot is the most efficient allocation of resources. Using this design, we investigated how crew-years should be allocated to each region in order to meet the PRISM accuracy target most efficiently. The analysis indicated that 40-50 crew-years would achieve the accuracy target for 18-24 of the 26 species breeding widely in the Arctic. This analysis was based on assuming that two rounds of surveys were conducted and that a 50% decline occurred between them. We discuss the complexity of making these estimates and why they should be viewed as first approximations.

  2. Activity-based costing for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Croyle, D.R.; Schapiro, I.A.; Keglevic, P.M. )

    1992-08-01

    This EPRI report is a primer'' on Activity-Based Costing (ABC). ABC is a cost management aproach which can make an important contribution to understanding and controlling the changing costs in the electric utility industry. It is a method for attributing costs to activities, products and services by better understanding the underlying factors which drive those costs. ABC can help utility managers make better decisions through the application of more accurate process and product cost information and a fuller understanding of which activities add value and which do not. Armed with such information, utility managers are better equipped to address many of the strategic and operating decisions which they routinely face. The report introduces the ABC concept and approach to utility managers and offers insights into how ABC can be and is being used to control costs and improve strategic and operating decisions in electric utilities and other industries. The report (1) describes the ABC approach, (2) discusses the value of ABC to elecuic utilities, (3) identifies potential applications of ABC to current utility issues, (4) describes a step-by-step approach to developing and implementing ABC in the utility environment, and (5) presents a survey of more than 30 electric utilities and several detailed case studies of electric utilities and other companies who have adopted and are using ABC.

  3. Chapter 42. Waterborne and Foodborne Parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter identifies the most prominent parasites in North America that are acquired through contaminated food and water including protozoa (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Entamoeba, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cystoisospora, Cyclospora, Toxoplasma, and Balantidium), nematodes (Trichinella, Angiostrongyl...

  4. AMPLIFICATION OF RIBOSOMAL RNA SEQUENCES - Book Chapter

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter contains the following headings and subheadings: Introduction; Experimental Approach - Precautions, Template, Primers, Reaction Conditions, Enhancers, Post Amplification; Procedures - Template DNA, Basic PCR, Thermal Cycle Parameters, Enzyme Addition, Agarose Ge...

  5. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (CHAPTER 65)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discusses the use of technologies for reducing air pollution emissions from stationary sources, with emphasis on the control of combustion gen-erated air pollution. Major stationary sources include utility power boilers, industrial boilers and heaters, metal smelting ...

  6. Student Loan Bankruptcies: A Chapter 13 Revival?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlik, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Unless legislative or judicial action is taken, the current high volume of student loans will likely encourage frequent utilization of Chapter 13 of the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978 for unintended purposes. (Author/IRT)

  7. How to write a medical book chapter?

    PubMed

    Kendirci, Muammer

    2013-09-01

    Invited medical book chapters are usually requested by editors from experienced authors who have made significant contributions to the literature in certain fields requested by an editor from an experienced. Before the start of the writing process a consensus should be established between the editor and the author with regard to the title, deadline, specific instructions and content of the manuscript. Certain issues concerning a chapter can be negotiated by the parties beforehand, but some issues cannot. As writing a medical book chapter is seen as an honor in its own right, the assignment needs to be treated with sincerity by elucidating the topic in detail, and maximal effort should be made to keep in mind that the chapter will reach a large target audience. The purpose of this review article is to provide guidance to residents and junior specialists in the field of urology to improve their writing skills. PMID:26328134

  8. Where Social and Professional Networking Meet: The Virtual Association Chapter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noxon, Rose

    2011-01-01

    Online Capella University wanted to sponsor an International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI) chapter. Using social networking platforms, a new type of chapter was designed. The virtual chapter breaks new ground on more than the chapter's platform; it is also the first university-sponsored chapter and has a unique approach to…

  9. Activity Based Startup Plan for Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner

    SciTech Connect

    SUTTER, C.S.

    1999-08-31

    Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at PFP were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The restart of testing activities will require a review through an activity based startup process based upon Integrated Safety Management (ISM) principles to verify readiness. The Activity Based Startup Plan has been developed for this process.

  10. Integrating State Systemic Reforms and Chapter 1 Programs: Insights from Early Initiatives. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pechman, Ellen M.; Turnbull, Brenda J.

    This report examines the effects of early efforts to link the Elementary Secondary Education Act's (ESEA's) Chapter 1 (now Title I) programs to state and district education reforms, which are standards-based. The report focuses on how Chapter 1 standards and accountability requirements connect with new state-level standards, curricula, and…

  11. Chapter Three: A Child's Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Maryanne; Gottwald, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Maryanne Wolf's early literacy knowledge is based on her research into deep reading and on periods of enlightened linguistic processes. In her own rich language of conveyance, she brought great inspiration to the Montessori teachers at the Columbia, South Carolina conference. Her presentation on the research of early reading, the acquisition of…

  12. Chapter 13. Exploring Use of the Reserved Core

    SciTech Connect

    Holmen, John; Humphrey, Alan; Berzins, Martin

    2015-07-29

    In this chapter, we illustrate benefits of thinking in terms of thread management techniques when using a centralized scheduler model along with interoperability of MPI and PThread. This is facilitated through an exploration of thread placement strategies for an algorithm modeling radiative heat transfer with special attention to the 61st core. This algorithm plays a key role within the Uintah Computational Framework (UCF) and current efforts taking place at the University of Utah to model next-generation, large-scale clean coal boilers. In such simulations, this algorithm models the dominant form of heat transfer and consumes a large portion of compute time. Exemplified by a real-world example, this chapter presents our early efforts in porting a key portion of a scalability-centric codebase to the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. Specifically, this chapter presents results from our experiments profiling the native execution of a reverse Monte-Carlo ray tracing-based radiation model on a single coprocessor. These results demonstrate that our fastest run configurations utilized the 61st core and that performance was not profoundly impacted when explicitly oversubscribing the coprocessor operating system thread. Additionally, this chapter presents a portion of radiation model source code, a MIC-centric UCF cross-compilation example, and less conventional thread management technique for developers utilizing the PThreads threading model.

  13. Structure-Activity Relationship of Azaindole-Based Glucokinase Activators.

    PubMed

    Paczal, Attila; Bálint, Balázs; Wéber, Csaba; Szabó, Zoltán B; Ondi, Levente; Theret, Isabelle; De Ceuninck, Frédéric; Bernard, Catherine; Ktorza, Alain; Perron-Sierra, Francoise; Kotschy, András

    2016-01-28

    7-Azaindole has been identified as a novel bidentate anchor point for allosteric glucokinase activators. A systematic investigation around three principal parts of the new small molecule glucokinase activators led to a robust SAR in agreement with structural data that also helped to assess the conformational flexibility of the allosteric activation site. The increase in glucose uptake resulting from glucokinase activation in hepatocytes in vitro translated into the efficient lowering of glucose levels in vivo with the best compounds. PMID:26685731

  14. Chapter 17: Residential Behavior Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.; Todd, A.

    2015-01-01

    Residential behavior-based (BB) programs use strategies grounded in the behavioral social sciences to influence household energy use. Strategies may include providing households with real-time or delayed feedback about their energy use; supplying energy-efficiency education and tips; rewarding households for reducing their energy use; comparing households to their peers; and establishing games, tournaments, and competitions. BB programs often target multiple energy end uses and encourage energy savings, demand savings, or both. Savings from BB programs are usually a small percentage of energy use, typically less than 5%.

  15. Chapter 15: Disease Gene Prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Bromberg, Yana

    2013-01-01

    Disease-causing aberrations in the normal function of a gene define that gene as a disease gene. Proving a causal link between a gene and a disease experimentally is expensive and time-consuming. Comprehensive prioritization of candidate genes prior to experimental testing drastically reduces the associated costs. Computational gene prioritization is based on various pieces of correlative evidence that associate each gene with the given disease and suggest possible causal links. A fair amount of this evidence comes from high-throughput experimentation. Thus, well-developed methods are necessary to reliably deal with the quantity of information at hand. Existing gene prioritization techniques already significantly improve the outcomes of targeted experimental studies. Faster and more reliable techniques that account for novel data types are necessary for the development of new diagnostics, treatments, and cure for many diseases. PMID:23633938

  16. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival. PMID:23711036

  17. Magnesium Based Materials and their Antimicrobial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Duane Allan

    The overall goals of this body of work were to characterize the antimicrobial properties of magnesium (Mg) metal and nano-magnesium oxide (nMgO) in vitro, to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of Mg metal, and to incorporate MgO nanoparticles into a polymeric implant coating and evaluate its in vitro antimicrobial properties. In the course of this work it was found that Mg metal, Mg-mesh, and nMgO have in vitro antimicrobial properties that are similar to a bactericidal antibiotic. For Mg metal, the mechanism of this activity appears to be related to an increase in pH (i.e. a more alkaline environment) and not an increase in Mg2+. Given that Mg-mesh is a Mg metal powder, the assumption is that it has the same mechanism of activity as Mg metal. The mechanism of activity for nMgO remains to be elucidated and may be related to a combination of interaction of the nanoparticles with the bacteria and the alkaline pH. It was further demonstrated that supernatants from suspensions of Mg-mesh and nMgO had the same antimicrobial effect as was noted when the particles were used. The supernatant from Mg-mesh and nMgO was also noted to prevent biofilm formation for two Staphylococcus strains. Finally, poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) composites of Mg-mesh (PCL+Mg-mesh) and nMgO (PCL+nMgO) were produced. Coatings applied to screws inhibited growth of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and in thin disc format inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in addition to the E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Pure Mg metal was noted to have some cytotoxic effect on murine fibroblast and osteoblast cell lines, although this effect needs to be characterized further. To address the need for an in vivo model for evaluating implant associated infections, a new closed fracture osteomyelitis model in the femur of the rat was developed. Magnesium, a readily available and inexpensive metal was shown to have antimicrobial properties that appear to be related to its corrosion products and

  18. CHAPTER 5-RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.

    2010-05-05

    The ore pitchblende was discovered in the 1750's near Joachimstal in what is now the Czech Republic. Used as a colorant in glazes, uranium was identified in 1789 as the active ingredient by chemist Martin Klaproth. In 1896, French physicist Henri Becquerel studied uranium minerals as part of his investigations into the phenomenon of fluorescence. He discovered a strange energy emanating from the material which he dubbed 'rayons uranique.' Unable to explain the origins of this energy, he set the problem aside. About two years later, a young Polish graduate student was looking for a project for her dissertation. Marie Sklodowska Curie, working with her husband Pierre, picked up on Becquerel's work and, in the course of seeking out more information on uranium, discovered two new elements (polonium and radium) which exhibited the same phenomenon, but were even more powerful. The Curies recognized the energy, which they now called 'radioactivity,' as something very new, requiring a new interpretation, new science. This discovery led to what some view as the 'golden age of nuclear science' (1895-1945) when countries throughout Europe devoted large resources to understand the properties and potential of this material. By World War II, the potential to harness this energy for a destructive device had been recognized and by 1939, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman showed that fission not only released a lot of energy but that it also released additional neutrons which could cause fission in other uranium nuclei leading to a self-sustaining chain reaction and an enormous release of energy. This suggestion was soon confirmed experimentally by other scientists and the race to develop an atomic bomb was on. The rest of the development history which lead to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 is well chronicled. After World War II, development of more powerful weapons systems by the United States and the Soviet Union continued to advance nuclear science. It was this defense

  19. Active X based standards for healthcare integration.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, D S; Welcker, B

    1998-02-01

    With cost pressures brought to the forefront by the growth of managed care, the integration of healthcare information systems is more important than ever. Providers of healthcare information are under increasing pressure to provide timely information to end users in a cost effective manner. Organizations have had to decide between the strong functionality that a multi-vendor 'best of breed' architecture provides and the strong integration provided by a single-vendor solution. As connectivity between systems increased, these interfaces were migrated to work across serial and eventually, network, connections. In addition, the content of the information became standardized through efforts like HL7 and ANSI X12 and Edifact. Although content-based standards go a long way towards facilitating interoperability, there is also quite a bit of work required to connect two systems even when they both adhere to the standard. A key to accomplishing this goal is increasing the connectivity between disparate systems in the healthcare environment. Microsoft is working with healthcare organizations and independent software vendors to bring Microsoft's powerful enterprise object technology, ActiveX, to the healthcare industry. Whilst object orientation has been heralded as the 'next big thing' in computer applications development, Microsoft believe that, in fact, component software is the technology which will provide the greatest benefit to end users. PMID:9600418

  20. Chapter A5. Processing of Water Samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By); Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.

    1999-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter addresses methods to be used in processing water samples to be analyzed for inorganic and organic chemical substances, including the bottling of composite, pumped, and bailed samples and subsamples; sample filtration; solid-phase extraction for pesticide analyses; sample preservation; and sample handling and shipping. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters will be announced on the USGS Home Page on the World Wide Web under 'New Publications of the U.S. Geological Survey.' The URL for this page is http:/ /water.usgs.gov/lookup/get?newpubs.

  1. Chapter A1. Preparations for Water Sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D.; Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.

    1998-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) provides guidelines and standard procedures for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter addresses field-trip preparations, including selection of sample-collection sites for studies of surface-water quality, site reconnaissance and well selection for studies of groundwater quality, and the establishment of electronic files and field files and folders for a sampling site. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters are posted on the World Wide Web on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/ (accessed Jan. 31, 2005).

  2. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 27, Logic, Chapter 28, Applications of Probability and Statistics. Student's Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    One chapter in the fourteenth unit of this SMSG series deals with logic; simple and compound statements, truth tables, logical equivalence, rules of a logical argument, proof, quantifiers, and negations are the topics covered. The second chapter of the unit discusses applications of probability and statistics, including random sampling,…

  3. [Biennial Survey of Education, 1926-1928. Bulletin, 1930, No. 16. Chapter I - Chapter XX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education, United States Department of the Interior, 1930

    1930-01-01

    This document contains the first twenty chapters of the Biennial Survey of Education document, covering the years 1926-1928. The following chapters are included in this document: (1) Higher education (Arthur J. Klein); (2) Medical education (N. P. Colwell); (3) Legal education (Alfred Z. Reed); (4) Significant movements in city school systems (W.…

  4. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 13, Perpendiculars and Parallels (I), Chapter 14, Similarity. Student's Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    The first chapter of the seventh unit in this SMSG series discusses perpendiculars and parallels; topics covered include the relationship between parallelism and perpendicularity, rectangles, transversals, parallelograms, general triangles, and measurement of the circumference of the earth. The second chapter, on similarity, discusses scale…

  5. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 21, Rigid Motions and Vectors, Chapter 22, Computers and Programs. Student's Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    Transformation geometry topics are covered in one chapter of Unit 11 of this SMSG series. Work with translations, reflections, rotations, and composition of motions is included; vectors are briefly discussed. The chapter on computers and programming deals with recent history and uses of of the computer, organization of a digital computer, an…

  6. Performance Based Education. Technology Activity Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Rodney L., Ed.

    These Technology Activity Modules are designed to serve as an implementation resource for technology education teachers as they integrate technology education with Missouri's Academic Performance Standards and provide a source of activities and activity ideas that can be used to integrate and reinforce learning across the curriculum. The modules…

  7. Literature-Based Reading Activities. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, Hallie Kay; Yopp, Ruth Helen

    Designed to be used with a wide variety of literature selections in classroom settings, the activities in this book are open-ended, encourage critical thinking and discussion, and serve as springboards for writing. All activities in the book have been classroom tested and many have been the subject of research. Each activity may be used at any…

  8. Introduction to MODIS Cloud Products. Chapter 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, Bryan A.; Platnick, Steven

    2006-01-01

    The Earth's radiative energy balance and hydrological cycle are fundamentally coupled with the distribution and properties of clouds. Therefore, the ability to remotely infer cloud properties and their variation in space and time is crucial for establishing climatologies as a reference for validation of present-day climate models and in assessing future climate change. Remote cloud observations also provide data sets useful for testing and improving cloud model physics, and for assimilation into numerical weather prediction models. The MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagers on the Terra and Aqua Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms provide the capability for globally retrieving these properties using passive solar reflectance and infrared techniques. In addition to providing measurements similar to those offered on a suite of historical operational weather platforms such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS), and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), MODIS provides additional spectral and/or spatial resolution in key atmospheric bands, along with on-board calibration, to expand the capability for global cloud property retrievals. The core MODIS operational cloud products include cloud top pressure, thermodynamic phase, optical thickness, particle size, and water path, and are derived globally at spatial resolutions of either 1- or 5-km (referred to as Level-2 or pixel-level products). In addition, the MODIS atmosphere team (collectively providing cloud, aerosol, and clear sky products) produces a combined gridded product (referred to as Level-3) aggregated to a 1 equal-angle grid, available for daily, eight-day, and monthly time periods. The wealth of information available from these products provides critical information for climate studies as well as the continuation and improved understanding of existing satellite-based cloud climatologies

  9. Geographic information system (GIS)-based maps of Appalachian basin oil and gas fields: Chapter C.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.; Kinney, Scott A.; Suitt, Stephen E.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Trippi, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007, the greenline Appalachian basin field maps were digitized under the supervision of Scott Kinney and converted to geographic information system (GIS) files for chapter I.1 (this volume). By converting these oil and gas field maps to a digital format and maintaining the field names where noted, they are now available for a variety of oil and gas and possibly carbon-dioxide sequestration projects. Having historical names assigned to known digitized conventional fields provides a convenient classification scheme into which cumulative production and ultimate field-size databases can be organized. Moreover, as exploratory and development drilling expands across the basin, many previou

  10. Activity Based Startup Plan for Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner

    SciTech Connect

    SUTTER, C.S.

    1999-08-16

    Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The restart of testing activities will require a review through an activity based startup process based upon Integrated Safety Management (ISM) principles to verify readiness. The Activity Based Startup Plan for the Prototype vertical Denitration Calciner has been developed for this process.

  11. "Interactive Seismics", Aki & Richards, Chapter 16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leary, P. C.; Walter, L.; Crampin, S.

    2004-12-01

    The defining physical character of cold brittle crustal rock hosting geofluid reservoirs and earthquake instabilities is '1/f-noise' spatially-correlated fluctuations in fracture-density. Evidence for 1/f-noise fracture-density fluctuations is manifest in power-law-scaling well-log spectra from <1/km to >1/cm, spatial correlation of well-core porosity and log(permeability), and the Gutenberg-Richter relation. Unlike spatially-uncorrelated randomness, power-law-scaling spatially-correlated randomness provides no reliable spatio-predictive relation between a sample and the whole. In particular, no point-measurement sequence in a crustal reservoir -- static well-log, temporal pressure-log or strain-log, or earthquake locations - accurately samples a reservoir state. Rather, useful knowledge of a reservoir state requires broadband observation of the whole reservoir as it is perturbed. Such observations could be called 'interactive seismics'. 'Interactive seismics' reservoir monitoring is becoming routine in the oil and gas industry, as embedded sensors record time-lapse source signals to determine where water replaces produced oil and gas. Interactive seismics is feasible with CO2 injection, and may become feasible for active fault zones. Interactive seismics benefits from stable downhole sources and sensors. Imperatives for better hydrocarbon reservoir observation are providing compact, robust, stable seismic sources and vector-sensors, and the means to deploy them downhole. Extensive crosswell seismic data, including monitored travel-times in a tectonically active crust, establish useful performance levels for downhole seismic sourcing at wavelengths 5-50m: crosswell transmission scale ˜1km, single-well back-scattering scale ˜200m, source wavelet stability \\delta S/S ˜ 0.03%, and travel-time resolution \\delta\\tau/\\tau ˜ 0.03%. Using the attested downhole source parameters, we simulate interactive seismic observation of a 1/f-noise fracture volume undergoing

  12. Chapter 3. Fresh Meat Texture and Tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter summarizes the current state of knowledge of meat tenderness and the antemortem and postmortem strategies that can be used to influence meat tenderness. Tenderness is critical to the consumer acceptance of meat products. Numerous antemortem and postmortem factors can impact tende...

  13. INDOOR AIR QUALITY MODELING (CHAPTER 58)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discussses indoor air quality (IAQ) modeling. Such modeling provides a way to investigate many IAQ problems without the expense of large field experiments. Where experiments are planned, IAQ models can be used to help design experiments by providing information on exp...

  14. Chapter 8: Youth, Technology, and Media Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sefton-Green, Julian

    2006-01-01

    This chapter begins with a scenario contrasting two seemingly different images of child and media from before and after the "digital revolution." The author argues that there is much greater continuity in how this relationship has been conceptualized over the period than is commonly imagined. While not offering a comprehensive study of recent…

  15. Chapter 4. Students' Attitudes toward Computer Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russian Education and Society, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors attempt not only to discern aspects that relate to age, place, and the amount of time devoted to playing computer games in adolescence, but also to study content characteristics of their attitudes such as: the developmental dynamic in the change of their genre preferences in computer games, changes in factors that…

  16. Chapter 1 Pre-Kindergarten Program Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Support Programs.

    This document is designed to assist administrators and teachers in developing high quality pre-kindergarten programs which comply with Chapter 1 regulations and guidelines. Information is provided on administration, design, and implementation of programs for disadvantaged young children, as well as on appropriate instructional practices for…

  17. Creating Stimulating Learning and Thinking Using New Models of Activity-Based Learning and Metacognitive-Based Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a novel way to stimulate learning, creativity, and thinking based on a new understanding of activity-based learning (ABL) and two methods for developing metacognitive-based activities for the classroom. ABL, in this model, is based on the premise that teachers are distillers and facilitators of information…

  18. Managing public and media response to a reawakening volcano: lessons from the 2004 eruptive activity of Mount St. Helens: Chapter 23 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzen, Peter M.; Matarrese, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions and other infrequent, large-scale natural disturbances pose challenges and opportunities for public-land managers. In the days and weeks preceding an eruption, there can be considerable uncertainty surrounding the magnitude and areal extent of eruptive effects. At the same time, public and media interest in viewing developing events is high and concern for public safety on the part of local land managers and public safety officials is elevated. Land managers and collaborating Federal, State, and local officials must decide whether evacuations or restrictions to public access are necessary, the appropriate level of advance preparation, and how best to coordinate between overlapping jurisdictions. In the absence of a formal Federal or State emergency declaration, there is generally no identified source of supplemental funding for emergency-response preparation or managing extraordinary public and media response to developing events. In this chapter, we examine responses to escalating events that preceded the 2004 Mount St. Helens eruption and changes in public perception during the extended period of the largely nonexplosive, dome-building eruption that followed. Lessons learned include the importance of maintaining up-to-date emergency-response plans, cultivating close working relationships with collaborating agencies, and utilizing an organized response framework that incorporates clearly defined roles and responsibilities and effective communication strategies.

  19. Fundamentals of Physics, Part 5 (Chapters 38-44)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2004-05-01

    Chapter 38. Photons and Matter Waves. Chapter 39. More About Matter Waves. Chapter 40. All About Atoms. Chapter 41. Conduction of Electricity in Solids. Chapter 42. Nuclear Physics. Chapter 43. Energy from the Nucleus. Chapter 44. Quarks, Leptons, and the Big Bang. Appendix A: The International System of Units (SI). Appendix B: Some Fundamental Constants of Physics. Appendix C: Some Astronomical Data. Appendix D: Conversion Factors. Appendix E: Mathematical Formulas. Appendix F: Properties of the Elements. Appendix G: Periodic Tables of the Elements. Answers to Checkpoints and Odd-Numbered Questions, Exercises, and Problems. Index.

  20. Inducible defenses in food webs: Chapter 3.4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vos, Matthijs; Kooi, Bob W.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Mooij, Wolf M.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter reviews the predicted effects of induced defenses on trophic structure and two aspects of stability, “local” stability and persistence, as well as presenting novel results on a third, resilience. Food webs are structures of populations in a given location organized according to their predator–prey interactions. Interaction strengths and, therefore, prey defenses are generally recognized as important ecological factors affecting food webs. Despite this, surprisingly, little light has been shed on the food web-level consequences of inducible defenses. Inducible defenses occur in many taxa in both terrestrial and aquatic food webs. They include refuge use, reduced activity, adaptive life history changes, the production of toxins, synomones and extrafloral nectar, and the formation of colonies, helmets, thorns, or spines. In the chapter, theoretical results for the effects of inducible defenses on trophic structure and the three aspects of stability are reviewed. This is done, in part, using bifurcation analysis—a type of analysis that is applied to nonlinear dynamic systems described by a set of ordinary differential or difference equations. The work presented in the chapter suggests that heterogeneity, as caused by induced defenses in prey species, has major effects on the functioning of food webs. Inducible defenses occur in many species in both aquatic and terrestrial systems, and theoretical work indicates they have major effects on important food web properties such as trophic structure, local stability, persistence, and resilience.

  1. Adjusted peak-flow frequency estimates for selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana based on data through water year 2011: Chapter D in Montana StreamStats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sando, Steven K.; Sando, Roy; McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-01-01

    The climatic conditions of the specific time period during which peak-flow data were collected at a given streamflow-gaging station (hereinafter referred to as gaging station) can substantially affect how well the peak-flow frequency (hereinafter referred to as frequency) results represent long-term hydrologic conditions. Differences in the timing of the periods of record can result in substantial inconsistencies in frequency estimates for hydrologically similar gaging stations. Potential for inconsistency increases with decreasing peak-flow record length. The representativeness of the frequency estimates for a short-term gaging station can be adjusted by various methods including weighting the at-site results in association with frequency estimates from regional regression equations (RREs) by using the Weighted Independent Estimates (WIE) program. Also, for gaging stations that cannot be adjusted by using the WIE program because of regulation or drainage areas too large for application of RREs, frequency estimates might be improved by using record extension procedures, including a mixed-station analysis using the maintenance of variance type I (MOVE.1) procedure. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Transportation and the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, completed a study to provide adjusted frequency estimates for selected gaging stations through water year 2011.The purpose of Chapter D of this Scientific Investigations Report is to present adjusted frequency estimates for 504 selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana based on data through water year 2011. Estimates of peak-flow magnitudes for the 66.7-, 50-, 42.9-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities are reported. These annual exceedance probabilities correspond to the 1.5-, 2-, 2.33-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals, respectively.The at-site frequency estimates were

  2. Chapter 15 Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Orban, Paul; Devon, Rebecca S; Hayden, Michael R; Leavitt, Blair R

    2007-01-01

    Several forms of genetically defined juvenile amy-otrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have now been charac-terized and discussion of these conditions will form the basis for this chapter. ALS2 is an autosomal recessive form of ALS with a juvenile onset and very slow progression that mapped to chromosome 2q33. Nine different mutations have been identified in the ALS2 gene that result in premature stop codons, suggesting a loss of function in the gene product, alsin. The alsin protein is thought to function as a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for GTPases and may play a role in vesicle transport or membrane trafficking processes. ALS4 is an autosomal dominant form of juvenile onset ALS associated with slow progression, severe muscle weakness and pyramidal signs, in the absence of bulbar and sensory abnormalities. Mutations in the SETX gene cause ALS4, and the SETX gene product senataxin may have DNA and RNA helicase activity and play a role in the regulation of RNA and/or DNA in the cell. A third form of juvenile-onset ALS (ALS5) is associated with slowly progressing lower motor neuron signs (weak-ness and atrophy) initially of the hands and feet, with eventual bulbar involvement. Progressive upper motor neuron disease becomes more obvious with time. ALS5 has been linked to a 6 cM region of chromosome 15q15.1-q21.1, but the causative gene mutation for ALS5 has yet to be identified. The high degree of clin-ical and genetic heterogeneity in the various forms of juvenile ALS can make differential diagnosis difficult, other genetic disorders that must be considered include: spinal muscular atrophy, hereditary spastic paraplegia, SBMA, GM2 gangliosidosis and the hereditary motor neuronopathies/motor forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Acquired disorders that must also be consid-ered include heavy metal intoxications (especially lead), multifocal motor neuropathy, paraneoplastic syndromes, vitamin deficiencies (B12) and infections (HTLV-II, HIV and poliomyelitis). PMID

  3. Metrology of Large Parts. Chapter 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2012-01-01

    As discussed in the first chapter of this book, there are many different methods to measure a part using optical technology. Chapter 2 discussed the use of machine vision to measure macroscopic features such as length and position, which was extended to the use of interferometry as a linear measurement tool in chapter 3, and laser or other trackers to find the relation of key points on large parts in chapter 4. This chapter looks at measuring large parts to optical tolerances in the sub-micron range using interferometry, ranging, and optical tools discussed in the previous chapters. The purpose of this chapter is not to discuss specific metrology tools (such as interferometers or gauges), but to describe a systems engineering approach to testing large parts. Issues such as material warpage and temperature drifts that may be insignificant when measuring a part to micron levels under a microscope, as will be discussed in later chapters, can prove to be very important when making the same measurement over a larger part. In this chapter, we will define a set of guiding principles for successfully overcoming these challenges and illustrate the application of these principles with real world examples. While these examples are drawn from specific large optical testing applications, they inform the problems associated with testing any large part to optical tolerances. Manufacturing today relies on micrometer level part performance. Fields such as energy and transportation are demanding higher tolerances to provide increased efficiencies and fuel savings. By looking at how the optics industry approaches sub-micrometer metrology, one can gain a better understanding of the metrology challenges for any larger part specified to micrometer tolerances. Testing large parts, whether optical components or precision structures, to optical tolerances is just like testing small parts, only harder. Identical with what one does for small parts, a metrologist tests large parts and optics

  4. 24 CFR 92.257 - Faith-based activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Faith-based activities. 92.257... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Project Requirements § 92.257 Faith-based activities. (a) Organizations that are religious or faith-based are eligible, on the same basis as any other organization,...

  5. 24 CFR 585.406 - Faith-based activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Faith-based activities. 585.406... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES YOUTHBUILD PROGRAM Administration § 585.406 Faith-based activities. (a) Organizations that are religious or faith-based are eligible, on the same basis as any...

  6. 24 CFR 92.257 - Faith-based activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Faith-based activities. 92.257... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Project Requirements § 92.257 Faith-based activities. (a) Organizations that are religious or faith-based are eligible, on the same basis as any other organization,...

  7. Chapter 4: Students' Attitudes toward Computer Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobkin, V. S.; Evstigneeva, Iu. M.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a study examining the factors that motivate students to play computer games. The study is confined to older preschool age, a time when playing functions as the "leading activity" in ontogenetic development. Based on the findings of the study, the following are students' motives for playing computer games: (1)…

  8. Cosmetic devices based on active transdermal technologies.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jessica A; Banga, Ajay K

    2015-09-01

    Active transdermal technology, commonly associated with drug delivery, has been used in recent years by the cosmetic industry for the aesthetic restoration of skin and delivery of cosmetic agents. In this article, we provide an overview of the skin's structure, various skin types, skin's self-repair mechanisms that are stimulated from the usage of cosmetic devices and discuss cosmetic applications. Summaries of the most common active transdermal technologies such as microneedles, iontophoresis, sonophoresis, lasers and microdermabrasion will be provided, in relation to the marketed cosmetic devices available that incorporate these technologies. Lastly, we cover combinations of active technologies that allow for more enhanced cosmetic results, and the current limitations of cosmetic devices. PMID:26389853

  9. Vaccination against bacterial kidney disease: Chapter 22

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Diane G.; Wiens, Gregory D.; Hammell, K. Larry; Rhodes, Linda D.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been recognized as a serious disease in salmonid fishes since the 1930s. This chapter discusses the occurrence and significance, etiology, and pathogenesis of BKD. It then describes the different vaccination procedures and the effects and side-effects of vaccination. Despite years of research, however, only a single vaccine has been licensed for prevention of BKD, and has demonstrated variable efficacy. Therefore, in addition to a presentation of the current status of BKD vaccination, a discussion of potential future directions for BKD vaccine development is included in the chapter. This discussion is focused on the unique characteristics of R. salmoninarum and its biology, as well as aspects of the salmonid immune system that might be explored specifically to develop more effective vaccines for BKD prevention.

