Science.gov

Sample records for activity based physics

  1. Comprehensive School-Based Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidorn, Brent D.; Hall, Tina J.; Carson, Russell L.

    2010-01-01

    A Comprehensive School-based Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) represents a commitment to support the health and well-being of students, faculty, staff, and the community. A CSPAP is a similar approach that specifically focuses on incorporating additional physical activity opportunities for youth within the school day and beyond physical education…

  2. Effects of a Classroom-Based Physical Activity Program on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Tan Leng; Hannon, James; Webster, Collin Andrew; Podlog, Leslie William; Brusseau, Timothy; Newton, Maria

    2014-01-01

    High levels of physical inactivity are evident among many American children. To address this problem, providing physical activity (PA) during the school day within the CSPAP framework, is one strategy to increase children's PA. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a classroom-based PA program on children's PA. Two hundred…

  3. The Role of Physical Activity Assessments for School-Based Physical Activity Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    The emphasis in public health on lifestyle physical activity in recent years has focused attention on the promotion of lifetime physical activity as the primary objective of physical education. If used properly, physical activity and physical fitness assessments can enhance individual promotion of physical activity and also provide valuable…

  4. [Evidence-based guidelines for physical activity of adult Canadians].

    PubMed

    Warburton, Darren E R; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Rhodes, Ryan E; Shephard, Roy J

    2007-01-01

    This review of the literature provides an update on the scientific biological and psychosocial bases for Canada's Physical Activity Guide for Health Active Living, with particular reference to the effect of physical activity on the health of adults aged 20-55 years. Existing physical activity guidelines for adults from around the world are summarized briefly and compared to the Canadian guidelines. The descriptive epidemiology of physical activity and inactivity in Canada is presented, and the strength of the relationship between physical activity and specific health outcomes is evaluated, with particular emphasis on minimal and optimal physical activity requirements. Finally, areas requiring further investigation are highlighted. Summarizing the findings, Canadian and most international physical activity guidelines advocate moderate-intensity physical activity on most days of the week. Physical activity appears to reduce the risk for over 25 chronic conditions, in particular coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, breast cancer, colon cancer, type 2 diabetes, and osteoporosis. Current literature suggests that if the entire Canadian population followed current physical activity guidelines, approximately one-third of deaths related to coronary heart disease, one quarter of deaths related to stroke and osteoporosis, 20% of deaths related to colon cancer, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes, and 14% of deaths related to breast cancer could be prevented. It also appears that the prevention of weight gain and the maintenance of weight loss require greater physical activity levels than current recommendations.

  5. Associations between selected demographic, biological, school environmental and physical education based correlates, and adolescent physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hilland, Toni A; Ridgers, Nicola D; Stratton, Gareth; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2011-02-01

    The study investigated associations between selected physical activity correlates among 299 adolescents (90 boys, age 12-14 years) from 3 English schools. Physical activity was assessed by self-report and accelerometry. Correlates represented biological, predisposing, and demographic factors as described in the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model. Boys engaged in more self-reported (p < .01) and accelerometer assessed physical activity than girls (p = .02). Positive associations between sex (male), BMI, Perceived PE Ability, Perceived PE Worth, number of enrolled students, and physical activity outcomes were evident (p < .05). School-based physical activity promotion should emphasize sex-specific enhancement of students' perceived PE competence and enjoyment.

  6. Connecting Children and Family with Nature-Based Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flett, M. Ryan; Moore, Rebecca W.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Belonga, Joyce; Navarre, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Background: As the obesity epidemic expands to include younger Americans, there is greater need to understand youth experiences and to identify innovative strategies to promote physical activity in children and adolescents. Connecting children and families with nature-based activities is an example of a strategy that may promote physical activity…

  7. Comprehensive School-Based Physical Activity Promotion: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron; Carson, Russell L.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) participation levels among youth remain well below national recommendations. Thus, a variety of strategies to promote youth PA have been advocated, including multifaceted, school-based approaches. One identified as having great potential is a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP). The goal of a CSPAP is to…

  8. Millikan Lecture 1996: Promoting active learning based on physics education research in introductory physics courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, P. W.

    1997-01-01

    Early in his career Robert Millikan experimented with a laboratory-based method of teaching introductory physics that bears close resemblance to Workshop Physics.® In this talk, key elements of Workshop Physics are summarized. Some Workshop Physics activities are described which involve apparati that are used for rapid observations of conceptual aspects of physical phenomena as well as for equation verification experiments. Challenges are discussed that must be faced if recently developed activity-based approaches to teaching based on the outcomes of physics education research are to provide a foundation for a major paradigm shift in physics teaching.

  9. Break for Physical Activity: Incorporating Classroom-Based Physical Activity Breaks into Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Beckham, Karen; Webster, Kip

    2012-01-01

    Engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is essential to lifelong health and wellness. Physical activity behaviors established in early childhood relate to physical activity behaviors in later years. However, research has shown that children are adopting more sedentary behaviors. Incorporating structured and planned physical activity…

  10. Context Matters: Systematic Observation of Place-Based Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Thomas L

    2016-12-01

    Physical activity is place-based, and being able to assess the number of people and their characteristics in specific locations is important both for public health surveillance and for practitioners in their design of physical activity spaces and programs. Although physical activity measurement has improved recently, many investigators avoid or are at a loss regarding the assessment of physical activity in explicit locations, especially in open environments where many people come and go in a seemingly indiscriminate fashion. Direct, systematic observation exceeds other methods in simultaneously assessing physical activity and the contexts in which it occurs. This commentary summarizes the development and use of 2 validated observation tools: the System for Observing Play and Leisure in Youth (SOPLAY) and System for Observing Play and Active Recreation in Communities (SOPARC). Their use is well supported by both behavior-analytic principles and social-ecological theory, and their methods have utility for both researchers and practitioners.

  11. Canada's Physical Activity Guide: examining print-based material for motivating physical activity in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Todosijczuk, Ivan; Johnson, Steven T; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a secondary analysis on 202 adults from the Physical Activity Workplace Study. The aim of this analysis was to examine demographic characteristics associated with reading Canada's Physical Activity Guide (CPAG), being motivated by the guide, and whether participants in the Physical Activity Workplace Study who read the CPAG increased their physical activity levels over 1 year. Results revealed that less than 50% of participants read the full version of CPAG, and less than 10% were motivated by it. The CPAG also appears to be more appealing to and effective for women than for men. Although the CPAG had some influence in increasing mild physical activity levels in a workplace sample, there was also a decrease in physical activity levels among some members of the group. Overall, the effectiveness of CPAG was not substantial, and the findings of this analysis could help guide future targeted intervention materials and programs.

  12. Active Physics Problem Based Learning for High Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenkraft, Arthur

    2006-12-01

    Active Physics bridges research and practice. This NSF supported curriculum project uses a 7E instructional model and a problem based learning approach. Students learn physics on a need to know basis as they construct solutions to challenges such as developing a sport that can be played on the moon, creating an appliance package for developing countries, designing a light and sound show, or building a museum exhibit. In addition to meeting the content requirements of an introductory physics course, there is also an emphasis on engineering design principles and on essential questions. The excitement and frustration of trying to bridge research and practice will be discussed.

  13. Physical activity and physical activity adherence in the elderly based on smoking status.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Theodore V; Resor, Michelle R; Stoever, Colby J; Dubbert, Patricia M

    2007-10-01

    This study assessed the impact of current smoking status and lifetime smoking status on physical fitness and physical activity regimen adherence as part of a larger study on walking for exercise in elderly primary care patients at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. At baseline, 218 participants self-reported smoking status which was verified by carbon monoxide expiration. Former and current smokers responded to questions about length of time quit, average daily cigarette intake, and years a smoker. Smoking measures were re-collected at 6- and 12-month follow-ups if the participants indicated a change in smoking status. Veterans completed multiple measures of physical activity (e.g., 6-min walk, 7-day Physical Activity Recall), and adherence to a physical activity goal was assessed. The Physical Component Summary (PCS) subscale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (MOS SF-36) was used to assess health-related quality of life. Hierarchical regression models indicated smoking status was a predictor of the baseline 6-min walk such that smokers walked significantly shorter distances than nonsmokers. In addition, smoking status was found to be a significant predictor of adherence; however, the overall model that included smoking status as a predictor did not demonstrate a significant effect on adherence. Neither smoking status nor pack years were predictors of baseline self-reported physical activity or changes in physical activity post intervention. Results are consistent with recommendations to use physical exercise as an aid to tobacco cessation, even in aging men with extensive smoking histories.

  14. The Positive Effect on Determinants of Physical Activity of a Tailored, General Practice-Based Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Sluijs, E. M. F.; Van Poppel, M. N. M.; Twisk, J. W. R.; Brug, J.; Van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    PACE (Physician-based Assessment and Counseling for Exercise) is an individualized theory-based minimal intervention strategy aimed at the enhancement of regular physical activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a PACE intervention applied by general practitioners (GPs) on potential determinants of physical activity. A…

  15. Research-based active-learning instruction in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltzer, David E.; Thornton, Ronald K.

    2013-04-01

    The development of research-based active-learning instructional methods in physics has significantly altered the landscape of U.S. physics education during the past 20 years. Based on a recent review [D.E. Meltzer and R.K. Thornton, Am. J. Phys. 80, 478 (2012)], we define these methods as those (1) explicitly based on research in the learning and teaching of physics, (2) that incorporate classroom and/or laboratory activities that require students to express their thinking through speaking, writing, or other actions that go beyond listening and the copying of notes, or execution of prescribed procedures, and (3) that have been tested repeatedly in actual classroom settings and have yielded objective evidence of improved student learning. We describe some key features common to methods in current use. These features focus on (a) recognizing and addressing students' physics ideas, and (b) guiding students to solve problems in realistic physical settings, in novel and diverse contexts, and to justify or explain the reasoning they have used.

  16. Income and Physical Activity among Adults: Evidence from Self-Reported and Pedometer-Based Physical Activity Measurements.

    PubMed

    Kari, Jaana T; Pehkonen, Jaakko; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Yang, Xiaolin; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T; Tammelin, Tuija H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between income and physical activity by using three measures to illustrate daily physical activity: the self-reported physical activity index for leisure-time physical activity, pedometer-based total steps for overall daily physical activity, and pedometer-based aerobic steps that reflect continuous steps for more than 10 min at a time. The study population consisted of 753 adults from Finland (mean age 41.7 years; 64% women) who participated in 2011 in the follow-up of the ongoing Young Finns study. Ordinary least squares models were used to evaluate the associations between income and physical activity. The consistency of the results was explored by using register-based income information from Statistics Finland, employing the instrumental variable approach, and dividing the pedometer-based physical activity according to weekdays and weekend days. The results indicated that higher income was associated with higher self-reported physical activity for both genders. The results were robust to the inclusion of the control variables and the use of register-based income information. However, the pedometer-based results were gender-specific and depended on the measurement day (weekday vs. weekend day). In more detail, the association was positive for women and negative or non-existing for men. According to the measurement day, among women, income was positively associated with aerobic steps despite the measurement day and with totals steps measured on the weekend. Among men, income was negatively associated with aerobic steps measured on weekdays. The results indicate that there is an association between income and physical activity, but the association is gender-specific and depends on the measurement type of physical activity.

  17. A Social Media–Based Physical Activity Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, David N.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ries, Amy V.; Brown, Jane D.; DeVellis, Robert F.; Ammerman, Alice S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Online social networks, such as Facebook™, have extensive reach, and they use technology that could enhance social support, an established determinant of physical activity. This combination of reach and functionality makes online social networks a promising intervention platform for increasing physical activity. Purpose To test the efficacy of a physical activity intervention that combined education, physical activity monitoring, and online social networking to increase social support for physical activity compared to an education-only control. Design RCT. Students (n=134) were randomized to two groups; education-only controls receiving access to a physical activity–focused website (n=67) and intervention participants receiving access to the same website with physical activity self-monitoring and enrollment in a Facebook group (n=67). Recruitment and data collection occurred in 2010 and 2011; data analyses were performed in 2011. Setting/participants Female undergraduate students at a large Southeastern public university. Intervention Intervention participants were encouraged through e-mails, website instructions, and moderator communications to solicit and provide social support related to increasing physical activity through a physical activity–themed Facebook group. Participants received access to a dedicated website with educational materials and a physical activity self-monitoring tool. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was perceived social support for physical activity; secondary outcomes included self-reported physical activity. Results Participants experienced increases in social support and physical activity over time but there were no differences in perceived social support or physical activity between groups over time. Facebook participants posted 259 times to the group. Two thirds (66%) of intervention participants completing a post-study survey indicated that they would recommend the program to friends. Conclusions Use of an

  18. School-Based Health Promotion Initiative Increases Children's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluss, Patricia; Lorigan, Devin; Kinsky, Suzanne; Nikolajski, Cara; McDermott, Anne; Bhat, Kiran B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity increases health risk, and modest physical activity can impact that risk. Schools have an opportunity to help children become more active. Purpose: This study implemented a program offering extra school-day activity opportunities in a rural school district where 37% of students were obese or overweight in 2005 and…

  19. Promising School-Based Strategies and Intervention Guidelines to Increase Physical Activity of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo, Berta Murillo; Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia; Lanaspa, Eduardo Generelo; Bush, Paula L.; Casterad, Javier Zaragoza; Clemente, Jose A. Julian; Gonzalez, Luis Garcia

    2013-01-01

    This narrative review describes the available scientific evidence regarding promising school-based strategies to increase physical activity of adolescents. We conducted a literature search for studies published up to 2011, regarding adolescent physical activity intervention studies that resulted in increased physical activity (regardless of…

  20. Exploring Indigenous Game-Based Physics Activities in Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Conceptual Change and Transformation of Epistemic Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Marie Paz Escaño

    2017-01-01

    "Laro-ng-Lahi" (Indigenous Filipino game) based physics activities invigorated the integration of culture in the pre-service physics education to develop students' epistemic beliefs and the notion of conceptual understanding through conceptual change. The study conveniently involved 28 pre-service undergraduate physics students enrolled…

  1. Evidence-based intervention in physical activity: lessons from around the world

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Gregory W; Parra, Diana C; Sarmiento, Olga L; Andersen, Lars Bo; Owen, Neville; Goenka, Shifalika; Montes, Felipe; Brownson, Ross C

    2016-01-01

    Promotion of physical activity is a priority for health agencies. We searched for reviews of physical activity interventions, published between 2000 and 2011, and identified effective, promising, or emerging interventions from around the world. The informational approaches of community-wide and mass media campaigns, and short physical activity messages targeting key community sites are recommended. Behavioural and social approaches are effective, introducing social support for physical activity within communities and worksites, and school-based strategies that encompass physical education, classroom activities, after-school sports, and active transport. Recommended environmental and policy approaches include creation and improvement of access to places for physical activity with informational outreach activities, community-scale and street-scale urban design and land use, active transport policy and practices, and community-wide policies and planning. Thus, many approaches lead to acceptable increases in physical activity among people of various ages, and from different social groups, countries, and communities. PMID:22818939

  2. Evidence-based intervention in physical activity: lessons from around the world.

    PubMed

    Heath, Gregory W; Parra, Diana C; Sarmiento, Olga L; Andersen, Lars Bo; Owen, Neville; Goenka, Shifalika; Montes, Felipe; Brownson, Ross C

    2012-07-21

    Promotion of physical activity is a priority for health agencies. We searched for reviews of physical activity interventions, published between 2000 and 2011, and identified effective, promising, or emerging interventions from around the world. The informational approaches of community-wide and mass media campaigns, and short physical activity messages targeting key community sites are recommended. Behavioural and social approaches are effective, introducing social support for physical activity within communities and worksites, and school-based strategies that encompass physical education, classroom activities, after-school sports, and active transport. Recommended environmental and policy approaches include creation and improvement of access to places for physical activity with informational outreach activities, community-scale and street-scale urban design and land use, active transport policy and practices, and community-wide policies and planning. Thus, many approaches lead to acceptable increases in physical activity among people of various ages, and from different social groups, countries, and communities.

  3. School-based physical education programs: evidence-based physical activity interventions for youth in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Isabela C.; Parra, Diana C.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Soares, Jesus; Torres, Andrea; Pratt, Michael; Legetic, Branka; Malta, Deborah C.; Matsudo, Victor; Ramos, Luiz R.; Simoes, Eduardo J.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on results of the systematic review from the Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Latin America project related to school-based physical education (PE) programs in Latin America. The aims of the article are to describe five school-based PE programs from Latin America, discuss implications for effective school-based PE recommendations, propose approaches for implementing these interventions, and identify gaps in the research literature related to physical activity promotion in Latin American youth. Following the US Community Guide systematic review process, five school-based PE intervention studies with sufficient quality of design, execution and detail of intervention and outcomes were selected for full abstraction. One study was conducted in Brazil, two studies were conducted in Chile and two studies were conducted on the US/Mexico border. While studies presented assorted outcomes, methods and duration of interventions, there were consistent positive increases in physical activity levels for all outcomes measured during PE classes, endurance and active transportation to school in all three randomized studies. Except for one cohort from one study, the non-randomized studies showed positive intervention effects for moderate and vigorous physical activity levels during PE classes. The core elements of these five interventions included capacity building and staff training (PE specialists and/or classroom teachers); changes in the PE curricula; provision of equipment and materials; and adjustment of the interventions to specific target populations. In order to translate the strong evidence for school-based PE into practice, systematic attention to policy and implementation issues is required. (Global Health Promotion, 2010; 17(2): pp. 05–15) PMID:20587626

  4. School-based physical education programs: evidence-based physical activity interventions for youth in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Isabela C; Parra, Diana C; Hoehner, Christine M; Soares, Jesus; Torres, Andrea; Pratt, Michael; Legetic, Branka; Malta, Deborah C; Matsudo, Victor; Ramos, Luiz R; Simoes, Eduardo J; Brownson, Ross C

    2010-06-01

    This article focuses on results of the systematic review from the Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Latin America project related to school-based physical education (PE) programs in Latin America. The aims of the article are to describe five school-based PE programs from Latin America, discuss implications for effective school-based PE recommendations, propose approaches for implementing these interventions, and identify gaps in the research literature related to physical activity promotion in Latin American youth. Following the US Community Guide systematic review process, five school-based PE intervention studies with sufficient quality of design, execution and detail of intervention and outcomes were selected for full abstraction. One study was conducted in Brazil, two studies were conducted in Chile and two studies were conducted on the US/Mexico border. While studies presented assorted outcomes, methods and duration of interventions, there were consistent positive increases in physical activity levels for all outcomes measured during PE classes, endurance and active transportation to school in all three randomized studies. Except for one cohort from one study, the non-randomized studies showed positive intervention effects for moderate and vigorous physical activity levels during PE classes. The core elements of these five interventions included capacity building and staff training (PE specialists and/or classroom teachers); changes in the PE curricula; provision of equipment and materials; and adjustment of the interventions to specific target populations. In order to translate the strong evidence for school-based PE into practice, systematic attention to policy and implementation issues is required.

  5. A randomized controlled trial of an office-based physical activity and physical fitness intervention for older adults.

    PubMed

    Purath, Janet; Keller, Colleen S; McPherson, Sterling; Ainsworth, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This primary care-based study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of a 24-week intervention on physical activity and physical fitness in a group of community-dwelling older adults. Secondary aims were to determine the effect of the intervention on self-efficacy and barriers to physical activity. Intervention participants (n = 36) received an exercise prescription based on physical fitness test results and personal choice. Comparison participants (n = 36) received a nutrition intervention. Both groups received 10 follow-up telephone calls. Repeated measures ANOVA analyses showed no direct effects of the intervention on the primary outcomes of physical activity or physical fitness in the intervention group (p > 0.05). Secondary analyses with ANCOVA that included potential moderating variables of age, gender, income, BMI, and support for physical activity showed that the intervention group significantly increased frequency of all physical activity (F = 3.50, p < 0.05) as well as the fitness outcomes of lower body strength (F = 3.63, p < 0.05) and aerobic endurance (F = 4.03, p < 0.05). This is one of the first studies to evaluate the use of fitness measures to increase physical activity and fitness in the primary care setting. The intervention improved some aspects of physical activity and fitness for selected participants.

  6. Rapid Conversion of Traditional Introductory Physics Sequences to an Activity-Based Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Garett; Cook, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The Department of Physics at EKU [Eastern Kentucky University] with support from the National Science Foundations Course Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement Program has successfully converted our entire introductory physics sequence, both algebra-based and calculus-based courses, to an activity-based format where laboratory activities,…

  7. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve my ... recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), call ...

  8. Pilot-Testing CATCH Early Childhood: A Preschool-Based Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shreela; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Hedberg, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The literature on theoretically-based programs targeting healthy nutrition and physical activity in preschools is scarce. Purpose: To pilot test CATCH Early Childhood (CEC), a preschool-based nutrition and physical activity program among children ages three to five in Head Start. Methods: The study was conducted in two Head Start…

  9. Social Connection and Psychological Outcomes in a Physical Activity-Based Youth Development Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullrich-French, Sarah; McDonough, Meghan H.; Smith, Alan L.

    2012-01-01

    It is believed that the social connections formed by participating in physical activity-based positive youth development (PYD) programs contributes to building personal and social assets. In this study, we examined how changes in social connection over a physical activity-based PYD program for low-income youth were associated with changes in…

  10. A Quantitative Review of Physical Activity, Health, and Learning Outcomes Associated with Classroom-Based Physical Activity Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Fedewa, Alicia; Beighle, Aaron; Ahn, Soyeon

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that physical activity may foster improved academic performance, yet schools are receiving more pressure to achieve high academic standards. It is important for classroom teachers, administrators and school psychologists to understand the benefits of incorporating physical activity into the school day. This article serves as a…

  11. Implementation and Outcomes of a Responsibility-Based Physical Activity Program Integrated Into an Intact High School Physical Education Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Paul M.; Burton, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Underserved youth are at risk for numerous threats to their physical and psychological well-being. To navigate the challenges they face, they need a variety of positive life skills. This study systematically explored the implementation and short-term outcomes of a responsibility-based physical activity program that was integrated into an intact…

  12. Active-Q: Validation of the Web-Based Physical Activity Questionnaire Using Doubly Labeled Water

    PubMed Central

    Trolle Lagerros, Ylva; Christensen, Sara Elisabeth; Möller, Elisabeth; Wright, Antony; Sjölander, Arvid; Bälter, Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Background Increased use of the Internet provides new opportunities for collecting data in large studies. The aim of our new Web-based questionnaire, Active-Q, is to assess total physical activity and inactivity in adults. Active-Q assesses habitual activity during the past year via questions in four different domains: (1) daily occupation, (2) transportation to and from daily occupation, (3) leisure time activities, and (4) sporting activities. Objective The objective of our study is to validate Active-Q’s energy expenditure estimates using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method, and to assess the reproducibility of Active-Q by comparing the results of the questionnaire completed by the same group on two occasions. Methods The validity and reproducibility of Active-Q were assessed in a group of 37 individuals, aged 20 to 65 years. Active-Q was distributed via email to the participants. The total energy expenditure of the participants was assessed using DLW for 11 consecutive days. Results The median time to complete Active-Q was 6.1 minutes. The majority of participants (27/37, 73%) reported that the questionnaire was “easy” or “very easy” to answer. On average, Active-Q overestimated the total daily energy expenditure by 440 kJ compared with the DLW. The Spearman correlation between the two methods was r = 0.52 (P < .001). The intraclass correlation coefficient for total energy expenditure between the results of Active-Q completed on two occasions was 0.83 (95% CI 0.73-0.93). Conclusions Active-Q is a valid and reproducible method of assessing total energy expenditure. It is also a user-friendly method and suitable for Web-based data collection in large epidemiological studies. PMID:22356755

  13. Space Physics for Graduate Students: An Activities-Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, N. A.; Arge, N.; Bruntz, R.; Burns, A. G.; Hughes, W. J.; Knipp, D.; Lyon, J.; McGregor, S.; Owens, M.; Siscoe, G.; Solomon, S. C.; Wiltberger, M.

    2009-01-01

    The geospace environment is controlled largely by events on the Sun, such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections, which generate significant geomagnetic and upper atmospheric disturbances. The study of this Sun-Earth system, which has become known as space weather, has both intrinsic scientific interest and practical applications. Adverse conditions in space can damage satellites and disrupt communications, navigation, and electric power grids, as well as endanger astronauts. The Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM), a Science and Technology Center (STC) funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation (see http://www.bu.edu/cism/), is developing a suite of integrated physics-based computer models that describe the space environment from the Sun to the Earth for use in both research and operations [Hughes and Hudson, 2004, p. 1241]. To further this mission, advanced education and training programs sponsored by CISM encourage students to view space weather as a system that encompasses the Sun, the solar wind, the magnetosphere, and the ionosphere/thermosphere. This holds especially true for participants in the CISM space weather summer school [Simpson, 2004].

  14. Is a Perceived Activity-Friendly Environment Associated with More Physical Activity and Fewer Screen-Based Activities in Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Dankulincova Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Bucksch, Jens; Nalecz, Hanna; Sigmundova, Dagmar; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to explore if perception of an activity-friendly environment is associated with more physical activity and fewer screen-based activities among adolescents. Methods: We collected self-reported data in 2014 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study from four European countries (n = 13,800, mean age = 14.4, 49.4% boys). We explored the association of perceived environment (e.g., “There are other children nearby home to go out and play with”) with physical activity and screen-based activities using a binary logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, family affluence and country. Results: An environment perceived as activity-friendly was associated with higher odds that adolescents meet recommendations for physical activity (odds ratio (OR) for one standard deviation (SD) change = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–1.18) and lower odds for excessive screen-based activities (OR for 1 SD better = 0.93, 95% CI 0.88–0.98). Conclusions: Investment into an activity-friendly environment may support the promotion of active life styles in adolescence. PMID:28054953

  15. Is a Perceived Activity-Friendly Environment Associated with More Physical Activity and Fewer Screen-Based Activities in Adolescents?

    PubMed

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Dankulincova Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Bucksch, Jens; Nalecz, Hanna; Sigmundova, Dagmar; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-01-03

    Background: The aim of this study is to explore if perception of an activity-friendly environment is associated with more physical activity and fewer screen-based activities among adolescents. Methods: We collected self-reported data in 2014 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study from four European countries (n = 13,800, mean age = 14.4, 49.4% boys). We explored the association of perceived environment (e.g., "There are other children nearby home to go out and play with") with physical activity and screen-based activities using a binary logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, family affluence and country. Results: An environment perceived as activity-friendly was associated with higher odds that adolescents meet recommendations for physical activity (odds ratio (OR) for one standard deviation (SD) change = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.18) and lower odds for excessive screen-based activities (OR for 1 SD better = 0.93, 95% CI 0.88-0.98). Conclusions: Investment into an activity-friendly environment may support the promotion of active life styles in adolescence.

  16. The Evaluation of a Web-Based Physical Activity Intervention in a Predominantly Hispanic College Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magoc, Dejan

    2009-01-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) suggest at least 30 min of moderate physical activity at least 5 days a week or 20 min of vigorous physical activity at least 3 days a week. The overall aim of this experiment was to evaluate the efficacy of a web-based intervention--one that relied on…

  17. Physical activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... activity -- which includes an active lifestyle and routine exercise -- plus eating well, is the best way to stay healthy. ... goal. Your goal might be to: Manage a health condition Reduce stress ... other benefits, such as: Better control of your weight and ...

  18. Evidence-based approaches to dissemination and diffusion of physical activity interventions.

    PubMed

    Owen, Neville; Glanz, Karen; Sallis, James F; Kelder, Steven H

    2006-10-01

    With the increasing availability of effective, evidence-based physical activity interventions, widespread diffusion is needed. We examine conceptual foundations for research on dissemination and diffusion of physical activity interventions; describe two school-based program examples; review examples of dissemination and diffusion research on other health behaviors; and examine policies that may accelerate the diffusion process. Lack of dissemination and diffusion evaluation research and policy advocacy is one of the factors limiting the impact of evidence-based physical activity interventions on public health. There is the need to collaborate with policy experts from other fields to improve the interdisciplinary science base for dissemination and diffusion. The promise of widespread adoption of evidence-based physical activity interventions to improve public health is sufficient to justify devotion of substantial resources to the relevant research on dissemination and diffusion.

  19. Mark, Set, Go! School-Based Nutrition and Physical Activity Program: A Five-Year Evaluation.

    PubMed

    El Rayess, Fadya; Gandhi, Meeka; Mennillo, Haran

    2017-02-01

    Mark, Set Go! is a school-based intervention addressing pediatric obesity in an urban, underserved community. This study evaluates its impact on participants' knowledge, attitudes and behavior related to nutrition, physical activity and screen time.

  20. School-based friendship networks and children's physical activity: A spatial analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Macdonald-Wallis, Kyle; Jago, Russell; Page, Angie S; Brockman, Rowan; Thompson, Janice L

    2011-07-01

    Despite the known health benefits, the majority of children do not meet physical activity guidelines, with past interventions to increase physical activity yielding little success. Social and friendship networks have been shown to influence obesity, smoking and academic achievement, and peer-led interventions have successfully reduced the uptake of adolescent smoking. However, the role of social networks on physical activity is not clear. This paper investigates the extent to which friendship networks influence children's physical activity, and attempts to quantify the association using spatial analytical techniques to account for the social influence. Physical activity data were collected for 986 children, aged 10-11 years old, from 40 schools in Bristol, UK. Data from 559 children were used for analysis. Mean accelerometer counts per minute (CPM) and mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day (MVPA) were calculated as objective measures of physical activity. Children nominated up to 4 school-friends, and school-based friendship networks were constructed from these nominations. Networks were tested to assess whether physical activity showed spatial dependence (in terms of social proximity in social space) using Moran's I statistic. Spatial autoregressive modelling was then used to assess the extent of spatial dependence, whilst controlling for other known predictors of physical activity. This model was compared with linear regression models for improvement in goodness-of-fit. Results indicated spatial autocorrelation of both mean MVPA (I = .346) and mean CPM (I = .284) in the data, indicating that children clustered in friendship groups with similar activity levels. Spatial autoregressive modelling of mean MVPA concurred that spatial dependence was present (ρ = .26, p < .001), and improved model fit by 31% on the linear regression model. These results demonstrate an association between physical activity levels of children and their

  1. Systematic, Evidence-Based Review of Exercise, Physical Activity, and Physical Fitness Effects on Cognition in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sandroff, Brian M; Motl, Robert W; Scudder, Mark R; DeLuca, John

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is highly prevalent, disabling, and poorly-managed in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent evidence suggests that exercise might have beneficial effects on cognition in this population. The current systematic, evidence-based review examined the existing literature on exercise, physical activity, and physical fitness effects on cognition in MS to accurately describe the current status of the field, offer recommendations for clinicians, and identify study-specific and participant-specific characteristics for providing future direction for ongoing MS research. We performed an open-dated search of Medline, PsychInfo, and CINAHL in December 2015. The search strategy involved using the terms 'exercise' OR 'physical activity' OR 'physical fitness' OR 'aerobic' OR 'resistance' OR 'balance' OR 'walking' OR 'yoga' OR 'training' OR 'rehabilitation' AND 'multiple sclerosis'. Articles were eliminated from the systematic review if it was a review article, theoretical paper, or textbook chapter; did not involve persons with MS; involved only persons with pediatric-onset MS; did not involve neuropsychological outcomes; did not include empirical data to evaluate outcomes; involved pharmacological interventions; or was not available in English. The selected articles were first classified as examining exercise, physical activity, or physical fitness, and were then randomly assigned to 2 independent reviewers who rated each article for level of evidence based on American Academy of Neurology criteria. Reviewers further completed a table to characterize important elements of each study (i.e., intervention characteristics), the cognitive domain(s) that were targeted, participant-specific characteristics, outcome measures, and study results. The present review resulted in 26 studies on the effects of exercise, physical activity, and physical fitness on cognition in persons with MS. This included 1 Class I study, 3 Class II studies, 8 Class III studies, and

  2. Evidence-based practice guideline: increasing physical activity in schools--kindergarten through 8th grade.

    PubMed

    Bagby, Karen; Adams, Susan

    2007-06-01

    Because of the growing obesity epidemic across all age groups in the United States, interventions to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors have become a priority. Evidence is growing that interventions to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors have positive results and are generally inexpensive to implement. National and international health organizations are calling for a comprehensive approach for reducing obesity in children that includes increasing physical activity in the school setting. Although the call to increase activity levels in schools is clear, little guidance has been given to schools on specific methods to accomplish this task. This article provides an overview of an evidence-based guideline developed by a physical education teacher and a school nurse to provide inexpensive, easy-to-implement, effective strategies to increase physical activity in students. Tools are also included in the guideline to measure the effectiveness of the intervention.

  3. Health complaints among adolescents: Associations with more screen-based behaviours and less physical activity.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Calmeiro, Luís; Loureiro, Nuno; Frasquilho, Diana; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between screen-based behaviours, physical activity, and health complaints (headaches, feeling low, irritability, and nervousness). Screen-based behaviour included TV viewing, computer use, and time spent playing video games. Data were collected from 4462 Portuguese adolescents (2394 girls) aged 11-16 years. Girls who reported engaging in more screen-based behaviour (hours/day) also reported having more headaches, feeling lower, being more irritable, and feeling more nervous. Boys who reported more screen time were more irritable. Physical activity (times/week) was negatively associated with reports of feeling nervous among girls, and with headaches, feeling low, irritability, and feeling nervous among boys. Considering that time spent using the computer is related with more health complaints, and physical activity was related with fewer health complaints among boys, it is important to develop strategies to reduce adolescents' computer screen time, and to promote physical activity.

  4. Newspaper Content Analysis in Evaluation of a Community-Based Participatory Project to Increase Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granner, Michelle L.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Fields, Regina; Hallenbeck, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    This study conducted a newspaper content analysis as part of an evaluation of a community-based participatory research project focused on increasing physical activity through policy and environmental changes, which included activities related to media advocacy and media-based community education. Daily papers (May 2003 to December 2005) from both…

  5. Community-based physical activity interventions among women: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Amiri Farahani, Leila; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Eesa; Parvizy, Soroor; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Taghizadeh, Ziba

    2015-01-01

    Objective Review and assess the effectiveness of community-based physical activity interventions among women aged 18–65 years. Design Systematic review Methods To find relevant articles, the researcher selected reports published in English between 1 January 2000 and 31 March 2013. Systematic search was to find controlled-trial studies that were conducted to uncover the effect of community-based interventions to promote physical activity among women 18–65 years of age, in which physical activity was reported as one of the measured outcomes. The methodological quality assessment was performed using a critical appraisal sheet. Also, the levels of evidence were assessed for the types of interventions. Results The literature search identified nine articles. Four of the studies were randomised and the others studies had high methodological quality. There was no evidence, on the basis of effectiveness, for social cognitive theory-based interventions and inconclusive evidence of effectiveness for the rest of interventions. Conclusions There is insufficient evidence to assess the effectiveness of community-based interventions for enhancing physical activity among women. There is a need for high-quality randomised clinical trials with adequate statistical power to determine whether multicomponent and community-based intervention programmes increase physical activity among women, as well as to determine what type of interventions have a more effective and sustainable impact on women's physical activity. PMID:25833668

  6. Enjoyment of exercise moderates the impact of a school-based physical activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A school-based physical activity intervention designed to encourage adolescent girls to be more active was more effective for some participants than for others. We examined whether baseline enjoyment of exercise moderated response to the intervention. Methods Adolescent girls with a low level of baseline activity who participated in a controlled trial of an intervention to promote increased physical activity participation (n = 122) self-reported their enjoyment of exercise and physical activity participation at baseline, mid-way through the intervention, and at the end of the 9-month intervention period. At all three time points, participants also underwent assessments of cardiovascular fitness (VO2peak) and body composition (percent body fat). Repeated measures analysis of variance examined the relationship of baseline enjoyment to change in physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, body composition and enjoyment of exercise. Results A significant three-way interaction between time, baseline enjoyment, and group assignment (p < .01) showed that baseline enjoyment moderated the effect of the intervention on vigorous activity. Within the intervention group, girls with low enjoyment of exercise at baseline increased vigorous activity from pre-to post-intervention, and girls with high baseline enjoyment of exercise showed no pre-post change in vigorous activity. No differences emerged in the comparison group between low-and high-enjoyment girls. Conclusion Adolescent girls responded differently to a physical activity promotion intervention depending on their baseline levels of exercise enjoyment. Girls with low enjoyment of exercise may benefit most from a physical-education based intervention to increase physical activity that targets identified barriers to physical activity among low-active adolescent girls. PMID:21689396

  7. Acute Cognitively Engaging Exergame-Based Physical Activity Enhances Executive Functions in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Heinks, Theda; Eggenberger, Noëmi; Schmidt, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to elucidate the influence of cognitive engagement comprised in an acute bout of exergame-based physical activity on executive functions (inhibition, cognitive flexibility) in adolescents. Therefore, the level of cognitive engagement and the intensity of physical activity were systematically varied across three experimental conditions. Sixty-five healthy male adolescents (13–16 years) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (a) physical activity with high levels of cognitive engagement during active video gaming, (b) physical activity with low levels of cognitive engagement during active video gaming, (c) sedentary with low levels of cognitive engagement during passive video watching. Manipulation checks, including subjective and objective operationalizations of cognitive engagement, were applied. Executive functions were assessed before and after each condition using the D-KEFS design fluency test. Results showed that cognitive engagement, operationalized by subjects’ ratings and heart rate variability, differed between conditions. The physical activity condition with a high level of cognitive engagement resulted in significantly better performance in cognitive flexibility compared to conditions with low levels of cognitive engagement. Regarding benefits for executive functions in male adolescents, the results indicate that acute physical activity with high cognitive engagement could be more efficient than physical activity of the same intensity with low cognitive engagement. Even though further evidence is needed, these results extend previous research and suggest a methodological approach for measuring cognitive engagement. PMID:28030542

  8. Network Interventions on Physical Activity in an Afterschool Program: An Agent-Based Social Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Shoham, David A.; Tesdahl, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We studied simulated interventions that leveraged social networks to increase physical activity in children. Methods. We studied a real-world social network of 81 children (average age = 7.96 years) who lived in low socioeconomic status neighborhoods, and attended public schools and 1 of 2 structured afterschool programs. The sample was ethnically diverse, and 44% were overweight or obese. We used social network analysis and agent-based modeling simulations to test whether implementing a network intervention would increase children’s physical activity. We tested 3 intervention strategies. Results. The intervention that targeted opinion leaders was effective in increasing the average level of physical activity across the entire network. However, the intervention that targeted the most sedentary children was the best at increasing their physical activity levels. Conclusions. Which network intervention to implement depends on whether the goal is to shift the entire distribution of physical activity or to influence those most adversely affected by low physical activity. Agent-based modeling could be an important complement to traditional project planning tools, analogous to sample size and power analyses, to help researchers design more effective interventions for increasing children’s physical activity. PMID:25689202

  9. Participant adherence indicators predict changes in dietary, physical activity, and clinical outcomes in church-based, diet and supervised physical activity intervention: Delta Body and Soul III

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This secondary analysis evaluated the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting health outcome changes in a 6-month, church-based, controlled, lifestyle intervention previously proven effective for improving diet quality, physical activity, and blood lipids. Descriptive ind...

  10. Effects of School-Based Physical Activity Interventions on Cognition and Academic Achievement: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mura, Gioia; Vellante, Marcello; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Schools are an ideal setting to implement physical activity programs targeted at youths' learning and intellectual abilities, as exercise has been associated with improvement in cognitive skills and academic proficiency. A systematic review of the literature was performed to examine the effects of school-based physical activity interventions on academic achievement and cognitive outcomes. A search for relevant papers was carried out on PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar. Only quasi-experimental and experimental studies were included, if focused on school-based physical activity interventions targeting 3 to 18 year-old healthy pupils, and designed to establish a relationship between exercise performed in a school setting and cognitive/academic performance. Thirty-one papers were retrieved by the search, reporting the findings of twenty-eight school-based physical activity interventions. Most of the included studies were published in the past five years. A large majority of the studies showed positive results in terms of academic achievement and, above all, cognitive skills. In the recent years, the number of studies on school-based physical interventions aimed to establish a relationship between physical activity performed in school setting and cognitive/academic outcomes significantly increased, as well as high quality assessments and designs. This review highlights the effectiveness of school-based physical activity interventions on academic achievement and, above all, on youths' cognitive performance. Some interesting findings come from studies assessing brain functional changes, from interventions targeting culturally diverse or low-income samples, and from interventions where physical activity is in the form of active videogames.

  11. Physical activity and medicine use: evidence from a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Bertoldi, Andrea D; Hallal, Pedro C; Barros, Aluisio JD

    2006-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the association between physical activity practice and medicine use; data from these studies are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between level of physical activity and medicine use in adults aged 20 years or more. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in the first semester of 2002 in the urban area of Pelotas; a medium-sized Southern Brazilian city. Physical activity was assessed with the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A physical activity score was created as the weekly time spent in moderate-intensity activities plus twice the weekly time spent in vigorous-intensity activities. Medicine use in the 15 days prior to the interview was also assessed. Adjusted analyses taking into account the sampling design was carried out using Poisson regression. Wald tests for heterogeneity and linear trend were used to calculate significance. Results Out of the 3,182 individuals interviewed, 41% were not sufficiently active according to current physical activity guidelines. Only 34% of the subjects did not use medicines in the previous 15 days, and 18% used three or more drugs in the same period. Level of physical activity was inversely associated with the number of medicines used both in the crude and in the adjusted analyses. Conclusion There are well-documented benefits of physical activity for several chronic diseases in the literature. Data from the present study suggest that medicine use is also positively affected by physical activity behavior. PMID:16956396

  12. Effect of a school-based active play intervention on sedentary time and physical activity in preschool children.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, M V; Fairclough, S J; Ridgers, N D; Knowles, Z R; Foweather, L; Stratton, G

    2013-12-01

    Early childhood is a critical time for promoting physical activity. Few studies have investigated the effect of interventions in this population. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a school-based active play intervention on preschool children's sedentary time and physical activity. Preschool children were recruited from randomly selected preschools. Schools were randomly assigned to an intervention or comparison group. One teacher per intervention school received training from active play professionals in the delivery of a 6-week active play programme. Comparison schools continued their usual practice. Children wore a uni-axial accelerometer for 7 days at baseline, immediately after and at 6-month post-intervention. No significant intervention effects were observed for sedentary time or physical activity. However, sex and hours spent at school were significant predictors of physical activity. Children who spent fewer hours (half-day children) at school were significantly more active than their full-day counterparts. Physical activity during the intervention classes was high even though neither daily physical activity nor sedentary time changed. Notably children who spent more time at preschool were less active suggesting that preschool was not as conducive to physical activity engagement as other environments.

  13. Let's Move for Pacific Islander Communities: an Evidence-Based Intervention to Increase Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    LaBreche, Mandy; Cheri, Ashley; Custodio, Harold; Fex, Cleo Carlos; Foo, Mary Anne; Lepule, Jonathan Tana; May, Vanessa Tui'one; Orne, Annette; Pang, Jane Ka'ala; Pang, Victor Kaiwi; Sablan-Santos, Lola; Schmidt-Vaivao, Dorothy; Surani, Zul; Talavou, Melevesi Fifita; Toilolo, Tupou; Palmer, Paula Healani; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

    2016-06-01

    Pacific Islander (PI) populations of Southern California experience high obesity and low physical activity levels. Given PI's rich cultural ties, efforts to increase physical activity using a community-tailored strategy may motivate members in a more sustainable manner. In this paper, we (1) detail the program adaptation methodology that was utilized to develop the Weaving an Islander Network for Cancer Awareness, Research and Training (WINCART) Center's PI Let's Move Program, a culturally tailored program aimed to increase physical activity levels among members of PI organizations in Southern California, and (2) share the program's pilot evaluation results on individual and organizational changes. The WINCART Center applied the National Cancer Institute's program adaptation guidelines to tailor the evidence-based Instant Recess program to fit the needs of PIs. The end product, the PI Let's Move Program, was piloted in 2012 with eight PI organizations, reaching 106 PI adults. At baseline, 52 % of participants reported that they were not physically active, with the average number of days engaged in medium-intensity physical activity at 2.09 days/week. After the 2-month program, participants increased the number of days that they engaged in medium-intensity physical activity from 2.09 to 2.90 days/week. Post-pilot results found that 82 % of participants reported intentions to engage in physical activity for at least the next 6 months. At baseline, only one organization was currently implementing a physical activity program, and none had implemented an evidence-based physical activity program tailored for PIs. After the 2-month timeframe, despite varying levels of capacity, all eight organizations were able to successfully implement the program. In conclusion, results from our program provide evidence that disparity populations, such as PIs, can be successfully reached through programs that are culturally tailored to both individuals and their community

  14. Promoting Physical Activity With Group Pictures. Affiliation-Based Visual Communication for High-Risk Populations.

    PubMed

    Reifegerste, Doreen; Rossmann, Constanze

    2017-02-01

    Past research in social and health psychology has shown that affiliation motivation is associated with health behavior, especially for high-risk populations, suggesting that targeting this motivation could be a promising strategy to promote physical activity. However, the effects that affiliation appeals (e.g., pictures depicting companionship during physical activities) and accompanying slogans have on motivating physical activity have been largely unexplored. Hence, our two studies experimentally tested the effects of exposure to affiliation-based pictures for overweight or less active people, as well as the moderating effect of affiliation motivation. The results of these two studies give some indication that group pictures (with or without an accompanying slogan) can be an effective strategy to improve high-risk populations' attitudes, self-efficacy, and intentions to engage in physical activity. Affiliation motivation as a personality trait did not interact with these effects, but was positively associated with attitudes, independent of the group picture effect.

  15. Guide to Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...

  16. Physical Activity Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  17. Adherence to Physical Activity Recommendations and Its Associated Factors: An Interregional Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Alkerwi, Ala’a; Schuh, Barbara; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Zannad, Faiez; Olivier, Arnaud; Guillaume, Michèle; Albert, Adelin; Larsson, Charlotte A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Though the influence of physical activity in preventing cardiovascular diseases is well documented, only a few comparative studies have determined the degree of adherence to physical activity recommendations among populations and identified the demographic, socioeco-nomic, behavioural and health-related factors associated with good compliance. Design and methods Cross-sectional interregional NESCaV survey of 3133 subjects compared three populations, Luxembourg, Lorraine (France) and Wallonia (Belgium), by using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Age and gender prevalence rates of physical activity were standardized to the European population. Results The likelihood to meet the recommendations was higher in Luxembourg, after adjustment for age, gender, education, employment, weight status, morbidity score, health perception and level of importance attributed to the practice of physical activity (P<0.0001). The odds for meeting the recommendations were significantly higher among those with secondary than tertiary education. Compared to good self-health perception, subjects with poor or fair self-perceived health were less likely to meet the recommendations; this also applied to those attributing little or enough importance to physical activity compared with great importance. Conclusions Region, education, self-perceived health and perception of importance of physical activity were emerged as independent determinants of meeting the recommendations. Awareness of the positive health effects of physical activity might thus be crucial for motivating the people to become more active. Further research is needed to explore potential region-specific factors which might explain the difference in population behaviours with respect to physical activity. Significance for public health This manuscript describes the prevalence of physical activity level of adult population from three European regions, Luxembourg, Wallonia and Lorraine, based on the

  18. Adherence to a Videogame-Based Physical Activity Program for Older Adults with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Erin M.; Dowling, Glenna A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Adults with schizophrenia are a growing segment of the older adult population. Evidence suggests that they engage in limited physical activity. Interventions are needed that are tailored around their unique limitations. An active videogame-based physical activity program that can be offered at a treatment facility can overcome these barriers and increase motivation to engage in physical activity. The purpose of this report is to describe the adherence to a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect® for Xbox® 360 game system (Microsoft®, Redmond, WA) in older adults with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive longitudinal study among 34 older adults with schizophrenia to establish the adherence to an active videogame-based physical activity program. In our ongoing program, once a week for 6 weeks, participants played an active videogame, using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system, for 30 minutes. Adherence was measured with a count of sessions attended and with the total minutes attended out of the possible total minutes of attendance (180 minutes). Results: Thirty-four adults with schizophrenia enrolled in the study. The mean number of groups attended was five out of six total (standard deviation=2), and the mean total minutes attended were 139 out of 180 possible (standard deviation=55). Fifty percent had perfect attendance. Conclusions: Older adults with schizophrenia need effective physical activity programs. Adherence to our program suggests that videogames that use the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system are an innovative way to make physical activity accessible to this population. PMID:26192371

  19. Reliability and validity of an internet-based questionnaire measuring lifetime physical activity.

    PubMed

    De Vera, Mary A; Ratzlaff, Charles; Doerfling, Paul; Kopec, Jacek

    2010-11-15

    Lifetime exposure to physical activity is an important construct for evaluating associations between physical activity and disease outcomes, given the long induction periods in many chronic diseases. The authors' objective in this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (L-PAQ), a novel Internet-based, self-administered instrument measuring lifetime physical activity, among Canadian men and women in 2005-2006. Reliability was examined using a test-retest study. Validity was examined in a 2-part study consisting of 1) comparisons with previously validated instruments measuring similar constructs, the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire (LT-PAQ) and the Chasan-Taber Physical Activity Questionnaire (CT-PAQ), and 2) a priori hypothesis tests of constructs measured by the L-PAQ. The L-PAQ demonstrated good reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.67 (household activity) to 0.89 (sports/recreation). Comparison between the L-PAQ and the LT-PAQ resulted in Spearman correlation coefficients ranging from 0.41 (total activity) to 0.71 (household activity); comparison between the L-PAQ and the CT-PAQ yielded coefficients of 0.58 (sports/recreation), 0.56 (household activity), and 0.50 (total activity). L-PAQ validity was further supported by observed relations between the L-PAQ and sociodemographic variables, consistent with a priori hypotheses. Overall, the L-PAQ is a useful instrument for assessing multiple domains of lifetime physical activity with acceptable reliability and validity.

  20. Development and Evaluation of a Theory-Based Physical Activity Guidebook for Breast Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallance, Jeffrey K.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Taylor, Lorian M.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Mackey, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This study's objective was to develop and evaluate the suitability and appropriateness of a theory-based physical activity (PA) guidebook for breast cancer survivors. Guidebook content was constructed based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) using salient exercise beliefs identified by breast cancer survivors in previous research. Expert…

  1. Participant Perceptions of Character Concepts in a Physical Activity-Based Positive Youth Development Program.

    PubMed

    Riciputi, Shaina; McDonough, Meghan H; Ullrich-French, Sarah

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity-based positive youth development (PYD) programs often aim to foster character development. This study examined youth perspectives of character development curricula and the impact these activities have on their lives within and beyond the program. This case study examined youth from low-income families in a physical activity-based summer PYD program that integrated one character concept (respect, caring, responsibility, trust) in each of 4 weeks. Participants (N = 24) included a cross section of age, gender, ethnicity, and past program experience. Semi-structured interviews were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis and constant comparative methods. Thirteen themes were grouped in four categories: building highquality reciprocal relationships; intrapersonal improvement; moral reasoning and understanding; and rejection, resistance, and compliance. The findings provide participant-centered guidance for understanding youth personal and social development through physical activity in ways that are meaningful to participants, which is particularly needed for youth in low-income communities with limited youth programming.

  2. Integrating research, policy, and practice in school-based physical activity prevention programming: the School Health Action, Planning, and Evaluation System (SHAPES) Physical Activity Module.

    PubMed

    Leatherdale, Scott T; Manske, Steve; Wong, Suzy L; Cameron, Roy

    2009-04-01

    The School Health Action, Planning, and Evaluation System (SHAPES) is a data collection and feedback system designed to support population-based intervention planning, evaluation, and field research related to youth. The Physical Activity Module of SHAPES consists of: (a) a machine readable questionnaire to collect physical activity data from all students (grades 6 to 12) in a school, (b) a school administrator questionnaire to assess school policies, programs, and resources related to physical activity, and (c) a school-specific feedback report documenting student behavior and school programs and policies. This SHAPES module provides schools with feedback that enables them to take stock of patterns of activity and obesity within their school, recognize what is (and what is not) in place to support physical activity, and how to plan and evaluate their own prevention efforts. SHAPES enables researchers and stakeholders to identify what interventions work, in what contexts, with what students.

