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Sample records for activity behavior change

  1. Behavior change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This brief entry presents the mediating-moderating variable model as a conceptual framework for understanding behavior change in regard to physical activity/exercise and adiposity. The ideas are applied to real world situations....

  2. Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: Key research needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-cha...

  3. Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: key research needs.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-change procedures in video games, the mechanisms that account for changes obtained, and the groups in which these interventions work best. Such research will permit the optimal design of serious video games for diabetes and obesity prevention in the future.

  4. Design of video games for children's diet and physical activity behavior change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet, and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and ov...

  5. Video game play, child diet, and physical activity behavior change: A randomized clinical trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Video games designed to promote behavior change are a promising venue to enable children to learn healthier behaviors. The purpose is to evaluate the outcome from playing "Escape from Diab" (Diab) and "Nanoswarm: Invasion from Inner Space" (Nano) video games on children's diet, physical activity, an...

  6. Active Assistance Technology for Health-Related Behavior Change: An Interdisciplinary Review

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Catriona M; Powell, John; Payne, Thomas H; Ainsworth, John; Boyd, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background Information technology can help individuals to change their health behaviors. This is due to its potential for dynamic and unbiased information processing enabling users to monitor their own progress and be informed about risks and opportunities specific to evolving contexts and motivations. However, in many behavior change interventions, information technology is underused by treating it as a passive medium focused on efficient transmission of information and a positive user experience. Objective To conduct an interdisciplinary literature review to determine the extent to which the active technological capabilities of dynamic and adaptive information processing are being applied in behavior change interventions and to identify their role in these interventions. Methods We defined key categories of active technology such as semantic information processing, pattern recognition, and adaptation. We conducted the literature search using keywords derived from the categories and included studies that indicated a significant role for an active technology in health-related behavior change. In the data extraction, we looked specifically for the following technology roles: (1) dynamic adaptive tailoring of messages depending on context, (2) interactive education, (3) support for client self-monitoring of behavior change progress, and (4) novel ways in which interventions are grounded in behavior change theories using active technology. Results The search returned 228 potentially relevant articles, of which 41 satisfied the inclusion criteria. We found that significant research was focused on dialog systems, embodied conversational agents, and activity recognition. The most covered health topic was physical activity. The majority of the studies were early-stage research. Only 6 were randomized controlled trials, of which 4 were positive for behavior change and 5 were positive for acceptability. Empathy and relational behavior were significant research themes in

  7. Behavior Change Techniques Implemented in Electronic Lifestyle Activity Monitors: A Systematic Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Zakkoyya H; Mayrsohn, Brian G; Rowland, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic activity monitors (such as those manufactured by Fitbit, Jawbone, and Nike) improve on standard pedometers by providing automated feedback and interactive behavior change tools via mobile device or personal computer. These monitors are commercially popular and show promise for use in public health interventions. However, little is known about the content of their feedback applications and how individual monitors may differ from one another. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the behavior change techniques implemented in commercially available electronic activity monitors. Methods Electronic activity monitors (N=13) were systematically identified and tested by 3 trained coders for at least 1 week each. All monitors measured lifestyle physical activity and provided feedback via an app (computer or mobile). Coding was based on a hierarchical list of 93 behavior change techniques. Further coding of potentially effective techniques and adherence to theory-based recommendations were based on findings from meta-analyses and meta-regressions in the research literature. Results All monitors provided tools for self-monitoring, feedback, and environmental change by definition. The next most prevalent techniques (13 out of 13 monitors) were goal-setting and emphasizing discrepancy between current and goal behavior. Review of behavioral goals, social support, social comparison, prompts/cues, rewards, and a focus on past success were found in more than half of the systems. The monitors included a range of 5-10 of 14 total techniques identified from the research literature as potentially effective. Most of the monitors included goal-setting, self-monitoring, and feedback content that closely matched recommendations from social cognitive theory. Conclusions Electronic activity monitors contain a wide range of behavior change techniques typically used in clinical behavioral interventions. Thus, the monitors may represent a medium by which

  8. Design of Video Games for Children's Diet and Physical Activity Behavior Change.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Lu, Amy Shirong; Baranowski, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and overcome challenges related to fruit and vegetable (FV) and physical activity (PA) goal attainment and/or consumption), skill development (e.g., asking behaviors; virtual recipe preparation), self regulatory behaviors (problem solving, goal setting, goal review, decision making), rewards (e.g., points and positive statements generated by the program), immediate feedback (e.g., through characters and/or statements that appear on the computer screen at critical decision points), and personalization (e.g., tailored choices offered at critical junctures, based on responses to baselines questions related to preferences, outcome expectancies, etc). We are in the earliest stages of learning how to optimally design effective behavior change procedures for use in VG, and yet they have been demonstrated to change behavior. As we learn, VG offer more and better opportunities for obesity prevention that can adjust to individual needs and preferences.