  10. Teaching Activity-Based Taxicab Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ada, Tuba

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed on the process of teaching taxicab geometry, a non-Euclidean geometry that is easy to understand and similar to Euclidean geometry with its axiomatic structure. In this regard, several teaching activities were designed such as measuring taxicab distance, defining a taxicab circle, finding a geometric locus in taxicab geometry, and…

  11. Active Inquiry, Web-based Oceanography Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckels-Martin, Ellen E.; Howell, Paul D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses using web sites to develop active inquiry lessons that mimic some of the tasks and thought processes scientists use everyday. The exercises available at the web sites are designed to develop science process skills and convey basic course content. Exercises stress the interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere. (Author/SAH)

  12. Activity Based Astronomy for Primary Science Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginns, Ian

    Print materials in astronomy such as books, journals, charts, and posters are typically the sources of information for teachers and children about the moon, the sun, lunar and solar eclipses, planetary sizes, distances of planets from the sun, planetary atmospheres, and so on. This paper describes and analyzes a number of activities designed to…

  13. Description of data base management systems activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    One of the major responsibilities of the JPL Computing and Information Services Office is to develop and maintain a JPL plan for providing computing services to the JPL management and administrative community that will lead to improved productivity. The CISO plan to accomplish this objective has been titled 'Management and Administrative Support Systems' (MASS). The MASS plan is based on the continued use of JPL's IBM 3032 Computer system for administrative computing and for the MASS functions. The current candidate administrative Data Base Management Systems required to support the MASS include ADABASE, Cullinane IDMS and TOTAL. Previous uses of administrative Data Base Systems have been applied to specific local functions rather than in a centralized manner with elements common to the many user groups. Limited capacity data base systems have been installed in microprocessor based office automation systems in a few Project and Management Offices using Ashton-Tate dBASE II. These experiences plus some other localized in house DBMS uses have provided an excellent background for developing user and system requirements for a single DBMS to support the MASS program.

  14. Dust and human health: Chapter 15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morman, Suzette A.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that exposure to fine particulate matter may increase risk for human morbidity and mortality. Until recently, population health related studies examining the effects of particulate matter on human health generally examined anthropogenic (industry and combustion by-products) sources with few studies considering contributions from natural sources. This chapter provides an overview of naturally occurring inorganic mineral dust research and associated human health ailments and some of the challenges in elucidating the etiological mechanisms responsible.

  15. A Survey of Geologic Resources. Chapter 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonson, Jennifer; Rickman, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the resources available from the Moon itself: regolith, geologically concentrated materials, and lunar physical features that will enable habitation and generation of power on the surface. This chapter briefly covers the formation of the Moon and thus the formation of the crust of the Moon, as well as the evolution of the regolith. The characteristics of the regolith are provided in some detail, including its mineralogy and lithology. The location of high concentrations of specific minerals or rocks is noted. Other ideal locations for in situ resource utilization technology and lunar habitation are presented. This chapter is intended to be a brief review of current knowledge, and to serve as a foundational source for further study. Each concept presented here has a wealth of literature associated with it; the reader is therefore directed to that literature with each discussion. With great interest in possible manned lunar landings and continued study of the Moon by multiple satellites, the available information changes regularly.

  16. Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications. Chapter 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2000-01-01

    This chapter focuses attention on the friction and wear properties of selected solid lubricating films to aid users in choosing the best lubricant, deposition conditions, and operational variables. For simplicity, discussion of the tribological properties of concern is separated into two parts. The first part of the chapter discusses the different solid lubricating films selected for study including commercially developed solid film lubricants: (1) bonded molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), (2) magnetron-sputtered MoS2, (3) ion-plated silver, (4) ion-plated lead, (5) magnetron-sputtered diamondlike carbon (MS DLC), and (6) plasma-assisted, chemical-vapor-deposited diamondlike carbon (PACVD DEC) films. Marked differences in the friction and wear properties of the different films resulted from the different environmental conditions (ultrahigh vacuum, humid air, and dry nitrogen) and the solid film lubricant materials. The second part of the chapter discusses the physical and chemical characteristics, friction behavior, and endurance life of the magnetron-sputtered MoS2 films. The role of interface species and the effects of applied load, film thickness, oxygen pressure, environment, and temperature on the friction and wear properties are considered.

  17. Active index for content-based medical image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Chang, S K

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces the active index for content-based medical image retrieval. The dynamic nature of the active index is its most important characteristic. With an active index, we can effectively and efficiently handle smart images that respond to accessing, probing and other actions. The main applications of the active index are to prefetch image and multimedia data, and to facilitate similarity retrieval. The experimental active index system is described. PMID:8954230

  18. Air cleaners for indoor-air-pollution control (Chapter 10). Book chapter, Feb 89-Jul 90

    SciTech Connect

    Viner, A.S.; Ramanathan, K.; Hanley, J.T.; Smith, D.D.; Ensor, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    The chapter describes an experimental study to evaluate performance characteristics of currently available controls for indoor air pollutants, including both particles and gases. The study evaluated the particle-size-dependent collection efficiency of seven commercially available devices for particulate control: a common furnace filter, four industrial filters, and two electronic air cleaners (EACs). The furnance filter had negligible effect on particles with diameters between 0.1 and 1 micrometer. The industrial filters, with ASHRAE ratings of 95, 85, 65, and 40% showed minimum efficiency at about 0.1 micrometer, which was substantially less than the ASHRAE efficiency. One EAC, essentially a furnance filter with a high-voltage electrode, reached a maximum efficiency of 30% at low flowrates (7 cu m/min); however, it had a negligible effect at higher flowrates. The other EAC, similar to an industrial ESP, showed efficiencies of 80-90% over the entire size range at low to moderate flowrates. At the highest flowrate, a minimum efficiency was detected at 0.35 micrometer. The study also evaluated the suitability of commerically available carbon-based sorbents (wood, coal, and coconut) for removing low concentrations of volatile organic compounds (benzene, acetaldehyde, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane).

  19. Earthquake networks based on similar activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Tenenbaum, Joel N; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H Eugene

    2012-10-01

    Earthquakes are a complex spatiotemporal phenomenon, the underlying mechanism for which is still not fully understood despite decades of research and analysis. We propose and develop a network approach to earthquake events. In this network, a node represents a spatial location while a link between two nodes represents similar activity patterns in the two different locations. The strength of a link is proportional to the strength of the cross correlation in activities of two nodes joined by the link. We apply our network approach to a Japanese earthquake catalog spanning the 14-year period 1985-1998. We find strong links representing large correlations between patterns in locations separated by more than 1000 kilometers, corroborating prior observations that earthquake interactions have no characteristic length scale. We find network characteristics not attributable to chance alone, including a large number of network links, high node assortativity, and strong stability over time. PMID:23214652

  20. Neutron counter based on beryllium activation

    SciTech Connect

    Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Paducha, M.; Scholz, M.; Igielski, A.; Karpinski, L.; Pytel, K.

    2014-08-21

    The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction {sup 9}Be(n, α){sup 6}He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, {sup 6}He, decays with half-life T{sub 1/2} = 0.807 s emitting β{sup −} particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of β–particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known β–source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5–the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of β{sup −} particles emitted from radioactive {sup 6}He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

  1. Description of data base management activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    ARC's current and future data processing needs have been identified and defined. Requirements for improved data processing capabilities are listed: (1) Centralized control of system data files. Establish a DBA/data base administrator position with responsibility for management of the Centers numerous data bases; (2) Programmer tools to improve efficiency of performance; (3) Direct and timely access to information. Presently, the user submits query requests to the data processing department where they are prioritized with other queries and then batch processed using a report generator; (4) On line data entry. With the merger of the Dryden facility with ARC on line data entry, edit and updates have become mandatory for timely operation and reporting. A DBMS software package was purchased to meet the above requirements.

  2. Creating Evidence-Based Research in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Greg; Bouffard, Marcel; MacDonald, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Professional practice guided by the best research evidence is a usually referred to as evidence-based practice. The aim of the present paper is to describe five fundamental beliefs of adapted physical activity practices that should be considered in an 8-step research model to create evidence-based research in adapted physical activity. The five…

  3. Behavioral Activation Is an Evidence-Based Treatment for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturmey, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Recent reviews of evidence-based treatment for depression did not identify behavioral activation as an evidence-based practice. Therefore, this article conducted a systematic review of behavioral activation treatment of depression, which identified three meta-analyses, one recent randomized controlled trial and one recent follow-up of an earlier…

  4. Evaluation of an Internet, Stage-Based Physical Activity Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Ronald L.; Hardy, Aaron; Aldana, Steven G.; George, James D.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the impact of online, stage-based materials on exercise behavior and stage of readiness to change. College faculty participated in stage-based, action-message, or control groups. Occupational and leisure activity, 7-day physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, and stage of readiness to change were assessed at baseline and 6 weeks.…

  5. Improving hospital cost accounting with activity-based costing.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y C

    1993-01-01

    In this article, activity-based costing, an approach that has proved to be an improvement over the conventional costing system in product costing, is introduced. By combining activity-based costing with standard costing, health care administrators can better plan and control the costs of health services provided while ensuring that the organization's bottom line is healthy. PMID:8444618

  6. Accelerometer based calf muscle pump activity monitoring.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, Karol J; O'Keeffe, Derek T; Grace, Pierce A; Lyons, Gerard M

    2005-10-01

    Long distance travel is associated with increased risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). There is an increased risk of travel related DVT in passengers with a predisposition to thrombosis. Assisting blood circulation in the lower limb will reduce the risk of DVT. Leg exercises are recommended as a DVT preventative measure while flying but this fails to account for a passenger who is distracted by in flight entertainment or who falls asleep for an extended period. A method for monitoring calf muscle pump activity using accelerometers has been developed and evaluated. The proposed technique could be used to alert the traveller that there is a need to exercise their calf muscle, thus reducing the risk of DVT. PMID:16139770

  7. Chapter 8: Plasma operation and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ITER Physics Expert Group on Disruptions, Control, Plasma, and MHD; ITER Physics Expert Group on Energetic Particles, Heating, Current and Drive; ITER Physics Expert Group on Diagnostics; ITER Physics Basis Editors

    1999-12-01

    well as in plasma periphery and divertor. The planned diagnostics (Chapter 7) serve as sensors for kinetic control, while gas and pellet fuelling, auxiliary power and angular momentum input, impurity injection, and non-inductive current drive constitute the control actuators. For example, in an ignited plasma, core density controls fusion power output. Kinetic control algorithms vary according to the plasma state, e.g. H- or L-mode. Generally, present facilities have demonstrated the kinetic control methods required for a reactor scale device. Plasma initiation - breakdown, burnthrough and initial current ramp - in reactor scale tokamaks will not involve physics differing from that found in present day devices. For ITER, the induced electric field in the chamber will be ~0.3V· m-1 - comparable to that required by breakdown theory but somewhat smaller than in present devices. Thus, a start-up 3MW electron cyclotron heating system will be employed to assure burnthrough. Simulations show that plasma current ramp up and termination in a reactor scale device can follow procedures developed to avoid disruption in present devices. In particular, simulations remain in the stable area of the li-q plane. For design purposes, the resistive V·s consumed during initiation is found, by experiments, to follow the Ejima expression, 0.45μ0 RIp. Advanced tokamak control has two distinct goals. First, control of density, auxiliary power, and inductive current ramping to attain reverse shear q profiles and internal transport barriers, which persist until dissipated by magnetic flux diffusion. Such internal transport barriers can lead to transient ignition. Second, combined use poloidal field shape control with non-inductive current drive and NBI angular momentum injection to create and control steady state, high bootstrap fraction, reverse shear discharges. Active n = 1 magnetic feedback and/or driven rotation will be required to suppress resistive wall modes for steady state plasmas

  8. Availability of hydrogen for lunar base activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bustin, Roberta

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogen will be needed on a lunar base to make water for consumables, to provide fuel, and to serve as reducing agent in the extraction of oxygen from lunar minerals. The abundance and distribution of solar wind implanted hydrogen were studied. Hydrogen was found in all samples studied with concentrations varying widely depending on soil maturity, grain size, and mineral composition. Seven cores returned from the moon were studied. Although hydrogen was implanted in the upper surface layer of the regolith, it was found throughout the cores due to micrometeorite reworking of the soil.

  9. Availability of hydrogen for lunar base activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bustin, Roberta; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen will be needed on a lunar base to make water for consumables, to provide fuel, and to serve as a reducing agent in the extraction of oxygen from lunar minerals. This study was undertaken in order to learn more about the abundance and distribution of solar-wind-implanted hydrogen. Hydrogen was found in all samples studied, with concentrations, varying widely depending on soil maturity, grain size, and mineral composition. Seven cores returned from the Moon were studied. Although hydrogen was implanted in the upper surface layer of the regolith, it was found throughout the cores due to micrometeorite reworking of the soil.

  10. 48 CFR Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false A Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7...

  11. 48 CFR Appendix G to Chapter 2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false G Appendix G to Chapter 2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Appendix G to Chapter 2...

  12. 48 CFR Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false A Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7...

  13. 48 CFR Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false G Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7...

  14. 48 CFR Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false G Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7...

  15. 48 CFR Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false G Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7...

  16. 48 CFR Appendix G to Chapter 2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false G Appendix G to Chapter 2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Appendix G to Chapter 2...

  17. 48 CFR Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false G Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7...

  18. 48 CFR Appendix G to Chapter 2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false G Appendix G to Chapter 2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Appendix G to Chapter 2...

  19. 48 CFR Appendix G to Chapter 2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false G Appendix G to Chapter 2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Appendix G to Chapter 2...

  20. 48 CFR Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false G Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7...

  1. 48 CFR Appendix G to Chapter 2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false G Appendix G to Chapter 2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Appendix G to Chapter 2...

  2. 48 CFR Appendix E to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false E Appendix E to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendix E to Chapter 7...

  3. Report to the Legislature on: School Breakfast and Summer Food Service Programs. MGL Chapter 15 Section 1G(f) and Chapter 61 of the Acts of 2007 Line Item 7053-1925

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the report on "School Breakfast and Summer Food Service Program." Pursuant to Chapter 61 of the Acts of 2007 line item 7053-1925 and Massachusetts General Laws (MGL) chapter 15 section 1G(f), this report is submitted to the Legislature. An Act establishing school-based Nutrition and Child Hunger Relief Programs was signed into…

  4. Space Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Chapter 31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, John H.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Limero, Thomas; Arkin, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometers have been involved in essentially all aspects of space exploration. This chapter outlines some of these many uses. Mass spectrometers have not only helped to expand our knowledge and understanding of the world and solar system around us, they have helped to put man safely in space and expand our frontier. Mass spectrometry continues to prove to be a very reliable, robust, and flexible analytical instrument, ensuring that its use will continue to help aid our investigation of the universe and this small planet that we call home.

  5. Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications. Chapter 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1998-01-01

    This chapter describes powerful analytical techniques capable of sampling tribological surfaces and solid-film lubricants. Some of these techniques may also be used to determine the locus of failure in a bonded structure or coated substrate; such information is important when seeking improved adhesion between a solid-film lubricant and a substrate and when seeking improved performance and long life expectancy of solid lubricants. Many examples are given here and through-out the book on the nature and character of solid surfaces and their significance in lubrication, friction, and wear. The analytical techniques used include the late spectroscopic methods.

  6. The Minnesota Child Passenger Restraint and Education Account. A Report to the Minnesota Legislature on Activities and Expenditures as Required by the 1994 Session Laws, Chapter 635, Section 15 as Contained in M.S. 169.685, Subdivision 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Public Safety, St. Paul. Office of Traffic Safety.

    Minnesota Statute 169.685 (Seat Belts and Passenger Restraint Systems for Children) requires all drivers to correctly place children under the age of 4 years in child car seats. In response to the requirements of the amended statute, this report presents information to the Minnesota legislature on the commissioner's activities and expenditure of…

  7. Chapter Innovators Guide, 2000: Models of Innovation Award Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National FFA Organization, Indianapolis, IN.

    This guide presents the Future Farmers of America (FFA) 2000 Model of Innovation award winners' projects. Chapters demonstrated abilities to identify goals and objectives, create a workable plan of action, attain and evaluate results, and identify items learned and ways to improve. Chapter 1 discusses the FFA National Chapter Award program that…

  8. Using Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle in Chapter Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes-Eley, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Student-led chapter presentations provide an excellent opportunity for instructors to evaluate a student's comprehension of the assigned chapter, as well as the student's ability to present and convey information in a public forum. Although several instructors realize the benefits of requiring students to complete chapter presentations either as…

  9. Developing a Chapter 1 Program Improvement Plan: A Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Linda W.

    A new Chapter 1 law, P.L. 100-297, was passed in 1988. Chapter 1 schools must examine the program operated during the previous school year. Schools that fail to demonstrate overall achievement gains must develop a Program Improvement Plan (PIP), a document describing how the Chapter 1 program in that school will be modified. This guide provides a…

  10. Columbia: The Economic Foundation of Peace. Chapters 21-28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giugale, Marcelo M., Ed.; Lafourcade, Olivier, Ed.; Luff, Connie, Ed.

    This document contains 8 chapters of a 35-chapter book that presents a comprehensive diagnosis of current economic, social, and educational conditions in Colombia and their importance to development prospects and the quest for peace. The eight chapters covered here are part of a section titled "Sharing the Fruits of Growth with All Colombians."…

  11. Methods of assessing responses of trees, stands, and ecosystems to air pollution (Chapter 7). Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Stolte, K.W.; Duriscoe, D.M.; Cook, E.R.; Cline, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    The chapter focuses on three main types of assessments of pollution effects used in the case studies chronicled in Chapter 8 through 12 (Regional Studies of conifer forests in the west). These are measures of crown condition of individual trees; impacts on populations and communities; and temporal patterns in radial growth. The concepts behind the development of each approach are introduced with references to previous work, leading to a discussion of the state of science. The importance of quality assurance techniques to the success of any assessment of air pollution effects is also discussed.

  12. The real world and lunar base activation scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1992-01-01

    A lunar base or a network of lunar bases may have highly desirable support functions in a national or international program to explore and settle Mars. In addition, He-3 exported from the Moon could be the basis for providing much of the energy needs of humankind in the twenty-first century. Both technical and managerial issues must be addressed when considering the establishment of a lunar base that can serve the needs of human civilization in space. Many of the technical issues become evident in the consideration of hypothetical scenarios for the activation of a network of lunar bases. Specific and realistic assumptions must be made about the conduct of various types of activities in addition to the general assumptions given above. These activities include landings, crew consumables, power production, crew selection, risk management, habitation, science station placement, base planning, science, agriculture, resource evaluation, readaptation, plant activation and test, storage module landings, resource transport module landings, integrated operations, maintenance, Base 2 activation, and management. The development of scenarios for the activation of a lunar base or network of bases will require close attention to the 'real world' of space operations. That world is defined by the natural environment, available technology, realistic objectives, and common sense.

  13. Universal Sensor and Actuator Requirements. Chapter 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, Taylor; Webster, John; Garg, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    The previous chapters have focused on the requirements for sensors and actuators for "More Intelligent Gas Turbine Engines" from the perspective of performance and operating environment. Even if a technology is available, which meets these performance requirements, there are still various hurdles to be overcome for the technology to transition into a real engine. Such requirements relate to TRL (Technology Readiness Level), durability, reliability, volume, weight, cost, etc. This chapter provides an overview of such universal requirements which any sensor or actuator technology will have to meet before it can be implemented on a product. The objective here is to help educate the researchers or technology developers on the extensive process that the technology has to go through beyond just meeting performance requirements. The hope is that such knowledge will help the technology developers as well as decision makers to prevent wasteful investment in developing solutions to performance requirements, which have no potential to meet the "universal" requirements. These "universal" requirements can be divided into 2 broad areas: 1) Technology value proposition; and 2) Technology maturation. These requirements are briefly discussed in the following.

  14. Learning Outcomes of Project-Based and Inquiry-Based Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panasan, Mookdaporn; Nuangchalerm, Prasart

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Organization of science learning activities is necessary to rely on various methods of organization of learning and to be appropriate to learners. Organization of project-based learning activities and inquiry-based learning activities are teaching methods which can help students understand scientific knowledge. It would be more…

  15. Applying activity-based costing in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Wodchis, W P

    1998-01-01

    As greater numbers of the elderly use health services, and as health care costs climb, effective financial tracking is essential. Cost management in health care can benefit if costs are linked to the care activities where they are incurred. Activity-based costing (ABC) provides a useful approach. The framework aligns costs (inputs), through activities (process), to outputs and outcomes. It allocates costs based on client care needs rather than management structure. The ABC framework was tested in a residential care facility and in supportive housing apartments. The results demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of ABC for long term care agencies, including community-based care. PMID:10339203

  16. Antitrypanosomal activity of 5-nitro-2-aminothiazole-based compounds.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Maria V; Bloomer, William D; Rosenzweig, Howard S; Wilkinson, Shane R; Szular, Joanna; Kaiser, Marcel

    2016-07-19

    A small series of 5-nitro-2-aminothiazole-based amides containing arylpiperazine-, biphenyl- or aryloxyphenyl groups in their core were synthesized and evaluated as antitrypanosomatid agents. All tested compounds were active or moderately active against Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes in infected L6 cells and Trypanosoma brucei brucei, four of eleven compounds were moderately active against Leishmania donovani axenic parasites while none were deemed active against T. brucei rhodesiense. For the most active/moderately active compounds a moderate selectivity against each parasite was observed. There was good correlation between lipophilicity (clogP value) and antileishmanial activity or toxicity against L6 cells. Similarly, good correlation existed between clogP values and IC50 values against T. cruzi in structurally related subgroups of compounds. Three compounds were more potent as antichagasic agents than benznidazole but were not activated by the type I nitrorectusase (NTR). PMID:27092415

  17. Activity-Based Costing Systems for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Dennis H.

    1993-01-01

    Examines traditional costing models utilized in higher education and pinpoints shortcomings related to proper identification of costs. Describes activity-based costing systems as a superior alternative for cost identification, measurement, and allocation. (MLF)

  18. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 5, Number Theory, Chapter 6, The Integers. Student's Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    The third student text in this SMSG series of 14 covers the following topics from number theory: the division algorithm, divisibility, prime numbers, prime factorization, common divisors and common multiples, and properties of the whole number system. A second chapter discusses properties and operations with integers. For a special edition of this…

  19. Chapter 2: Stand-alone Applications - TOPCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. J.

    Tool for OPerations on Catalogues And Tables or TOPCAT is a graphical viewer for table data. It offers a variety of ways to work with data tables, including a browser for the cell data, viewers for information about table and column metadata, dataset visualization, and even analysis. We discuss a small subset of TOPCAT's functionalities in this chapter. TOPCAT was originally developed as part of the Starlink program in the United Kingdom. It is now maintained by AstroGrid. The program is written in pure Java and available under the GNU General Public License. It is available for download and a version is included in the software distribution accompanying this book. TOPCAT is a GUI interface on top of the STIL library. A command line interface to this library, STILTS, described in Chapter 21 provides scriptable access to many of the capabilities described here. The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an overview of TOPCAT to the novice user. The best place to look for and learn about TOPCAT is the web page maintained by Mark B. Taylor. There, TOPCAT documentation is provided in HTML, PDF, via screen shots, etc. In this chapter we take the user through a few examples that give the general idea of how TOPCAT works. The majority of the functionality of TOPCAT is not included in this short tutorial. Our goal in this tutorial is to lead the reader through an exercise that would result in a publication quality figure (e.g. for a journal article). Specifically, we will use TOPCAT to show how the color-magnitude relation of a galaxy cluster compares to that of all galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (York et al. 2000). This diagnostic is used not only in cluster finding, but its linear fit can provide insight into the age and/or metallicity of the oldest galaxies in galaxy clusters (which are some of the oldest galaxies in the Universe). The data we need for this exercise are: 1) the entire spectroscopic galaxy catalog from the SDSS, with galaxy positions, galaxy

  20. Chapter 36: The Astronomical Dataset Query Language (ADQL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, R.

    The Astronomical Dataset Query Language (ADQL) is an SQL-like language searching for astronomical tables or other datasets as if they were tables. This standard language is at the center of two important query services: SkyNode is a standard service interface for querying a single set of catalogs at one site, and the Open SkyQuery Portal is a service that uses ADQL to query across all known SkyNode services. Its history came out of a project called SkyQuery at Johns Hopkins University which produced a web-based service that could crossmatch astronomical objects from multiple, massive catalogs (such as SDSS, 2MASS, and FIRST) that are distributed over the network (Budävari et al. 2003). This project eventually evolved into the Open SkyQuery project within the IVOA, and one of the offshoots of this work was a new standard language for querying tables called ADQL. In this chapter, we will look at the ADQL syntax and learn how to make practical use of it. What you will get out of this chapter (most often in combination with other chapters referenced here) will depend on how you expect to use ADQL. If you are a general VO user, you will primarily find yourself using ADQL through a portal interface to search catalogs in pursuit of science. For you, the goals of this chapter are to be able to create original ADQL queries using the Open SkyQuery Portal and, in particular, to use ADQL to crossmatch sources from two catalogs. If you are a "scripter", a user capable of creating custom scripts to do VO research, you may find it useful to use client libraries to query distributed catalogs. If you are a data provider, then you might be interested in deploying a service that uses ADQL (e.g. a SkyNode service). For scripters and data providers alike, our goals are to understand the role of the two formats for ADQL in supporting query web services and to see how the language will eventually be used with other services beyond SkyNodes. If you are a developer, you may wish to

  1. Activity-based costing saves on supply distribution costs.

    PubMed

    1997-10-01

    Activity-based costing is coming, but is your organization ready? A few pioneering hospitals are already reaping the operational and economic benefits of activity-based costing in their materials management, and now the VHA purchasing alliance is offering this costing option to its 1,200 hospital members. The concept is simple, so why aren't there more takers? Here are the details on this pragmatic pricing approach that could save your facility plenty. PMID:10178010

  2. Virucidal activity of alcohol-based hand rub disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Iwasawa, Atsuo; Niwano, Yoshimi; Kohno, Masahiro; Ayaki, Masahiko

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the virucidal activity of commercially available alcohol-based hand rub products against coxsackievirus A7, B5, feline calicivirus F9, and human adenovirus type 3, type 7, type 8 using susceptible cell lines, Vero cells, CRFK cells, and A549 cells. Fifteen tested hand rub products were ethanol (EtOH) for disinfection (Japanese Pharmacopoeia Grade), two EtOH-based products, one povidone iode-containing product, one alkyldiaminoethylglycine hydrochloride-containing product, six benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-containing products, and four chlorohexidine gluconate (CHG)-containing products. Some active ingredients (BAK, benzetonium chloride, and CHG) were diluted with EtOH to make 0.5% and 0.2% solutions. Virus inactivation rates were calculated after contact with each hand rub product for 10 or 60 seconds. Of the hand rub products tested, only the povidone iode-based product showed antiviral activity superior to that of EtOH against all the strains. EtOH solutions of active ingredients (0.2% and 0.5%) also showed decreased antiviral activity. In conclusion, antiviral activity of all the commercially available alcohol-based hand rub products except that containing povidone idode was dependent on their active ingredients. The povidone idode-containing hand rub product kept its effectiveness even after the dilution with EtOH. Although alcohol-based hand rub products are convenient and suitable for the control of some microbes, they are not generally recommended for the control of viral infections. PMID:22451431

  3. Connecting Children and Family with Nature-Based Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flett, M. Ryan; Moore, Rebecca W.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Belonga, Joyce; Navarre, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Background: As the obesity epidemic expands to include younger Americans, there is greater need to understand youth experiences and to identify innovative strategies to promote physical activity in children and adolescents. Connecting children and families with nature-based activities is an example of a strategy that may promote physical activity…

  4. Problem Posing Based on Investigation Activities by University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Ponte, Joao Pedro; Henriques, Ana

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a classroom-based study involving investigation activities in a university numerical analysis course. The study aims to analyse students' mathematical processes and to understand how these activities provide opportunities for problem posing. The investigations were intended to stimulate students in asking questions, to trigger…

  5. Activity-Based Intervention Practices in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozen, Arzu; Ergenekon, Yasemin

    2011-01-01

    Teaching practices in natural settings such as activity-based intervention (ABI) are suggested as alternatives to be used in effective early childhood education. As a multidisciplinary model, ABI consists of four components, which are choosing activities according to the child's interests; teaching generalizable goals embedded in routines and…

  6. Comprehensive School-Based Physical Activity Promotion: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron; Carson, Russell L.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) participation levels among youth remain well below national recommendations. Thus, a variety of strategies to promote youth PA have been advocated, including multifaceted, school-based approaches. One identified as having great potential is a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP). The goal of a CSPAP is to…

  7. Fabric-based integrated energy devices for wearable activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungmook; Lee, Jongsu; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Minbaek; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2014-09-01

    A wearable fabric-based integrated power-supply system that generates energy triboelectrically using human activity and stores the generated energy in an integrated supercapacitor is developed. This system can be utilized as either a self-powered activity monitor or as a power supply for external wearable sensors. These demonstrations give new insights for the research of wearable electronics. PMID:25070873

  8. Activity-Based Costing: A Cost Management Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Frederick J.

    1993-01-01

    In college and university administration, overhead costs are often charged to programs indiscriminately, whereas the support activities that underlie those costs remain unanalyzed. It is time for institutions to decrease ineffective use of resources. Activity-based management attributes costs more accurately and can improve efficiency. (MSE)

  9. Problem-Based Group Activities for Teaching Sensation and Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreiner, David S.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes 14 problem-based group activities for a sensation and perception course. The intent was to provide opportunities for students to practice applying their knowledge to real-world problems related to course content. Student ratings of how effectively the activities helped them learn were variable but relatively high. Students…

  10. Network-Based Business Simulation Activities in Technical Professional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vescoukis, Vassilios C.; Retalis, Symeon; Anagnostopoulos, Dimosthenis

    2003-01-01

    For a long time on-the-job training has been considered as the single point of contact of technical education with the real world job market. Indeed, traditional on-the-job training activities are of great educational value and complement uniquely any classroom-based learning activity. However, it has been observed that several obstacles arise…

  11. Project-Based Language Learning: An Activity Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbes, Marina; Carson, Lorna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of project-based language learning (PBLL) in a university language programme. Learner reflections of project work were analysed through Activity Theory, where tool-mediated activity is understood as the central unit of analysis for human interaction. Data were categorised according to the components of human…

  12. CRAFFT: An Activity Prediction Model based on Bayesian Networks

    PubMed Central

    Nazerfard, Ehsan; Cook, Diane J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the areas of pervasive computing, data mining, and machine learning offer unique opportunities to provide health monitoring and assistance for individuals facing difficulties to live independently in their homes. Several components have to work together to provide health monitoring for smart home residents including, but not limited to, activity recognition, activity discovery, activity prediction, and prompting system. Compared to the significant research done to discover and recognize activities, less attention has been given to predict the future activities that the resident is likely to perform. Activity prediction components can play a major role in design of a smart home. For instance, by taking advantage of an activity prediction module, a smart home can learn context-aware rules to prompt individuals to initiate important activities. In this paper, we propose an activity prediction model using Bayesian networks together with a novel two-step inference process to predict both the next activity features and the next activity label. We also propose an approach to predict the start time of the next activity which is based on modeling the relative start time of the predicted activity using the continuous normal distribution and outlier detection. To validate our proposed models, we used real data collected from physical smart environments. PMID:25937847

  13. Coldwater fish in wadeable streams: chapter 8

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunham, Jason B.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Thurow, Russell F.; Dolloff, C. Andrew; Howell, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    Standardizing sampling methods for fish populations across large regions is important for consistent measurement of large-scale effects of climate or geography. In addition, pooling samples creates larger sample sizes and can facilitate data sharing among scientists and land managers. Sampling freshwater fish has largely not been standardized due to the diversity of fish and habitats. USGS aquatic ecologist Jason Dunham and co-authors contributed a chapter about sampling coldwater fish in wadeable streams to a new book that details common methods, protocols, and guidelines for sampling fish across North America. Topics include three common sampling methods: electrofishing, snorkeling, and nest counts. Each method provides complementary information about different species and life stages. The information will be useful for initiating new or fine-tuning ongoing sampling programs.