  3. Health-Related Quality of Life, Self-Efficacy and Enjoyment Keep the Socially Vulnerable Physically Active in Community-Based Physical Activity Programs: A Sequential Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Herens, Marion; Bakker, Evert Jan; van Ophem, Johan; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Koelen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is most commonly found in socially vulnerable groups. Dutch policies target these groups through community-based health-enhancing physical activity (CBHEPA) programs. As robust evidence on the effectiveness of this approach is limited, this study investigated whether CBHEPA programs contribute to an increase in and the maintenance of physical activity in socially vulnerable groups. In four successive cohorts, starting at a six-month interval, 268 participants from 19 groups were monitored for twelve months in seven CBHEPA programs. Data collection was based on repeated questionnaires. Socio-economic indicators, program participation and coping ability were measured at baseline. Physical activity, health-related quality of life and on-going program participation were measured three times. Self-efficacy and enjoyment were measured at baseline and at twelve months. Statistical analyses were based on a quasi-RCT design (independent t-tests), a comparison of participants and dropouts (Mann-Whitney test), and multilevel modelling to assess change in individual physical activity, including group level characteristics. Participants of CBHEPA programs are socially vulnerable in terms of low education (48.6%), low income (52.4%), non-Dutch origin (64.6%) and health-related quality of life outcomes. Physical activity levels were not below the Dutch average. No increase in physical activity levels over time was observed. The multilevel models showed significant positive associations between health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and enjoyment, and leisure-time physical activity over time. Short CBHEPA programs (10–13 weeks) with multiple trainers and gender-homogeneous groups were associated with lower physical activity levels over time. At twelve months, dropouts' leisure-time physical activity levels were significantly lower compared to continuing participants, as were health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and enjoyment outcomes. BMI and

  4. Factors Related to Healthy Diet and Physical Activity in Hospital-Based Clinical Nurses.

    PubMed

    Albert, Nancy M; Butler, Robert; Sorrell, Jeanne

    2014-09-30

    Hospitals often promote healthy lifestyles, but little is known about nurses' actual diet and physical activity. Greater understanding about these lifestyle choices for clinical nurses may improve existing hospital-based programs and/or create desirable services. This article discusses a study that considered diet and physical activity of clinical nurses, using elements of Pender's self-care theory as a conceptual framework. Study methods included a cross-sectional, correlational design and a convenience sample of 278 nurses who worked on units with 24 hours/day and seven days-per-week responsibilities. Participants completed diet and exercise questionnaires about perceptions of attitudes and opinions, barriers, diet benefits/exercise motivators, self-efficacy, and locus of control, and personal and work characteristics. Diet and activity categories were created. Study results demonstrated that over 50% of nurses had moderately healthy diets but were insufficiently active. Healthy diet and physical activity levels were associated with higher self-efficacy, more diet benefits and physical activity motivators, fewer perceived barriers, and confidence in body image. The article discussion and conclusion sections note areas for future research and suggest that focused interventions that address benefits, motivators, and self-efficacy may increase participation in hospital-based programs and enhance healthy lifestyle for hospital-based clinical nurses.

  5. The Influence of Physical Activity, Sport and Exercise Motives among UK-Based University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Simon; Reeves, Matthew; Ryrie, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the majority of the adult population fails to achieve the recommended target of 30-minutes moderate intensity exercise, days a week. This includes university students who often have the time to engage in physical activity. The aim of this study was to determine exercise motives for a UK-based student population. The…

  6. Effects of Classroom-Based Energizers on Primary Grade Students' Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Catherine Goffreda; DiPerna, James Clyde

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the effects of classroom-based exercise breaks (Energizers; Mahar, Kenny, Shields, Scales, & Collins, 2006) on students' physical activity levels during the school day. A multiple baseline design across first grade (N = 3) and second grade (N = 3) classrooms was used to examine the effects of the…

  7. Factors Influencing Transfer of Responsibility-Based Physical Activity Program Goals into Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okseon; Martinek, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what influences the transfer of responsibility-based physical activity program goals into classrooms. Participants were the two boys and three girls (age range 9-11) who had participated in the program one to three semesters, with at least an 80% attendance rate. Data were collected from individual…

  8. Promoting Physical Activity among Youth through Community-Based Prevention Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Carol A.; Courtney, Anita H.; McDermott, Robert J.; Alfonso, Moya L.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Nickelson, Jen; Brown, Kelli R. McCormack; DeBate, Rita D.; Phillips, Leah M.; Thompson, Zachary; Zhu, Yiliang

    2010-01-01

    Background: Community-based prevention marketing (CBPM) is a program planning framework that blends community-organizing principles with a social marketing mind-set to design, implement, and evaluate public health interventions. A community coalition used CBPM to create a physical activity promotion program for tweens (youth 9-13 years of age)…

  9. Physical Activity and Positive Youth Development: Impact of a School-Based Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Kristine A.; Hicks, Katherine; Thompson, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    Background: Protective factors associated with positive youth development predict health and education outcomes. This study explored trends in these protective factors and in physical activity among low-income students, and determined the impact of a school-based youth development program on these trends. Methods: This study used a…

  10. Psychological Changes among Muslim Students Participating in a Faith-Based School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicaise, Virginie; Kahan, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Some religions espouse doctrines that (in)directly impact physical activity (PA) behavior. Yet limited PA interventions have been tailored to religious minorities. Thus, a formative study was conducted to examine the effect of a faith-based pedometer program (Virtual Umra) on psychological correlates of PA behavior and their contribution…

  11. Classroom-Based Physical Activity Breaks and Children's Attention: Cognitive Engagement Works!

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Mirko; Benzing, Valentin; Kamer, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Classroom-based physical activity breaks are postulated to positively impact children's attention during their school day. However, empirical evidence for this claim is scarce and the role of cognitive engagement in enhancing children's attentional performance is unexplored in studies on physical activity breaks. The aim of the present study was therefore to disentangle the separate and/or combined effects of physical exertion and cognitive engagement induced by physical activity breaks on primary school children's attention. In addition, the role of children's affective reactions to acute interventions at school was investigated. Using a 2 × 2 between-subjects experimental design, 92 children between the ages of 11 and 12 years (M = 11.77, SD = 0.41) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: (1) combo group (physical activity with high cognitive demands), (2) cognition group (sedentary with high cognitive demands), (3) physical group (physical activity with low cognitive demands), and (4) control group (sedentary with low cognitive demands). Attention and affect were measured before and immediately after a 10-min intervention. ANCOVAs revealed that whereas physical exertion had no effect on any measure of children's attentional performance, cognitive engagement was the crucial factor leading to increased focused attention and enhanced processing speed. Mediational analyses showed that changes in positive affect during the interventions mediated the effect between cognitive engagement and focused attention as well as between cognitive engagement and processing speed. These surprising results are discussed in the light of theories predicting both facilitating and deteriorative effects of positive affect on attention. PMID:27757088

  12. Overcoming Legal Liability Concerns for School-Based Physical Activity Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Sara; Kramer, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Schools have been identified as a priority environment for physical activity promotion as a component of efforts to help prevent childhood obesity. A variety of school-based environmental and programmatic strategies have been proven effective in promoting physical activity both on-site and in the surrounding community. However, many schools are deterred by fears of increased risk of legal liability for personal injuries. We examine 3 school-based strategies for promoting physical activity—Safe Routes to School programs, joint use agreements, and playground enhancement—from a tort liability perspective, and describe how schools can substantially minimize any associated liability risk through injury prevention and other strategies. We also recommend approaches to help schools overcome their liability concerns and adopt these critically needed healthy school policies. PMID:24028226

  13. Evidence-based risk assessment and recommendations for physical activity clearance: Consensus Document 2011.

    PubMed

    Warburton, Darren E R; Gledhill, Norman; Jamnik, Veronica K; Bredin, Shannon S D; McKenzie, Don C; Stone, James; Charlesworth, Sarah; Shephard, Roy J

    2011-07-01

    The Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q) and the Physical Activity Readiness Medical Evaluation (PARmed-X) are internationally known preparticipation screening tools developed on the basis of expert opinion. The primary purposes of this consensus document were to seek evidence-based support for the PAR-Q and PARmed-X forms, to identify whether further revisions of these instruments are warranted, to determine how people responding positively to questions on the PAR-Q can be safely cleared without medical referral, and to develop exercise clearance procedures appropriate for various clinical conditions across the human lifespan. Seven systematic reviews were conducted, examining physical-activity-related risks and effective risk-stratification procedures for various prevalent chronic conditions. An additional systematic review assessed the risks associated with exercise testing and training of the general population. Two gap areas were identified and evaluated systematically: the role of the qualified exercise professional and the requisite core competencies required by those working with various chronic conditions; and the risks associated with physical activity during pregnancy. The risks associated with being physically inactive are markedly higher than transient risks during and following an acute bout of exercise in both asymptomatic and symptomatic populations across the lifespan. Further refinements of the PAR-Q and the PARmed-X (including online versions of the forms) are required to address the unique limitations imposed by various chronic health conditions, and to allow the inclusion of individuals across their entire lifespan. A probing decision-tree process is proposed to assist in risk stratification and to reduce barriers to physical activity. Qualified exercise professionals will play an essential role in this revised physical activity clearance process.

  14. A web-based intervention to support increased physical activity among at-risk adults.

    PubMed

    Massoudi, Barbara L; Olmsted, Murrey G; Zhang, Yuying; Carpenter, Ruth Ann; Barlow, Carolyn E; Huber, Rachel

    2010-10-01

    Physical inactivity is an important contributor to the development of numerous chronic conditions and alone is an independent risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and depression and yet, most Americans consistently fail to achieve the recommended amount of physical activity. As part of Project HealthDesign, we designed and prototyped a personal health record application (PHA) that delivers and supports a highly individualized, behaviorally based lifestyle physical activity intervention for sedentary adults. Through a user centered design approach, we engaged consumers, health care providers, and personal trainers for multiple facilitated group discussions and structured interviews to determine their needs and wants related to an activity PHA. The PHA was developed to include elements of evidence-based approaches which help participants adopt cognitive and behavioral skills such as goal-setting, self-monitoring, accepting social support, cognitive restructuring, contingency management, decisional balance, and relapse prevention. This PHA demonstrated the potential for research-based behavioral interventions to be delivered via a web portal. This finding is important for both consumers and their providers who have the desire to implement physical activity recommendations, but lack the tools to facilitate or undertake such interventions.

  15. Attitudes of women in midlife to web-based interventions for promoting physical activity.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Wonshik; Chee, Eunice

    2012-10-01

    We explored the attitudes of women at midlife to web-based interventions for promoting physical activity. 145 women volunteered to participate in one of four online forums. The forums were for four major racial/ethnic groups. 90 volunteers were recruited for the online forums (29 Whites, 23 Hispanics, 21 African Americans, and 17 Asians). Two sets of topics on attitudes to physical activity and racial/ethnic contexts were used. Each topic had some introductory questions and related prompts, and these were posted on the online forum sites in a serial fashion during the six-month period. We used a thematic analysis. Four major themes emerged: (1) 'a matter of the source of the information'; (2) 'I can pace myself'; (3) 'lack of interpersonal interactions'; and (4) 'culture-specificity and low cost.' The women in all ethnic groups thought that the source of the information was much more important than the medium of the information (e.g. web-based, booklet or face-to-face). They liked the self-controllability in web-based interventions. They preferred web-based interventions to other types of interventions because of easy accessibility, but they were concerned about lack of interpersonal interaction. None of the White or African American women indicated the need for culture-specificity in web-based interventions, but Hispanic and Asian women indicated that culture-specific interventions should be provided. Web-based interventions appear to have several advantages over conventional approaches to promoting physical activity.

  16. Effects of a Competency-Based Professional Development Training on Children's Physical Activity and Staff Physical Activity Promotion in Summer Day Camps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Webster, Collin A.; Moore, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The YMCA of the USA serves more than nine million youth in its summer day camping programs nationwide. In spring 2011, the YMCA of Columbia, SC, with support from the University of South Carolina, adopted a competency-based staff-level training approach in an attempt to align staff behaviors with the YMCA of the USA new physical activity standards…

  17. Understanding Measures of Magnetic Activity Using Physics-based Models of the Solar Interior and Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbett, W. P.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    Substantial progress has been made over the past decade in the effort to better understand how magnetic flux and energy is generated in the convective interior of the Sun, how it emerges into the solar atmosphere, and how manifestations of solar magnetic activity (such as sunspots, coronal mass ejections, and flares) are connected within a dynamic magnetic environment spanning the solar convection zone-to-corona system. Here, we present a brief overview of recent efforts to model the evolution of active region magnetic fields and sunspots over a range of physical conditions and spatial and temporal scales. We will focus on how dynamic, physics-based numerical models can be used to better understand observed relationships between different measures of solar activity as a function of time (e.g., sunspot activity and morphologies, unsigned magnetic flux measured at the photosphere, coronal X-ray emissivity). We will determine whether local physics-based models of active region evolution can be used to better constrain proxies of solar activity such as the sunspot number, which remains the only direct record available to trace the very long-term influence of the solar dynamo on the earth's environment.

  18. Roles and strategies of state organizations related to school-based physical education and physical activity policies.

    PubMed

    Cradock, Angie L; Barrett, Jessica L; Carnoske, Cheryl; Chriqui, Jamie F; Evenson, Kelly R; Gustat, Jeanette; Healy, Isobel B; Heinrich, Katie M; Lemon, Stephenie C; Tompkins, Nancy Oʼhara; Reed, Hannah L; Zieff, Susan G

    2013-01-01

    School-based physical education (PE) and physical activity (PA) policies can improve PA levels of students and promote health. Studies of policy implementation, communication, monitoring, enforcement, and evaluation are lacking. To describe how states implement, communicate, monitor, enforce, and evaluate key school-based PE and PA policies, researchers interviewed 24 key informants from state-level organizations in 9 states, including representatives from state departments of health and education, state boards of education, and advocacy/professional organizations. These states educate 27% of the US student population. Key informants described their organizations' roles in addressing 14 school-based PE and PA state laws and regulations identified by the Bridging the Gap research program and the National Cancer Institute's Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (C.L.A.S.S.) system. On average, states had 4 of 14 school-based PE and PA laws and regulations, and more than one-half of respondents reported different policies in practice besides the "on the books" laws. Respondents more often reported roles implementing and communicating policies compared with monitoring, enforcing, and evaluating them. Implementation and communication strategies used included training, technical assistance, and written communication of policy to local education agency administrators and teachers. State-level organizations have varying roles in addressing school-based PE and PA policies. Opportunities exist to focus state-level efforts on compliance with existing laws and regulations and evaluation of their impact.

  19. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  20. Evaluation of a Community-Based Intervention To Promote Physical Activity in Youth: Lessons from Active Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Ward, Dianne S.; Felton, Gwen; Trost, Stewart G.; Dowda, Marsha

    2003-01-01

    Tested the effectiveness of a community-based intervention designed to promote physical activity among rural fifth graders. Data on students who participated in after-school and summer programs and home, school, and community interventions indicated that the after-school and summer interventions were implemented as planned, but the home, school,…

  1. Home-based system for physical activity monitoring in patients with multiple sclerosis (Pilot study)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    = 0.08). Conclusions In this study, we used a portable activity monitoring sensor to gather information about everyday physical activity in PwMS at home. We showed that objective measurements using simple 3D accelerometers can track daily physical activity fluctuation. Furthermore, they track disability changes better than clinical measures. Thus, they can help to develop activity based treatments for PwMS. PMID:24502230

  2. Investigating the applicability of activity-based quantum mechanics in a few high school physics classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escalada, Lawrence Todd

    Quantum physics is not traditionally introduced in high school physics courses because of the level of abstraction and mathematical formalism associated with the subject. As part of the Visual Quantum Mechanics project, activity-based instructional units have been developed that introduce quantum principles to students who have limited backgrounds in physics and mathematics. This study investigates the applicability of one unit, Solids & Light, that introduces quantum principles within the context of learning about light emitting diodes. An observation protocol, attitude surveys, and questionnaires were used to examine the implementation of materials and student-teacher interactions in various secondary physics classrooms. Aspects of Solids & Light including the use of hands-on activities, interactive computer programs, inexpensive materials, and the focus on conceptual understanding were very applicable in the various physics classrooms observed. Both teachers and students gave these instructional strategies favorable ratings in motivating students to make observations and to learn. These ratings were not significantly affected by gender or students, attitudes towards physics or computers. Solid's & Light was applicable in terms of content and teaching style for some teachers. However, a mismatch of teaching styles between some instructors and the unit posed some problems in determining applicability. Observations indicated that some instructors were not able to utilize the exploratory instructional strategy of Solid's & Light. Thus, Solids & Light must include additional support necessary to make the instructor comfortable with the subject matter and pedagogical style. With these revisions, Solids & Light, will have all the key components to make its implementation in a high school physics classroom a successful one.

  3. Efficacy of a Web-Based, Center-Based or Combined Physical Activity Intervention among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouton, Alexandre; Cloes, Marc

    2015-01-01

    With more social support and environment-centered interventions being recommended in web-based interventions, this study examined the efficacy of three intervention conditions aimed at promoting physical activity (PA) in older adults. The efficacy analyses included the self-reported PA level, stage of change for PA and awareness about PA among…

  4. Adapting a Community-Based Physical Activity Promotion Program for Rural, Diverse Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colquitt, Gavin; Walker, Ashley; Alfonso, Moya

    2014-01-01

    With school-aged youth spending less time in physical education, school-community-university partnerships offer potential to promote physical activity among school-aged youth. The VERB™ Summer Scorecard (VSS) program was designed in Lexington, Kentucky, to promote physical activity among "tweens" (8- to 13-year-olds). VSS since has been…

  5. Associations of Monitor-Assessed Activity with Performance-Based Physical Function

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Natasha; Daly, Robin M.; Winkler, Elisabeth A. H.; Gardiner, Paul A.; Eakin, Elizabeth G.; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W.; Healy, Genevieve N.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional associations of monitor-derived measures of sedentary time and physical activity with performance-based physical function in healthy Australian adults. Data from 602 participants (mean age 58.1±10.0 years; 58% female) from the 2011/12 wave of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab3) study were analyzed. The thigh-worn activPAL3™ monitor (7-days continuous wear) was used to derive time during waking hours spent: sitting/reclining; standing; and, stepping (overall, and separately as light [<3 METs] and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA; ≥3 METs]), and number of sit-stand transitions. Associations of these (in hours/day, or 15 transitions/day) with physical function measures (8ft Timed Up and Go [TUG-8; log-transformed seconds] and Knee Extensor Strength [KES; kg]) were tested via linear regression, adjusting for confounders. Interactions by sex and age-category (<45; 45–54; 55–64; ≥65 years) were tested. In all participants, KES was significantly (p<0.05) associated with stepping and MVPA stepping only; none of the activity measures were associated with TUG-8. However, subgroup analysis revealed that in older adults (≥65 years), TUG-8 was associated with stepping and MVPA stepping (both p<0.05). All associations with sitting time, standing, sit-stand transition and sex interactions were not statistically significant. In summary, sitting time was not significantly associated with impaired muscle strength or gait/mobility in Australian adults aged 36–80 years, but light- to moderate activity (stepping) was positively associated with muscle strength, and gait/mobility in older adults aged ≥65 years. The direction of causation is not known and remains important to investigate considering the high prevalence of both poor function and limited activity in older age. PMID:27073888

  6. ZigBee-based wireless multi-sensor system for physical activity assessment.

    PubMed

    Mo, Lingfei; Liu, Shaopeng; Gao, Robert X; John, Dinesh; Staudenmayer, John; Freedson, Patty

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is important for assessing human exposure to the environment. This paper presents a ZigBee-based Wireless wearable multi-sensor Integrated Measurement System (WIMS) for in-situ PA measurement. Two accelerometers, a piezoelectric displacement sensor, and an ultraviolet (UV) sensor have been used for the physical activity assessment. Detailed analysis was performed for the hardware design and embedded program control, enabling efficient data sampling and transmission, compact design, and extended battery life to meet requirements for PA assessment under free-living conditions. Preliminary testing of the WIMS has demonstrated the functionality of the design, while performance comparison of the WIMS with a wired version on an electromagnetic shaker has demonstrated the signal validity.

  7. [Evaluation of the effectiveness of home-based physical activity promotion by community health workers].

    PubMed

    Costa, Evelyn Fabiana; Andrade, Douglas Roque; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro; Ribeiro, Evelyn Helena Corgosinho; Santos, Taynã Ishi dos; Florindo, Alex Antonio

    2015-10-01

    This study analyzed the effectiveness of physical activity promotion by community health workers (CHW) during home visits. This was a non-randomized controlled trial that lasted six months, with one group of CHW that received training to promote physical activity during home visits among users of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and a control group. Physical activity and stages of behavior change were evaluated in 176 adults (n = 90 in the intervention group and n = 86 in the control group) assisted by the CHW. Associations, prevalence ratios, and generalized estimate equations were conducted to verify differences between groups. No evidence of differences in physical activity and stages of behavior change were observed between the two groups. CHW from the intervention group conducted more home visits promoting physical activity among elders, those with low schooling, unemployed, and those with chronic diseases. It is important to reassess the work and priorities of CHW to expand physical activity promotion under the SUS.

  8. Web-based assessments of physical activity in youth: considerations for design and scale calibration.

    PubMed

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the design and methods involved in calibrating a Web-based self-report instrument to estimate physical activity behavior. The limitations of self-report measures are well known, but calibration methods enable the reported information to be equated to estimates obtained from objective data. This paper summarizes design considerations for effective development and calibration of physical activity self-report measures. Each of the design considerations is put into context and followed by a practical application based on our ongoing calibration research with a promising online self-report tool called the Youth Activity Profile (YAP). We first describe the overall concept of calibration and how this influences the selection of appropriate self-report tools for this population. We point out the advantages and disadvantages of different monitoring devices since the choice of the criterion measure and the strategies used to minimize error in the measure can dramatically improve the quality of the data. We summarize strategies to ensure quality control in data collection and discuss analytical considerations involved in group- vs individual-level inference. For cross-validation procedures, we describe the advantages of equivalence testing procedures that directly test and quantify agreement. Lastly, we introduce the unique challenges encountered when transitioning from paper to a Web-based tool. The Web offers considerable potential for broad adoption but an iterative calibration approach focused on continued refinement is needed to ensure that estimates are generalizable across individuals, regions, seasons and countries.

  9. Physics-based enzyme design: predicting binding affinity and catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Sirin, Sarah; Pearlman, David A; Sherman, Woody

    2014-12-01

    Computational enzyme design is an emerging field that has yielded promising success stories, but where numerous challenges remain. Accurate methods to rapidly evaluate possible enzyme design variants could provide significant value when combined with experimental efforts by reducing the number of variants needed to be synthesized and speeding the time to reach the desired endpoint of the design. To that end, extending our computational methods to model the fundamental physical-chemical principles that regulate activity in a protocol that is automated and accessible to a broad population of enzyme design researchers is essential. Here, we apply a physics-based implicit solvent MM-GBSA scoring approach to enzyme design and benchmark the computational predictions against experimentally determined activities. Specifically, we evaluate the ability of MM-GBSA to predict changes in affinity for a steroid binder protein, catalytic turnover for a Kemp eliminase, and catalytic activity for α-Gliadin peptidase variants. Using the enzyme design framework developed here, we accurately rank the most experimentally active enzyme variants, suggesting that this approach could provide enrichment of active variants in real-world enzyme design applications.

  10. Adopting an Evidence-Based Lifestyle Physical Activity Program: Dissemination Study Design and Methods.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Andrea L; Buller, David B; Dearing, James W; Cutter, Gary; Guerra, Michele; Wilcox, Sara; Bettinghaus, Erwin P

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of research studies that have examined academic-commercial partnerships to disseminate evidence-based physical activity programs. Understanding this approach to dissemination is essential because academic-commercial partnerships are increasingly common. Private companies have used dissemination channels and strategies to a degree that academicians have not, and declining resources require academicians to explore these partnerships. PURPOSE: This paper describes a retrospective case-control study design including the methods, demographics, organizational decision-making, implementation rates, and marketing strategy for Active Living Every Day (ALED), an evidence-based lifestyle physical activity program that has been commercially available since 2001. Evidence-based public health promotion programs rely on organizations and targeted sectors to disseminate these programs although relatively little is known about organizational-level and sector-level influences that lead to their adoption and implementation. METHODS: Cases (n=154) were eligible if they had signed an ALED license agreement with Human Kinetics (HK), publisher of the program's textbooks and facilitator manuals, between 2001 and 2008. Two types of controls were matched (2:2:1) and stratified by sector and region. Active controls (Control 1; n=319) were organizations that contacted HK to consider adopting ALED. Passive controls (Control 2; n=328) were organizations that received unsolicited marketing materials and did not initiate contact with HK. We used Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DIT) constructs as the basis for developing the survey of cases and controls. RESULTS: Using the multi-method strategy recommended by Dillman, a total of n=801 cases and controls were surveyed. Most organizations were from the fitness sector followed by medical, nongovernmental, governmental, educational, worksite and other sectors with significantly higher response rates from government

  11. The Feasibility of Using Nature-Based Settings for Physical Activity Programming: Views from Urban Youth and Program Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Jedediah E.; Oregon, Evelyn M.; Flett, M. Ryan; Gould, Daniel R.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Given the urgency to design programs to increase physical activity, especially to combat obesity in children, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate perceptions and opinions of a nature-based physical activity intervention designed for low-income urban adolescents. Methods: Four focus groups of adolescents,…

  12. The Impact of Perceived Stress, Social Support, and Home-Based Physical Activity on Mental Health among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this…

  13. Development and Implementation of a Video-Based Physical Activity Preference Assessment for Children with Autism and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankovich, Lena

    2013-01-01

    Development and Implementation of a Video-Based Physical Activity Preference Assessment for Children with Autism and Their Parents Individuals with autism often lack the necessary motivation to engage in physical activity. In addition, due to the characteristics defining autism, such as deficits in social skills, motor coordination, and behavior,…

  14. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Cancer.gov

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  15. Recruitment strategies and costs for a community-based physical activity program.

    PubMed

    Peck, Lara E; Sharpe, Patricia A; Burroughs, Ericka L; Granner, Michelle L

    2008-04-01

    A community-based participatory research project using social marketing strategies was implemented to promote physical activity among women aged 35 to 54 who were insufficiently active or completely inactive. A variety of media were used to disseminate messages about how to enroll in Step Up. Step Out! This article describes the effectiveness and cost of the recruitment strategies and lessons learned in recruiting the women. Of the total inquiries (n = 691), 430 women were eligible and enrolled in the program. Based on data from questionnaires, the most effective method of recruiting women into Step Up. Step Out! was word of mouth (36%). Newspaper ads accounted for 29% of the women's responses. The least effective method was billboards. Mass media was not as effective in recruiting women for the program as interpersonal efforts such as word of mouth. Interpersonal efforts are a valuable and possibly underrated recruitment and promotion tool.

  16. Active 2D and carbon-based materials: physics and devices (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorger, Volker J.

    2016-09-01

    In nanophotonics we create material-systems, which are structured at length scales smaller than the wavelength of light. When light propagates inside such effective materials numerous novel physics phenomena emerge including thresholdless lasing, atto-joule per bit efficient modulators, and exciton-polariton effects. However, in order to make use of these opportunities, synergistic device designs have to be applied to include materials, electric and photonic constrains - all at the nanoscale. In this talk, I present our recent progress in exploring 2D and TCO materials for active optoelectronics. I highlight nanoscale device demonstrations including their physical operation principle and performance benchmarks. Details include epsilon-bear-zero tuning of thin-film ITO, Graphene electro-static gating via Pauli-blocking, plasmonic electro-optic modulation, and hetero-integrated III-V and carbon-based plasmon lasers on Silicon photonics.

  17. Enhancing the capacity to facilitate physical activity in home-based child care settings.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Patti-Jean; Temple, Viviene A

    2013-01-01

    Healthy Opportunities for Preschoolers (HOP) is a physical activity and movement skill intervention that was developed to address the unique needs of home-based child care providers. The authors used a train-the-trainer approach to enhance local uptake and implementation of HOP and examined the impact on the trainers' (workshop leaders') perceived knowledge, confidence, and intention to implement community workshops and subsequently on the knowledge, confidence, and intentions of workshop participants. This study also assessed feasibility: reach, satisfaction, and facilitators and barriers to workshop implementation. Overall, 92% and 89.5% of the leaders were very or extremely satisfied with the workshop content and delivery, respectively. Training significantly increased their self-reported knowledge (p < .001) and confidence (p < .001). Subsequently, 73% of workshop participants (48 workshops, n = 321) took part in the evaluation; intention to use what they learned after the workshop was high (86%) and perceived knowledge, confidence, and attitude all increased significantly (p < .001). The HOP train-the-trainer approach was feasible and enhanced knowledge, confidence, and readiness to change among home-based child care providers. This approach should be considered as a component of an overall strategy to enhance the promotion of physical activity and movement skills in home-based child care settings.

  18. Role of spontaneous physical activity in prediction of susceptibility to activity based anorexia in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Perez-Leighton, Claudio E; Grace, Martha; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M

    2014-08-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic eating disorder affecting females and males, defined by body weight loss, higher physical activity levels and restricted food intake. Currently, the commonalities and differences between genders in etiology of AN are not well understood. Animal models of AN, such as activity-based anorexia (ABA), can be helpful in identifying factors determining individual susceptibility to AN. In ABA, rodents are given an access to a running wheel while food restricted, resulting in paradoxical increased physical activity levels and weight loss. Recent studies suggest that different behavioral traits, including voluntary exercise, can predict individual weight loss in ABA. A higher inherent drive for movement may promote development and severity of AN, but this hypothesis remains untested. In rodents and humans, drive for movement is defined as spontaneous physical activity (SPA), which is time spent in low-intensity, non-volitional movements. In this paper, we show that a profile of body weight history and behavioral traits, including SPA, can predict individual weight loss caused by ABA in male and female rats with high accuracy. Analysis of the influence of SPA on ABA susceptibility in males and females rats suggests that either high or low levels of SPA increase the probability of high weight loss in ABA, but with larger effects in males compared to females. These results suggest that the same behavioral profile can identify individuals at-risk of AN for both male and female populations and that SPA has predictive value for susceptibility to AN.

  19. Telephone-Based Physical Activity Counseling for Major Depression in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bombardier, Charles H.; Ehde, Dawn M.; Gibbons, Laura E.; Wadhwani, Roini; Sullivan, Mark D.; Rosenberg, Dori E.; Kraft, George H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Physical activity represents a promising treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). We conducted a single-blind, two-arm randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-week physical activity counseling intervention delivered primarily by telephone (n = 44) to a wait-list control group (N = 48).…

  20. Implementation of a School-Based State Policy to Increase Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Ballard, Kymm; Lee, Ginny; Ammerman, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Background: In 2005, the North Carolina State Board of Education updated the Healthy Active Children Policy to include a requirement that all kindergarten through eighth-grade children receive at least 30 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity each school day through physical education, recess, and other creative approaches. This study…

  1. Evidence-Based Practice Guideline: Increasing Physical Activity in Schools--Kindergarten through 8th Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagby, Karen; Adams, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Because of the growing obesity epidemic across all age groups in the United States, interventions to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors have become a priority. Evidence is growing that interventions to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors have positive results and are generally inexpensive to implement.…

  2. Effects of a Community-Based, Professionally Supervised Intervention on Physical Activity Levels Among Residents of Recife, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hallal, Pedro; Pratt, Michael; Ramos, Luiz; Munk, Marcia; Damascena, Wilson; Parra Perez, Diana; Hoehner, Christine M.; Gilbertz, David; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Brownson, Ross C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effects of a community-based intervention, the Academia da Cidade program (ACP), on increasing leisure-time physical activity among residents of Recife, Brazil. Methods. We used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess leisure-time physical activity and transport physical activity (i.e., activities involved in traveling from place to place) levels in a random sample of 2047 Recife residents surveyed in 2007. We also examined factors related to exposure to ACP (participation in the intervention, residing near an intervention site, hearing about or seeing intervention activities). We estimated prevalence odds ratios (ORs) of moderate to high leisure-time and transport physical activity levels via intervention exposures adjusted for sociodemographic, health, and environmental variables. Results. Prevalence ORs for moderate to high levels of leisure-time physical activity were higher among former (prevalence OR = 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 3.9) and current (prevalence OR = 11.3; 95% CI = 3.5, 35.9) intervention participants and those who had heard about or seen an intervention activity (prevalence OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.5). Transport physical activity levels were inversely associated with residing near an ACP site. Conclusions. The ACP program appears to be an effective public health strategy to increase population-level physical activity in urban developing settings. PMID:19008499

  3. Improving Adherence Physical Activity with a Smartphone Application Based on Adults with Intellectual Disabilities (APPCOID)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have lower levels of physical activity and quality of life and they have a lot of barriers to face when taking part in physical activity. Other problems are the poor adherence to physical activity such people have so this study is designed to improve adherence to physical activity for people with intellectual disabilities with the assistance of an application for smartphones. The aim of the study will be to improve physical activity and physical condition after multimodal intervention and to analyse the promotion of adherence to physical activity through a multimodal intervention and an app intervention (mHealth) in people with ID. Methods A two-stage study will be conducted. In stage 1 a multimodal intervention will take place will be done with physical activity and educational advice over eight weeks, two days a week. Data will be measured after and before the intervention. In stage 2 a randomized controlled trial will be conducted. In the intervention group we will install an application to a smartphone; this application will be a reminder to do a physical activity and they have to select whether they have or haven’t done a physical activity every day. This application will be installed for 18 weeks. Data will be measured after and before the application is installed in two groups. We will measure results 10 weeks later when the two groups don’t have the reminder. The principal outcome used to measure the adherence to physical activity will be the International Physical Activity Questionnaire; secondary outcomes will be a fun-fitness test and self-report survey about quality of life, self-efficacy and social support. Samples will be randomized by sealed envelope in two groups, with approximately 20 subjects in each group. It’s important to know that the therapist will be blinded and won’t know the subjects of each group. Discussion Offering people with ID a multimodal intervention and tool to

  4. Asthma and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Oseid, S

    1982-01-01

    Physical activity regularly leads to a decline in lung function in children and adolescents with asthma. This decline is a consequence of what is known as exercise-induced asthma (EIA), and can be determined and graded with the help of lung function tests before and after submaximal workloads on the ergometer cycle or the treadmill. Typical EIA appears in asthmatic individuals with entirely normal lung function before the effort, but EIA may also become clinically manifest with exercise in patients who have a subclinical degree of obstruction. The grade of EIA is essentially dependent on the duration and intensity of effort but also on the type of exercise. For example, free running causes much greater bronchoconstriction than swimming. The temperature and humidity of the inspired air may partially explain this difference. At the Voksentoppen Allergy Institute we find that about 85% of children develop a fall in lung function of 15% or more after a six minute ergometer cycle test. With typical EIA the fall may be totally or partially abolished by prophylactic medication 10 minutes before the start of the test. Disodium cromoglycate (Intal) and/or beta-adrenergic drugs are regularly used before all physical activity. Training programmes must be based on the interval principle. Swimming, ball games, relay races and dancing are examples of useful activities in the training and rehabilitation of children and adolescents with asthma. Through prophylactic medication and physical training, the aerobic work capacity, muscle strength and lung function in asthmatic children is improved. Training also leads to a significant mobilisation of mental resources and an increase in social integration.

  5. Effects of Requiring Physical Fitness in a Lecture-Based College Course: Students' Attitudes toward Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esslinger, Keri A.; Grimes, Amanda R.; Pyle, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated students' attitudes toward physical activity (PA) when including a required PA component in a university-required personal wellness class. The study included (a) an experimental group of students enrolled in a personal wellness course in which there was a required PA requirement and (b) a control group of students…

  6. Effect of a 6-month school-based physical activity program on body composition and physical fitness in lean and obese schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Thivel, David; Isacco, Laurie; Lazaar, Nordine; Aucouturier, Julien; Ratel, Sébastien; Doré, Eric; Meyer, Martine; Duché, Pascale

    2011-11-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of school-based physical activity interventions on anthropometric characteristics concomitantly with aerobic and anaerobic capacities in young children. The present study aimed to assess the effect of a 6-month physical activity program on body composition and physical fitness among primary schoolchildren. Four hundred fifty-seven children aged 6 to 10 years were randomly assigned to the intervention group (229 children) or observational group (228 children). Participants' height and weight were assessed, and obesity was determined using French reference curves for BMI. The sum of the four skinfolds and fat-free mass were determined. Ground tests were used to assess aerobic (20-m shuttle run test) and anaerobic (cycling peak power) fitness before and after a 6-month physical activity intervention. The anthropometric modifications obtained over the 6 months cannot be attributed to the intervention as the ANOVA revealed no group effect (intervention vs. group). However, anaerobic and aerobic fitness were significantly improved, thanks to the program in both lean and obese children. A 6-month school-based physical activity intervention in 6- to 10-year-old children did not yield positive anthropometric improvements, but appears effective in terms of aerobic and anaerobic physical fitness. Two physical activity sessions per week in addition to standard physical education classes in primary schoolchildren bring effective results for the prevention of childhood obesity.

  7. Intensity of commonly-reported classroom-based physical activity opportunities in public schools.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Timothy K; Holeva, Whitney M; Carpenter, Dick; Tucker, Elizabeth; Luna, Carmen; Donovan, John; Field, Julaine; Kelly, Cheryl

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the intensity levels of PA opportunities offered in public school classrooms. Schools (N = 101) in school districts (N = 25) reported PA opportunities offered in classrooms using an online data collection tool over a two-year period (2014-2016). Using a randomized sampling technique, 20-30% of teachers in each school were selected each week to report PA in their classroom. These responses resulted in N = 18,210 usable responses. A researcher determined the intensity of PA opportunities using the 2011 Compendium of Physical Activities as a guideline; two additional researchers confirmed the coded categories. A descriptive analysis of PA opportunities was conducted to describe the proportion of opportunities whose intensity levels were light (LPA), moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA), sedentary (SED), and those of unknown intensity. Chi-square analyses were utilized to examine differences between proportions of intensity levels offered by semester. Kruskal-Wallace tests were utilized to examine differences in proportion of physical activity opportunity intensity offered by grade level. Most PA opportunities were MPA (58.7%), followed by VPA (17.6%) and LPA (11.5%). Few responses were SED (0.5%), and 11.6% were of indeterminate intensity. A greater proportion of more physically intense activities reported during the fall versus spring semesters (p < 0.0001). Differences in the intensity levels of PA offered by grade also differed, with a trend of decreasing intensity as grade level increased (p < 0.0001). This study provides insight into the PA actually occurring in classrooms; a previously underexplored construct of school-based PA.

  8. The Use of Cross-Curricular Activity on Interactive Playgrounds to Supplement School-Based Physical Activity: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Amy; Dotterweich, Andy R.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity and physical inactivity are serious threats to the health and wellness of our schoolchildren. Research has shown that play and physical activity are important in development, behaviour and academic achievement. Through the efforts of coordinated school health program and a Physical Education for Progress grant, a county school…

  9. Community-based interventions to promote increased physical activity: a primer.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Melissa; Fallon, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Current recommendations, based on an abundance of empirical data documenting the impact of physical activity (PA) on preventing morbidity and mortality associated with common chronic diseases, indicate that adults should accumulate 30 minutes of moderate-intensity PA > or =5 days per week. However, worldwide rates of PA remain low, indicating a great need for large-scale implementation of evidence-based PA interventions. We briefly present practical aspects of intervention planning, implementation and evaluation within common community settings. The first stage of intervention planning is formative research, which allows for a better understanding of the elements needed for a successful intervention. Partnering with community settings (schools, worksites, faith-based organizations and healthcare organizations) offers many benefits and the opportunity to reach specific populations. Setting-based approaches allow for multilevel strategies, ranging from individual-based programmes and educational initiatives to physical and social environmental changes. Various settings such as healthcare, worksite, and school- and community-based settings are discussed. Intervention delivery methods and strategies can range, depending on the population and setting targeted, from small-group approaches to mediated methods (e.g. print, telephone, electronic). The final phase of intervention planning and implementation is evaluation. Several objective and subjective methods of PA assessment are available to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. We have highlighted the need for process evaluation of intervention implementation to provide valuable information for the dissemination and sustainability of successful interventions. Although there are numerous considerations for the design, implementation, assessment and evaluation of PA interventions, the potential for positive impact on the overall health of the public indicates the necessity for programmes designed to increase PA.

  10. Physical activity of Polish adolescents and young adults according to IPAQ: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Bergier, Józef; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Biliński, Przemysław; Paprzycki, Piotr; Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The alarming problem of a decline in physical activity among children and adolescents and its detrimental effects on public health has been well recognised worldwide. Low physical activity is responsible for 6% of deaths worldwide and 5-10% of deaths in the countries of the WHO European Region, according to country. Within the last decade, many initiatives have been launched to counteract this phenomenon. The objective of presented study was analysis of the level of physical activity among adolescents and young adults in Poland, according to the IPAQ questionnaire. The study group covered 7,716 adolescents: 5,086 children attending high school and secondary schools and 2,630 university students. Low physical activity was noted among 57% of schoolchildren and 20.84% of students. Analysis of the level of physical activity according to the IPAQ indicated that it was lower among girls, compared to boys. An additional analysis, with the consideration of the place of residence, showed that the highest percentage of the population with low physical activity was noted in the rural areas (29.30%), while among the urban inhabitants of cities with a population above 100,000 it was on the level of 23.69% and 20.57%. Median for weekly physical activity by respondents" gender was on the level of 1,554.00 MET*min. weekly among females, and 2,611.00 MET*min. weekly among males (p<0.000). The highest weekly physical activity expressed in MET*min. was observed among the inhabitants of towns with a population less than 100,000, whereas among the rural population and inhabitants of large cities with a population of over 100,000 the weekly physical activity was on a similar level (1,830.50 and 1,962.00 respectively). An extended analysis of respondents' physical activity showed that during the day students spend significantly more time in a sedentary position, compared to schoolchildren. The presented results of studies indicate the necessity to continue and intensify actions to

  11. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-04-22

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter.

  12. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter. PMID:27103586

  13. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-04-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter.

  14. Feasibility of a Dynamic Web Guidance Approach for Personalized Physical Activity Prescription Based on Daily Information From Wearable Technology

    PubMed Central

    Coolbaugh, Crystal L; Raymond Jr, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    Background Computer tailored, Web-based interventions have emerged as an effective approach to promote physical activity. Existing programs, however, do not adjust activities according to the participant’s compliance or physiologic adaptations, which may increase risk of injury and program attrition in sedentary adults. To address this limitation, objective activity monitor (AM) and heart rate data could be used to guide personalization of physical activity, but improved Web-based frameworks are needed to test such interventions. Objective The objective of this study is to (1) develop a personalized physical activity prescription (PPAP) app that combines dynamic Web-based guidance with multi-sensor AM data to promote physical activity and (2) to assess the feasibility of using this system in the field. Methods The PPAP app was constructed using an open-source software platform and a custom, multi-sensor AM capable of accurately measuring heart rate and physical activity. A novel algorithm was written to use a participant’s compliance and physiologic response to aerobic training (ie, changes in daily resting heart rate) recorded by the AM to create daily, personalized physical activity prescriptions. In addition, the PPAP app was designed to (1) manage the transfer of files from the AM to data processing software and a relational database, (2) provide interactive visualization features such as calendars and training tables to encourage physical activity, and (3) enable remote administrative monitoring of data quality and participant compliance. A 12-week feasibility study was performed to assess the utility and limitations of the PPAP app used by sedentary adults in the field. Changes in physical activity level and resting heart rate were monitored throughout the intervention. Results The PPAP app successfully created daily, personalized physical activity prescriptions and an interactive Web environment to guide and promote physical activity by the participants

  15. Effects of a Promotor-Based Intervention to Promote Physical Activity: Familias Sanas y Activas

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. This within-participants, single time-series study tested a train-the-trainer, promotor-based physical activity (PA) intervention to improve fitness and health indicators. Methods. Thirty unpaid promotores were trained to promote PA through free exercise classes. Measurements of 337 female community participants at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months assessed changes in health indicators, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index (defined as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters), aerobic fitness, and hamstring flexibility, as well as self-reported health indicators (PA, depression) and psychosocial factors (barriers, self-efficacy, and social support—all specific to PA). Results. Mixed effects models showed intervention participation improved systolic blood pressure (P ≤ .001), waist circumference (P ≤ .001), fitness (P ≤ .001), and hamstring flexibility (P ≤ .001). We also noted improvements in use of community resources (P ≤ .05), depressed mood and anhedonia (P ≤ .01), perceived barriers to be physically active (P ≤ .05), and community support for PA (P ≤ .001). Self-efficacy decreased (P ≤ .05), and participation dose (i.e., exposure), as measured by attendance at exercise classes, was not associated with observed changes. Conclusions. Promotores can promote PA in their community and achieve meaningful changes in the residents' health. PMID:22021294

  16. Stages of change for physical activity in adults from Southern Brazil: a population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Dumith, Samuel C; Gigante, Denise P; Domingues, Marlos R

    2007-01-01

    Background There is evidence that physical activity (PA) interventions tailored to individual's stages of change (SoC) are more effective in promote behavior change than "one-size-fits-all" interventions. However, only a few researches have investigated these stages towards PA behavior in representative samples of the population. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with the SoC for PA in a probabilistic sample of adults aged 20 years or over. Methods A population-based survey was undertaken in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2005. An algorithm was applied to evaluate the SoC for PA, and PA was defined as being engaged in moderate-to-vigorous PA for at least 20 minutes on three times per week. The covariates collected in the questionnaire were: sex, age, skin color, marital status, education level, economic status, family income, smoking, body mass index (BMI) and self-reported health status. Data analyses were performed through Poisson and multinomial regression, taking the sampling design into account. Results Face-to-face interviews were applied to 3136 individuals, corresponding to a response rate of 93.5%. The prevalence across the stages was as follows: 38.3% in precontemplation, 13.0% in contemplation, 19.5% in preparation, 5.2% in action and 24.0% in maintenance. The elderly, married, smokers, and those with lower socioeconomic status were less likely to adopt, initiate and maintain regular PA. Conclusion Despite the all benefits of PA, a high proportion of adults from Southern Brazil are physically inactive and do not present intention to engage in regular PA. The profile of those who are inactive but intend to do PA resembles those who are physically active. The findings of the present study can contribute to improve health behaviors and to plan health promotion strategies aimed at increasing the level of PA in the community. PMID:17555603

  17. Peer 2 Peer: Efficacy of a Course-Based Peer Education Intervention to Increase Physical Activity among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Jennifer; Mattern, Craig O.; Lassiter, Jill W.; Ritzler, Julia A.

    2011-01-01

    There are few physical activity (PA) interventions in higher education, and they have been only minimally effective. Objective: To determine if a course-based, peer education intervention was associated with increases in PA and physical fitness. Participants: Participants were 178 students enrolled in a personal health class during the 2007-2008…

  18. Moderators of Theory-Based Interventions to Promote Physical Activity in 77 Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Paquito; Carayol, Marion; Gourlan, Mathieu; Boiché, Julie; Romain, Ahmed Jérôme; Bortolon, Catherine; Lareyre, Olivier; Ninot, Gregory

    2017-04-01

    A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has recently showed that theory-based interventions designed to promote physical activity (PA) significantly increased PA behavior. The objective of the present study was to investigate the moderators of the efficacy of these theory-based interventions. Seventy-seven RCTs evaluating theory-based interventions were systematically identified. Sample, intervention, methodology, and theory implementation characteristics were extracted, coded by three duos of independent investigators, and tested as moderators of interventions effect in a multiple-meta-regression model. Three moderators were negatively associated with the efficacy of theory-based interventions on PA behavior: intervention length (≥14 weeks; β = -.22, p = .004), number of experimental patients (β = -.10, p = .002), and global methodological quality score (β = -.08, p = .04). Our findings suggest that the efficacy of theory-based interventions to promote PA could be overestimated consequently due to methodological weaknesses of RCTs and that interventions shorter than 14 weeks could maximize the increase of PA behavior.

  19. [Physical activity based on the new health promotion perspective: contradictions of an institutional program].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marcos Santos; Castiel, Luis David; Cardoso, Maria Helena Cabral de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to discuss how the ambiguity of health promotion occurs in one physical activity institutional program. Firstly, different approaches to health promotion are presented as embodiments of such ambiguities. Then, after a brief discussion about manifestations of such ambiguity in everyday media coverage, we analyze the Agita São Paulo Program, regarded by the World Health Organization as an example of health promotion initiative. The conclusion is that, in spite of being under the umbrella of the so-called new health promotion movement, the Agita São Paulo Program is based upon behavioral/conservative approaches of health promotion because it demonizes sedentarism, blames its followers and supports its strategies in terms of behavioral changes as a way of reducing epidemiologic risks, in spite of social, economic and cultural determinants.

  20. Interrelationships of adolescent physical activity, screen-based sedentary behaviour, and social and psychological health

    PubMed Central

    Iannotti, Ronald J.; Janssen, Ian; Haug, Ellen; Kololo, Hanna; Annaheim, Beatrice; Borraccino, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objectives To examine how adolescent physical activity (PA) and screen-based media sedentary behaviours (SBM) relate to psychological and social health and identify cross-national differences in these relationships. Methods Associations were examined in five regions using two Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) countries from each. Results Self-reported psychological and social health indices such as self-image, perceived health status, and quality of life were positively related to PA in all five regions but, with a few exceptions, negatively related to SBM. Negative health indices such as health complaints and tobacco use were negatively related to PA but, with exceptions, positively related to SBM. Significant regional differences were present. Conclusions Regional differences in correlates of PA and SBM suggest cultural differences in potential effects of PA and SBM and the need to tailor school and public health efforts to the different meanings of PA and SBM for positive and negative health consequences. PMID:19639256

  1. [Approaching Physically Inactive Elderly for Physical Activity].

    PubMed

    Allmer, H; Allmer, M; Euskirchen, J; Froböse, I; Wallmann, B; Walter, T; Walschek, R

    2015-09-01

    The majority of elderly persons are still not sufficiently physically active. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate different approaches (physical activity courses, poster, online-survey) for activating elderly to participate in physical activity. The most effective approach was target group physical activity courses with which higher course participation rates in men as well as in people with lower levels of education were achieved. Referring to the transtheoretical model (TTM) it is necessary for future analyses of target group approaches to consider more intensely the initial motivational position of physically inactive elderly.