  9. A Review of eHealth Interventions for Physical Activity and Dietary Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Gregory J.; Zabinski, Marion F.; Adams, Marc A.; Rosenberg, Dori E.; Yaroch, Amy L.; Atienza, Audie A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To review eHealth intervention studies for adults and children that targeted behavior change for physical activity, healthy eating, or both behaviors. Data Sources Systematic literature searches were performed using five databases: Medline, PsychInfo, CINAHL, ERIC, and the Cochrane Library to retrieve articles. Study Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Articles published in scientific journals were included if they evaluated an intervention for physical activity and/or dietary behaviors, or focused on weight loss; used randomized or quasi-experimental designs; measured outcomes at baseline and a follow-up period; and included an intervention where participants interacted with some type of electronic technology either as the main intervention or an adjunct component. All studies were published between 2000 and 2005. Results Eighty-six publications were initially identified, of which 49 met the inclusion criteria (13 physical activity publications, 16 dietary behaviors publications, and 20 weight loss or both physical activity and diet publications), and represented 47 different studies. Studies were described on multiple dimensions, including sample characteristics, design, intervention, measures, and results. eHealth interventions were superior to comparison groups for 21/41 (51%) studies (3 physical activity, 7 diet, 11 weight loss/physical activity and diet). Twenty-four studies had indeterminate results, and in four studies the comparison conditions outperformed eHealth interventions. Conclusions Published studies of eHealth interventions for physical activity and dietary behavior change are in their infancy. Results indicated mixed findings related to the effectiveness of eHealth interventions. Interventions that feature interactive technologies need to be refined and more rigorously evaluated to fully determine their potential as tools to facilitate health behavior change. PMID:17888860

  10. Activity-Based Micro-pricing: Realizing Sustainable Behavior Changes through Economic Incentives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamabe, Tetsuo; Lehdonvirta, Vili; Ito, Hitoshi; Soma, Hayuru; Kimura, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Tatsuo

    In this paper, we further develop the idea of combining pervasive computing techniques with electronic payment systems to create activity-based micro-incentives. Economic incentives are an effective way to influence consumer behavior, and are used in e.g. marketing and resource coordination. Our approach allows marketers and regulators to induce consumers to perform particular actions in new application domains by attaching micro-prices to a wider range of behaviors. A key challenge is designing incentive mechanisms that result in desired behavior changes. We examine two basic incentive models. Based on the results of preliminary experiments, we discuss how economic incentives can affect consumer attitudes and lead to sustainable behavior changes.

  11. Body satisfaction is associated with Transtheoretical Model constructs for physical activity behavior change.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Paige; Fallon, Elizabeth A; Harris, Brandonn S; Burton, Bryce

    2013-03-01

    Despite advancements in health behavior theory and practice, less than half of the United States population meets physical activity recommendations. Two cross-sectional studies (n=432; n=1455) were conducted to explore associations between body satisfaction and Transtheoretical Model (TTM) constructs proposed to explain the physical activity behavior change process. A series of regression analyses were conducted, controlling for demographic and TTM variables, as appropriate. Results indicate that body satisfaction significantly explains 2-8% of variance in the TTM constructs responsible for promoting stage movement. Furthermore, body satisfaction was significantly associated with stages of change representing short (>6 months) and long-term (>5 years) maintenance of physical activity. Future research should continue to examine these construct relationships using more rigorous research designs, with the ultimate goal of implementing body satisfaction components alongside traditionally effective TTM interventions to improve physical activity maintenance.

  12. Dolphin changes in whistle structure with watercraft activity depends on their behavioral state.

    PubMed

    May-Collado, Laura J; Quiñones-Lebrón, Shakira G

    2014-04-01

    Dolphins rely on whistles to identify each other and to receive and convey information about their environment. Although capable of adjusting these signals with changing environments, there is little information on how dolphins acoustically respond to different watercraft activities and if this response depends on dolphin behavioral state. Bottlenose dolphin whistles were recorded in the presence of research and dolphin-watching boats. Dolphins emitted lower frequency and longer whistles when interacting with dolphin-watching boats, particularly during foraging activities. This study suggests that dolphin-watching boat traffic significantly hinders dolphin communication during important behavioral states.