  14. New training building heralds new chapter.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2014-09-01

    Established in 1969 by the Department of Health as the National Centre for Hospital Engineering, Eastwood Park is today acknowledged as one of the UK's leading providers of specialist technical, engineering, estates, and facilities management training to the healthcare sector. Having celebrated 40 years in business in 2009, and with the breadth of its portfolio growing year-on-year, the training provider has recently entered a particularly exciting new chapter, as plans for a new 3,000 m2 training centre, due to open late next year, and equipped with facilities which Eastwood Park's management say will be 'unrivalled anywhere else in the world', come to fruition. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie reports. PMID:25282987

  15. Chapter A4. Collection of Water Samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By)

    1999-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data that are used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter addresses preparations and appropriate methods for the collection of surface-water, groundwater, and associated quality-control samples. Among the topics covered are considerations and procedures to prevent sample contamination; establishing site files; instructions for collecting depth-integrated isokinetic and nonisokinetic samples at flowing- and still-water sites; and guidelines for collecting formation water from wells having various types of construction and hydraulic and aquifer characteristics.

  16. Mercury and halogens in coal: Chapter 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Apart from mercury itself, coal rank and halogen content are among the most important factors inherent in coal that determine the proportion of mercury captured by conventional controls during coal combustion. This chapter reviews how mercury in coal occurs, gives available concentration data for mercury in U.S. and international commercial coals, and provides an overview of the natural variation in halogens that influence mercury capture. Three databases, the U.S. Geological Survey coal quality (USGS COALQUAL) database for in-ground coals, and the 1999 and 2010 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) databases for coals delivered to power stations, provide extensive results for mercury and other parameters that are compared in this chapter. In addition to the United States, detailed characterization of mercury is available on a nationwide basis for China, whose mean values in recent compilations are very similar to the United States in-ground mean of 0.17 ppm mercury. Available data for the next five largest producers (India, Australia, South Africa, the Russian Federation, and Indonesia) are more limited and with the possible exceptions of Australia and the Russian Federation, do not allow nationwide means for mercury in coal to be calculated. Chlorine in coal varies as a function of rank and correspondingly, depth of burial. As discussed elsewhere in this volume, on a proportional basis, bromine is more effective than chlorine in promoting mercury oxidation in flue gas and capture by conventional controls. The ratio of bromine to chlorine in coal is indicative of the proportion of halogens present in formation waters within a coal basin. This ratio is relatively constant except in coals that have interacted with deep-basin brines that have reached halite saturation, enriching residual fluids in bromine. Results presented here help optimize mercury capture by conventional controls and provide a starting point for

  17. Chapter 40: history of neurology in France.

    PubMed

    Clarac, François; Boller, François

    2010-01-01

    The history of neurology in France is characterized by the very high degree of centralization in that country where "everything seems to happen in Paris," and yet the considerable degree of autonomous diversity in the evolution of some other medical schools such as Montpellier and Strasbourg. It could be argued that France saw the birth of clinical neurology as a separate discipline since Jean Martin Charcot at the Salpêtrière Hospital obtained a chair of diseases of the nervous system in 1892, a first in the history of the academic world. The chapter shows, however, that the work of Charcot was preceded by a long evolution in medical thinking, which culminated with the introduction of experimental medicine developed by Claude Bernard and François Magendie, and by the study of aphasia by Paul Broca and its localization of language in a specific area of the brain. Many of the great neurologists of France like Duchenne de Boulogne, Gilles de la Tourette, Joseph Babinski and Pierre Marie gravitated around Charcot while others like Charles-Edward Brown-Sequard and Jules Dejerine developed their talents independently. The history of Sainte-Anne Hospital further illustrates this independence. It also shows the relation between neurology and psychiatry with Henri Ey, Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker, who collaborated with Henri Laborit in the clinical development of chlorpromazine. Sainte Anne also saw the birth of modern neuropsychology with Henry Hécaen. Jean Talairach and his group developed human stereotaxic neurosurgery and a 3-dimensional brain atlas that is used around the world. The chapter also mentions institutions (the CNRS and INSERM) that have contributed to developments partially independently from medical schools. It concludes with a presentation of schools located outside of Paris that have played a significant role in the development of neurology. Six of the most important ones are described: Montpellier, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Strasbourg, Lyon, and

  18. Chapter 12: the anatomical foundations of clinical neurology.

    PubMed

    Bentivoglio, Marina; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The chapter provides an itinerary of knowledge on nervous system anatomy as one of the pillars of clinical neurology. The journey starts from the Renaissance explosion on the approach to the human body, its functions and its diseases, dealing with the seminal contributions of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The itinerary proceeds through the contributions of the 17th century, especially by Thomas Willis and the pioneering investigations of Marcello Malpighi and Antony van Leeuwenhoek, and onto the 18th century. The itinerary thus leads to the progress from gross anatomy to the microscopic investigation of the nervous system in the 19th century: the reticular theories, the revolution of the neural doctrine and their protagonists (Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal), which initiated the modern era of the neurosciences. The chapter also includes sections on the contributions of developmental neuroanatomy to neurology, on the history of tract tracing, and on the cytoarchitecture of the cerebral cortex. The never-ending story of the anatomical foundations of clinical neurology continues to evolve at the dawn of the 21st century, including knowledge that guides deep brain stimulation, and novel approaches to the anatomy of the living brain based on rapidly developing neuroimaging technology. PMID:19892115

  19. Human activity recognition based on Evolving Fuzzy Systems.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Jose Antonio; Angelov, Plamen; Ledezma, Agapito; Sanchis, Araceli

    2010-10-01

    Environments equipped with intelligent sensors can be of much help if they can recognize the actions or activities of their users. If this activity recognition is done automatically, it can be very useful for different tasks such as future action prediction, remote health monitoring, or interventions. Although there are several approaches for recognizing activities, most of them do not consider the changes in how a human performs a specific activity. We present an automated approach to recognize daily activities from the sensor readings of an intelligent home environment. However, as the way to perform an activity is usually not fixed but it changes and evolves, we propose an activity recognition method based on Evolving Fuzzy Systems. PMID:20945515

  20. A New Activity-Based Financial Cost Management Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingge, Zhang

    The standard activity-based financial cost management model is a new model of financial cost management, which is on the basis of the standard cost system and the activity-based cost and integrates the advantages of the two. It is a new model of financial cost management with more accurate and more adequate cost information by taking the R&D expenses as the accounting starting point and after-sale service expenses as the terminal point and covering the whole producing and operating process and the whole activities chain and value chain aiming at serving the internal management and decision.

  1. Racial Differences in Congregation-Based Political Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. Khari

    2006-01-01

    This study employs a resource mobilization model to explain racial differences in congregation-based political activism. The fewer resources (i.e., members, income, clergy leadership, civic ties) that black congregations possess relative to white congregations largely accounts for racial differences in congregation-based lobbying and protest…

  2. Internet Content-Based Activities for English for Specific Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marco, Maria Jose Luzon

    2002-01-01

    Describes the benefits of a content-based approach to English for specific purposes, (ESP) examines how WebQuests can be integrated into a content-based ESP syllabus, analyze the different types of WebQuests suitable for ESP teaching, and discuses the limitations of this type of activity and the factors that should be considered when using…

  3. An Active Learning Exercise for Introducing Agent-Based Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in agent-based modeling as a method of systems analysis and optimization indicate that students in business analytics need an introduction to the terminology, concepts, and framework of agent-based modeling. This article presents an active learning exercise for MBA students in business analytics that demonstrates agent-based…

  4. Lunar bases and space activities of the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    The present conference gives attention to such major aspects of lunar colonization as lunar base concepts, lunar transportation, lunar science research activities, moon-based astronomical researches, lunar architectural construction, lunar materials and processes, lunar oxygen production, life support and health maintenance in lunar bases, societal aspects of lunar colonization, and the prospects for Mars colonization. Specific discussions are presented concerning the role of nuclear energy in lunar development, achromatic trajectories and the industrial scale transport of lunar resources, advanced geologic exploration from a lunar base, geophysical investigations of the moon, moon-based astronomical interferometry, the irradiation of the moon by particles, cement-based composites for lunar base construction, electrostatic concentration of lunar soil minerals, microwave processing of lunar materials, a parametric analysis of lunar oxygen production, hydrogen from lunar regolith fines, metabolic support for a lunar base, past and future Soviet lunar exploration, and the use of the moons of Mars as sources of water for lunar bases.

  5. Portable Enzyme-Paper Biosensors Based on Redox-Active CeO2 Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Karimi, A; Othman, A; Andreescu, S

    2016-01-01

    Portable, nanoparticle (NP)-enhanced enzyme sensors have emerged as powerful devices for qualitative and quantitative analysis of a variety of analytes for biomedicine, environmental applications, and pharmaceutical fields. This chapter describes a method for the fabrication of a portable, paper-based, inexpensive, robust enzyme biosensor for the detection of substrates of oxidase enzymes. The method utilizes redox-active NPs of cerium oxide (CeO2) as a sensing platform which produces color in response to H2O2 generated by the action of oxidase enzymes on their corresponding substrates. This avoids the use of peroxidases which are routinely used in conjunction with glucose oxidase. The CeO2 particles serve dual roles, as high surface area supports to anchor high loadings of the enzyme as well as a color generation reagent, and the particles are recycled multiple times for the reuse of the biosensor. These sensors are small, light, disposable, inexpensive, and they can be mass produced by standard, low-cost printing methods. All reagents needed for the analysis are embedded within the paper matrix, and sensors stored over extended periods of time without performance loss. This novel sensor is a general platform for the in-field detection of analytes that are substrates for oxidase enzymes in clinical, food, and environmental samples. PMID:27112400

  6. Active Oxidation of a UHTC-Based CMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, David E.; Splinter, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    The active oxidation of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) is a severe problem that must be avoided for multi-use hypersonic vehicles. Much work has been performed studying the active oxidation of silicon-based CMCs such as C/SiC and SiC-coated carbon/carbon (C/C). Ultra high temperature ceramics (UTHC) have been proposed as a possible material solution for high-temperature applications on hypersonic vehicles. However, little work has been performed studying the active oxidation of UHTCs. The intent of this paper is to present test data indicating an active oxidation process for a UHTC-based CMC similar to the active oxidation observed with Si-based CMCs. A UHTC-based CMC was tested in the HyMETS arc-jet facility (or plasma wind tunnel, PWT) at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. The coupon was tested at a nominal surface temperature of 3000 F (1650 C), with a stagnation pressure of 0.026 atm. A sudden and large increase in surface temperature was noticed with negligible increase in the heat flux, indicative of the onset of active oxidation. It is shown that the surface conditions, both temperature and pressure, fall within the region for a passive to active transition (PAT) of the oxidation.

  7. Active media for tunable lasers based on hybrid polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Kopylova, T N; Eremina, N S; Vaitulevich, E A; Samsonova, L G; Maier, G V; Tel'minov, E N; Solodova, T A; Solodov, A M

    2008-02-28

    The lasing properties of rhodamine 6G (chloride and perchlorate) in synthesised hybrid polymers based on an organic polymer (methyl methacrylate with hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and an inorganic precursor (tetraethoxysilane) are studied. Rhodamine 6G samples were transversely pumped by the second harmonic of a Nd{sup 3+}:YAG laser. It is found that the active media based on hybrid polymers have a considerably longer service life compared to the active media based on organic polymers. The structure of the hybrid polymer is studied by the methods of IR Fourier spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetry. It is shown that the longer service life of hybrid-polymer active media is explained by the formation of an inorganic nanostructure network in them, which improves the thermooptic properties of the material and reduces the efficiency of thermal decomposition of active molecules. (lasers. amplifiers)

  8. Activity-based probes for detection of active MALT1 paracaspase in immune cells and lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Eitelhuber, Andrea C; Vosyka, Oliver; Nagel, Daniel; Bognar, Miriam; Lenze, Dido; Lammens, Katja; Schlauderer, Florian; Hlahla, Daniela; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Lenz, Georg; Hummel, Michael; Verhelst, Steven H L; Krappmann, Daniel

    2015-01-22

    MALT1 paracaspase is activated upon antigen receptor stimulation to promote lymphocyte activation. In addition, deregulated MALT1 protease activity drives survival of distinct lymphomas such as the activated B cell type of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL). Here, we designed fluorophore or biotin-coupled activity based-probes (ABP) that covalently modify the active center of MALT1. MALT1-ABPs are exclusively labeling an active modified full length form of MALT1 upon T cell stimulation. Further, despite the CARMA1 requirement for initial MALT1 activation, the MALT1-ABPs show that protease activity is not confined to the high-molecular CARMA1-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) complex. Using biotin-coupled ABPs, we developed a robust assay for sensitive and selective detection of active MALT1 in cell lines, primary lymphocytes, and DLBCL tumor biopsies. Taken together, MALT1-ABPs represent powerful chemical tools to measure cellular MALT1 activation, determine efficacy of small molecule inhibitors, and classify lymphomas based on MALT1 activity status. PMID:25556945

  9. Neurobiology driving hyperactivity in activity-based anorexia.

    PubMed

    Adan, R A H; Hillebrand, J J G; Danner, U N; Cardona Cano, S; Kas, M J H; Verhagen, L A W

    2011-01-01

    Hyperactivity in anorexia nervosa is difficult to control and negatively impacts outcome. Hyperactivity is a key driving force to starvation in an animal model named activity-based anorexia (ABA). Recent research has started unraveling what mechanisms underlie this hyperactivity. Besides a general increase in locomotor activity that may be an expression of foraging behavior and involves frontal brain regions, the increased locomotor activity expressed before food is presented (food anticipatory behavior or FAA) involves hypothalamic neural circuits. Ghrelin plays a role in FAA, whereas decreased leptin signaling is involved in both aspects of increased locomotor activity. We hypothesize that increased ghrelin and decreased leptin signaling drive the activity of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area. In anorexia nervosa patients, this altered activity of the dopamine system may be involved not only in hyperactivity but also in aberrant cognitive processing related to food. PMID:21243479

  10. Chapter 24: Programmatic Interfaces - IDL VOlib

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. J.

    In this chapter, we describe a library for working with the VO using IDL (the Interactive Data Language). IDL is a software environment for data analysis, visualization, and cross-platform application development. It has wide-usage in astronomy, including NASA (e.g. http://seadas.gsfc.nasa.gov/), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (http://www.sdss.org), and the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph Instrument (http://ssc.spitzer.caltech.edu/archanaly/contributed/smart/). David Stern, the founder of Research Systems, Inc. (RSI), began the development of IDL while working with NASA's Mars Mariner 7 and 9 data at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado. In 1981, IDL was rewritten in assembly language and FORTRAN for VAX/VMS. IDL's usage has expanded over the last decade into the fields of medical imaging and engineering, among many others. IDL's programming style carries over much of this FORTRAN-legacy, and has a familiar feel to many astronomers who learned their trade using FORTRAN. The spread of IDL-usage amongst astronomers can in part be attributed to the wealth of publicly astronomical libraries. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) maintains a list of astronomy-related IDL libraries, including the well known Astronomy User's Library (hereafter ASTROLIB2). We will use some of these GSFC IDL libraries. We note that while IDL is a licensed-software product, the source code of user-written procedures are typically freely available to the community. To make the most out of this section as a reader, it is important that many of the data discovery, access, and analysis protocols are understood before reading this chapter. In the next section, we provide an overview of some of the NVO terminology with which the reader should be familiar. The IDL library discussed here is specifically for use with the Virtual Observatory and is named VOlib. IDL's VOlib is available at http://nvo.noao.edu and is included with the software distrubution for this

  11. Numerical Prediction of Dust. Chapter 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedetti, Angela; Baldasano, J. M.; Basart, S.; Benincasa, F.; Boucher, O.; Brooks, M.; Chen, J. P.; Colarco, P. R.; Gong, S.; Huneeus, N.; Jones, L; Lu, S.; Menut, L.; Mulcahy, J.; Nickovic, S.; Morcrette, J.-J.; Perez, C.; Reid, J. S.; Sekiyama, T. T.; Tanaka, T.; Terradellas, E.; Westphal, D. L.; Zhang, X.-Y.; Zhou, C.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Covers the whole breadth of mineral dust research, from a scientific perspective Presents interdisciplinary work including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies Explores the role of dust as a player and recorder of environmental change This volume presents state-of-the-art research about mineral dust, including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies. Dust research is a new, dynamic and fast-growing area of science and due to its multiple roles in the Earth system, dust has become a fascinating topic for many scientific disciplines. Aspects of dust research covered in this book reach from timescales of minutes (as with dust devils, cloud processes, and radiation) to millennia (as with loess formation and oceanic sediments), making dust both a player and recorder of environmental change. The book is structured in four main parts that explore characteristics of dust, the global dust cycle, impacts of dust on the Earth system, and dust as a climate indicator. The chapters in these parts provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of this highly interdisciplinary subject. The contributions presented here cover dust from source to sink and describe all the processes dust particles undergo while travelling through the atmosphere. Chapters explore how dust is lifted and transported, how it affects radiation, clouds, regional circulations, precipitation and chemical processes in the atmosphere, and how it deteriorates air quality. The book explores how dust is removed from the atmosphere by gravitational settling, turbulence or precipitation, how iron contained in dust fertilizes terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and about the role that dust plays in human health. We learn how dust is observed, simulated using computer models and forecast. The book also details the role of dust deposits for climate reconstructions

  12. E-Activities: Internet-based Activities To Expand Your History Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumbauer, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Presents three Internet-based activities for teaching elementary students about the Underground Railroad. The activities include creating a freight-train of facts about the Underground Railroad, mapping the routes of the Underground Railroad, and participating in an electronic simulation of life as a fugitive slave. (SM)

  13. Methods for Studying the Processes of Interaction and Collaborative Activity in Computer-Based Educational Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Neil; Littleton, Karen; Wegerif, Rupert

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on the work of researchers in several disciplines, this article describes and discusses methods which can be used for analysing joint activity during computer-based, side-by-side, collaborative activity in educational settings. It is argued that the choice of methods in any particular study should take into account the range of…

  14. Estimating evaporative vapor generation from automobiles based on parking activities.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xinyi; Tschantz, Michael; Fu, Joshua S

    2015-07-01

    A new approach is proposed to quantify the evaporative vapor generation based on real parking activity data. As compared to the existing methods, two improvements are applied in this new approach to reduce the uncertainties: First, evaporative vapor generation from diurnal parking events is usually calculated based on estimated average parking duration for the whole fleet, while in this study, vapor generation rate is calculated based on parking activities distribution. Second, rather than using the daily temperature gradient, this study uses hourly temperature observations to derive the hourly incremental vapor generation rates. The parking distribution and hourly incremental vapor generation rates are then adopted with Wade-Reddy's equation to estimate the weighted average evaporative generation. We find that hourly incremental rates can better describe the temporal variations of vapor generation, and the weighted vapor generation rate is 5-8% less than calculation without considering parking activity. PMID:25818089

  15. Substrate-competitive activity-based profiling of ester prodrug activating enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hao; Majmudar, Jaimeen D.; Davda, Dahvid; Ghanakota, Phani; Kim, Ki H.; Carlson, Heather A.; Showalter, Hollis D.; Martin, Brent R.; Amidon, Gordon L.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanistic basis of prodrug delivery and activation is critical for establishing species-specific prodrug sensitivities necessary for evaluating pre-clinical animal models and potential drug-drug interactions. Despite significant adoption of prodrug methodologies for enhanced pharmacokinetics, functional annotation of prodrug activating enzymes is laborious and often unaddressed. Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) describes an emerging chemoproteomic approach to assay active site occupancy within a mechanistically similar enzyme class in native proteomes. The serine hydrolase enzyme family is broadly reactive with reporter-linked fluorophosphonates, which have shown to provide a mechanism-based covalent labeling strategy to assay the activation state and active site occupancy of cellular serine amidases, esterases, and thioesterases. Here we describe a modified ABPP approach using direct substrate competition to identify activating enzymes for an ethyl ester prodrug, the influenza neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir. Substrate-competitive ABPP analysis identified carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) as an oseltamivir-activating enzyme in intestinal cell homogenates. Saturating concentrations of oseltamivir lead to a 4-fold reduction in the observed rate constant for CES1 inactivation by fluorophosphonates. WWL50, a reported carbamate inhibitor of mouse CES1, blocked oseltamivir hydrolysis activity in human cell homogenates, confirming CES1 is the primary prodrug activating enzyme for oseltamivir in human liver and intestinal cell lines. The related carbamate inhibitor WWL79 inhibited mouse, but not human CES1, providing a series of probes for analyzing prodrug activation mechanisms in different preclinical models. Overall, we present a substrate-competitive activity-based profiling approach for broadly surveying candidate prodrug hydrolyzing enzymes and outline the kinetic parameters for activating enzyme discovery, ester prodrug design and preclinical

  16. Carbon cycling in terrestrial environments: Chapter 17

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Yang; Huntington, Thomas G.; Osher, Laurie J.; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Trumbore, Susan E.; Amundson, Ronald; Harden, Jennifer W.; McKnight, Diane M.; Schiff, Sherry L.; Aiken, George R.; Lyons, W. Berry; Aravena, Ramon O.; Baron, Jill S.

    1998-01-01

    This chapter reviews a number of applications of isotopic techniques for the investigation of carbon cycling processes. Carbon dioxide (C02) is an important greenhouse gas. Its concentration in the atmosphere has increased from an estimated 270 ppm at the beginning of the industrial revolution to ∼ 360 ppm at present. Climatic conditions and atmospheric C02 concentration also influence isotopic discrimination during photosynthesis. Natural and anthropogenically induced variations in the carbon isotopic abundance can be exploited to investigate carbon transformations between pools on various time scales. It also discusses one of the isotopes of carbon, the 14C, that is produced in the atmosphere by interactions of cosmic-ray produced neutrons with stable isotopes of nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), and carbon (C), and has a natural abundance in the atmosphere of ∼1 atom 14 C per 1012 atoms 12C. The most important factor affecting the measured 14C ages of soil organic matter is the rate of organic carbon cycling in soils. Differences in the dynamics of soil carbon among different soils or soil horizons will result in different soil organic 14C signatures. As a result, the deviation of the measured 14C age from the true age could differ significantly among different soils or soil horizons.

  17. Fire as an ecosystem process: Chapter 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.; Safford, Hugh D.

    2016-01-01

    This long-anticipated reference and sourcebook for California’s remarkable ecological abundance provides an integrated assessment of each major ecosystem type—its distribution, structure, function, and management. A comprehensive synthesis of our knowledge about this biologically diverse state, Ecosystems of California covers the state from oceans to mountaintops using multiple lenses: past and present, flora and fauna, aquatic and terrestrial, natural and managed. Each chapter evaluates natural processes for a specific ecosystem, describes drivers of change, and discusses how that ecosystem may be altered in the future. This book also explores the drivers of California’s ecological patterns and the history of the state’s various ecosystems, outlining how the challenges of climate change and invasive species and opportunities for regulation and stewardship could potentially affect the state’s ecosystems. The text explicitly incorporates both human impacts and conservation and restoration efforts and shows how ecosystems support human well-being. Edited by two esteemed ecosystem ecologists and with overviews by leading experts on each ecosystem, this definitive work will be indispensable for natural resource management and conservation professionals as well as for undergraduate or graduate students of California’s environment and curious naturalists.

  18. Chapter 19: visual images and neurological illustration.

    PubMed

    Ione, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This chapter examines the importance of visual materials for studying the brain in health and in disease. Surveying historical representations, this research confirms that images of the brain's form and function have long served as teaching tools and as historical reference points for neurological events. The research is divided into five sections: the first section, Early History to Printing Technology considers prehistoric and ancient imagery, pre-Renaissance thinking about the brain, and the impact of printing and printmaking on neurological research. The second section, Renaissance Illustration, focuses on Leonardo da Vinci, Andreas Vesalius, and other contributors who produced images of the brain as dissection restrictions eased. The third section, which turns to Early Modern and Modern Illustration, highlights the work of Thomas Willis, Charles Bell, and other scientists (throughout the 19th century) who demonstrated the value of a visual component within brain studies. The fourth section presents examples of Neurologically-Descriptive Illustrations, with the final section considering Historical Illustration and Contemporary Research. PMID:19892122

  19. Three-Dimensional Imaging. Chapter 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelso, R. M.; Delo, C.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with three-dimensional imaging of fluid flows. Although relatively young, this field of research has already yielded an enormous range of techniques. These vary widely in cost and complexity, with the cheapest light sheet systems being within the budgets of most laboratories, and the most expensive Magnetic Resonance Imaging systems available to a select few. Taking the view that the most likely systems to be developed are those using light sheets, the authors will relate their knowledge and experience of such systems. Other systems will be described briefly and references provided. Flows are inherently three-dimensional in structure; even those generated around nominally 2-D surface geometry. It is becoming increasingly apparent to scientists and engineers that the three-dimensionalities, both large and small scale, are important in terms of overall flow structure and species, momentum, and energy transport. Furthermore, we are accustomed to seeing the world in three dimensions, so it is natural that we should wish to view, measure and interpret flows in three-dimensions. Unfortunately, 3-D images do not lend themselves to convenient presentation on the printed page, and this task is one of the challenges facing us.

  20. Chapter 3: Small Molecules and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wishart, David S.

    2012-01-01

    “Big” molecules such as proteins and genes still continue to capture the imagination of most biologists, biochemists and bioinformaticians. “Small” molecules, on the other hand, are the molecules that most biologists, biochemists and bioinformaticians prefer to ignore. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that small molecules such as amino acids, lipids and sugars play a far more important role in all aspects of disease etiology and disease treatment than we realized. This particular chapter focuses on an emerging field of bioinformatics called “chemical bioinformatics” – a discipline that has evolved to help address the blended chemical and molecular biological needs of toxicogenomics, pharmacogenomics, metabolomics and systems biology. In the following pages we will cover several topics related to chemical bioinformatics. First, a brief overview of some of the most important or useful chemical bioinformatic resources will be given. Second, a more detailed overview will be given on those particular resources that allow researchers to connect small molecules to diseases. This section will focus on describing a number of recently developed databases or knowledgebases that explicitly relate small molecules – either as the treatment, symptom or cause – to disease. Finally a short discussion will be provided on newly emerging software tools that exploit these databases as a means to discover new biomarkers or even new treatments for disease. PMID:23300405

  1. Dealing with Processing Chapter 10 Files from Multiple Vendors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudtson, Kevin Mark

    2011-01-01

    This presentation discusses the experiences of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center's (DFRC) Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) in dealing with the problems encountered while performing post flight data processing using the WATR's data collection/processing system on Chapter 10 files from different Chapter 10 recorders. The transition to Chapter 10 recorders has brought Vvith it an assortment of issues that must be addressed: the ambiguities of language in the Chapter 10 standard, the unrealistic near-term expectations of the Chapter 10 standard, the incompatibility of data products generated from Chapter 10 recorders, and the unavailability of mature Chapter 10 applications. Some of these issues properly belong to the users of Chapter 10 recorders, some to the manufacturers, and some to the flight test community at large. The goal of this presentation is to share the WATR's lesson learned in processing data products from various Chapter 10 recorder vendors. The WATR could benefit greatly in the open forum Vvith lessons learned discussions with other members of the flight test community.

  2. Twelve Years of Sociocultural Action in the Las Villas Area. Chapter 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Quintin Garcia

    This chapter reports on the activities of the Rural Continuing Education Centre (CREPA), a nongovernmental organization run by volunteers from small agricultural villages in the Las Villas area of Salamanca, Spain. The organization was founded in 1983 with the goal of improving living conditions and community life for villagers through social…

  3. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 20. THE MICA INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. Mica is a group ...

  4. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 21. THE CEMENT INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The cement indus...

  5. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 15. BRINE AND EVAPORITE CHEMICALS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The Brine and Ev...

  6. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 3. PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog was developed to aid in defining the environmental impacts of U.S. industrial activity. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the catalog. The petroleum refining industry is involved primarily in the conversion of crude oil i...

  7. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 17. THE GYPSUM AND WALLBOARD INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The gypsum and w...

  8. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 25. PRIMARY ALUMINUM INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The primary alum...

  9. Program Evaluation Project Report, 1969-1973. Chapter One: Basic Goal Attainment Scaling Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiresuk, Thomas J.; Garwick, Geoffrey

    The P.E.P. Report 1969-1973 focuses on the various findings and activities of the Program Evaluation Project. This chapter of the report discusses the basic goal attainment scaling procedures. Goal attainment scaling is a methodology for developing personalized, multivariable, scaled descriptions which can be used for either therapy…

  10. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 19. THE CLAY INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The clay industr...

  11. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 4. CARBON BLACK INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The carbon black ...

  12. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 2. OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The oil and gas ...

  13. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 23. SULFUR, SULFUR OXIDES AND SULFURIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The sulfur indus...

  14. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 12. THE EXPLOSIVES INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The explosives i...

  15. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 24. THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog was developed to aid in defining the environmental impacts of U.S. industrial activity. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the catalog. The Iron and Steel Industry encompasses a variety of processes for transforming iron o...

  16. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 16. THE FLUOROCARBON-HYDROGEN FLORIDE INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The materials of...

  17. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 6. THE INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC CHEMICALS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the U.S. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. Industrial organic chemica...

  18. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 5. BASIC PETROCHEMICALS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog was developed to aid in defining the environmental impacts of U.S. industrial activity. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the catalog. The basic petroleum industry includes companies that treat hydrocarbon streams from th...

  19. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 18. THE LIME INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The lime industr...

  20. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 9. THE SYNTHETIC RUBBER INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The synthetic ru...

  1. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 7. ORGANIC DYES AND PIGMENTS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The organic dyes...

  2. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 10. PLASTICS AND RESINS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The Plastics and...

  3. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 29 PRIMARY COPPER INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The primary copp...

  4. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 11. THE SYNTHETIC FIBER INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. Synthetic fibers...

  5. School Library Resources Program. E.C.I.A. Chapter 2. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Marie

    This report summarizes the activities of the Education Consolidation Improvement Act (ECIA) Chapter 2 1985-86 School Library Resources Program, which was designed to provide direct support to District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) in their efforts to develop and maintain high-quality library and media resources as an adjunct to their…

  6. Future Farmers of America--A Profile of Chapters and Advisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Howard R. D.