  2. Evaluation of Work Place Group and Internet Based Physical Activity Interventions on Psychological Variables Associated with Exercise Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Kimberley A.; Tracey, Jill; Berry, Tanya

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy) and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an “unhappy employee ”typology. Key pointsGroup-based physical activity interventions are capable of improving exercise self-efficacy and barrier self-efficacy.At pretest, participants who selected the internet physical activity intervention were significantly lower in job and life satisfaction than those who selected the group-intervention.While the internet intervention attracted more participants, the group-based physical activity intervention was more successful at changing cognitions associated with successful exercise behavior change. PMID:24149963

  3. Point-of-decision prompts for increasing park-based physical activity: a crowdsource analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja A.; Hipp, J. Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the potential efficacy of using point-of-decision prompts to influence intentions to be active in a park setting. Methods In June 2013, participants from across the U.S. (n=250) completed an online experiment using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk and Survey Monkey. Participants were randomly exposed to a park photo containing a persuasive, theoretically-based message in the form of a sign (treatment) or an identical photo with no sign (control). Differences in intentions to engage in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity within the park were examined between the two conditions for multiple gender, age, and race groups. Results Participants who were exposed to the park photo with the sign reported significantly greater intentions to be active than those who viewed the photo without a sign. This effect was especially strong for women compared to men, but no differences were observed across age or race groups. Conclusion Point-of-decision prompts are a relatively inexpensive, simple, sustainable, and scalable strategy for evoking behavior change in parks and further testing of diverse messages in actual park settings is warranted. PMID:25204987

  4. Correlation between vitamin D levels and muscle fatigue risk factors based on physical activity in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Einas S; Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of serum vitamin D levels with physical activity, obesity, muscle fatigue biomarkers, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in healthy older adults. Methods A total of 85 healthy older subjects aged 64–96 years were recruited in this study. Based on estimated energy expenditure scores, the participants were classified into three groups: inactive (n=25), moderate (n=20), and physically active (n=35). Serum 25(OH)D (25-hydroxy vitamin D) levels, metabolic syndrome parameters, TAC activity, muscle fatigue biomarkers (Ca, creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline), physical activity, body fatness, and fatigue score (visual analog scale) were estimated using immunoassay techniques and prevalidated questionnaires, respectively. Results Physical activity was estimated in 64.6% of the participants. Males showed higher physical activity (42.5%) compared to females (26.25%). Compared to participants with lower activity, significant reduction in body mass index, waist circumference, hips, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were observed in moderate and physically active participants. Also, significant increase in the levels of serum 25(OH)D concentrations, calcium, and TAC activity along with reduction in the levels of muscle fatigue biomarkers: creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline, and fatigue scores (visual analog scale) were reported in physically active participants compared to those of lower physical activity. In all participants, serum 25(OH)D concentrations correlated positively with Ca, TAC, physical activity scores, and negatively with body mass index, lipid profile, fatigue scores (visual analog scale), and muscle fatigue biomarkers. Stepwise regression analysis showed that serum 25(OH)D concentrations, physical activity, Ca, TAC, and demographic parameters explained

  5. The effects on community college student physics achievement and attitudes about learning physics due to inquiry-based laboratory activities versus cookbook laboratory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nock, George Allen Brittingham

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the effects on community college student physics conceptual achievement and attitudes about learning physics due to the use of inquiry-based laboratory activities versus cookbook laboratory activities. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed to test for differences in mean post-test Force Concept Inventory (FCI) score for two different types of physics lab instruction (IL versus CBL). Results of the ANCOVA, F (1, 35) = 0.761, p < 0.389, supported the null hypothesis that no significant difference was found in the post-test FCI scores of the two groups. An ANCOVA was performed to test for differences in mean post-test Mechanics Baseline Test (MBT) score for two different types of physics lab instruction (IL versus CBL)., however, the covariate and the dependent variable were shown to not be linearly related. Therefore, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare MBT scores. The results of the ANOVA, F (1, 36) = 0.066, p < 0.798, supported the null hypothesis that there was no significant difference in MBT scores of the two groups. A step-wise multiple linear regression was used to analyze the relationships between the FCI post-test score and the type of instruction, FCI pre-test score, and American College Test (ACT) science reasoning sub-scores. The FCI pre-test score and ACT science score were shown to be the best predictors of FCI post-test score. Another step-wise multiple linear regression was used to analyze the relationships between the MBT post-test score and type of instruction, MBT pre-test score, and ACT science reasoning sub-scores. The ACT Science sub-scores were determined to be the best predictor of MBT post-test score. An independent t-test was used to compare the mean lecture test grades for the lab groups taught using inquiry and cookbook methods. The mean lecture test scores of the inquiry-based lab group (M = 81.39, S.D. = 8.15) were found to be significantly

  6. Longitudinal comparison of a physiotherapist-led, home-based and group-based program for increasing physical activity in community-dwelling middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Freene, Nicole; Waddington, Gordon; Davey, Rachel; Cochrane, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared the longer-term effects of physical activity interventions. Here we compare a 6-month physiotherapist-led, home-based physical activity program to a community group exercise program over 2 years. Healthy, sedentary community-dwelling 50-65 year olds were recruited to a non-randomised community group exercise program (G, n = 93) or a physiotherapist-led, home-based physical activity program (HB, n = 65). Outcomes included 'sufficient' physical activity (Active Australia Survey), minutes of moderate-vigorous physical activity (ActiGraph GT1M), aerobic capacity (2-min step-test), quality of life (SF-12v2), blood pressure, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Using intention-to-treat analysis, both interventions resulted in significant and sustainable increases in the number of participants achieving 'sufficient' physical activity (HB 22 v. 41%, G 22 v. 47%, P ≤ 0.001) and decreases in waist circumference (HB 90 v. 89 cm, G 93 v. 91 cm, P < 0.001) over 2 years. The home-based program was less costly (HB A$47 v. G $84 per participant) but less effective in achieving the benefits at 2 years. The physiotherapist-led, home-based physical activity program may be a low-cost alternative to increase physical activity levels for those not interested in, or unable to attend, a group exercise program.

  7. Are neuronal activity-associated magnetic fields the physical base for memory?

    PubMed

    Banaclocha, M A M

    2002-11-01

    Despite intensive investigation into the mechanisms underlying the memory process, the physical bases for this superior cognitive function remain elusive. Recall of past events and actions depends on the generation of complex memory carriers that would have to integrate many items of information. Some human memory processes, like contextual recall, work at such high speed and integrate such a large number of cortical neurons and neuronal networks that molecular mechanisms of information storage and synaptic transmission seem insufficient. This limitation argues against molecular information storage mechanisms as being truly effective carriers for the memory process. In this paper, I propose that any type of information can be stored in the form of 'neuronal activity-associated magnetic fields' that would record information in much the same way as the magnetic tape of a tape recorder. Integration and/or combination of the neuronal activity-associated magnetic fields throughout the complex three-dimensional structure of the human cortex could provide a storage medium for high-speed processing and discrimination that would support the complexity of the human memory process.

  8. Physical activity levels and patterns in older adults: the influence of a DVD-based exercise program.

    PubMed

    Gothe, Neha P; Wójcicki, Thomas R; Olson, Erin A; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Chung, H David; Zuniga, Krystle E; Mackenzie, Michael J; Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward

    2015-02-01

    The use of multimedia to influence health behaviors offers unique advantages over more traditional center-based programs, however, little is known about the effectiveness of such approaches in improving physical activity levels over time. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a progressive and age-appropriate, DVD-delivered exercise program in promoting physical activity levels among older adult cohorts. Community dwelling older adults (N = 307, Mean age = 71 years) were randomized to one of two groups: a 6-month home-based DVD-delivered exercise (i.e., FlexToBa™) intervention group or a healthy aging DVD control group. Physical activity was assessed objectively using a standard 7-day accelerometer wear period and subjectively using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, at baseline and follow-up. Analysis of covariances indicated a statistically significant treatment effect for subjectively [F(1,250) = 8.42, P = .004, η(2) = .03] and objectively [F(1,240) = 3.77, P = .05, η(2) = .02] measured physical activity. The older cohort (>70) in the FlexToBa condition further had significantly larger improvements in physical activity levels compared to their younger counterparts. From a public health perspective, media-delivered interventions such as the FlexToBa program might prove to be cost-effective, have a broader reach and at the same time be effective in improving physical activity levels in older adults.

  9. A Physically based Model of the Ionizing Radiation from Active Galaxies for Photoionization Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, A. D.; Groves, B. A.; Sutherland, R. S.; Dopita, M. A.; Kewley, L. J.; Jin, C.

    2016-12-01

    We present a simplified model of active galactic nucleus (AGN) continuum emission designed for photoionization modeling. The new model oxaf reproduces the diversity of spectral shapes that arise in physically based models. We identify and explain degeneracies in the effects of AGN parameters on model spectral shapes, with a focus on the complete degeneracy between the black hole mass and AGN luminosity. Our reparametrized model oxaf removes these degeneracies and accepts three parameters that directly describe the output spectral shape: the energy of the peak of the accretion disk emission {E}{peak}, the photon power-law index of the non-thermal emission Γ, and the proportion of the total flux that is emitted in the non-thermal component {p}{NT}. The parameter {E}{peak} is presented as a function of the black hole mass, AGN luminosity, and “coronal radius” of the optxagnf model upon which oxaf is based. We show that the soft X-ray excess does not significantly affect photoionization modeling predictions of strong emission lines in Seyfert narrow-line regions. Despite its simplicity, oxaf accounts for opacity effects where the accretion disk is ionized because it inherits the “color correction” of optxagnf. We use a grid of mappings photoionization models with oxaf ionizing spectra to demonstrate how predicted emission-line ratios on standard optical diagnostic diagrams are sensitive to each of the three oxaf parameters. The oxaf code is publicly available in the Astrophysics Source Code Library.

  10. Energy expenditure prediction via a footwear-based physical activity monitor: Accuracy and comparison to other devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannecker, Kathryn

    2011-12-01

    Accurately estimating free-living energy expenditure (EE) is important for monitoring or altering energy balance and quantifying levels of physical activity. The use of accelerometers to monitor physical activity and estimate physical activity EE is common in both research and consumer settings. Recent advances in physical activity monitors include the ability to identify specific activities (e.g. stand vs. walk) which has resulted in improved EE estimation accuracy. Recently, a multi-sensor footwear-based physical activity monitor that is capable of achieving 98% activity identification accuracy has been developed. However, no study has compared the EE estimation accuracy for this monitor and compared this accuracy to other similar devices. Purpose . To determine the accuracy of physical activity EE estimation of a footwear-based physical activity monitor that uses an embedded accelerometer and insole pressure sensors and to compare this accuracy against a variety of research and consumer physical activity monitors. Methods. Nineteen adults (10 male, 9 female), mass: 75.14 (17.1) kg, BMI: 25.07(4.6) kg/m2 (mean (SD)), completed a four hour stay in a room calorimeter. Participants wore a footwear-based physical activity monitor, as well as three physical activity monitoring devices used in research: hip-mounted Actical and Actigraph accelerometers and a multi-accelerometer IDEEA device with sensors secured to the limb and chest. In addition, participants wore two consumer devices: Philips DirectLife and Fitbit. Each individual performed a series of randomly assigned and ordered postures/activities including lying, sitting (quietly and using a computer), standing, walking, stepping, cycling, sweeping, as well as a period of self-selected activities. We developed branched (i.e. activity specific) linear regression models to estimate EE from the footwear-based device, and we used the manufacturer's software to estimate EE for all other devices. Results. The shoe-based

  11. Physical Activities for Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Dorothy C.; And Others

    The underlying premise of the University of Hawaii Physical Activities for Preschool curriculum is that important contributions to a positive self-concept are made by motor independence and a realistic body image. Program objectives include: (1) the development of strength, endurance, and flexibility in skills that involve the muscles,…

  12. The Use of Web-Based Portfolios in College Physical Education Activity Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastie, Peter A.; Sinelnikov, Oleg A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the introduction of web-based portfolios as a means of authentic assessment in collegiate physical education classes. Students in three volleyball classes were required to contribute to web-based team portfolios, and at the end of the semester, were able to make comment upon this process. A six-item on-line survey used to…

  13. Changes in Physical Activity and Psychological Variables Following a Web-Based Motivational Interviewing Intervention: Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Barbara B; Berger, Lisa M; Brondino, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Background Web-based interventions for enhancing physical activity participation are in demand for application in health care settings. Recent research suggests Web-based interventions that are based on motivational interviewing are effective to increase physical activity. It is unclear whether motivational interviewing can influence targeted psychological variables such as perceived readiness, willingness, and ability to participate in physical activity. Objective The aims of this study were to determine whether there were changes in physical activity and psychological variables associated with readiness, willingness, and perceived ability to participate in physical activity following completion of a novel Web-based intervention. The goal of the motivational interviewing–based intervention was to increase physical activity. Methods Twenty-three underactive or inactive urban dwelling adults were recruited at a medical office for participation in a 4-session Web-based intervention lasting approximately 15 minutes per week. Sessions were based on principles of motivational interviewing. Assessment of physical activity was conducted using pedometers immediately prior to intervention participation (pre) and immediately post intervention (post1). Self-report assessments of physical activity and psychological variables were conducted using online surveys at pre, post1, and again at one month following intervention participation (post2). Results Comparisons of pre and post1 pedometer recordings revealed significant increases in steps per day (t 22=2.09, P=.049). There were also significant changes in total physical activity energy expenditure per week (χ2 2=8.4, P=.02) and in moderate intensity physical activity energy expenditure per week (χ2 2=13.9, P<.001) over time following participation in the Web-based intervention. Significant changes in psychological variables following participation in the Web-based intervention included: (1) change in stage classification

  14. Impact of a Community-Based Prevention Marketing Intervention to Promote Physical Activity among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Granner, Michelle L.; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E.; Bryant, Carol A.; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

    2010-01-01

    A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral…

  15. Sustained impact of community-based physical activity interventions: key elements for success

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Compelling evidence supports the cost effectiveness and potential impact of physical activity on chronic disease prevention and health promotion. Quality of evidence is one piece, but certainly not the sole determinant of whether public health interventions, physical activity focused or otherwise, achieve their full potential for impact. Health promotion at both population and community levels must progress beyond health intervention models that isolate individuals from social, environmental, and political systems of influence. We offer a critical evaluation of lessons learned from two successful research initiatives to provide insights as to how health promotion research contributes to sustained impact. We highlight factors key to success including the theoretical and methodological integration of: i) a social ecological approach; ii) participatory action research (PAR) methods; and iii) an interdisciplinary team. Methods To identify and illustrate the key elements of our success we layered an evaluation of steps taken atop a review of relevant literature. Results In the school-based case study (Action Schools! BC), the success of our approach included early and sustained engagement with a broad cross-section of stakeholders, establishing partnerships across sectors and at different levels of government, and team members across multiple disciplines. In the neighbourhood built environment case study, the three domains guided our approach through study design and team development, and the integration of older adults’ perspectives into greenway design plans. In each case study we describe how elements of the domains serve as a guide for our work. Conclusion To sustain and maximize the impact of community-based public health interventions we propose the integration of elements from three domains of research that acknowledge the interplay between social, environmental and poilitical systems of influence. We emphasize that a number of key factors determine

  16. [Development of an evidence-based media campaign to promote walking among physically inactive women and increased physical activity among adults].

    PubMed

    Escalon, Hélène; Serry, Anne-Juliette; Nguyen-Thanh, Viêt; Vuillemin, Anne; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Verlhiac, Jean-Francois; Salanave, Benoît; Simon, Chantal; Tausan, Simona; Dailly, Olivier; Arwidson, Pierre

    2016-06-08

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of developing a multimodal media campaign-based intervention to promote physical activity using theory, evidence and media campaign construction expertise. An evaluation of this media campaign and its various components is the next stage of this work..

  17. Diet quality and physical activity outcome improvements resulting from a church-based diet and supervised physical activity intervention for rural, southern, Africian American adults: Delta Body and Soul III

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the effects of a 6-month, church¬-based, diet and supervised physical activity intervention, conducted between 2011 and ¬2012, on improving diet quality and increasing physical activity of southern, African American adults. Using a quasi¬-experimental design, 8 self-selected, eligible c...

  18. Physical Activity in Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  19. Effect of Pedometer-Based Physical Activity Interventions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Minsoo; Marshall, Simon J.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Lee, Jin-Oh

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) improves mental health and reduces the risk of a number of adverse health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease mortality, hypertension, colon cancer, and diabetes mellitus. Many studies with different strategies have been conducted to increase the level of PA for people of all ages. One of many strategies…

  20. Step-based translation of physical activity guidelines in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine how many steps/day equate to current moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines in a population from the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) of the United States, 58 overweight adults wore an Actigraph accelerometer (GT3X) for up to two weeks. Minutes/day in MVPA was a good pred...

  1. Physical Activity during the School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Darla M.; Ward, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    In response to concerns that children are physically inactive, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention committee developed school-based implementation strategies centered on the components of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP), composed of the physical education program, physical activity during the school day, staff…

  2. Staff's perceptions of the use of evidence-based physical activity promotion strategies for promoting girls' physical activity at afterschool programs: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Dinkel, Danae; Huberty, Jennifer; Beets, Michael; Tibbits, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    There is a need to improve girls' physical activity (PA) in afterschool programs as girls' PA levels are consistently lower than boys'. An evidence-based professional development framework, the 5 Ms, has been effective in helping staff to improve PA in both girls and boys but further improvements in girls' PA are needed. Little is known about staff's perceptions of using PA promotion strategies to promote girls' PA. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore staff perceptions of the use of evidence-based PA promotion strategies for promoting PA in girls. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff from three community-based afterschool programs located within a school setting (n=18). Data were analyzed using the process of immersion/crystallization. A majority of staff had some knowledge of PA promotion strategies but few staff consistently utilized these strategies and a majority felt several strategies were unnecessary (i.e., having a PA policy). Newer staff reported depending on senior staff to promote PA in girls. Overall, findings suggest that staff's perceptions may impact their use of PA promotions strategies. The results of this study will contribute to the enhancement of an existing staff training framework (the 5 Ms) to improve girls' PA in afterschool programs.

  3. The impact of perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity on mental health among older adults.

    PubMed

    Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this study. Structural equation modeling using LISREL 8.71 was performed to assess the effects of stress, support, and physical activity on mental health. The findings indicate that perceived stress predicted higher levels of depression, social support predicted lower levels of loneliness and fatigue, and physical activity predicted lower levels of fatigue among older adults. Social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health, except depression. In conclusion, the relative impacts of perceived stress, social support, and physical activity on types of mental health (e.g., fatigue, loneliness, and depression) were different. Furthermore, stress had direct and indirect effects on each construct of mental health (e.g., fatigue, loneliness, and depression).

  4. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-01-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using ‘bouts’ of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described. PMID:23002252

  5. Assessing digital literacy in web-based physical activity surveillance: the WIN study.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Merly; Morrow, James R; Frierson, Georita M; Bain, Tyson M

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. Investigate relations between demographic characteristics and submission method, Internet or paper, when physical activity behaviors are reported. DESIGN. Observational. SETTING . Metropolitan. SUBJECTS. Adult women (N  =  918) observed weekly for 2 years (total number of weekly reports, 44,963). MEASURES. Independent variables included age, race, education, income, employment status, and Internet skills. Dependent variables were method of submission (Internet or paper) and adherence. ANALYSIS . Logistic regression to analyze weekly odds of submitting data online and meeting study adherence criteria. Model 1 investigated method of submission, model 2 analyzed meeting study's Internet adherence, and model 3 analyzed meeting total adherence regardless of submission method. RESULTS. Whites, those with good Internet skills, and those reporting higher incomes were more likely to log online. Those who were white, older, and reported good Internet skills were more likely to be at least 75% adherent online. Older women were more likely to be adherent regardless of method. Employed women were less likely to log online or be adherent. CONCLUSION . Providing participants with multiple submission methods may reduce potential bias and provide more generalizable results relevant for future Internet-based research.

  6. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-03-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using 'bouts' of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described.

  7. Classification of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Paulino, Thiago Marques Luz; Zaharieva, Dessi P.; Yavelberg, Loren; Jamnik, Veronica; Riddell, Michael C.; Cinar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has a wide range of effects on glucose concentrations in type 1 diabetes (T1D) depending on the type (ie, aerobic, anaerobic, mixed) and duration of activity performed. This variability in glucose responses to physical activity makes the development of artificial pancreas (AP) systems challenging. Automatic detection of exercise type and intensity, and its classification as aerobic or anaerobic would provide valuable information to AP control algorithms. This can be achieved by using a multivariable AP approach where biometric variables are measured and reported to the AP at high frequency. We developed a classification system that identifies, in real time, the exercise intensity and its reliance on aerobic or anaerobic metabolism and tested this approach using clinical data collected from 5 persons with T1D and 3 individuals without T1D in a controlled laboratory setting using a variety of common types of physical activity. The classifier had an average sensitivity of 98.7% for physiological data collected over a range of exercise modalities and intensities in these subjects. The classifier will be added as a new module to the integrated multivariable adaptive AP system to enable the detection of aerobic and anaerobic exercise for enhancing the accuracy of insulin infusion strategies during and after exercise. PMID:26443291

  8. Reasons for non-participation in a primary care-based physical activity trial: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Attwood, S; Morton, K L; Mitchell, J; Van Emmenis, M; Sutton, S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore reasons for non-participation in a primary care-based physical activity trial and understand how these may contribute to recruitment of non-representative research samples. We also aimed to elicit non-participants’ own recommendations for enhancing trial uptake in primary care. Design Semistructured telephone interviews with non-participants to a randomised controlled trial of a very brief intervention for promoting physical activity conducted in primary care (the Very Brief Interventions trial), with thematic analysis of interview transcripts. Setting 5 general practice (GP) surgeries in the East of England, UK. Participants Interviews were completed with 10 female and 6 male non-participants of white ethnicity and aged between 40 and 71 years. 13 of the 16 interviewees were either active or moderately active according to the GP Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ). Results Interviewees discussed a range of reasons for non-participation. These included beliefs surrounding the personal relevance of the trial based on preconceptions of intervention content. Many interviewees considered themselves either sufficiently active or too functionally limited to increase activity levels further, so rendering participation pointless in their view. Other identified barriers included a lack of free time, for trial participation and for increasing physical activity, and dissatisfaction with appointment scheduling systems in place at GP surgeries. Interviewees questioned the appropriateness of primary care as a context for delivering interventions to promote physical activity. In general, interviewees were positively disposed towards the idea of trial participation, especially if personal benefits are made salient, but suggested that interventions could be delivered in a different setting such as the internet. Conclusions To increase participation in physical activity promotion trials conducted in primary care, the content of invitation materials and

  9. Measuring Physical Activity in Free-Living Conditions—Comparison of Three Accelerometry-Based Methods

    PubMed Central

    Leinonen, Anna-Maiju; Ahola, Riikka; Kulmala, Janne; Hakonen, Harto; Vähä-Ypyä, Henri; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Auvinen, Juha; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Sievänen, Harri; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Korpelainen, Raija; Jämsä, Timo

    2017-01-01

    We examined the agreement in time spent on different physical activity (PA) levels using (1) mean amplitude deviation (MAD) of raw acceleration from the hip, (2) wrist-worn Polar Active, and (3) hip-worn Actigraph counts using Freedson's cut-points among adults under free-living conditions. PA was measured in 41 volunteers (mean age 47.6 years) for 14 days. Two MET-based threshold sets were used for MAD and Polar Active for sedentary time (ST) and time spent in light (LPA), moderate (MPA), and vigorous (VPA) PA. Actigraph counts were divided into PA classes, ≤100 counts/min for ST and Freedson's cut-points for LPA, MPA, and VPA. Analysis criteria were simultaneous use of devices for at least 4 days of >500 min/d. The between-method differences were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance test. Bland-Altman plots and ROC graphs were also employed. Valid data were available from 27 participants. Polar Active produced the highest amount of VPA with both thresholds (≥5 and ≥6 MET; mean difference 17.9–30.9 min/d, P < 0.001). With the threshold 3–6 MET for MPA, Polar Active indicated 19.2 min/d more than MAD (95% CI 5.8–32.6) and 51.0 min/d more than Actigraph (95% CI 36.7–65.2). The results did not differ with 3.5–5 MET for MPA [F(1.44, 37.43) = 1.92, P = 0.170]. MAD and Actigraph were closest to each other for ST with the threshold < 1.5 MET (mean difference 22.2 min/d, 95% CI 7.1–37.3). With the threshold <2 MET, Polar Active and Actigraph provided similar results (mean difference 7.0 min/d, 95% CI −17.8–31.7). Moderate to high agreement (area under the ROC curve 0.806–0.963) was found between the methods for the fulfillment of the recommendation for daily moderate-to-vigorous PA of 60 min. In free-living conditions the agreement between MAD, Polar Active, and Actigraph for measuring time spent on different activity levels in adults was dependent on the activity thresholds used and PA intensity. ROC analyses showed moderate to

  10. A Web-Based, Social Networking Physical Activity Intervention for Insufficiently Active Adults Delivered via Facebook App: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Monika; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Plotnikoff, Ron; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Thomas, Samantha; Nelson-Field, Karen; Olds, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background Online social networks offer considerable potential for delivery of socially influential health behavior change interventions. Objective To determine the efficacy, engagement, and feasibility of an online social networking physical activity intervention with pedometers delivered via Facebook app. Methods A total of 110 adults with a mean age of 35.6 years (SD 12.4) were recruited online in teams of 3 to 8 friends. Teams were randomly allocated to receive access to a 50-day online social networking physical activity intervention which included self-monitoring, social elements, and pedometers (“Active Team” Facebook app; n=51 individuals, 12 teams) or a wait-listed control condition (n=59 individuals, 13 teams). Assessments were undertaken online at baseline, 8 weeks, and 20 weeks. The primary outcome measure was self-reported weekly moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Secondary outcomes were weekly walking, vigorous physical activity time, moderate physical activity time, overall quality of life, and mental health quality of life. Analyses were undertaken using random-effects mixed modeling, accounting for potential clustering at the team level. Usage statistics were reported descriptively to determine engagement and feasibility. Results At the 8-week follow-up, the intervention participants had significantly increased their total weekly MVPA by 135 minutes relative to the control group (P=.03), due primarily to increases in walking time (155 min/week increase relative to controls, P<.001). However, statistical differences between groups for total weekly MVPA and walking time were lost at the 20-week follow-up. There were no significant changes in vigorous physical activity, nor overall quality of life or mental health quality of life at either time point. High levels of engagement with the intervention, and particularly the self-monitoring features, were observed. Conclusions An online, social networking physical activity intervention with

  11. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Middlestadt, Susan E; Ji, Cheng-Ye

    2007-01-01

    Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. Results While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%)), four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%)). Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving) when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. Conclusion While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences of physical activity on

  12. An Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention to Improve Quality of Life of Inactive Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Broekhuizen, Karen; de Gelder, Jelle; Wijsman, Carolien A; Wijsman, Liselotte W; Westendorp, Rudi GJ; Verhagen, Evert; Slagboom, Pieternella E; van Mechelen, Willem; van Heemst, Diana; van der Ouderaa, Frans

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing physical activity is a viable strategy for improving both the health and quality of life of older adults. Objective The aim of this study was to assess if an Internet-based intervention aimed to increase physical activity was effective in improving quality of life of inactive older adults. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the intervention on quality of life among those participants who successfully reached their individually targeted increase in daily physical activity as indicated by the intervention program, as well as the dose-response effect of increasing physical activity on quality of life. Methods The intervention was tested in a randomized controlled trial and was comprised of an Internet program—DirectLife (Philips)—aimed at increasing physical activity using monitoring and feedback by accelerometry and feedback by digital coaching (n=119). The control group received no intervention (n=116). Participants were inactive 60-70-year-olds and were recruited from the general population. Quality of life and physical activity were measured at baseline and after 3 months using the Research ANd Development 36-item health survey (RAND-36) and wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer, respectively. Results After 3 months, a significant improvement in quality of life was seen in the intervention group compared to the control group for RAND-36 subscales on emotional and mental health (2.52 vs -0.72, respectively; P=.03) and health change (8.99 vs 2.03, respectively; P=.01). A total of 50 of the 119 participants (42.0%) in the intervention group successfully reached their physical activity target and showed a significant improvement in quality of life compared to the control group for subscales on emotional and mental health (4.31 vs -0.72, respectively; P=.009) and health change (11.06 vs 2.03, respectively; P=.004). The dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant association between increase in minutes spent in moderate

  13. Impact of a community-based prevention marketing intervention to promote physical activity among middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Patricia A; Burroughs, Ericka L; Granner, Michelle L; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E; Bryant, Carol A; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

    2010-06-01

    A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral intervention and were exposed to a media campaign. They were compared to cross-sectional survey samples at pre- (n = 245) and postprogram (n = 820) from the media exposed county and a no-intervention county (n = 234 pre, n = 822 post). Women in the behavioral intervention had statistically significant positive changes on physical activity minutes, walking, park and trail use, knowledge of mapped routes and exercise partner, and negative change on exercise self-efficacy. Media exposed women had statistically significant pre- to postprogram differences on knowledge of mapped routes. No-intervention women had significant pre- to postprogram differences on physical activity minutes, walking, and knowledge of mapped routes.

  14. Putting Physical Activity on the Policy Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Catherine B.; Mutrie, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline why physical activity policy is important in terms of promoting population based increases in physical activity. The promotion of physical activity through public policy happens globally and nationally, however to be successful it should also happen at state and local levels. We outline the rationale for the…

  15. Why older people engage in physical activity: an exploratory study of participants in a community-based walking program.

    PubMed

    Capalb, Darren J; O'Halloran, Paul; Liamputtong, Pranee

    2014-01-01

    While older people experience substantial physical and mental health benefits from regular physical activity, participation rates among older people are low. There is a need to gather more information about why older people do and do not engage in physical activity. This paper aims to examine the reasons why older men and women chose to engage in a community-based physical activity program. Specific issues that were examined included reasons why older people who had been involved in a community-based program on a regular basis: commenced the program; continued with the program; and recommenced the program after they had dropped out. Ten participants (eight females and two males) aged between 62 and 75 years, who had been participating in a community-based physical activity program for a minimum of 6 months, were individually interviewed. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Three major themes emerged, including 'time to bond: social interaction' with sub-themes 'bona fide friendships' and 'freedom from being isolated'; 'I want to be healthy: chronic disease management'; and 'new lease on life'. Two of the primary reasons why older people both commenced and recommenced the program were the promise of social interaction and to be able to better manage their chronic conditions.

  16. Determinants of physical activity based on the theory of planned behavior in Iranian Military Staff's Wives: a path analysis.

    PubMed

    Gholamnia Shirvani, Zeinab; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2014-11-30

    Level of physical activity as a key determinant of healthy lifestyle less than is required in individuals particularly women. Applying theories of behavioral change about complex behaviors such as physical activity leads to identify effective factors and their relations. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of physical activity behavior based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in military staff's wives in Tehran. This cross-sectional study was performed in 180 military personnel's spouses residing in organizational houses, in Tehran, Iran in 2014. The participants were randomly selected with multi-stage cluster sampling. The validity and reliability of the theory based scale evaluated before conducting the path analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS16 and LISREL8.8. The results indicated the model explained 77% and 17% of intention and behavior variance. Subjective norms (Beta=0.83) and intention (Beta=0.37) were the strongest predictors of intention and behavior, respectively. The instrumental and affective attitude had no significant path to intention and behavior. The direct relation of perceived behavioral control to behavior was non-significant. This research demonstrated relative importance and relationships of Theory of Planned Behavior constructs in physical activity behavior of military personnel's spouses in Tehran. It is essential to consider these determinants in designing of educational interventions for promoting and maintaining physical activity behavior in this target group.

  17. A Web-Based Physical Activity Intervention for Spanish-Speaking Latinas: A Costs and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Bess; Pekmezi, Dori; Hartman, Sheri; Gilmer, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Background Latinas report particularly low levels of physical activity and suffer from greater rates of lifestyle-related conditions such as obesity and diabetes. Interventions are needed that can increase physical activity in this growing population in a large-scale, cost-effective manner. Web-based interventions may have potential given the increase in Internet use among Latinas and the scalability of Web-based programs. Objective To examine the costs and cost-effectiveness of a Web-based, Spanish-language physical activity intervention for Latinas compared to a wellness contact control. Methods Healthy adult Latina women (N=205) were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to receive a Spanish-language, Web-based, individually tailored physical activity intervention (intervention group) or were given access to a website with content on wellness topics other than physical activity (control group). Physical activity was measured using the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall interview and ActiGraph accelerometers at baseline, 6 months (ie, postintervention), and 12 months (ie, maintenance phase). Costs were estimated from a payer perspective and included all features necessary to implement the intervention in a community setting, including staff time (ie, wages, benefits, and overhead), materials, hardware, website hosting, and routine website maintenance. Results At 6 months, the costs of running the intervention and control groups were US $17 and US $8 per person per month, respectively. These costs fell to US $12 and US $6 per person per month at 12 months, respectively. Linear interpolation showed that intervention participants increased their physical activity by 1362 total minutes at 6 months (523 minutes by accelerometer) compared to 715 minutes for control participants (186 minutes by accelerometer). At 6 months, each minute increase in physical activity for the intervention group cost US $0.08 (US $0.20 by accelerometer) compared to US $0.07 for

  18. Increasing Physical Activity in Parks: Results of a Randomized Controlled Intervention Trial Using Community-Based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah A.; Han, Bing; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Williamson, Stephanie; Marsh, Terry; McKenzie, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is an important health risk factor that could be addressed at the community level. Purpose To determine whether using a community-based participatory approach with park directors and park advisory boards (PABs) could increase physical activity in local parks. We also tested whether involving PABs would be more effective than working with park directors alone. Design Randomized controlled intervention trial from 10/2007-4/2012 with partial blinding of observers to the condition. Setting/Participants Of 183 eligible parks in the City of Los Angeles, 50 neighborhood park/recreation centers serving diverse populations participated. Parks were randomized to three study arms, 1) Park-director intervention (PD-only), 2) Park Advisory Board intervention (PAB/PD), and 3) a control arm. We systematically observed physical activity in each park and interviewed park users and residents living within one mile of the park. Intervention(s) The intervention including assessing park use, obtaining feedback from park users and community residents, offering training on outreach and marketing, and giving each intervention park $4000 to increase park-based physical activity. The PAB/PD arm required participation and concurrence on all purchases by the PAB. Main Outcome Measure(s) Change in the number of park users and change in the level of physical activity, expressed as MET-hours. Results Relative to control parks where physical activity declined, in both the PD-only and PAB/PD parks physical activity increased, generating an estimated average of 600 more person visits/week/park, and 1830 MET-hours more physical activity/week/park. Both residents and park users reported increased frequency of exercise. No differences were noted between the PD-only and PAB/PD study arms. Conclusions Overall, providing feedback on park use and community perspectives and offering park directors training on outreach and marketing with modest discretionary funding increased

  19. Built environment and physical activity promotion: place-based obesity prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Trowbridge, Matthew J; Schmid, Thomas L

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to encourage continued innovation in translating built environment and transportation-focused physical activity research into practice. Successful strategies, policies, and tools from across the U.S. and globally that demonstrate potential for wider-scale implementation are highlighted. The importance of building practice and translational research partnerships with groups and organizations outside traditional public health spheres, such as those who work in real estate and land-use development, is also discussed.

  20. Neighborhood poverty, park use, and park-based physical activity in a Southern California city.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Deborah A; Han, Bing; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Williamson, Stephanie; Marsh, Terry; Rudick, Jodi; McKenzie, Thomas L

    2012-12-01

    A rich literature indicates that individuals of lower socio-economic status engage in less leisure time physical activity than individuals of higher socio-economic status. However, the source of the difference is believed to be, in part, due to differential access to resources that support physical activity. However, it has not been shown as to whether equal access to parks can mitigate differences in leisure time physical activity. Using systematic direct observation, we quantified physical activity in neighborhood parks in a large Southern California city located in areas with high, medium, and a low percentage of households in poverty. We documented how neighborhood parks are managed and programmed and also interviewed both a sample of park users and a random sample of households within a mile radius of the parks. We found that parks are used less in high-poverty areas compared to medium- and low-poverty area parks, even after accounting for differences in size, staffing, and programming. The strongest correlates of park use were the number of part time staff, the number of supervised and organized programs, and knowing the park staff. Perceptions of safety were not relevant to park use among those interviewed in the park, however it had a small relationship with reported frequency of park use among local residents. Among park users, time spent watching electronic media was negatively correlated with the frequency of visiting the park. Future research should test whether increasing park staffing and programming will lead to increased park use in high-poverty neighborhoods.

  1. Evaluation of GoGirlGo!; A practitioner based program to improve physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background GoGirlGo! (GGG) is designed to increase girls’ physical activity (PA) using a health behavior and PA-based curriculum and is widely available for free to afterschool programs across the nation. However, GGG has not been formally evaluated. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the GGG curricula to improve PA, and self-efficacy for and enjoyment of PA in elementary aged girls (i.e., 5-13 years). Methods Nine afterschool programs were recruited to participate in the pilot (within subjects repeated measures design). GGG is a 12-week program, with a once a week, one-hour lesson with 30 minutes of education and 30 minutes of PA). Data collection occurred at baseline, mid (twice), post, and at follow-up (3-months after the intervention ended). PA was assessed via accelerometry at each time point. Self-efficacy for and enjoyment of PA was measured using the Self-Efficacy Scale and the Short-PA enjoyment scale and was assessed at baseline, post, and follow-up. Fidelity was assessed at midpoint. Results Across all age groups there was a statistically significant increase in PA. Overall, on days GGG was offered girls accumulated an average of 11 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA compared to 8 minutes during non-GGG days. There was a statistically significant difference in girls’ self-efficacy for PA reported between baseline and post, which was maintained at follow-up. An improvement in enjoyment of PA for girls was found between baseline and follow-up. According to fidelity assessment, 89% of the activities within the curriculum were completed each lesson. Girls appeared to respond well to the curriculum but girls 5-7 years had difficulties paying attention and understanding discussion questions. Conclusions Even though there were statistically significant differences in self-efficacy for PA and enjoyment of PA, minimal increases in girls’ PA were observed. GGG curricula improvements are warranted. Future GGG programming

  2. Theory-Based Interventions in Physical Activity: A Systematic Review of Literature in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Jalal; Eftekhar, Hassan; Estebsari, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Lack of physical activity is ranked fourth among the causes of human death and chronic diseases. Using models and theories to design, implement, and evaluate the health education and health promotion interventions has many advantages. Using models and theories of physical activity, we decided to systematically study the educational and promotional interventions carried out in Iran from 2003 to 2013.Three information databases were used to systematically select papers using key words including Iranian Magazine Database (MAGIRAN), Iran Medical Library (MEDLIB), and Scientific Information Database (SID). Twenty papers were selected and studied. Having been applied in 9 studies, The Trans Theoretical Model (TTM) was the most widespread model in Iran (PENDER in 3 studies, BASNEF in 2, and the Theory of Planned Behavior in 2 studies). With regards to the educational methods, almost all studies used a combination of methods. The most widely used Integrative educational method was group discussion. Only one integrated study was done. Behavior maintenance was not addressed in 75% of the studies. Almost all studies used self-reporting instruments. The effectiveness of educational methods was assessed in none of the studies. Most of the included studies had several methodological weaknesses, which hinder the validity and applicability of their results. According to the findings, the necessity of need assessment in using models, epidemiology and methodology consultation, addressing maintenance of physical activity, using other theories and models such as social marketing and social-cognitive theory, and other educational methods like empirical and complementary are suggested. PMID:25948454

  3. Navigating Two Cultures: An Investigation of Cultures of a Responsibility-Based Physical Activity Program and School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okseon; Martinek, Tom

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the culture of a responsibility-based physical activity program called Project Effort as well as the school culture of its participants. Five children who had at least one full semester of participation in the program participated in the study. We collected data from participants' individual interviews and observations of their…

  4. Effects of a Community-Based Lifestyle Intervention on Change in Physical Activity among Economically Disadvantaged Adults with Prediabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Laura M.; Hoen, Helena M.; Slaven, James E.; Finch, Emily A.; Marrero, David G.; Saha, Chandan; Ackermann, Ronald T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Moderate weight loss and physical activity (PA) can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes however there is a need for innovative, effective programs to promote PA in high-risk individuals. Purpose: We examined the effect of a group-based adaption of the DPP lifestyle intervention implemented in partnership with the YMCA (YDPP) on changes in…

  5. Promotion of Autonomy for Participation in Physical Activity: A Study Based on the Trans-Contextual Model of Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Cutre, David; Ferriz, Roberto; Beltrán-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Andrés-Fabra, José A.; Montero-Carretero, Carlos; Cervelló, Eduardo; Moreno-Murcia, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of a school-based intervention to promote physical activity, utilising the postulates of the trans-contextual model of motivation. The study examined two separate classes of elementary school students (mean age 11.28?years), one of which served as the control group (n?=?26) and the other as the…

  6. The Pathway Active Learning Environment: An interactive web-based tool for physics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Christopher Matthew

    The work described here represents an effort to design, construct, and test an interactive online multimedia learning environment that can provide physics instruction to students in their homes. The system was designed with one-on-one human tutoring in mind as the mode of instruction. The system uses an original combination of a video-based tutor that incorporates natural language processing video-centered lessons and additional illustrative multimedia. Our Synthetic Interview (SI) tutor provides pre-recorded video answers from expert physics instructors in response to students' typed natural language questions. Our lessons cover Newton's laws and provide a context for the tutoring interaction to occur, connect physics ideas to real-world behavior of mechanical systems, and allow for quantitative testing of physics. Additional multimedia can be used to supplement the SI tutors' explanations and illustrate the physics of interest. The system is targeted at students of algebra-based and concept-based physics at the college and high school level. The system logs queries to the SI tutor, responses to lesson questions and several other interactions with the system, tagging those interactions with a username and timestamp. We have provided several groups of students with access to our system under several different conditions ranging from the controlled conditions of our interview facility to the naturalistic conditions of use at home. In total nearly two-hundred students have accessed the system. To gain insight into the ways students might use the system and understand the utility of its various components we analyzed qualitative interview data collected with 22 algebra-based physics students who worked with our system in our interview facility. We also performed a descriptive analysis of data from the system's log of user interactions. Finally we explored the use of machine learning to explore the possibility of using automated assessment to augment the interactive

  7. Associations between physical activity and self-rated wellbeing in European adults: A population-based, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Peralta, Miguel; Martins, João; Catunda, Ricardo; Matos, Margarida Gaspar de; Saboga Nunes, Luís

    2016-10-01

    Although self-rated wellbeing is an indicator of health status, it has been receiving little attention; its relationship with physical activity among adults remains inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationship between physical activity and several dimensions of self-rated wellbeing in European adults. This cross-sectional study was based on data from the European Social Survey round 6, 2012, comprising 40,600 European adults (18,418 men, 22,186 women) from 27 countries, with mean age 42.1±13.3. Meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Six dimensions of the self-rated wellbeing were assessed (evaluative wellbeing, emotional wellbeing, functioning, vitality, community wellbeing, supportive wellbeing). Men and women who attained physical activity recommended levels had better evaluative wellbeing (men, p=0.009; women, p<0.001), emotional wellbeing (men, p<0.001; women, p<0.001), functioning (men, p<0.001; women, p<0.001), vitality (men, p<0.001; women, p<0.001), supportive relationships (men, p<0.001; women, p<0.001), and wellbeing total score (men, p<0.001; women, p<0.001). Physical activity frequency was linearly associated with self-rated wellbeing in the 6 dimensions as well as the wellbeing total score (p<0.001). Attaining recommended physical activity levels is related to better self-rated wellbeing, and more frequent physical activity is linearly associated with better self-rated wellbeing in its 6 dimensions.

  8. Barriers to Physical Activity on University Student

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jajat; Sultoni, K.; Suherman, A.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the research is to analyze the factors that become barriers to physical activity in university students based on physical activity level. An internet-based survey was conducted. The participants were 158 University students from Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. Barriers to Physical Activity Quiz (BPAQ) were used to assessed the factors that become barriers to physical activity in university students. IPAQ (short form) were used to assessed physical activity level. The results show there was no differences BPAQ based on IPAQ level. But when analyzed further based on seven factors barriers there are differences in factors “social influence and lack of willpower” based IPAQ level. Based on this it was concluded that the “influence from other and lack of willpower” an inhibiting factor on students to perform physical activity.

  9. Smoking, physical activity, and active life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, L; Izmirlian, G; Leveille, S; Phillips, C L; Corti, M C; Brock, D B; Guralnik, J M

    1999-04-01

    The effect of smoking and physical activity on active and disabled life expectancy was estimated using data from the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE). Population-based samples of persons aged > or = 65 years from the East Boston, Massachusetts, New Haven, Connecticut, and Iowa sites of the EPESE were assessed at baseline between 1981 and 1983 and followed for mortality and disability over six annual follow-ups. A total of 8,604 persons without disability at baseline were classified as "ever" or "never" smokers and doing "low," "moderate," or "high" level physical activity. Active and disabled life expectancies were estimated using a Markov chain model. Compared with smokers, men and women nonsmokers survived 1.6-3.9 and 1.6-3.6 years longer, respectively, depending on level of physical activity. When smokers were disabled and close to death, most nonsmokers were still nondisabled. Physical activity, from low to moderate to high, was significantly associated with more years of life expectancy in both smokers (9.5, 10.5, 12.9 years in men and 11.1, 12.6, 15.3 years in women at age 65) and nonsmokers (11.0, 14.4, 16.2 years in men and 12.7, 16.2, 18.4 years in women at age 65). Higher physical activity was associated with fewer years of disability prior to death. These findings provide strong and explicit evidence that refraining from smoking and doing regular physical activity predict a long and healthy life.

  10. [Social Differences in Physical Activity among Adolescents in Germany: Analyses Based on Information Concerning the Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET)].

    PubMed

    Schott, K; Hunger, M; Lampert, T; Spengler, S; Mess, F; Mielck, A

    2016-10-01

    Introduction: Energy consumption, i. e., the metabolic equivalent of task (MET), provides a precise assessment of physical activity (PA). Studies on social inequalities of PA have hardly used this possibility, however. Methods: The analyses are based on the 'Motorik-Modul (MoMo) of the KiGGS study (German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents) conducted between 2003 and 2006 (n=1 757; age group 11-17 years). PA has been assessed in 3 settings (sport club in school, other sport club, leisure time). 3 dependent variables were distinguished by combining the following criteria: at least 21 MET-hours per week, intensity between 3 and 6 METs, at least 7 hours a week. The main independent variables are: type of school and socioeconomic status (SES) of the parents. 'Two part models' have been used to assess social difference in PA among those who are physically active. Results: PA is much more common in the higher SES groups. Looking at the MET-hours, though, there are just little differences among those who are physically active (regressions coefficient for low vs. high SES: 1.15; 95% conf. interv. 0.99-1.33). Conclusion: Social differences can be seen mainly for the proportion of adolescents being physically active, not for the extent of PA among those who are physically active. Therefore, the central request should be to increase the proportion of adolescents performing any PA in the low SES group.

  11. Healthy Immigrant Families: Participatory Development and Baseline Characteristics of a Community-Based Physical Activity and Nutrition Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, Mark L.; Weis, Jennifer A.; Hanza, Marcelo M.K.; Meiers, Sonja J.; Patten, Christi A.; Clark, Matthew M.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Novotny, Paul J.; Njeru, Jane W.; Abbenyi, Adeline; Levine, James A.; Goodson, Miriam; Capetillo, Maria Graciela D. Porraz; Osman, Ahmed; Hared, Abdullah; Nigon, Julie A.; Sia, Irene G.

    2015-01-01

    Background US immigrants often have escalating cardiovascular risk. Barriers to optimal physical activity and diet have a significant role in this risk accumulation. Methods We developed a physical activity and nutrition intervention with immigrant and refugee families through a community-based participatory research approach. Work groups of community members and health scientists developed an intervention manual with 12 content modules that were based on social-learning theory. Family health promoters from the participating communities (Hispanic, Somali, Sudanese) were trained to deliver the intervention through 12 home visits during the first 6 months and up to 12 phone calls during the second 6 months. The intervention was tested through a randomized community-based trial with a delayed-intervention control group, with measurements at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months. Primary measurements included accelerometer-based assessment of physical activity and 24-hour dietary recall. Secondary measures included biometrics and theory-based instruments. Results One hundred fifty-one individuals (81 adolescents, 70 adults; 44 families) were randomized. At baseline, mean (SD) time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was 64.7 (30.2) minutes/day for adolescents and 43.1 (35.4) minutes/day for adults. Moderate dietary quality was observed in both age groups. Biometric measures showed that 45.7% of adolescents and 80.0% of adults were overweight or obese. Moderate levels of self-efficacy and social support were reported for physical activity and nutrition. Discussion Processes and products from this program are relevant to other communities aiming to reduce cardiovascular risk and negative health behaviors among immigrants and refugees. Trial Registration This trial was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01952808). PMID:26655431

  12. Let’s Get Physical: Sexual Orientation Disparities in Physical Activity, Sports Involvement, and Obesity Among a Population-Based Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Poteat, V. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation disparities in physical activity, sports involvement, and obesity among a population-based adolescent sample. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2012 Dane County Youth Assessment for 13 933 students in grades 9 through 12 in 22 Wisconsin high schools. We conducted logistic regressions to examine sexual orientation disparities in physical activity, sports involvement, and body mass index among male and female adolescents. Results. When we accounted for several covariates, compared with heterosexual females, sexual minority females were less likely to participate in team sports (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.37, 0.53) and more likely to be overweight (AOR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.62) or obese (AOR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.43, 2.48). Sexual minority males were less likely than heterosexual males to be physically active (AOR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.46, 0.83) or to participate in team sports (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.20, 0.32), but the 2 groups did not differ in their risk of obesity. Conclusions. Sexual orientation health disparities in physical activity and obesity are evident during adolescence. Culturally affirming research, interventions, and policies are needed for sexual minority youths. PMID:26180946

  13. Assessing physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD.

    PubMed

    Painter, Patricia; Marcus, Robin L

    2013-05-01

    Patients with CKD are characterized by low levels of physical functioning, which, along with low physical activity, predict poor outcomes in those treated with dialysis. The hallmark of clinical care in geriatric practice and geriatric research is the orientation to and assessment of physical function and functional limitations. Although there is increasing interest in physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD, the nephrology field has not focused on this aspect of care. This paper provides an in-depth review of the measurement of physical function and physical activity. It focuses on physiologic impairments and physical performance limitations (impaired mobility and functional limitations). The review is based on established frameworks of physical impairment and functional limitations that have guided research in physical function in the aging population. Definitions and measures for physiologic impairments, physical performance limitations, self-reported function, and physical activity are presented. On the basis of the information presented, recommendations for incorporating routine assessment of physical function and encouragement for physical activity in clinical care are provided.

  14. [Sport and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Bria, S; Zeppilli, P

    2010-01-01

    A regular sport activity involves physical and psychological benefits helping to improve the quality of life at any age. This aspect is even more important in the developing age, when the sport takes on a role of training and education. In this context, instances directed to allow adolescent and young adults with heart disease to practice sports seem justified, and they're becoming more pressing since when the diagnostic and therapeutic advances, especially in cardiac surgery and in interventional hemodynamics, allow an increasing number of patients, previously allocated to physical inactivity, to lead an active lifestyle. However, we have to keep in mind that congenital heart disease population is varied, not only by the nature of the malformation, but also because in the same cardiopathy you can find subjects in "natural history" or after surgery and, between them, subjects treated with several techniques and different outcomes. This justifies the need for a close collaboration between sports doctors, cardiologists and heart surgeons, particularly in the management of the most difficult and delicate problems.

  15. Physical Activity and Your Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... more energy than resting. Walking, running, dancing, swimming, yoga, and gardening are a few examples of physical activity. According to the Department of Health and Human Services' 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for ...

  16. Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity Nutrition and physical activity ... What foods can I eat if I have diabetes? You may worry that having diabetes means going ...

  17. Physical and chemical properties of selected agricultural byproduct-based activated carbons and their ability to adsorb geosmin.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chilton; Losso, Jack N; Marshall, Wayne E; Rao, Ramu M

    2002-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate selected physical and chemical properties of agricultural byproduct-based activated carbons made from pecan shells and sugarcane bagasse, and compare those properties to a commercial coal-based activated carbon as well as to compare the adsorption efficiency of these carbons for geosmin. Comparison of the physical and chemical properties of pecan shell- and bagasse-based carbons to the commercial carbon, Calgon Filtrasorb 400, showed that pecan shell carbon, but not the bagasse carbon, compared favorably to Filtrasorb 400, especially in terms of surface area, bulk density, ash and attrition. A carbon dosage study done in a model system showed the amount of geosmin adsorbed to be greater for Filtrasorb 400 and the bagasse-based carbon at low carbon concentrations than for the pecan shell carbons, but geosmin adsorption was similar in all carbons at higher carbon dosages. Application of the Freundlich isotherm model to the adsorption data showed that carbons made by steam activation of pecan shells or sugarcane bagasse had geosmin adsorption characteristics most like those of the commercial carbon. In terms of physical, chemical and adsorptive properties, steam-activated pecan shell carbon most resembled the commercial carbon and has the potential to replace Filtrasorb 400 in applications involving removal of geosmin from aqueous environments.

  18. Adsorption of ethanol onto activated carbon: Modeling and consequent interpretations based on statistical physics treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzid, Mohamed; Sellaoui, Lotfi; Khalfaoui, Mohamed; Belmabrouk, Hafedh; Lamine, Abdelmottaleb Ben

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we studied the adsorption of ethanol on three types of activated carbon, namely parent Maxsorb III and two chemically modified activated carbons (H2-Maxsorb III and KOH-H2-Maxsorb III). This investigation has been conducted on the basis of the grand canonical formalism in statistical physics and on simplified assumptions. This led to three parameter equations describing the adsorption of ethanol onto the three types of activated carbon. There was a good correlation between experimental data and results obtained by the new proposed equation. The parameters characterizing the adsorption isotherm were the number of adsorbed molecules (s) per site n, the density of the receptor sites per unit mass of the adsorbent Nm, and the energetic parameter p1/2. They were estimated for the studied systems by a non linear least square regression. The results show that the ethanol molecules were adsorbed in perpendicular (or non parallel) position to the adsorbent surface. The magnitude of the calculated adsorption energies reveals that ethanol is physisorbed onto activated carbon. Both van der Waals and hydrogen interactions were involved in the adsorption process. The calculated values of the specific surface AS, proved that the three types of activated carbon have a highly microporous surface.