  13. Multiple Behavior Change in Diet and Activity: A Randomized Controlled Trial Using Mobile Technology

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Bonnie; Schneider, Kristin; McFadden, H.G.; Vaughn, Jocelyn; Kozak, Andrea T.; Smith, Malaina; Moller, Arlen C.; Epstein, Leonard H.; DeMott, Andrew; Hedeker, Donald; Siddique, Juned; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Many patients exhibit multiple chronic disease risk behaviors. Research provides little information about advice that can maximize simultaneous health behavior changes. Methods To test which combination of diet and activity advice maximizes healthy change, we randomized 204 adults with elevated saturated fat and low fruit/vegetable intakes, high sedentary leisure time and low physical activity to one of four treatments: increase fruit/vegetable and physical activity; decrease fat and sedentary leisure; decrease fat and increase physical activity; increase fruit/vegetable and decrease sedentary leisure. Treatments provided three weeks of remote coaching supported by mobile decision support technology and financial incentives. During treatment, incentives were contingent on using the mobile device to self-monitor and attain behavioral targets; during follow-up they were contingent only on recording. The outcome was standardized, composite improvement on the four diet and activity behaviors at end of treatment and five month follow-up. Results Of those randomized, 200 (98%) completed follow-up. The increase fruit/vegetable and decrease sedentary leisure treatment improved more than the other 3 treatments (p<.001). Specifically, fruit/vegetables increased from 1.2 servings/day to 5.5; sedentary leisure decreased from 219.2 minutes/day to 89.3; saturated fat decreased from 12.0% of calories consumed to 9.5%. Differences between treatment groups were maintained through follow-up. Traditional dieting (decrease fat and increase physical activity) improved less than the other 3 treatments (p<.001). Conclusions Remote coaching supported by mobile technology and financial incentives holds promise to improve diet and activity. Targeting fruits/vegetables and sedentary leisure together maximizes overall adoption and maintenance of multiple healthy behavior changes. PMID:22636824

  14. Theory-Driven Intervention for Changing Personality: Expectancy Value Theory, Behavioral Activation, and Conscientiousness

    PubMed Central

    Magidson, Jessica F.; Roberts, Brent; Collado-Rodriguez, Anahi; Lejuez, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that personality traits may be changeable, raising the possibility that personality traits most linked to health problems can be modified with intervention. A growing body of research suggests that problematic personality traits may be altered with behavioral intervention using a bottom-approach. That is, by targeting core behaviors that underlie personality traits with the goal of engendering new, healthier patterns of behavior that over time become automatized and manifest in changes in personality traits. Nevertheless, a bottom-up model for changing personality traits is somewhat diffuse and requires clearer integration of theory and relevant interventions to enable real clinical application. As such, this manuscript proposes a set of guiding principles for theory-driven modification of targeted personality traits using a bottom-up approach, focusing specifically on targeting the trait of conscientiousness using a relevant behavioral intervention, Behavioral Activation (BA), considered within the motivational framework of Expectancy Value Theory (EVT). We conclude with a real case example of the application of BA to alter behaviors counter to conscientiousness in a substance dependent patient, highlighting the EVT principles most relevant to the approach and the importance and viability of a theoretically-driven, bottom-up approach to changing personality traits. PMID:23106844

  15. Theory-driven intervention for changing personality: expectancy value theory, behavioral activation, and conscientiousness.

    PubMed

    Magidson, Jessica F; Roberts, Brent W; Collado-Rodriguez, Anahi; Lejuez, C W

    2014-05-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that personality traits may be changeable, raising the possibility that personality traits most linked to health problems can be modified with intervention. A growing body of research suggests that problematic personality traits may be altered with behavioral intervention using a bottom-up approach. That is, by targeting core behaviors that underlie personality traits with the goal of engendering new, healthier patterns of behavior that, over time, become automatized and manifest in changes in personality traits. Nevertheless, a bottom-up model for changing personality traits is somewhat diffuse and requires clearer integration of theory and relevant interventions to enable real clinical application. As such, this article proposes a set of guiding principles for theory-driven modification of targeted personality traits using a bottom-up approach, focusing specifically on targeting the trait of conscientiousness using a relevant behavioral intervention, Behavioral Activation (BA), considered within the motivational framework of expectancy value theory (EVT). We conclude with a real case example of the application of BA to alter behaviors counter to conscientiousness in a substance-dependent patient, highlighting the EVT principles most relevant to the approach and the importance and viability of a theoretically driven, bottom-up approach to changing personality traits.