    A study was conducted to collect information related to Future Farmers of America (FFA) advisors, chapters, and school characteristics. Specific objectives were to determine FFA activities influenced by the advisor's experience, and to identify factors perceived as contributing to the preparation of teachers for the role of advisor and to the…

  7. Design of novel camphane-based derivatives with antimycobacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Stavrakov, Georgi; Valcheva, Violeta; Philipova, Irena; Doytchinova, Irini

    2014-06-01

    Although tuberculosis (TB) continues to be one of the leading infectious disease killers globally, it is curable and preventable. Despite the existence of safe, well tolerated and effective drugs used in the TB treatment, the interest in new entities, combinations and regimens increases during the last 10 years. Recently, we reported for a new class of anti-TB agents - camphane-based derivatives with nanomolar activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study on 12 compounds revealed several structural requirements for antimycobacterial activity: two hydrogen bond donors, two or three rings and no large branched substituents. Here, we describe the design of a set of nine novel camphane-based derivatives following these requirements. The compounds were synthesized and tested against M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv. Four of them showed activities in the nanomolar range, significantly higher than the activities in the initial set. The QSAR study based on all 21 derivatives pointed to two main structural requirements for anti-TB activity: two hydrogen bond donors and a side chain with aromatic ring. PMID:24859319

  8. Rethinking food anticipatory activity in the activity-based anorexia rat model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hemmings; van Kuyck, Kris; Tambuyzer, Tim; Luyten, Laura; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Nuttin, Bart

    2014-01-01

    When a rat is on a limited fixed-time food schedule with full access to a running wheel (activity-based anorexia model, ABA), its activity level will increase hours prior to the feeding period. This activity, called food-anticipatory activity (FAA), is a hypothesized parallel to the hyperactivity symptom in human anorexia nervosa. To investigate in depth the characteristics of FAA, we retrospectively analyzed the level of FAA and activities during other periods in ABA rats. To our surprise, rats with the most body weight loss have the lowest level of FAA, which contradicts the previously established link between FAA and the severity of ABA symptoms. On the contrary, our study shows that postprandial activities are more directly related to weight loss. We conclude that FAA alone may not be sufficient to reflect model severity, and activities during other periods may be of potential value in studies using ABA model. PMID:24473370

  9. Base substitution mutations induced by metabolically activated aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Foster, P L; Eisenstadt, E; Miller, J H

    1983-05-01

    We have determined the base substitutions generated by metabolically activated aflatoxin B1 in the lacI gene of a uvrB- strain of Escherichia coli. By monitoring over 70 different nonsense mutation sites, we show that activated aflatoxin B1 specifically induced GxC leads to TxA transversions. One possible pathway leading to this base change involves depurination at guanine residues. We consider this mechanism of mutagenesis in the light of our other findings that the carcinogens benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide and N-acetoxyacetylaminofluorene also specifically induce GxC leads to TxA transversions. PMID:6405385

  10. Metal-carbon nanocomposites based on activated IR pyrolized polyacrylonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, Mikhail N.; Zhilyaeva, Natalya A.; Vasilyev, Andrey A.; Muratov, Dmitriy G.; Zemtsov, Lev M.; Karpacheva, Galina P.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we report about new approach to preparation of metal-carbon nanocomposites based on activated carbon. Polyacrylonitrile is suggested as a precursor for Co, Pd and Ru nanoparticles carbon support which is prepared under IR pyrolysis conditions of a precursor. The first part of the paper is devoted to study activated carbon structural characteristics dependence on activation conditions. In the second part the effect of type of metal introduced in precursor on metal-carbon nanocomposite structural characteristics is shown. Prepared AC and nanocomposite samples are characterized by BET, TEM, SEM and X-ray diffraction.

  11. Tunable dynamics of microtubule-based active isotropic gels

    PubMed Central

    Henkin, Gil; DeCamp, Stephen J.; Chen, Daniel T. N.; Sanchez, Tim; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of an active gel of bundled microtubules (MTs) that is driven by clusters of kinesin molecular motors. Upon the addition of ATP, the coordinated action of thousands of molecular motors drives the gel to a highly dynamical turbulent-like state that persists for hours and is only limited by the stability of constituent proteins and the availability of the chemical fuel. We characterize how enhanced transport and emergent macroscopic flows of active gels depend on relevant molecular parameters, including ATP, kinesin motor and depletant concentrations, MT volume fraction, as well as the stoichiometry of the constituent motor clusters. Our results show that the dynamical and structural properties of MT-based active gels are highly tunable. They also indicate existence of an optimal concentration of molecular motors that maximize far-from-equilibrium activity of active isotropic MT gels. PMID:25332391

  12. Development and Validation of Career Development Guidelines by Task/Activity Analysis of Occupational Safety and Health Professions: Industrial Hygiene and Safety Professional. Final Report. Technical Report XII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Ralph J.; And Others

    This report summarizes research findings which resulted in development of curricula for occupational safety and health professions based on task/activity analyses and related performance objectives. The first seven chapters focus on the seven objectives. Chapter 1, Literature Review and Selection of Employers, concerns tasks required for…

  13. Active, Collaborative and Case-Based Learning with Computer-Based Case Scenarios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Discusses ideas and observations about the development, use, and pedagogy of computer-based case scenarios. Outlines two large computer-based case scenarios written to help students develop their skills and knowledge in business information systems. Considers factors in the design of computer-based case scenarios and related activities that might…

  14. Synthesis, characterization, theoretical prediction of activities and evaluation of biological activities of some sulfacetamide based hydroxytriazenes.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shilpa; Baroliya, Prabhat K; Bhargava, Amit; Tripathi, I P; Goswami, A K

    2016-06-15

    Six new N [(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl]acetamide based hydroxytriazenes have been synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MASS spectral analysis. Further, their theoretical predictions for probable activities have been taken using PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substance). Although a number of activities have been predicted but specifically anti-inflammatory, antiradical, anti-diabetic activities have been experimentally validated which proves that theoretical predictions agree with the experimental results. The object of the Letter is to establish Computer Aided Drug Design (CADD) using our compounds. PMID:27136718

  15. Active Desiccant-Based Preconditioning Market Analysis and Product Development

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J.

    2001-01-11

    The Phase 1 report (ORNL/Sub/94-SVO44/1), completed earlier in this program, involved a comprehensive field survey and market analysis comparing various specialized outdoor air handling units. This initial investigation included conventional cooling and reheat, conventional cooling with sensible recovery, total energy recovery systems (passive desiccant technology) and various active desiccant systems. The report concluded that several markets do promise a significant sales opportunity for a Climate Changer-based active desiccant system offering. (Climate Changer is a registered trademark of Trane Company.) This initial market analysis defined the wants and needs of the end customers (design engineers and building owners), which, along with subsequent information included in this report, have been used to guide the determination of the most promising active desiccant system configurations. This Phase 2 report begins with a summary of a more thorough investigation of those specific markets identified as most promising for active desiccant systems. Table 1 estimates the annual sales potential for a cost-effective product line of active desiccant systems, such as that built from Climate Changer modules. The Product Development Strategy section describes the active desiccant system configurations chosen to best fit the needs of the marketplace while minimizing system options. Key design objectives based on market research are listed in this report for these active desiccant systems. Corresponding performance goals for the dehumidification wheel required to meet the overall system design objectives are also defined. The Performance Modeling section describes the strategy used by SEMCO to design the dehumidification wheels integrated into the prototype systems currently being tested as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Desiccant Technology Program. Actual performance data from wheel testing was used to revise the system performance and energy analysis

  16. Ecological consequences of manipulative parasites: chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    phrases such as “may ultimately infl uence community structure” (Kiesecker and Blaustein 1999), yet few demonstrate ecological effects. Here, we consider the conditions under which manipulative parasites might have a substantial ecological effect in nature and highlight those for which evidence exists (see also Chapter 10).

  17. Structure-Based Simulations Reveal Concerted Dynamics of GPCR Activation

    PubMed Central

    Leioatts, Nicholas; Suresh, Pooja; Romo, Tod D.; Grossfield, Alan

    2014-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a vital class of proteins that transduce biological signals across the cell membrane. However, their allosteric activation mechanism is not fully understood; crystal structures of active and inactive receptors have been reported, but the functional pathway between these two states remains elusive. Here, we employ structure-based (Gō-like) models to simulate activation of two GPCRs, rhodopsin and the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR). We used data-derived reaction coordinates that capture the activation mechanism for both proteins, showing that activation proceeds through quantitatively different paths in the two systems. Both reaction coordinates are determined from the dominant concerted motions in the simulations so the technique is broadly applicable. There were two surprising results. First, the main structural changes in the simulations were distributed throughout the transmembrane bundle, and not localized to the obvious areas of interest, such as the intracellular portion of helix 6. Second, the activation (and deactivation) paths were distinctly non-monotonic, populating states that were not simply interpolations between the inactive and active structures. These transitions also suggest a functional explanation for β2AR’s basal activity: it can proceed through a more broadly defined path during the observed transitions. PMID:24889093

  18. The discourse of design-based science classroom activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Flávio S.; Martalock, Peggy L.; Keser, Tugba

    2015-06-01

    This paper is an initial contribution to a general theory in which science classroom activity types and epistemological discourse practices are systematically linked. The idea is that activities and discourse are reflexively related, so that different types of science classroom activities (e.g., scientific argumentation, modeling, and design) recruit characteristically distinct forms of participants' (students and teacher) discourse. Such a general theory would eventually map out the full spectrum of discourse practices (and their patterns of manifestation) across various kinds of science classroom activities, and reveal new relationships between forms of both discourse and activities. Because this defines a complex and long-term project, here our aim is simply to delineate this larger theoretical program and to illustrate it with a detailed case study—namely, that of mapping out and characterizing the discourse practices of design- based science classroom activities. To do so, we draw on data from an activity that is prototypically design-based—i.e., one in which students iteratively design and refine an artifact (in this case, pictorial representations of moving objects)—and examine the structure and dynamics of the whole-class discourse practices that emerge around these representational forms. We then compare and contrast these discourse practices to those of an activity that is prototypical of scientific argumentation (taken from the literature)—i.e., one in which students argue between competing theories and explanations of a phenomenon—and begin to illustrate the kinds of insights our theoretical program might afford.

  19. Review of Scientific & Technical Numeric Data Base Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Barbara L.

    This examination of numeric data base activities grew out of a continuing effort to develop a system of statistical indicators of scientific and technical communication. A broad mix of directories, listing by subject field, reports, mail inquiries and telephone and face-to-face interviews was used to collect information. Scientific and technical…

  20. Geographic Variations in Elementary School-Based Physical Activity Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lindsey; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Slater, Sandy J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) is associated with health and academic benefits among children, but many schools do not meet national recommendations. This study examined school-based PA practices in nationally representative samples of public elementary schools, and geographic variations in those practices. Methods: Mail-back surveys were used…

  1. Welcome to dBase III Plus. Learning Activity Packets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Steven; And Others

    This learning activity packet (LAP) contains nine self-paced study lessons that allow students to proceed along a a 43-hour course of study for dBase III Plus at their own pace. The lessons are organized in the following way: objectives, completion standard, performance standard, a list of required materials, unit test, and exercises (applications…

  2. A Conceptual Framework Based on Activity Theory for Mobile CSCL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurita, Gustavo; Nussbaum, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    There is a need for collaborative group activities that promote student social interaction in the classroom. Handheld computers interconnected by a wireless network allow people who work on a common task to interact face to face while maintaining the mediation afforded by a technology-based system. Wirelessly interconnected handhelds open up new…

  3. 24 CFR 92.257 - Faith-based activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR parts 84 and 85). (f) If a state or local government voluntarily contributes its own funds to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Faith-based activities. 92.257 Section 92.257 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and...

  4. 24 CFR 92.257 - Faith-based activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR parts 84 and 85). (f) If a state or local government voluntarily contributes its own funds to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Faith-based activities. 92.257 Section 92.257 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and...

  5. 24 CFR 585.406 - Faith-based activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to government-wide regulations governing real property disposition (see 24 CFR parts 84 and 85). (f... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Faith-based activities. 585.406 Section 585.406 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  6. 24 CFR 576.23 - Faith-based activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Faith-based activities. 576.23 Section 576.23 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES...

  7. 24 CFR 585.406 - Faith-based activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Faith-based activities. 585.406 Section 585.406 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY...

  8. 24 CFR 576.23 - Faith-based activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... subject to government-wide regulations governing real property disposition (see 24 CFR parts 84 and 85... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Faith-based activities. 576.23 Section 576.23 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  9. Activity-based differentiation of pathologists' workload in surgical pathology.

    PubMed

    Meijer, G A; Oudejans, J J; Koevoets, J J M; Meijer, C J L M

    2009-06-01

    Adequate budget control in pathology practice requires accurate allocation of resources. Any changes in types and numbers of specimens handled or protocols used will directly affect the pathologists' workload and consequently the allocation of resources. The aim of the present study was to develop a model for measuring the pathologists' workload that can take into account the changes mentioned above. The diagnostic process was analyzed and broken up into separate activities. The time needed to perform these activities was measured. Based on linear regression analysis, for each activity, the time needed was calculated as a function of the number of slides or blocks involved. The total pathologists' time required for a range of specimens was calculated based on standard protocols and validated by comparing to actually measured workload. Cutting up, microscopic procedures and dictating turned out to be highly correlated to number of blocks and/or slides per specimen. Calculated workload per type of specimen was significantly correlated to the actually measured workload. Modeling pathologists' workload based on formulas that calculate workload per type of specimen as a function of the number of blocks and slides provides a basis for a comprehensive, yet flexible, activity-based costing system for pathology. PMID:19399515

  10. Space-Based Astronomy: A Teacher's Guide with Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This curriculum guide uses hands-on activities to help grade 5-8 students and teachers understand the significance of space-based astronomy--astronomical observations made from outside the Earth's atmosphere. The guide begins with a survey of astronomy-related spacecraft that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has sent into…

  11. Activity Notebook: Standards-Based, for Teachers by Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Jacqueline

    2000-01-01

    This collection of standards-based activities includes ideas for use in social studies, mathematics, language arts, and art classrooms. A tear-out student reproducible offers a bookmark that allows students to note unfamiliar or unusual words and phrases as they read and to jot down their thoughts and observations. (SM)

  12. Chapter 1.19: Cadmium Telluride Photovoltaic Thin Film: CdTe

    SciTech Connect

    Gessert, T. A.

    2012-01-01

    The chapter reviews the history, development, and present processes used to fabricate thin-film, CdTe-based photovoltaic (PV) devices. It is intended for readers who are generally familiar with the operation and material aspects of PV devices but desire a deeper understanding of the process sequences used in CdTe PV technology. The discussion identifies why certain processes may have commercial production advantages and how the various process steps can interact with each other to affect device performance and reliability. The chapter concludes with a discussion of considerations of large-area CdTe PV deployment including issues related to material availability and energy-payback time.

  13. 48 CFR Appendixes B-E to Chapter 2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false B Appendixes B-E to Chapter 2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Appendixes B-E to Chapter 2...

  14. 48 CFR Appendixes B-E to Chapter 2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false B Appendixes B-E to Chapter 2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Appendixes B-E to Chapter 2...

  15. Chapter 6: Instrumentation for Research and Management in Animal Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Defining thermal environments and an animal’s response to its environment is critical; this chapterChapter 6 - Instrumentation for Research and Management in Animal Agriculture’ of the book ‘Thermal Environment and Livestock Energetics’ deals with instrumentation with respect to physiological meas...

  16. Transitional Chapter Books: Representations of African American Girlhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda C.; Brooks, Wanda M.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a content analysis of nine transitional chapter books featuring African American females. Transitional chapter books are geared toward transitional readers--children in grades 2 through 4 who have outgrown predictable books and other types of easy readers but are not ready for more complex novels. The purpose of this study is…

  17. Chapter 2 Formula: Evaluation Report 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliss, Kristen M.

    Chapter 2 Formula provides federal funds to the states through the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) as amended by P.L. 100-297 in 1988. Chapter 2 funds can support one or more programs that do the following: meet the educational needs of students with special needs (at-risk and high-cost students); acquire curricular…

  18. Report of Evaluation, Chapter I Mathematics Program, 1982-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, John F.

    The Des Moines Chapter I math program served 1110 students in grades 1-8 during school year 1982-83. The total population of Chapter I students attained the established criteria for achievement gains but the gains for grades 7 and 8, taken alone, were lower than the goals. The same was true for mastery of math objectives. All parent contact…

  19. Chapter I Mathematics Program, 1982-83. Report of Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, John F.

    The Des Moines (Iowa) Independent Community School District Chapter I Mathematics Program served 1,110 students in grades 2-8. Chapter I Math students in grades two through six achieved gains on the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills from pre to posttesting. Scores on these tests are reported using a metric known as the Normal Curve Equivalent (NCE). The…

  20. Chapter 1 Corrective Mathematics Program 1989-90. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    The Chapter 1 Corrective Mathematics Program provided supplementary mathematics instruction to Chapter 1-eligible students in New York City nonpublic schools. Its goals were to strengthen students' understanding of mathematical concepts, to improve their ability to perform computations and solve problems, and to assist them in applying the…

  1. Hybrid inorganic-organic materials: Novel poly(propylene oxide)-based ceramers, abrasion-resistant sol-gel coatings for metals, and epoxy-clay nanocomposites, with an additional chapter on: Metallocene-catalyzed linear polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, Kurt

    1999-12-01

    The sol-gel process has been employed to generate hybrid inorganic-organic network materials. Unique ceramers were prepared based on an alkoxysilane functionalized soft organic oligomer, poly(propylene oxide (PPO), and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). Despite the formation of covalent bonds between the inorganic and organic constituents, the resulting network materials were phase separated, composed of a silicate rich phase embedded in a matrix of the organic oligomer chains. The behavior of such materials was similar to elastomers containing a reinforcing filler. The study focused on the influence of initial oligomer molecular weight, functionality, and tetramethoxysilane, water, and acid catalyst content on the final structure, mechanical and thermal properties. The sol-gel approach has also been exploited to generate thin, transparent, abrasion resistant coatings for metal substrates. These systems were based on alkoxysilane functionalized diethylenetriamine (DETA) with TMOS, which generated hybrid networks with very high crosslink densities. These materials were applied with great success as abrasion resistant coatings to aluminum, copper, brass, and stainless steel. In another study, intercalated polymer-clay nanocomposites were prepared based on various epoxy networks montmorillonite clay. This work explored the influence of incorporated clay on the adhesive properties of the epoxies. The lap shear strength decreased with increasing day content This was due to a reduction in the toughness of the epoxy. Also, the delaminated (or exfoliated) nanocomposite structure could not be generated. Instead, all nanocomposite systems possessed an intercalated structure. The final project involved the characterization of a series of metallocene catalyzed linear polyethylenes, produced at Phillips Petroleum. Polyolefins synthesized with such new catalyst systems are becoming widely available. The influence of molecular weight and thermal treatment on the mechanical, rheological

  2. Phosphoramidates as novel activity-based probes for serine proteases.

    PubMed

    Haedke, Ute R; Frommel, Sandra C; Hansen, Fabian; Hahne, Hannes; Kuster, Bernhard; Bogyo, Matthew; Verhelst, Steven H L

    2014-05-26

    Activity-based probes (ABPs) are small molecules that exclusively form covalent bonds with catalytically active enzymes. In the last decade, they have especially been used in functional proteomics studies of proteases. Here, we present phosphoramidate peptides as a novel type of ABP for serine proteases. These molecules can be made in a straightforward manner by standard Fmoc-based solid-phase peptide synthesis, allowing rapid diversification. The resulting ABPs covalently bind different serine proteases, depending on the amino acid recognition element adjacent to the reactive group. A reporter tag enables downstream gel-based analysis or LC-MS/MS-mediated identification of the targeted proteases. Overall, we believe that these readily accessible probes will provide new avenues for the functional study of serine proteases in complex proteomes. PMID:24817682

  3. A review on visible light active perovskite-based photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Kanhere, Pushkar; Chen, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Perovskite-based photocatalysts are of significant interest in the field of photocatalysis. To date, several perovskite material systems have been developed and their applications in visible light photocatalysis studied. This article provides a review of the visible light (λ > 400 nm) active perovskite-based photocatalyst systems. The materials systems are classified by the B site cations and their crystal structure, optical properties, electronic structure, and photocatalytic performance are reviewed in detail. Titanates, tantalates, niobates, vanadates, and ferrites form important photocatalysts which show promise in visible light-driven photoreactions. Along with simple perovskite (ABO3) structures, development of double/complex perovskites that are active under visible light is also reviewed. Various strategies employed for enhancing the photocatalytic performance have been discussed, emphasizing the specific advantages and challenges offered by perovskite-based photocatalysts. This review provides a broad overview of the perovskite photocatalysts, summarizing the current state of the work and offering useful insights for their future development. PMID:25532834

  4. A Variance Based Active Learning Approach for Named Entity Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Hamed; Keyvanpour, Mohammadreza

    The cost of manually annotating corpora is one of the significant issues in many text based tasks such as text mining, semantic annotation and generally information extraction. Active Learning is an approach that deals with reduction of labeling costs. In this paper we proposed an effective active learning approach based on minimal variance that reduces manual annotation cost by using a small number of manually labeled examples. In our approach we use a confidence measure based on the model's variance that reaches a considerable accuracy for annotating entities. Conditional Random Field (CRF) is chosen as the underlying learning model due to its promising performance in many sequence labeling tasks. The experiments show that the proposed method needs considerably fewer manual labeled samples to produce a desirable result.

  5. Energy monitoring system based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fareq

    2015-05-01

    Human behaviors always related to day routine activities in a smart house directly give the significant factor to manage energy usage in human life. An Addition that, the factor will contribute to the best efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on the monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior at working place. Besides that, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy saving based on human behaviors. This scenario will help to see the human activity in the workplace in order to get the energy saving and support world green environment.

  6. [Peculicidal activity of plant essential oils and their based preparations].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The peculicidal activity of eight plant essential oils in 75% isopropyl alcohol was in vitro investigated. Of them, the substances that were most active against lice were tea tree (Melaleuca), eucalyptus, neem, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oils; KT50 was not more than 3 minutes on average; KT95 was 4 minutes. After evaporating the solvent, only five (tea tree, cassia, clove, anise (Anisum vulgare), and Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) oils) of the eight test botanical substances were active against lice. At the same time, KT50 and KT95 showed 1.5-5-fold increases. Citronella and anise oils had incomplete ovicidal activity. Since the lice were permethrin-resistant, the efficacy of preparations based on essential oils was much higher than permethrin. PMID:25296426

  7. A Metal-Based Inhibitor of NEDD8-Activating Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Leung, Chung-Hang; Wang, Hui-Min; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2012-01-01

    A cyclometallated rhodium(III) complex [Rh(ppy)2(dppz)]+ (1) (where ppy = 2-phenylpyridine and dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c]phenazine dipyridophenazine) has been prepared and identified as an inhibitor of NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE). The complex inhibited NAE activity in cell-free and cell-based assays, and suppressed the CRL-regulated substrate degradation and NF-κB activation in human cancer cells with potency comparable to known NAE inhibitor MLN4924. Molecular modeling analysis suggested that the overall binding mode of 1 within the binding pocket of the APPBP1/UBA3 heterodimer resembled that for MLN4924. Complex 1 is the first metal complex reported to suppress the NEDDylation pathway via inhibition of the NEDD8-activating enzyme. PMID:23185368

  8. Elements of Mathematics, Book O: Intuitive Background. Chapter 15, Topics in Number Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exner, Robert; And Others

    The sixteen chapters of this book provide the core material for the Elements of Mathematics Program, a secondary sequence developed for highly motivated students with strong verbal abilities. The sequence is based on a functional-relational approach to mathematics teaching, and emphasizes teaching by analysis of real-life situations. This text is…

  9. USEPA MANUAL OF METHODS FOR VIROLOGY, CHAPTER 16-MANUAL/HANDBOOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes procedures for the detection of coliphases in water matrices. These procedures are based on those presented in the Supplement to the 20th Edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Eastewater and EPA Methods 1601 and 1602. Two quantitati...

  10. Elements of Mathematics, Book O: Intuitive Background. Chapter 12, Topics in Probability and Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exner, Robert; And Others

    The sixteen chapters of this book provide the core material for the Elements of Mathematics Program, a secondary sequence developed for highly motivated students with strong verbal abilities. The sequence is based on a functional-relational approach to mathematics teaching, and emphasizes teaching by analysis of real-life situations. This text is…

  11. Elements of Mathematics, Book O: Intuitive Background. Chapter 9, An Introduction to Number Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exner, Robert; And Others

    The sixteen chapters of this book provide the core material for the Elements of Mathematics Program, a secondary sequence developed for highly motivated students with strong verbal abilities. The sequence is based on a functional-relational approach to mathematics teaching, and emphasizes teaching by analysis of real-life situations. This text is…

  12. Elements of Mathematics, Book O: Intuitive Background. Chapter 1, Operational Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exner, Robert; And Others

    The sixteen chapters of this book provide the core material for the Elements of Mathematics Program, a secondary sequence developed for highly motivated students with strong verbal abilities. The sequence is based on a functional-relational approach to mathematics teaching, and emphasizes teaching by analysis of real-life situations. This text is…

  13. Teacher Trainees' Assessment of the Chapter 74 Vocational Teacher Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston. Div. of Occupational Education.

    A mail survey was conducted in February 1989 of trainees who had completed the Massachusetts Chapter 74, five-course, 18-credit vocational-technical teacher training program in its revised and competency-based format. The survey was designed to assess trainees' satisfaction with the training program, to determine their perceptions of how well the…

  14. Elements of Mathematics, Book O: Intuitive Background. Chapter 14, Geometry: Similitudes, Coordinates, and Trigonometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exner, Robert; And Others

    The sixteen chapters of this book provide the core material for the Elements of Mathematics Program, a secondary sequence developed for highly motivated students with strong verbal abilities. The sequence is based on a functional-relational approach to mathematics teaching, and emphasizes teaching by analysis of real-life situations. This text is…

  15. Elements of Mathematics, Book O: Intuitive Background. Chapter 11, Geometry: Incidence and Isometries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exner, Robert; And Others

    The sixteen chapters of this book provide the core material for the Elements of ERIC/SMEAC, The Ohio State University, 400 Lincoln Tower, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (on loan) strong verbal abilities. The sequence is based on a functional-relational approach to mathematics teaching, and emphasizes teaching by analysis of real-life situations. This text…

  16. Chapter A3. Cleaning of Equipment for Water Sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By); Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.

    1998-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. Chapter A3 describes procedures for cleaning the equipment used to collect and process samples of surface water and ground water and procedures for assessing the efficacy of the equipment-cleaning process. This chapter is designed for use with the other chapters of this field manual. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters will be posted on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/ (accessed September 20, 2004).

  17. Nanoporous Materials in Atmosphere Revitalization. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez-Maldonado, J.; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Luna, Bernadette; Junaedi, Christian; Mulloth, Lila; Perry, Jay L.; Raptis, Raphael G.; Roychoudhury, Subir

    2012-01-01

    lowering cabin levels of CO2 and NH3 as well as reducing power requirements and increasing reliability. This chapter summarizes the challenges faced by ECLS system engineers in pursuing these goals, and the promising materials developments that may be part of the technical solution for challenges of crewed space exploration beyond LEO.

  18. Camera calibration approach based on adaptive active target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yalin; Zhou, Fuqiang; Deng, Peng

    2011-12-01

    Aiming at calibrating camera on site, where the lighting condition is hardly controlled and the quality of target images would be declined when the angle between camera and target changes, an adaptive active target is designed and the camera calibration approach based on the target is proposed. The active adaptive target in which LEDs are embedded is flat, providing active feature point. Therefore the brightness of the feature point can be modified via adjusting the electricity, judging from the threshold of image feature criteria. In order to extract features of the image accurately, the concept of subpixel-precise thresholding is also proposed. It converts the discrete representation of the digital image to continuous function by bilinear interpolation, and the sub-pixel contours are acquired by the intersection of the continuous function and the appropriate selection of threshold. According to analysis of the relationship between the features of the image and the brightness of the target, the area ratio of convex hulls and the grey value variance are adopted as the criteria. Result of experiments revealed that the adaptive active target accommodates well to the changing of the illumination in the environment, the camera calibration approach based on adaptive active target can obtain high level of accuracy and fit perfectly for image targeting in various industrial sites.

  19. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 25, Systems of Sentences in Two Variables, Chapter 26, Exponents and Logarithms. Student's Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    Topics covered in the first chapter of Unit 13 in this SMSG series include mathematical models, methods of solving systems of equations, and graphical solution of systems of inequalities. The second chapter of this unit deals with properties of exponents, exponential and logarithmic functions, computing with logarithms, and the slide rule. For…

  20. Reinventing Chapter 1: Annual National Conference of State Chapter 1 Coordinators. Conference Presentations (September 20-23, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (ED), Washington, DC. Compensatory Education Programs.

    This document provides the individual and panel presentations for the Annual National Conference of State Chapter 1 Coordinators concerning Compensatory Education Programs. Presentations and their authors are as follows: (1) "Chapter 1 and School Reform: An Overview" (Richard W. Riley); (2) "Systemic Reform and Educational Opportunity" (Marshall…

  1. Frequency Based Volcanic Activity Detection through Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worden, A. K.; Dehn, J.; Webley, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing has proved to offer a useful and relatively inexpensive method for monitoring large areas where field work is logistically unrealistic, and potentially dangerous. Current sensors are able to detect the majority of explosive volcanic activity; those that tend to effect and represent larger scale changes in the volcanic systems, eventually relating to ash producing periods of extended eruptive activity, and effusive activity. As new spaceborne sensors are developed, the ability to detect activity improves so that a system to gauge the frequency of volcanic activity can be used as a useful monitoring tool. Four volcanoes were chosen for development and testing of a method to monitor explosive activity: Stromboli (Italy); Shishaldin and Cleveland (Alaska, USA); and Karymsky (Kamchatka, Russia). Each volcano studied had similar but unique signatures of pre-cursory and eruptive activity. This study has shown that this monitoring tool could be applied to a wide range of volcanoes and still produce useful and robust data. Our method deals specifically with the detection of small scale explosive activity. The method described here could be useful in an operational setting, especially at remote volcanoes that have the potential to impact populations, infrastructure, and the aviation community. A number of important factors will affect the validity of application of this method. They are: (1) the availability of a continuous and continually populated dataset; (2) appropriate and reasonable sensor resolutions; (3) a recorded history of the volcano's previous activity; and, if available, (4) some ground-based monitoring system. We aim to develop the method further to be able to capture and evaluate the frequency of other volcanic processes such as lava flows, phreatomagmatic eruptions and dome growth and collapse. The work shown here has served to illustrate the capability of this method and monitoring tool for use at remote, un-instrumented volcanoes.

  2. ActivitySim: large-scale agent based activity generation for infrastructure simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Gali, Emmanuel; Eidenbenz, Stephan; Mniszewski, Sue; Cuellar, Leticia; Teuscher, Christof

    2008-01-01

    The United States' Department of Homeland Security aims to model, simulate, and analyze critical infrastructure and their interdependencies across multiple sectors such as electric power, telecommunications, water distribution, transportation, etc. We introduce ActivitySim, an activity simulator for a population of millions of individual agents each characterized by a set of demographic attributes that is based on US census data. ActivitySim generates daily schedules for each agent that consists of a sequence of activities, such as sleeping, shopping, working etc., each being scheduled at a geographic location, such as businesses or private residences that is appropriate for the activity type and for the personal situation of the agent. ActivitySim has been developed as part of a larger effort to understand the interdependencies among national infrastructure networks and their demand profiles that emerge from the different activities of individuals in baseline scenarios as well as emergency scenarios, such as hurricane evacuations. We present the scalable software engineering principles underlying ActivitySim, the socia-technical modeling paradigms that drive the activity generation, and proof-of-principle results for a scenario in the Twin Cities, MN area of 2.6 M agents.