  19. Land- and water-based exercise intervention in women with fibromyalgia: the al-andalus physical activity randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The al-Andalus physical activity intervention study is a randomised control trial to investigate the effectiveness of a land- and water-based exercise intervention for reducing the overall impact of fibromyalgia (primary outcome), and for improving tenderness and pain-related measures, body composition, functional capacity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, fatigue, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, and cognitive function (secondary outcomes) in women with fibromyalgia. Methods/Design One hundred eighty women with fibromyalgia (age range: 35-65 years) will be recruited from local associations of fibromyalgia patients in Andalucía (Southern Spain). Patients will be randomly assigned to a usual care (control) group (n = 60), a water-based exercise intervention group (n = 60) or a land-based exercise intervention group (n = 60). Participants in the usual care group will receive general physical activity guidelines and participants allocated in the intervention groups will attend three non-consecutive training sessions (60 min each) per week during 24 weeks. Both exercise interventions will consist of aerobic, muscular strength and flexibility exercises. We will also study the effect of a detraining period (i.e., 12 weeks with no exercise intervention) on the studied variables. Discussion Our study attempts to reduce the impact of fibromyalgia and improve patients' health status by implementing two types of exercise interventions. Results from this study will help to assess the efficacy of exercise interventions for the treatment of fibromyalgia. If the interventions would be effective, this study will provide low-cost and feasible alternatives for health professionals in the management of fibromyalgia. Results from the al-Andalus physical activity intervention will help to better understand the potential of regular physical activity for improving the well-being of women with fibromyalgia. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT

  20. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  1. A self-regulation-based intervention to increase physical activity in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Nadine; Sieverding, Monika; Weidner, Gerdi; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Wiskemann, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The study examined whether a behavior-change intervention focusing on self-regulatory strategies and emphasizing role model support increases physical activity (PA) among insufficiently active (not meeting PA guidelines of 150 min/week) cancer patients. Ambulatory cancer patients [N = 72; 54% female; M = 56 years, SD = 12.34; most with breast or colon cancer (34, 15%)] were enrolled in the MOTIVACTION-study, a 4-week intervention (1-hr counseling, followed by weekly phone calls), with pretest (T1), posttest (T2) and a 10-week follow-up (T3). Participants were randomized to either an exercise or to a stress management intervention (active control). The exercise intervention emphasized self-regulatory strategies (e.g. action- and coping planning and self-monitoring); patients were also encouraged to contact a physically active same-sex role model as a potential exercise partner. The active control condition consisted of coping and relaxation techniques. Sixty-seven patients remained in the study and completed the SQUASH assessment of PA and a measure of perceived stress. PA was validated by Actigraph accelerometry. At T2, 46% of the patients in the exercise group and 19% of stress management patients increased their activity levels to meet PA guidelines (>150 min/week; χ(2)(1) = 5.51, p = .019). At T3, participants in the exercise intervention maintained their exercise level (46%), but also 31% of the stress management patients met the guidelines. All patients reported reductions in perceived stress. Additional analyses comparing patients in the exercise group by role model contact (63% realized contact) revealed that those who had contact with their role model were significantly more likely to adhere to the recommended guidelines (T2:50%; T3:64%) compared to those who did not have contact with a role model (T2:39%; T3:15%), suggesting the potential of mobilizing role model support to facilitate PA. In sum, cancer patients may not only benefit from an exercise

  2. Engagement of young adult cancer survivors within a Facebook-based physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Valle, Carmina G; Tate, Deborah F

    2017-04-03

    Few studies have examined how young adult cancer survivors use online social media. The objective of this study was to characterize Facebook engagement by young adult cancer survivors in the context of a physical activity (PA) intervention program. Young adult cancer survivors participated in one of two Facebook groups as part of a 12-week randomized trial of a PA intervention (FITNET) compared to a self-help comparison (SC) condition. A moderator actively prompted group discussions in the FITNET Facebook group, while social interaction was unprompted in the SC group. We examined factors related to engagement, differences in engagement by group format and types of Facebook posts, and the relationship between Facebook engagement and PA outcomes. There were no group differences in the number of Facebook comments posted over 12 weeks (FITNET, 153 vs. SC, 188 p = 0.85) or the proportion of participants that reported engaging within Facebook group discussions at least 1-2 days/week. The proportion of participants that made any posts decreased over time in both groups. SC participants were more likely than FITNET participants to agree that group discussions caused them to become physically active (p = 0.040) and that group members were supportive (p = 0.028). Participant-initiated posts elicited significantly more comments and likes than moderator-initiated posts. Responses posted on Facebook were significantly associated with light PA at 12 weeks (β = 11.77, t(85) = 1.996, p = 0.049) across groups. Engagement within Facebook groups was variable and may be associated with PA among young adult cancer survivors. Future research should explore how to promote sustained engagement in online social networks. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01349153.

  3. The effect of school-based physical activity interventions on body mass index: a meta-analysis of randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Paulo Henrique; Nobre, Moacyr Roberto Cuce; da Silveira, Jonas Augusto Cardoso; de Aguiar Carrazedo Taddei, José Augusto

    2013-01-01

    This study reviewed the effectiveness of school-based physical activity interventions aimed at reducing overweight, obesity and hypertension in children. We searched 14 databases and analyzed studies published between April 2009 and September 2012. Only randomized controlled trials performed at the school level that included elements of physical activity but did not include nutritional co-interventions were analyzed. Studies were assessed by two recommended tools (EPHPP and GRADE), and the standardized mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were collected for a random-effect meta-analysis. A total of 12 papers were included in the meta-analysis, and these were divided according to three outcomes: body mass index (11 trials, n  =  4,273, −0.02, 95% CI: −0.13 to 0.17, p  =  0.8); body weight (5 trials, n  =  1,330, −0.07, 95% CI: −0.18 to 0.04, p  =  0.2); and blood pressure (6 trials, n  =  1,549), including systolic (0.11, 95% CI: −0.10 to 0.31, p  =  0.3) and diastolic pressure (−0.00, 95% CI: −0.10 to 0.10, p  =  0.9). This meta-analysis of data from 11 randomized, school-based physical activity interventions suggests that, regardless of the potential benefits of physical activity in the school environment, the interventions did not have a statistically significant effect. However, it is difficult to generalize from these results because the duration, intensity and type of physical activity used in the interventions varied greatly. PMID:24141844

  4. Using community-based participatory research to identify potential interventions to overcome barriers to adolescents’ healthy eating and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Ying-Ying; Sipple-Asher, Bessie Ko; Uyeda, Kimberly; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Olarita-Dhungana, Josephina; Ryan, Gery W.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Using a community-based participatory research approach, we explored adolescent, parent, and community stakeholder perspectives on barriers to healthy eating and physical activity, and intervention ideas to address adolescent obesity. We conducted 14 adolescent focus groups (n = 119), 8 parent focus groups (n = 63), and 28 interviews with community members (i.e., local experts knowledgeable about youth nutrition and physical activity). Participants described ecological and psychosocial barriers in neighborhoods (e.g., lack of accessible nutritious food), in schools (e.g., poor quality of physical education), at home (e.g., sedentary lifestyle), and at the individual level (e.g., lack of nutrition knowledge). Participants proposed interventions such as nutrition classes for families, addition of healthy school food options that appeal to students, and non-competitive physical education activities. Participants supported health education delivered by students. Findings demonstrate that community-based participatory research is useful for revealing potentially feasible interventions that are acceptable to community members. PMID:19544091

  5. Innovative Training of In-service Teachers for Active Learning: A Short Teacher Development Course Based on Physics Education Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, Genaro; Alarcón, Hugo; Benegas, Julio

    2007-08-01

    In this contribution we describe a short development course for in-service physics teachers. The course structure and materials are based on the results of educational research, and its main objective is to provide in-service teachers with a first contact with the active learning strategy “Tutorials in Introductory Physics,” developed by the Physics Education Research Group at the University of Washington. The course was organized in a constructivist, active learning environment, so that teachers have first to experience, as regular students, the whole Tutorial sequence of activities: Tutorial pre-test, Tutorial, and Tutorial Homework. After each Tutorial, teachers reflect on, and recognize their own students’ learning difficulties, discussing their teaching experiences with their colleagues in small collaborative groups first and the whole class later. Finally they read and discuss specific Physics Education Research literature, where these learning difficulties have been extensively studied by researchers. At the beginning and at the end of the course the participants were given the conceptual multiple-choice test Force Concept Inventory (FCI). The pre-/post-instruction FCI data were presented as a practical example of the use of a research-based test widely used in educational research and in formative assessment processes designed to improve instruction.

  6. Do physical activity and dietary smartphone applications incorporate evidence-based behaviour change techniques?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been a recent proliferation in the development of smartphone applications (apps) aimed at modifying various health behaviours. While interventions that incorporate behaviour change techniques (BCTs) have been associated with greater effectiveness, it is not clear to what extent smartphone apps incorporate such techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of BCTs in physical activity and dietary apps and determine how reliably the taxonomy checklist can be used to identify BCTs in smartphone apps. Methods The top-20 paid and top-20 free physical activity and/or dietary behaviour apps from the New Zealand Apple App Store Health & Fitness category were downloaded to an iPhone. Four independent raters user-tested and coded each app for the presence/absence of BCTs using the taxonomy of behaviour change techniques (26 BCTs in total). The number of BCTs included in the 40 apps was calculated. Krippendorff’s alpha was used to evaluate interrater reliability for each of the 26 BCTs. Results Apps included an average of 8.1 (range 2-18) techniques, the number being slightly higher for paid (M = 9.7, range 2-18) than free apps (M = 6.6, range 3-14). The most frequently included BCTs were “provide instruction” (83% of the apps), “set graded tasks” (70%), and “prompt self-monitoring” (60%). Techniques such as “teach to use prompts/cues”, “agree on behavioural contract”, “relapse prevention” and “time management” were not present in the apps reviewed. Interrater reliability coefficients ranged from 0.1 to 0.9 (Mean 0.6, SD = 0.2). Conclusions Presence of BCTs varied by app type and price; however, BCTs associated with increased intervention effectiveness were in general more common in paid apps. The taxonomy checklist can be used by independent raters to reliably identify BCTs in physical activity and dietary behaviour smartphone apps. PMID:24965805

  7. Associations between television viewing and physical activity and low back pain in community-based adults: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sultana Monira; Urquhart, Donna M; Wang, Yuanyuan; Dunstan, David; Shaw, Jonathan E; Magliano, Dianna J; Wluka, Anita E; Cicuttini, Flavia M

    2016-06-01

    Two systematic reviews concluded that there was limited evidence to support an association between physical activity and sedentary behavior and developing low back pain (LBP). The aim of this study was to examine the associations of physical activity and television viewing time with LBP intensity and disability in community-based adults.Five thousand fifty-eight participants (44% men) of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study had physical activity and television viewing time measured in 1999 to 2000, 2004 to 2005, and 2011 to 2012, and LBP intensity and disability assessed in 2013 to 2014 using the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratio for LBP intensity and disability associated with physical activity and television viewing time. Analyses were adjusted for age, education, smoking, dietary guideline index score, body mass index, and mental component summary score. To test whether associations of physical activity or television viewing time with LBP intensity and disability were modified by sex, obesity, or age, interactions were tested using the likelihood ratio test.As gender modified the associations between physical activity and television viewing time and LBP disability (P = 0.05), men and women were examined separately. A total of 81.7% men and 82.1% women had LBP. Most men (63.6%) and women (60.2%) had low intensity LBP with fewer having high intensity LBP (18.1% men, 21.5% women). Most participants had no LBP disability (74.5% men, 71.8% women) with the remainder reporting low (15.8% men, 15.3% women) or high (9.7% men, 12.9% women) LBP disability. Insufficient physical activity (<2.5 hours/week) was not associated with LBP intensity or disability. High television viewing time (≥2 hours/day) was associated with greater prevalence of LBP disability in women (low disability OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.04-1.73; high disability OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01-1.72).Although it needs to be confirmed

  8. Sports and leisure-time physical activity in pregnancy and birth weight: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hegaard, H K; Petersson, K; Hedegaard, M; Ottesen, B; Dykes, A K; Henriksen, T B; Damm, P

    2010-02-01

    We examined the association between sports and other leisure-time physical activities during pregnancy and birth weight of babies born after 37 completed weeks of gestation. All Danish-speaking pregnant women attending routine antenatal care at the Department of Obstetrics, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, from August 1989 to September 1991 were invited to participate in the study. A total of 4458 healthy women who delivered after 37 completed gestational weeks participated in this study. The associations between sports (0, 1-2, 3+ h/week) or leisure-time physical activity (sedentary, light, and moderate to heavy) and birth weight were examined by linear and logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounding factors such as smoking, parity, schooling, pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational age. The results showed that pregnant women who practiced sports or were moderate to heavy leisure-time physical active during the early second or the early third trimester gave birth to infants with a similar birth weight as inactive women. The proportion of newborns with a low (<2500 g) or a high birth weight (>/=4500 g) was also unchanged. In conclusion, in this large population-based study, we found no association between sports and leisure-time physical activity and low-birth weight, high-birth weight, or average-birth weight.

  9. Step-based translation of physical activity guidelines in the Lower Mississippi Delta.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Deirdre M; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Champagne, Catherine M; Broyles, Stephanie T; Harsha, David W; Kennedy, Betty M; Johnson, William D; Allen, Ray; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2011-08-01

    To determine how many steps·day(-1) equate to current moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines in a population from the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) of the United States, 58 overweight adults wore an Actigraph accelerometer (GT3X) for up to 2 weeks. Min·day(-1) in MVPA was a good predictor of steps·day(-1) (r(2) = 0.62; p < 0.001; linear regression), such that 30 min of daily MVPA equated to 9154 steps·day(-1) (mixed-model approach). Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, sensitivity and specificity were optimized at 8357 steps·day(-1). Results indicate that overweight residents of the LMD should be accumulating at least 8300-9100 steps·day(-1) to meet the recommendation of 30 min·day(-1) MVPA.

  10. An Evaluation of Web- and Print-Based Methods to Attract People to a Physical Activity Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Cally; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-01-01

    Background Cost-effective and efficient methods to attract people to Web-based health behavior interventions need to be identified. Traditional print methods including leaflets, posters, and newspaper advertisements remain popular despite the expanding range of Web-based advertising options that have the potential to reach larger numbers at lower cost. Objective This study evaluated the effectiveness of multiple Web-based and print-based methods to attract people to a Web-based physical activity intervention. Methods A range of print-based (newspaper advertisements, newspaper articles, letterboxing, leaflets, and posters) and Web-based (Facebook advertisements, Google AdWords, and community calendars) methods were applied to attract participants to a Web-based physical activity intervention in Australia. The time investment, cost, number of first time website visits, the number of completed sign-up questionnaires, and the demographics of participants were recorded for each advertising method. Results A total of 278 people signed up to participate in the physical activity program. Of the print-based methods, newspaper advertisements totaled AUD $145, letterboxing AUD $135, leaflets AUD $66, posters AUD $52, and newspaper article AUD $3 per sign-up. Of the Web-based methods, Google AdWords totaled AUD $495, non-targeted Facebook advertisements AUD $68, targeted Facebook advertisements AUD $42, and community calendars AUD $12 per sign-up. Although the newspaper article and community calendars cost the least per sign-up, they resulted in only 17 and 6 sign-ups respectively. The targeted Facebook advertisements were the next most cost-effective method and reached a large number of sign-ups (n=184). The newspaper article and the targeted Facebook advertisements required the lowest time investment per sign-up (5 and 7 minutes respectively). People reached through the targeted Facebook advertisements were on average older (60 years vs 50 years, P<.001) and had a higher

  11. Physical activity assessment in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sirard, J R; Pate, R R

    2001-01-01

    Chronic disease risk factors, including a sedentary lifestyle, may be present even in young children, suggesting that early prevention programmes may be critical to reducing the rates of chronic disease. Accurate assessment of physical activity in children is necessary to identify current levels of activity and to assess the effectiveness of intervention programmes designed to increase physical activity. This article summarises the strengths and limitations of the methods used to evaluate physical activity in children and adolescents. MEDLINE searches and journal article citations were used to locate 59 articles that validated physical activity measurement methods in children and adolescents. Only those methods that were validated against a more stringent measure were included in the review. Based on the definition of physical activity as any bodily movement resulting in energy expenditure (EE), direct observation of the individual's movement should be used as the gold standard for physical activity research. The doubly labelled water technique and indirect calorimetry can also be considered criterion measures for physical activity research, because they measure EE, a physiologic consequence closely associated with physical activity. Devices such as heart rate monitors, pedometers and accelerometers have become increasingly popular as measurement tools for physical activity. These devices reduce the subjectivity inherent in survey methods and can be used with large groups of individuals. Heart rate monitoring is sufficiently valid to use in creating broad physical activity categories (e.g. highly active, somewhat active, sedentary) but lacks the specificity needed to estimate physical activity in individuals. Laboratory and field validations of pedometers and accelerometers yield relatively high correlations using oxygen consumption (r = 0.62 to 0.93) or direct observation (r = 0.80 to 0.97) as criterion measures, although, they may not be able to capture all

  12. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing the amount of bone loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical ...

  13. The Physics of Sport Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Walter C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a physics course, Biomechanics, designed for physical education majors, where stroboscopic photography is used to provide student data to calculate average velocities of objects in different sport activities. (GA)

  14. A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of the "Move It Move It!" Before-School Incentive-Based Physical Activity Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnett, Bernice R.; Becker, Kelly; Vierling, Danielle; Gleason, Cara; DiCenzo, Danielle; Mongeon, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Less than half of young people in the USA are meeting the daily physical activity requirements of at least 60 minutes of moderate or vigorous physical activity. A mixed-methods pilot feasibility assessment of "Move it Move it!" was conducted in the Spring of 2014 to assess the impact of a before-school physical activity…

  15. Active Learning Strategies in Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamustafaoglu, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine physics teachers' opinions about student-centered activities applicable in physics teaching and learning in context. A case study approach was used in this research. First, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 6 physics teachers. Then, a questionnaire was developed based on the data obtained…

  16. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... How much physical activity should I do each week? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend ... 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity a week, along with muscle-strengthening activities on 2 days ...

  17. Physical activity and blood pressure in childhood: findings from a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Leary, Sam D; Ness, Andy R; Smith, George Davey; Mattocks, Calum; Deere, Kevin; Blair, Steven N; Riddoch, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The pathological processes associated with development of cardiovascular disease begin early in life. For example, elevated blood pressure (BP) can be seen in childhood and tracks into adulthood. The relationship between physical activity (PA) and BP in adults is well-established, but findings in children have been inconsistent, with few studies measuring PA mechanically. Children aged 11 to 12 years were recruited from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. 5505 had systolic and diastolic BP measurements, plus valid (at least 10 hours for at least 3 days) accelerometer measures of PA; total PA recorded as average counts per minute (cpm) over the period of valid recording, and minutes per day spent in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). Data on a number of possible confounders were also available. Small inverse associations were observed; for systolic BP, beta=-0.44 (95% confidence interval -0.59, -0.28) mm Hg per 100 cpm, and beta=-0.66 (95% CI -0.92, -0.39) mm Hg per 15 minutes/d MVPA, adjusting for child's age and gender. After adjustment for potential confounders, associations were weakened but remained. When PA variables were modeled together, associations with total PA were only a little weaker, whereas those with MVPA were substantially reduced; for systolic BP, beta=-0.42 (95% CI -0.71, -0.13) mm Hg per 100 cpm, and beta=-0.03 (95% CI -0.54, 0.48) mm Hg per 15 minutes/d MVPA. In conclusion, higher levels of PA were associated with lower BP, and results suggested that the volume of activity may be more important than the intensity.

  18. Assessing wet snow avalanche activity using detailed physics based snowpack simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wever, N.; Vera Valero, C.; Fierz, C.

    2016-06-01

    Water accumulating on microstructural transitions inside a snowpack is often considered a prerequisite for wet snow avalanches. Recent advances in numerical snowpack modeling allow for an explicit simulation of this process. We analyze detailed snowpack simulations driven by meteorological stations in three different climate regimes (Alps, Central Andes, and Pyrenees), with accompanying wet snow avalanche activity observations. Predicting wet snow avalanche activity based on whether modeled water accumulations inside the snowpack locally exceed 5-6% volumetric liquid water content is providing a higher prediction skill than using thresholds for daily mean air temperature, or the daily sum of the positive snow energy balance. Additionally, the depth of the maximum water accumulation in the simulations showed a significant correlation with observed avalanche size. Direct output from detailed snow cover models thereby is able to provide a better regional assessment of dangerous slope aspects and potential avalanche size than traditional methods.

  19. Older American Indians’ Perspectives on Health, Arthritis, and Physical Activity: Implications for Adapting Evidence-Based Interventions, Oregon, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Schure, Marc B.; Goins, R. Turner

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite the high prevalence of arthritis and physical disability among older American Indians, few evidence-based interventions that improve arthritis self-management via physical activity have been adapted for use in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify beliefs about health, arthritis, and physical activity among older American Indians living in a rural area in Oregon to help select and adapt an arthritis self-management program. Methods In partnership with a tribal health program, we conducted surveys, a focus group, and individual interviews with older American Indians with arthritis. Our sample comprised 6 focus group participants and 18 interviewees. The 24 participants were aged 48 to 82 years, of whom 67% were women. Forms B and C of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) instrument, modified for arthritis, measured MHLC. Results The concepts of health, arthritis, and physical activity overlapped in that health was a holistic concept informed by cultural teachings that included living a healthy lifestyle, socializing, and being functionally independent. Arthritis inhibited health and healthy behaviors. Participants identified barriers such as unreliable transportation and recruiting challenges that would make existing interventions challenging to implement in this setting. The Doctor subscale had the highest MHLC (mean = 4.4 [standard deviation (SD), 1.0]), followed by the Internal subscale (3.9 [SD, 1.4]) and the Other People subscale (2.8 [SD, 1.1]). Conclusions Existing evidence-based programs for arthritis should be adapted to address implementation factors, such as access to transportation, and incorporate cultural values that emphasize holistic wellness and social interconnectedness. Culturally sensitive programs that build on indigenous values and practices to promote active coping strategies for older American Indians with arthritis are needed. PMID:27337558

  20. Increase in physical activities in kindergarten children with cerebral palsy by employing MaKey-MaKey-based task systems.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Yu; Chang, Yu-Ming

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we employed Flash- and Scratch-based multimedia by using a MaKey-MaKey-based task system to increase the motivation level of children with cerebral palsy to perform physical activities. MaKey MaKey is a circuit board that converts physical touch to a digital signal, which is interpreted by a computer as a keyboard message. In this study, we used conductive materials to control this interaction. This study followed single-case design using ABAB models in which A indicated the baseline and B indicated the intervention. The experiment period comprised 1 month and a half. The experimental results demonstrated that in the case of two kindergarten children with cerebral palsy, their scores were considerably increased during the intervention phrases. The developmental applications of the results are also discussed.

  1. Effects of a Theory Based Intervention on Physical Activity Among Female Employees: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Shafieinia, Masoud; Hidarnia, Alireza; Kazemnejad, Anoushirvan; Rajabi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity has been highlighted as an important factor in decreasing about 25 factors harmful to health, such as obesity, diabetes, heart failure, depression and osteoporosis. Female office workers, because of the long hours they stay seated in their workplace, are seriously threatened by immobility. The Theory of Planned Behavior has been successfully used several times to predict PA behaviorphysical activity (PA). The TPB studies also have identified perceived behavioral control as the key determinant of walking intentions. Objectives The present study aims to assess the effectiveness of an intervention based on TPB to improve attitude, perceived behavioral control, Subjective norms, behavioral intention and PA behavior among female office workers. Materials and Methods The present study is an interventional, quasi-experimental study. Participants were 95 female office workers of the Tehran University that divided randomly in two case and control groups. Using the theory of planned behavior questionnaire and the International physical activity questionnaire, the participants were evaluated before the training and three months after that. The training was provided in the form of four 90-minute training sessions and some electronic messages sent through office automation system once every two weeks. Results The intervention increased PBC, attitudes, intentions and objectively measured PA behavior. The effects of the intervention on intentions and behavior were mediated by PBC. Conclusions The present study has provided some of the data toward understanding determinants of physical activity behavior in female office workers. Specifically, the results suggest that interventions designed to promote physical activity in this population should focus on the development of PBC as well as positive attitude toward PA. PMID:27625759

  2. Physical Activity and Cancer Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, David O.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increase in the cancer survivor population in the United States over the past several decades primarily due to improvements in early detection of first malignancies and effective treatment modalities. A wealth of evidence has demonstrated that regular physical activity is associated with a lower risk of death, all-cause mortality, cancer recurrence, and several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, common comorbid conditions in people who have survived cancer. Physical activity also is a central component of weight management. Methods This review summarizes the current physical activity recommendations and the evidence linking physical activity to improvements in weight management, physiological effects, and psychological health outcomes for cancer survivors. Results The available literature suggests physical activity is safe and is positively associated with weight management, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength and endurance, quality of life, fatigue, and other psychosocial factors in cancer survivors. Yet relationships related to specific cancer diagnoses, treatments, and underlying cardiometabolic mechanisms associated with survival have not been thoroughly examined in randomized controlled trials. Furthermore, factors that influence adherence to physical activity behaviors must be identified to develop effective exercise programs. The use of objective measures of physical activity and the standardization of reporting outcome measures within intervention trials are needed to complement this effort. Conclusions Healthcare providers should consider individual differences among cancer survivors and tailor physical activity programs to meet the individual needs of the patient to assist in the adoption and maintenance of a physically active lifestyle. PMID:25335787

  3. Physical activity level, waist circumference, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Reeder, Bruce A.; Elliott, Susan; Joffres, Michel R.; Pahwa, Punam; Kirkland, Susan A.; Paradis, Gilles; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    This study predicted all-cause mortality based on physical activity level (active or inactive) and waist circumference (WC) in 8208 Canadian adults in Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Saskatchewan, surveyed between 1986–1995 and followed through 2004. Physically inactive adults had higher mortality risk than active adults overall (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval = 1.20, 1.05–1.37) and within the low WC category (1.51, 1.19–1.92). Detrimental effects of physical inactivity and high WC demonstrate the need for physical activity promotion. PMID:22703160

  4. Development of a logic model for a physical activity-based employee wellness program for mass transit workers.

    PubMed

    Das, Bhibha M; Petruzzello, Steven J; Ryan, Katherine E

    2014-07-17

    Transportation workers, who constitute a large sector of the workforce, have worksite factors that harm their health. Worksite wellness programs must target this at-risk population. Although physical activity is often a component of worksite wellness logic models, we consider it the cornerstone for improving the health of mass transit employees. Program theory was based on in-person interviews and focus groups of employees. We identified 4 short-term outcome categories, which provided a chain of responses based on the program activities that should lead to the desired end results. This logic model may have significant public health impact, because it can serve as a framework for other US mass transit districts and worksite populations that face similar barriers to wellness, including truck drivers, railroad employees, and pilots. The objective of this article is to discuss the development of a logic model for a physical activity-based mass-transit employee wellness program by describing the target population, program theory, the components of the logic model, and the process of its development.

  5. Sport-based physical activity intervention on body weight in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungun; Ok, Gina; Jeon, Soeun; Kang, Minsoo; Lee, Sukho

    2017-02-01

    Controversial results reported in past research pertaining to the effectiveness of sport-based physical activity interventions on weight loss. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of sport-based physical activity intervention on body weight in children and adolescents using a meta-analysis. Academic Search Complete, Education Source, ERIC, Medline, ProQuest, PsycINFO and SportDiscus databases were searched from January 2000 to April 2015. Eighteen studies met following inclusion criteria: sport-based intervention studies; subjects aged 6-18 years; reported body weight; published in peer-reviewed journals written in English. The mean intervention duration was 17.72 weeks. The overall effect size (ES) was 0.52 (Cohen's d (ES) = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.08, 0.95, P = 0.021), using a random effects model. Moderator analyses results showed that the Q statistic for the sport type (individual sport or team sport, Qbetween (Qb) = 14.52, df = 1, P = 0.001) and diet control (Qbetween (Qb) = 8.85, df = 1, P = 0.001), explained the heterogeneity of ESs. Our study showed that there was a moderate overall effect of sport-based physical activity intervention on body weight reduction. The team sport type (ES = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.44, 1.66) and diet control group (ES = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.26, 1.41) appeared to be more effective in reducing body weight.

  6. Active travel intervention and physical activity behaviour: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Patricia; Eberth, Barbara; Farrar, Shelley; Anable, Jillian; Ludbrook, Anne

    2014-07-01

    A physically active lifestyle is an important contributor to individual health and well-being. The evidence linking higher physical activity levels with better levels of morbidity and mortality is well understood. Despite this, physical inactivity remains a major global risk factor for mortality and, consequently, encouraging individuals to pursue physically active lifestyles has been an integral part of public health policy in many countries. Physical activity promotion and interventions are now firmly on national health policy agendas, including policies that promote active travel such as walking and cycling. This study evaluates one such active travel initiative, the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme in Scotland, intended to encourage uptake of walking, cycling and the use of public transport as more active forms of travel. House to house surveys were conducted before and after the programme intervention, in May/June 2009 and 2012 (12,411 surveys in 2009 and 9542 in 2012), for the evaluation of the programme. This paper analyses the physical activity data collected, focussing on what can be inferred from the initiative with regards to adult uptake of physical activity participation and whether, for those who participated in physical activity, the initiative impacted on meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. The results suggest that the initiative impacted positively on the likelihood of physical activity participation and meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines. Individuals in the intervention areas were on average 6% more likely to meet the physical activity guidelines compared to individuals in the non intervention areas. However, the absolute prevalence of physical activity participation declined in both intervention and control areas over time. Our evaluation of this active transport initiative indicates that similar programmes may aid in contributing to achieving physical activity targets and adds to the international

  7. Physical Activity among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Sarah J.; Sturts, Jill R.; Ross, Craig M.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study provides insight into the perceived physical activity levels of students attending a Midwestern 2-year community college. Over 60% of respondents were classified as overweight or obese based on a BMI measurement. The majority of respondents were not participating regularly in physical activity to gain any health benefits,…

  8. PASS: Creating Physically Active School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciotto, Carol M.; Fede, Marybeth H.

    2014-01-01

    PASS, a Physically Active School System, is a program by which school districts and schools utilize opportunities for school-based physical activity that enhance overall fitness and cognition, which can be broken down into four integral parts consisting of connecting, communicating, collaborating, and cooperating. There needs to be an…

  9. Activities report in applied physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Research concerning acoustics, heat, architecture, materials research, and (optical) instrumentation is presented; active noise control and acoustic path identification were investigated. Energy conservation, solar energy, and building physics activities were carried out. Ultraviolet absorbing glasses, glass fibers, sheet glass, and aluminium and silicon oxynitrides, were studied. Glass fiber based sensor and laser applications, and optical space-instrumentation are discussed. Signal processing, sensors, and integrated electronics applications were developed. Scale model experiments for flow induced noise and vibrations, caused by engines, ventilators, wind turbines, and propellers, were executed. A multispectral charge coupled device airborne scanner, with four modules (one for forward observations) is described. A ground radar, based on seismic exploration signal processing and used for the location of pipes, sewers and cables, was developed.

  10. Potential effect of physical activity based menu labels on the calorie content of selected fast food meals.

    PubMed

    Dowray, Sunaina; Swartz, Jonas J; Braxton, Danielle; Viera, Anthony J

    2013-03-01

    In this study we examined the effect of physical activity based labels on the calorie content of meals selected from a sample fast food menu. Using a web-based survey, participants were randomly assigned to one of four menus which differed only in their labeling schemes (n=802): (1) a menu with no nutritional information, (2) a menu with calorie information, (3) a menu with calorie information and minutes to walk to burn those calories, or (4) a menu with calorie information and miles to walk to burn those calories. There was a significant difference in the mean number of calories ordered based on menu type (p=0.02), with an average of 1020 calories ordered from a menu with no nutritional information, 927 calories ordered from a menu with only calorie information, 916 calories ordered from a menu with both calorie information and minutes to walk to burn those calories, and 826 calories ordered from the menu with calorie information and the number of miles to walk to burn those calories. The menu with calories and the number of miles to walk to burn those calories appeared the most effective in influencing the selection of lower calorie meals (p=0.0007) when compared to the menu with no nutritional information provided. The majority of participants (82%) reported a preference for physical activity based menu labels over labels with calorie information alone and no nutritional information. Whether these labels are effective in real-life scenarios remains to be tested.

  11. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Cancer.gov

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  12. Effectiveness of a Computer-Tailored Print-Based Physical Activity Intervention among French Canadians with Type 2 Diabetes in a Real-Life Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Francois; Godin, Gaston; Poirier, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The promotion of regular physical activity for people with type 2 diabetes poses a challenge for public health authorities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a computer-tailoring print-based intervention to promote the adoption of regular physical activity among people with type 2 diabetes. An experimental design was…

  13. A Classroom-Based Physical Activity Intervention for Urban Kindergarten and First-Grade Students: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Kim, Mimi; Ozuah, Philip O.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Urban elementary schools in minority communities with high obesity prevalence may have limited resources for physical education (PE) to achieve daily activity recommendations. Little is known whether integrating physical activity (PA) into classrooms can increase activity levels of students attending such schools. Methods: We conducted a cluster randomized, controlled trial among kindergarten and first-grade students from four Bronx, New York, schools to determine feasibility and impact of a classroom-based intervention on students' PA levels. Students in two intervention schools received the Children's Hospital at Montefiore Joining Academics and Movement (CHAM JAM), an audio CD consisting of 10-minute, education-focused aerobic activities led by teachers three times a day. PA was objectively measured by pedometer. Each subject wore a sealed pedometer during the 6-hour school day for 5 consecutive days at baseline (Time 1) and 8 weeks postintervention (Time 2). Hierarchical linear models were fit to evaluate differences in mean number of steps between the two groups. Results: A total of 988 students participated (intervention group, n=500; control group, n=488). There was no significant difference at baseline between the two groups on mean number of steps (2581 [standard deviation (SD), 1284] vs. 2476 [SD, 1180]; P=0.71). Eight weeks post–CHAM JAM, intervention group students took significantly greater mean number of steps than controls (2839 [SD, 1262] vs. 2545 [SD, 1153]; P=0.0048) after adjusting for baseline number of steps and other covariates (grade, gender, recess, and PE class). CHAM JAM was equally effective in gender, grade level, and BMI subgroups. Conclusions: CHAM JAM significantly increased school-based PA among kindergarten and first-grade students in inner-city schools. This approach holds promise as a cost-effective means to integrate the physical and cognitive benefits of PA into high-risk schools. PMID:25747719

  14. Physical Activity Level and Sport Participation in Relation to Musculoskeletal Pain in a Population-Based Study of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Guddal, Maren Hjelle; Stensland, Synne Øien; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Johnsen, Marianne Bakke; Zwart, John-Anker; Storheim, Kjersti

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among adolescents is high, and pain in adolescence increases the risk of chronic pain in adulthood. Studies have shown conflicting evidence regarding associations between physical activity and musculoskeletal pain, and few have evaluated the potential impact of sport participation on musculoskeletal pain in adolescent population samples. Purpose: To examine the associations between physical activity level, sport participation, and musculoskeletal pain in the neck and shoulders, low back, and lower extremities in a population-based sample of adolescents. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence 4. Methods: Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (Young-HUNT3) were used. All 10,464 adolescents in the Nord-Trøndelag county of Norway were invited, of whom 74% participated. Participants were asked how often they had experienced pain, unrelated to any known disease or acute injury, in the neck and shoulders, low back, and lower extremities in the past 3 months. The associations between (1) physical activity level (low [reference], medium or high) or (2) sport participation (weekly compared with no/infrequent participation) and pain were evaluated using logistic regression analyses, stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, socioeconomic status, and psychological distress. Results: The analyses included 7596 adolescents (mean age, 15.8 years; SD, 1.7). Neck and shoulder pain was most prevalent (17%). A moderate level of physical activity was associated with reduced odds of neck and shoulder pain (OR = 0.79 [95% CI, 0.66-0.94]) and low back pain (OR = 0.75 [95% CI, 0.62-0.91]), whereas a high level of activity increased the odds of lower extremity pain (OR = 1.60 [95% CI, 1.29-1.99]). Participation in endurance sports was associated with lower odds of neck and shoulder pain (OR = 0.79 [95% CI, 0.68-0.92]) and low back pain (OR = 0.77 [95% CI, 0.65-0.92]), especially among girls. Participation in technical

  15. Physical activity maintenance among Spanish-speaking Latinas in a randomized controlled trial of an Internet-based intervention.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Sheri J; Dunsiger, Shira I; Bock, Beth C; Larsen, Britta A; Linke, Sarah; Pekmezi, Dori; Marquez, Becky; Gans, Kim M; Mendoza-Vasconez, Andrea S; Marcus, Bess H

    2016-10-17

    Spanish-speaking Latinas have some of the lowest rates of meeting physical activity guidelines in the U.S. and are at high risk for many related chronic diseases. The purpose of the current study was to examine the maintenance of a culturally and individually-tailored Internet-based physical activity intervention for Spanish-speaking Latinas. Inactive Latinas (N  =  205) were randomly assigned to a 6-month Tailored Physical Activity Internet Intervention or a Wellness Contact Control Internet Group, with a 6-month follow-up. Maintenance was measured by assessing group differences in minutes per week of self-reported and accelerometer measured moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at 12 months after baseline and changes in MVPA between the end of the active intervention (month 6) and the end of the study (month 12). Potential moderators of the intervention were also examined. Data were collected between 2011 and 2014, and were analyzed in 2015 at the University of California, San Diego. The Intervention Group engaged in significantly more minutes of MVPA per week than the Control Group at the end of the maintenance period for both self-reported (mean diff. = 30.68, SE = 11.27, p = .007) and accelerometer measured (mean diff. = 11.47, SE = 3.19, p = .01) MVPA. There were no significant between- or within-group changes in MVPA from month 6 to 12. Greater intervention effects were seen for those with lower BMI (BMI × intervention = -6.67, SE = 2.88, p = .02) and lower perceived places to walk to in their neighborhood (access × intervention = -43.25, SE = 19.07, p = .02), with a trend for less family support (social support × intervention = -3.49, SE = 2.05, p = .08). Acculturation, health literacy, and physical activity related psychosocial variables were not significant moderators of the intervention effect during the maintenance period. Findings from the current study support the efficacy of an Internet

  16. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  17. Cancer, physical activity, and exercise.

    PubMed

    Brown, Justin C; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2012-10-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underlying the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, and many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. The specific dose of exercise needed to optimize primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment remains to be elucidated.

  18. Cancer, Physical Activity, and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Justin C.; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underling the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, including many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. It is also unclear the specific dose of exercise needed that is optimal for primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment. PMID:23720265

  19. Physical activity: practice this idea

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga; Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary habits or insufficient activities to promote health benefits can influence the occurrence of chronic diseases. The cardiovascular risk factors arise, at least partially, from the individual-environment interaction during life, and worsen with aging and lack of physical exercise. Health promotion and prevention are among the greatest challenges of public health policies. However, physical activity turns out to be rarely recommended and, thus have a very poor adhesion. In spite of consensus about the benefits of physical activity in both primary and secondary prevention, only 32% of adults and 66% of children and adolescents, according to Healthy People 2010 guideline, practice leisure-time physical activity. Thus, the regular practice of physical activity and healthy habits require changes in basic concepts in government and social policies. The higher involvement of public and private sectors related to health and education, the more expressive would be the reduction in socioeconomic costs and the improvement in quality of life. PMID:24551484

  20. Evidence-based physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors: current guidelines, knowledge gaps and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Buffart, L M; Galvão, D A; Brug, J; Chinapaw, M J M; Newton, R U

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity during and after cancer treatment has beneficial effects on a number of physical and psychosocial outcomes. This paper aims to discuss the existing physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors and to describe future research directions to optimize prescriptions. Studies on physical activity during and after cancer treatment were searched in PubMed, Clinicaltrials.gov, Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, and Dutch Trial registry. Physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors suggest that physical activity should be an integral and continuous part of care for all cancer survivors. However, the development of these guidelines has been limited by the research conducted. To be able to develop more specific guidelines, future studies should focus on identifying clinical, personal, physical, psychosocial, and intervention moderators explaining 'for whom' or 'under what circumstances' interventions work. Further, more insight into the working mechanisms of exercise interventions on health outcomes in cancer survivors is needed to improve the efficacy and efficiency of interventions. Finally, existing programs should embrace interests and preferences of patients to facilitate optimal uptake of interventions. In conclusion, current physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors are generic, and research is needed to develop more personalized physical activity guidelines.

  1. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  2. A Randomized Controlled Design Investigating the Effects of Classroom-Based Physical Activity on Children's Fluid Intelligence and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedewa, Alicia L.; Ahn, Soyeon; Erwin, Heather; Davis, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    Existing literature shows promising effects of physical activity on children's cognitive outcomes. This study assessed via a randomized, controlled design whether additional curricular physical activity during the school day resulted in gains for children's fluid intelligence and standardized achievement outcomes. Participants were children…

  3. Evaluation of a web-based program promoting healthy eating and physical activity for adolescents: Teen Choice: Food and Fitness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This randomized clinical trial tested the impact of a website promoting nutrition and physical activity for adolescents (Teen Choice: Food and Fitness). Participants, 408 12- to 17-year-old adolescents in the Houston area, completed online surveys measuring diet, physical activity, sedentary behavio...

  4. A mixed-methods investigation of successful aging among older women engaged in sports-based versus exercise-based leisure time physical activities.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Kathryn; Kruger, Tina; Klenosky, David B

    2016-12-29

    This mixed-methods study compares active older women in different physically based leisure activities and explores the difference in subjective ratings of successful aging and quantifiable predictors of success. A survey was administered to 256 women, 60-92 years of age, engaged in a sports- or exercise-based activity. Quantitative data were analyzed through ANOVA and multiple regression. Qualitative data (n = 79) was analyzed using the approach associated with means-end theory. While participants quantitatively appeared similar in terms of successful aging, qualitative interviews revealed differences in activity motivation. Women involved in sports highlighted social/psychological benefits, while those involved in exercise-based activities stressed fitness outcomes.

  5. Models of Individual Dietary Behavior Based on Smartphone Data: The Influence of Routine, Physical Activity, Emotion, and Food Environment

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Edmund; Hua, Jenna; Wu, Lemuel; Shia, Victor; Eom, Sue; Wang, May; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smartphone applications (apps) facilitate the collection of data on multiple aspects of behavior that are useful for characterizing baseline patterns and for monitoring progress in interventions aimed at promoting healthier lifestyles. Individual-based models can be used to examine whether behavior, such as diet, corresponds to certain typological patterns. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate individual-based modeling methods relevant to a person’s eating behavior, and the value of such approach compared to typical regression models. Method Using a mobile app, 2 weeks of physical activity and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data, and 6 days of diet data were collected from 12 university students recruited from a university in Kunming, a rapidly developing city in southwest China. Phone GPS data were collected for the entire 2-week period, from which exposure to various food environments along each subject’s activity space was determined. Physical activity was measured using phone accelerometry. Mobile phone EMA was used to assess self-reported emotion/feelings. The portion size of meals and food groups was determined from voice-annotated videos of meals. Individual-based regression models were used to characterize subjects as following one of 4 diet typologies: those with a routine portion sizes determined by time of day, those with portion sizes that balance physical activity (energy balance), those with portion sizes influenced by emotion, and those with portion sizes associated with food environments. Results Ample compliance with the phone-based behavioral assessment was observed for all participants. Across all individuals, 868 consumed food items were recorded, with fruits, grains and dairy foods dominating the portion sizes. On average, 218 hours of accelerometry and 35 EMA responses were recorded for each participant. For some subjects, the routine model was able to explain up to 47% of the variation in portion sizes, and

  6. Physical Education and Physical Activity: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sarah M.; Burgeson, Charlene R.; Fulton, Janet E.; Spain, Christine G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive school-based physical activity programs consist of physical education and other physical activity opportunities including recess and other physical activity breaks, intramurals, interscholastic sports, and walk and bike to school initiatives. This article describes the characteristics of school physical education and…

  7. [Physical activity and brain function].

    PubMed

    Kempermann, G

    2012-06-01

    Physical activity has direct and indirect effects on brain function in health and disease. Findings demonstrating that physical activity improves cognitive and non-cognitive functions and is preventive for several neuropsychiatric disorders have attracted particular interest. This short review focuses on sports and physical exercise in normal brain function and summarizes which mechanisms might underlie the observed effects, which methodological problems exist, which relationships exist to concepts of plasticity and neural reserves and what evolutionary relevance the initially surprising finding that physical exercise is good for the brain has.

  8. The Built Environment Predicts Observed Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Cheryl; Wilson, Jeffrey S.; Schootman, Mario; Clennin, Morgan; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In order to improve our understanding of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity, it is important to identify associations between specific geographic characteristics and physical activity behaviors. Purpose: Examine relationships between observed physical activity behavior and measures of the built environment collected on 291 street segments in Indianapolis and St. Louis. Methods: Street segments were selected using a stratified geographic sampling design to ensure representation of neighborhoods with different land use and socioeconomic characteristics. Characteristics of the built environment on-street segments were audited using two methods: in-person field audits and audits based on interpretation of Google Street View imagery with each method blinded to results from the other. Segments were dichotomized as having a particular characteristic (e.g., sidewalk present or not) based on the two auditing methods separately. Counts of individuals engaged in different forms of physical activity on each segment were assessed using direct observation. Non-parametric statistics were used to compare counts of physically active individuals on each segment with built environment characteristic. Results: Counts of individuals engaged in physical activity were significantly higher on segments with mixed land use or all non-residential land use, and on segments with pedestrian infrastructure (e.g., crosswalks and sidewalks) and public transit. Conclusion: Several micro-level built environment characteristics were associated with physical activity. These data provide support for theories that suggest changing the built environment and related policies may encourage more physical activity. PMID:24904916

  9. Physics of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  10. Alcohol consumption, physical activity, and chronic disease risk factors: a population-based cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Mukamal, Kenneth J; Ding, Eric L; Djoussé, Luc

    2006-01-01

    Background Whether the association of alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease is the product of confounding and the degree to which this concern applies to other behaviors are unclear. Methods Using the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a population-based telephone survey of adults in the US, we compared chronic disease risk factors between 123,359 abstainers and 126,674 moderate drinkers, defined as intake of ≤ 2 drinks per day among men and ≤ 1 drink per day among women, using age- and sex- and multivariable-adjusted models. We also compared sedentary and active individuals, defined as moderate physical activity ≥ 30 minutes per day for ≥ 5 days per week, or vigorous activity for ≥ 20 minutes per day on ≥ 3 days. Results Chronic disease risk factors and features of unhealthy lifestyle were generally more prevalent among abstainers than drinkers in age- and sex-adjusted analyses, but these differences were generally attenuated or eliminated by additional adjustment for race and education. For low fruit and vegetable intake, divorced marital status, and absence of a personal physician, adjustment for race and education reversed initially positive age- and sex-adjusted associations with abstention. Comparison of sedentary and active individuals produced similar findings, with generally lower levels of risk factors among more physical active individuals. Conclusion The differences between abstainers and drinkers are attenuated after adjustment for limited sociodemographic features, and sedentary and active individuals share a similar pattern. Although observational studies of both factors may be susceptible to uncontrolled confounding, our results provide no evidence that moderate drinking is unique in this regard. Ultimately, randomized trials of all such lifestyle factors will be needed to answer these questions definitively. PMID:16670030

  11. Physics Based University Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeby, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Two physics courses which serve as alternatives to general college courses in physics are outlined: physics with astrophysics and physics with electronics. Details are given of the structure of the courses and third year options are specified. (DT)

  12. Correlates of home and neighbourhood-based physical activity in UK 3–4-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Hesketh, Kathryn R.; van Sluijs, Esther M.F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Identifying context-specific correlates of home- and neighbourhood-based physical activity in preschool-aged children may help improve intervention program development for these settings. Methods: A total of 153 3–4-year-old children were recruited through preschool settings in Cambridgeshire (January–July 2013). Children wore Actiheart accelerometers for ≤7 days to assess their sedentary time (ST), light-(LPA) and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). A parent-completed questionnaire assessed correlates across the ecological model and the child’s preschool attendance during the measurement week. Only accelerometer data for times when children were at home were used. Multilevel models (Level 1: days; Level 2: child) examined associations between maternal-reported exposure variables and each outcome (children’s home- and neighbourhood-based ST, LPA and MVPA) (main analysis). Further analyses included the subsample of children with complete paternal correlates data (father analysis). Results: In the main analyses, children with older siblings engaged in less ST. Children whose mothers reported being ‘moderately inactive’ or ‘active’ (vs. inactive) engaged in less LPA, while children whose mothers worked >35 h week−1 engaged in less MVPA. More equipment at home was associated with lower LPA but greater MVPA. In the father analysis, father’s television viewing before 6 pm was associated with greater ST and less MVPA in children; the negative association between mother’s activity and children’s LPA was retained. Conclusion: Family demographics and parental behaviours appear to have the strongest association with children’s home- and neighbourhood-based ST, LPA and MVPA. This study further highlights the importance of examining both maternal and paternal behaviours. PMID:27175002

  13. Efficacy of theory-based interventions to promote physical activity. A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Gourlan, M; Bernard, P; Bortolon, C; Romain, A J; Lareyre, O; Carayol, M; Ninot, G; Boiché, J

    2016-01-01

    Implementing theory-based interventions is an effective way to influence physical activity (PA) behaviour in the population. This meta-analysis aimed to (1) determine the global effect of theory-based randomised controlled trials dedicated to the promotion of PA among adults, (2) measure the actual efficacy of interventions against their theoretical objectives and (3) compare the efficacy of single- versus combined-theory interventions. A systematic search through databases and review articles was carried out. Our results show that theory-based interventions (k = 82) significantly impact the PA behaviour of participants (d = 0.31, 95% CI [0.24, 0.37]). While moderation analyses revealed no efficacy difference between theories, interventions based on a single theory (d = 0.35; 95% CI [0.26, 0.43]) reported a higher impact on PA behaviour than those based on a combination of theories (d = 0.21; 95% CI [0.11, 0.32]). In spite of the global positive effect of theory-based interventions on PA behaviour, further research is required to better identify the specificities, overlaps or complementarities of the components of interventions based on relevant theories.

  14. Towards a physics-based multiscale modelling of the electro-mechanical coupling in electro-active polymers

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Andreas; deBotton, Gal

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the increasing number of industrial applications of electro-active polymers (EAPs), there is a growing need for electromechanical models which accurately capture their behaviour. To this end, we compare the predicted behaviour of EAPs undergoing homogeneous deformations according to three electromechanical models. The first model is a phenomenological continuum-based model composed of the mechanical Gent model and a linear relationship between the electric field and the polarization. The electrical and the mechanical responses according to the second model are based on the physical structure of the polymer chain network. The third model incorporates a neo-Hookean mechanical response and a physically motivated microstructurally based long-chains model for the electrical behaviour. In the microstructural-motivated models, the integration from the microscopic to the macroscopic levels is accomplished by the micro-sphere technique. Four types of homogeneous boundary conditions are considered and the behaviours determined according to the three models are compared. For the microstructurally motivated models, these analyses are performed and compared with the widely used phenomenological model for the first time. Some of the aspects revealed in this investigation, such as the dependence of the intensity of the polarization field on the deformation, highlight the need for an in-depth investigation of the relationships between the structure and the behaviours of the EAPs at the microscopic level and their overall macroscopic response. PMID:27118885

  15. Multimorbidity, cognitive function, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-02-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both physical activity and multimorbidity are associated with cognitive function. However, the extent to which physical activity may moderate the relationship between multimorbidity and cognitive function has not been thoroughly evaluated. Data from the 1999-2002 NHANES were used (60+ years; N = 2157). A multimorbidity index variable was created based on physician diagnosis of a multitude of chronic diseases. Physical activity was self-reported and cognitive function was evaluated from the digit symbol substitution test. Multimorbidity was inversely associated with cognitive function for the unadjusted and adjusted models. However, generally, multimorbidity was no longer associated with cognitive function for the majority of older adults who achieved the minimum recommended physical activity level (≥2000 MET-min-month), as issued by the United States Department of Health and Human Services. In this national sample of older adults, there was some evidence to suggest that physical activity moderates the relationship between multimorbidity and cognitive function.