  3. Chapter 6: Energy Storage in Cellulase Linker Peptides?

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, C.; Zhao, X.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the use of molecular dynamics simulations and free-energy calculations to investigate the possible role the linker polypeptide, common to many cellulase enzymes, plays in the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. In particular, we focus on the linker polypeptide from cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I) from Trichoderma reesei, which is one of the most active cellulase enzymes. CBH I is a multi-domain enzyme, consisting of a large catalytic domain containing an active site tunnel and a small cellulose binding module, which are joined together by a 27-amino-acid residue linker peptide. CBH I is believed to hydrolyze cellulose in a 'processive' manner; however, the exact mechanism of the depolymerization of cellulose by CBH I is not fully understood. It has been hypothesized that the flexible interdomain linker mediates a caterpillar-like motion that enables the enzyme to move along the cellodextrin strand. Although the linker polypeptide sequence is known, the spatial conformation adopted by the linker domain and its role in the hydrolysis process, if any, has yet to be determined. The simulation results obtained to date indicate that the CBH I linker's free energy is critically dependent on the existence of the cellulose substrate and the stretching/compression pathway adopted. In the presence of a cellulose surface, simulations suggest that the linker exhibits two stable states, which would support the hypothesis that the linker peptide has the capacity to store energy in a manner similar to a spring and facilitate a caterpillar-like motion.

  4. Medical Image Segmentation Based on a Hybrid Region-Based Active Contour Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tingting; Xu, Haiyong; Liu, Zhen; Zhao, Yiming; Tian, Wenzhe

    2014-01-01

    A novel hybrid region-based active contour model is presented to segment medical images with intensity inhomogeneity. The energy functional for the proposed model consists of three weighted terms: global term, local term, and regularization term. The total energy is incorporated into a level set formulation with a level set regularization term, from which a curve evolution equation is derived for energy minimization. Experiments on some synthetic and real images demonstrate that our model is more efficient compared with the localizing region-based active contours (LRBAC) method, proposed by Lankton, and more robust compared with the Chan-Vese (C-V) active contour model. PMID:25028593

  5. An Electronic Library-Based Learning Environment for Supporting Web-Based Problem-Solving Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Pei-Shan; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Hung, Chun-Ming; Huang, Iwen

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to develop an electronic library-based learning environment to support teachers in developing web-based problem-solving activities and analyzing the online problem-solving behaviors of students. Two experiments were performed in this study. In study 1, an experiment on 103 elementary and high school teachers (the learning activity…

  6. Creating evidence-based research in adapted physical activity.

    PubMed

    Reid, Greg; Bouffard, Marcel; MacDonald, Catherine

    2012-04-01

    Professional practice guided by the best research evidence is a usually referred to as evidence-based practice. The aim of the present paper is to describe five fundamental beliefs of adapted physical activity practices that should be considered in an 8-step research model to create evidence-based research in adapted physical activity. The five beliefs are individualization, critical thinking, self-determination, program effectiveness, and multifactor complexity. The research model includes conceptualize the problem, conduct research on the process of the problem, conceptualize and specify the intervention, evaluate intervention outcomes, evaluate intervention processes, determine person-by-treatment interactions, determine context-dependent limitations, and investigate factors related to intervention adoption maintenance. The eight steps are explained with reference to two research programs that used a randomized control group design. PMID:22467832

  7. Focus of attention in an activity-based scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadeh, Norman; Fox, Mark S.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier research in job shop scheduling has demonstrated the advantages of opportunistically combining order-based and resource-based scheduling techniques. An even more flexible approach is investigated where each activity is considered a decision point by itself. Heuristics to opportunistically select the next decision point on which to focus attention (i.e., variable ordering heuristics) and the next decision to be tried at this point (i.e., value ordering heuristics) are described that probabilistically account for both activity precedence and resource requirement interactions. Preliminary experimental results indicate that the variable ordering heuristic greatly increases search efficiency. While least constraining value ordering heuristics have been advocated in the literature, the experimental results suggest that other value ordering heuristics combined with our variable-ordering heuristic can produce much better schedules without significantly increasing search.

  8. Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing in Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Yun, Brian J; Prabhakar, Anand M; Warsh, Jonathan; Kaplan, Robert; Brennan, John; Dempsey, Kyle E; Raja, Ali S

    2016-06-01

    Value in emergency medicine is determined by both patient-important outcomes and the costs associated with achieving them. However, measuring true costs is challenging. Without an understanding of costs, emergency department (ED) leaders will be unable to determine which interventions might improve value for their patients. Although ongoing research may determine which outcomes are meaningful, an accurate costing system is also needed. This article reviews current costing mechanisms in the ED and their pitfalls. It then describes how time-driven activity-based costing may be superior to these current costing systems. Time-driven activity-based costing, in addition to being a more accurate costing system, can be used for process improvements in the ED. PMID:26365921

  9. Automatic identification of activity-rest periods based on actigraphy.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Cristina; Aboy, Mateo; Fernández, José Ramón; Mojón, Artemio

    2012-04-01

    We describe a novel algorithm for identification of activity/rest periods based on actigraphy signals designed to be used for a proper estimation of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring parameters. Automatic and accurate determination of activity/rest periods is critical in cardiovascular risk assessment applications including the evaluation of dipper versus non-dipper status. The algorithm is based on adaptive rank-order filters, rank-order decision logic, and morphological processing. The algorithm was validated on a database of 104 subjects including actigraphy signals for both the dominant and non-dominant hands (i.e., 208 actigraphy recordings). The algorithm achieved a mean performance above 94.0%, with an average number of 0.02 invalid transitions per 48 h. PMID:22382991

  10. Villin Severing Activity Enhances Actin-based Motility In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Revenu, Céline; Courtois, Matthieu; Michelot, Alphée; Sykes, Cécile; Louvard, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Villin, an actin-binding protein associated with the actin bundles that support microvilli, bundles, caps, nucleates, and severs actin in a calcium-dependant manner in vitro. We hypothesized that the severing activity of villin is responsible for its reported role in enhancing cell plasticity and motility. To test this hypothesis, we chose a loss of function strategy and introduced mutations in villin based on sequence comparison with CapG. By pyrene-actin assays, we demonstrate that this mutant has a strongly reduced severing activity, whereas nucleation and capping remain unaffected. The bundling activity and the morphogenic effects of villin in cells are also preserved in this mutant. We thus succeeded in dissociating the severing from the three other activities of villin. The contribution of villin severing to actin dynamics is analyzed in vivo through the actin-based movement of the intracellular bacteria Shigella flexneri in cells expressing villin and its severing variant. The severing mutations abolish the gain of velocity induced by villin. To further analyze this effect, we reconstituted an in vitro actin-based bead movement in which the usual capping protein is replaced by either the wild type or the severing mutant of villin. Confirming the in vivo results, villin-severing activity enhances the velocity of beads by more than two-fold and reduces the density of actin in the comets. We propose a model in which, by severing actin filaments and capping their barbed ends, villin increases the concentration of actin monomers available for polymerization, a mechanism that might be paralleled in vivo when an enterocyte undergoes an epithelio-mesenchymal transition. PMID:17182858

  11. Structure based activity prediction of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Marc R; Koymans, Lucien M H; Vinkers, H Maarten; Daeyaert, Frits F D; Heeres, Jan; Lewi, Paul J; Janssen, Paul A J

    2005-03-24

    We have developed a fast and robust computational method for prediction of antiviral activity in automated de novo design of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors. This is a structure-based approach that uses a linear relation between activity and interaction energy with discrete orientation sampling and with localized interaction energy terms. The localization allows for the analysis of mutations of the protein target and for the separation of inhibition and a specific binding to the enzyme. We apply the method to the prediction of pIC(50) of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The model predicts the activity of an arbitrary compound with a q(2) of 0.681 and an average absolute error of 0.66 log value, and it is fast enough to be used in high-throughput computational applications. PMID:15771460

  12. Mathematical framework for activity-based cancer biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Gabriel A.; Dudani, Jaideep S.; Carrodeguas, Emmanuel; Mazumdar, Eric V.; Zekavat, Seyedeh M.; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in nanomedicine are providing sophisticated functions to precisely control the behavior of nanoscale drugs and diagnostics. Strategies that coopt protease activity as molecular triggers are increasingly important in nanoparticle design, yet the pharmacokinetics of these systems are challenging to understand without a quantitative framework to reveal nonintuitive associations. We describe a multicompartment mathematical model to predict strategies for ultrasensitive detection of cancer using synthetic biomarkers, a class of activity-based probes that amplify cancer-derived signals into urine as a noninvasive diagnostic. Using a model formulation made of a PEG core conjugated with protease-cleavable peptides, we explore a vast design space and identify guidelines for increasing sensitivity that depend on critical parameters such as enzyme kinetics, dosage, and probe stability. According to this model, synthetic biomarkers that circulate in stealth but then activate at sites of disease have the theoretical capacity to discriminate tumors as small as 5 mm in diameter—a threshold sensitivity that is otherwise challenging for medical imaging and blood biomarkers to achieve. This model may be adapted to describe the behavior of additional activity-based approaches to allow cross-platform comparisons, and to predict allometric scaling across species. PMID:26417077

  13. Activity-based analyses lead to better decision making.

    PubMed

    Player, S

    1998-08-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) and activity-based management (ABM) are cost-management tools that are relatively new to the healthcare industry. ABC is used for strategic decision making. It assesses the costs associated with specific activities and resources and links those costs to specific internal and external customers of the healthcare enterprise (e.g., patients, service lines, and physician groups) to determine the costs associated with each customer. This cost information then can be adjusted to account for anticipated changes and to predict future costs. ABM, on the other hand, supports operations by focusing on the causes of costs and how costs can be reduced. It assesses cost drivers that directly affect the cost of a product or service, and uses performance measures to evaluate the financial or nonfinancial benefit an activity provides. By identifying each cost driver and assessing the value the element adds to the healthcare enterprise, ABM provides a basis for selecting areas that can be changed to reduce costs. PMID:10182280

  14. Mathematical framework for activity-based cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Gabriel A; Dudani, Jaideep S; Carrodeguas, Emmanuel; Mazumdar, Eric V; Zekavat, Seyedeh M; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2015-10-13

    Advances in nanomedicine are providing sophisticated functions to precisely control the behavior of nanoscale drugs and diagnostics. Strategies that coopt protease activity as molecular triggers are increasingly important in nanoparticle design, yet the pharmacokinetics of these systems are challenging to understand without a quantitative framework to reveal nonintuitive associations. We describe a multicompartment mathematical model to predict strategies for ultrasensitive detection of cancer using synthetic biomarkers, a class of activity-based probes that amplify cancer-derived signals into urine as a noninvasive diagnostic. Using a model formulation made of a PEG core conjugated with protease-cleavable peptides, we explore a vast design space and identify guidelines for increasing sensitivity that depend on critical parameters such as enzyme kinetics, dosage, and probe stability. According to this model, synthetic biomarkers that circulate in stealth but then activate at sites of disease have the theoretical capacity to discriminate tumors as small as 5 mm in diameter-a threshold sensitivity that is otherwise challenging for medical imaging and blood biomarkers to achieve. This model may be adapted to describe the behavior of additional activity-based approaches to allow cross-platform comparisons, and to predict allometric scaling across species. PMID:26417077

  15. Advanced extravehicular activity systems requirements definition study. Phase 2: Extravehicular activity at a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Valerie; Shields, Nicholas, Jr.; Carr, Gerald P.; Pogue, William; Schmitt, Harrison H.; Schulze, Arthur E.

    1988-01-01

    The focus is on Extravehicular Activity (EVA) systems requirements definition for an advanced space mission: remote-from-main base EVA on the Moon. The lunar environment, biomedical considerations, appropriate hardware design criteria, hardware and interface requirements, and key technical issues for advanced lunar EVA were examined. Six remote EVA scenarios (three nominal operations and three contingency situations) were developed in considerable detail.

  16. The utilization of activity-based cost accounting in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Dennis; Forget, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Healthcare costs are being examined on all fronts. Healthcare accounts for 11% of the gross national product and will continue to rise as the "babyboomers" reach retirement age. While ascertaining costs is important, most research shows that costing methods have not been implemented in hospitals. This study is concerned with the use of costing methods; particularly activity-based cost accounting. A mail survey of CFOs was undertaken to determine the type of cost accounting method they use. In addition, they were asked whether they were aware of activity-based cost accounting and whether they had implemented it or were planning to implement it. Only 71.8% were aware of it and only 4.7% had implemented it. In addition, only 52% of all hospitals report using any cost accounting systems. Education needs to ensure that all healthcare executives are cognizant of activity-based accounting and its importance in determining costs. Only by determining costs can hospitals strive to contain them. PMID:16201419

  17. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 1, Part A: Chapters 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 750 refs., 123 figs., 42 tabs.

  18. Site Characterization Plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 3, Part A: Chapters 6 and 7

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 218 figs., 50 tabs.

  19. Motor Cortex Microcircuit Simulation Based on Brain Activity Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Chadderdon, George L.; Mohan, Ashutosh; Suter, Benjamin A.; Neymotin, Samuel A.; Kerr, Cliff C.; Francis, Joseph T.; Shepherd, Gordon M. G.; Lytton, William W.

    2016-01-01

    The deceptively simple laminar structure of neocortex belies the complexity of intra- and interlaminar connectivity. We developed a computational model based primarily on a unified set of brain activity mapping studies of mouse M1. The simulation consisted of 775 spiking neurons of 10 cell types with detailed population-to-population connectivity. Static analysis of connectivity with graph-theoretic tools revealed that the corticostriatal population showed strong centrality, suggesting that would provide a network hub. Subsequent dynamical analysis confirmed this observation, in addition to revealing network dynamics that cannot be readily predicted through analysis of the wiring diagram alone. Activation thresholds depended on the stimulated layer. Low stimulation produced transient activation, while stronger activation produced sustained oscillations where the threshold for sustained responses varied by layer: 13% in layer 2/3, 54% in layer 5A, 25% in layer 5B, and 17% in layer 6. The frequency and phase of the resulting oscillation also depended on stimulation layer. By demonstrating the effectiveness of combined static and dynamic analysis, our results show how static brain maps can be related to the results of brain activity mapping. PMID:24708371

  20. Dynamic positioning system based on active disturbance rejection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zhengling; Guo, Chen; Fan, Yunsheng

    2015-08-01

    A dynamically positioned vessel, by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the certifying class societies (DNV, ABS, LR, etc.), is defined as a vessel that maintains its position and heading (fixed location or pre-determined track) exclusively by means of active thrusters. The development of control technology promotes the upgrading of dynamic positioning (DP) systems. Today there are two different DP systems solutions available on the market: DP system based on PID regulator and that based on model-based control. Both systems have limited disturbance rejection capability due to their design principle. In this paper, a new DP system solution is proposed based on Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) technology. This technology is composed of Tracking-Differentiator (TD), Extended State Observer (ESO) and Nonlinear Feedback Combination. On one hand, both TD and ESO can act as filters and can be used in place of conventional filters; on the other hand, the total disturbance of the system can be estimated and compensated by ESO, which therefore enhances the system's disturbance rejection capability. This technology's advantages over other methods lie in two aspects: 1) This method itself can not only achieve control objectives but also filter noisy measurements without other specialized filters; 2) This method offers a new useful approach to suppress the ocean disturbance. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. The study of electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic crystals via planewave based transfer (scattering) matrix method with active gain material applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming

    In this dissertation, a set of numerical simulation tools are developed under previous work to efficiently and accurately study one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), 2D slab and three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal structures and their defects effects by means of spectrum (transmission, reflection, absorption), band structure (dispersion relation), and electric and/or magnetic fields distribution (mode profiles). Further more, the lasing property and spontaneous emission behaviors are studied when active gain materials are presented in the photonic crystal structures. First, the planewave based transfer (scattering) matrix method (TMM) is described in every detail along with a brief review of photonic crystal history (Chapter 1 and 2). As a frequency domain method, TMM has the following major advantages over other numerical methods: (1) the planewave basis makes Maxwell's Equations a linear algebra problem and there are mature numerical package to solve linear algebra problem such as Lapack and Scalapack (for parallel computation). (2) Transfer (scattering) matrix method make 3D problem into 2D slices and link all slices together via the scattering matrix (S matrix) which reduces computation time and memory usage dramatically and makes 3D real photonic crystal devices design possible; and this also makes the simulated domain no length limitation along the propagation direction (ideal for waveguide simulation). (3) It is a frequency domain method and calculation results are all for steady state, without the influences of finite time span convolution effects and/or transient effects. (4) TMM can treat dispersive material (such as metal at visible light) naturally without introducing any additional computation; and meanwhile TMM can also deal with anisotropic material and magnetic material (such as perfectly matched layer) naturally from its algorithms. (5) Extension of TMM to deal with active gain material can be done through an iteration procedure with gain

  2. Activity-Based Probe for N-Acylethanolamine Acid Amidase.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Elisa; Ponzano, Stefano; Armirotti, Andrea; Summa, Maria; Bertozzi, Fabio; Garau, Gianpiero; Bandiera, Tiziano; Piomelli, Daniele

    2015-09-18

    N-Acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA) is a lysosomal cysteine hydrolase involved in the degradation of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid ethanolamides (FAEs), a family of endogenous lipid signaling molecules that includes oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA). Among the reported NAAA inhibitors, α-amino-β-lactone (3-aminooxetan-2-one) derivatives have been shown to prevent FAE hydrolysis in innate-immune and neural cells and to reduce reactions to inflammatory stimuli. Recently, we disclosed two potent and selective NAAA inhibitors, the compounds ARN077 (5-phenylpentyl-N-[(2S,3R)-2-methyl-4-oxo-oxetan-3-yl]carbamate) and ARN726 (4-cyclohexylbutyl-N-[(S)-2-oxoazetidin-3-yl]carbamate). The former is active in vivo by topical administration in rodent models of hyperalgesia and allodynia, while the latter exerts systemic anti-inflammatory effects in mouse models of lung inflammation. In the present study, we designed and validated a derivative of ARN726 as the first activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) probe for the in vivo detection of NAAA. The newly synthesized molecule 1 is an effective in vitro and in vivo click-chemistry activity based probe (ABP), which is able to capture the catalytically active form of NAAA in Human Embryonic Kidney 293 (HEK293) cells overexpressing human NAAA as well as in rat lung tissue. Competitive ABPP with 1 confirmed that ARN726 and ARN077 inhibit NAAA in vitro and in vivo. Compound 1 is a useful new tool to identify activated NAAA both in vitro and in vivo and to investigate the physiological and pathological roles of this enzyme. PMID:26102511

  3. Teaching high-school Geoscience through a group-based activity: the Geotrivia experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakopoulou, Athanasia

    2015-04-01

    experimental group of about 50 students, which undertook Geotrivia and a control group of about 50 students, which underwent the usual teaching process. After applying Geotrivia during the last school year, the results obtained were: 1. Students accepted Geotrivia enthusiastically and realized that knowledge can be pleasantly obtained. 2. Students' participation was active and voluntary. 3. Students adhered to the rules of the game by themselves with almost no interference by the teacher, increasing their autonomy and responsibility towards the learning process. 4. Team-based work took place successfully. Team spirit and collaboration were ultimately cultivated, parameters that enforce the learning process. 5. Geotrivia appeared to be a pleasant way for chapter revision. Students were motivated to study for the next game and not for the next test, thus mastering the knowledge voluntarily and not under the fear of tests or grades. 6. Students were able to self-evaluate their knowledge through an enjoyable procedure. 7. Students had the opportunity to reach the level of metacognition purposely. 8. At the end-term exams the majority of students achieved surprisingly high grades. Therefore, the pilot run of Geotrivia has shown that it is a high standard learning process with promising results for geoscience education.

  4. Predicting Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity through Ligand-Based Models

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Santiago; Ferino, Giulio; Quezada, Elias; Santana, Lourdes; Friedman, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of bio- and cheminformatics associated with the development of specialized software and increasing computer power has produced a great interest in theoretical in silico methods applied in drug rational design. These techniques apply the concept that “similar molecules have similar biological properties” that has been exploited in Medicinal Chemistry for years to design new molecules with desirable pharmacological profiles. Ligand-based methods are not dependent on receptor structural data and take into account two and three-dimensional molecular properties to assess similarity of new compounds in regards to the set of molecules with the biological property under study. Depending on the complexity of the calculation, there are different types of ligand-based methods, such as QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) with 2D and 3D descriptors, CoMFA (Comparative Molecular Field Analysis) or pharmacophoric approaches. This work provides a description of a series of ligand-based models applied in the prediction of the inhibitory activity of monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes. The controlled regulation of the enzymes’ function through the use of MAO inhibitors is used as a treatment in many psychiatric and neurological disorders, such as depression, anxiety, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. For this reason, multiple scaffolds, such as substituted coumarins, indolylmethylamine or pyridazine derivatives were synthesized and assayed toward MAO-A and MAO-B inhibition. Our intention is to focus on the description of ligand-based models to provide new insights in the relationship between the MAO inhibitory activity and the molecular structure of the different inhibitors, and further study enzyme selectivity and possible mechanisms of action. PMID:23231398

  5. Maintaining and restoring sustainable ecosystems in southern Nevada: Chapter 7 in The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership science and research synthesis: science to support land management in southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pendleton, Burton K.; Sada, Donald W.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    Managers in southern Nevada are challenge with determining appropriate goals and objectives and developing viable approaches for maintaining and restoring sustainable ecosystems in a time of rapid socio-ecological and environmental change. Sustainable or "healthy" ecosystems supply clean air, water and habitat for a diverse array of plants and animals. As described in Chapter 1, sustainable ecosystems retain characteristic processes like hydrological flux and storage, geomorphic processes, biogeochemical cycling and storage, biological activity and productivity, and population regeneration and reproduction over the normal cycle of disturbance events (modified from Chapin and others 1996 and Christensen and others 1996). Ecological restoration of stressed or disturbed ecosystems in an integral part of managing for sustainable ecosystems. The Society of Ecological Restoration International (SERI) defines ecological restoration as the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed (SERI 2004). Many of the southern Nevada's ecosystems are being subjected to anthropogenic stressors that span global, regional, and local scales (Chapter 2)., and are crossing ecological thresholds to new alternative states (Chapter 4 and Chapter 5). These alternative states often represent novel communities with disturbance regimes that differ significantly from historic conditions. Past management and restoration goals often focused on returning ecosystems to pre-disturbance conditions (Harris and others 2006). This approach assumes stable or equilibrium conditions and ignores changes in ecosystems processes due to land uses, increases in CO2 concentrations, and climate change. A more realistic approach is to base management and restoration goals on the current potential of an ecosystem to support a given set of ecological conditions, and on the likelihood of future change due to warming climate (Harris and others 2006). This approach

  6. CHAPTER 17: VIVANTARY RESPONSIBLITY AND EMERGY ACCOUNTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecosystem processes represented by manifold material cycles and energy flows are a necessary condition of life on Earth. Though our species is embedded in a matrix of ecosystem processes mediated by networks involving millions of other species, human activities per se account fo...

  7. Chapter One: What Is Discursive Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    Practice is not meant to be understood as the opposite of theory, DeKeyser wrote; instead, practice involves specific activities in an L2 that learners engage in, deliberately, with the goal of developing knowledge of and skills in the L2. In the book "Discursive Practice in Language Learning and Teaching," by "practice" the author means something…

  8. 156. 1932 UNITED DAUGHTERS OF CONFEDERACY, DISTRICT CHAPTERS MEMORIAL PLAQUE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    156. 1932 UNITED DAUGHTERS OF CONFEDERACY, DISTRICT CHAPTERS MEMORIAL PLAQUE AND REPLACEMENT RED OAK MEMORIAL PLANTING. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  9. Modeling and Advanced Control for Sustainable Process Systems (chapter 5)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter introduces a novel process systems engineering framework that integrates process control with sustainability assessment tools for the simultaneous evaluation and optimization of process operations. The implemented control strategy consists of a biologically-insp...

  10. Transverse section through the Grand Lodge and Grand Chapter rooms ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Transverse section through the Grand Lodge and Grand Chapter rooms of James H. Windrim and George Summers’s neoclassical competition design for the New Masonic Temple, Philadelphia, 1867 - Masonic Temple, 1 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications. Chapter 1; Introduction and Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1996-01-01

    This chapter presents an introduction and historical background to the field of tribology, especially solid lubrication and lubricants and sets them in the perspective of techniques and materials in lubrication. Also, solid and liquid lubrication films are defined and described.

  12. Row erupts over axed chapter from Newt Gingrich book

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2012-02-01

    A chapter written by a respected climate scientist for a book co-edited by Republican presidential candidate Newt Gingrich has been canned because its author asserts that humans are responsible for climate change.

  13. AIR CLEANERS FOR INDOOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL (CHAPTER 10)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes an experimental study to evaluate performance characteristics of currently available controls for indoor air pollutants, including both particles and gases. he study evaluated the particle-size-dependent collection efficiency of seven commercially available ...

  14. Tobacco Stem-Based Activated Carbons for High Performance Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiaohong; Liu, Hongbo; Shi, Lei; He, Yuede

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco stem-based activated carbons (TS-ACs) were prepared by simple KOH activation and their application as electrodes in the electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) performed successfully. The BET surface area, pore volume, and pore size distribution of the TS-ACs were evaluated based on N2 adsorption isotherms at 77 K. The surface area of the obtained activated carbons varies over a wide range (1472.8-3326.7 m2/g) and the mesoporosity was enhanced significantly as the ratio of KOH to tobacco stem (TS) increased. The electrochemical behaviors of series TS-ACs were characterized by means of galvanostatic charging/discharging, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance spectroscopy. The correlation between electrochemical properties and pore structure was investigated. A high specific capacitance value as 190 F/g at 1 mA/cm2 was obtained in 1 M LiPF6-EC/DMC/DEC electrolyte solution. Furthermore, good performance is also achieved even at high current densities. A development of new use for TS into a valuable energy storage material is explored.

  15. Biocidal activity of some Mannich base cationic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Negm, Nabel A; Morsy, Salwa M I; Said, Medhat M

    2005-11-01

    A novel series of cationic surfactants was prepared based on Mannich base (produced from the condensation of piperidine and/or morpholine as secondary amine and paraformaldehyde in the presence of 8-hydroxyquinoline). The chemical structures of the synthesized cationic surfactants were confirmed using elemental analyses, FTIR spectroscopy and 1H NMR. Surface activities of the prepared surfactants were measured including: surface tension (gamma), critical micelle concentration (CMC), effectiveness (pi(CMC)), efficiency (Pc20), maximum surface excess (Gamma(max)), minimum surface area (A(min)), interfacial tension (gamma(IT)), emulsification power and foaming power at 25 degrees C. The structural influences on their surface activities and adsorption free energy were discussed. The synthesized cationic surfactants were evaluated for their biocidal activity towards Gram +ve bacteria (Staph. Cocu., Bacillus), Gram -ve bacteria (Salmonella, E. coli), fungi (A. terrus., A. flav.) and yeast (Candida) at 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0mg/mL, respectively. The target compounds showed good inhibition towards Gram +ve bacteria, Gram -ve bacteria and yeast. Meanwhile, excellent fungicidal results were obtained against the various types of fungi under investigation. PMID:16154748

  16. Enzymatic assay for calmodulins based on plant NAD kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, A.C.; Jarrett, H.W.; Cormier, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    NAD kinase with increased sensitivity to calmodulin was purified from pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L., Willet Wonder). Assays for calmodulin based on the activities of NAD kinase, bovine brain cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, and human erythrocyte Ca/sup 2 -/-ATPase were compared for their sensitivities to calmodulin and for their abilities to discriminate between calmodulins from different sources. The activities of the three enzymes were determined in the presence of various concentrations of calmodulins from human erythrocyte, bovine brain, sea pansy (Renilla reniformis), mung bean seed (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek), mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), and Tetrahymena pyriformis. The concentrations of calmodulin required for 50% activation of the NAD kinase (K/sub 0.5/) ranged from 0.520 ng/ml for Tetrahymena to 2.20 ng/ml for bovine brain. The A/sub 0.5/ s ranged from 19.6 ng/ml for bovine brain calmodulin to 73.5 ng/ml for mushroom calmodulin for phosphodiesterase activation. The K/sub 0.5/'s for the activation of Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase ranged from 36.3 ng/mol for erythrocyte calmodulin to 61.7 ng/ml for mushroom calmodulin. NAD kinase was not stimulated by phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, cardiolipin, or palmitoleic acid in the absence or presence of Ca/sup 2 +/. Palmitic acid had a slightly stimulatory effect in the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/ (10% of maximum), but no effect in the absence of Ca/sup 2 +/. Palmitoleic acid inhibited the calmodulin-stimulated activity by 50%. Both the NAD kinase assay and radioimmunoassay were able to detect calmodulin in extracts containing low concentrations of calmodulin. Estimates of calmodulin contents of crude homogenates determined by the NAD kinase assay were consistent with amounts obtained by various purification procedures. 30 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  17. Ask about Chapter 1: Questions Parents Often Ask about Chapter 1 Programs = Pregunte sobre el capitulo 1: Preguntas que los padres frecuentemente hacen sobre el programa capitulo 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RMC Research Corp., Hampton, NH.

    Chapter 1 is a program funded by the Federal Government to help children who are at a disadvantage in school. Parents have many questions about Chapter 1 programs. This brochure presents many of the questions that parents have asked over the years about how Chapter 1 works. Because every school district's Chapter 1 programs are different, the…

  18. Implications of climate and land use change: Chapter 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Jefferson S.; Murgueitio, Enrique; Calle, Zoraida; Raudsepp-Hearne, Ciara; Stallard, Robert F.; Balvanera, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This chapter relates ecosystem services to climate change and land use. The bulk of the chapter focuses on ecosystem services and steepland land use in the humid Neotropics – what is lost with land-cover changed, and what is gained with various types of restoration that are sustainable given private ownership. Many case studies are presented later in the white paper. The USGS contribution relates to climate change and the role of extreme weather events in land-use planning.