  16. The Value of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern; Vogel, Paul

    This booklet summarizes results of research and literature reviews that had been collected in a source book titled "Physical Activity & Well-Being" and published in 1986 by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. The evidence presented suggests that exercise can reduce or delay the undesirable effects of many degenerative…

  17. Physical Activity & Well-being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern, Ed.

    This book reviews evidence in the biological and behavioral sciences relating physical activity to human well-being. The following articles are included: (1) "Physical Growth and Maturation" (Robert M. Malina); (2) "Acquisition of Motor Skills During Childhood" (John L. Haubenstricker and Vern D. Seefeldt); (3) "Development of Sensory-Motor…

  18. Physical Activity and Health. A Report of the Surgeon General.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    The informatin in this report summarizes the existing literature on the role of physical activity in preventing disease and on the status of interventions to increase physical activity, focusing on endurance-type physical activity. School-based interventions have been shown to be successful in increasing physical activity levels. With evidence…

  19. Effects of a Lifestyle-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Medical Expenditure in Japanese Adults: A Community-Based Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to investigate whether a lifestyle-based physical activity program could contribute to reduced medical expenditure. Methods. The study participants were 60 adults aged 63.1 (standard deviation, 4.4) years in the intervention group; the case-control group consisted of 300 adults who were randomly selected from Japan's national health insurance system. This community-based retrospective study incorporated a 3-year follow-up. Results. The total and outpatient medical expenditure in the intervention group were significantly lower than in the control group: total expenditure, $US640.4/year; outpatient expenditure, $369.1/year. The odds ratio for outpatient visiting was 6.47-fold higher in the control than in the intervention group. Conclusion. Our study suggests that a health program to promote physical activity can result in reduced total medical expenditure, outpatient medical expenditure, and possibly also inpatient medical expenditure. PMID:27493963

  20. Evidence-Based Practice and Research: A Challenge to the Development of Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu Shayke

    2011-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a growing movement in the health and educational disciplines that recommends emphasis on research outcomes during decision making in practice. EBP is made possible through evidence based research (EBR), which attempts to synthesize the volume and scientific rigor of intervention effectiveness. With the purpose of…

  1. Factors Influencing Cypriot Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present selected findings from a larger study, which set out to examine the physical activity levels of Cypriot primary school children and determinants of their activity. Twenty parents of children who obtained high and low activity scores based on pedometer counts and self-reports scores were interviewed. By…

  2. Process evaluation of a school-based intervention to increase physical activity and reduce bullying.

    PubMed

    Bowes, Donna; Marquis, Monica; Young, Wendy; Holowaty, Philippa; Isaac, Winston

    2009-07-01

    Increases in schoolyard bullying and physical inactivity have become important issues to many stakeholders. Peers Running Organized Play Stations (PROPS) is a program designed to address these two issues in elementary schools. Using a "train the trainer" approach, PROPS was introduced to 41 schools. Results of a process evaluation indicate that the implementation rate was 39%. Resources were identified by some respondents as an implementation facilitator. A variety of barriers to implementation were identified: The PROPS program was not a component of anyone's job at the school level, teachers or parent volunteers are needed to run the program, and there is no funding to purchase equipment or storage bins for the equipment. In addition, support for PROPS is vulnerable to changing environments. This process evaluation points to some needed changes for long-term sustainability of the program while highlighting challenges associated with implementing a program in the elementary school setting.

  3. Low Physical Activity and Its Association with Diabetes and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Brugnara, Laura; Murillo, Serafín; Novials, Anna; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico; Goday, Albert; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso; Castaño, Luis; Gaztambide, Sonia; Valdés, Sergio; Franch, Josep; Castell, Conxa; Vendrell, Joan; Casamitjana, Roser; Bosch-Comas, Anna; Bordiú, Elena; Carmena, Rafael; Catalá, Miguel; Delgado, Elias; Girbés, Juan; López-Alba, Alfonso; Martínez-Larrad, Maria Teresa; Menéndez, Edelmiro; Mora-Peces, Inmaculada; Pascual-Manich, Gemma; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel; Gomis, Ramon; Ortega, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Low physical activity (PA), or sedentary lifestyle, is associated with the development of several chronic diseases. We aimed to investigate current prevalence of sedentariness and its association with diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors. PA was evaluated in a population-based, cross-sectional, randomly sampled study conducted in 2009–2010 in Spain. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (SF-IPAQ) was used to assess PA. 4991 individuals (median age 50 years, 57% women) were studied. Prevalence of sedentariness was 32.3% for men and 39% for women (p < 0.0001). Sex differences were particularly notable (age*sex interaction, p = 0.0024) at early and older ages. Sedentary individuals had higher BMI (28 vs. 27 kg/m2) and obesity prevalence (37 vs. 26%). Low PA was present in 44, 43, and 38% of individuals with known diabetes (KDM), prediabetes/unknown-diabetes (PREDM/UKDM), and normal glucose regulation (p = 0.0014), respectively. No difference between KDM and PREDM/UKDM (p = 0.72) was found. Variables independently associated (p < 0.05) with sedentariness were age, sex, BMI, central obesity, Mediterranean diet adherence, smoking habit, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and dyslipidemia. Low PA is on the rise in Spain, especially among women. Sedentariness is associated with several cardiovascular risk factors and may be responsible for the increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes in this country. PMID:27532610

  4. Active Climate Stabilization: Practical Physics-Based Approaches to Prevention of Climate Change

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Teller, E.; Hyde, T.; Wood, L.

    2002-04-18

    We offer a case for active technical management of the radiative forcing of the temperatures of the Earth's fluid envelopes, rather than administrative management of atmospheric greenhouse gas inputs, in order to stabilize both the global- and time-averaged climate and its mesoscale features. We suggest that active management of radiative forcing entails negligible--indeed, likely strongly negative--economic costs and environmental impacts, and thus best complies with the pertinent mandate of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. We propose that such approaches be swiftly evaluated in sub-scale in the course of an intensive international program.

  5. Translation of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity recommendations into pedometer-based stepping targets in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of the United States is characterized by high levels of poverty, physical inactivity, obesity, and related chronic diseases. There is a pressing need to identify new strategies that will increase adherence to physical activity guidelines. Walking is an import...

  6. Physical activity in adulthood: genes and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Karvinen, Sira; Waller, Katja; Silvennoinen, Mika; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kainulainen, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M.

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies report a strong inverse relationship between leisure-time physical activity and all-cause mortality. Despite suggestive evidence from population-based associations, scientists have not been able to show a beneficial effect of physical activity on the risk of death in controlled intervention studies among individuals who have been healthy at baseline. On the other hand, high cardiorespiratory fitness is known to be a strong predictor of reduced mortality, even more robust than physical activity level itself. Here, in both animals and/or human twins, we show that the same genetic factors influence physical activity levels, cardiorespiratory fitness, and risk of death. Previous observational follow-up studies in humans suggest that increasing fitness through physical activity levels could prolong life; however, our controlled interventional study with laboratory rats bred for low and high intrinsic fitness contrast with these findings. Also, we find no evidence for the suggested association using pairwise analysis among monozygotic twin pairs who are discordant in their physical activity levels. Based on both our animal and human findings, we propose that genetic pleiotropy might partly explain the frequently observed associations between high baseline physical activity and later reduced mortality in humans. PMID:26666586

  7. Innovative Research Design Exploring the Effects of Physical Activity and Genetics on Cognitive Performance in Community-Based Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Etnier, Jennifer L; Labban, Jeffrey D; Karper, William B; Wideman, Laurie; Piepmeier, Aaron T; Shih, Chia-Hao; Castellano, Michael; Williams, Lauren M; Park, Se-Yun; Henrich, Vincent C; Dudley, William N; Rulison, Kelli L

    2015-10-01

    Physical activity is predictive of better cognitive performance and lower risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) is a susceptibility gene for AD with the e4 allele being associated with a greater risk of AD. Cross-sectional and prospective research shows that physical activity is predictive of better cognitive performance for those at greater genetic risk for AD. However, the moderating role of APOE on the effects of a physical activity intervention on cognitive performance has not been examined. The purpose of this manuscript is to justify the need for such research and to describe the design, methods, and recruitment tactics used in the conductance of a study designed to provide insight as to the extent to which cognitive benefits resulting from an 8-month physical activity program are differentiated by APOE e4 status. The effectiveness of the recruitment strategies and the feasibility of recruiting APOE e4 carriers are discussed.

  8. Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight Language: English Español (Spanish) ... calories are used in typical activities? Why is physical activity important? Regular physical activity is important for good ...

  9. Healthy Active Living: A Residence Community-Based Intervention to Increase Physical Activity and Healthy Eating during the Transition to First-Year University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Denver M. Y.; Bray, Steve R.; Beatty, Kevin R.; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of a Healthy Active Living (HAL) community intervention on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC), and psychosocial mediators of physical activity among students transitioning into university. Methods: Sixty undergraduate students were assigned to reside in either the…

  10. Understanding the Importance of Context: A Qualitative Study of a Location-Based Exergame to Enhance School Childrens Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jepson, Ruth; Macvean, Andrew; Gray, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Many public health interventions are less effective than expected in ‘real life settings’, yet little work is undertaken to understand the reasons why. The effectiveness of complex public health interventions can often be traced back to a robust programme theory (how and why an intervention brings about a change in outcome(s)) and assumptions that are made about the context in which it is implemented. Understanding whether effectiveness (or lack thereof) is due to the intervention or the context is hugely helpful in decisions about whether to a) modify the intervention; b) modify the context; c) stop providing the intervention. Exergames–also known as Active Video Games or AVGS–are video games which use the player's bodily movements as input and have potential to increase physical activity in children. However, the results of a recent pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a location-based exergame (FitQuest) in a school setting were inconclusive; no significant effect was detected for any of the outcome measures. The aim of this study was to explore whether the programme theory for FitQuest was correct with respect to how and why it would change children’s perceptions of physical activity (PA) and exercise self-efficacy in the school setting. A further aim was to investigate the features of the school setting (context) that may impact on FitQuest’s implementation and effectiveness. Qualitative data (gathered during the RCT) were gathered from interviews with teachers and children, and observation of sessions using FitQuest. Thematic analysis indicated that whilst children enjoyed playing the game, engaged with goal setting within the game context and undertook low to vigorous physical activity, there were significant contextual factors that prevented it from being played as often as intended. These included environmental factors (e.g. size of the playground), school factors (cancellations due to other activities), school technology policy (rules

  11. Adiposity, physical activity and risk of diabetes mellitus: prospective data from the population-based HUNT study, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Hjerkind, Kirsti Vik; Nilsen, Tom I L

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical activity may counteract the adverse effects of adiposity on cardiovascular mortality; however, the evidence of a similar effect on diabetes is sparse. This study examines whether physical activity may compensate for the adverse effect of adiposity on diabetes risk. Methods The study population consisted of 38 231 individuals aged 20 years or more who participated in two consecutive waves of the prospective longitudinal Nord-Trøndelag Health Study in Norway: in 1984–1986 and in 1995–1997. A Poisson regression model with SEs derived from robust variance was used to estimate adjusted risk ratios of diabetes between categories of body mass index and physical activity. Results Risk of diabetes increased both with increasing body mass (Ptrend <0.001) and with decreasing physical activity level (Ptrend <0.001 in men and 0.01 in women). Combined analyses showed that men who were both obese and had low activity levels had a risk ratio of 17 (95% CI 9.52 to 30) compared to men who were normal weight and highly active, whereas obese men who reported high activity had a risk ratio of 13 (95% CI 6.92 to 26). Corresponding analysis in obese women produced risk ratios of 15 (95% CI 9.18 to 25) and 13 (95% CI 7.42 to 21) among women reporting low and high activity levels, respectively. Conclusions This study shows that overweight and obesity are associated with a substantially increased risk of diabetes, particularly among those who also reported being physically inactive. High levels of physical activity were associated with a lower risk of diabetes within all categories of body mass index, but there was no clear evidence that being physically active could entirely compensate for the adverse effect of adiposity on diabetes risk. PMID:28093432

  12. The Association of C-Reactive Protein and Physical Activity Among a Church-Based Population of African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Swann Arp; Wirth, Michael D.; Khan, Samira; Murphy, E. Angela; Heiney, Sue P.; Davis, Lisa C.; Davis, Briana; Drayton, Ruby F.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Blair, Steven M.; Hébert, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Regular physical activity can reduce systemic inflammation and, thereby, the burden of chronic inflammatory-related conditions. This study examined whether regular physical activity, measured subjectively (Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity [RAPA]) and objectively (Bodymedia’s SenseWear® activity monitor [SWA]), is associated with inflammatory or glycemic control markers. Methods Subjects were 345 participants of the Healthy Eating and Active Living in the Spirit (HEALS) lifestyle intervention among African-American (AA) churches in South Carolina in 2009. Linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between both subjectively- and objectively- measured physical activity and inflammatory markers including high sensitivity c-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Results Those who participated in regular physical activity (RAPA) had lower CRP values compared to those who were sedentary (2.3 vs. 3.8 mg/L, p<0.01). Lower levels of CRP or IL-6 were observed among those in the highest quartile of active energy expenditure (CRP: 2.0 vs. 3.6 mg/L, p=0.01) or moderate-vigorous physical activity minutes (CRP=1.7 vs. 4.5 mg/L, p<0.01; IL-6=1.5 vs. 2.1 pg/mL, p=0.01) compared to their lowest respective quartiles as measured by the SWA. Conclusion Physical activity may improve chronic inflammation, which is a primary pathophysiological mechanism for numerous chronic disorders, especially among minority populations. PMID:26007295

  13. Assessment of heart rate variability based on mobile device for planning physical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svirin, I. S.; Epishina, E. V.; Voronin, V. V.; Semenishchev, E. A.; Solodova, E. N.; Nabilskaya, N. V.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we present a method for the functional analysis of human heart based on electrocardiography (ECG) signals. The approach using the apparatus of analytical and differential geometry and correlation and regression analysis. ECG contains information on the current condition of the cardiovascular system as well as on the pathological changes in the heart. Mathematical processing of the heart rate variability allows to obtain a great set of mathematical and statistical characteristics. These characteristics of the heart rate are used when solving research problems to study physiological changes that determine functional changes of an individual. The proposed method implemented for up-to-date mobile Android and iOS based devices.

  14. Evaluation of a web-based program promoting healthy eating and physical activity for adolescents: teen choice: food and fitness.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Thompson, Debbe; Boushey, Carol; Konzelmann, Karen; Chen, Tzu-An

    2013-08-01

    This randomized clinical trial tested the impact of a website promoting nutrition and physical activity for adolescents (Teen Choice: Food and Fitness). Participants, (408) 12- to 17-year-old adolescents in the Houston area, completed online surveys measuring diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet/physical activity mediators at baseline. After randomization, they were asked to log onto either the intervention or the control condition website weekly for 8 weeks to review web content and set goals to improve dietary and physical activity behaviors. Post-test occurred after 8 weeks. Logistic regression analyses and one-way analyses of covariance were used in the analyses. At post, more intervention group adolescents reported eating three or more daily vegetable servings in the past week compared with the control group (P < 0.05); both groups reported significant increases in physical activity (P < 0.001) and significant decreases in TV watching (P < 0.01). Average log on rate was 75% over the 8 weeks; there was no difference by condition. The website enabled adolescents to improve vegetable intake and daily physical activity, reduce sedentary behavior and had a high log on rate. Future research should identify effective methods for disseminating this website to wider audiences.

  15. Rural Food and Physical Activity Assessment Using an Electronic Tablet-Based Application, New York, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Emily H.; Connor, Leah M.; Garner, Jennifer A.; King, Abby C.; Sheats, Jylana L.; Winter, Sandra J.; Buman, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A community’s built environment can influence health behaviors. Rural populations experience significant health disparities, yet built environment studies in these settings are limited. We used an electronic tablet-based community assessment tool to conduct built environment audits in rural settings. The primary objective of this qualitative study was to evaluate the usefulness of the tool in identifying barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and active living. The second objective was to understand resident perspectives on community features and opportunities for improvement. Methods Participants were recruited from 4 rural communities in New York State. Using the tool, participants completed 2 audits, which consisted of taking pictures and recording audio narratives about community features perceived as assets or barriers to healthy eating and active living. Follow-up focus groups explored the audit experience, data captured, and opportunities for change. Results Twenty-four adults (mean age, 69.4 y [standard deviation, 13.2 y]), 6 per community, participated in the study. The most frequently captured features related to active living were related to roads, sidewalks, and walkable destinations. Restaurants, nontraditional food stores, and supermarkets were identified in the food environment in relation to the cost, quality, and selection of healthy foods available. In general, participants found the assessment tool to be simple and enjoyable to use. Conclusion An electronic tablet–based tool can be used to assess rural food and physical activity environments and may be useful in identifying and prioritizing resident-led change initiatives. This resident-led assessment approach may also be helpful for informing and evaluating rural community-based interventions. PMID:26133645

  16. A Test of Basic Psychological Needs Theory in a Physical Activity-Based Program for Underserved Youth.

    PubMed

    McDavid, Lindley; McDonough, Meghan H; Blankenship, Bonnie T; LeBreton, James M

    2016-12-29

    This study used a randomized controlled design to test the pathways in basic psychological needs theory where social relationships characterized by autonomy support, involvement, and structure foster psychological need satisfaction and well-being (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Participants were recruited from a physical activity-based youth program. A new staff training was implemented to manipulate the use of each interpersonal characteristic by program staff (N=24 observed), and perceptions of each interpersonal characteristic, psychological needs, hope, and self-worth in youth (N=379 surveyed pre- and post-program). Staff in the intervention condition used greater overall observed autonomy support, involvement, and structure. Condition assignment did not lead to differences in youth perceptions, but observed staff behaviors positively predicted youth perceptions of staff and perceptions of staff positively predicted change in well-being. Findings indicate that the training manipulated how staff engaged youth, and autonomy support, involvement, and structure are useful strategies to foster well-being in youth.

  17. Increasing opportunities for physical activity.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Sue

    2007-07-01

    Being physically active can have a number of benefits - having fun, meeting with friends, keeping healthy and experiencing success. For children with Down syndrome the foundations need to be laid early if they are to keep active in school, teenage and adult years and parents ask for more help in this area from professionals.

  18. Effects of a ‘school-based' physical activity intervention on adiposity in adolescents from economically disadvantaged communities: secondary outcomes of the ‘Physical Activity 4 Everyone' RCT

    PubMed Central

    Hollis, J L; Sutherland, R; Campbell, L; Morgan, P J; Lubans, D R; Nathan, N; Wolfenden, L; Okely, A D; Davies, L; Williams, A; Cohen, K E; Oldmeadow, C; Gillham, K; Wiggers, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity prevention during adolescence is a health priority. The ‘Physical Activity 4 Everyone' (PA4E1) study tested a multi-component physical activity intervention in 10 secondary schools from socio-economically disadvantaged communities. This paper aimed to report the secondary outcomes of the study; to determine whether the intervention impacted on adiposity outcomes (weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score), and whether any effect was moderated by sex, baseline BMI and baseline physical activity level, at 12 and 24 months. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in New South Wales, Australia. The school-based intervention included seven physical activity strategies targeting the following: curriculum (strategies to maximise physical activity in physical education, student physical activity plans, an enhanced school sport programme); school environment (physical activity during school breaks, modification of school policy); and parents and the community (parent engagement, links with community physical activity providers). Students' weight (kg), BMI and BMI z-score, were collected at baseline (Grade 7), 12 and 24 months. Linear Mixed Models were used to assess between-group mean difference from baseline to 12 and 24 months. Exploratory sub-analyses were undertaken according to three moderators of energy balance. RESULTS: A total of 1150 students (mean age=12 years) provided outcome data at baseline, 1051 (91%) at 12 months and 985 (86%) at 24 months. At 12 months, there were group-by-time effects for weight (mean difference=–0.90 kg (95% confidence interval (CI)=–1.50, −0.30), P<0.01) and BMI (−0.28 kg m−2 (−0.50, −0.06), P=0.01) in favour of the intervention group, but not for BMI z-score (−0.05 (−0.11; 0.01), P=0.13). These findings were consistent for weight (−0.62 kg (−1.21, 0.03), P=0.01) and BMI (−0.28 kg m−2 (−0.49, −0.06), P=0.01) at 24 months, with group

  19. Interventions for promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Charles; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Thorogood, Margaret; Kaur, Asha; Wedatilake, Thamindu

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effectiveness of strategies to enable people to achieve and maintain recommended levels of physical activity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to promote physical activity in adults aged 16 years and older, not living in an institution. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 1 2005), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, BIDS ISI, SPORTDISCUS, SIGLE, SCISEARCH (from earliest dates available to December 2004). Reference lists of relevant articles were checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials that compared different interventions to encourage sedentary adults not living in an institution to become physically active. Studies required a minimum of six months follow up from the start of the intervention to the collection of final data and either used an intention-to-treat analysis or, failing that, had no more than 20% loss to follow up. Data collection and analysis At least two reviewers independently assessed each study quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information where necessary. Standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous measures of self-reported physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness. For studies with dichotomous outcomes, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Main results The effect of interventions on self-reported physical activity (19 studies; 7598 participants) was positive and moderate (pooled SMD random effects model 0.28 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41) as was the effect of interventions (11 studies; 2195 participants) on cardio-respiratory fitness (pooled SMD random effects model 0.52 95% CI 0.14 to 0.90). There was significant heterogeneity in the reported effects as well as heterogeneity in characteristics of the interventions. The heterogeneity in reported effects was reduced in higher quality studies, when physical

  20. Engaging Middle School Students in Physical Education and Physical Activity Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    With school-based physical activity emerging as a public health issue, it is more important than ever to understand what keeps children and adolescents interested and participating in physical education and physical activity. As the research on physical activity patterns indicates, the middle school years may be a watershed moment in the lives of…

  1. Physical activity levels of children during school playtime.

    PubMed

    Ridgers, Nicola D; Stratton, Gareth; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2006-01-01

    School represents a suitable setting for intervention programmes aiming to promote physical activity to benefit health. During the school day, physical education and school playtime offer children regular opportunities to engage in physical activity. However, there is growing concern that, internationally, curricular time allocated to physical education is not meeting statutory guidelines. The effectiveness of the playground environment to promote physical activity has been considered as a complementary setting to physical education. Physical activity guidelines state that children should engage in at least 1 hour of moderate intensity physical activity a day. Currently no empirically tested guidelines exist for physical activity levels during playtime. However, studies cited in this article indicate that playtime can contribute between 5-40% of recommended daily physical activity levels when no interventions have been utilised. The limited school-based investigations that have been reported in the literature suggest that boys engage in more physical activity during playtime than girls. Studies that have implemented intervention strategies in order to promote physical activity levels indicate that playtime can substantially contribute towards daily optimal physical activity guidelines. Energy expenditure and physical activity levels have increased during playtime following the implementation of playtime-based interventions. In order to advance knowledge of children's physical activity during playtime, a number of key issues for consideration in future research are detailed. Research on children's use of playtime to be physically active and the extent of the contribution of playtime to daily physical activity guidelines is warranted.

  2. [EFFECTS OF SCHOOL-BASED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND NUTRITION PROGRAMS IN SPANISH ADOLESCENTS: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW].

    PubMed

    Pérez López, Isaac José; Tercedor Sánchez, Pablo; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: la inactividad física y las conductas de alimentación poco saludable desde edades tempranas son dos de los grandes problemas de salud pública en los países desarrollados. Objetivo: realizar una revisión sistemática de los programas de promoción de actividad física y/o de alimentación desarrollados en España con adolescentes, desde el ámbito educativo y publicados en las principales bases de datos nacionales e internacionales en los últimos quince años. Método: se han revisado los artículos originales en inglés y español publicados en las bases de datos electrónicas: Web of Science, Scopus, ERIC, PsycINFO, Dialnet e ISOC, teniendo en cuenta los principios establecidos por la declaración PRISMA para revisiones sistemáticas. Resultados y discusión: de los 522 artículos identificados, 13 cumplían los criterios de inclusión establecidos. El aspecto de mayor coincidencia en los trabajos analizados es el de involucrar a las familias en la intervención. Al mismo tiempo, destaca el protagonismo del profesorado de Educación Física en la implementación de los programas, junto a la figura de los sanitarios, que también adquieren un elevado protagonismo. En todos ellos se logró incidir positivamente, como mínimo, en una de las variables objeto de estudio. Conclusión: en los últimos 15 años solamente se han identificado 13 programas con adolescentes de promoción de actividad física y/o de alimentación en España. Pero en todos ellos se obtuvieron mejoras, lo que confirma el relevante papel de la institución educativa sobre la adquisición y/o mejora de dichos hábitos desde una perspectiva saludable.

  3. "This Choice Thing Really Works?…?" Changes in Experiences and Engagement of Adolescent Girls in Physical Education Classes, during a School-Based Physical Activity Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Fiona; Gray, Shirley; Inchley, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a significant amount of research which shows a proportion of girls are not engaging with physical education (PE) in school, resulting in a number of relatively inactive girls within the PE class. These girls are often identified in the literature as "low active", "hard to reach" or "disengaged".…

  4. Behavioral Economics, Wearable Devices, and Cooperative Games: Results From a Population-Based Intervention to Increase Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Health care literature supports the development of accessible interventions that integrate behavioral economics, wearable devices, principles of evidence-based behavior change, and community support. However, there are limited real-world examples of large scale, population-based, member-driven reward platforms. Subsequently, a paucity of outcome data exists and health economic effects remain largely theoretical. To complicate matters, an emerging area of research is defining the role of Superusers, the small percentage of unusually engaged digital health participants who may influence other members. Objective The objective of this preliminary study is to analyze descriptive data from GOODcoins, a self-guided, free-to-consumer engagement and rewards platform incentivizing walking, running and cycling. Registered members accessed the GOODcoins platform through PCs, tablets or mobile devices, and had the opportunity to sync wearables to track activity. Following registration, members were encouraged to join gamified group challenges and compare their progress with that of others. As members met challenge targets, they were rewarded with GOODcoins, which could be redeemed for planet- or people-friendly products. Methods Outcome data were obtained from the GOODcoins custom SQL database. The reporting period was December 1, 2014 to May 1, 2015. Descriptive self-report data were analyzed using MySQL and MS Excel. Results The study period includes data from 1298 users who were connected to an exercise tracking device. Females consisted of 52.6% (n=683) of the study population, 33.7% (n=438) were between the ages of 20-29, and 24.8% (n=322) were between the ages of 30-39. 77.5% (n=1006) of connected and active members met daily-recommended physical activity guidelines of 30 minutes, with a total daily average activity of 107 minutes (95% CI 90, 124). Of all connected and active users, 96.1% (n=1248) listed walking as their primary activity. For members who

  5. Physical Activity Change through Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs in Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centeio, Erin E.; McCaughtry, Nate; Gutuskey, Lila; Garn, Alex C.; Somers, Cheryl; Shen, Bo; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Kulik, Noel L.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs (CSPAPs) on urban children's, educators', and parents' physical activity (PA) is relatively unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore overall changes in student, educator, and parent PA after an 8-month CSPAP-based program. This longitudinal, exploratory study implemented a…

  6. Linking diet, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity to serum metabolite networks: findings from a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Floegel, A; Wientzek, A; Bachlechner, U; Jacobs, S; Drogan, D; Prehn, C; Adamski, J; Krumsiek, J; Schulze, M B; Pischon, T; Boeing, H

    2014-01-01

    Objective: It is not yet resolved how lifestyle factors and intermediate phenotypes interrelate with metabolic pathways. We aimed to investigate the associations between diet, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity with serum metabolite networks in a population-based study. Methods: The present study included 2380 participants of a randomly drawn subcohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam. Targeted metabolomics was used to measure 127 serum metabolites. Additional data were available including anthropometric measurements, dietary assessment including intake of whole-grain bread, coffee and cake and cookies by food frequency questionnaire, and objectively measured physical activity energy expenditure and cardiorespiratory fitness in a subsample of 100 participants. In a data-driven approach, Gaussian graphical modeling was used to draw metabolite networks and depict relevant associations between exposures and serum metabolites. In addition, the relationship of different exposure metabolite networks was estimated. Results: In the serum metabolite network, the different metabolite classes could be separated. There was a big group of phospholipids and acylcarnitines, a group of amino acids and C6-sugar. Amino acids were particularly positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity. C6-sugar and acylcarnitines were positively associated with obesity and inversely with intake of whole-grain bread. Phospholipids showed opposite associations with obesity and coffee intake. Metabolite networks of coffee intake and obesity were strongly inversely correlated (body mass index (BMI): r=−0.57 and waist circumference: r=−0.59). A strong positive correlation was observed between metabolite networks of BMI and waist circumference (r=0.99), as well as the metabolite networks of cake and cookie intake with cardiorespiratory fitness and intake of whole-grain bread (r=0.52 and r=0

  7. [Physical activity and cardiovascular health].

    PubMed

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that regular moderate physical activity, in the context of a healthy lifestyle, significantly reduces the likelihood of cardiovascular events, both in primary and secondary prevention. In addition, it is scientifically proven that exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, breast cancer and colon cancer. Despite this strong evidence, sedentary lifestyle remains a widespread habit in the western world. Even in Italy the adult population has a poor attitude to regular physical activity. It is therefore necessary, as continuously recommended by the World Health Organization, to motivate people to "move" since the transition from inactivity to regular light to moderate physical activity has a huge impact on health, resulting in significant savings of resources. We do not need to be athletes to exercise - it should be part of all our daily routines.

  8. Motivating People To Be Physically Active. Physical Activity Intervention Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Bess H.; Forsyth, LeighAnn H.

    This book describes proven methods for helping people change from inactive to active living. The behavior change methods are useful for healthy adults as well as individuals with chronic physical and psychological conditions. The book describes intervention programs for individuals and groups and for workplace and community settings. Part 1,…

  9. The general practitioner's role in promoting physical activity to older adults: a review based on program theory.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Timo; Brach, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Positive influences of physical activity both on many chronic diseases and on preservation of mobility are well documented. But chronically ill or mobility restricted elderly living in their own homes are difficult to reach for interventions. The general practitioner's (GP) surgery offers one of the few opportunities to give advice for physical activity to those people. We used program theory to sound out knowledge on GP-centered physical activity counseling. The "conceptual theory" (evidence for training effects in old age) and the "implementation theory" (unique position of the GP) were reviewed narratively. The "action theory" (effects of GP counseling) was reviewed systematically. According to program theory, appropriate MeSH (Medical subject headings) concepts were Aged OR Aged, 80 and over (Target group), Physicians, Family OR Primary Health Care (Implementation/Setting), Counseling OR Patient Education as Topic OR Disease Management OR Health promotion (Intervention), Exercise OR Motor Activity OR Physical Fitness OR Sports (Determinants). The resulting six review papers (Pubmed, 2000-2009) were presented using the STARLITE mnemonic. Authors agree, that the GP plays a central role in the promotion of physical activity to elderly people, but there is conflicting evidence concerning counseling effectiveness. Utilizing behavioral change strategies and the collaboration between GPs and specialised professions are recommended and currently under research.

  10. A Community-Based Intervention Increases Physical Activity and Reduces Obesity in School-Age Children in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J.; Østbye, Truls; Evenson, Kelly R.; Neelon, Brian; Martinie, Annie; Bennett, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Community-based interventions are promising approaches to obesity prevention, but few studies have prospectively evaluated them. The aim of this study was to evaluate a natural experiment—a community intervention designed to promote active living and decrease obesity within a small southern town. Methods: In 2011, community leaders implemented the Mebane on the Move intervention—a community-wide effort to promote physical activity (PA) and decrease obesity among residents of Mebane, North Carolina. We measured child PA and BMI before and after the intervention, using a nearby town not implementing an intervention as the comparison. In total, we assessed 64 children from Mebane and 40 from the comparison community 6 months before, as well as 34 and 18 children 6 months after the intervention. We assessed PA with accelerometers worn for 7 days and calculated BMI z-scores using children's height and weight. We conducted multivariable linear regressions examining pre- to postintervention change in minutes of PA and BMI z-score, adjusting for confounders. Results: At follow-up, children in Mebane modestly increased their moderate-to-vigorous PA (1.3 minutes per hour; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2, 2.3; p=0.03) and vigorous activity (0.8 minutes per hour; 95% CI: 0.1, 1.5; p=0.04) more than comparison children. In intervention children, BMI z-scores decreased 0.5 units (kg/m2; 95% CI: −0.9, −0.02; p=0.045), compared to children in the comparison community. Conclusions: We observed positive effects on PA level and weight status of children in Mebane, despite high rates of attrition, suggesting that the community-based intervention may have been successful. PMID:25938983

  11. Assessment of Diet and Physical Activity of Brazilian Schoolchildren: Usability Testing of a Web-Based Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Information and communication technology (ICT) has been used with increasing frequency for the assessment of diet and physical activity in health surveys. A number of Web-based questionnaires have been developed for children and adolescents. However, their usability characteristics have scarcely been reported, despite their potential importance for improving the feasibility and validity of ICT-based methods. Objective The objective of this study was to describe the usability evaluation of the Consumo Alimentar e Atividade Física de Escolares (CAAFE) questionnaire (Food Consumption and Physical Activity Questionnaire for schoolchildren), a new Web-based survey tool for the self-assessment of diet and physical activity by schoolchildren. Methods A total of 114 schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years took part in questionnaire usability testing carried out in computer classrooms at five elementary schools in the city of Florianopolis, Brazil. Schoolchildren used a personal computer (PC) equipped with software for recording what is on the computer screen and the children’s speech during usability testing. Quantitative and qualitative analyses took into account objective usability metrics such as error counts and time to complete a task. Data on the main difficulties in accomplishing the task and the level of satisfaction expressed by the children were assessed by the observers using a standardized form and interviews with the children. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were used to summarize both the quantitative and the qualitative aspects of the data obtained. Results The mean time for completing the questionnaire was 13.7 minutes (SD 3.68). Compared to the children in 2nd or 3rd grades, those in 4th or 5th grades spent less time completing the questionnaire (median 12.4 vs 13.3 minutes, P=.022), asked for help less frequently (median 0 vs 1.0 count, P=.005), had a lower error count (median 2.0 vs 8.0 count, P<.001), and obtained a higher overall

  12. School-Based and PRECEDE-PROCEED-Model Intervention to Promote Physical Activity in the High School Students: Case Study of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rezapour, Baratali; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Khalkhali, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Students attend sedentary life style and less like vigorous physical activity. This study investigated the effects of School-based intervention on increasing physical activity for decreasing obesity among high-school obese and overweight boys, based on the components of PRECEDE PROCEED Model, to participate in median - vigorous physical activity among the first Period of high school boys in the city of Urmia, Iran Methods: This study was an experimental intervention that conducted at 4 high schools that were divided into 2 groups of intervention (40) and the control (40) male students, schools in junior high schools in Urmia. Results: Three and six months after the intervention, significant differences were found between the experimental and control groups of schools, in the amount of students’ participation in vigorous physical activity (p<0.01). Conclusions: According to the results, the school-based intervention and components of PRECEDE PROCEED Model had a positive impact on the improvement of physical activity and decrease in physical inactivity among the students. PMID:27157178

  13. Perceived risk of osteoporosis: Restricted physical activities?

    PubMed Central

    Dalsgaard Reventlow, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Objective To explore elderly women's physical activity in relation to their perception of the risk of osteoporosis. Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Setting Informants were purposely selected from a Danish population-based, age-specific cohort study conducted in the county of Copenhagen with people born in 1936. Subjects Women in their sixties. Results Women who perceived a current risk of osteoporosis tended to reduce their physical activity in an attempt to reduce the risk of bone damage. This behaviour was related to the imagined fragility of the bones (the risk inside the body), and the actual situations (the risk outside the body), including places and activities. Knowledge of a reduced bone mass reinforced the women's uncertainty about what their bones could endure. Experiences managing physical activity without injury resulted in reinterpretations of their risk of bone fractures and increased physical activity. Conclusions Perceived risk of osteoporosis may lead to decreased physical activity and hence actually increase the risk. When informing individuals about health risk people's images and imaginations of the actual risk have to be acknowledged. When a bone scan is being considered, explicit advice encouraging physical activity – especially the weight-bearing kind – should be stressed. PMID:17846934

  14. Effects of a Web-Based Personalized Intervention on Physical Activity in European Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Celis-Morales, Carlos; Fallaize, Rosalind; Macready, Anna L; Kolossa, Silvia; Woolhead, Clara; O'Donovan, Clare B; Forster, Hannah; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Moschonis, George; Surwillo, Agnieszka; Godlewska, Magdalena; Goris, Annelies; Hoonhout, Jettie; Drevon, Christian A; Manios, Yannis; Traczyk, Iwona; Walsh, Marianne C; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Martinez, J Alfredo; Lovegrove, Julie A; Gibney, Michael J; Daniel, Hannelore; Mathers, John C; Saris, Wim HM

    2015-01-01

    Background The high prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide calls for innovative and more effective ways to promote physical activity (PA). There are limited objective data on the effectiveness of Web-based personalized feedback on increasing PA in adults. Objective It is hypothesized that providing personalized advice based on PA measured objectively alongside diet, phenotype, or genotype information would lead to larger and more sustained changes in PA, compared with nonpersonalized advice. Methods A total of 1607 adults in seven European countries were randomized to either a control group (nonpersonalized advice, Level 0, L0) or to one of three personalized groups receiving personalized advice via the Internet based on current PA plus diet (Level 1, L1), PA plus diet and phenotype (Level 2, L2), or PA plus diet, phenotype, and genotype (Level 3, L3). PA was measured for 6 months using triaxial accelerometers, and self-reported using the Baecke questionnaire. Outcomes were objective and self-reported PA after 3 and 6 months. Results While 1270 participants (85.81% of 1480 actual starters) completed the 6-month trial, 1233 (83.31%) self-reported PA at both baseline and month 6, but only 730 (49.32%) had sufficient objective PA data at both time points. For the total cohort after 6 months, a greater improvement in self-reported total PA (P=.02) and PA during leisure (nonsport) (P=.03) was observed in personalized groups compared with the control group. For individuals advised to increase PA, we also observed greater improvements in those two self-reported indices (P=.006 and P=.008, respectively) with increased personalization of the advice (L2 and L3 vs L1). However, there were no significant differences in accelerometer results between personalized and control groups, and no significant effect of adding phenotypic or genotypic information to the tailored feedback at month 3 or 6. After 6 months, there were small but significant improvements in the objectively

  15. Physical activity, heart rate variability-based stress and recovery, and subjective stress during a 9-month study period.

    PubMed

    Föhr, T; Tolvanen, A; Myllymäki, T; Järvelä-Reijonen, E; Peuhkuri, K; Rantala, S; Kolehmainen, M; Korpela, R; Lappalainen, R; Ermes, M; Puttonen, S; Rusko, H; Kujala, U M

    2016-03-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity (PA) and objective heart rate variability (HRV)-based stress and recovery with subjective stress in a longitudinal setting. Working-age participants (n = 221; 185 women, 36 men) were overweight (body mass index, 25.3-40.1 kg/m(2) ) and psychologically distressed (≥3/12 points on the General Health Questionnaire). Objective stress and recovery were based on HRV recordings over 1-3 work days. Subjective stress was assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale and PA level with a questionnaire. Data were collected at three time points: baseline, 10 weeks post intervention, and at the 36-week follow-up. We adopted a latent growth model to investigate the initial level and change in PA, objective stress and recovery, and subjective stress at the three measurement time points. The results showed that initial levels of PA (P < 0.001) and objective stress (P = 0.001) and recovery (P < 0.01) were associated with the change in subjective stress. The results persisted after adjustment for intervention group. The present results suggest that high PA and objectively assessed low stress and good recovery have positive effects on changes in subjective stress in the long-term.

  16. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  17. Does the Relationship Between Physical Activity and Quality of Life Differ Based on Generic Versus Disease-Targeted Instruments?

    PubMed Central

    Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Snook, Erin M.; Gliottoni, Rachael C.

    2009-01-01

    Background There has been an increased interest in the study of physical activity and its relationship with quality of life (QOL) and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in chronic disease conditions. The investigations have used either generic or disease-targeted instruments for measuring QOL and HRQL, but have not examined differences in the associations as a function of the types of instruments. Purpose The present study examined the associations among physical activity, QOL, and HRQL using generic and disease-targeted instruments in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods Participants were 292 individuals with MS who wore an accelerometer for 7 days and then completed the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ), Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale-29 (MSIS-29), Leeds Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life Scale (LMSQOL), Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12), and Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Results Accelerometer counts and GLTEQ scores had similarly sized correlations with scores from generic (SF-12) and the disease-specific (MSIS-29)measures of HRQL and generic (SWLS) and the disease-specific (LMSQOL) measures of QOL. Path analysis indicated a similar pattern of directional relationships between accelerometer counts and GLTEQ scores with physical and mental HRQL and, in turn, physical and mental HRQL with QOL using generic and disease-targeted instruments. Conclusions Our results suggest that in cross-sectional analysis, physical activity is similarly related with QOL and HRQL using generic and disease-targeted instruments in persons with MS. PMID:18719976

  18. Fe en Accion/Faith in Action: Design and implementation of a church-based randomized trial to promote physical activity and cancer screening among churchgoing Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo, Elva M.; Haughton, Jessica; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Slymen, Donald J.; Sallis, James F.; Burke, Kari; Holub, Christina; Chanson, Dayana; Perez, Lilian G.; Valdivia, Rodrigo; Ryan, Sherry; Elder, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe both conditions of a two-group randomized trial, one that promotes physical activity and one that promotes cancer screening, among churchgoing Latinas. The trial involves promotoras (community health workers) targeting multiple levels of the Ecological Model. This trial builds on formative and pilot research findings. Design Sixteen churches were randomly assigned to either the physical activity intervention or cancer screening comparison condition (approximately 27 women per church). In both conditions, promotoras from each church intervened at the individual- (e.g., beliefs), interpersonal- (e.g., social support), and environmental- (e.g., park features and access to health care) levels to affect change on target behaviors. Measurements The study’s primary outcome is min/wk of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at baseline and 12 and 24 months following implementation of intervention activities. We enrolled 436 Latinas (aged 18–65 years) who engaged in less than 250 min/wk of MVPA at baseline as assessed by accelerometer, attended church at least four times per month, lived near their church, and did not have a health condition that could prevent them from participating in physical activity. Participants were asked to complete measures assessing physical activity and cancer screening as well as their correlates at 12- and 24-months. Summary Findings from the current study will address gaps in research by showing the long term effectiveness of multi-level faith-based interventions promoting physical activity and cancer screening among Latino communities. PMID:26358535

  19. Physical activity, hydration and health.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Ascensión; Manonelles, Pedro; Palacios, Nieves; Wärnberg, Julia; Casajús, José A; Pérez, Margarita; Aznar, Susana; Benito, Pedro J; Martínez-Gomez, David; Ortega, Francisco B; Ortega, Eduardo; Urrialde, Rafael

    2014-06-01

    Since the beginning of mankind, man has sought ways to promote and preserve health as well as to prevent disease. Hydration, physical activity and exercise are key factors for enhancing human health. However, either a little dose of them or an excess can be harmful for health maintenance at any age. Water is an essential nutrient for human body and a major key to survival has been to prevent dehydration. However, there is still a general controversy regarding the necessary amount to drink water or other beverages to properly get an adequate level of hydration. In addition, up to now the tools used to measure hydration are controversial. To this end, there are several important groups of variables to take into account such as water balance, hydration biomarkers and total body water. A combination of methods will be the most preferred tool to find out any risk or situation of dehydration at any age range. On the other hand, physical activity and exercise are being demonstrated to promote health, avoiding or reducing health problems, vascular and inflammatory disea ses and helping weight management. Therefore, physical activity is also being used as a pill within a therapy to promote health and reduce risk diseases, but as in the case of drugs, dose, intensity, frequency, duration and precautions have to be evaluated and taken into account in order to get the maximum effectiveness and success of a treatment. On the other hand, sedentariness is the opposite concept to physical activity that has been recently recognized as an important factor of lifestyle involved in the obesogenic environment and consequently in the risk of the non-communicable diseases. In view of the literature consulted and taking into account the expertise of the authors, in this review a Decalogue of global recommendations is included to achieve an adequate hydration and physical activity status to avoid overweight/obesity consequences.

  20. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10). Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2%) from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%), providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental sustainability, transport and urban

  1. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Brittin, Jeri; Sorensen, Dina; Trowbridge, Matthew; Lee, Karen K.; Breithecker, Dieter; Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing children’s physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students’ physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment’s impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards. PMID:26230850

  2. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture.

    PubMed

    Brittin, Jeri; Sorensen, Dina; Trowbridge, Matthew; Lee, Karen K; Breithecker, Dieter; Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing children's physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students' physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment's impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards.

  3. Fitness and Physical Activity. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    What can be done to support fitness and physical activity? Schools can guide students in developing life-long habits of participating in physical activities. According to the National Association for Sports and Physical Education, the concepts of physical fitness activities and physical education are used synonymously, however, they are not the…

  4. Development and psychometric properties of a belief-based Physical Activity Questionnaire for Diabetic Patients (PAQ-DP)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study carried out to develop a scale for assessing diabetic patients' perceptions about physical activity and to test its psychometric properties (The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Diabetic Patients-PAQ-DP). Methods An item pool extracted from the Theory of Planned Behavior literature was generated. Then an expert panel evaluated the items by assessing content validity index and content validity ratio. Consequently exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to indicate the scale constructs. In addition reliability analyses including internal consistency and test-retest analysis were carried out. Results In all a sample of 127 women with diabetes participated in the study. Twenty-two items were initially extracted from the literature. A six-factor solution (containing 19 items) emerged as a result of an exploratory factor analysis namely: instrumental attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, affective attitude, self-identity, and intention explaining 60.30% of the variance observed. Additional analyses indicated satisfactory results for internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.54 to 0.8) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ranging from 0.40 to 0.92). Conclusions The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Diabetic Patients (PAQ-DP) is the first instrument that applies the Theory of Planned Behavior in its constructs. The findings indicated that the PAQ-DP is a reliable and valid measure for assessing physical activity perceptions and now is available and can be used in future studies. PMID:21062466

  5. Using Participatory Action Research to Develop a School-Based Environmental Intervention to Support Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vecchiarelli, Stephanie; Prelip, Michael; Slusser, Wendelin; Weightman, Heather; Neumann, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    Rates of overweight children and adolescents have nearly tripled over the past 30 years. Many barriers exist to healthy eating and physical activity for children and adolescents, including factors in the school and community environment. It is these modifiable school environmental factors that led to the development of the Nutrition Friendly…

  6. Eagle Adventure: School-Based Type 2 Diabetes Prevention Program Results in Improved Outcomes Related to Food and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stovall-Amos, Angelina; Parker, Stephany; Mata, Sara; Fox, Jill; Jackson, Teresa; Miracle, Sarah; Hermann, Janice

    2014-01-01

    The Eagle Adventure program was designed as a semester-long, SNAP-Ed program to address food and physical activity choices important for prevention of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and other chronic diseases. The program was developed for implementation in Grades 1-3. This article presents findings from two participating grade centers inclusive of…

  7. Innovative Research Design Exploring the Effects of Physical Activity and Genetics on Cognitive Performance in Community-Based Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Etnier, Jennifer L.; Labban, Jeffrey D.; Karper, William B.; Wideman, Laurie; Piepmeier, Aaron T.; Shih, Chia-Hao; Castellano, Michael; Williams, Lauren M.; Park, Se-Yun; Henrich, Vincent C.; Dudley, William N.; Rulison, Kelli L.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is predictive of better cognitive performance and lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) is a susceptibility gene for AD with the e4 allele being associated with a greater risk of AD. Cross-sectional and prospective research shows that physical activity is predictive of better cognitive performance for those at greater genetic risk for AD. However, the moderating role of APOE on the effects of a physical activity intervention on cognitive performance has not been examined. The purpose of this manuscript is to justify the need for such research and to describe the design, methods, and recruitment tactics used in the conductance of a study designed to provide insight as to the extent to which cognitive benefits resulting from an 8-month physical activity program are differentiated by ApoEe4 status. The effectiveness of the recruitment strategies and the feasibility of recruiting ApoE e4 carriers are discussed. PMID:25594264

  8. Utility of a Web-based intervention for individuals with type 2 diabetes: the impact on physical activity levels and glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chun-Ja; Kang, Duck-Hee

    2006-01-01

    Despite the numerous benefits of physical activity for patients with diabetes, most healthcare providers in busy clinical settings rarely find time to counsel their patients about it. A Web-based program for healthcare providers can be used as an effective counseling tool, when strategies are outlined for specific stages of readiness for physical activity. Seventy-three adults with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to Web-based intervention, printed-material intervention, or usual care. After 12 weeks, the effects of the interventions on physical activity, fasting blood sugar, and glycosylated hemoglobin were evaluated. Both Web-based and printed material intervention, compared with usual care, were effective in increasing physical activity (P < .001) and decreasing fasting blood sugar (P<.01) and glycosylated hemoglobin (P < .01). Post hoc analysis for change scores indicated significant differences between Web-based intervention and usual care and between printed material intervention and usual care, but not between web-based and printed material intervention. The findings of this study support the value of Web-based and printed material interventions in healthcare counseling. With increasing Web access, the effectiveness of Web-based programs offered directly to patients needs to be tested.

  9. Becoming the Physical Activity Champion: Empowerment through Social Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colquitt, Gavin; Alfonso, Moya L.; Walker, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Physical education teachers can champion their profession through marketing the importance of physical activity to children and families in the communities they serve. Social marketing, a consumer-based approach to behavior change, is an excellent choice for physical education teachers who want to "sell" physical activity to their…

  10. An activity-based intervention for obese and physically inactive children organized in primary care: feasibility and impact on fitness and BMI

    PubMed Central

    Sola, Kirsten; Brekke, Nina; Brekke, Mette

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility and impact on BMI and physical fitness of an intervention for obese and inactive children, based on physical activity and carried out in primary health care. Design A prospective, longitudinal one-year follow-up study. Setting The community of Kristiansand, Norway (80 000 inhabitants). Intervention A 40-week structured intervention based on physical training with some lifestyle advice for the obese child and one parent. Subjects A total of 62 physically inactive children aged 6–14 years with iso-BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI), maximum oxygen uptake, and physical fitness in tests of running, jumping, throwing, and climbing assessed at baseline and after six and 12 months as well as number of dropouts and predicting factors. Results A total of 49 out of 62 children completed the first six months and 37 children completed 12 months. Dropout rate was higher when parents reported being physically inactive at baseline or avoided physical participation in the intervention. The children's maximum oxygen uptake increased significantly after 12 months from 27.0 to 32.0 ml/kg/min (means), as did physical fitness (endurance, speed, agility, coordination, balance, strength) and BMI was significantly reduced. Conclusion/implications This one-year activity-based intervention for obese and inactive children performed in primary health care succeeded by increasing cardiovascular capacity and physical fitness combined with reduced BMI in those who completed. Dropout was substantial and depended on the attendance and compliance with physical activity by the parents. PMID:20831452

  11. Assessment of a school-based intervention in eating habits and physical activity in school children: the AVall study

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Rosa; Recasens, Assumpta; Nadal, Ana; Vila, Maria; Pérez, Maria José; Manresa, Josep Maria; Recasens, Isabel; Salvador, Gemma; Serra, Jaume; Roure, Eulàlia; Castells, Conxa

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity has become a global public health problem, which also affects children. It has been proposed that the educational interventions during childhood could be a key strategy in the prevention of obesity. Objective To evaluate the efficacy of an intervention on food habits and physical activity in school children. Methods A 2-year cluster-randomised prospective study with two parallel arms was used to evaluate an intervention programme in children in their first year of primary schooling (5–6 years of age) in schools in the city of Granollers. The intervention consisted of the promotion of healthy eating habits and physical activity by means of the educational methodology Investigation, Vision, Action and Change (IVAC). At the beginning and at the end of the study (2006 and 2008) the weight and height of each child was measured in situ, while the families were given a self-report physical activity questionnaire and the Krece Plus quick test. Results Two years after the beginning of the study, the body mass index of the children in the control group was 0.89 kg/m2 higher than that of the intervention schools. The intervention reduced by 62% the prevalence of overweight children. Similarly, the proportion of children that ate a second piece of fruit and took part in an after-school physical activity increased in the intervention group. In the control group, the weekly consumption of fish was reduced. Conclusions The educational intervention in healthy eating habits and physical activity in the school could contribute to lessen the current increase in child obesity. PMID:21398682

  12. Physical Education: A Cornerstone for Physically Active Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tappe, Marlene K.; Burgeson, Charlene R.

    2004-01-01

    "Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General" ("Physical Activity and Health"; United States Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS], 1996) documented for the first time the cumulative body of evidence related to physical activity and health. This report completed the set of Surgeon General's reports…

  13. Let's Get Moving! Physical Activity and Students with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menear, Kristi Sayers; Shapiro, Deborah R.

    2004-01-01

    Roughly 39% of children and youth with disabilities are physically active (Longmuir & Bar-Or, 2000). Increasing the number of individuals with disabilities who are physically active is a public health priority (Kosma, Cardinal & Rintala, 2002). This paper will highlight the current status of physical activity for persons with a disability by…

  14. A higher effort-based paradigm in physical activity and exercise for public health: making the case for a greater emphasis on resistance training.

    PubMed

    Steele, James; Fisher, James; Skivington, Martin; Dunn, Chris; Arnold, Josh; Tew, Garry; Batterham, Alan M; Nunan, David; O'Driscoll, Jamie M; Mann, Steven; Beedie, Chris; Jobson, Simon; Smith, Dave; Vigotsky, Andrew; Phillips, Stuart; Estabrooks, Paul; Winett, Richard

    2017-04-05

    It is well known that physical activity and exercise is associated with a lower risk of a range of morbidities and all-cause mortality. Further, it appears that risk reductions are greater when physical activity and/or exercise is performed at a higher intensity of effort. Why this may be the case is perhaps explained by the accumulating evidence linking physical fitness and performance outcomes (e.g. cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and muscle mass) also to morbidity and mortality risk. Current guidelines about the performance of moderate/vigorous physical activity using aerobic exercise modes focuses upon the accumulation of a minimum volume of physical activity and/or exercise, and have thus far produced disappointing outcomes. As such there has been increased interest in the use of higher effort physical activity and exercise as being potentially more efficacious. Though there is currently debate as to the effectiveness of public health prescription based around higher effort physical activity and exercise, most discussion around this has focused upon modes considered to be traditionally 'aerobic' (e.g. running, cycling, rowing, swimming etc.). A mode customarily performed to a relatively high intensity of effort that we believe has been overlooked is resistance training. Current guidelines do include recommendations to engage in 'muscle strengthening activities' though there has been very little emphasis upon these modes in either research or public health effort. As such the purpose of this debate article is to discuss the emerging higher effort paradigm in physical activity and exercise for public health and to make a case for why there should be a greater emphasis placed upon resistance training as a mode in this paradigm shift.

  15. Physical Activity Assessments for Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fittipaldi-Wert, Jeanine; Brock, Sheri J.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity is important in maintaining and improving overall health for all. Students with disabilities tend to have lower fitness levels due to the lack of participation in physical activities, therefore, progressions and modifications to physical activities are needed. Assessing the physical activity levels of students with disabilities…

  16. [Evaluation of the lifestyle of students of physiotherapy and technical & computer science basing on their diet and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Medrela-Kuder, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of a dietary habits profile and physical activity of Physiotherapy and Technical & Computer Science students. The research involved a group of 174 non-full-time students of higher education institutions in Krakow aged between 22 and 27. 81 students of the surveyed studied Physiotherapy at the University of Physical Education, whereas 93 followed a course in Technical & Computer Science at the Pedagogical University. In this project a diagnostic survey method was used. The study revealed that the lifestyle of university youth left much to be desired. Dietary errors were exemplified by irregular meals intake, low consumption of fish, milk and dairy, snacking between meals on high calorie products with a poor nutrient content. With regard to physical activity, Physiotherapy students were characterised by more positive attitudes than those from Technical & Computer Science. Such physical activity forms as swimming, team sports, cycling and strolling were declared by the surveyed the most frequently. Health-oriented education should be introduced in such a way as to improve the knowledge pertaining to a health-promoting lifestyle as a means of prevention of numerous diseases.

  17. Impact of Long-Term Endurance Training vs. Guideline-Based Physical Activity on Brain Structure in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Katelyn N.; Nikolov, Robert; Shoemaker, J. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Brain structure is a fundamental determinant of brain function, both of which decline with age in the adult. Whereas short-term exercise improves brain size in older adults, the impact of endurance training on brain structure when initiated early and sustained throughout life, remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that long-term competitive aerobic training enhances cortical and subcortical mass compared to middle to older-aged healthy adults who adhere to the minimum physical activity guidelines. Observations were made in 16 masters athletes (MA; 53 ± 6 years, VO2max = 55 ± 10 ml/kg/min, training > 15 years), and 16 active, healthy, and cognitively intact subjects (HA; 58 ± 9 years, VO2max = 38 ± 7 ml/kg/min). T1-weighted structural acquisition at 3T enabled quantification of cortical thickness and subcortical gray and white matter volumes. Cardiorespiratory fitness correlated strongly with whole-brain cortical thickness. Subcortical volumetric mass at the lateral ventricles, R hippocampus, R amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex, correlated with age but not fitness. In a region-of-interest (ROI) group-based analysis, MA expressed greater cortical thickness in the medial prefrontal cortex, pre and postcentral gyri, and insula. There was no effect of group on the rate of age-related cortical or subcortical decline. The current data suggest that lifelong endurance training that produces high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, builds cortical reserve early in life, and sustains this benefit over the 40–70 year age span. This reserve likely has important implications for neurological health later in life. PMID:27445798

  18. Effectiveness of physical activity promotion in blood pressure and blood sugar reduction: A community–based intervention study in rural south India

    PubMed Central

    Lakshminarayanan, Subitha; Bala, Soudarssanane M.; Ramanujam, Murugesan; Kannan, G.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Physical activity of moderate intensity for 30 minutes a day, on most days substantially reduces the risk of many chronic diseases. Aim: To assess the effect of regular physical activity on blood pressure and blood sugar levels in a rural Indian community Settings and Design: This community-based study was carried out in Periakattupalayam and Rangareddipalayam in south India, with 485 subjects, aged 20 to 49 years. Materials and Methods: The study was done in five phases: Awareness campaign, baseline assessment of participants, intervention phase (10 weeks), interim, and final assessment. Physical activity of moderate intensity (brisk walking for 30 minutes on four days / week) was promoted by forming 30 small walking groups, in a home-based setting, with professional supervision. Village leaders and Self-Help Group members were the resource people for the promotion of physical activity. Statistical Analysis: Analysis was done by using paired ‘t’ test; the ‘Intention-to-Treat’ approach was utilized for the interpretation of the findings of the study. Results: Of the 485 subjects, 265 (54.6%) complied with walking on more than four days / week, while 156 (32.2%) walked on one to four days / week, and 64 (13.2%) dropped out during the intervention period. This study has shown that a 10-week intervention to promote physical activity was effective in significantly decreasing the population's BP by 1.56 / 0.74 mm Hg, fasting blood sugar levels by 2.82 mg%, body weight by 0.17 kg, and BMI by 0.06 kg / m2. Conclusions: This study has proved the functional feasibility of enabling people to undertake physical activity in a rural Indian community, and the effectiveness of using physical activity, to significantly reduce the population's mean BP and blood sugar levels. PMID:22870410

  19. DOING Physics: Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Recommends an experiment which will help students experience the physical evidence that floors, tables, and walls actually bend when pressure is exerted against them. Set-up includes: laser, radio, solar cell, and wall-mounted mirror. When the beam is moved by pressure on the wall, participants can "hear the wall bend." (DH)

  20. Using web-based technology to promote physical activity in Latinas: Results of the Muévete Alabama pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Benitez, Tanya J.; Cherrington, Andrea; Joseph, Rodney P.; Keller, Colleen; Marcus, Bess; Meneses, Karen; Marquez, Becky; Pekmezi, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Latinas in the U.S. report high levels of physical inactivity and are disproprotionally burdened by related health conditions (ex., Type 2 Diabetes, obesity), highlighting the need for innovative strategies to reduce these disparities. A one-month single-arm pre-posttest design was utilized to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a culturally and linguistically adapted Internet-based physical activity intervention for Spanish-speaking Latinas. The intervention was based on the Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Changes in physical activity and related psychosocial variables were measured at baseline and the end of the one-month intervention. The sample included 24 Latina adults (mean age= 35.17±11.22). Most (83.3%) were born outside of the continental United States. Intent-to-treat analyses showed a significant increase (p= .001) in self-reported moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity from a median of 12.5 minutes per week at baseline to 67.5 minutes per week at the one-month assessment. Participants reported significant increases in self-efficacy as well as cognitive and behavioral processes of change. Nearly half (45.8%) of the participants reported advancing at least one stage of change during the course of the one-month intervention. Findings support the feasibility and acceptability of using interactive Internet-based technology to promote physical activity among Latinas in Alabama. PMID:26049367

  1. Using Web-Based Technology to Promote Physical Activity in Latinas: Results of the Muévete Alabama Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Benitez, Tanya J; Cherrington, Andrea L; Joseph, Rodney P; Keller, Colleen; Marcus, Bess; Meneses, Karen; Marquez, Becky; Pekmezi, Dorothy

    2015-07-01

    Latinas in the US report high levels of physical inactivity and are disproportionally burdened by related health conditions (eg, type 2 diabetes, obesity), highlighting the need for innovative strategies to reduce these disparities. A 1-month single-arm pretest-posttest design was utilized to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a culturally and linguistically adapted Internet-based physical activity intervention for Spanish-speaking Latinas. The intervention was based on the Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Changes in physical activity and related psychosocial variables were measured at baseline and the end of the 1-month intervention. The sample included 24 Latina adults (mean age, 35.17±11.22 years). Most (83.3%) were born outside the continental US. Intent-to-treat analyses showed a significant increase (P=.001) in self-reported moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity from a median of 12.5 min/wk at baseline to 67.5 min/wk at the 1-month assessment. Participants reported significant increases in self-efficacy as well as cognitive and behavioral processes of change. Nearly half of the participants (45.8%) reported advancing at least one stage of change during the course of the 1-month intervention. Findings support the feasibility and acceptability of using interactive Internet-based technology to promote physical activity among Latinas in Alabama.

  2. Quantification of Daily Physical Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason

    1994-01-01

    The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the daily tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the daily ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative daily lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the daily history of ground reaction forces.

  3. Do breast cancer survivors increase their physical activity and enhance their health-related quality of life after attending community-based wellness workshops?

    PubMed

    Spector, D; Battaglini, C; Alsobrooks, A; Owen, J; Groff, D

    2012-06-01

    Many breast cancer survivors may be at increased risk for physical and psychological complications from cancer treatments. Research has shown that regular exercise can help ameliorate some of the lingering side effects of breast cancer treatments and improve health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Additionally, certain stress management techniques have helped increase HRQOL in breast cancer survivors. Few educational programs exist which address both the promotion of physical activity and use of mindfulness-based strategies to improve the health of breast cancer survivors. Community-based wellness workshops were designed to promote regular exercise and use of mindfulness-based techniques. There was an increase in physical activity and improvements on several HRQOL domains 1 month following the exercise workshops; although the results were not significant, they are encouraging.

  4. Physical Activity and Modernization among Bolivian Amerindians

    PubMed Central

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V.; Kaplan, Hillard; Cummings, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a growing public health problem, and the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Conversely, indigenous populations living traditional lifestyles reportedly engage in vigorous daily activity that is protective against non-communicable diseases. Here we analyze physical activity patterns among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Bolivia with minimal heart disease and diabetes. We assess age patterns of adult activity among men and women, test whether modernization affects activity levels, and examine whether nascent obesity is associated with reduced activity. Methods and Findings A factorial method based on a large sample of behavioral observations was employed to estimate effects of age, sex, body mass index, and modernization variables on physical activity ratio (PAR), the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal metabolic rate. Accelerometry combined with heart rate monitoring was compared to the factorial method and used for nighttime sampling. Tsimane men and women display 24 hr physical activity level (PAL) of 2.02–2.15 and 1.73–1.85, respectively. Little time was spent “sedentary”, whereas most activity was light to moderate, rather than vigorous. Activity peaks by the late twenties in men, and declines thereafter, but remains constant among women after the early teens. Neither BMI, fat free mass or body fat percentage are associated with PAR. There was no negative effect of modernization on physical activity. Conclusions Tsimane display relatively high PALs typical of other subsistence populations, but of moderate intensity, and not outside the range of developed populations. Despite rapidly increasing socioeconomic change, there is little evidence that total activity has yet been affected. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among women than men, and Spanish fluency is associated with greater obesity in women. The lack of cardiovascular disease among Tsimane is unlikely caused by

  5. Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Candace C.; Wagner, Gregory R.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Kenwood, Christopher T.; Sabbath, Erika L.; Hashimoto, Dean M.; Hopcia, Karen; Allen, Jennifer; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-01-01

    Background The workplace is an important domain for adults, and many effective interventions targeting physical activity and weight reduction have been implemented in the workplace. However, the U.S. workforce is aging and few studies have examined the relationship of BMI, physical activity, and age as they relate to workplace characteristics. Purpose This paper reports on the distribution of physical activity and BMI by age in a population of hospital-based healthcare workers and investigates the relationships among workplace characteristics, physical activity, and BMI. Methods Data from a survey of patient care workers in two large academic hospitals in the Boston area were collected in late 2009 and analyzed in early 2013. Results In multivariate models, workers reporting greater decision latitude (OR=1.02; 95% CI=1.01, 1.03) and job flexibility (OR=1.05; 95% CI=1.01, 1.10) reported greater physical activity. Overweight and obesity increased with age (p<0.01), even after adjusting for workplace characteristics. Sleep deficiency (OR=1.56; 95% CI=1.15, 2.12) and workplace harassment (OR= 1.62; 95% CI=1.20, 2.18) were also associated with obesity. Conclusions These findings underscore the persistent impact of the work environment for workers of all ages. Based on these results, programs or policies aimed at improving the work environment, especially decision latitude, job flexibility and workplace harassment should be included in the design of worksite-based health promotion interventions targeting physical activity or obesity. PMID:24512930

  6. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which demonstrates standing waves in air generated by a loudspeaker driven by an audio oscillator. The waves are detected by cool spots on a glowing nichrome wire contained in an inexpensive piece of equipment. Also describes activities involving analysis of kinematics through data taking and graphing. (JM)

  7. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Glenn; Insley, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Explains two activities: (1) a "rotator demonstration" (a turntable, pendulum, chalk, and other materials), which can be used in many activities to demonstrate rotational concepts; and (2) an "Eskimo yo-yo," consisting of two balls (plus long strings and a glass tube) which rotate in opposite directions to show centripetal force. (JN)

  8. "LET US Play": Maximizing Physical Activity "in" Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Webster, Collin; Beets, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Schools have been identified as a promising setting for increasing youth physical activity levels because of their broad reach and the amount of time youth spend in attendance. Specifically, physical education is one key time during the school day where youth can accumulate health-enhancing levels of physical activity. Indicators of quality…

  9. ATHENA: a personalized platform to promote an active lifestyle and wellbeing based on physical, mental and social health primitives.

    PubMed

    Fahim, Muhammad; Idris, Muhammad; Ali, Rahman; Nugent, Christopher; Kang, Byeong; Huh, Eui-Nam; Lee, Sungyoung

    2014-05-23

    Technology provides ample opportunities for the acquisition and processing of physical, mental and social health primitives. However, several challenges remain for researchers as how to define the relationship between reported physical activities, mood and social interaction to define an active lifestyle. We are conducting a project, ATHENA(activity-awareness for human-engaged wellness applications) to design and integrate the relationship between these basic health primitives to approximate the human lifestyle and real-time recommendations for wellbeing services. Our goal is to develop a system to promote an active lifestyle for individuals and to recommend to them valuable interventions by making comparisons to their past habits. The proposed system processes sensory data through our developed machine learning algorithms inside smart devices and utilizes cloud infrastructure to reduce the cost. We exploit big data infrastructure for massive sensory data storage and fast retrieval for recommendations. Our contributions include the development of a prototype system to promote an active lifestyle and a visual design capable of engaging users in the goal of increasing self-motivation. We believe that our study will impact the design of future ubiquitous wellness applications.

  10. ATHENA: A Personalized Platform to Promote an Active Lifestyle and Wellbeing Based on Physical, Mental and Social Health Primitives

    PubMed Central

    Fahim, Muhammad; Idris, Muhammad; Ali, Rahman; Nugent, Christopher; Kang, Byeong; Huh, Eui-Nam; Lee, Sungyoung

    2014-01-01

    Technology provides ample opportunities for the acquisition and processing of physical, mental and social health primitives. However, several challenges remain for researchers as how to define the relationship between reported physical activities, mood and social interaction to define an active lifestyle. We are conducting a project, ATHENA(activity-awareness for human-engaged wellness applications) to design and integrate the relationship between these basic health primitives to approximate the human lifestyle and real-time recommendations for wellbeing services. Our goal is to develop a system to promote an active lifestyle for individuals and to recommend to them valuable interventions by making comparisons to their past habits. The proposed system processes sensory data through our developed machine learning algorithms inside smart devices and utilizes cloud infrastructure to reduce the cost. We exploit big data infrastructure for massive sensory data storage and fast retrieval for recommendations. Our contributions include the development of a prototype system to promote an active lifestyle and a visual design capable of engaging users in the goal of increasing self-motivation. We believe that our study will impact the design of future ubiquitous wellness applications. PMID:24859031

  11. Dose Relations between Goal Setting, Theory-Based Correlates of Goal Setting and Increases in Physical Activity during a Workplace Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Vandenberg, Robert J.; Motl, Robert W.; Wilson, Mark G.; DeJoy, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of an intervention depends on its dose and on moderators of dose, which usually are not studied. The purpose of the study is to determine whether goal setting and theory-based moderators of goal setting had dose relations with increases in goal-related physical activity during a successful workplace intervention. A…

  12. Moderators of intervention dose effects on diet quality and physical activity changes in a church-based, multicomponent, lifestyle study: Delta Body and Soul III

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many community-based lifestyle interventions targeting African Americans have reported positive effects on participant’s dietary choices and physical activity habits. However, these effects vary and not all participants will have outcome changes. Moderation analysis can help explain differential e...

  13. Reach and Effectiveness of an Integrated Community-Based Intervention on Physical Activity and Healthy Eating of Older Adults in a Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luten, Karla A.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the reach and effectiveness of an integrated community-based intervention designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community in the Netherlands. The intervention was evaluated with a controlled pre-post quasi-experimental design, with 430…

  14. "…Because There's Nobody Who Can Just Sit That Long": Teacher Perceptions of Classroom-Based Physical Activity and Related Management Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianou, Michalis; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Naiman, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    Classroom teachers are increasingly called upon to help increase pupils' physical activity (PA). Grounded in Guskey's model of teacher change, this study was part of an intervention that provided classroom teachers with training for implementing classroom-based PA (CBPA). The study examined teachers' attempts to implement CBPA and focused on their…

  15. Psychosocial Predictors of Changes in Adolescent Girls' Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors over the Course of the "Go Girls!" Group-Based Mentoring Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, A. Justine; Chen, Michelle Y.; Schmader, Toni; Jung, Mary E.; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Beauchamp, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in social cognitions targeted within a group-based mentoring program for adolescent girls were examined as predictors of changes in physical activity (PA) and dietary behavior (in two separate models) over the course of the 7-week program. Data were collected from 310 participants who participated in the program. Multilevel path models…

  16. Correlates of Long-Term Participation in a Physical Activity-Based Positive Youth Development Program for Low-Income Youth: Sustained Involvement and Psychosocial Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullrich-French, Sarah; McDonough, Meghan H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined correlates of long-term participation in a positive youth development (PYD) program. Low-income youth (N = 215) age 8-13 of diverse ethnicity participating in a summer physical activity-based PYD program completed questionnaires at the beginning and end of the program (year 1) and at the beginning of year 2. Those with lower…

  17. Determining the Reach of a Home-Based Physical Activity Program for Older Adults within the Context of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Samantha M.; Fanning, Jason T.; Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the reach of physical activity (PA) programs is challenging due to inconsistent reporting across studies. The purpose of this study was to document multiple indicators of program reach for a 6-month, Digital Versatile Disc (DVD)-delivered home-based PA program. Radio, newspaper and direct mailing advertisements were tracked to…

  18. The Desired Learning Outcomes of School-Based Nutrition/Physical Activity Health Education: A Health Literacy Constructed Delphi Survey of Finnish Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormshaw, Michael James; Kokko, Sami Petteri; Villberg, Jari; Kannas, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to utilise the collective opinion of a group of Finnish experts to identify the most important learning outcomes of secondary-level school-based health education, in the specific domains of physical activity and nutrition. Design/ Methodology/ Approach: The study uses a Delphi survey technique to collect the…

  19. Moderators of Intervention Dose Effects on Diet Quality and Physical Activity Changes in a Church-Based, Multicomponent, Lifestyle Study: Delta Body and Soul III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, J. L.; Zoellner, J. M.; Tussing-Humphreys, L. M.; Goodman, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Many community-based lifestyle interventions targeting African Americans have reported positive effects on participants' dietary choices and physical activity habits. However, these effects vary and not all participants will have outcome changes. Moderation analysis can help explain differential effects observed, but are not often reported. Hence,…

  20. A church-based diet and physical activity intervention for rural, lower Mississippi Delta African American adults: Delta Body and Soul effectiveness study, 2010-2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity, diabetes, and hypertension have reached epidemic levels in the largely rural Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region. We assessed the effectiveness of a 6-month, church-based, diet and physical activity intervention, conducted during 2010 through 2011, for improving diet quality (measured by ...

  1. Assessing the Validity of a Stage Measure on Physical Activity in a Population-Based Sample of Individuals with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lippke, Sonia; Reinbold-Matthews, Melissa; Courneya, Kerry S.; Karunamuni, Nandini; Sigal, Ronald J.; Birkett, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to test the validity of a transtheoretical model's physical activity (PA) stage measure with intention and different intensities of behavior in a large population-based sample of adults living with diabetes (Type 1 diabetes, n = 697; Type 2 diabetes, n = 1,614) and examine different age groups. The overall…

  2. The Reality of Sustaining Community-Based Sport and Physical Activity Programs to Enhance the Development of Underserved Youth: Challenges and Potential Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Meredith A.; Forneris, Tanya; Barker, Bryce

    2015-01-01

    Many community-based sport and physical activity programs take a positive youth development approach when operating in underserved communities around the world (Forneris, Whitley, & Barker, 2013). However, one of the biggest challenges for these programs is sustainability (Lindsey, 2008). The purpose of this article is to present the 3…

  3. The Impact of Student Diversity on Interest, Design, and Promotion of Web-based Tailored Nutrition and Physical Activity Programs for Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintiliani, Lisa M.; De Jesus, Maria; Wallington, Sherrie Flynt

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine an organizational level perspective of the process of adopting Web-based tailored nutrition and physical activity programs for community college students. Methods: In this qualitative study, 21 individual key informant interviews of community college student services and health center administrators were used to examine…

  4. Validation of Self-Report Measures of Physical Activity: A Case Study Using the New Zealand Physical Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, Lisa M.; Schofield, Grant M.; Schluter, Philip J.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate measurement of physical activity is fundamentally important in epidemiological research of physical activity behavior. A widely used telephone-based physical activity questionnaire was compared with other methods of administration and objective measures (pedometers and accelerometers) among 80 adults (43 women). The telephone…

  5. PITBUL: a physics-based modeling package for imaging and tracking of airborne targets for HEL applications including active illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Zandt, Noah R.; McCrae, Jack E.; Fiorino, Steven T.

    2013-05-01

    Aimpoint acquisition and maintenance is critical to high energy laser (HEL) system performance. This study demonstrates the development by the AFIT/CDE of a physics-based modeling package, PITBUL, for tracking airborne targets for HEL applications, including atmospheric and sensor effects and active illumination, which is a focus of this work. High-resolution simulated imagery of the 3D airborne target in-flight as seen from the laser position is generated using the HELSEEM model, and includes solar illumination, laser illumination, and thermal emission. Both CW and pulsed laser illumination are modeled, including the effects of illuminator scintillation, atmospheric backscatter, and speckle, which are treated at a first-principles level. Realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol absorption and scattering, as well as optical turbulence, are generated using AFIT/CDE's Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) model. The spatially and temporally varying effects of turbulence are calculated and applied via a fast-running wave optical method known as light tunneling. Sensor effects, for example blur, sampling, read-out noise, and random photon arrival, are applied to the imagery. Track algorithms, including centroid and Fitts correlation, as a part of a closed loop tracker are applied to the degraded imagery and scored, to provide an estimate of overall system performance. To gauge performance of a laser system against a UAV target, tracking results are presented as a function of signal to noise ratio. Additionally, validation efforts to date involving comparisons between simulated and experimental tracking of UAVs are presented.

  6. Methodological Overview of A Self-Determination Theory-Based Computerized Intervention to Promote Leisure-Time Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Heather; Canevello, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To provide a methodological overview of a computerized intervention to promote leisure time physical activity (PA) and to apply self-determination theory (SDT) to PA initiation to better understand the psychological mechanisms underlying PA frequency, intensity, and duration in previously-sedentary individuals. Design Based on SDT, two computerized personal trainers were developed for use with sedentary young adults. One personal trainer was designed to be need-supportive, empathic, and structured while the other was designed to be more controlling, evaluative, and judgmental. Method Participants are randomly assigned to work with either the need-supportive or controlling computerized personal trainer. They complete a series of 7 weekly training sessions. In between training sessions, participants complete daily records of PA behaviors and experiences including autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence for PA and PA frequency, intensity, and duration. Potential Contributions The design of this intervention and its theoretical basis have important implications for advancing the field of exercise science specifically and health behavior change more broadly. Computerized interventions have the benefit of standardizing intervention content as well as reducing clinical contact burden for practitioners. Daily recording procedures reduce the likelihood of retrospection bias and allow for the modeling of (1) daily fluctuations in PA behavior and (2) the psychological mechanisms believed to be involved in PA behavior (e.g., autonomous self-regulation). Finally, as a broad theory of human motivation, SDT is uniquely positioned to offer explanations for the conditions that are likely to promote both the initiation and maintenance of health behavior change. PMID:21103069

  7. Methodological Overview of A Self-Determination Theory-Based Computerized Intervention to Promote Leisure-Time Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Heather; Canevello, Amy

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide a methodological overview of a computerized intervention to promote leisure time physical activity (PA) and to apply self-determination theory (SDT) to PA initiation to better understand the psychological mechanisms underlying PA frequency, intensity, and duration in previously-sedentary individuals. DESIGN: Based on SDT, two computerized personal trainers were developed for use with sedentary young adults. One personal trainer was designed to be need-supportive, empathic, and structured while the other was designed to be more controlling, evaluative, and judgmental. METHOD: Participants are randomly assigned to work with either the need-supportive or controlling computerized personal trainer. They complete a series of 7 weekly training sessions. In between training sessions, participants complete daily records of PA behaviors and experiences including autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence for PA and PA frequency, intensity, and duration. POTENTIAL CONTRIBUTIONS: The design of this intervention and its theoretical basis have important implications for advancing the field of exercise science specifically and health behavior change more broadly. Computerized interventions have the benefit of standardizing intervention content as well as reducing clinical contact burden for practitioners. Daily recording procedures reduce the likelihood of retrospection bias and allow for the modeling of (1) daily fluctuations in PA behavior and (2) the psychological mechanisms believed to be involved in PA behavior (e.g., autonomous self-regulation). Finally, as a broad theory of human motivation, SDT is uniquely positioned to offer explanations for the conditions that are likely to promote both the initiation and maintenance of health behavior change.

  8. The efficacy of World Wide Web-mediated microcomputer-based laboratory activities in the high school physics classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slykhuis, David A.

    This research project examined the efficacy of an online microcomputer-based laboratory based (MBL) physics unit. One hundred and fifty physics students from five high schools in North Carolina were divided into online and classroom groups. The classroom group completed the MBL unit in small groups with assistance from their teachers. The online groups completed the MBL unit in small groups using a website designed for this project for guidance. Pre- and post-unit content specific tests and surveys were given. Statistical analysis of the content tests showed significant development of conceptual understanding by the online group over the course of the unit. There was not a significant difference between the classroom and online group with relation to the amount of conceptual understanding developed. Correlations with post-test achievement showed that pre-test scores and math background were the most significant correlates with success. Computer related variables, such as computer comfort and online access, were only mildly correlated with the online group. Students' views about the nature of physics were not well developed prior to the unit and did not significantly change over the course of the unit. Examination of the students' physics conceptions after instruction revealed common alternative conceptions such as confusing position and velocity variables and incorrect interpretations of graphical features such as slope.

  9. Macronutrient Intake for Physical Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, Thomas

    Proper nutrition is an essential element of athletic performance, body composition goals, and general health. Although natural variability among persons makes it impossible to create a single diet that can be recommended to all; examining scientific principles makes it easier for athletes and other physically active persons to eat a diet that prepares them for successful training and/or athletic competition. A proper nutritional design incorporates these principles and is tailored to the individual. It is important for the sports nutritionist, coach, and athlete to understand the role that each of the macronutrients plays in an active lifestyle. In addition, keys to success include knowing how to determine how many calories to consume, the macronutrient breakdown of those calories, and proper timing to maximize the benefits needed for the individual's body type and activity schedule.

  10. Doing Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Materials needed and procedures for conducting two activities are provided. The first investigates drops of a liquid which float on water in a watchglass resting on top of a loudspeaker. The second investigates electromagnetic phenomena. (JN)

  11. Impact of an After-School Physical Activity Program on Youth's Physical Activity Correlates and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chaoqun; Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Schultz, Barry; Newton, Maria; Jenson, William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of a sports-based, after-school physical activity (PA) program on youth's physical activity PA levels and PA correlates. After the pretest, 130 youth were assigned to the intervention group (i.e., after-school PA group) or the comparison (i.e., no after-school PA group) group.…

  12. Dose relations between goal setting, theory-based correlates of goal setting and increases in physical activity during a workplace trial.

    PubMed

    Dishman, Rod K; Vandenberg, Robert J; Motl, Robert W; Wilson, Mark G; DeJoy, David M

    2010-08-01

    The effectiveness of an intervention depends on its dose and on moderators of dose, which usually are not studied. The purpose of the study is to determine whether goal setting and theory-based moderators of goal setting had dose relations with increases in goal-related physical activity during a successful workplace intervention. A group-randomized 12-week intervention that included personal goal setting was implemented in fall 2005, with a multiracial/ethnic sample of employees at 16 geographically diverse worksites. Here, we examined dose-related variables in the cohort of participants (N = 664) from the 8 worksites randomized to the intervention. Participants in the intervention exceeded 9000 daily pedometer steps and 300 weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during the last 6 weeks of the study, which approximated or exceeded current public health guidelines. Linear growth modeling indicated that participants who set higher goals and sustained higher levels of self-efficacy, commitment and intention about attaining their goals had greater increases in pedometer steps and MVPA. The relation between change in participants' satisfaction with current physical activity and increases in physical activity was mediated by increases in self-set goals. The results show a dose relation of increased physical activity with changes in goal setting, satisfaction, self-efficacy, commitment and intention, consistent with goal-setting theory.

  13. Weight Status and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Helen; Blanco, Estela; Algarín, Cecilia; Peirano, Patricio; Burrows, Raquel; Reyes, Marcela; Wing, David; Godino, Job G.; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    We tested the independent and combined influence of overweight/obesity and meeting moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines (≥60 minutes per day) on cardiometabolic risk factors among healthy adolescents. We measured anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting lipids, and activity by accelerometer in 223 adolescents. They were categorized as overweight/obese versus normal weight and meeting the World Health Organization guidelines for MVPA per day. Adolescents were 16.8 years, 41% overweight/obese, 30% met MVPA guidelines, 50% low high-density lipoprotein, 22% high triglycerides, 12% high blood pressure, and 6% high fasting glucose. Controlling for sex, overweight/obese adolescents who did not meet MVPA guidelines had 4.0 and 11.9 increased odds for elevated triglycerides and systolic blood pressure, respectively, compared to normal weight adolescents who met MVPA guidelines. Overweight/obese and normal weight adolescents who met MVPA guidelines did not differ in cardiometabolic risk factors. Among overweight/obese adolescents, being physically active attenuated the likelihood of high triglycerides and systolic blood pressure. PMID:27803943

  14. Stolen Base Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, David

    2013-05-01

    Few plays in baseball are as consistently close and exciting as the stolen base. While there are several studies of sprinting,2-4 the art of base stealing is much more nuanced. This article describes the motion of the base-stealing runner using a very basic kinematic model. The model will be compared to some data from a Major League game. The predictions of the model show consistency with the skills needed for effective base stealing.

  15. Stolen Base Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, David

    2013-01-01

    Few plays in baseball are as consistently close and exciting as the stolen base. While there are several studies of sprinting, the art of base stealing is much more nuanced. This article describes the motion of the base-stealing runner using a very basic kinematic model. The model will be compared to some data from a Major League game. The…

  16. Physical activity and self-reported health status among adolescents: a cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Galán, I; Boix, R; Medrano, M J; Ramos, P; Rivera, F; Pastor-Barriuso, R; Moreno, C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about the dose–response relationship between physical activity and health benefits among young people. Our objective was to analyse the association between the frequency of undertaking moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and the self-reported health status of the adolescent population. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting All regions of Spain. Participants Students aged 11–18 years participating in the Spanish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey 2006. A total of 375 schools and 21 188 students were selected. Main outcomes The frequency of undertaking MVPA was measured by a questionnaire, with the following four health indicators: self-rated health, health complaints, satisfaction with life and health-related quality of life. Linear and logistic regression models were used to analyse the association, adjusting for potential confounding variables and the modelling of the dose–response relationship. Results As the frequency of MVPA increased, the association with health benefits was stronger. A linear trend (p<0.05) was found for self-rated health and health complaints in males and females and for satisfaction with life among females; for health-related quality of life this relationship was quadratic for both sexes (p<0.05). For self-reported health and health complaints, the effect was found to be of greater magnitude in males than in females and, in all scales, the benefits were observed from the lowest frequencies of MVPA, especially in males. Conclusions A protective effect of MVPA was found in both sexes for the four health indicators studied, and this activity had a gradient effect. Among males, health benefits were detected from very low levels of physical activity and the magnitude of the relationship was greater than that for females. PMID:23676798

  17. A review of population-based prevalence studies of physical activity in adults in the Asia-Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) surveillance is an important component of non-communicable disease risk factor monitoring, and occurs through national and international surveillance systems. This review identifies population PA estimates for adults in the Asia-Pacific region, and examines variation in trends and prevalence rates obtained using different PA measures. Methods Data were obtained from a MEDLINE search; World Health Organization's Global Health Infobase; Government websites and reference lists of relevant papers. Inclusion criteria included: national studies or those reporting large scale population-level data; data published from 2000 to 2010 and trend data prior; sample sizes over n = 1000, or fewer subjects in small nations. Results In total, 56 population surveys from 29 Asia-Pacific countries were identified. Data on 'sufficient physical activity' amongst adults were available from 45 studies (80%), with estimates ranging from 7% to 93% (median 62%, inter-quartile range 40%-85%). For 14 countries, estimates of 'sufficient activity' were documented in multiple surveys using different methods, with the largest variation from 18% to 92% in Nepal. Median or mean MET-minutes/day, reported in 20 studies, ranged from 6 to 1356. Serial trend data were available for 11 countries (22%), for periods spanning 2-10 years. Of these, five countries demonstrated increases in physical activity over time, four demonstrated decreases and three showed no changes. Conclusions Many countries in the Asia-Pacific region collect population-level PA data. This review highlights differences in estimates within and between countries. Some differences may be real, others due to variation in the PA questions asked and survey methods used. Use of standardized protocols and measures, and combined reporting of data are essential goals of improved international PA surveillance. PMID:22251660

  18. [Physical activity for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Masashi; Ishijima, Muneaki; Kaneko, Haruka; Takazawa, Yuji; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kazuo

    Elder populations have been increasing in Japan and estimated 24 million people have knee osteoarthritis(OA). Recently, people have diverse sociological background and demand for participating sports has been growing. People may participate sports to prevent some diseases such as locomotive syndrome. According to the recent studies, excessive high impact sports increase the risk of OA, while daily life exercise decrease the risk. Epidemiological approach demonstrated that reduced knee extension muscle strength increases the risk of OA. We reviewed and discussed the recent topics including efficacy of physical therapy for knee OA and how much sports activities could be beneficial after knee surgery.

  19. Text Messaging: An Intervention to Increase Physical Activity among African American Participants in a Faith-Based, Competitive Weight Loss Program.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Pamela; Leggett, Sophia; Bhuiyan, Azad; Brown, David; Frye, Patricia; Williams, Bryman

    2017-03-29

    African American adults are less likely to meet the recommended physical activity guidelines for aerobic and muscle-strengthening activity than Caucasian adults. The purpose of this study was to assess whether a text message intervention would increase physical activity in this population. This pilot study used a pre-/post-questionnaire non-randomized design. Participants in a faith-based weight loss competition who agreed to participate in the text messaging were assigned to the intervention group (n = 52). Participants who declined to participate in the intervention, but agreed to participate in the study, were assigned to the control group (n = 30). The text messages provided strategies for increasing physical activity and were based on constructs of the Health Belief Model and the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model. Chi square tests determined the intervention group participants increased exercise time by approximately eight percent (p = 0.03), while the control group's exercise time remained constant. The intervention group increased walking and running. The control group increased running. Most participants indicated that the health text messages were effective. The results of this pilot study suggest that text messaging may be an effective method for providing options for motivating individuals to increase physical activity.

  20. Association between perceived weight discrimination and physical activity: a population-based study among English middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Steptoe, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between perceived weight discrimination and physical activity in a large population-based sample. Design Data were from 2423 men and 3057 women aged ≥50 years participating in Wave 5 (2010/11) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Participants reported experiences of weight discrimination in everyday life and frequency of light, moderate and vigorous physical activities. We used logistic regression to test associations between perceived weight discrimination and physical activity, controlling for age, sex, socioeconomic status and body mass index (BMI). Results Perceived weight discrimination was associated with almost 60% higher odds of being inactive (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.40, p=.028) and 30% lower odds of engaging in moderate or vigorous activity at least once a week (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.94, p=.017). Conclusions Independent of BMI, individuals who perceive unfair treatment on the basis of their weight are less physically active than those who do not perceive discrimination. This has important implications for the health and well-being of individuals who experience weight-based discrimination, and may also contribute to a cycle of weight gain and further mistreatment. PMID:28270391

  1. Applying the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to increase European preschool children's physical activity levels: the ToyBox-study.

    PubMed

    De Craemer, M; De Decker, E; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Verloigne, M; Duvinage, K; Koletzko, B; Ibrügger, S; Kreichauf, S; Grammatikaki, E; Moreno, L; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Szott, K; Manios, Y; Cardon, G

    2014-08-01

    Although sufficient physical activity is beneficial for preschoolers' health, activity levels in most preschoolers are low. As preschoolers spend a considerable amount of time at home and at kindergarten, interventions should target both environments to increase their activity levels. The aim of the current paper was to describe the six different steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol towards the systematic development and implementation of the physical activity component of the ToyBox-intervention. This intervention is a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention implemented across six European countries. Based on the results of literature reviews and focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers, matrices of change objectives were created. Then, theory-based methods and practical strategies were selected to develop intervention materials at three different levels: (i) individual level (preschoolers); (ii) interpersonal level (parents/caregivers) and (iii) organizational level (teachers). This resulted in a standardized intervention with room for local and cultural adaptations in each participating country. Although the Intervention Mapping protocol is a time-consuming process, using this systematic approach may lead to an increase in intervention effectiveness. The presented matrices of change objectives are useful for future programme planners to develop and implement an intervention based on the Intervention Mapping protocol to increase physical activity levels in preschoolers.

  2. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity in which two pulleys are connected by a wire loop; when the bottom pulley is dipped into hot water, the pulleys rotate. Also suggests that students design/build a machine to propel a bean; the machine must use materials including one bean, two plastic straws, and two rubber bands. (JN)

  3. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations/activities that involve forces: (1) a canoe-like boat made from copper window screen; (2) magnetic forces with a paper clip and ceramic magnetic; and (3) an "icemobile" machine that cuts ice cubes without an obvious source of energy. (DH)

  4. Trajectory of change in pain, depression, and physical functioning after physical activity adoption in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Jennifer L; Bigatti, Silvia M; Ang, Dennis C

    2015-07-01

    Fibromyalgia is associated with widespread pain, depression, and declines in physical functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine the trajectory of these symptoms over time related to physical activity adoption and maintenance via motivational interviewing versus education, to increase physical activity. There were no treatment group differences; we divided the sample (n = 184) based on changes in physical activity. Repeated measures analyses demonstrated differential patterns in depression, pain, and physical functioning at 24 and 36 weeks. Findings suggest increased physical activity may serve as a multiple-target intervention that provides moderate to large, long-lasting benefits for individuals with fibromyalgia.

  5. Physical Activity 4 Everyone’ school-based intervention to prevent decline in adolescent physical activity levels: 12 month (mid-intervention) report on a cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Rachel; Campbell, Elizabeth; Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Okely, Anthony D; Nathan, Nicole; Wolfenden, Luke; Wiese, Jarrod; Gillham, Karen; Hollis, Jenna; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a recognised period of physical activity decline, particularly among low-income communities. We report the 12-month (midpoint) effects of a 2-year multicomponent physical activity intervention implemented in disadvantaged secondary schools. Methods A cluster randomised trial was undertaken in 10 secondary schools located in disadvantaged areas in New South Wales, Australia. Students in Grade 7 were recruited, with follow-up in Grade 8. The intervention was guided by socioecological theory and included seven physical activity strategies, and six implementation adoption strategies. The primary outcome was mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day assessed using Actigraph GT3X accelerometers. Outcome data were analysed using repeated measures linear mixed models. Results At baseline, 1150 (93%) students participated in the data collection (mean age 12 years, 48% boys) and 1050 (79%) students participated at 12-month follow-up. By the 12-month follow-up, the six implementation adoption strategies had been used to support schools to deliver four of the seven physical activity elements. There was a significant group-by-time interaction for mean minutes of MVPA per day in favour of the intervention group (adjusted difference between groups at follow-up=3.85 min, 95% CI (0.79 to 6.91), p≤0.01), including significantly more vigorous physical activity (2.45 min, p≤0.01), equating to 27 min more MVPA per week. Summary At 12-month follow-up, the intervention had reduced the decline in physical activity among adolescents from disadvantaged schools. The intervention may assist students to meet physical activity guidelines. PMID:26359346

  6. School Programs to Increase Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Amelia; Solmon, Melinda

    2007-01-01

    A quality physical education program is at the heart of any plan to promote lifelong participation in physical activity, but it has become evident at many schools that physical education specialists alone cannot address the physical activity needs of children. This is why a series of studies were conducted to develop strategies for the…

  7. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) recommends that all PK-12 schools implement a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program. Schools play an important role in public health, and the physical, mental, and social benefits of regular physical activity for youth are well documented. Leading public health, medical,…

  8. Teaching Science with Toys: Physics Activities for Grades K-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Beverley A. P.; And Others

    This document is a collection of some of the physics activities used in the Teaching Science with TOYS professional development program for teachers. The TOYS activities have been compiled into this document as a resource for teachers who want to use toy-based physical science activities in the classroom. The activities do not assume any…

  9. Effects of Vigorous Intensity Physical Activity on Mathematics Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David S.; Hannon, James C.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of physical activity on academic performance in school-based settings is under researched. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between a single, vigorous (70-85%) bout of physical activity completed during physical education on standardized mathematics test performance among 72, eighth grade students…

  10. Videogames to Promote Physical Activity in Older Adults with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin M; Vinogradov, Sophia; Dowling, Glenna A

    2012-10-01

    Older adults with schizophrenia need physical activity interventions to improve their physical health. The purpose of this report is to describe the preliminary acceptability of a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect™ for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) in older adults with schizophrenia.

  11. Changes in Physical Activity Following a Genetic-Based Internet-Delivered Personalized Intervention: Randomized Controlled Trial (Food4Me)

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Fallaize, Rosalind; Kolossa, Silvia; Hallmann, Jacqueline; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Forster, Hannah; Moschonis, George; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Surwillo, Agnieszka; Godlewska, Magdalena; Hoonhout, Jettie; Goris, Annelies; Macready, Anna L; Walsh, Marianne C; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Manios, Yannis; Traczyk, Iwona; Drevon, Christian A; Lovegrove, Julie A; Martinez, J Alfredo; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Michael J; Mathers, John C; Saris, Wim HM

    2016-01-01

    Background There is evidence that physical activity (PA) can attenuate the influence of the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) genotype on the risk to develop obesity. However, whether providing personalized information on FTO genotype leads to changes in PA is unknown. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if disclosing FTO risk had an impact on change in PA following a 6-month intervention. Methods The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609 in the FTO gene was genotyped in 1279 participants of the Food4Me study, a four-arm, Web-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 7 European countries on the effects of personalized advice on nutrition and PA. PA was measured objectively using a TracmorD accelerometer and was self-reported using the Baecke questionnaire at baseline and 6 months. Differences in baseline PA variables between risk (AA and AT genotypes) and nonrisk (TT genotype) carriers were tested using multiple linear regression. Impact of FTO risk disclosure on PA change at 6 months was assessed among participants with inadequate PA, by including an interaction term in the model: disclosure (yes/no) × FTO risk (yes/no). Results At baseline, data on PA were available for 874 and 405 participants with the risk and nonrisk FTO genotypes, respectively. There were no significant differences in objectively measured or self-reported baseline PA between risk and nonrisk carriers. A total of 807 (72.05%) of the participants out of 1120 in the personalized groups were encouraged to increase PA at baseline. Knowledge of FTO risk had no impact on PA in either risk or nonrisk carriers after the 6-month intervention. Attrition was higher in nonrisk participants for whom genotype was disclosed (P=.01) compared with their at-risk counterparts. Conclusions No association between baseline PA and FTO risk genotype was observed. There was no added benefit of disclosing FTO risk on changes in PA in this personalized intervention. Further RCT studies

  12. Moderators of intervention dose effects on diet quality and physical activity changes in a church-based, multicomponent, lifestyle study: Delta Body and Soul III.

    PubMed

    Thomson, J L; Zoellner, J M; Tussing-Humphreys, L M; Goodman, M H

    2016-06-01

    Many community-based lifestyle interventions targeting African Americans have reported positive effects on participants' dietary choices and physical activity habits. However, these effects vary and not all participants will have outcome changes. Moderation analysis can help explain differential effects observed, but are not often reported. Hence, the objective of this secondary analysis was to explore potential moderators of intervention dose effects on diet quality and physical activity outcomes in an effective lifestyle intervention. Delta Body and Soul III, conducted from 2011 to 2012, was a 6-month, church-based, multicomponent, educational intervention designed to improve diet quality and increase physical activity in rural Southern African American adults. Generalized linear mixed models were used to determine associations among indicators of intervention dose received by participants, potential moderators and health outcome changes. Results indicated only three baseline characteristics-employment status, food shopping frequency and individual with primary responsibility for meal preparation-moderated the effects of education session attendance on diet quality changes. No evidence for moderation of exercise class attendance effects on physical activity changes was found. Thus, this culturally targeted, multicomponent lifestyle intervention did induce positive health changes in participants with a range of sociodemographic characteristics and food shopping and eating behaviors.

  13. FastStats: Exercise or Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Exercise or Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 2012 Trends in Adults Receiving a Recommendation for Exercise or Other Physical Activity From a Physician or ...

  14. Physical Activity Status and Position of Governmental Employees in Changing Stage Based on the Trans-Theoretical Model in Hamadan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Jalal; Eftekhar, Hassan; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Shojayzadeh, Davood; Sadeghi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for death worldwide. Given the key role of employees as valuable human resources and increasing sedentary life style among them, the aim of this study was to evaluate physical activity status and position of governmental employees in changing stage based on the Trans-Theoretical Model (TTM) in Hamadan, Iran, in 2014. This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 1200 government employees selected using proportional stratified random sampling. Data collection was performed using a three-section questionnaire containing demographic characteristics, SQUASH (Short questionnaire to assess health-enhancing physical activity) questionnaire and Marcus et al’s five-part algoritm. Data were analyzed by multiple linear and logistic regression, Chi-square, T-test and ANOVA using SPSS-20. The mean age of the participants was 38.12±8.04 years. About a half of the employees were in the preparatory stage of TTM.49.2% and 50.8% of the sample were classified as active and inactive, respectively. Associations between physical activity status and exercise stage of change were found. The associations between exercise stage of change and age, sex, work experience, education and marital status were significant (p<0.05). Work experience and education were strongly predictors of physical activity (PA) status and accounted for 31.2% of variance in PA (adjusted R2=0.312, R2 change=0.01). The results of this study showed that TTM was useful to evaluate and predict physical activity behavior among the Iranian governmental employees and can be utilized by health planners to inform appropriate intervention strategies, specifically in work place. PMID:26156899

  15. Does HOPSports Promote Youth Physical Activity in Physical Education Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Stephanie T.; Shores, Kindal A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how a technological intervention, HOPSports (HOPS), impacted youth physical activity (PA) in a physical education (PE) class. Research indicates rising levels of youth television watching and video game use, physical inactivity, and related overweight. One approach to increase youth PA is to use technology-based…

  16. Physical Education and Physical Activity: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guedes, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Although many recent studies have shown that the lack of physical activity is one of the major causes of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease among children and adolescents, few studies have shown the connection between the lack of physical education and the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle. However, it is clear that physical education…

  17. Web-Based Video-Coaching to Assist an Automated Computer-Tailored Physical Activity Intervention for Inactive Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Cally; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-01-01

    Background Web-based physical activity interventions that apply computer tailoring have shown to improve engagement and behavioral outcomes but provide limited accountability and social support for participants. It is unknown how video calls with a behavioral expert in a Web-based intervention will be received and whether they improve the effectiveness of computer-tailored advice. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of brief video-based coaching in addition to fully automated computer-tailored advice in a Web-based physical activity intervention for inactive adults. Methods Participants were assigned to one of the three groups: (1) tailoring + video-coaching where participants received an 8-week computer-tailored Web-based physical activity intervention (“My Activity Coach”) including 4 10-minute coaching sessions with a behavioral expert using a Web-based video-calling program (eg, Skype; n=52); (2) tailoring-only where participants received the same intervention without the coaching sessions (n=54); and (3) a waitlist control group (n=45). Demographics were measured at baseline, intervention satisfaction at week 9, and physical activity at baseline, week 9, and 6 months by Web-based self-report surveys. Feasibility was analyzed by comparing intervention groups on retention, adherence, engagement, and satisfaction using t tests and chi-square tests. Effectiveness was assessed using linear mixed models to compare physical activity changes between groups. Results A total of 23 tailoring + video-coaching participants, 30 tailoring-only participants, and 30 control participants completed the postintervention survey (83/151, 55.0% retention). A low percentage of tailoring + video-coaching completers participated in the coaching calls (11/23, 48%). However, the majority of those who participated in the video calls were satisfied with them (5/8, 71%) and had improved intervention adherence (9/11, 82% completed 3 or 4

  18. Effectiveness of a School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Cognitive Performance in Danish Adolescents: LCoMotion—Learning, Cognition and Motion – A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Froberg, Karsten; Hillman, Charles H.; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bugge, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity is associated not only with health-related parameters, but also with cognitive and academic performance. However, no large scale school-based physical activity interventions have investigated effects on cognitive performance in adolescents. The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of a school-based physical activity intervention in enhancing cognitive performance in 12–14 years old adolescents. Methods A 20 week cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted including seven intervention and seven control schools. A total of 632 students (mean (SD) age: 12.9 (0.6) years) completed the trial with baseline and follow-up data on primary or secondary outcomes (74% of randomized subjects). The intervention targeted physical activity during academic subjects, recess, school transportation and leisure-time. Cognitive performance was assessed using an executive functions test of inhibition (flanker task) with the primary outcomes being accuracy and reaction time on congruent and incongruent trials. Secondary outcomes included mathematics performance, physical activity levels, body-mass index, waist-circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness. Results No significant difference in change, comparing the intervention group to the control group, was observed on the primary outcomes (p’s>0.05) or mathematics skills (p>0.05). An intervention effect was found for cardiorespiratory fitness in girls (21 meters (95% CI: 4.4–38.6) and body-mass index in boys (-0.22 kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.39–0.05). Contrary to our predictions, a significantly larger change in interference control for reaction time was found in favor of the control group (5.0 milliseconds (95% CI: 0–9). Baseline to mid-intervention changes in physical activity levels did not differ significantly between groups (all p’s>0.05). Conclusions No evidence was found for effectiveness of a 20-week multi-faceted school-based physical activity intervention for enhancing

  19. Differences in Physical Activity during School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: School recess provides a daily opportunity for physical activity engagement. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels during recess by gender, ethnicity, and grade, and establish the contribution of recess to daily school physical activity levels. Methods: Two hundred and ten children (45% boys) from grades 3…

  20. Evaluating a Model of Youth Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzler, Carrie D.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Sirard, John R.; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between social influences, self-efficacy, enjoyment, and barriers and physical activity. Methods: Structural equation modeling examined relationships between parent and peer support, parent physical activity, individual perceptions, and objectively measured physical activity using accelerometers among a…

  1. Estimating Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in a Free-Living Context: A Pragmatic Comparison of Consumer-Based Activity Trackers and ActiGraph Accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Norman; Burton, Nicola W; Pavey, Toby G; Gilson, Nicholas D; Brown, Wendy J

    2016-01-01

    Background Activity trackers are increasingly popular with both consumers and researchers for monitoring activity and for promoting positive behavior change. However, there is a lack of research investigating the performance of these devices in free-living contexts, for which findings are likely to vary from studies conducted in well-controlled laboratory settings. Objective The aim was to compare Fitbit One and Jawbone UP estimates of steps, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and sedentary behavior with data from the ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer in a free-living context. Methods Thirty-two participants were recruited using convenience sampling; 29 provided valid data for this study (female: 90%, 26/29; age: mean 39.6, SD 11.0 years). On two occasions for 7 days each, participants wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer on their right hip and either a hip-worn Fitbit One (n=14) or wrist-worn Jawbone UP (n=15) activity tracker. Daily estimates of steps and very active minutes were derived from the Fitbit One (n=135 days) and steps, active time, and longest idle time from the Jawbone UP (n=154 days). Daily estimates of steps, MVPA, and longest sedentary bout were derived from the corresponding days of ActiGraph data. Correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots with examination of systematic bias were used to assess convergent validity and agreement between the devices and the ActiGraph. Cohen’s kappa was used to assess the agreement between each device and the ActiGraph for classification of active versus inactive (≥10,000 steps per day and ≥30 min/day of MVPA) comparable with public health guidelines. Results Correlations with ActiGraph estimates of steps and MVPA ranged between .72 and .90 for Fitbit One and .56 and .75 for Jawbone UP. Compared with ActiGraph estimates, both devices overestimated daily steps by 8% (Fitbit One) and 14% (Jawbone UP). However, mean differences were larger for daily MVPA (Fitbit One: underestimated by 46%; Jawbone

  2. Correlates of physical activity: why are some people physically active and others not?

    PubMed

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F; Wells, Jonathan C; Loos, Ruth J F; Martin, Brian W

    2012-07-21

    Physical inactivity is an important contributor to non-communicable diseases in countries of high income, and increasingly so in those of low and middle income. Understanding why people are physically active or inactive contributes to evidence-based planning of public health interventions, because effective programmes will target factors known to cause inactivity. Research into correlates (factors associated with activity) or determinants (those with a causal relationship) has burgeoned in the past two decades, but has mostly focused on individual-level factors in high-income countries. It has shown that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking of physical activity throughout life. An understanding of correlates and determinants, especially in countries of low and middle income, could reduce the eff ect of future epidemics of inactivity and contribute to effective global prevention of non-communicable diseases.