  19. Improved Active Harmonic Current Elimination Based on Voltage Detection.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tianyuan; Dong, Shuan; Huang, Yingwei; Liu, Jian; Le, Jian; Liu, Kaipei

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing penetration of power electronic equipment in modern residential distribution systems, harmonics mitigation through the distributed generation (DG) interfacing converters has received significant attention. Among recently proposed methods, the so-called active resonance damper (ARD) and harmonic voltage compensator (HVC) based on voltage detection can effectively reduce the harmonic distortions in selected areas of distribution systems. However, it is found out that when traditional ARD algorithm is used to eliminate harmonic current injected by non-linear loads, its performance is constrained by stability problems and can at most eliminate half of the load harmonic currents. Thus, inspired by the duality between ARD and HVC, this paper presents a novel improved resistive active power filter (R-APF) algorithm based on integral-decoupling control. The design guideline for its parameters is then investigated through carefully analyzing the closed-loop poles' trajectory. Computer studies demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively mitigate the load harmonic currents and its performance is much better than traditional ARD based on proportional control. PMID:27295213

  20. Improved Active Harmonic Current Elimination Based on Voltage Detection

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Tianyuan; Dong, Shuan; Huang, Yingwei; Liu, Jian; Le, Jian; Liu, Kaipei

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing penetration of power electronic equipment in modern residential distribution systems, harmonics mitigation through the distributed generation (DG) interfacing converters has received significant attention. Among recently proposed methods, the so-called active resonance damper (ARD) and harmonic voltage compensator (HVC) based on voltage detection can effectively reduce the harmonic distortions in selected areas of distribution systems. However, it is found out that when traditional ARD algorithm is used to eliminate harmonic current injected by non-linear loads, its performance is constrained by stability problems and can at most eliminate half of the load harmonic currents. Thus, inspired by the duality between ARD and HVC, this paper presents a novel improved resistive active power filter (R-APF) algorithm based on integral-decoupling control. The design guideline for its parameters is then investigated through carefully analyzing the closed-loop poles’ trajectory. Computer studies demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively mitigate the load harmonic currents and its performance is much better than traditional ARD based on proportional control. PMID:27295213

  1. Synchronization-based approach for detecting functional activation of brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Lei; Cai, Shi-Min; Zhang, Jie; Zhuo, Zhao; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Zhou, Pei-Ling

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate a synchronization-based, data-driven clustering approach for the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, and specifically for detecting functional activation from fMRI data. We first define a new measure of similarity between all pairs of data points (i.e., time series of voxels) integrating both complete phase synchronization and amplitude correlation. These pairwise similarities are taken as the coupling between a set of Kuramoto oscillators, which in turn evolve according to a nearest-neighbor rule. As the network evolves, similar data points naturally synchronize with each other, and distinct clusters will emerge. The clustering behavior of the interaction network of the coupled oscillators, therefore, mirrors the clustering property of the original multiple time series. The clustered regions whose cross-correlation coefficients are much greater than other regions are considered as the functionally activated brain regions. The analysis of fMRI data in auditory and visual areas shows that the recognized brain functional activations are in complete correspondence with those from the general linear model of statistical parametric mapping, but with a significantly lower time complexity. We further compare our results with those from traditional K-means approach, and find that our new clustering approach can distinguish between different response patterns more accurately and efficiently than the K-means approach, and therefore more suitable in detecting functional activation from event-related experimental fMRI data.

  2. Interfacial activation-based molecular bioimprinting of lipolytic enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Mingarro, I; Abad, C; Braco, L

    1995-01-01

    Interfacial activation-based molecular (bio)-imprinting (IAMI) has been developed to rationally improve the performance of lipolytic enzymes in nonaqueous environments. The strategy combinedly exploits (i) the known dramatic enhancement of the protein conformational rigidity in a water-restricted milieu and (ii) the reported conformational changes associated with the activation of these enzymes at lipid-water interfaces, which basically involves an increased substrate accessibility to the active site and/or an induction of a more competent catalytic machinery. Six model enzymes have been assayed in several model reactions in nonaqueous media. The results, rationalized in light of the present biochemical and structural knowledge, show that the IAMI approach represents a straightforward, versatile method to generate manageable, activated (kinetically trapped) forms of lipolytic enzymes, providing under optimal conditions nonaqueous rate enhancements of up to two orders of magnitude. It is also shown that imprintability of lipolytic enzymes depends not only on the nature of the enzyme but also on the "quality" of the interface used as the template. PMID:7724558

  3. Predicting activity approach based on new atoms similarity kernel function.

    PubMed

    Abu El-Atta, Ahmed H; Moussa, M I; Hassanien, Aboul Ella

    2015-07-01

    Drug design is a high cost and long term process. To reduce time and costs for drugs discoveries, new techniques are needed. Chemoinformatics field implements the informational techniques and computer science like machine learning and graph theory to discover the chemical compounds properties, such as toxicity or biological activity. This is done through analyzing their molecular structure (molecular graph). To overcome this problem there is an increasing need for algorithms to analyze and classify graph data to predict the activity of molecules. Kernels methods provide a powerful framework which combines machine learning with graph theory techniques. These kernels methods have led to impressive performance results in many several chemoinformatics problems like biological activity prediction. This paper presents a new approach based on kernel functions to solve activity prediction problem for chemical compounds. First we encode all atoms depending on their neighbors then we use these codes to find a relationship between those atoms each other. Then we use relation between different atoms to find similarity between chemical compounds. The proposed approach was compared with many other classification methods and the results show competitive accuracy with these methods. PMID:26117822

  4. Modeling of Neutron Spectra Based on Activation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovancevic, N.; Fridman, M.; Daraban, L.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Hult, M.; Lutter, G.; Marissens, G.; Stroh, H.

    Safe and economical use of nuclear energy and particularly the development of GEN-IV reactors impose a better understanding of prompt neutron emission in fission, as well as of the fission process as such. Therefore, accurate measurements of the prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) are very important. In this work, we are testing the possibility to determine the PFNS by an activation method called DONA (DOsimetry and Spectroscopy using Neuron Activation) recently developed at IRMM (Wieslander et al., 2010, Lövestam et al., 2009). This type of modeling of the neutron spectra, based on the activation analysis, can provide new information about an old problem which still exists today, i.e. the discrepancy between measured integral and differential data (Capote et al., 2012). The problem is that the calculated average cross section for a certain neutron reaction, by using the differential experimental PFNS, in many cases cannot reproduce satisfactorily the integral measured cross section values. The modeling of the neutron spectra by the DONA technique was tested with the standard neutron spectrum of the spontaneous fission of 252Cf. We analyzed the sensitivity of the unfolding procedure to the initial neutron energy spectrum, the influence of the neutron scattering, the possibility of using different activation reactions and we also made an estimation of the lowest measurable neutron fluence rate.

  5. Active steganalysis for histogram-shifting based reversible data hiding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Der-Chyuan; Chou, Chao-Lung; Tso, Hao-Kuan; Chiu, Chung-Cheng

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents an innovative active steganalysis algorithm for reversible data hiding schemes based on histogram shifting. These schemes use histogram shifting to embed secret data in cover-images. However, some histogram patterns originating during the embedding procedure may be recognized readily by a steganalyst. The proposed algorithm analyzes the characteristics of histogram changing during the data embedding procedure, and then models these features into reference templates by using a 1 × 4 sliding window. A support vector machine is trained as the classifier for discriminating between cover-images and stego-images by adopting the template matching techniques. The hidden messages located at the histogram peak of the cover-image were further estimated by measuring the feature of adjacent histogram differences. Experimental results indicate that the proposed active steganalysis algorithm can effectively detect stego-images at low bit rates and estimate the hidden messages locations.

  6. Laser-heating-based active optics for synchrotron radiation applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fugui; Li, Ming; Gao, Lidan; Sheng, Weifan; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2016-06-15

    Active optics has attracted considerable interest from researchers in synchrotron radiation facilities because of its capacity for x-ray wavefront correction. Here, we report a novel and efficient technique for correcting or modulating a mirror surface profile based on laser-heating-induced thermal expansion. An experimental study of the characteristics of the surface thermal deformation response indicates that the power of a milliwatt laser yields a bump height as low as the subnanometer scale and that the variation of the spot size modulates the response function width effectively. In addition, the capacity of the laser-heating technique for free-form surface modulation is demonstrated via a one-dimensional surface correction experiment. The developed method is a promising new approach toward effective x-ray active optics coupled with at-wavelength metrology techniques. PMID:27304296

  7. In vitro antimicrobial activity of peroxide-based bleaching agents.

    PubMed

    Napimoga, Marcelo Henrique; de Oliveira, Rogério; Reis, André Figueiredo; Gonçalves, Reginaldo Bruno; Giannini, Marcelo

    2007-06-01

    Antibacterial activity of 4 commercial bleaching agents (Day White, Colgate Platinum, Whiteness 10% and 16%) on 6 oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus sanguinis, Candida albicans, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus acidophilus) and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. A chlorhexidine solution was used as a positive control, while distilled water was the negative control. Bleaching agents and control materials were inserted in sterilized stainless-steel cylinders that were positioned under inoculated agar plate (n = 4). After incubation according to the appropriate period of time for each microorganism, the inhibition zones were measured. Data were analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (a = 0.05). All bleaching agents and the chlorhexidine solution produced antibacterial inhibition zones. Antimicrobial activity was dependent on peroxide-based bleaching agents. For most microorganisms evaluated, bleaching agents produced inhibition zones similar to or larger than that observed for chlorhexidine. C albicans, L casei, and L acidophilus were the most resistant microorganisms. PMID:17625621

  8. Activity-based intelligence tipping and cueing using polarimetric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Christian M.; Messinger, David; Gartley, Michael G.

    2014-05-01

    Activity Based Intelligence (ABI) is the derivation of information from the composite of a series of individual actions being recorded over a period of time. Due to its temporal nature, ABI is usually developed from Motion Imagery (MI) or Full Motion Video (FMV) taken of a given scene. One of today's common issues is sifting through such large volumes of temporal data. Here we propose using a technique known as tipping an cueing to alleviate the need to manually sift through said data. Being able to tip the analysts or automated algorithm towards a particular person or object in the data is useful in reducing search time. We propose using a polarimetric sensor to identify objects of interest, in a scene where their signature would be unusual. Once identified, this data will be used to cue a FMV RGB sensor to track the object and determine the activities being executed by the person bringing the object into the scene.

  9. Ontology-based improvement to human activity recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmoush, David; Bonial, Claire

    2016-05-01

    Human activity recognition has often prioritized low-level features extracted from imagery or video over higher-level class attributes and ontologies because they have traditionally been more effective on small datasets. However, by including knowledge-driven associations between actions and attributes while recognizing the lower-level attributes with their temporal relationships, we can attempt a hybrid approach that is more easily extensible to much larger datasets. We demonstrate a combination of hard and soft features with a comparison factor that prioritizes one approach over the other with a relative weight. We then exhaustively search over the comparison factor to evaluate the performance of a hybrid human activity recognition approach in comparison to the base hard approach at 84% accuracy and the current state-of-the-art.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of Schiff bases based on chitosan and arylpyrazole moiety.

    PubMed

    Salama, Hend E; Saad, Gamal R; Sabaa, Magdy W

    2015-08-01

    The Schiff bases of chitosan were synthesized by the reaction of chitosan with 3-(4-substituted-phenyl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehyde. The structure of the prepared chitosan derivatives was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and X-ray diffraction studies and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The results show that the specific properties of Schiff bases of chitosan can be altered by modifying the molecular structures with proper substituent groups.TG results reveal that the thermal stability of the prepared chitosan Schiff bases was lower than chitosan. The activation energy of decomposition was calculated using Coats-Redfern model. The antimicrobial activity of chitosan and Schiff bases of chitosan were investigated against Streptococcus pneumonia, Bacillis subtilis, Escherichia coli (as examples of bacteria) and Aspergillus fumigatus, Geotricum candidum and Syncephalastrum recemosum (as examples of fungi). The results indicated that the antimicrobial activity of the Schiff bases was stronger than that of chitosan and was dependent on the substituent group. The activity of un-substituted arylpyrazole chitosan derivative toward the investigated bacteria and fungi species was better than the other derivatives. PMID:26067768

  11. Development of conductometric biosensors based on alkaline phosphatases for the water quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhetskyy, A.

    2008-09-01

    Researches are focused on the elaboration of enzymatic microconductometric device for heavy metal ions detection in water solutions. The manuscript includes a general introduction, the first chapter contains bibliographic review, the second chapter described the fundamentals of conductometric transducers, the third chapter examining the possibility to create and to optimize conductometric biosensor based on bovine alkaline phosphatase for heavy metals ions detection, the fourth chapter devoted to creation and optimization of conductometric biosensor based on alkaline phosphatase active microalgae and sol gel technology, the last chapter described application of the proposed algal biosensor for measurements of heavy metal ions toxicity of waste water, general conclusions stating the progresses achieved in the field of environmental monitoring

  12. Little Tokyo: Yet Another Chapter of Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuman, Dwight

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the history and current status of the long-time Southern California community base of Japanese Americans, Los Angeles' Little Tokyo district. Focuses on the role that Los Angeles' urban renewal agency, the Community Redevelopment Agency, has played in that community. (Author/JM)

  13. UltraNet Target Parameters. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kislitzin, Katherine T.; Blaylock, Bruce T. (Technical Monitor)

    1992-01-01

    The UltraNet is a high speed network capable of rates up to one gigabit per second. It is a hub based network with four optical fiber links connecting each hub. Each link can carry up to 256 megabits of data, and the hub backplane is capable of one gigabit aggregate throughput. Host connections to the hub may be fiber, coax, or channel based. Bus based machines have adapter boards that connect to transceivers in the hub, while channel based machines use a personality module in the hub. One way that the UltraNet achieves its high transfer rates is by off-loading the protocol processing from the hosts to special purpose protocol engines in the UltraNet hubs. In addition, every hub has a PC connected to it by StarLAN for network management purposes. Although there is hub resident and PC resident UltraNet software, this document treats only the host resident UltraNet software.

  14. Chapter 2: Livestock and Grazed Lands Emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 342 MMT CO2 eq. of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) were emitted from livestock, managed livestock waste, and grazed land in 2013. This represents about 66% of total emissions from the agricultural sector, which totaled 516 MMT CO2 eq. Compared to the base line year (1990), emissions from livesto...

  15. Active Physics Problem Based Learning for High Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenkraft, Arthur

    2006-12-01

    Active Physics bridges research and practice. This NSF supported curriculum project uses a 7E instructional model and a problem based learning approach. Students learn physics on a need to know basis as they construct solutions to challenges such as developing a sport that can be played on the moon, creating an appliance package for developing countries, designing a light and sound show, or building a museum exhibit. In addition to meeting the content requirements of an introductory physics course, there is also an emphasis on engineering design principles and on essential questions. The excitement and frustration of trying to bridge research and practice will be discussed.

  16. Highly concentrated active nonlinear media based on oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Bakin, D.V.; Dorozhkin, L.M.; Krasilov, Yu.I.; Kuznetsov, N.T.; Potemkin, A.V.; Tadzhi-Aglaev, K.S.; Shestakov, A.V.

    1987-07-01

    Important characteristics of highly concentrated active nonlinear media were studied which were based on oxide compounds of phosphates, niobates, tantalates, and titanates of neodymium with alkaline earth metals. Compounds of the indicated classes were synthesized and their spectral luminescent and nonlinear optical properties were studied. Single crystals were grown from the selected compounds (5-8mm) and preliminary measurements of the laser and nonlinear optical parameters were taken. Formulas are given for materials that demonstrated high nonlinear and luminescent properties simultaneously. Spectroscopic and nonlinear optical properties of some oxygen compounds of rare earth elements are shown.

  17. Using activity-based costing to guide strategic decision making.

    PubMed

    Dowless, R M

    1997-06-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) is not widely used in the healthcare industry. Some healthcare provider organizations are considering ABC, however, because of its potential to improve resource management and thereby maximize efficiency. ABC supports better pricing practices through more accurate costing and can be used to identify underutilized resources as well as associated costs that can be reduced. ABC can be a useful tool for determining the cost of unused capacity and for making strategic management decisions that will reduce costs. PMID:10167847

  18. Photoluminescent thermometry based on europium-activated calcium sulphide.

    PubMed

    Samulski, T V; Chopping, P T; Haas, B

    1982-01-01

    A photoluminescent thermometer, based on the transient emission response of a europium-activated calcium sulphide phosphor, is described in detail. This optical thermometry system has special advantages for temperature measurements in microwave and RF fields and potential application in electromagnetically induced clinical hyperthermia. A laboratory system has been constructed which utilises a fibreoptic probe with external diameter 0.8 mm. A system temperature resolution of 0.1 degree C has been achieved in the range 37-47 degrees C. PMID:6965160

  19. Affinity Adsorbents Based on Carriers Activated by Epoxy-compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyashchitskii, B. A.; Kuznetsov, P. V.

    1984-10-01

    The review is devoted to the synthesis and applications of affinity adsorbents based on carriers activated by epoxy-compounds. The methods for the introduction of epoxy-groups into carriers of different chemical types are discussed and conditions for the immobilisation of three-dimensional spacers and low-molecular-weight and polymeric ligands on carriers containing epoxy-groups are considered. Data are presented on the properties and applications of adsorbents of this type in affinity chromatography. The bibliography includes 144 references.

  20. Spatial Segmentation of Image Sequences Based on Their Time Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatsanos, N. P.

    2006-04-01

    There are many applications in medical imaging where one is interested in finding the areas of the image that exhibit the same time activity. Such applications occur in positron and single photon emission imaging as well as in perfusion studies with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this talk we will present Bayesian methodology based on clustering to solve this problem. At first the dimensionality of the pixel observations is reduced using a probabilistic principle component model along the spatial dimension of the data. Then, a multidimensional Gaussian mixture model with spatial constraints is used for clustering. Examples from MRI perfusion studies of the heart and the brain will be shown.

  1. Building Blocks for Reliable Complex Nonlinear Numerical Simulations. Chapter 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Mansour, Nagi N. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This chapter describes some of the building blocks to ensure a higher level of confidence in the predictability and reliability (PAR) of numerical simulation of multiscale complex nonlinear problems. The focus is on relating PAR of numerical simulations with complex nonlinear phenomena of numerics. To isolate sources of numerical uncertainties, the possible discrepancy between the chosen partial differential equation (PDE) model and the real physics and/or experimental data is set aside. The discussion is restricted to how well numerical schemes can mimic the solution behavior of the underlying PDE model for finite time steps and grid spacings. The situation is complicated by the fact that the available theory for the understanding of nonlinear behavior of numerics is not at a stage to fully analyze the nonlinear Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. The discussion is based on the knowledge gained for nonlinear model problems with known analytical solutions to identify and explain the possible sources and remedies of numerical uncertainties in practical computations. Examples relevant to turbulent flow computations are included.

  2. Improved assays for xenosensor activation based on reverse transfection.

    PubMed

    Küblbeck, Jenni; Anttila, Teemu; Pulkkinen, Juha T; Honkakoski, Paavo

    2015-10-01

    Discovery of receptor-dependent mechanisms for regulation of drug metabolism has provided a new way to evaluate the propensity of drug candidates to cause induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes. Therefore, receptor-based reporter assays have become common in early stages of drug development projects and in mechanistic studies. Here, we report a reverse transfection system to conduct activation assays for human xenosensors AhR, CAR and PXR. The assay format is based on long-term stability and uniformity of DNA/carrier complexes on culture plates, avoiding multiple stages and variation inherent in conventional transfection methods. Consequently, these improved assays are streamlined, reproducible and formally validated with Z' factors exceeding 0.5. This novel reverse transfection system is expected to find use in diverse areas of early drug development such prediction of CYP induction, evaluation of species differences and in mechanistic studies. PMID:26187274

  3. Background Subtraction Based on Color and Depth Using Active Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Sanchez, Enrique J.; Diaz, Javier; Ros, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Depth information has been used in computer vision for a wide variety of tasks. Since active range sensors are currently available at low cost, high-quality depth maps can be used as relevant input for many applications. Background subtraction and video segmentation algorithms can be improved by fusing depth and color inputs, which are complementary and allow one to solve many classic color segmentation issues. In this paper, we describe one fusion method to combine color and depth based on an advanced color-based algorithm. This technique has been evaluated by means of a complete dataset recorded with Microsoft Kinect, which enables comparison with the original method. The proposed method outperforms the others in almost every test, showing more robustness to illumination changes, shadows, reflections and camouflage. PMID:23857259

  4. Active terahertz device based on optically controlled organometal halide perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Lv, Longfeng; He, Ting; Chen, Tianji; Zang, Mengdi; Zhong, Liang; Wang, Xinke; Shen, Jingling; Hou, Yanbing

    2015-08-01

    An active all-optical high-efficiency broadband terahertz device based on an organometal halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3, MAPbI3)/inorganic (Si) structure is investigated. Spectrally broadband modulation of the THz transmission is obtained in the frequency range from 0.2 to 2.6 THz, and a modulation depth of nearly 100% can be achieved with a low-level photoexcitation power (˜0.4 W/cm2). Both THz transmission and reflection were suppressed in the MAPbI3/Si structure by an external continuous-wave (CW) laser. Enhancement of the charge carrier density at the MAPbI3/Si interface is crucial for photo-induced absorption. The results show that the proposed high-efficiency broadband optically controlled terahertz device based on the MAPbI3/Si structure has been realized.

  5. Understanding Time-driven Activity-based Costing.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2016-03-01

    Transitioning to a value-based health care system will require providers to increasingly scrutinize their outcomes and costs. Although there has been a great deal of effort to understand outcomes, cost accounting in health care has been a greater challenge. Currently the cost accounting methods used by hospitals and providers are based off a fee-for-service system. As resources become increasingly scarce and the health care system attempts to understand which services provide the greatest value, it will be critically important to understand the true costs of delivering a service. An understanding of the true costs of a particular service will help providers make smarter decisions on how to allocate and utilize resources as well as determine which activities are nonvalue added. Achieving value will require providers to have a greater focus on accurate outcome data as well as better methods of cost accounting. PMID:26889988

  6. A Set of Activity-Based Probes to Visualize Human (Immuno)proteasome Activities.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Gerjan; Xin, Bo Tao; Kraus, Marianne; van der Stelt, Mario; van der Marel, Gijsbert A; Kisselev, Alexei F; Driessen, Christoph; Florea, Bogdan I; Overkleeft, Herman S

    2016-03-18

    Proteasomes are therapeutic targets for various cancers and autoimmune diseases. Constitutively expressed proteasomes have three active sites, β1c, β2c, and β5c. Lymphoid tissues also express the immunoproteasome subunits β1i, β2i, and β5i. Rapid and simultaneous measurement of the activity of these catalytic subunits would assist in the discovery of new inhibitors, improve analysis of proteasome inhibitors in clinical trials, and simplify analysis of subunit expression. In this work, we present a cocktail of activity-based probes that enables simultaneous gel-based detection of all six catalytic human proteasome subunits. We used this cocktail to develop specific inhibitors for β1c, β2c, β5c, and β2i, to compare the active-site specificity of clinical proteasome inhibitors, and to demonstrate that many hematologic malignancies predominantly express immunoproteasomes. Furthermore, we show that selective and complete inhibition of β5i and β1i is cytotoxic to primary cells from acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) patients. PMID:26511210

  7. Mapping products of Titan's surface: Chapter 19

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephan, Katrin; Jaumann, Ralf; Karkoschka, Erich; Kirk, Randolph L.; Barnes, Jason W.; Tomasko, Martin G.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Le Corre, Lucille; Langhans, Mirjam; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Perry, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing instruments aboard the Cassini spacecraft have been observed the surface of Titan globally in the infrared and radar wavelength ranges as well as locally by the Huygens instruments revealing a wealth of new morphological features indicating a geologically active surface. We present a summary of mapping products of Titan's surface derived from data of the remote sensing instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft (ISS, VIMS, RADAR) as well as the Huygens probe (DISR) that were achieved during the nominal Cassini mission including an overview of Titan's recent nomenclature.

  8. Water resources, chapter 2, part B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Various applications and projected applications of active microwave instruments for studying water resources. Most applications involve use of an imaging system operating primarily at wavelengths of less than 30 cm (i.e., K-, X-, and L-bands). Discussion is also included concerning longer wavelength nonimaging systems for use in sounding polar glaciers and icecaps (e.g., Greenland and the Antarctic). The section is divided into six topics: (1) stream runoff, drainage basin analysis, and floods, (2) lake detection and fluctuating levels, (3) coastal processes and wetlands, (4) seasonally and permanently frozen (permafrost) ground, (5) solid water resources (snow, ice, and glaciers), and (6) water pollution.

  9. Cooperative wireless network control based health and activity monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Prakash, R; Ganesh, A Balaji; Girish, Siva V

    2016-10-01

    A real-time cooperative communication based wireless network is presented for monitoring health and activity of an end-user in their environment. The cooperative communication offers better energy consumption and also an opportunity to aware the current location of a user non-intrusively. The link between mobile sensor node and relay node is dynamically established by using Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and Link Quality Indicator (LQI) based on adaptive relay selection scheme. The study proposes a Linear Acceleration based Transmission Power Decision Control (LA-TPDC) algorithm to further enhance the energy efficiency of cooperative communication. Further, the occurrences of false alarms are carefully prevented by introducing three stages of sequential warning system. The real-time experiments are carried-out by using the nodes, namely mobile sensor node, relay nodes and a destination node which are indigenously developed by using a CC430 microcontroller integrated with an in-built transceiver at 868 MHz. The wireless node performance characteristics, such as energy consumption, Signal-Noise ratio (SNR), Bit Error Rate (BER), Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) and transmission offset are evaluated for all the participated nodes. The experimental results observed that the proposed linear acceleration based transmission power decision control algorithm almost doubles the battery life time than energy efficient conventional cooperative communication. PMID:27562484

  10. Chapter 16: text mining for translational bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Cohen, K Bretonnel; Hunter, Lawrence E

    2013-04-01

    Text mining for translational bioinformatics is a new field with tremendous research potential. It is a subfield of biomedical natural language processing that concerns itself directly with the problem of relating basic biomedical research to clinical practice, and vice versa. Applications of text mining fall both into the category of T1 translational research-translating basic science results into new interventions-and T2 translational research, or translational research for public health. Potential use cases include better phenotyping of research subjects, and pharmacogenomic research. A variety of methods for evaluating text mining applications exist, including corpora, structured test suites, and post hoc judging. Two basic principles of linguistic structure are relevant for building text mining applications. One is that linguistic structure consists of multiple levels. The other is that every level of linguistic structure is characterized by ambiguity. There are two basic approaches to text mining: rule-based, also known as knowledge-based; and machine-learning-based, also known as statistical. Many systems are hybrids of the two approaches. Shared tasks have had a strong effect on the direction of the field. Like all translational bioinformatics software, text mining software for translational bioinformatics can be considered health-critical and should be subject to the strictest standards of quality assurance and software testing. PMID:23633944

  11. Chapter 17: bioimage informatics for systems pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuhai; Yin, Zheng; Jin, Guangxu; Zhao, Hong; Wong, Stephen T C

    2013-04-01

    Recent advances in automated high-resolution fluorescence microscopy and robotic handling have made the systematic and cost effective study of diverse morphological changes within a large population of cells possible under a variety of perturbations, e.g., drugs, compounds, metal catalysts, RNA interference (RNAi). Cell population-based studies deviate from conventional microscopy studies on a few cells, and could provide stronger statistical power for drawing experimental observations and conclusions. However, it is challenging to manually extract and quantify phenotypic changes from the large amounts of complex image data generated. Thus, bioimage informatics approaches are needed to rapidly and objectively quantify and analyze the image data. This paper provides an overview of the bioimage informatics challenges and approaches in image-based studies for drug and target discovery. The concepts and capabilities of image-based screening are first illustrated by a few practical examples investigating different kinds of phenotypic changes caEditorsused by drugs, compounds, or RNAi. The bioimage analysis approaches, including object detection, segmentation, and tracking, are then described. Subsequently, the quantitative features, phenotype identification, and multidimensional profile analysis for profiling the effects of drugs and targets are summarized. Moreover, a number of publicly available software packages for bioimage informatics are listed for further reference. It is expected that this review will help readers, including those without bioimage informatics expertise, understand the capabilities, approaches, and tools of bioimage informatics and apply them to advance their own studies. PMID:23633943

  12. Chapter 16: Text Mining for Translational Bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, K. Bretonnel; Hunter, Lawrence E.

    2013-01-01

    Text mining for translational bioinformatics is a new field with tremendous research potential. It is a subfield of biomedical natural language processing that concerns itself directly with the problem of relating basic biomedical research to clinical practice, and vice versa. Applications of text mining fall both into the category of T1 translational research—translating basic science results into new interventions—and T2 translational research, or translational research for public health. Potential use cases include better phenotyping of research subjects, and pharmacogenomic research. A variety of methods for evaluating text mining applications exist, including corpora, structured test suites, and post hoc judging. Two basic principles of linguistic structure are relevant for building text mining applications. One is that linguistic structure consists of multiple levels. The other is that every level of linguistic structure is characterized by ambiguity. There are two basic approaches to text mining: rule-based, also known as knowledge-based; and machine-learning-based, also known as statistical. Many systems are hybrids of the two approaches. Shared tasks have had a strong effect on the direction of the field. Like all translational bioinformatics software, text mining software for translational bioinformatics can be considered health-critical and should be subject to the strictest standards of quality assurance and software testing. PMID:23633944

  13. Category-based induction from similarity of neural activation.

    PubMed

    Weber, Matthew J; Osherson, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    The idea that similarity might be an engine of inductive inference dates back at least as far as David Hume. However, Hume's thesis is difficult to test without begging the question, since judgments of similarity may be infected by inferential processes. We present a one-parameter model of category-based induction that generates predictions about arbitrary statements of conditional probability over a predicate and a set of items. The prediction is based on the unconditional probabilities and similarities that characterize that predicate and those items. To test Hume's thesis, we collected brain activation from various regions of the ventral visual stream during a categorization task that did not invite comparison of categories. We then calculated the similarity of those activation patterns using a simple measure of vectorwise similarity and supplied those similarities to the model. The model's outputs correlated well with subjects' judgments of conditional probability. Our results represent a promising first step toward confirming Hume's thesis; similarity, assessed without reference to induction, may well drive inductive inference. PMID:24254747

  14. Activity-based kinase profiling of approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Daisuke; Yokota, Koichi; Gouda, Masaki; Narumi, Yugo; Ohmoto, Hiroshi; Nishiwaki, Eiji; Akita, Kensaku; Kirii, Yasuyuki

    2013-02-01

    The specificities of nine approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors (imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, gefitinib, erlotinib, lapatinib, sorafenib, sunitinib, and pazopanib) were determined by activity-based kinase profiling using a large panel of human recombinant active kinases. This panel consisted of 79 tyrosine kinases, 199 serine/threonine kinases, three lipid kinases, and 29 disease-relevant mutant kinases. Many potential targets of each inhibitor were identified by kinase profiling at the K(m) for ATP. In addition, profiling at a physiological ATP concentration (1 mm) was carried out, and the IC(50) values of the inhibitors against each kinase were compared with the estimated plasma-free concentration (calculated from published pharmacokinetic parameters of plasma C(trough) and C(max) values). This analysis revealed that the approved kinase inhibitors were well optimized for their target kinases. This profiling also implicates activity at particular off-target kinases in drug side effects. Thus, large-scale kinase profiling at both K(m) and physiological ATP concentrations could be useful in characterizing the targets and off-targets of kinase inhibitors. PMID:23279183

  15. Surface activation-based nanobonding and interconnection at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howlader, M. M. R.; Yamauchi, A.; Suga, T.

    2011-02-01

    Flip chip nanobonding and interconnect system (NBIS) equipment with high precision alignment has been developed based on the surface activated bonding method for high-density interconnection and MEMS packaging. The 3σ alignment accuracy in the IR transmission system was approximately ±0.2 µm. The performance of the NBIS has been preliminarily investigated through bonding between relatively rough surfaces of copper through silicon vias (Cu-TSVs) and gold-stud bumps (Au-SBs), and smooth surfaces of silicon wafers. The Cu-TSVs of 55 µm diameter and the Au-SBs of 35 µm diameter with ~6-10 nm surface roughness (RMS) were bonded at room temperature after surface activation using an argon fast atom beam (Ar-FAB) under 0.16 N per bump. Silicon wafers of 50 mm diameter with ~0.2 nm RMS surface roughness were bonded without heating after surface activation. Void-free interfaces both in Cu-TSV/Au-SB and silicon/silicon with bonding strength equivalent to bulk fracture of Au and silicon, respectively, were achieved. A few nm thick amorphous layers were observed across the silicon/silicon interface that was fabricated by the Ar-FAB. This study in the interconnection and bonding facilitates the required three-dimensional integration on the same surface for high-density electronic and biomedical systems.