  3. Physical activity and cognitive vitality.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Voss, Michelle W; Erickson, Kirk I; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-03

    We examine evidence supporting the associations among physical activity (PA), cognitive vitality, neural functioning, and the moderation of these associations by genetic factors. Prospective epidemiological studies provide evidence for PA to be associated with a modest reduction in relative risk of cognitive decline. An evaluation of the PA-cognition link across the life span provides modest support for the effect of PA on preserving and even enhancing cognitive vitality and the associated neural circuitry in older adults, with the majority of benefits seen for tasks that are supported by the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. The literature on children and young adults, however, is in need of well-powered randomized controlled trials. Future directions include a more sophisticated understanding of the dose-response relationship, the integration of genetic and epigenetic approaches, inclusion of multimodal imaging of brain-behavior changes, and finally the design of multimodal interventions that may yield broader improvements in cognitive function.

  4. [Physical activity and breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Karol; Acevedo, Francisco; Herrera, María Elisa; Ibáñez, Carolina; Sánchez, César

    2017-01-01

    In Chile breast cancer (BC) is the first cause of death in women. While the most important risk factor for its development is estrogenic stimulation, environmental factors and lifestyles also contribute to its pathogenesis. Epidemiological studies show a direct relationship between physical activity (PA), incidence and recurrence of BC. Supervised PA practice is recommended in most cancer patients to improve their quality of life, to reduce adverse effects from treatment and eventually to improve the prognosis of the disease. We review the epidemiological evidence linking PA and BC and the biological basis of this relationship. We also review the relevant interventional studies and we explore some practical indications of PA in patients with BC, as a model for other tumors of epidemiological importance.

  5. Sustainability of a Curriculum-based Intervention on Dietary Behaviours and Physical Activity among Primary School Children in Trinidad and Tobago

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, SDS; Francis, MP; Dalrymple, N

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Childhood obesity and poor lifestyle practices are emerging as major public health challenges in the Caribbean. Given the fact that a significant part of childhood is spent at school, curriculum-based interventions aimed at improving good dietary and physical activity patterns may provide a useful vehicle for mass inculcation of long-term healthy lifestyle practices. In this study, we evaluated the long-term impact of a brief curriculum based intervention on dietary behaviour, physical activity and knowledge level of primary schoolchildren. Methods: The study was a randomized, controlled, school-based nutrition education and physical activity intervention. One hundred students each were then randomly assigned to the intervention (IVG) and non-intervention (NIVG) groups and followed-up for 18 months. Participants in the IVG group were exposed to a curriculum consisting of six one-hour modules followed by school-based activities geared at fostering healthy behaviours. Students in the non-intervention group did not receive any modules and were subject to the information available at school on a regular basis. Results: In multivariate regression equations controlling for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and baseline values, intervention was associated with lower intake of fried foods and sodas (p < 0.05) and higher knowledge scores (p < 0.01) 18 months later but not significantly associated with improved physical activity or lower BMI. Conclusions: In this study, participants in the intervention group reported significantly lower intakes of fried foods and sodas and higher knowledge scores than participants in the control group some 18 months post-intervention independent of age, gender, BMI, ethnicity and the intakes at baseline. PMID:25303198

  6. Neighborhood context and immigrant children's physical activity.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Mackenzie; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2014-09-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of obesity and overall health for children, but significant race/ethnic and nativity disparities exist in the amount of physical activity that children receive, with immigrant children particularly at risk for low levels of physical activity. In this paper, we examine and compare patterns in physical activity levels for young children of U.S.-born and immigrant mothers from seven race/ethnic and nativity groups, and test whether physical activity is associated with subjective (parent-reported) and objective (U.S. Census) neighborhood measures. The neighborhood measures include parental-reported perceptions of safety and physical and social disorder and objectively defined neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and immigrant concentration. Using restricted, geo-coded Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) data (N = 17,510) from 1998 to 1999 linked with U.S. Census 2000 data for the children's neighborhoods, we utilize zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) models to predict the odds of physical inactivity and expected days of physical activity for kindergarten-aged children. Across both outcomes, foreign-born children have lower levels of physical activity compared to U.S.-born white children. This disparity is not attenuated by a child's socioeconomic, family, or neighborhood characteristics. Physical and social disorder is associated with higher odds of physical inactivity, while perceptions of neighborhood safety are associated with increased expected days of physical activity, but not with inactivity. Immigrant concentration is negatively associated with both physical activity outcomes, but its impact on the probability of physical inactivity differs by the child's race/ethnic and nativity group, such that it is particularly detrimental for U.S.-born white children's physical activity. Research interested in improving the physical activity patterns of minority and second-generation immigrant children should

  7. Theory-Based Behavioral Intervention Increases Self-Reported Physical Activity in South African Men: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jemmott, John B.; Jemmott, Loretta S.; Ngwane, Zolani; Zhang, Jingwen; Heeren, G. Anita; Icard, Larry D.; O’Leary, Ann; Mtose, Xoliswa; Teitelman, Anne; Carty, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a health-promotion intervention increases South African men’s adherence to physical-activity guidelines. Method We utilized a cluster-randomized controlled trial design. Eligible clusters, residential neighborhoods near East London, South Africa, were matched in pairs. Within randomly selected pairs, neighborhoods were randomized to theory-based, culturally congruent health-promotion intervention encouraging physical activity or attention-matched HIV/STI risk-reduction control intervention. Men residing in the neighborhoods and reporting coitus in the previous 3 months were eligible. Primary outcome was self-reported individual-level adherence to physical-activity guidelines averaged over 6-month and 12-month post-intervention assessments. Data were collected in 2007–2010. Data collectors, but not facilitators or participants, were blind to group assignment. Results Primary outcome intention-to-treat analysis included 22 of 22 clusters and 537 of 572 men in the health-promotion intervention and 22 of 22 clusters and 569 of 609 men in the attention-control intervention. Model-estimated probability of meeting physical-activity guidelines was 51.0% in the health-promotion intervention and 44.7% in attention-matched control (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.09–1.63), adjusting for baseline prevalence and clustering from 44 neighborhoods. Conclusion A theory-based culturally congruent intervention increased South African men’s self-reported physical activity, a key contributor to deaths from non-communicable diseases in South Africa. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01490359. PMID:24736094

  8. Exergaming for Physical Activity in Online Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooiman, Brian J.; Sheehan, Dwayne P.; Wesolek, Michael; Reategui, Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    For many the thought of students taking an online course conjures up images of students sitting at a computer desk. Students taking online physical education (OLPE) at home may lack opportunities for competitive or cooperative physical activity that are available to students in a traditional setting. Active video games (exergames) can be played…

  9. Physical Disability, Stigma, and Physical Activity in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barg, Carolyn J.; Armstrong, Brittany D.; Hetz, Samuel P.; Latimer, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Using the stereotype content model as a guiding framework, this study explored whether the stigma that able-bodied adults have towards children with a physical disability is reduced when the child is portrayed as being active. In a 2 (physical activity status) x 2 (ability status) study design, 178 university students rated a child described in…

  10. Workshop Physics Activity Guide, Module 4: Electricity and Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, Priscilla W.

    2004-05-01

    The Workshop Physics Activity Guide is a set of student workbooks designed to serve as the foundation for a two-semester calculus-based introductory physics course. It consists of 28 units that interweave text materials with activities that include prediction, qualitative observation, explanation, equation derivation, mathematical modeling, quantitative experiments, and problem solving. Students use a powerful set of computer tools to record, display, and analyze data, as well as to develop mathematical models of physical phenomena. The design of many of the activities is based on the outcomes of physics education research. The Workshop Physics Activity Guide is supported by an Instructor's Website that: (1) describes the history and philosophy of the Workshop Physics Project; (2) provides advice on how to integrate the Guide into a variety of educational settings; (3) provides information on computer tools (hardware and software) and apparatus; and (4) includes suggested homework assignments for each unit. Log on to the Workshop Physics Project website at http://physics.dickinson.edu/ Workshop Physics is a component of the Physics Suite--a collection of materials created by a group of educational reformers known as the Activity Based Physics Group. The Physics Suite contains a broad array of curricular materials that are based on physics education research, including:

      Understanding Physics, by Cummings, Laws, Redish and Cooney (an introductory textbook based on the best-selling text by Halliday/Resnick/Walker) RealTime Physics Laboratory Modules Physics by Inquiry (intended for use in a workshop setting) Interactive Lecture Demonstration Tutorials in Introductory Physics Activity Based Tutorials (designed primarily for use in recitations)

    • Positive Youth Development through Physical Activity: Opportunities for Physical Educators

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hemphill, Michael A.

      2014-01-01

      As physical educators continue to advocate for school-based PE, they should also consider ways to extend their work into community settings in an effort to ensure that all kids have an opportunity to develop physical literacy. This article describes how positive youth development programs can provide an opportunity for physical educators to engage…

    • Perceived environment and physical activity in youth.

      PubMed

      Fein, Allan J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Wild, T Cameron; Spence, John C

      2004-01-01

      The examination of physical environments to explain and promote physical activity is an important yet under-investigated area of research inquiry. This study explored relationships between the perceived availability of physical environmental resources and the perceived importance of these resources in relation to physical activity levels amongst youth. A self-report questionnaire was completed by 610 students (mean age = 15.5 years old; 62% female participants) from four high schools (grades 9-12) in rural Alberta, Canada. Perceived physical environment constructs explained 5% of the variance in physical activity, with home, neighborhood, and school as significant domains. Perceived importance constructs explained 8% of the variance in physical activity with school context showing the only significant relationship with physical activity. A hierarchical regression analysis entered sex, grade, self-efficacy, peer, family and physical education teacher relationships, as the first block and eight environmental constructs as the second block. The first block variables accounted for 22% of the variance and environmental constructs accounted for an added 4% of the variance in physical activity. Perceived importance of the school environment was the only environment variable significantly associated with physical activity (beta = .14; p < .05) after taking into account the impact of these traditional predictors. These findings reinforce the need to provide and support school physical environments related to physical activity.

    • Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents.

      PubMed

      Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A

      2016-06-23

      This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12-17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents.

    • Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

      PubMed Central

      Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.

      2016-01-01

      This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

    • Protocol for the "four steps to control your fatigue (4-STEPS)" randomised controlled trial: a self-regulation based physical activity intervention for patients with unexplained chronic fatigue

      PubMed Central

      2012-01-01

      Background Unexplained Chronic Fatigue is a medical condition characterized by the presence of persistent, severe and debilitating medically unexplained fatigue, leading to impaired functioning and lower quality of life. Research suggests that physical activity can contribute to the reduction of fatigue and other somatic symptoms and can thus significantly improve physical functioning and quality of life in these patients. Based on the self-regulation (SR) theory of behaviour change, we developed a brief physical activity program for patients suffering from unexplained chronic fatigue which focuses on the training of self-regulation skills, the "4-STEPS to control your fatigue" program. Methods/Design This is a multi-centre, randomised controlled trial (RCT) that will be carried out in local primary care centres and at the Portuguese Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients Association. Patients aged between 18 and 65 and fulfilling operationalized criteria for Idiopathic Chronic Fatigue (ICF) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) will be recruited and randomly allocated to standard care (SC) or standard care plus a self-regulation based physical activity program (4-STEPS). Patients will be assessed at baseline, after the intervention (3 months) and at 12 months follow-up. The primary outcome is fatigue severity. Discussion The results of the RCT will provide information about the effectiveness of a brief self-regulation intervention for promoting physical activity in patients with unexplained chronic fatigue. If the program proves to be effective, it may be considered as an adjunctive treatment for these patients. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN70763996 PMID:22429404

    • Physical activity opportunities in afterschool programs.

      PubMed

      Weaver, R Glenn; Beets, Michael W; Huberty, Jennifer; Freedman, Darcy; Turner-Mcgrievy, Gabrielle; Ward, Diane

      2015-05-01

      Afterschool programs (ASPs) have potential to provide children moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The availability and types (e.g., free play or organized activities) of physical activity opportunities, their structure (e.g., presence of lines, elimination games), and staff behaviors (e.g., encouragement, engaged) can influence children's MVPA. This study explored these factors in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The occurrence, types, and structure of physical activity opportunities, and staff behaviors were collected via the SOSPAN (System for Observing Staff Promotion of Physical Activity and Nutrition). A total of 4,660 SOSPAN scans were completed across 63 complete program days (1,733 during physical activity opportunities). Physical activity opportunities were observed on 60 program days across all 20 sites, with 73% of those opportunities classified as free play. ASPs scheduled an average of 66.3 minutes (range 15-150 minutes) of physical activity opportunities daily. Games played included basketball, tag, soccer, and football. Staff rarely engaged in physical activity promotion behaviors, and the structure of organized games discouraged MVPA. For example, staff verbally promoted physical activity in just 6.1% of scans, while organized games were more likely to involve lines and elimination. Professional development training may enhance staffs' physical activity promotion and the structure of activity opportunities.

    • Physical activity opportunities in afterschool programs

      PubMed Central

      Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Huberty, Jennifer; Freedman, Darcy; Turner-Mcgrievy, Gabrielle; Ward, Diane

      2015-01-01

      Afterschool programs (ASPs) have potential to provide children moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The availability and types (e.g., free play or organized activities) of physical activity opportunities, their structure (e.g., presence of lines, elimination games), and staff behaviors (e.g., encouragement, engaged) can influence children’s MVPA. This study explored these factors in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The occurrence, types and structure of physical activity opportunities, and staff behaviors were collected via the System for Observing Staff Promotion of Physical Activity and Nutrition (SOSPAN). A total of 4,660 SOSPAN scans were completed across 63 complete program days (1733 during physical activity opportunities). Physical activity opportunities were observed on 60 program days across all 20 sites, with 73% of those opportunities classified as free play. ASPs scheduled an average of 66.3 minutes (range 15-150min) of physical activity opportunities daily. Games played included basketball, tag, soccer and football. Staff rarely engaged in physical activity promotion behaviors, and the structure of organized games discouraged MVPA. For example, staff verbally promoted physical activity in just 6.1% of scans, while organized games were more likely to involve lines and elimination. Professional development training may enhance staffs’ physical activity promotion and the structure of activity opportunities. PMID:25586132

    • Physical Activity Interventions in Latin America

      PubMed Central

      Hoehner, Christine M.; Ribeiro, Isabela C.; Parra, Diana C.; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Azevedo, Mario R.; Hino, Adriano A.; Soares, Jesus; Hallal, Pedro C.; Simões, Eduardo J.; Brownson, Ross C.

      2013-01-01

      Context Systematic reviews of public health interventions are useful for identifying effective strategies for informing policy and practice. The goals of this review were to (1) update a previous systematic review of physical activity interventions in Latin America which found that only school-based physical education had sufficient evidence to recommend widespread adoption; (2) assess the reporting of external validity elements; and (3) develop and apply an evidence typology for classifying interventions. Evidence acquisition In 2010–2011, community-level, physical activity intervention studies from Latin America were identified, categorized, and screened based on the peer-reviewed literature or Brazilian theses published between 2006 and 2010. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were evaluated using U.S. Community Guide methods. External validity reporting was assessed among a subset of articles reviewed to date. An evidence rating typology was developed and applied to classify interventions along a continuum based on evidence about their effectiveness in the U.S. context, reach, adoption, implementation, institutionalization, and benefits and costs. Evidence synthesis Thirteen articles published between 2006 and 2010 met inclusion criteria and were abstracted systematically, yet when combined with evidence from articles from the previous systematic review, no additional interventions could be recommended for practice. Moreover, the reporting of external validity elements was low among a subset of 19 studies published to date (median=21% of elements reported). By applying the expanded evidence rating typology, one intervention was classified as evidence-based, seven as promising, and one as emerging. Conclusions Several physical activity interventions have been identified as promising for future research and implementation in Latin America. Enhanced reporting of external validity elements will inform the translation of research into practice. PMID:23415133

    • Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

      2015-01-01

      Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

    • Exergaming: Syncing Physical Activity and Learning

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hicks, Lisa; Higgins, John

      2010-01-01

      This article discusses exergaming, a groundbreaking type of video game which is creating a revolution in physical education. Exergaming combines physical activity and video gaming to create an enjoyable and appealing way for students to be physically active. An extremely popular choice in this genre is the music video/dance rhythm game (MVDG). One…

  1. Youth physical activity opportunities in lower and higher income neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Suminski, Richard Robert; Ding, Ding; Lee, Rebecca; May, Linda; Tota, Tonya; Dinius, David

    2011-08-01

    The presence of youth physical activity opportunities is one of the strongest environmental correlates of youth physical activity. More detailed information about such opportunities is needed to maximize their contributions to physical activity promotion especially in under resourced, lower income areas. The objectives of this study were to construct a comprehensive profile of youth physical activity opportunities and contrast profile characteristics between lower and higher income neighborhoods. Youth physical activity opportunities in eight lower (median household income <$36,000) and eight higher (>$36,000) income neighborhoods were identified and described using interviews, neighborhood tours, site visits, and systematic searches of various sources (e.g., Internet). Lower income neighborhoods had a greater number of locations offering youth physical activity opportunities but similar quantities of amenities. Lower income neighborhoods had more faith-based locations and court, trail/path, event, and water-type amenities. Higher income neighborhoods had significantly more for-profit businesses offering youth physical activity opportunities. Funding for youth physical activity opportunities in lower income neighborhoods was more likely to come from donations and government revenue (e.g., taxes), whereas the majority of youth physical activity opportunities in the higher income neighborhoods were supported by for-profit business revenue. Differences between lower and higher income neighborhoods in the type and amenities of youth physical activity opportunities may be driven by funding sources. Attention to these differences could help create more effective and efficient strategies for promoting physical activity among youth.

  2. Association between Physical Activity Levels and Physical Symptoms or Illness among University Students in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sang-Hyun; Um, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, Cheol Min; Kwon, Hyuktae

    2016-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity can cause various physical symptoms or illness. However, few studies on this association have been conducted in young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity levels and physical symptoms or illness in young adults. Methods Subjects were university students who participated in a web-based self-administered questionnaire in a university in Seoul in 2013. We obtained information on physical activities and physical symptoms or illness in the past year. Independent variables were defined as symptoms or illness which were associated with decreased academic performance. Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of each physical symptom or illness with adjustment for covariables. Results A total of 2,201 participants were included in the study. The main physical symptoms or illness among participants were severe fatigue (64.2%), muscle or joint pain (46.3%), gastrointestinal problems (43.1%), headache or dizziness (38.6%), frequent colds (35.1%), and sleep problems (33.3%). Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with high ORs of physical symptoms or illness. Multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) in the lowest vs. highest tertile of physical activity were 1.45 (1.14–1.83) for severe fatigue, 1.35 (1.07–1.70) for frequent colds, and 1.29 (1.02–1.63) for headaches or dizziness. We also found that lower levels of physical activity were associated with more physical symptoms or bouts of illness. Conclusion Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with various physical symptoms or illness among university students. Also, individuals in the lower levels of physical activity were more likely to experience more physical symptoms or bouts of illness than those in the highest tertile of physical activity. PMID:27688861

  3. Correlates of 1-year incidence of urinary incontinence in older Latino adults enrolled in a community-based physical activity trial.

    PubMed

    Morrisroe, Shelby N; Rodriguez, Larissa V; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Smith, Ariana L; Trejo, Laura; Sarkisian, Catherine A

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) among older urban Latinos is high. Insight into etiologies of and contributing factors to the development of this condition is needed. This longitudinal cohort study identified correlates of 1-year incidence of UI in older community-dwelling Latino adults participating in a senior center-based physical activity trial in Los Angeles, California. Three hundred twenty-eight Latinos aged 60 to 93 participating in Caminemos, a randomized trial to increase walking, were studied. Participants completed an in-person survey and physical performance measures at baseline and 1 year. UI was measured using the International Consultation on Incontinence item: "How often do you leak urine?" Potential correlates of 1-year incidence of UI included sociodemographic, behavioral, medical, physical, and psychosocial characteristics. The overall incidence of UI at 1 year was 17.4%. Incident UI was associated with age, baseline activity of daily living impairment, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), mean steps per day, and depressive symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression models revealed that improvement in physical performance score (odds ratio (OR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.50-0.95) and high baseline physical (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.40-0.89) and mental (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.43-0.91) HRQoL were independently associated with lower rates of 1-year incident UI. An increase in depressive symptoms at 1 year (OR = 4.48, 95% CI = 1.02-19.68) was independently associated with a higher rate of incident UI. One-year UI incidence in this population of older urban Latino adults participating in a walking trial was high but was lower in those who improved their physical performance. Interventions aimed at improving physical performance may help prevent UI in older Latino adults.

  4. Research to Practice: Implementing Physical Activity Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sally M.; Cruz, Theresa H.; Kozoll, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dissemination and implementation (D&I) science focuses on bridging the gap between research and practice. The Community Preventive Services Task Force (CPSTF) published recommendations for increasing physical activity based on scientific review and consensus. Little research on the D&I of these recommendations has been conducted in under-represented populations at high risk for inactivity and chronic disease. Methods Partnering with one rural community (beta site), the University of New Mexico Prevention Research Center studied the translation of CPSTF recommendations to practice. Strategies for increasing physical activity were selected, implemented, and analyzed in 2009 to 2013. Participant observations; content analysis of meeting minutes, field notes, and other documents; and in-depth interviews were conducted over the 5-year period to identify factors important for carrying out the CPSTF recommendations for physical activity in a rural New Mexico community. Results Included among the implementation outcomes were new sidewalks and trails, a community-wide campaign, social support of walking, and park improvements. The following factors were identified as important to the implementation process: an active community-academic partnership; multiple partners; culturally appropriate strategies; and approaches that fit local context and place characteristics (topography, land ownership, population clusters, existing roadways). Conclusions This study illustrates how evidence can be translated to practice and identifies key factors in that process. The successful beta model provides a practical blueprint for D&I in rural, under-represented populations. This model is currently being disseminated (scaled up) to other rural New Mexico communities. PMID:28215385

  5. The Veterans LIFE Study: A Randomized Trial of Primary Care Based Physical Activity Counseling For Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Morey, Miriam C.; Peterson, Matthew J; Pieper, Carl F.; Sloane, Richard; Crowley, Gail M.; Cowper, Patricia A.; McConnell, Eleanor S.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Ekelund, Carola C.; Pearson, Megan P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Slow gait is predictive of adverse health outcomes and increased health service utilization. Physical activity counseling (PAC) may enhance mobility among elders. Primary care settings are appropriate for PAC because most older adults see their primary care physician annually. Innovative use of automated telephone messaging facilitates physician counseling. OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of multi-component PAC promoting physical activity (PA) guidelines on gait speed and related measures of PA and function in older veterans. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Randomized controlled trial of 398 male veterans, ages 70 and over receiving primary care at the Veterans’ Affairs Medical Center of Durham, N.C. INTERVENTION Twelve months of usual care (UC) or multi-component PAC consisting of baseline in-person and biweekly then monthly telephone counseling by a lifestyle counselor, one-time clinical endorsement of PA and monthly automated telephone messaging by primary care provider, and quarterly tailored mailings of progress in PA. MEASUREMENTS Gait speed (usual and rapid), self-reported PA, function and disability at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. RESULTS Although no between-group differences were noted for usual gait speed, rapid gait speed improved significantly more for the PAC group (1.56 (0.41) m/s to 1.68 (0.44) m/s) compared to UC (1.57 (0.40) m/sec to 1.59 (0.42) m/sec, p = 0.04). Minutes of moderate/vigorous PA increased significantly in the PAC group (from a mean (SD) 57.1 (99.3) min/wk to 126.6 (142.9) min/week) compared to the UC group (from 60.2 (116.1) to 69.6 (116.1) min/wk, p < 0.001). Changes in other functional/disability outcomes were small. CONCLUSIONS In this group of older male veterans, multi-component PA significantly improved rapid gait and PA. Translation from increased PA to overall functioning was not observed. Integration with primary care was successful. PMID:19467149

  6. Physical Activity, Study Sitting Time, Leisure Sitting Time, and Sleep Time Are Differently Associated With Obesity in Korean Adolescents: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Kong, Il Gyu; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-11-01

    Low physical activity, long leisure sitting time, and short sleep time are risk factors for obesity, but the association with study sitting time is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between these factors and obesity.We analyzed the association between physical activity, study sitting time, leisure sitting time, and sleep time and subject weight (underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese), using data from a large population-based survey, the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Data from 53,769 participants were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Age, sex, region of residence, economic level, smoking, stress level, physical activity, sitting time for study, sitting time for leisure, and sleep time were adjusted as the confounders.Low physical activity (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] = 1.03, 1.12) and long leisure sitting time (AORs = 1.15, 1.32) were positively associated with overweight and obese. Low physical activity (AOR = 1.33) and long leisure sitting time (AOR = 1.12) were also associated with underweight. Study sitting time was negatively associated with underweight (AOR = 0.86) but was unrelated to overweight (AOR = 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.91-1.03) and obese (AOR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.84-1.04). Sleep time (<6 hours; ≥6 hours, <7 hours; ≥7 hours, <8 hours) was adversely associated with underweight (AORs = 0.67, 0.79, and 0.88) but positively associated with overweight (AORs = 1.19, 1.17, and 1.08) and obese (AORs = 1.33, 1.36, and 1.30) in a dose-response relationship.In adolescents, increasing physical activity, decreasing leisure sitting time, and obtaining sufficient sleep would be beneficial in maintaining a healthy weight. However, study sitting time was not associated with overweight or obese.

  7. Reach and effectiveness of an integrated community-based intervention on physical activity and healthy eating of older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community

    PubMed Central

    Luten, Karla A.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the reach and effectiveness of an integrated community-based intervention designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community in the Netherlands. The intervention was evaluated with a controlled pre–post quasi-experimental design, with 430 randomly selected older adults participating in the intervention group and 213 in a control group at baseline. The intervention included a local media campaign and environmental approaches (e.g. community involvement) and was implemented during a 3-month high-intensity period, followed by a 6-month low-intensity one. Levels of physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption were assessed at baseline and at 3 and 9 months after baseline. At the follow-up measurements, the intervention had reached respectively 68 and 69% of the participants in the intervention group. No significant differences were found between the intervention group and the control group in changes to any outcome except for transport-related PA at 3 and 9 months follow-up. The systematically developed community-based intervention reached a relatively large proportion of the participants, but had only small effects on the levels of physical activity and healthy eating in older adults in the short and medium term. PMID:26675175

  8. Effects of a group-based exercise and self-regulatory intervention on obese adolescents' physical activity, social cognitions, body composition and strength: a randomized feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A Justine; Jung, Mary E; Cramp, Anita; Simatovic, Jacqueline; Prapavessis, Harry; Clarson, Cheril

    2012-11-01

    This feasibility study assessed the effects of an exercise plus group-based self-regulatory skills intervention on obese youths' physical activity, social cognitions, body composition and strength. Forty-three obese youth (male = 13, BMI > 95th percentile; 10-16 yrs) completed this 12-week intervention. Assessments were taken at baseline, week 6, 13 and 12 weeks post-intervention (week 24). Although no attention control group (i.e. exercise only) was included in this study, participants engaged in significantly more self-reported physical activity at weeks 13 and 24 as compared to baseline. Social cognitions, body composition and strength were also positively impacted suggesting this intervention technique may be feasible for treating obese adolescents.

  9. Emplotment, Embodiment, Engagement: Narrative Technology in Support of Physical Education, Sport and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Tony

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a keynote lecture delivered at the International Association of Physical Education in Higher Education 2011 Conference, University of Limerick, on the sub theme: "Technologies in Support of Physical Education, Sport, and Physical Activity." The paper outlines and illustrates a framework: narrative technology, which can be…

  10. Detection of physical activities using a physical activity monitor system for wheelchair users.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Shivayogi V; Intille, Stephen S; Kelleher, Annmarie; Cooper, Rory A; Ding, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Availability of physical activity monitors for wheelchair users can potentially assist these individuals to track regular physical activity (PA), which in turn could lead to a healthier and more active lifestyle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate algorithms for a physical activity monitoring system (PAMS) to detect wheelchair based activities. The PAMS consists of a gyroscope based wheel rotation monitor (G-WRM) and an accelerometer device (wocket) worn on the upper arm or on the wrist. A total of 45 persons with spinal cord injury took part in the study, which was performed in a structured university-based laboratory environment, a semi-structured environment at the National Veterans Wheelchair Games, and in the participants' home environments. Participants performed at least ten PAs, other than resting, taken from a list of PAs. The classification performance for the best classifiers on the testing dataset for PAMS-Arm (G-WRM and wocket on upper arm) and PAMS-Wrist (G-WRM and wocket on wrist) was 89.26% and 88.47%, respectively. The outcomes of this study indicate that multi-modal information from the PAMS can help detect various types of wheelchair-based activities in structured laboratory, semi-structured organizational, and unstructured home environments.

  11. Physical Activity in Physical Education: Are Longer Lessons Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nicole J.; Monnat, Shannon M.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity (PA) outcomes in a sample of high school (HS) physical education (PE) lessons from schools that adopted "traditional" versus "modified block" schedule formats. Methods: We used the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) to conduct observations…

  12. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  13. Physical Education and Recess Contributions to Sixth Graders' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Ashley A.; Williams, Skip M.; Coleman, Margaret M.; Garrahy, Deborah A.; Laurson, Kelly R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the percentage of the daily threshold (12,000 steps) that physical education (PE) class and recess contribute to 6th grade students' overall daily physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine the relationships between gender, PA outside of school, BMI, and steps during both recess and…

  14. Physical Activity and Suicide Attempt of South Korean Adolescents - Evidence from the Eight Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kang-Ok

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation. Key Points South Korean male adolescents, compared to female adolescents, showed relatively high values for physical activity-related variables such as vigorous, moderate, and low PA. Regardless of gender, more physical activity participation is positively associated with prevention of suicidal thought and attempts of South Korean adolescents. To prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including meeting guidelines for vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity. PMID:25435782

  15. Evaluation of personal and built environment attributes to physical activity: a multilevel analysis on multiple population-based data sources.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Spears, Karen; Zhang, Fan; Lee, Wai; Himler, Heidi L

    2012-01-01

    Background. Studies have documented that built environment factors potentially promote or impede leisure time physical activity (LTPA). This study explored the relationship between multiple built environment factors and individual characteristics on LTPA. Methods. Multiple data sources were utilized including individual level data for health behaviors and health status from the Nevada Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and community level data from different data sources including indicators for recreation facilities, safety, air quality, commute time, urbanization, population density, and land mix level. Mixed model logistic regression and geographic information system (GIS) spatial analysis were conducted. Results. Among 6,311 respondents, 24.4% reported no LTPA engagement during the past 30 days. No engagement in LTPA was significantly associated with (1) individual factors: older age, less education, lower income, being obesity, and low life satisfaction and (2) community factors: more commute time, higher crime rate, urban residence, higher population density, but not for density and distance to recreation facilities, air quality, and land mix. Conclusions. Multiple data systems including complex population survey and spatial analysis are valuable tools on health and built environment studies.

  16. Does School-Based Health Promotion Affect Physical Activity on Weekends? And, Does It Reach Those Students Most in Need of Health Promotion?

    PubMed Central

    Bastian, Kerry A.; Veugelers, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a school-based health promotion program affects children’s weekend physical activity and whether this effect varies according to socioeconomic-status. Methods This was a quasi-experimental trial of school-based programs on physical activity levels implemented in disadvantaged neighborhoods in Alberta, Canada. In 2009 and 2011, 7 full days of pedometer data were collected from cross-sectional samples of grade 5 students (age 10–11 years) from 10 intervention schools in low-socioeconomic neighbourhoods and 20 comparison schools in middle-socioeconomic neighbourhoods. Multilevel models assessed differences in step-counts between intervention and comparison groups over-time by weight (objectively measured) and socioeconomic status subgroups. Results In 2009, children from intervention schools were less active on weekends relative to comparison schools (9212 vs. 11186 steps/day p<0.01). Two years later, daily step-counts on weekend days among children in low socioeconomic intervention schools increased such that they approximated those of children from middle socioeconomic comparison schools (12148 vs. 12121 steps/day p = 0.96). The relative difference in steps between intervention and comparison schools on weekends reduced from -21.4% to 0.2% following the intervention. The normalization of weekend step counts was similar for normal weight (–21.4% to +2.0%) and overweight (-19.1 to +3.9%) children, and was balanced across socioeconomic subgroups. Conclusions These data suggest that school-based health promotion is effective for reducing inequities in physical activity levels outside school hours. Investments in school-based health promotion lead to behavior modification beyond the school environment. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01914185 PMID:26488168

  17. Effectiveness of School-Initiated Physical Activity Program on Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The promotion of physical activity and health has become a universal challenge. The Sotkamo Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program was implemented to increase students' physical activity by promoting supportive psychological and physical school environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  18. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Helping All Students Achieve 60 Minutes of Physical Activity Each Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Eloise; Erwin, Heather; Hall, Tina; Heidorn, Brent

    2013-01-01

    The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance recommends that all schools implement a comprehensive school physical activity program. Physical activity is important to the overall health and well-being of everyone, including all school age children. The benefits of physical activity are well documented and include the…

  19. The Evolution of the Physical Activity Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.; Powell, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes an historical review of research on physical activity and health, and how the findings have contributed to physical activity participation and promotion today. In the 20th century, research began to accumulate on the effects of exercise on physiological functions, and later on the relation between regular activity and various…

  20. Youth Physical Activity Resource Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Andra L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether use of physical activity resources (e.g., parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods: One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1 resources). The main…

  1. Combining Users’ Needs With Health Behavior Models in Designing an Internet- and Mobile-Based Intervention for Physical Activity in Cardiac Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Internet-based physical activity interventions have great potential in supporting patients in cardiac rehabilitation. Health behavior change theories and user input are identified as important contributors in the effectiveness of the interventions, but they are rarely combined in a systematic way in the design of the interventions. Objective The aim of this study is to identify the appropriate theoretical framework, along with the needs of the users of a physical activity intervention for cardiac rehabilitation, and to combine them into an effective Internet- and mobile-based intervention. Methods We explain the theoretical framework of the intervention in a narrative overview of the existing health behavior change literature as it applies to physical activity. We also conducted a focus group with 11 participants of a cardiac rehabilitation program and used thematic analysis to identify and analyze patterns of meaning in the transcribed data. Results We chose stage-based approaches, specifically the transtheoretical model and the health action process approach as our main framework for tailoring, supplemented with other theoretical concepts such as regulatory focus within the appropriate stages. From the thematic analysis of the focus group data, we identified seven themes: (1) social, (2) motivation, (3) integration into everyday life, (4) information, (5) planning, (6) monitoring and feedback, and (7) concerns and potential problems. The final design of the intervention was based on both the theoretical review and the user input, and it is explained in detail. Conclusions We applied a combination of health behavioral theory and user input in designing our intervention. We think this is a promising design approach with the potential to combine the high efficacy of theory-based interventions with the higher perceived usefulness of interventions designed according to user input. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01223170; http

  2. Physical environment virtualization for human activities recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poshtkar, Azin; Elangovan, Vinayak; Shirkhodaie, Amir; Chan, Alex; Hu, Shuowen

    2015-05-01

    Human activity recognition research relies heavily on extensive datasets to verify and validate performance of activity recognition algorithms. However, obtaining real datasets are expensive and highly time consuming. A physics-based virtual simulation can accelerate the development of context based human activity recognition algorithms and techniques by generating relevant training and testing videos simulating diverse operational scenarios. In this paper, we discuss in detail the requisite capabilities of a virtual environment to aid as a test bed for evaluating and enhancing activity recognition algorithms. To demonstrate the numerous advantages of virtual environment development, a newly developed virtual environment simulation modeling (VESM) environment is presented here to generate calibrated multisource imagery datasets suitable for development and testing of recognition algorithms for context-based human activities. The VESM environment serves as a versatile test bed to generate a vast amount of realistic data for training and testing of sensor processing algorithms. To demonstrate the effectiveness of VESM environment, we present various simulated scenarios and processed results to infer proper semantic annotations from the high fidelity imagery data for human-vehicle activity recognition under different operational contexts.

  3. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Productivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    CONTINUED Aerobic exercises were the primary type of physical activity considered. The research focused on two specific objectives: (1) to review and... physical fitness and exercise activities . One of the priority objectives is to increase the proportion of adults (aged 18 to 65) participating in... physical activity will be used to encompass both aerobic fitness and exercise . This will allow consideration of the impact of varying levels of exercise

  4. Physical Limitations, Walkability, Perceived Environmental Facilitators and Physical Activity of Older Adults in Finland.

    PubMed

    Portegijs, Erja; Keskinen, Kirsi E; Tsai, Li-Tang; Rantanen, Taina; Rantakokko, Merja

    2017-03-22

    The aim was to study objectively assessed walkability of the environment and participant perceived environmental facilitators for outdoor mobility as predictors of physical activity in older adults with and without physical limitations. 75-90-year-old adults living independently in Central Finland were interviewed (n = 839) and reassessed for self-reported physical activity one or two years later (n = 787). Lower-extremity physical limitations were defined as Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9. Number of perceived environmental facilitators was calculated from a 16-item checklist. Walkability index (land use mix, street connectivity, population density) of the home environment was calculated from geographic information and categorized into tertiles. Accelerometer-based step counts were registered for one week (n = 174). Better walkability was associated with higher numbers of perceived environmental facilitators (p < 0.001) and higher physical activity (self-reported p = 0.021, step count p = 0.010). Especially among those with physical limitations, reporting more environmental facilitators was associated with higher odds for reporting at least moderate physical activity (p < 0.001), but not step counts. Perceived environmental facilitators only predicted self-reported physical activity at follow-up. To conclude, high walkability of the living environment provides opportunities for physical activity in old age, but among those with physical limitations especially, awareness of environmental facilitators may be needed to promote physical activity.

  5. Physical Limitations, Walkability, Perceived Environmental Facilitators and Physical Activity of Older Adults in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Portegijs, Erja; Keskinen, Kirsi E.; Tsai, Li-Tang; Rantanen, Taina; Rantakokko, Merja

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to study objectively assessed walkability of the environment and participant perceived environmental facilitators for outdoor mobility as predictors of physical activity in older adults with and without physical limitations. 75–90-year-old adults living independently in Central Finland were interviewed (n = 839) and reassessed for self-reported physical activity one or two years later (n = 787). Lower-extremity physical limitations were defined as Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9. Number of perceived environmental facilitators was calculated from a 16-item checklist. Walkability index (land use mix, street connectivity, population density) of the home environment was calculated from geographic information and categorized into tertiles. Accelerometer-based step counts were registered for one week (n = 174). Better walkability was associated with higher numbers of perceived environmental facilitators (p < 0.001) and higher physical activity (self-reported p = 0.021, step count p = 0.010). Especially among those with physical limitations, reporting more environmental facilitators was associated with higher odds for reporting at least moderate physical activity (p < 0.001), but not step counts. Perceived environmental facilitators only predicted self-reported physical activity at follow-up. To conclude, high walkability of the living environment provides opportunities for physical activity in old age, but among those with physical limitations especially, awareness of environmental facilitators may be needed to promote physical activity. PMID:28327543

  6. Factors behind leisure-time physical activity behavior based on Finnish twin studies: the role of genetic and environmental influences and the role of motives.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, Sari; Kujala, Urho M; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2014-01-01

    Different approaches are being taken to clarify the role of various factors in the development of physical activity behaviors. Genetic studies are a new area of physical activity research and also the motives for physical activity have been widely studied. The purpose of this paper is to review the findings emerging from the longitudinal genetic studies on leisure-time physical activity and to evaluate the associations between motivational factors and leisure-time physical activity. The focus is to review recent findings of longitudinal Finnish twin studies. The results of the latest longitudinal Finnish twin studies point to the existence of age-specific genetic and environmental influences on leisure-time physical activity. Variations in environmental factors seem to explain the observed deterioration in leisure-time physical activity levels. A decline in genetic influences is seen first from adolescence to young adulthood and again from the age of thirty to the mid-thirties. In the Finnish twin participants, mastery, physical fitness, and psychological state were the major motivation factors associated with consistent leisure-time physical activity behavior. The results also indicate that intrinsic motivation factors may be important for engagement in leisure-time physical activity.

  7. Comparing the standards of one metabolic equivalent of task in accurately estimating physical activity energy expenditure based on acceleration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dohyun; Lee, Jongshill; Park, Hoon Ki; Jang, Dong Pyo; Song, Soohwa; Cho, Baek Hwan; Jung, Yoo-Suk; Park, Rae-Woong; Joo, Nam-Seok; Kim, In Young

    2016-08-24

    The purpose of the study is to analyse how the standard of resting metabolic rate (RMR) affects estimation of the metabolic equivalent of task (MET) using an accelerometer. In order to investigate the effect on estimation according to intensity of activity, comparisons were conducted between the 3.5 ml O2 · kg(-1) · min(-1) and individually measured resting VO2 as the standard of 1 MET. MET was estimated by linear regression equations that were derived through five-fold cross-validation using 2 types of MET values and accelerations; the accuracy of estimation was analysed through cross-validation, Bland and Altman plot, and one-way ANOVA test. There were no significant differences in the RMS error after cross-validation. However, the individual RMR-based estimations had as many as 0.5 METs of mean difference in modified Bland and Altman plots than RMR of 3.5 ml O2 · kg(-1) · min(-1). Finally, the results of an ANOVA test indicated that the individual RMR-based estimations had less significant differences between the reference and estimated values at each intensity of activity. In conclusion, the RMR standard is a factor that affects accurate estimation of METs by acceleration; therefore, RMR requires individual specification when it is used for estimation of METs using an accelerometer.

  8. Effectiveness of Computer Tailoring Versus Peer Support Web-Based Interventions in Promoting Physical Activity Among Insufficiently Active Canadian Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Côté, José

    2016-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is a major challenge for Canadian public health authorities, and regular physical activity is a key factor in the management of this disease. Given that less than half of people with type 2 diabetes in Canada are sufficiently active to meet the Canadian Diabetes Association's guidelines, effective programs targeting the adoption of regular physical activity are in demand for this population. Many researchers have argued that Web-based interventions targeting physical activity are a promising avenue for insufficiently active populations; however, it remains unclear if this type of intervention is effective among people with type 2 diabetes. Objective This research project aims to evaluate the effectiveness of two Web-based interventions targeting the adoption of regular aerobic physical activity among insufficiently active adult Canadian Francophones with type 2 diabetes. Methods A 3-arm, parallel randomized controlled trial with 2 experimental groups and 1 control group was conducted in the province of Quebec, Canada. A total of 234 participants were randomized at a 1:1:1 ratio to receive an 8-week, fully automated, computer-tailored, Web-based intervention (experimental group 1); an 8-week peer support (ie, Facebook group) Web-based intervention (experimental group 2); or no intervention (control group) during the study period. Results The primary outcome of this study is self-reported physical activity level (total min/week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity). Secondary outcomes are attitude, social influence, self-efficacy, type of motivation, and intention. All outcomes are assessed at baseline and 3 and 9 months after baseline with a self-reported questionnaire filled directly on the study websites. Conclusions By evaluating and comparing the effectiveness of 2 Web-based interventions characterized by different behavior change perspectives, findings of this study will contribute to advances in the field of physical

  9. Effects of physical activity on cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Na, Hye-Kyung; Oliynyk, Sergiy

    2011-07-01

    Results of most epidemiological and laboratory studies suggest an inverse relationship between regular exercise and the risk of certain malignancies, such as intestinal, colon, pancreatic, breast, lung, skin, mammary, endometrial, and prostate cancer. However, physical activity can have different influence on carcinogenesis, depending on energy supply and the age of the subject as well as strength, frequency, and length of exercise. The biochemical and molecular basis of the interaction between aerobic physical activity and tumorigenic processes remains poorly understood. Physical activity may generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) to a different extent. Mild oxidative stress caused by moderate physical activity can activate cellular stress response signaling and potentiate cellular antioxidant defense capacity. However, accumulation of relatively large amounts of ROS as a consequence of exhaustive exercise can either directly damage DNA, causing mutation, or promote tumorigenesis by activating proinflammatory signaling. This review highlights the effects of physical activity on various malignancies in the context of redox status modulated during exercise.

  10. Rest Rust ! Physical active for active and healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Vollenbroek-Hutten, M; Pais, S; Ponce, S; Dekker-van Weering, M; Jansen-Kosterink, S; Schena, F; Tabarini, N; Carotenuto, F; Iadicicco, V; Illario, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an insight on how physical activity can be defined, parameterized and measured in older adults and on different options to deal with citizen physical activity promotion at European level. Three relevant aspects are highlighted: When talking about physical activity, two different aspects are often unfairly mixed up: “physical activity” and “physical capacity”. Physical activity, is referred to as the level of physical activity someone is actually performing in daily life.Physical capacity is referred to as the maximum physical activity a person can perform.Both physical activity and physical capacity can be expressed in different dimensions such as time, frequency, or type of activity with the consequence that there are many tools and techniques available. In order to support people to choose an appropriate instrument in their everyday practice a list of 9 criteria that are considered important is defined.Older adults score differently across the various physical dimensions, so strategies to promote physical activity should consider individual differences, in order to adapt for these variations. PMID:27042429

  11. The effect of playground- and nature-based playtime interventions on physical activity and self-esteem in UK school children.

    PubMed

    Barton, Jo; Sandercock, Gavin; Pretty, Jules; Wood, Carly

    2015-01-01

    School playtime provides opportunities for children to engage in physical activity (PA). Playground playtime interventions designed to increase PA have produced differing results. However, nature can also promote PA, through the provision of large open spaces for activity. The purpose of this study is to determine which playtime interventions are most effective at increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and if this varies by school location. Fifty-two children from an urban and rural school participated in a playground sports (PS) and nature-based orienteering intervention during playtime for one week. MVPA was assessed the day before and on the final day of the interventions using accelerometers. Intervention type (p < 0.05) and school location (p < 0.001) significantly influenced MVPA; with PS increasing MVPA more than nature-based orienteering. Urban children seemed to respond to the interventions more positively; however, differences in baseline MVPA might influence these changes. There was a positive correlation for fitness and MVPA during PS (r = 0.32; p < 0.05), but not nature-based orienteering (p > 0.05). The provision of PS influences PA the most; however, a variety of interventions are required to engage less fit children in PA.

  12. Impact of Booster Breaks and Computer Prompts on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Among Desk-Based Workers: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Shegog, Ross; Coan, Sharon P.; Dubin, Allison; Page, Timothy F.; Rempel, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The 15-minute work break provides an opportunity to promote health, yet few studies have examined this part of the workday. We studied physical activity and sedentary behavior among office workers and compared the results of the Booster Break program with those of a second intervention and a control group to determine whether the Booster Break program improved physical and behavioral health outcomes. Methods We conducted a 3-arm, cluster-randomized controlled trial at 4 worksites in Texas from 2010 through 2013 to compare a group-based, structured Booster Break program to an individual-based computer-prompt intervention and a usual-break control group; we analyzed physiologic, behavioral, and employee measures such as work social support, quality of life, and perceived stress. We also identified consistent and inconsistent attendees of the Booster Break sessions. Results We obtained data from 175 participants (mean age, 43 y; 67% racial/ethnic minority). Compared with the other groups, the consistent Booster Break attendees had greater weekly pedometer counts (P < .001), significant decreases in sedentary behavior and self-reported leisure-time physical activity (P < .001), and a significant increase in triglyceride concentrations (P = .02) (levels remained within the normal range). Usual-break participants significantly increased their body mass index, whereas Booster Break participants maintained body mass index status during the 6 months. Overall, Booster Break participants were 6.8 and 4.3 times more likely to have decreases in BMI and weekend sedentary time, respectively, than usual-break participants. Conclusion Findings varied among the 3 study groups; however, results indicate the potential for consistent attendees of the Booster Break intervention to achieve significant, positive changes related to physical activity, sedentary behavior, and body mass index. PMID:27854422

  13. Community-based physical activity and nutrition programme for adults with metabolic syndrome in Vietnam: study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Van Dinh; Lee, Andy H; Jancey, Jonine; James, Anthony P; Howat, Peter; Thi Phuong Mai, Le

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes. In Vietnam, more than one-quarter of its population aged 50–65 have MetS. This cluster-randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to increase levels of physical activity and improve dietary behaviours among Vietnamese adults aged 50–65 years with MetS. Method and analysis This 6-month community-based intervention includes a range of strategies to improve physical activity and nutrition for adults with MetS in Hanam, a province located in northern Vietnam. 600 participants will be recruited from 6 communes with 100 participants per commune. The 6 selected communes will be randomly allocated to either an intervention group (m=3; n=300) or a control group (m=3; n=300). The intervention comprises booklets, education sessions, resistance bands and attending local walking groups that provide information and encourage participants to improve their physical activity and healthy eating behaviours during the 6-month period. The control group participants will receive standard and 1-time advice. Social cognitive theory is the theoretical concept underpinning this study. Measurements will be taken at baseline and postintervention to evaluate programme effectiveness. Ethics and dissemination The research protocol was approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number: HR139/2014). The results of the study will be disseminated through publications, reports and conference presentations. Trial registration number ACTRN12614000811606. PMID:27256094

  14. The Role of Physical Educators in Helping Classroom Teachers to Promote Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Elementary classroom teachers are an increasingly important constituency in school-based physical activity promotion. This article situates the need for classroom teacher physical-activity promotion at the intersection of what we know about teacher actions, what informs those actions, and what recent research has uncovered. Recommendations are…

  15. Psoriasis and physical activity: a review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P B; Bohjanen, K A; Ingraham, S J; Leon, A S

    2012-11-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic inflammatory skin disease that can cause significant discomfort and impairment to quality of life. Recent research indicates that individuals with moderate-to-severe psoriasis are likely at greater risk for chronic cardiometabolic co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Physical activity can be an effective primary and adjunctive treatment for these maladies in other populations. Unfortunately, only a limited number of studies have examined physical activity in psoriasis, which are limited by poor design and lack of validated physical activity assessment methodologies. A variety of data suggest shared physiologic pathways between physical activity, psoriasis, and psoriasis cardiometabolic co-morbidities. Increased adiposity, inflammation, oxidative stress, adhesion molecules and lipids are physiologically linked to psoriasis, the risk of psoriasis cardiometabolic co-morbidities, and low levels of physical activity. In addition, epigenetic pathways are involved in psoriasis and could be influenced by physical activity. The physical and psychosocial impairments common in psoriasis may make it difficult to participate in regular physical activity, and future studies should aim to determine if physical activity interventions improve functioning and reduce co-morbidities in psoriasis.

  16. Physical activity motivation and cancer survivorship.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Bernardine M; Ciccolo, Joseph T

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) participation has been shown to be helpful in improving physical and mental well-being among cancer survivors. The purpose of this chapter is to review the literature on the determinants of physical activity motivation and behavior among cancer survivors. Using theories of behavior change, researchers have sought to identify the correlates of motivation that predict the participation in regular physical activity in observational studies, while intervention studies have focused on manipulating those factors to support the initiation of physical activity. The majority of this work has been conducted with breast cancer survivors, and there is an interest in expanding this work to survivors of others cancers (e.g., prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer). Results suggest that constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Transtheoretical Model (TTM), and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) are associated with greater motivation for physical activity, and some of these constructs have been used in interventions to promote physical activity adoption. There is scope for understanding the determinants of physical activity adoption in various cancer survivor populations. Much more needs to done to identify the determinants of maintenance of physical activity.

  17. Physical Activity for the Autistic Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Physical, cognitive, and social-emotional symptoms of autism are described, along with possible causes of the condition and treatments. A "theraplay" physical education program in Newark, Delaware, is discussed, where physical activities such as rhythm, body awareness, perceptual motor development, and swimming are used to engage…

  18. Effect of a school-based peer education intervention on physical activity and sedentary behaviour in Chinese adolescents: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Smita; Yan, Lijing; Pan, Yongping; Gao, Aiyu; Shi, Xiaoyan; Wu, Yangfeng; Dibley, Michael John

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect on physical activity and sedentary behaviour of a pilot school-based peer education programme in urban Beijing, China. Design 4 junior high schools were matched by school size and randomised to intervention (n=346) and control group (n=336). Intervention Trained peer leaders from grade 7 by research staff delivered weekly 40-min lessons to their classmates over four consecutive weeks. Students in control schools received no intervention. Outcome measures A validated 7-day youth physical activity questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and sedentary behaviours at baseline (September 2010), 3 months (December 2010) and 7 months (May 2011). Generalised linear mixed models were applied to evaluate the effect. Results There was a significant decrease in time in sedentary behaviour on weekdays, 20 min/day at 7 months (p=0.020) reported by students in the intervention schools compared with control schools. This reduction was mainly due to a reduction of 14 min/day in computer usage on weekdays (p=0.0009). There were no significant differences in time on other sedentary behaviours, including television and DVD, video game, extracurricular reading, writing, drawing and listening to music, passive commuting and sitting to talk. There was also no significant difference in time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity between intervention and control group. Conclusions Peer education appears to be a promising intervention in reducing sedentary behaviours in adolescents in China. These results need confirmation in a larger study. Clinical trial registration number ACTRN12612000417886 at http://ANZCTR.org.au PMID:22586284

  19. The Association between Belgian Older Adults’ Physical Functioning and Physical Activity: What Is the Moderating Role of the Physical Environment?

    PubMed Central

    Van Holle, Veerle; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Gheysen, Freja; Van Dyck, Delfien; Deforche, Benedicte; Van de Weghe, Nico; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    Background Better physical functioning in the elderly may be associated with higher physical activity levels. Since older adults spend a substantial part of the day in their residential neighborhood, the neighborhood physical environment may moderate associations between functioning and older adults’ physical activity. The present study investigated the moderating role of the objective and perceived physical environment on associations between Belgian older adults’ physical functioning and transport walking, recreational walking, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Methods Data from 438 older adults were included. Objective physical functioning was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery. Potential moderators included objective neighborhood walkability and perceptions of land use mix diversity, access to recreational facilities, access to services, street connectivity, physical barriers for walking, aesthetics, crime-related safety, traffic speeding-related safety, and walking infrastructure. Transport and recreational walking were self-reported, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was assessed through accelerometers. Multi-level regression analyses were conducted using MLwiN to examine two-way interactions between functioning and the environment on both walking outcomes. Based on a previous study where environment x neighborhood income associations were found for Belgian older adults’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, three-way functioning x environment x income interactions were examined for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results Objectively-measured walkability moderated the association between functioning and transport walking; this positive association was only present in high-walkable neighborhoods. Moreover, a three-way interaction was observed for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Only in high-income, high-walkable neighborhoods, there was a positive association between functioning and moderate

  20. Rockets: Physical science teacher's guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Carla R. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This guide begins with background information sections on the history of rocketry, scientific principles, and practical rocketry. The sections on scientific principles and practical rocketry are based on Isaac Newton's three laws of motion. These laws explain why rockets work and how to make them more efficient. The background sections are followed with a series of physical science activities that demonstrate the basic science of rocketry. Each activity is designed to be simple and take advantage of inexpensive materials. Construction diagrams, materials and tools lists, and instructions are included. A brief discussion elaborates on the concepts covered in the activities and is followed with teaching notes and discussion questions. The guide concludes with a glossary of terms, suggested reading list, NASA educational resources, and an evaluation questionnaire with a mailer.

  1. Physical Activity Improves Quality of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity in Adults Types of Fitness The Price of Inactivity Food as Fuel - Before, During and ... Activity Recommendations in Adults - Types of Fitness - The Price of Inactivity - Food as Fuel; Before, During or ...

  2. Experiences in Sport, Physical Activity, and Physical Education Among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed. PMID:23412952

  3. Experiences in sport, physical activity, and physical education among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Araki, Kaori; Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed.

  4. An Internet-Based Virtual Coach to Promote Physical Activity Adherence in Overweight Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bickmore, Timothy; Cange, Abby; Kulshreshtha, Ambar; Kvedar, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Background Addressing the obesity epidemic requires the development of effective, scalable interventions. Pedometers and Web-based programs are beneficial in increasing activity levels but might be enhanced by the addition of nonhuman coaching. Objectives We hypothesized that a virtual coach would increase activity levels, via step count, in overweight or obese individuals beyond the effect observed using a pedometer and website alone. Methods We recruited 70 participants with a body mass index (BMI) between 25 and 35 kg/m2 from the Boston metropolitan area. Participants were assigned to one of two study arms and asked to wear a pedometer and access a website to view step counts. Intervention participants also met with a virtual coach, an automated, animated computer agent that ran on their home computers, set goals, and provided personalized feedback. Data were collected and analyzed in 2008. The primary outcome measure was change in activity level (percentage change in step count) over the 12-week study, split into four 3-week time periods. Major secondary outcomes were change in BMI and participants’ satisfaction. Results The mean age of participants was 42 years; the majority of participants were female (59/70, 84%), white (53/70, 76%), and college educated (68/70, 97%). Of the initial 70 participants, 62 completed the study. Step counts were maintained in intervention participants but declined in controls. The percentage change in step count between those in the intervention and control arms, from the start to the end, did not reach the threshold for significance (2.9% vs –12.8% respectively, P = .07). However, repeated measures analysis showed a significant difference when comparing percentage changes in step counts between control and intervention participants over all time points (analysis of variance, P = .02). There were no significant changes in secondary outcome measures. Conclusions The virtual coach was beneficial in maintaining activity level

  5. Moderating effects of age, gender and education on the associations of perceived neighborhood environment attributes with accelerometer-based physical activity: The IPEN adult study.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cerin, Ester; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Salvo, Deborah; Christiansen, Lars B; Macfarlane, Duncan; Owen, Neville; Mitas, Josef; Troelsen, Jens; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Ines; Davey, Rachel; Reis, Rodrigo; Sarmiento, Olga L; Schofield, Grant; Conway, Terry L; Sallis, James F

    2015-11-01

    The study's purpose was to examine age, gender, and education as potential moderators of the associations of perceived neighborhood environment variables with accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Data were from 7273 adults from 16 sites (11 countries) that were part of a coordinated multi-country cross-sectional study. Age moderated the associations of perceived crime safety, and perceiving no major physical barriers to walking, with MVPA: positive associations were only found in older adults. Perceived land use mix-access was linearly (positive) associated with MVPA in men, and curvilinearly in women. Perceived crime safety was related to MVPA only in women. No moderating relationships were found for education. Overall the associations of adults' perceptions of environmental attributes with MVPA were largely independent of the socio-demographic factors examined. These findings are encouraging, suggesting that efforts to optimize the perceived built and social environment may act in a socially-equitable manner to facilitate MVPA.

  6. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-06-01

    Our research indicated that 10-12-year-old children receiving two active Wii(™) (Nintendo(®); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  7. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 3--Recommended Amounts of Physical Activity for Optimal Health)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    By promoting physical activities and incorporating them into their community-based programs, Extension professionals are improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the third in a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: (1) biological health benefits of…

  8. Understanding Motivators and Barriers to Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patay, Mary E.; Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Fahey, Kathleen; Sinclair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors that influence physical activity among year-round residents in an isolated summer resort community. Specifically, we explored the personal, environmental, social, and culture-specific perceived motivators and barriers to physical activity. Participants were formally interviewed about their…

  9. Interdisciplinary Best Practices for Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szostak, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the literature on interdisciplinary research. It then draws lessons from that literature for the field of adapted physical activity. It is argued that adapted physical activity should be a self-consciously interdisciplinary field. It should insist that research be performed according to recognized…

  10. Cultural Components of Physically Active Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickwood, Greg

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that a large majority of school-age children and adolescents are not active enough to gain the physical and psychological benefits associated with regular moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Schools can play a pivotal role in reversing this trend due to the time students spend in this setting. The purpose of this article is to…

  11. Jumpin' Jaguars: Encouraging Physical Activity After School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Rose, Stephanie A.; Small, Sarah R.; Perman, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Many afterschool physical activity programs and curricula are available, but evaluation of their effectiveness is needed. Well-marketed programs such as the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) Kids Club have shown limited effectiveness in increasing physical activity for participants in comparison to control groups.…

  12. Promote Physical Activity--It's Proactive Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartrell, Dan; Sonsteng, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Healthy child development relies on physical activity. New curriculum models are effectively integrating physical activity in education programs. The authors describe three such models: S.M.A.R.T. (Stimulating Maturity through Accelerated Readiness Training); Kids in Action, incorporating cardiovascular endurance, muscle strength and endurance,…

  13. Promoting Physical Activity in Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Beets, Michael W.; Erwin, Heather E.; Huberty, Jennifer; Moore, Justin B.; Stellino, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Children in the United States are not engaging in sufficient amounts of routine physical activity, and this lack is an emerging public health concern (Strong, Malina, Blimkie, Daniels, Dishman, Gutin, et al., 2005). Efforts to increase the physical activity levels of children and adolescents has become a national priority, attracting attention…

  14. Physiological Response to Physical Activity in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    This is a report on research in the field of physical responses of children to strenuous activity. The paper is divided into three subtopics: (1) peak performance measure in children; (2) training effects on children; and (3) importance of physical activity for children. Measurements used are oxygen consumption, ventilation, heart rate, cardiac…

  15. Physical Activity Fundamental to Preventing Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Regular physical activity, fitness, and exercise are critically important for all people's health and wellbeing. It can reduce morbidity and mortality from many chronic diseases. Despite its well-known benefits, most U.S. adults, and many children, are not active enough to achieve these health benefits. Physical inactivity and related health…

  16. Activity Specificity, Physical and Psychosocial Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Frederick C.

    The position is taken that the physical parameters of one's involvement in activity learning depend in large measure upon the objectives of the participant. General comments regarding the physical parameters of most activity classes are made. Underlying commonalities existing among these parameters are identified as: (1) freedom from disease; (2)…

  17. Making Sense of Multiple Physical Activity Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.; LeMasurier, Guy; Franks, B. Don

    2002-01-01

    This digest provides basic information designed to help people determine which of the many physical activity guidelines are most appropriate for use in specific situations. After an introduction, the digest focuses on: "Factors to Consider in Selecting Appropriate Physical Activity Guidelines" (group credibility and purpose, benefits to…

  18. Promoting Physical Activity during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidoni, Carla; Ignico, Arlene

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents from low-income families in the USA has become a significant concern over the last 20 years. One of the major contributors to this problem is the lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper is to describe initiatives designed to: (1) engage young children in physical activity during…

  19. Physical Activity and Public Health: Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the effects of physical activity on depression and anxiety, discussing the scientific strength of studies on physical activity, depression, and anxiety against the standards of science accepted in epidemiology with a focus on the independence, consistency, dose-response gradient, and biological plausibility of the evidence. (Author/SM)

  20. Inexpensive DAQ based physics labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Benjamin; Clark, Shane

    2015-11-01

    Quality Data Acquisition (DAQ) based physics labs can be designed using microcontrollers and very low cost sensors with minimal lab equipment. A prototype device with several sensors and documentation for a number of DAQ-based labs is showcased. The device connects to a computer through Bluetooth and uses a simple interface to control the DAQ and display real time graphs, storing the data in .txt and .xls formats. A full device including a larger number of sensors combined with software interface and detailed documentation would provide a high quality physics lab education for minimal cost, for instance in high schools lacking lab equipment or students taking online classes. An entire semester’s lab course could be conducted using a single device with a manufacturing cost of under $20.

  1. Physical activity for people with a disability: a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P; van der Beek, Allard J; van der Woude, Luc H V; van Mechelen, Willem

    2004-01-01

    The promotion of a physically active lifestyle has become an important issue in health policy in first-world countries. A physically active lifestyle is accompanied by several fitness and health benefits. Individuals with a disability can particularly benefit from an active lifestyle: not only does it reduce the risk for secondary health problems, but all levels of functioning can be influenced positively. The objective of this article is to propose a conceptual model that describes the relationships between physical activity behaviour, its determinants and functioning of people with a disability. The literature was systematically searched for articles considering physical activity and disability, and models relating both topics were looked for in particular. No models were found relating physical activity behaviour, its determinants and functioning in people with a disability. Consequently, a new model, the Physical Activity for people with a Disability (PAD) model, was constructed based on existing models of disability and models of determinants of physical activity behaviour. The starting point was the new WHO Model of Functioning and Disability, part of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), which describes the multidimensional aspects of functioning and disability. Physical activity behaviour and its determinants were integrated into the ICF model. The factors determining physical activity were based mainly on those used in the Attitude, Social influence and self-Efficacy (ASE) model. The proposed model can be used as a theoretical framework for future interventions and research on physical activity promotion in the population of people with a disability. The model currently forms the theoretical basis for a large physical activity promotion trial in ten Dutch rehabilitation centres.

  2. Students' Daily Physical Activity Behaviors: The Role of Quality Physical Education in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wiyun; Hypnar, Andrew J.; Mason, Steve A.; Zalmout, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of quality physical education (QPET) in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) which is intended to promote physical activity (PA) behaviors in and outside of schools. Participants were nine elementary physical education teachers and their fourth- and fifth-grade students…

  3. Physical activity and cancer prevention: etiologic evidence and biological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Friedenreich, Christine M; Orenstein, Marla R

    2002-11-01

    Scientific evidence is accumulating on physical activity as a means for the primary prevention of cancer. Nearly 170 observational epidemiologic studies of physical activity and cancer risk at a number of specific cancer sites have been conducted. The evidence for decreased risk with increased physical activity is classified as convincing for breast and colon cancers, probable for prostate cancer, possible for lung and endometrial cancers and insufficient for cancers at all other sites. Despite the large number of studies conducted on physical activity and cancer, most have been hampered by incomplete assessment of physical activity and a lack of full examination of effect modification and confounding. Several plausible hypothesized biological mechanisms exist for the association between physical activity and cancer, including changes in endogenous sexual and metabolic hormone levels and growth factors, decreased obesity and central adiposity and possibly changes in immune function. Weight control may play a particularly important role because links between excess weight and increased cancer risk have been established for several sites, and central adiposity has been particularly implicated in promoting metabolic conditions amenable to carcinogenesis. Based on existing evidence, some public health organizations have issued physical activity guidelines for cancer prevention, generally recommending at least 30 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity on > or =5 d/wk. Although most research has focused on the efficacy of physical activity in cancer prevention, evidence is increasing that exercise also influences other aspects of the cancer experience, including cancer detection, coping, rehabilitation and survival after diagnosis.

  4. A Review of Smartphone Applications for Promoting Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Whitehead, Mary; Sheats, Joyce Q.; Mastromonico, Jeff; Smith, Selina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rapid developments in technology have encouraged the use of smartphones in health promotion research and practice. Although many applications (apps) relating to physical activity are available from major smartphone platforms, relatively few have been tested in research studies to determine their effectiveness in promoting health. Methods In this article, we summarize data on use of smartphone apps for promoting physical activity based upon bibliographic searches with relevant search terms in PubMed and CINAHL. Results After screening the abstracts or full texts of articles, 15 eligible studies of the acceptability or efficacy of smartphone apps for increasing physical activity were identified. Of the 15 included studies, 6 were qualitative research studies, 8 were randomized control trials, and one was a nonrandomized study with a pre-post design. The results indicate that smartphone apps can be efficacious in promoting physical activity although the magnitude of the intervention effect is modest. Participants of various ages and genders respond favorably to apps that automatically track physical activity (e.g., steps taken), track progress toward physical activity goals, and are user-friendly and flexible enough for use with several types of physical activity. Discussion Future studies should utilize randomized controlled trial research designs, larger sample sizes, and longer study periods to establish the physical activity measurement and intervention capabilities of smartphones. There is a need for culturally appropriate, tailored health messages to increase knowledge and awareness of health behaviors such as physical activity. PMID:27034992

  5. Information-Technology Based Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. S.; Lee, K. H.

    2001-04-01

    Developing countries emphasize expansion of the educated population but demand for quality improvement follows later. Current science education reform is driven in part by post cold war restructuring of the global economy and associated focus on the education of a more scientifically literate society, due to the industrial change from labor-intensive to high-technology type, and the societal change inherent in the present information era. Industry needs employees of broad and flexible background with inter disciplinary training, engineers with better physics training, and well trained physicists. Education researches have proved that active-learning based methods are superior to the traditional methods and the information technology (IT) has lot to offer in this. Use of IT for improving physics education is briefly discussed with prospects for collaboration in the Asia-Pacific region via Asian Physics Education Network (ASPEN), UNESCO University Foundation Course in Physics (UUFCP), etc.

  6. Short- and Long-Term Theory-Based Predictors of Physical Activity in Women Who Participated in a Weight-Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserkampf, A.; Silva, M. N.; Santos, I. C.; Carraça, E. V.; Meis, J. J. M.; Kremers, S. P. J.; Teixeira, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed psychosocial predictors of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and evaluated their associations with short- and long-term moderate plus vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and lifestyle physical activity (PA) outcomes in women who underwent a weight-management program. 221 participants (age…

  7. A Case Study on the Experiences of University-Based Muslim Women in Physical Activity during Their Studies at One UK Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Claire; Benn, Tansin

    2016-01-01

    The case study explores the experiences of Muslim women in the area of physical activity participation conducted whilst they were studying at one UK University. Previous research in the field indicated that Muslim women can be denied opportunities to participate in areas of sport-related physical activity through multiple factors such as…

  8. A cross-sectional study of the individual, social, and built environmental correlates of pedometer-based physical activity among elementary school children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Children who participate in regular physical activity obtain health benefits. Preliminary pedometer-based cut-points representing sufficient levels of physical activity among youth have been established; however limited evidence regarding correlates of achieving these cut-points exists. The purpose of this study was to identify correlates of pedometer-based cut-points among elementary school-aged children. Method A cross-section of children in grades 5-7 (10-12 years of age) were randomly selected from the most (n = 13) and least (n = 12) 'walkable' public elementary schools (Perth, Western Australia), stratified by socioeconomic status. Children (n = 1480; response rate = 56.6%) and parents (n = 1332; response rate = 88.8%) completed a survey, and steps were collected from children using pedometers. Pedometer data were categorized to reflect the sex-specific pedometer-based cut-points of ≥15000 steps/day for boys and ≥12000 steps/day for girls. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics, sedentary and active leisure-time behavior, independent mobility, active transportation and built environmental variables - collected from the child and parent surveys - and meeting pedometer-based cut-points were estimated (odds ratios: OR) using generalized estimating equations. Results Overall 927 children participated in all components of the study and provided complete data. On average, children took 11407 ± 3136 steps/day (boys: 12270 ± 3350 vs. girls: 10681 ± 2745 steps/day; p < 0.001) and 25.9% (boys: 19.1 vs. girls: 31.6%; p < 0.001) achieved the pedometer-based cut-points. After adjusting for all other variables and school clustering, meeting the pedometer-based cut-points was negatively associated (p < 0.05) with being male (OR = 0.42), parent self-reported number of different destinations in the neighborhood (OR 0.93), and a friend's (OR 0.62) or relative's (OR 0.44, boys only) house being at least a 10-minute walk from home. Achieving the

  9. Physical activity and risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in diabetic adults from Great Britain: pooled analysis of 10 population-based cohorts.

    PubMed

    Sadarangani, Kabir P; Hamer, Mark; Mindell, Jenny S; Coombs, Ngaire A; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine associations between specific types of physical activity and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in a large nationally representative sample of adults with diabetes from Great Britain. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS There were a total of 3,038 participants (675 deaths) with diabetes in the Health Survey for England and the Scottish Health Surveys conducted between 1997 and 2008. Participants aged ≥50 years at baseline were followed up for an average of 75.2 months for all-cause and CVD mortality. Data were collected on self-reported frequency, duration, and intensity of participation in sports and exercise, walking, and domestic physical activity, from which the number of MET-hours/week were derived. Sex-specific medians of time spent in each type of physical activity (for those physically active) were calculated, and Cox proportional hazards regression conducted to examine type-specific associations between the level of physical activity and all-cause and CVD mortality risk. RESULTS Inverse associations with all-cause and CVD mortality were observed for overall physical activity in a dose-response manner after adjusting for covariates. Compared with those who individuals were inactive, participants who reported some activity, but below the recommended amount, or who met the physical activity recommendations had a 26% (95% CI 39-11) and 35% (95% CI 47-21) lower all-cause mortality, respectively. Similar results were found for below/above median physical activity levels. Sports and exercise participation was inversely associated with all-cause (but not CVD) mortality, as were above average levels of walking. Domestic physical activity was not associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS Moderate physical activity levels were associated with better prognosis in diabetic adults.

  10. Physically effectiveness of beet pulp-based diets in dairy cows as assessed by responses of feed intake, digestibility, chewing activity and milk production.

    PubMed

    Teimouri Yansari, A

    2014-02-01

    Nine multiparous Holstein cows (DIM = 56 ± 5 day) were randomly assigned to three experimental diets containing fine-dried (T1), normal-dried (T2) and pelleted (T3) beet pulp (BP) at 12% on a dry matter basis in a 3 × 3 change over design in three 21 day periods to evaluate the effects of three types of BP. Bulk density, functional specific gravity and water-holding capacity of ration and intake were similar, but intake of physically effective fibre was different among treatments. Without significant differences, nutrients' digestibility in T1 trended to be higher than T2 and T3. Ruminal liquid pH and N-NH3 concentration were lower in T1 and higher in T3 than T2. Grinding and pelleting of BP increased and decreased volatile fatty acid concentration respectively. Grinding decreased acetate and propionate and increased butyrate and lactic acid. In contrary to pelleting, grinding of BP increased the particulate ruminal passage rate, but decreased ruminal mean retention time and lower compartment mean retention time. Pelleting of BP decreased ruminal passage rate, but increased ruminal mean retention time and lower compartment mean retention time. Grinding increased 5.64, 5.9 and 5.8% eating time, rumination and total chewing activity in comparison with normal BP respectively. Pelleting increased 2.7%, 16.3% and 10.0% eating time, rumination and total chewing activity in comparison with T2 respectively. Milk yield had no significant difference, but milk yield adjusted to 4% fat, and milk fat (kg/day), fat, protein, casein and total solid of milk (%) were affected by the treatments. Results from this experiment show that based on milk fat assay, grinding did not reduce effectiveness of BP, but pelleting significantly increased effectiveness of BP. In addition, based on total chewing activity, grinding did not reduce physically effectiveness of BP, but pelleting of BP increased its physically effectiveness.

  11. Systematic Review of Theory-Based Interventions Aimed at Increasing Physical Activity in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilroy, Jereme; Knowlden, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Approximately 200,000 individuals have a spinal cord injury (SCI) and more than 12,000 new cases are diagnosed each year in the United States. Lowered physical functioning caused by SCI often leads to a sedentary lifestyle, increasing risk for chronic diseases, secondary medical conditions, and lower quality of life. Purpose: The aim…

  12. A Newly Revised Master's Degree in Physical Education and Physical Activity Leadership at the University of Northern Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauenhauer, Brian; Krause, Jennifer; Douglas, Scott; Smith, Mark; Stellino, Megan Babkes

    2017-01-01

    In response to calls on physical education teacher education (PETE) programs to better prepare teachers for a broadened role in school-based physical activity promotion, the University of Northern Colorado has recently established a Master of Arts in teaching physical education and physical activity leadership (MAT PE-PAL) degree. The…

  13. Motivation, self-efficacy, physical activity and nutrition in college students: Randomized controlled trial of an Internet-based education program

    PubMed Central

    Franko, Debra L.; Cousineau, Tara M.; Trant, Meredith; Green, Traci Craig; Rancourt, Diana; Thompson, Douglas; Ainscough, Jessica; Mintz, Laurie B.; Ciccazzo, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Objective MyStudentBody.com-Nutrition (MSB-N) is an Internet-based nutrition and physical activity education program for college students. Method Students from six universities (N = 476) in the U.S. were randomly assigned in the fall of 2005 to one of three groups: MSB-N (Experimental I), MSB-N plus Booster (Experimental II), or an attention placebo control group. Results Experimental I and II group participants increased their fruit and vegetable intake by .33 and .24 servings, respectively, relative to the control group at post-test. Both experimental groups improved their motivation to change eating behaviors (p < .05) and were also more likely to increase their social support and self-efficacy for dietary change (p’s < .05). Experimental groups also improved their attitude toward exercise (p < .05), but no behavioral changes in physical activity were noted. Conclusion MyStudentBody.com-Nutrition is an effective Internet-based program that may have wide applicability on college campuses for nutrition education and promoting change in health behaviors. PMID:18639581

  14. Bridging the gap between research and practice: an assessment of external validity of community-based physical activity programs in Bogotá, Colombia, and Recife, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paez, Diana C; Reis, Rodrigo S; Parra, Diana C; Hoehner, Christine M; Sarmiento, Olga L; Barros, Mauro; Brownson, Ross C

    2015-03-01

    For more than a decade, physical activity classes have been offered in public places at no cost to the participants in some Latin American cities, however, internal and external validity evidence of these programs is limited. The goals of this study were to assess, report, and compare the external validity of the Recreovia program (RCP) in Colombia, and the Academia da Cidade program (ACP) in Brazil. Interviews to assess external validity of the RCP and ACP were conducted in 2012. The interview guide was developed based on the RE-AIM framework. Seventeen key informants were selected to participate in the study. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using a constant comparative qualitative method and experts validated common themes. RCP and ACP key informants reported that both programs reach underserved population. There is no information available about effectiveness. Both programs take place in public spaces (e.g., parks and plazas), which are selected for adoption mainly based on community demand. RCP and ACP offer free physical activity classes with educational and cultural components, have a strong organizational structure for implementation, and differ on schedule and content of classes. Funding sources were reported to play an important role on long-term maintenance. Facilitators and barriers were identified. Programs are similar in the reach and adoption elements; the main differences were found on implementation and maintenance, whereas information on effectiveness was not found. Reporting external validity of these programs is useful to bridge the gap between research and practice.

  15. [Protein nutrition and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Navarro, M P

    1992-09-01

    The relationship between physical exercise and diet in order to optimize performance is getting growing interest. This review examines protein needs and protein intakes as well as the role of protein in the body and the metabolic changes occurring at the synthesis and catabolic levels during exercise. Protein synthesis in muscle or liver, amino acids oxidation, glucose production via gluconeogenesis from amino acids, etc., are modified, and consequently plasma and urinary nitrogen metabolites are affected. A brief comment on the advantages, disadvantages and forms of different protein supplements for sportsmen is given.

  16. Using Virtual Pets to Promote Physical Activity in Children: An Application of the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sun Joo Grace; Johnsen, Kyle; Robertson, Tom; Moore, James; Brown, Scott; Marable, Amanda; Basu, Aryabrata

    2015-01-01

    A virtual pet was developed based on the framework of the youth physical activity promotion model and tested as a vehicle for promoting physical activity in children. Children in the treatment group interacted with the virtual pet for three days, setting physical activity goals and teaching tricks to the virtual pet when their goals were met. The virtual pet became more fit and learned more sophisticated tricks as the children achieved activity goals. Children in the control group interacted with a computer system presenting equivalent features but without the virtual pet. Physical activity and goal attainment were evaluated using activity monitors. Results indicated that children in the treatment group engaged in 1.09 more hours of daily physical activity (156% more) than did those in the control group. Physical activity self-efficacy and beliefs served as mediators driving this increase in activity. Children that interacted with the virtual pet also expressed higher intentions than children in the control group to continue physical activity in the future. Theoretical and practical potentials of using a virtual pet to systematically promote physical activity in children are discussed.

  17. Patterns of Adolescent Physical Activity, Screen-Based Media Use and Positive and Negative Health Indicators in the U.S. and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Iannotti, Ronald J.; Kogan, Michael D.; Janssen, Ian; Boyce, William F.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To examine: 1) how adolescent physical activity (PA) and screen-based media use (SBM) relate to physical and social health indicators, and 2) cross-national differences in these relationships. Methods Essentially identical questions and methodologies were used in the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children cross-sectional surveys of nationally-representative samples of American (N = 14,818) and Canadian (N = 7,266) students in grades 6 to 10. Items included questions about frequency of PA, SBM, positive health indicators (health status, self-image, quality of life, and quality of family and peer relationships), and negative health indicators (health complaints, physical aggression, smoking, drinking, and marijuana use). Results In regression analyses controlling for age and gender, positive health indicators were uniformly positively related to PA while two negative health indicators were negatively related to PA. However, PA was positively related to physical aggression. The pattern for SBM was generally the opposite; SBM was negatively related to most positive health indices and positively related to several of the negative health indicators. The notable exception was that SBM was positively related to the quality of peer relationships. Although there were cross-national differences in the strength of some relationships, these patterns were essentially replicated in both countries. Conclusions Surveys of nationally representative samples of youth in two countries provide evidence of positive physical and social concomitants of PA and negative concomitants of SBM. These findings suggest potential positive consequences of increasing PA and decreasing SBM in adolescents and provide further justification for such efforts. PMID:19380098

  18. Physics of Space Plasma Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Karl

    2010-04-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; Part I. Setting the Scene: 2. Sites of activity; 3. Plasma models; Part II. Quiescence: 4. Introduction; 5. Magnetohydrodynamic states; 6. Particle picture of steady states; 7. A unified theory of steady states; 8. Quasi-static evolution and thin current sheets (TCS); Part III. Dynamics: 9. Nonideal effects; 10. Selected macroinstabilities; 11. Magnetic reconnection; 12. Aspects of bifurcation and nonlinear dynamics; Part IV. Applications: 13. Magnetospheric activity; 14. Models of solar activity; 15. Discussion; Appendix 1. Unified theory: details and derivations; Appendix 2. Variational principle for collisionless plasmas; Appendix 3. Symbols and fundamental constants; References; Index.

  19. A natural experiment to examine the impact of park renewal on park-use and park-based physical activity in a disadvantaged neighbourhood: the REVAMP study methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Modifying the built environment by improving parks is potentially a sustainable way to increase population level physical activity. Despite considerable investment in parks and park renovations, few natural experiments on the impact of improving amenities on park use and park-based physical activity have been conducted. REVAMP is a natural experiment that aims to examine whether park improvement increases overall park usage, park-based physical activity and active travel to and from the park in the intervention compared with the control park over a two-year period; and to identify which specific aspects of the park refurbishment attracts park visitors and encourages park users to be more active. This paper describes the methods of the REVAMP study. Methods The intervention park is a large regional park (329 hectares) located in a low socio-economic status (SES) area in the north-eastern suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. The control park is a regional park (120 hectares) located in a high SES area in the eastern suburbs of Melbourne. Multiple methodologies to evaluate the impact of the park renovation are being employed including: cross-sectional surveys of local residents living near the two parks, direct observations of park users, intercept surveys with park users, and electronic monitoring of path usage and car traffic within the parks. Baseline measures were conducted in April-May 2013 (T1), and an innovative play space suitable for children of all ages and abilities was installed at the intervention park between September 2013 and February 2014. Follow-up measures will be repeated in April-May 2014 (T2) and April-May 2015 (T3). All methodologies will be completed at both the intervention and control parks at all three time-points, with the exception of the cross-sectional survey of local residents which will only be conducted at T1 and T3. Conclusion This research will inform future park developments, and will contribute to creating an evidence base

  20. Local school policies increase physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Ellen; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Samdal, Oddrun

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The implementation of school policies to support the adoption of physical activity is one of the main strategies recommended to increase physical activity levels among this age group. However, documentation of the effect of such policies is so far limited. The purpose of this study was to explore policy-related practices to support physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools and their association with recess physical activity. Emphasis was given to examine the association between policies and physical activity, over and beyond, individual level interests and environmental factors and to examine cross-level interaction effects. This cross-sectional study was based on a nationally representative sample of Norwegian secondary schools and grade 8 students who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2005/06 study. The final sample comprised 68 schools and 1347 students. Data were collected through questionnaires. The results showed that schools with a written policy for physical activity and schools offering organized non-curricular physical activity several times a week had a higher proportion of students reporting daily participation in recess physical activity. Multilevel logistic regression analysis demonstrated a cross-level main effect of the policy index after controlling for sex, socio-economic status, individual-level interests and the physical environment. A significant contribution of adding the policy index to the prediction of recess physical activity above that provided by the individual-level interests and the physical environment was demonstrated. The results are encouraging and give scientific support to policy documents recommending the implementation of school policies to increase physical activity. PMID:19884244

  1. [Atherosclerosis, oxidative stress and physical activity. Review].

    PubMed

    Calderón, Juan Camilo; Fernández, Ana Zita; María de Jesús, Alina Isabel

    2008-09-01

    Atherosclerosis and related diseases have emerged as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world and, therefore, as a problem of public health. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species have been suggested to be part of the pathophysiology of these diseases. It is well known that physical activity plays an important role as a public health measure by reducing the risk of developing atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular events in the general population. It is also known that physical activity increases in some tissues, the reactive oxygen species production. In this review the atherosclerosis-oxidative stress-physical activity relationship is focused on the apparent paradox by which physical activity reduces atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk in parallel with the activation of an apparently damaging mechanism which is an increased oxidative stress. A hypothesis including the experimental and clinical evidence is presented to explain the aforementioned paradox.

  2. Physical activity in physical education: teacher or technology effects.

    PubMed

    Grissom, Traci; Ward, Phillip; Martin, Beth; Leenders, Nicole Y J M

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed if wearing a heart rate monitor influenced student activity levels in elementary physical education. Data were analyzed for 4 students using an alternating treatment design to assess differential effects between accelerometer activity counts obtained from students when wearing the heart rate monitor and when they were not wearing the monitor. Results show that (a) there was no difference in activity counts between the 2 conditions, (b) boys had higher means than girls, and (c) the variance between more and less active boys was greater than the variance among the girls.

  3. Technology to promote and increase physical activity in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Nina C

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity is firmly recommended as part of a multifaceted approach to heart failure (HF) self-management. Unfortunately, research indicates that most patients are less likely to engage in and adhere to such activities. The widespread use of information and communication technology tools and resources offers an innovative and potentially beneficial avenue for increasing physical activity levels in HF patients. This article presents specific ways in which advances in information and communication technologies, including Internet- and mobile-based communications, social media platforms, and self-monitoring health devices, can serve as a means to broadly promote increasing levels of physical activity to improve health outcomes in the HF population.

  4. Childcare Service Centers’ Preferences and Intentions to Use a Web-Based Program to Implement Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Policies and Practices: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher Michael; Finch, Meghan; Wyse, Rebecca; Jones, Jannah; Freund, Megan; Wiggers, John Henry; Nathan, Nicole; Dodds, Pennie; Wolfenden, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity is a significant public health problem that impacts a large number of children globally. Supporting childcare centers to deliver healthy eating and physical activity-promoting policies and practices is a recommended strategy for obesity prevention, given that such services provide access to a substantial proportion of children during a key developmental period. Electronic Web-based interventions represent a novel way to support childcare service providers to implement such policies and practices. Objective This study aimed to assess: (1) childcare centers’ current use of technology, (2) factors associated with intention to use electronic Web-based interventions, and (3) Web-based features that managers rated as useful to support staff with implementing healthy eating and physical activity-promoting policies and practices. Methods A computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) was conducted with service managers from long day care centers and preschools. The CATI assessed the following: (1) childcare center characteristics, (2) childcare centers’ use of electronic devices, (3) intention to use a hypothetical electronic Web-based program—assessed using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) with ratings between 1 (strongly disagree) and 7 (strongly agree), and (4) features rated as useful to include in a Web-based program. Results Overall, 214 service centers out of 277 (77.3%) consented to participate. All service centers except 2 reported using computers (212/214, 99.1%), whereas 40.2% (86/214) used portable tablets. A total of 71.9% (151/210) of childcare service managers reported a score of 6 or more for intention to use a hypothetical electronic Web-based program. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, intention to use the program was significantly associated with perceived ease of use (P=.002, odds ratio [OR] 3.9, 95% CI 1.6-9.2) and perceived usefulness (P<.001, OR 28,95% CI 8.0-95.2). Features reported by

  5. Conceptualization and development of a theory-based healthful eating and physical activity intervention for postpartum women who are low income.

    PubMed

    Ebbeling, Cara B; Pearson, Meredith N; Sorensen, Glorian; Levine, Rachel A; Hebert, James R; Salkeld, Judith A; Peterson, Karen E

    2007-01-01

    Eating and physical activity behaviors that confer risk for chronic disease are prominent among women from varying ethnic and racial groups who are low income. Conceptualization and development of a theory-based behavioral intervention to address their unique needs during the first year following childbirth comprised four steps: (a) translating public health guidelines and emerging epidemiologic data into specific intervention messages; (b) developing practical strategies to operationalize theoretical constructs, in the context of a social ecological framework; (c) stating achievement-based objectives and writing scripts for five home visits; and (d) conducting formative research. Focus group participants expressed a desire for a "health mentor," not somebody who "nags" or "stresses you out." Paraprofessionals from the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) were directly involved in pretesting the intervention and remain involved as health mentors. This intervention can serve as a basis for future organizational partnerships to benefit the health of populations who are low income.

  6. Developing a national physical activity plan: the Kuwait example.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Jasem; Vuori, Ilkka; Lankenau, Becky; Schmid, Tom; Pratt, Michael

    2010-06-01

    A rapid increase in economic well-being and urbanization in Kuwait have been accompanied by profound changes in lifestyle, including low levels of physical activity in all population groups. These changes have contributed to a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and to the escalation of the non-communicable disease rates, particularly coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension and diabetes. The evolution of physical activity promotion, internationally, and a series of related meetings in Kuwait and neighboring countries, have started to generate an awareness among health authorities of the importance of physical activity in health promotion and disease prevention. A National Physical Activity Committee has been formed to design and implement a National Physical Activity Plan, which could also serve as a model for other countries. The authors describe the background and principles behind the development of the National Plan, summarize a template based upon the Kuwait experience and share the lessons learned from these efforts.

  7. Efficacy of multimodal exercise-based rehabilitation on physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and patient-reported outcomes in cancer survivors: a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Midtgaard, J.; Christensen, J. F.; Tolver, A.; Jones, L. W.; Uth, J.; Rasmussen, B.; Tang, L.; Adamsen, L.; Rørth, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sedentary behavior and impaired cardiovascular reserve capacity are common late effects of cancer therapy emphasizing the need for effective strategies to increase physical activity (PA) in cancer survivors. We examined the efficacy of a 12-month exercise-based rehabilitation program on self-reported PA, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak), strength, and patient-reported outcomes. Patients and methods Two hundred fourteen post-treatment cancer survivors were randomly assigned to a 12-month rehabilitation program consisting of individual (x3) and group-based (x6) counseling in combination with once weekly high-intensity group-based exercise training (the Copenhagen Physical Activity after Cancer Treatment, PACT; n = 108) or to a health evaluation program (HE, n = 106). Study outcomes were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Results After 12 months, the percentage of patients reporting meeting PA goal behavior (≥3 h/week) was significantly increased in the PACT group versus the HE group (70.4% versus 43.4%, P = 0.001). Repeated measures analyses indicated a statistically significant improvement in VO2peak (l min−1) in favour of PACT (treatment effect ratio = 1.04; 95% confidence interval 1.00–1.07; P = 0.032). Significant between group differences were also observed for strength (P < 0.001), depression (P = 0.020) and mental health (P = 0.040). Conclusion A 12-month exercise-based rehabilitation program is an effective strategy to promote PA and improve VO2peak in cancer survivors. PMID:23704198

  8. Effectiveness of a Web-Based Physical Activity Intervention in Patients With Knee and/or Hip Osteoarthritis: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Veenhof, Cindy; Van Beek, Karin EC; Spreeuwenberg, Peter MM; Dekker, Joost; De Bakker, Dinny H

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with knee and/or hip osteoarthritis (OA) are less physically active than the general population, while the benefits of physical activity (PA) have been well documented. Based on the behavioral graded activity treatment, we developed a Web-based intervention to improve PA levels in patients with knee and/or hip OA, entitled “Join2move”. The Join2move intervention is a self-paced 9-week PA program in which the patient’s favorite recreational activity is gradually increased in a time-contingent way. Objective The aim of the study was to investigate whether a fully automated Web-based PA intervention in patients with knee and/or hip OA would result in improved levels of PA, physical function, and self-perceived effect compared with a waiting list control group. Methods The study design was a two-armed randomized controlled trial which was not blinded. Volunteers were recruited via articles in newspapers and health-related websites. Eligibility criteria for participants were: (1) aged 50-75 years, (2) self-reported knee and/or hip OA, (3) self-reported inactivity (30 minutes of moderate PA, 5 times or less per week), (4) no face-to-face consultation with a health care provider other than general practitioners, for OA in the last 6 months, (5) ability to access the Internet weekly, and (6) no contra-indications to exercise without supervision. Baseline, 3-month, and 12-month follow-up data were collected through online questionnaires. Primary outcomes were PA, physical function, and self-perceived effect. In a subgroup of participants, PA was measured objectively using accelerometers. Secondary outcomes were pain, fatigue, anxiety, depression, symptoms, quality of life, self-efficacy, pain coping, and locus of control. Results Of the 581 interested respondents, 199 eligible participants were randomly assigned to the intervention (n=100) or waiting list control group (n=99). Response rates of questionnaires were 84.4% (168/199) after 3 months and

  9. Identifying Diverse Means for Assessing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Dana J.; Pearson, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is of concern for the majority of age groups within the United States. Limited engagement in physical activity (PA) has been linked with an increased risk for a host of health problems, including but not limited to heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Benefits of PA are widely documented and accepted yet many people, especially…

  10. Adherence to Exercise and Physical Activity: Preface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William P.; Dishman, Rod K.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a collection of papers on adherence to exercise programs and physical activity from the 2000 American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education conference, which included research on middle school boys and girls, college men and women, and men and women in the later years, as well as on the more traditional subject of middle aged…

  11. Fostering Physical Activity among Canadians with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    This article shares some current thoughts, actions, and plans to foster physical activity among Canadians with disabilities. Topics include mainstreaming physically disabled students, impact of the Jasper Talks Symposium, a national action plan (Blueprint for Action), and recent initiatives that reflect Canadian commitment to adapted physical…

  12. Physical Activity, Public Health, and Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a serious public health problem that is associated with numerous preventable diseases. Public health concerns, particularly those related to the increased prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes, call for schools to become proactive in the promotion of healthy, physically active lifestyles. This article begins by…

  13. Integrating Physical Activity into Academic Pursuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaus, Mark D.; Simpson, Cynthia G.

    2009-01-01

    Children of today may be the first generation in the United States in more than 200 years to have a life expectancy shorter than their parents. Low levels of fitness caused by physical inactivity and poor nutritional habits of many of today's youth may be a contributing factor. Combating low fitness levels with physical activity is of utmost…

  14. The Elderly's Need for Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foret, Claire M.; Clemons, James M.

    1996-01-01

    This article provides: information on the importance of physical activity for older adults and guidelines to ensure safe and successful activity. It discusses the need for activity, risk levels, prescription of exercise intensity, determination of entry level fitness and monitoring of improvement, and the role of the professional. (SM)

  15. Influences of Physical and Social Neighborhood Environments on Children's Physical Activity and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Marc N.; Cuccaro, Paula; Schuster, Mark; Gilliland, M. Janice; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Franklin, Frank; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the association between physical and social neighborhood environments and fifth-grade students’ physical activity and obesity. Methods. We collected data on 650 children and their primary caregivers during phase 1 of Healthy Passages, a multisite, community-based, cross-sectional study of health risk behaviors and health outcomes in children. We conducted independent systematic neighborhood observations to measure neighborhood physical characteristics, and we analyzed survey data on social processes. We modeled children's physical activity and obesity status with structural equation models that included latent variables for the physical and social environments. Results. After we controlled for children's sociodemographic factors, we found that a favorable social environment was positively associated with several measures of physical activity and that physical activity was negatively associated with obesity in these children. Physical environment was not significantly associated with physical activity. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that neighborhood social factors as well as the physical environment should be considered in the development of health policy and interventions to reduce childhood obesity. PMID:19059864

  16. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  17. Ecological Correlates of Spanish Adolescents' Physical Activity during Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina-García, Javier; Queralt, Ana; Estevan, Isaac; Sallis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    The public health benefit of school physical education (PE) depends in large part on physical activity (PA) provided during class. According to the literature, PE has a valuable role in public health, and PA levels during PE classes depend on a wide range of factors. The main objective of this study, based on ecological models of behaviour, was to…

  18. [Physical education, health and physical activities: difficult relationships].

    PubMed

    Cogérino, Geneviève

    2016-06-08

    Physical education (PE) is an appropriate subject to investigate the links between physical activity (PA) and health. The current training of PE teachers tends to emphasize the link between PA and physical fitness, to the detriment of other health components. The occupational, environmental, cultural dimensions of PA are frequently overlooked. This article lists four topics related to PA-health links, which could be more extensively included in initial PE teacher training, on the basis of abundant scientific literature: 1. the diversity of exercise motives, according to the subject’s age, gender, ability, competence, living conditions, etc.; 2. the role of body image on the desire or reluctance of teenagers to perform PA or certain physical activities; 3. the evolution of motivations towards PA throughout life; 4. the impact of the PE teachers’ masculinist conceptions, consubstantial of PE, due to its link with sport. These topics could contribute to a better analysis of what individuals seek through PA and the PA-health links they value. They could help teachers to adjust their teaching to contribute to the pupils’ health and not solely their physical fitness..

  19. Testing a Theoretical Model of Immigration Transition and Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sun Ju; Im, Eun-Ok

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to develop a theoretical model to explain the relationships between immigration transition and midlife women's physical activity and test the relationships among the major variables of the model. A theoretical model, which was developed based on transitions theory and the midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity theory, consists of 4 major variables, including length of stay in the United States, country of birth, level of acculturation, and midlife women's physical activity. To test the theoretical model, a secondary analysis with data from 127 Hispanic women and 123 non-Hispanic (NH) Asian women in a national Internet study was used. Among the major variables of the model, length of stay in the United States was negatively associated with physical activity in Hispanic women. Level of acculturation in NH Asian women was positively correlated with women's physical activity. Country of birth and level of acculturation were significant factors that influenced physical activity in both Hispanic and NH Asian women. The findings support the theoretical model that was developed to examine relationships between immigration transition and physical activity; it shows that immigration transition can play an essential role in influencing health behaviors of immigrant populations in the United States. The NH theoretical model can be widely used in nursing practice and research that focus on immigrant women and their health behaviors. Health care providers need to consider the influences of immigration transition to promote immigrant women's physical activity.

  20. Why Should I Be Physically Active?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and yard work • Moderate to heavy housework • Pleasure dancing and home exercise More vigorous physical activity can ... jogging • Stair climbing • Bicycling, swimming or rowing • Aerobic dancing or cross-country skiing (continued) ANSWERS by heart ...

  1. Korean women's attitudes toward physical activity.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Choe, Myoung-Ae

    2004-02-01

    In this study attitudes toward physical activity of three groups of Korean women were explored using a feminist qualitative research design. Seventeen healthy Korean women, 11 Korean women at risk of muscular atrophy, and 16 Korean immigrant women were recruited using a purposive sampling method. In-depth interviews using an interview guide were audiotaped and transcribed. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings indicate that the women viewed physical activity holistically, that death was viewed as the opposite of physical activity, that exercise was differentiated from physical activity, that exercise was connected to health, and that the women rarely participated in exercise because of their busy lives. The findings confirm the importance of considering the psychosocial contexts of attitudes toward health behavior.

  2. Perceived climate in physical activity settings.

    PubMed

    Gill, Diane L; Morrow, Ronald G; Collins, Karen E; Lucey, Allison B; Schultz, Allison M

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the perceived climate for LGBT youth and other minority groups in physical activity settings. A large sample of undergraduates and a selected sample including student teachers/interns and a campus Pride group completed a school climate survey and rated the climate in three physical activity settings (physical education, organized sport, exercise). Overall, school climate survey results paralleled the results with national samples revealing high levels of homophobic remarks and low levels of intervention. Physical activity climate ratings were mid-range, but multivariate analysis of variation test (MANOVA) revealed clear differences with all settings rated more inclusive for racial/ethnic minorities and most exclusive for gays/lesbians and people with disabilities. The results are in line with national surveys and research suggesting sexual orientation and physical characteristics are often the basis for harassment and exclusion in sport and physical activity. The current results also indicate that future physical activity professionals recognize exclusion, suggesting they could benefit from programs that move beyond awareness to skills and strategies for creating more inclusive programs.

  3. Physically Active Play and Cognition: An Academic Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattelmair, Jacob; Ratey, John J.

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss the growing evidence that strenuous physical activity is not only healthy for students but improves their academic performance. Based on such research, they argue that schools in the United States need to stop eliminating physical-education programs under the current political pressures to emphasize academics and instead to…

  4. What Young People Say about Physical Activity: The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannehill, Deborah; MacPhail, Ann; Walsh, Julia; Woods, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) study is a unique multi-centre/discipline study undertaken by three Irish institutions, Dublin City University, University of Limerick and University College Cork. The study sought to assess participation in physical activity, physical education and sport (PAPES) among 10-18 year…

  5. Short- and long-term theory-based predictors of physical activity in women who participated in a weight-management program.

    PubMed

    Wasserkampf, A; Silva, M N; Santos, I C; Carraça, E V; Meis, J J M; Kremers, S P J; Teixeira, P J

    2014-12-01

    This study analyzed psychosocial predictors of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and evaluated their associations with short- and long-term moderate plus vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and lifestyle physical activity (PA) outcomes in women who underwent a weight-management program. 221 participants (age 37.6 ± 7.02 years) completed a 12-month SDT-based lifestyle intervention and were followed-up for 24 months. Multiple linear regression analyses tested associations between psychosocial variables and self-reported short- and long-term PA outcomes. Regression analyses showed that control constructs of both theories were significant determinants of short- and long-term MVPA, whereas affective and self-determination variables were strong predictors of short- and long-term lifestyle PA. Regarding short-term prediction models, TPB constructs were stronger in predicting MVPA, whereas SDT was more effective in predicting lifestyle PA. For long-term models, both forms of PA were better predicted by SDT in comparison to TPB. These results highlight the importance of comparing health behavior theories to identify the mechanisms involved in the behavior change process. Control and competence constructs are crucial during early adoption of structured PA behaviors, whereas affective and intrinsic sources of motivation are more involved in incidental types of PA, particularly in relation to behavioral maintenance.

  6. The active video games' narrative impact on children's physical activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active video games (AVGs) capable of inducing physical activity offer an innovative approach to combating childhood obesity. Unfortunately, children's AVG game play decreases quickly, underscoring the need to identify novel methods for player engagement. Narratives have been demonstrated to influenc...

  7. Physical activity information seeking and advertising recall.

    PubMed

    Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (n=1211) showed gender, age, education, and activity-level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (n=1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18-54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information-seeking behavior on the Internet and its implications for health promotion.

  8. Assessing Impact of Physical Activity-Based Youth Development Programs: Validation of the "Life Skills Transfer Survey" (LSTS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Maureen R.; Bolter, Nicole D.; Kipp, Lindsay E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A signature characteristic of positive youth development (PYD) programs is the opportunity to develop life skills, such as social, behavioral, and moral competencies, that can be generalized to domains beyond the immediate activity. Although context-specific instruments are available to assess developmental outcomes, a measure of…

  9. Blood Volume Response to Physical Activity and Inactivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    physical activity through exposure to exercise ...ing physical activity . Reduced Physical Activity : Bed Rest If increased physical activity associated with reg- ular exercise results in hypervolemia... Activity : Exercise Increased physical activity provides the stimulus for action of several mechanisms that promote the expansion of plasma and

  10. Activities to Attract Girls to Physics in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izadi, Dina; Araste, Afshin Mohseni; Fadaei, Azita Seied

    2009-04-01

    In Iran there is no difference between boys' and girls' activities in scientific works; however, they study separately at schools until they reach the university level. Before going to university, students think engineering and medical science are better than the other sciences for earning enough money to support their lives. But after the entrance exam for universities most of the girls choose basic sciences based on their test results. Creative methods of teaching physics at the elementary and secondary levels, such as "Dominos in Physics" and "Physics in Nature," and understanding physics through real-life examples and animation are important for attracting students to fu