  16. Chemical Signaling and Functional Activation in Colloidosome-Based Protocells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shiyong; Li, Mei; Dong, Faqin; Wang, Shengjie; Tian, Liangfei; Mann, Stephen

    2016-04-13

    An aqueous-based microcompartmentalized model involving the integration of partially hydrophobic Fe(III)-rich montmorillonite (FeM) clay particles as structural and catalytic building blocks for colloidosome membrane assembly, self-directed membrane remodeling, and signal-induced protocell communication is described. The clay colloidosomes exhibit size- and charge-selective permeability, and show dual catalytic functions involving spatially confined enzyme-mediated dephosphorylation and peroxidase-like membrane activity. The latter is used for the colloidosome-mediated synthesis and assembly of a temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(PNIPAM)/clay-integrated hybrid membrane. In situ PNIPAM elaboration of the membrane is coupled to a glucose oxidase (GOx)-mediated signaling pathway to establish a primitive model of chemical communication and functional activation within a synthetic "protocell community" comprising a mixed population of GOx-containing silica colloidosomes and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-containing FeM-clay colloidosomes. Triggering the enzyme reaction in the silica colloidosomes gives a hydrogen peroxide signal that induces polymer wall formation in a coexistent population of the FeM-clay colloidosomes, which in turn generates self-regulated membrane-gated ALP-activity within the clay microcompartments. The emergence of new functionalities in inorganic colloidosomes via chemical communication between different protocell populations provides a first step toward the realization of interacting communities of synthetic functional microcompartments. PMID:26923794

  17. Activity-based costing for electric utilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Croyle, D.R.; Schapiro, I.A.; Keglevic, P.M.

    1992-08-01

    This EPRI report is a ``primer`` on Activity-Based Costing (ABC). ABC is a cost management aproach which can make an important contribution to understanding and controlling the changing costs in the electric utility industry. It is a method for attributing costs to activities, products and services by better understanding the underlying factors which drive those costs. ABC can help utility managers make better decisions through the application of more accurate process and product cost information and a fuller understanding of which activities add value and which do not. Armed with such information, utility managers are better equipped to address many of the strategic and operating decisions which they routinely face. The report introduces the ABC concept and approach to utility managers and offers insights into how ABC can be and is being used to control costs and improve strategic and operating decisions in electric utilities and other industries. The report (1) describes the ABC approach, (2) discusses the value of ABC to elecuic utilities, (3) identifies potential applications of ABC to current utility issues, (4) describes a step-by-step approach to developing and implementing ABC in the utility environment, and (5) presents a survey of more than 30 electric utilities and several detailed case studies of electric utilities and other companies who have adopted and are using ABC.

  18. Cupricyclins, Novel Redox-Active Metallopeptides Based on Conotoxins Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Barba, Marco; Sobolev, Anatoli P.; Zobnina, Veranika; Bonaccorsi di Patti, Maria Carmela; Cervoni, Laura; Spiezia, Maria Carolina; Schininà, M. Eugenia; Pietraforte, Donatella; Mannina, Luisa; Musci, Giovanni; Polticelli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Highly stable natural scaffolds which tolerate multiple amino acid substitutions represent the ideal starting point for the application of rational redesign strategies to develop new catalysts of potential biomedical and biotechnological interest. The knottins family of disulphide-constrained peptides display the desired characteristics, being highly stable and characterized by hypervariability of the inter-cysteine loops. The potential of knottins as scaffolds for the design of novel copper-based biocatalysts has been tested by engineering a metal binding site on two different variants of an ω-conotoxin, a neurotoxic peptide belonging to the knottins family. The binding site has been designed by computational modelling and the redesigned peptides have been synthesized and characterized by optical, fluorescence, electron spin resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The novel peptides, named Cupricyclin-1 and -2, bind one Cu2+ ion per molecule with nanomolar affinity. Cupricyclins display redox activity and catalyze the dismutation of superoxide anions with an activity comparable to that of non-peptidic superoxide dismutase mimics. We thus propose knottins as a novel scaffold for the design of catalytically-active mini metalloproteins. PMID:22319584

  19. Activity-Based Probe for Histidine Kinase Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wilke, Kaelyn E.; Francis, Samson; Carlson, Erin E.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial two-component systems (TCSs) are signaling pathways composed of two proteins, a histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR). Upon stimulation, the HK autophosphorylates at a conserved histidine. The phosphoryl group is subsequently transferred to an aspartate on a RR, eliciting an adaptive response, often up- or downregulation of gene expression. TCS signaling controls many functions in bacteria including development, virulence and antibiotic resistance, making the proteins involved in these systems potential therapeutic targets. Efficient methods for the profiling of HKs are currently lacking. For direct readout of HK activity, we sought to design a probe that enables detection of the phosphotransfer event; however, analysis of the phosphohistidine species is made difficult by the instability of the P-N bond. We anticipated that use of a γ-thiophosphorylated ATP analog, which would yield a thiophosphorylated histidine intermediate, could overcome this challenge. We determined that the fluorophore-conjugated probe, ATPγS-BODIPY, labels active HK proteins and is competitive for the ATP-binding site. This activity-based probe provides a new strategy for analysis of TCSs and other HK-mediated processes and will facilitate both functional studies and inhibitor identification. PMID:22606938

  20. Eelgrass habitat near Liberty Bay: Chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinicola, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Seagrasses are a widespread type of marine flowering plants that grow in nearshore intertidal and subtidal zones. Seagrass beds are ecologically important because they affect physical, biological, and chemical characteristics of nearshore habitat, and they are sensitive to changes in coastal water quality (Stevenson and others, 1993; Koch, 2001; Martinez-Crego and others, 2008). Zostera marina, commonly known as eelgrass, is protected by a no-net-loss policy in Washington State where it may be used as spawning habitat by herring, a key prey species for salmon, seabirds, and marine mammals (Bargmann, 1998). Eelgrass forms broad meadows in shallow embayments or narrow fringes on open shorelines (Berry and others, 2003). Anthropogenic activities that increase turbidity, nutrient loading, and physical disturbance at the coast can result in dramatic seagrass decline (Ralph and others, 2006).

  1. A new chapter in the transcription SAGA

    SciTech Connect

    Samara, Nadine L.; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2012-11-05

    Eukaryotic transcriptional coactivators are multi-subunit complexes that both modify chromatin and recognize histone modifications. Until recently, structural information on these large complexes has been limited to isolated enzymatic domains or chromatin-binding motifs. This review summarizes recent structural studies of the SAGA coactivator complex that have greatly advanced our understanding of the interplay between its different subunits. The structure of the four-protein SAGA deubiquitinating module has provided a first glimpse of the larger organization of a coactivator complex, and illustrates how interdependent subunits interact with each other to form an active and functional enzyme complex. In addition, structures of the histone binding domains of ATXN7 and Sgf29 shed light on the interactions with chromatin that help recruit the SAGA complex.

  2. Co-activation based parcellation of the human frontal pole.

    PubMed

    Ray, K L; Zald, D H; Bludau, S; Riedel, M C; Bzdok, D; Yanes, J; Falcone, K E; Amunts, K; Fox, P T; Eickhoff, S B; Laird, A R

    2015-12-01

    Historically, the human frontal pole (FP) has been considered as a single architectonic area. Brodmann's area 10 is located in the frontal lobe with known contributions in the execution of various higher order cognitive processes. However, recent cytoarchitectural studies of the FP in humans have shown that this portion of cortex contains two distinct cytoarchitectonic regions. Since architectonic differences are accompanied by differential connectivity and functions, the frontal pole qualifies as a candidate region for exploratory parcellation into functionally discrete sub-regions. We investigated whether this functional heterogeneity is reflected in distinct segregations within cytoarchitectonically defined FP-areas using meta-analytic co-activation based parcellation (CBP). The CBP method examined the co-activation patterns of all voxels within the FP as reported in functional neuroimaging studies archived in the BrainMap database. Voxels within the FP were subsequently clustered into sub-regions based on the similarity of their respective meta-analytically derived co-activation maps. Performing this CBP analysis on the FP via k-means clustering produced a distinct 3-cluster parcellation for each hemisphere corresponding to previously identified cytoarchitectural differences. Post-hoc functional characterization of clusters via BrainMap metadata revealed that lateral regions of the FP mapped to memory and emotion domains, while the dorso- and ventromedial clusters were associated broadly with emotion and social cognition processes. Furthermore, the dorsomedial regions contain an emphasis on theory of mind and affective related paradigms whereas ventromedial regions couple with reward tasks. Results from this study support previous segregations of the FP and provide meta-analytic contributions to the ongoing discussion of elucidating functional architecture within human FP. PMID:26254112

  3. Development of bestatin-based activity-based probes for metallo-aminopeptidases

    PubMed Central

    Harbut, Michael B.; Velmourougane, Geetha; Reiss, Gilana; Chandramohanadas, Rajesh; Greenbaum, Doron C.

    2009-01-01

    A novel set of activity-based probes (ABPs) for functionally profiling metallo-aminopeptidases was synthesized based on the bestatin inhibitor scaffold, the first synthesis of bestatin analogues using solid-phase techniques. These ABPs were shown to label metallo-aminopeptidases, using both a biotin and a fluorophore reporter, in an activity-dependent manner. This probe class was also shown to be amenable to ‘click’ chemistry labeling for possible use in live cells. Finally, we demonstrate that the ABPs are able to label an aminopeptidase in a complex proteome. Thus, these bestatin-based probes should have wide utility to functionally profile aminopeptidases in many biological systems. PMID:18823778

  4. Classification of physical activities based on body-segments coordination.

    PubMed

    Fradet, Laetitia; Marin, Frederic

    2016-09-01

    Numerous innovations based on connected objects and physical activity (PA) monitoring have been proposed. However, recognition of PAs requires robust algorithm and methodology. The current study presents an innovative approach for PA recognition. It is based on the heuristic definition of postures and the use of body-segments coordination obtained through external sensors. The first part of this study presents the methodology required to define the set of accelerations which is the most appropriate to represent the particular body-segments coordination involved in the chosen PAs (here walking, running, and cycling). For that purpose, subjects of different ages and heterogeneous physical conditions walked, ran, cycled, and performed daily activities at different paces. From the 3D motion capture, vertical and horizontal accelerations of 8 anatomical landmarks representative of the body were computed. Then, the 680 combinations from up to 3 accelerations were compared to identify the most appropriate set of acceleration to discriminate the PAs in terms of body segment coordinations. The discrimination was based on the maximal Hausdorff Distance obtained between the different set of accelerations. The vertical accelerations of both knees demonstrated the best PAs discrimination. The second step was the proof of concept, implementing the proposed algorithm to classify PAs of new group of subjects. The originality of the proposed algorithm is the possibility to use the subject's specific measures as reference data. With the proposed algorithm, 94% of the trials were correctly classified. In conclusion, our study proposed a flexible and extendable methodology. At the current stage, the algorithm has been shown to be valid for heterogeneous subjects, which suggests that it could be deployed in clinical or health-related applications regardless of the subjects' physical abilities or characteristics. PMID:27441831

  5. Chapter L: U.S. Industrial Garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, James G.; Moyle, Phillip R.

    2006-01-01

    The United States presently consumes about 16 percent of global production of industrial garnet for use in abrasive airblasting, abrasive coatings, filtration media, waterjet cutting, and grinding. As of 2005, domestic garnet production has decreased from a high of 74,000 t in 1998, and imports have increased to the extent that as much as 60 percent of the garnet used in the United States in 2003 was imported, mainly from India, China, and Australia; Canada joined the list of suppliers in 2005. The principal type of garnet used is almandite (almandine), because of its specific gravity and hardness; andradite is also extensively used, although it is not as hard or dense as almandite. Most industrial-grade garnet is obtained from gneiss, amphibolite, schist, skarn, and igneous rocks and from alluvium derived from weathering and erosion of these rocks. Garnet mines and occurrences are located in 21 States, but the only presently active (2006) mines are in northern Idaho (garnet placers; one mine), southeastern Montana (garnet placers; one mine), and eastern New York (unweathered bedrock; two mines). In Idaho, garnet is mined from Tertiary and (or) Quaternary sedimentary deposits adjacent to garnetiferous metapelites that are correlated with the Wallace Formation of the Proterozoic Belt Supergroup. In New York, garnet is mined from crystalline rocks of the Adirondack Mountains that are part of the Proterozoic Grenville province, and from the southern Taconic Range that is part of the northern Appalachian Mountains. In Montana, sources of garnet in placers include amphibolite, mica schist, and gneiss of Archean age and younger granite. Two mines that were active in the recent past in southwestern Montana produced garnet from gold dredge tailings and saprolite. In this report, we review the history of garnet mining and production and describe some garnet occurrences in most of the Eastern States along the Appalachian Mountains and in some of the Western States where

  6. Chapter 9: MEMS Applications in Spacecraft Thermal Control and Chapter 13: Handling and Contamination Control Considerations for Critical Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osiander, Robert; Darin, Ann; Chen, Philip

    2004-01-01

    Thermal control systems (TCS) are an integral part of all spacecraft and instruments. To operate properly all spacecraft components must be maintained within a specified temperature band, which in some instances can be quite tight (less than 1 degree C). Traditionally this is accomplished by "passive" designs, but with modem spacecraft and instruments it is increasingly necessary to use active thermal control technologies. Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) can be useful in developing an active TCS, and may be especially useful for small spacecraft. As the MEMS knowledge matures, the applications of MEMS in spacecraft thermal control emerges as a viable technology for thermal engineers. Potential applications include specialized thermal control coatings, thermal switches, and specialized filters for instruments. Although MEMS technology demonstrates benefits, it also poses challenges for thermal en,oineers due to the lack of in-flight MEMS data. As a consequence, in order to design a MEMS thermal control device and receive the full advantage, it is important to understand the potential impact of the space environment on MEMS devices and the design/operational constraints imposed in their use. An entire chapter is devoted to handling and contamination controls for Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) in space applications due to the importance of the topic area to final mission success. Handling and contamination control is discussed relative to the full life cycle from the very basic wafer level processing up through on orbit deployment. MEMS packaging will drive the need to tailor the Handling and Contamination Control Plan in order to assure adequacy of the overall program on a program by program basis. Plan elements are discussed at length to assist the user in preparing and implementing effective plans for both handling and contamination control to prevent deleterious effects.

  7. Intelligent Control and Health Monitoring. Chapter 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay; Kumar, Aditya; Mathews, H. Kirk; Rosenfeld, Taylor; Rybarik, Pavol; Viassolo, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced model-based control architecture overcomes the limitations state-of-the-art engine control and provides the potential of virtual sensors, for example for thrust and stall margin. "Tracking filters" are used to adapt the control parameters to actual conditions and to individual engines. For health monitoring standalone monitoring units will be used for on-board analysis to determine the general engine health and detect and isolate sudden faults. Adaptive models open up the possibility of adapting the control logic to maintain desired performance in the presence of engine degradation or to accommodate any faults. Improved and new sensors are required to allow sensing at stations within the engine gas path that are currently not instrumented due in part to the harsh conditions including high operating temperatures and to allow additional monitoring of vibration, mass flows and energy properties, exhaust gas composition, and gas path debris. The environmental and performance requirements for these sensors are summarized.

  8. Chapter 1: Recent Advances in Solar Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, B. N.

    2008-10-01

    For millennia, the Sun (and the universe) has been viewed in the visual light. As the bestower of light and life, the ancients made God out of the Sun. With the Babylonians, or with the multiple origins with the Chinese, Egyptians and Indians, quoting the Rig Veda:"All that exists was born from Sūrya, the God of gods.", we have come a long way to understanding the Sun. In the early seventeenth century, however, Galileo showed that the Sun was not an immaculate object. Thus began our scientific interests in our nearest stellar neighbour, the Sun (cf., Figure 1.1.), with its sunspots and the related solar activity. The observations of the Sun and their interpretations are of universal importance for at least two reasons: First, the Sun is the source of energy for the entire planetary system and all aspects of our life have direct impact on what happens on the Sun; and second, the Sun's proximity makes it unique among the billions of stars in the sky of which we can resolve its surface features and study physical processes at work...

  9. Lithium brines: A global perspective: Chapter 14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munk, LeeAnn; Hynek, Scott; Bradley, Dwight C.; Boutt, David; Labay, Keith A.; Jochens, Hillary

    2016-01-01

    Lithium is a critical and technologically important element that has widespread use, particularly in batteries for hybrid cars and portable electronic devices. Global demand for lithium has been on the rise since the mid-1900s and is projected to continue to increase. Lithium is found in three main deposit types: (1) pegmatites, (2) continental brines, and (3) hydrothermally altered clays. Continental brines provide approximately three-fourths of the world’s Li production due to their relatively low production cost. The Li-rich brine systems addressed here share six common characteristics that provide clues to deposit genesis while also serving as exploration guidelines. These are as follows: (1) arid climate; (2) closed basin containing a salar (salt crust), a salt lake, or both; (3) associated igneous and/or geothermal activity; (4) tectonically driven subsidence; (5) suitable lithium sources; and (6) sufficient time to concentrate brine. Two detailed case studies of Li-rich brines are presented; one on the longest produced lithium brine at Clayton Valley, Nevada, and the other on the world’s largest producing lithium brine at the Salar de Atacama, Chile.

  10. Large-Scale Hybrid Motor Testing. Chapter 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Story, George

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid rocket motors can be successfully demonstrated at a small scale virtually anywhere. There have been many suitcase sized portable test stands assembled for demonstration of hybrids. They show the safety of hybrid rockets to the audiences. These small show motors and small laboratory scale motors can give comparative burn rate data for development of different fuel/oxidizer combinations, however questions that are always asked when hybrids are mentioned for large scale applications are - how do they scale and has it been shown in a large motor? To answer those questions, large scale motor testing is required to verify the hybrid motor at its true size. The necessity to conduct large-scale hybrid rocket motor tests to validate the burn rate from the small motors to application size has been documented in several place^'^^.^. Comparison of small scale hybrid data to that of larger scale data indicates that the fuel burn rate goes down with increasing port size, even with the same oxidizer flux. This trend holds for conventional hybrid motors with forward oxidizer injection and HTPB based fuels. While the reason this is occurring would make a great paper or study or thesis, it is not thoroughly understood at this time. Potential causes include the fact that since hybrid combustion is boundary layer driven, the larger port sizes reduce the interaction (radiation, mixing and heat transfer) from the core region of the port. This chapter focuses on some of the large, prototype sized testing of hybrid motors. The largest motors tested have been AMROC s 250K-lbf thrust motor at Edwards Air Force Base and the Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program s 250K-lbf thrust motor at Stennis Space Center. Numerous smaller tests were performed to support the burn rate, stability and scaling concepts that went into the development of those large motors.

  11. Assessing risk based on uncertain avalanche activity patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidler, Antonia; Fromm, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    Avalanches may affect critical infrastructure and may cause great economic losses. The planning horizon of infrastructures, e.g. hydropower generation facilities, reaches well into the future. Based on the results of previous studies on the effect of changing meteorological parameters (precipitation, temperature) and the effect on avalanche activity we assume that there will be a change of the risk pattern in future. The decision makers need to understand what the future might bring to best formulate their mitigation strategies. Therefore, we explore a commercial risk software to calculate risk for the coming years that might help in decision processes. The software @risk, is known to many larger companies, and therefore we explore its capabilities to include avalanche risk simulations in order to guarantee a comparability of different risks. In a first step, we develop a model for a hydropower generation facility that reflects the problem of changing avalanche activity patterns in future by selecting relevant input parameters and assigning likely probability distributions. The uncertain input variables include the probability of avalanches affecting an object, the vulnerability of an object, the expected costs for repairing the object and the expected cost due to interruption. The crux is to find the distribution that best represents the input variables under changing meteorological conditions. Our focus is on including the uncertain probability of avalanches based on the analysis of past avalanche data and expert knowledge. In order to explore different likely outcomes we base the analysis on three different climate scenarios (likely, worst case, baseline). For some variables, it is possible to fit a distribution to historical data, whereas in cases where the past dataset is insufficient or not available the software allows to select from over 30 different distribution types. The Monte Carlo simulation uses the probability distribution of uncertain variables

  12. Bioenergetics modeling of percid fishes: Chapter 14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    A bioenergetics model for a percid fish represents a quantitative description of the fish’s energy budget. Bioenergetics modeling can be used to identify the important factors determining growth of percids in lakes, rivers, or seas. For example, bioenergetics modeling applied to yellow perch (Perca flavescens) in the western and central basins of Lake Erie revealed that the slower growth in the western basin was attributable to limitations in suitably sized prey in western Lake Erie, rather than differences in water temperature between the two basins. Bioenergetics modeling can also be applied to a percid population to estimate the amount of food being annually consumed by the percid population. For example, bioenergetics modeling applied to the walleye (Sander vitreus) population in Lake Erie has provided fishery managers valuable insights into changes in the population’s predatory demand over time. In addition, bioenergetics modeling has been used to quantify the effect of the difference in growth between the sexes on contaminant accumulation in walleye. Field and laboratory evaluations of percid bioenergetics model performance have documented a systematic bias, such that the models overestimate consumption at low feeding rates but underestimate consumption at high feeding rates. However, more recent studies have shown that this systematic bias was due, at least in part, to an error in the energy budget balancing algorithm used in the computer software. Future research work is needed to more thoroughly assess the field and laboratory performance of percid bioenergetics models and to quantify differences in activity and standard metabolic rate between the sexes of mature percids.

  13. Pyrethroid activity-based probes for profiling cytochrome P450 activities associated with insecticide interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Hanafy M.; O’Neill, Paul M.; Hong, David W.; Finn, Robert D.; Henderson, Colin J.; Wright, Aaron T.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Hemingway, Janet; Paine, Mark J. I.

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used to control diseases spread by arthropods. We have developed a suite of pyrethroid mimetic activity-based probes (PyABPs) to selectively label and identify P450s associated with pyrethroid metabolism. The probes were screened against pyrethroid-metabolizing and nonmetabolizing mosquito P450s, as well as rodent microsomes, to measure labeling specificity, plus cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase and b5 knockout mouse livers to validate P450 activation and establish the role for b5 in probe activation. Using PyABPs, we were able to profile active enzymes in rat liver microsomes and identify pyrethroid-metabolizing enzymes in the target tissue. These included P450s as well as related detoxification enzymes, notably UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, suggesting a network of associated pyrethroid-metabolizing enzymes, or “pyrethrome.” Considering the central role P450s play in metabolizing insecticides, we anticipate that PyABPs will aid in the identification and profiling of P450s associated with insecticide pharmacology in a wide range of species, improving understanding of P450–insecticide interactions and aiding the development of unique tools for disease control. PMID:24248381

  14. Pyrethroid Activity-Based Probes for Profiling Cytochrome P450 Activities Associated with Insecticide Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, Hanafy M.; O'Neill, Paul M.; Hong, David; Finn, Robert; Henderson, Colin; Wright, Aaron T.; Cravatt, Benjamin; Hemingway, Janet; Paine, Mark J.

    2014-01-18

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used to control a diverse spectrum of diseases spread by arthropods. We have developed a suite of pyrethroid mimetic activity based probes (PyABPs) to selectively label and identify P450s associated with pyrethroid metabolism. The probes were screened against pyrethroid metabolizing and non-metabolizing mosquito P450s, as well as rodent microsomes to measure labeling specificity, plus CPR and b5 knockout mouse livers to validate P450 activation and establish the role for b5 in probe activation. Using a deltamethrin mimetic PyABP we were able to profile active enzymes in rat liver microsomes and identify pyrethroid metabolizing enzymes in the target tissue. The most reactive enzyme was a P450, CYP2C11, which is known to metabolize deltamethrin. Furthermore, several other pyrethroid metabolizers were identified (CYPs 2C6, 3A4, 2C13 and 2D1) along with related detoxification enzymes, notably UDP-g’s 2B1 - 5, suggesting a network of associated pyrethroid metabolizing enzymes, or ‘pyrethrome’. Considering the central role that P450s play in metabolizing insecticides, we anticipate that PyABPs will aid the identification and profiling of P450s associated with insecticide pharmacology in a wide range of species, improving understanding of P450-insecticide interactions and aiding the development of new tools for disease control.

  15. On the Relationship between Variational Level Set-Based and SOM-Based Active Contours

    PubMed Central

    Abdelsamea, Mohammed M.; Gnecco, Giorgio; Gaber, Mohamed Medhat; Elyan, Eyad

    2015-01-01

    Most Active Contour Models (ACMs) deal with the image segmentation problem as a functional optimization problem, as they work on dividing an image into several regions by optimizing a suitable functional. Among ACMs, variational level set methods have been used to build an active contour with the aim of modeling arbitrarily complex shapes. Moreover, they can handle also topological changes of the contours. Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) have attracted the attention of many computer vision scientists, particularly in modeling an active contour based on the idea of utilizing the prototypes (weights) of a SOM to control the evolution of the contour. SOM-based models have been proposed in general with the aim of exploiting the specific ability of SOMs to learn the edge-map information via their topology preservation property and overcoming some drawbacks of other ACMs, such as trapping into local minima of the image energy functional to be minimized in such models. In this survey, we illustrate the main concepts of variational level set-based ACMs, SOM-based ACMs, and their relationship and review in a comprehensive fashion the development of their state-of-the-art models from a machine learning perspective, with a focus on their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25960736

  16. On the Relationship between Variational Level Set-Based and SOM-Based Active Contours.

    PubMed

    Abdelsamea, Mohammed M; Gnecco, Giorgio; Gaber, Mohamed Medhat; Elyan, Eyad

    2015-01-01

    Most Active Contour Models (ACMs) deal with the image segmentation problem as a functional optimization problem, as they work on dividing an image into several regions by optimizing a suitable functional. Among ACMs, variational level set methods have been used to build an active contour with the aim of modeling arbitrarily complex shapes. Moreover, they can handle also topological changes of the contours. Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) have attracted the attention of many computer vision scientists, particularly in modeling an active contour based on the idea of utilizing the prototypes (weights) of a SOM to control the evolution of the contour. SOM-based models have been proposed in general with the aim of exploiting the specific ability of SOMs to learn the edge-map information via their topology preservation property and overcoming some drawbacks of other ACMs, such as trapping into local minima of the image energy functional to be minimized in such models. In this survey, we illustrate the main concepts of variational level set-based ACMs, SOM-based ACMs, and their relationship and review in a comprehensive fashion the development of their state-of-the-art models from a machine learning perspective, with a focus on their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25960736

  17. Bermuda Bio Optics Project. Chapter 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Norm

    2003-01-01

    The Bermuda BioOptics Project (BBOP) is a collaborative effort between the Institute for Computational Earth System Science (ICESS) at the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) and the Bermuda Biological Station for Research (BBSR). This research program is designed to characterize light availability and utilization in the Sargasso Sea, and to provide an optical link by which biogeochemical observations may be used to evaluate bio-optical models for pigment concentration, primary production, and sinking particle fluxes from satellite-based ocean color sensors. The BBOP time-series was initiated in 1992, and is carried out in conjunction with the U.S. JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) at the Bermuda Biological Station for Research. The BATS program itself has been observing biogeochemical processes (primary productivity, particle flux and elemental cycles) in the mesotrophic waters of the Sargasso Sea since 1988. Closely affiliated with BBOP and BATS is a separate NASA-funded study of the spatial variability of biogeochemical processes in the Sargasso Sea using high-resolution AVHRR and SeaWiFS data collected at Bermuda (N. Nelson, P.I.). The collaboration between BATS and BBOP measurements has resulted in a unique data set that addresses not only the SIMBIOS goals but also the broader issues of important factors controlling the carbon cycle.

  18. Activity-Based Proteome Profiling Probes Based on Woodward's Reagent K with Distinct Target Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yong; Schürmann, Marc; Janning, Petra; Hedberg, Christian; Waldmann, Herbert

    2016-06-27

    Woodward's reagent K (WRK) is a reactive heterocyclic compound that has been employed in protein chemistry to covalently and unspecifically label proteins at nucleophilic amino acids, notably at histidine and cysteine. We have developed a panel of WRK-derived activity-based probes and show that surprisingly and unexpectedly, these probes are fairly selective for a few proteins in the human proteome. The WRK-derived probes show unique reactivity towards the catalytic N-terminal proline in the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and can be used to label and, if equipped with a fluorophore, to image MIF activities in living cells. PMID:27159346

  19. Mineral Nutrition of Plants. Chapter 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai

    1995-01-01

    The ultimate source of nutrients for all living organisms consists of the inanimate nutrient reserves found on earth. Of the elements known to exist, seven are considered essential to plants in large amounts (macronutrients), and many others are required in smaller quantities (micronutrients). Essentiality of a nutrient is defined according to the following concepts: (a) A deficiency of the element makes it impossible for the plant to complete the vegetative or reproductive stage of its cycle; (b) such deficiency is specific to the element in question and can be prevented or corrected only by supplying this element; (c) the element is directly involved in the nutrition of the plant quite apart from its possible effects in correcting some unfavorable microbiological or chemical condition of the soil or other culture medium. From that standpoint a favorable response from adding a given element to the culture medium does not constitute conclusive evidence of its indispensability in plant nutrition. All the elements occurring in the outer part of the earth are in constant turnover among the different components of earth. This overall migration is referred to as geochemical cycling. When cycling includes a role for biological organisms, it is referred to as "biogeochemical cycling." Like most cyclical processes in nature, the biogeochemical cycling of elements is not continuous, nor does it proceed in a well-defined direction. At stages, it may be halted or short-circuited, or it may change. Any changes will eventually impact the survival, evolution, and development of biological species in the system. The relationship of the various systems is represented in a schematic manner. To assess the efficiency of operation of the biogeochemical cycles, it is important to include both natural and human activities. Often reliable values on use by man are difficult to obtain for a number of reasons, such as lack of international cooperation, and lack of proper bookkeeping and

  20. Sensing and antibacterial activity of imidazolium-based conjugated polydiacetylenes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Songyi; Cheng, Hua; Chi, Meiying; Xu, Qingling; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Eom, Chi-Yong; James, Tony D; Park, Sungsu; Yoon, Juyoung

    2016-03-15

    In the current study, we report the first example of polydiacetylenes (PDAs), where our PDA-based system acts as both a sensing probe and killer for bacteria. The contact of imidazolium and imidazole-derived PDA with various bacterial strains including MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and ESBL-EC (extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli) results in a distinct blue-to-red colorimetric change of the solution as well as a rapid disruption of the bacterial membrane, which is demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Zeta potential analysis supports that antibacterial activity of the PDA solution originates from an electrostatic interaction between the negatively charged bacterial cell surface and the positively charged polymers. These results suggest that the PDA has a great potential to carry out the dual roles of a probe and killer for bacteria. PMID:26547428

  1. Active vibration control based on piezoelectric smart composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Le; Lu, Qingqing; Fei, Fan; Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2013-12-01

    An aircraft’s vertical fin may experience dramatic buffet loads in high angle of attack flight conditions, and these buffet loads would cause huge vibration and dynamic stress on the vertical fin structure. To reduce the dynamic vibration of the vertical fin structure, macro fiber composite (MFC) actuators were used in this paper. The drive moment equations and sensing voltage equations of the MFC actuators were developed. Finite element analysis models based on three kinds of models of simplified vertical fin structures with surface-bonded MFC actuators were established in ABAQUS. The equivalent damping ratio of the structure was employed in finite element analysis, in order to measure the effectiveness of vibration control. Further, an open-loop test for the active vibration control system of the vertical fin with MFC actuators was designed and developed. The experimental results validated the effectiveness of the MFC actuators as well as the developed methodology.

  2. Active learning based segmentation of Crohns disease from abdominal MRI.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Dwarikanath; Vos, Franciscus M; Buhmann, Joachim M

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel active learning (AL) framework, and combines it with semi supervised learning (SSL) for segmenting Crohns disease (CD) tissues from abdominal magnetic resonance (MR) images. Robust fully supervised learning (FSL) based classifiers require lots of labeled data of different disease severities. Obtaining such data is time consuming and requires considerable expertise. SSL methods use a few labeled samples, and leverage the information from many unlabeled samples to train an accurate classifier. AL queries labels of most informative samples and maximizes gain from the labeling effort. Our primary contribution is in designing a query strategy that combines novel context information with classification uncertainty and feature similarity. Combining SSL and AL gives a robust segmentation method that: (1) optimally uses few labeled samples and many unlabeled samples; and (2) requires lower training time. Experimental results show our method achieves higher segmentation accuracy than FSL methods with fewer samples and reduced training effort. PMID:27040833

  3. Active contour based segmentation of resected livers in CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelmann, Simon; Oyarzun Laura, Cristina; Drechsler, Klaus; Wesarg, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    The majority of state of the art segmentation algorithms are able to give proper results in healthy organs but not in pathological ones. However, many clinical applications require an accurate segmentation of pathological organs. The determination of the target boundaries for radiotherapy or liver volumetry calculations are examples of this. Volumetry measurements are of special interest after tumor resection for follow up of liver regrow. The segmentation of resected livers presents additional challenges that were not addressed by state of the art algorithms. This paper presents a snakes based algorithm specially developed for the segmentation of resected livers. The algorithm is enhanced with a novel dynamic smoothing technique that allows the active contour to propagate with different speeds depending on the intensities visible in its neighborhood. The algorithm is evaluated in 6 clinical CT images as well as 18 artificial datasets generated from additional clinical CT images.

  4. Flexure-based Manipulator for Active Handheld Microsurgical Instrument.

    PubMed

    Choi, David; Riviere, Cameron

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the design and initial experimental results of a flexure-based parallel manipulator that is actuated by three piezoelectric stacks. The manipulator is for an active handheld tremor canceling device for microsurgery. By using flexures to approximate pin and ball joints, errors due to friction, backlash, and imperfect assemblies have been eliminated. The results show that the manipulator is capable of tracking motions similar to physiological tremor in amplitude and frequency. The workspace of the manipulator is more than 7 times larger than the tremor space in the x and y axes, and about 1.5 times larger in the z axis. One dimensional and three dimensional tracking tests had rms errors of 6.5 μm and 12.1 μm respectively. PMID:17282701

  5. Flexure-based Manipulator for Active Handheld Microsurgical Instrument.

    PubMed

    Choi, David; Riviere, Cameron

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the design and initial experimental results of a flexure-based parallel manipulator that is actuated by three piezoelectric stacks. The manipulator is for an active handheld tremor canceling device for microsurgery. By using flexures to approximate pin and ball joints, errors due to friction, backlash, and imperfect assemblies have been eliminated. The results show that the manipulator is capable of tracking motions similar to physiological tremor in amplitude and frequency. The workspace of the manipulator is more than 7 times larger than the tremor space in the x and y axes, and about 1.5 times larger in the z axis. One dimensional and three dimensional tracking tests had rms errors of 6.5 μm and 12.1 μm respectively. PMID:17281390

  6. Highly efficient blue electroluminescence based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Shuzo; Sakai, Yumi; Masui, Kensuke; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Lee, Sae Youn; Nomura, Hiroko; Nakamura, Nozomi; Yasumatsu, Mao; Nakanotani, Hajime; Zhang, Qisheng; Shizu, Katsuyuki; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Adachi, Chihaya

    2015-03-01

    Organic compounds that exhibit highly efficient, stable blue emission are required to realize inexpensive organic light-emitting diodes for future displays and lighting applications. Here, we define the design rules for increasing the electroluminescence efficiency of blue-emitting organic molecules that exhibit thermally activated delayed fluorescence. We show that a large delocalization of the highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital in these charge-transfer compounds enhances the rate of radiative decay considerably by inducing a large oscillator strength even when there is a small overlap between the two wavefunctions. A compound based on our design principles exhibited a high rate of fluorescence decay and efficient up-conversion of triplet excitons into singlet excited states, leading to both photoluminescence and internal electroluminescence quantum yields of nearly 100%. PMID:25485987

  7. Highly efficient blue electroluminescence based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Shuzo; Sakai, Yumi; Masui, Kensuke; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Lee, Sae Youn; Nomura, Hiroko; Nakamura, Nozomi; Yasumatsu, Mao; Nakanotani, Hajime; Zhang, Qisheng; Shizu, Katsuyuki; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Adachi, Chihaya

    2015-03-01

    Organic compounds that exhibit highly efficient, stable blue emission are required to realize inexpensive organic light-emitting diodes for future displays and lighting applications. Here, we define the design rules for increasing the electroluminescence efficiency of blue-emitting organic molecules that exhibit thermally activated delayed fluorescence. We show that a large delocalization of the highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital in these charge-transfer compounds enhances the rate of radiative decay considerably by inducing a large oscillator strength even when there is a small overlap between the two wavefunctions. A compound based on our design principles exhibited a high rate of fluorescence decay and efficient up-conversion of triplet excitons into singlet excited states, leading to both photoluminescence and internal electroluminescence quantum yields of nearly 100%.

  8. Aqueous Alteration on Mars. Chapter 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Clark, Benton C.

    2007-01-01

    Aqueous alteration is the change in composition of a rock, produced in response to interactions with H2O-bearing ices, liquids, and vapors by chemical weathering. A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Mineralogical indicators for aqueous alteration include goethite (lander), jarosite (lander), kieserite (orbiter), gypsum (orbiter) and other Fe-, Mg-, and Ca-sulfates (landers), halides (meteorites, lander), phyllosilicates (orbiter, meteorites), hematite and nanophase iron oxides (telescopic, orbiter, lander), and Fe-, Mg-, and Ca-carbonates (meteorites). Geochemical indicators (landers only) for aqueous alteration include Mg-, Ca-, and Fe-sulfates, halides, and secondary aluminosilicates such as smectite. Based upon these indicators, several styles of aqueous alteration have been suggested on Mars. Acid-sulfate weathering (e.g., formation of jarosite, gypsum, hematite, and goethite), may occur during (1) the oxidative weathering of ultramafic igneous rocks containing sulfides, (2) sulfuric acid weathering of basaltic materials, and (3) acid fog (i.e., vapors rich in H2SO4) weathering of basaltic or basaltic-derived materials. Near-neutral or alkaline alteration occurs when solutions with pH near or above 7 move through basaltic materials and form phases such as phyllosilicates and carbonates. Very low water:rock ratios appear to have been prominent at most of the sites visited by landed missions because there is very little alteration (leaching) of the original basaltic composition (i.e., the alteration is isochemical or in a closed hydrologic system). Most of the aqueous alteration appears to have occurred early in the history of the planet (3 to 4.5 billion years ago); however, minor aqueous alteration may be occurring at the

  9. An Ontology-Based Tourism Recommender System Based on Spreading Activation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahramian, Z.; Abbaspour, R. Ali

    2015-12-01

    A tourist has time and budget limitations; hence, he needs to select points of interest (POIs) optimally. Since the available information about POIs is overloading, it is difficult for a tourist to select the most appreciate ones considering preferences. In this paper, a new travel recommender system is proposed to overcome information overload problem. A recommender system (RS) evaluates the overwhelming number of POIs and provides personalized recommendations to users based on their preferences. A content-based recommendation system is proposed, which uses the information about the user's preferences and POIs and calculates a degree of similarity between them. It selects POIs, which have highest similarity with the user's preferences. The proposed content-based recommender system is enhanced using the ontological information about tourism domain to represent both the user profile and the recommendable POIs. The proposed ontology-based recommendation process is performed in three steps including: ontology-based content analyzer, ontology-based profile learner, and ontology-based filtering component. User's feedback adapts the user's preferences using Spreading Activation (SA) strategy. It shows the proposed recommender system is effective and improves the overall performance of the traditional content-based recommender systems.

  10. Sustainable production of biologically active molecules of marine based origin.

    PubMed

    Murray, Patrick M; Moane, Siobhan; Collins, Catherine; Beletskaya, Tanya; Thomas, Olivier P; Duarte, Alysson W F; Nobre, Fernando S; Owoyemi, Ifeloju O; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Sette, L D; McHugh, Edward; Causse, Eric; Pérez-López, Paula; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma T; Rubiolo, Juan; Leirós, Marta; Botana, Luis M; Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui; Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Allewaert, Celine; Verween, Annick; Vyverman, Wim; Laptev, Ivan; Sineoky, Sergei; Bisio, Angela; Manconi, Renata; Ledda, Fabio; Marchi, Mario; Pronzato, Roberto; Walsh, Daniel J

    2013-09-25

    The marine environment offers both economic and scientific potential which are relatively untapped from a biotechnological point of view. These environments whilst harsh are ironically fragile and dependent on a harmonious life form balance. Exploitation of natural resources by exhaustive wild harvesting has obvious negative environmental consequences. From a European industry perspective marine organisms are a largely underutilised resource. This is not due to lack of interest but due to a lack of choice the industry faces for cost competitive, sustainable and environmentally conscientious product alternatives. Knowledge of the biotechnological potential of marine organisms together with the development of sustainable systems for their cultivation, processing and utilisation are essential. In 2010, the European Commission recognised this need and funded a collaborative RTD/SME project under the Framework 7-Knowledge Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) Theme 2 Programme 'Sustainable culture of marine microorganisms, algae and/or invertebrates for high value added products'. The scope of that project entitled 'Sustainable Production of Biologically Active Molecules of Marine Based Origin' (BAMMBO) is outlined. Although the Union is a global leader in many technologies, it faces increasing competition from traditional rivals and emerging economies alike and must therefore improve its innovation performance. For this reason innovation is placed at the heart of a European Horizon 2020 Strategy wherein the challenge is to connect economic performance to eco performance. This article provides a synopsis of the research activities of the BAMMBO project as they fit within the wider scope of sustainable environmentally conscientious marine resource exploitation for high-value biomolecules. PMID:23563183

  11. A Gamblers Clustering Based on Their Favorite Gambling Activity.

    PubMed

    Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Renard, Noëlle; Legauffre, Cindy; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Gorsane, Mohamed-Ali; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify profiles of gamblers to explain the choice of preferred gambling activity among both problem and non-problem gamblers. 628 non-problem and problem gamblers were assessed with a structured interview including "healthy" (sociodemographic characteristics, gambling habits and personality profile assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory-125) and "pathological" [diagnosis of pathological gambling, gambling-related cognitions (GRCs) and psychiatric comorbidity] variables. We performed a two-step cluster analysis based solely on "healthy" variables to identify gamblers' profiles which typically reflect the choice of preferred gambling activity. The obtained classes were then described using both "healthy" and "pathological" variables, by comparing each class to the rest of the sample. Clusters were generated. Class 1 (Electronic Gaming Machines gamblers) showed high cooperativeness, a lower level of GRC about strategy and more depressive disorders. Class 2 (games with deferred results gamblers) were high novelty seekers and showed a higher level of GRC about strategy and more addictive disorders. Class 3 (roulette gamblers) were more often high rollers and showed a higher level of GRC about strategy and more manic or hypomanic episodes and more obsessive-compulsive disorders. Class 4 (instant lottery gamblers) showed a lower tendency to suicide attempts. Class 5 (scratch cards gamblers) were high harm avoiders and showed a lower overall level of GRC and more panic attacks and eating disorders. The preference for one particular gambling activity may concern different profiles of gamblers. This study highlights the importance of considering the pair gambler-game rather than one or the other separately, and may provide support for future research on gambling and preventive actions directed toward a particular game. PMID:25192752

  12. Ghrelin treatment prevents development of activity based anorexia in mice.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Romain; Lucas, Nicolas; Breton, Jonathan; Azhar, Saïda; do Rego, Jean-Claude; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse; Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2016-06-01

    Stimulation of feeding is necessary for treatment of pathological conditions of chronic malnutrition due to anorexia. Ghrelin, a hunger hormone, is one of the candidate for pharmacological treatments of anorexia, but because of its instability in plasma has limited efficacy. We previously showed that plasmatic IgG protect ghrelin from degradation and that IgG from obese subjects and mice may increase ghrelin׳s orexigenic effect. In this study we tested if ghrelin alone or combined with IgG may improve feeding in chronically food-restricted mice with or without physical activity-based anorexia (ABA) induced by free access to a running wheel. Mice received a single daily intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin (1nM) together or not with total IgG (1nM) from obese ob/ob or lean mice before access to food during 8 days of 3h/day feeding time. We found that both ghrelin and ghrelin combined with IgG from obese, but not lean mice, prevented ABA, however, they were not able to diminish body weight loss. Physical activity was lower during the feeding period and was increased shortly after feeding in mice receiving ghrelin together with IgG from obese mice. In food-restricted mice without ABA, ghrelin treatments did not have significant effects on food intake. Thus, this study supports pharmacological use of ghrelin or ghrelin combined with IgG from obese animals for treatment of anorexia accompanied by elevated physical activity. The utility of combining ghrelin with protective IgG should be further determined in animal models of anorexia with unrestricted access to food. PMID:27052473

  13. Activity-Based Costing in the After Press Services Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevasuthisilp, Suntichai; Punsathitwong, Kosum

    2009-10-01

    This research was conducted to apply activity-based costing (ABC) in an after press service company in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The company produces all of its products by one-stop service (such as coating, stitching, binding, die cutting, and gluing). All products are made to order, and have different sizes and patterns. A strategy of low price is used to compete in the marketplace. After cost analysis, the study found that the company has high overhead (36.5% of total cost). The company's problem is its use of traditional cost accounting, which has low accuracy in assigning overhead costs. If management uses this information when pricing customer orders, losses may occur because real production costs may be higher than the selling price. Therefore, the application of ABC in cost analysis can help executives receive accurate cost information; establish a sound pricing strategy; and improve the manufacturing process by determining work activities which have excessively high production costs. According to this research, 6 out of 56 items had a production cost higher than the selling price, leading to losses of 123,923 baht per year. Methods used to solve this problem were: reducing production costs; establishing suitable prices; and creating a sales promotion with lower prices for customers whose orders include processes involving unused capacity. These actions will increase overall sales of the company, and allow more efficient use of its machinery.

  14. Activity-based exploitation of Full Motion Video (FMV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kant, Shashi

    2012-06-01

    Video has been a game-changer in how US forces are able to find, track and defeat its adversaries. With millions of minutes of video being generated from an increasing number of sensor platforms, the DOD has stated that the rapid increase in video is overwhelming their analysts. The manpower required to view and garner useable information from the flood of video is unaffordable, especially in light of current fiscal restraints. "Search" within full-motion video has traditionally relied on human tagging of content, and video metadata, to provision filtering and locate segments of interest, in the context of analyst query. Our approach utilizes a novel machine-vision based approach to index FMV, using object recognition & tracking, events and activities detection. This approach enables FMV exploitation in real-time, as well as a forensic look-back within archives. This approach can help get the most information out of video sensor collection, help focus the attention of overburdened analysts form connections in activity over time and conserve national fiscal resources in exploiting FMV.

  15. Chapter A2. Selection of Equipment for Water Sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By); Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.

    1998-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter of the manual addresses the selection of equipment commonly used by USGS personnel to collect and process water-quality samples. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters will be posted on the World Wide Web on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/ (accessed March 20, 2003).

  16. Summer school in Kabardino-Balkaria by BMSTU SPIE Student Chapter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernomyrdin, Nikita V.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Gavdush, Arsenii A.; Fokina, Irina N.; Karasik, Valeriy E.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.

    2014-09-01

    This summer BMSTU SPIE Student Chapter have decided to visit Kabardino-Balkaria Republic of Caucasus (Russia) and spent there a week with children in a camp. It was called Summer school. We decided to organize it in order to engage talented and curious children in Optics and to show them how science could be funny. Education and entertainment program included such activities as lectures, optical demonstrations, laser games, hiking in the forest, and others. As a result children had a good time outdoors, learned interesting facts about optics and lasers, and of course found new friends who are keen to know more too. Four Chapter members and about 70 children of age 10-16 took part in this event.

  17. "Earth, from inside and outside - school activities based on seismology and astronomy"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chivarean, Radu

    2016-04-01

    Through a multidisciplinary work that integrates Geography education with the other Earth Sciences, we developed an educational project to raise the students' awareness of seismic hazard and to disseminate good practices of earthquake safety. The Romanian Educational Seismic Network (ROEDUSEIS) project (started in 2012) is developed and implemented in partnership with schools from different Romanian cities, our school being one of these. In each participating school a SEP educational seismometer is installed. It is the first educational initiative in Romania in the field of seismology involving the National Institute for Earth Physics - NIEP as coordinator. The e-learning platform website (http://www.roeduseis.ro) represents a great opportunity for students to use real advanced research instruments and scientific data analysis tools in their everyday school activities and a link to observations of Earth phenomena and Earth science in general. The most important educational objectives are related to: preparing comprehensive educational materials as resources for training students and teachers in the analysis and interpretation of seismological data, experimentation of new technologies in projecting and implementing new didactic activities, professional development and support for teachers and development of science curriculum module. The scientific objective is to introduce in schools the use of scientific instruments like seismometer and experimental methods (seismic data analysis). The educational materials entitled "Earthquakes and their effects" is organized in a guide for teachers accompanied by a booklet for students. The structure of the educational material is divided in theoretical chapters followed by sections with activities and experiments adapted to the level of understanding particular to our students. The ROEDUSEIS e-platform should be considered as a modern method for teaching and learning that integrates and completes the work in classroom. The

  18. Active Volcano Monitoring using a Space-based Hyperspectral Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipar, J. J.; Dunn, R.; Cooley, T.

    2010-12-01

    Active volcanoes occur on every continent, often in close proximity to heavily populated areas. While ground-based studies are essential for scientific research and disaster mitigation, remote sensing from space can provide rapid and continuous monitoring of active and potentially active volcanoes [Ramsey and Flynn, 2004]. In this paper, we report on hyperspectral measurements of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. Hyperspectral images obtained by the US Air Force TacSat-3/ARTEMIS sensor [Lockwood et al, 2006] are used to obtain estimates of the surface temperatures for the volcano. ARTEMIS measures surface-reflected light in the visible, near-infrared, and short-wave infrared bands (VNIR-SWIR). The SWIR bands are known to be sensitive to thermal radiation [Green, 1996]. For example, images from the NASA Hyperion hyperspectral sensor have shown the extent of wildfires and active volcanoes [Young, 2009]. We employ the methodology described by Dennison et al, (2006) to obtain an estimate of the temperature of the active region of Kilauea. Both day and night-time images were used in the analysis. To improve the estimate, we aggregated neighboring pixels. The active rim of the lava lake is clearly discernable in the temperature image, with a measured temperature exceeding 1100o C. The temperature decreases markedly on the exterior of the summit crater. While a long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensor would be ideal for volcano monitoring, we have shown that the thermal state of an active volcano can be monitored using the SWIR channels of a reflective hyperspectral imager. References: Dennison, Philip E., Kraivut Charoensiri, Dar A. Roberts, Seth H. Peterson, and Robert O. Green (2006). Wildfire temperature and land cover modeling using hyperspectral data, Remote Sens. Environ., vol. 100, pp. 212-222. Green, R. O. (1996). Estimation of biomass fire temperature and areal extent from calibrated AVIRIS spectra, in Summaries of the 6th Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, Pasadena, CA

  19. Emissions Inventory Report Summary: Reporting Requirements for the New Mexico Administrative Code, Title 20, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20 NMAC 2.73) for Calendar Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Margorie Stockton

    2003-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is subject to annual emissions-reporting requirements for regulated air contaminants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. For calendar year 2001, the Technical Area 3 steam plant was the primary source of criteria air pollutants from the Laboratory, while research and development activities were the primary source of volatile organic compounds. Emissions of beryllium and aluminum were reported for activities permitted under 20.2.72 NMAC. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from chemical use for research and development activities were also reported.

  20. Chelating ability and biological activity of hesperetin Schiff base.

    PubMed

    Lodyga-Chruscinska, Elzbieta; Symonowicz, Marzena; Sykula, Anna; Bujacz, Anna; Garribba, Eugenio; Rowinska-Zyrek, Magdalena; Oldziej, Stanislaw; Klewicka, Elzbieta; Janicka, Magdalena; Krolewska, Karolina; Cieslak, Marcin; Brodowska, Katarzyna; Chruscinski, Longin

    2015-02-01

    Hydrazone hesperetin Schiff base (HHSB) - N-[(±)-[5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-phenyl)chroman-4-ylidene]amino]benzamide has been synthesized and its crystal structure was determined. This compound was used for the formation of Cu(II) complexes in solid state and in solution which were characterized using different spectroscopic methods. The analyses of potentiometric titration curves revealed that monomeric and dimeric complexes of Cu(II) are formed above pH7. The ESI-MS (electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) spectra confirmed their formation. The EPR and UV-visible spectra evidenced the involvement of oxygen and nitrogen atoms in Cu(II) coordination. Hydrazone hesperetin Schiff base can show keto-enol tautomerism and coordinate Cu(II) in the keto (O(-), N, Oket) and in the enolate form (O(-), N, O(-)enol). The semi-empirical molecular orbital method PM6 and DFT (density functional theory) calculations have revealed that the more stable form of the dimeric complex is that one in which the ligand is present in the enol form. The CuHHSB complex has shown high efficiency in the cleavage of plasmid DNA in aqueous solution, indicating its potential as chemical nuclease. Studies on DNA interactions, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities have been undertaken to gain more information on the biological significance of HHSB and copper(II)-HHSB chelate species. PMID:25486205

  1. Nationwide mobile communication systems. Volume 2, chapter 5: Appendix A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schworer, William Joseph, III

    1990-06-01

    Previous chapters discussed nationwide mobile communication system technologies and modeled user costs and benefits. This chapter provides a brief overview of mobile communication system economics, the projected U.S. market for nationwide mobile communications, and the potential revenues. The basic cost structure of satellite and meteor-burst systems are also modeled. A combination of all these factors will ultimately govern which systems will be commercially successful. Because of improvements in technology, communication system costs and user terminal costs (A) per unit of capacity tend to decline over time. However, inflation tends to drive the price of an identical product upward over time.

  2. The Western Aeronautical Test Range. Chapter 10 Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudtson, Kevin; Park, Alice; Downing, Robert; Sheldon, Jack; Harvey, Robert; Norcross, April

    2011-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) staff at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is developing a translation software called Chapter 10 Tools in response to challenges posed by post-flight processing data files originating from various on-board digital recorders that follow the Range Commanders Council Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) 106 Chapter 10 Digital Recording Standard but use differing interpretations of the Standard. The software will read the date files regardless of the vendor implementation of the source recorder, displaying data, identifying and correcting errors, and producing a data file that can be successfully processed post-flight

  3. 40 CFR 745.233 - Lead-based paint activities requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.233 Lead-based paint activities requirements. Lead-based paint... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lead-based paint...

  4. 40 CFR 745.233 - Lead-based paint activities requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.233 Lead-based paint activities requirements. Lead-based paint... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lead-based paint...

  5. 40 CFR 745.233 - Lead-based paint activities requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.233 Lead-based paint activities requirements. Lead-based paint... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lead-based paint...

  6. 40 CFR 745.233 - Lead-based paint activities requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.233 Lead-based paint activities requirements. Lead-based paint... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lead-based paint...

  7. Learning Risk Factors for Suicide: A Scenario-Based Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madson, Laura; Vas, Corey J.

    2003-01-01

    We created a classroom activity to illustrate factors that may predict suicide. In the activity, students rank 4 fictional individuals in terms of their relative risk for attempting or committing suicide. Students described the activity as "eye-opening," and students who participated in the activity learned more about the warning signs of an…

  8. Space-based laser active imaging simulation system based on HLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yi; Sun, Huayan; Li, Yingchun

    2013-09-01

    This paper adopts the High Level Architecture to develop the space-based laser active imaging distribution simulation software system, and designs the system framework which contains three-step workflow including modeling, experimental and analysis. The paper puts forward the general needs of the simulation system first, then builds the simulation system architecture based on HLA and constructs 7 simulation federal members. The simulation system has the primary functions of space target scattering characteristic analysis, imaging simulation, image processing and target recognition, and system performance analysis and so on, and can support the whole simulation process. The results show that the distribution simulation system can meet the technical requirements of the space-based laser imaging simulation.

  9. Chapter 15. Co-immunoprecipitation techniques for assessing RNA-protein interactions in vivo.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Nicholas K

    2008-01-01

    From the moment a nascent transcript emerges from an RNA polymerase until its ultimate destruction, an RNA is bound by proteins that govern its fate. Thus, in order to understand posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, it is essential to ascertain which proteins bind a given RNA in vivo. This chapter describes three immunoprecipitation-based assays designed to query the in vivo makeup of RNA-protein complexes. Two of these, UV cross-linking and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), include cross-linking steps that trap complexes formed in vivo. A third, a cell mixing experiment, verifies that an interaction occurs in vivo by controlling for RNA-protein association subsequent to cell lysis. Using these protocols, this chapter presents evidence that the abundant nuclear RNA-binding protein hnRNP C interacts with the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus polyadenylated nuclear RNA in vivo. PMID:19215765

  10. [Japanese Guidelines for the Management of Stroke 2015: overview of the chapter on Subarachnoid Hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2016-04-01

    After an interval of 6 years, the Japanese Guidelines for the Management of Stroke were revised in 2015 in accordance with recent advances in clinical knowledge. The chapter on subarachnoid hemorrhage includes new and revised recommendations for diagnosis, treatment selection, and management of vasospasm. The chapter on diagnosis recommends re-examination of vascular images at regular intervals in cases in which cerebral aneurysm was not detected on the first examination. The section dealing with treatment selection for cerebral aneurysmal emphasizes that the method for aneurysm obliteration should be selected based on consultation with both surgical and endovascular specialists. The role of triple-H therapy(i.e., induced hypertension, hypervolemia, and hemodilution) has changed from a preventive measure to a treatment option for symptomatic cerebral vasospasm. PMID:27333759

  11. Improved mesh based photon sampling techniques for neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Relson, E.; Wilson, P. P. H.; Biondo, E. D.

    2013-07-01

    The design of fusion power systems requires analysis of neutron activation of large, complex volumes, and the resulting particles emitted from these volumes. Structured mesh-based discretization of these problems allows for improved modeling in these activation analysis problems. Finer discretization of these problems results in large computational costs, which drives the investigation of more efficient methods. Within an ad hoc subroutine of the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP, we implement sampling of voxels and photon energies for volumetric sources using the alias method. The alias method enables efficient sampling of a discrete probability distribution, and operates in 0(1) time, whereas the simpler direct discrete method requires 0(log(n)) time. By using the alias method, voxel sampling becomes a viable alternative to sampling space with the 0(1) approach of uniformly sampling the problem volume. Additionally, with voxel sampling it is straightforward to introduce biasing of volumetric sources, and we implement this biasing of voxels as an additional variance reduction technique that can be applied. We verify our implementation and compare the alias method, with and without biasing, to direct discrete sampling of voxels, and to uniform sampling. We study the behavior of source biasing in a second set of tests and find trends between improvements and source shape, material, and material density. Overall, however, the magnitude of improvements from source biasing appears to be limited. Future work will benefit from the implementation of efficient voxel sampling - particularly with conformal unstructured meshes where the uniform sampling approach cannot be applied. (authors)

  12. Improved Fission Neutron Data Base for Active Interrogation of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Pozzi, Sara; Czirr, J. Bart; Haight, Robert; Kovash, Michael; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2013-11-06

    This project will develop an innovative neutron detection system for active interrogation measurements. Many active interrogation methods to detect fissionable material are based on the detection of neutrons from fission induced by fast neutrons or high-energy gamma rays. The energy spectrum of the fission neutrons provides data to identify the fissionable isotopes and materials such as shielding between the fissionable material and the detector. The proposed path for the project is as follows. First, the team will develop new neutron detection systems and algorithms by Monte Carlo simulations and bench-top experiments. Next, They will characterize and calibrate detection systems both with monoenergetic and white neutron sources. Finally, high-fidelity measurements of neutron emission from fissions induced by fast neutrons will be performed. Several existing fission chambers containing U-235, Pu-239, U-238, or Th-232 will be used to measure the neutron-induced fission neutron emission spectra. The challenge for making confident measurements is the detection of neutrons in the energy ranges of 0.01 – 1 MeV and above 8 MeV, regions where the basic data on the neutron energy spectrum emitted from fission is least well known. In addition, improvements in the specificity of neutron detectors are required throughout the complete energy range: they must be able to clearly distinguish neutrons from other radiations, in particular gamma rays and cosmic rays. The team believes that all of these challenges can be addressed successfully with emerging technologies under development by this collaboration. In particular, the collaboration will address the area of fission neutron emission spectra for isotopes of interest in the advanced fuel cycle initiative (AFCI).

  13. The Positive Effect on Determinants of Physical Activity of a Tailored, General Practice-Based Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Sluijs, E. M. F.; Van Poppel, M. N. M.; Twisk, J. W. R.; Brug, J.; Van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    PACE (Physician-based Assessment and Counseling for Exercise) is an individualized theory-based minimal intervention strategy aimed at the enhancement of regular physical activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a PACE intervention applied by general practitioners (GPs) on potential determinants of physical activity. A…

  14. 24 CFR 300.1 - Scope of chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scope of chapter. 300.1 Section 300.1 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) GOVERNMENT NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL § 300.1...

  15. 24 CFR 300.1 - Scope of chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scope of chapter. 300.1 Section 300.1 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) GOVERNMENT NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL § 300.1...

  16. 24 CFR 300.1 - Scope of chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope of chapter. 300.1 Section 300.1 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) GOVERNMENT NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL § 300.1...

  17. Counsellors' Personal Experience and Appraisal of "My Career Chapter"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlveen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated a qualitative career assessment and counselling procedure that was founded upon a constructivist, narrative approach to career counselling, "My Career Chapter: A Dialogical Autobiography" (McIlveen, 2006). Counsellors were trained in the use of the procedure and then applied it to themselves in an intensive workshop format.…

  18. My Career Chapter as a Tool for Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlveen, Peter; Patton, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The career assessment and counselling procedure "My Career Chapter" is presented as a tool for reflexive self-awareness within career counsellors. To demonstrate application of the procedure as a method of self-supervision, this paper presents a study in which the participant studies himself. Results indicate a reflexive consciousness for the…

  19. Chapter I Project Identification Program. Lafayette School Corporation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafayette School Corp., IN.

    The Kindergarten Intensified Development System (KIDS) Chapter I program of the Lafayette, Indiana, School Corporation is described in terms of the following: (1) district information; (2) state agency program information; (3) project information including staff degrees and experience, education needs, student selection, and participating schools;…

  20. 38 CFR 21.6380 - Additional applicable Chapter 31 regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vocational training under this program in the same manner as they apply to 38 U.S.C. chapter 31: § 21.380... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Temporary Program of Vocational Training for Certain New Pension Recipients Additional Applicable Regulations § 21.6380...