  16. A Structured Peer-Mentoring Method for Physical Activity Behavior Change Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Laureen H.; Petosa, Rick L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite national guidelines for regular physical activity, most adolescents are not physically active. Schools serve an estimated 60 million youth and provide an educational environment to meet the current physical activity guidelines. The obesity epidemic and chronic disease comorbidities associated with physical inactivity are not likely to be reversed without a strong contribution from local schools. This article describes how a structured peer-mentoring method provides a feasible, flexible, and tailored means to meet the current guidelines for best practice in a school setting. Structured peer mentoring using trained high school mentors to support behavior change in younger peers is an innovative method to meeting the School Health Guidelines to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. Through structured peer mentoring, adolescents are provided consistent social support in a caring and personalized manner. This support builds skills and competencies enhancing self-efficacy to sustain a lifetime of physical activity behavior. PMID:27257081

  17. A Structured Peer-Mentoring Method for Physical Activity Behavior Change Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laureen H; Petosa, Rick L

    2016-10-01

    Despite national guidelines for regular physical activity, most adolescents are not physically active. Schools serve an estimated 60 million youth and provide an educational environment to meet the current physical activity guidelines. The obesity epidemic and chronic disease comorbidities associated with physical inactivity are not likely to be reversed without a strong contribution from local schools. This article describes how a structured peer-mentoring method provides a feasible, flexible, and tailored means to meet the current guidelines for best practice in a school setting. Structured peer mentoring using trained high school mentors to support behavior change in younger peers is an innovative method to meeting the School Health Guidelines to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Through structured peer mentoring, adolescents are provided consistent social support in a caring and personalized manner. This support builds skills and competencies enhancing self-efficacy to sustain a lifetime of physical activity behavior.

  18. Development of Smartphone Applications for Nutrition and Physical Activity Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Amelia; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Background Young adults (aged 18 to 35) are a population group at high risk for weight gain, yet we know little about how to intervene in this group. Easy access to treatment and support with self-monitoring of their behaviors may be important. Smartphones are gaining in popularity with this population group and software applications (“apps”) used on these mobile devices are a novel technology that can be used to deliver brief health behavior change interventions directly to individuals en masse, with potentially favorable cost-utility. However, existing apps for modifying nutrition or physical activity behaviors may not always reflect best practice guidelines for weight management. Objective This paper describes the process of developing four apps aimed at modifying key lifestyle behaviors associated with weight gain during young adulthood, including physical activity, and consumption of take-out foods (fast food), fruit and vegetables, and sugar-sweetened drinks. Methods The development process involved: (1) deciding on the behavior change strategies, relevant guidelines, graphic design, and potential data collection; (2) selecting the platform (Web-based versus native); (3) creating the design, which required decisions about the user interface, architecture of the relational database, and programming code; and (4) testing the prototype versions with the target audience (young adults aged 18 to 35). Results The four apps took 18 months to develop, involving the fields of marketing, nutrition and dietetics, physical activity, and information technology. Ten subjects provided qualitative feedback about using the apps. The slow running speed of the apps (due to a reliance on an active Internet connection) was the primary issue identified by this group, as well as the requirement to log in to the apps. Conclusions Smartphone apps may be an innovative medium for delivering individual health behavior change intervention en masse, but researchers must give

  19. Beyond Knowledge: Service Learning and Local Climate Change Research Engagement Activities that Foster Action and Behavior Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, R.; Mandryk, C.; Gosselin, D. C.; Haney, C.

    2013-12-01

    environment and support teachers in the creation of lessons and units that promote both inquiry science and service learning in the community. Course participants connect the dots from their newly acquired theoretical science knowledge to concrete examples of change taking place locally, and see the value of promoting awareness as well as behavioral changes that contribute to adaptation and mitigation of local climate change impacts. We describe the assessments used and the research outcomes associated with NRES 832, Human Dimensions of Climate Change, where participants conduct archival research to create a climate change chronicle for their community, and NRES 830 Climate Research Applications, where teachers lead and evaluate the impacts of student-designed service learning activities as a capstone project for a unit on climate change. We also showcase community-based initiatives resulting from this work that seed the behavioral changes we need to live sustainably in our communities and on our planet.

  20. Descriptive analysis of Iranian adolescents' stages of change for physical activity behavior.

    PubMed

    Sanaeinasab, Hormoz; Saffari, Mohsen; Nazeri, Mojtaba; Karimi Zarchi, Aliakbar; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2013-09-01

    To better understand prevalence of physical inactivity among Iranian adolescents, their physical activity behavior across the hypothesized stages of change derived from the transtheoretical model was investigated in this study. This was a cross-sectional study involving 1551 adolescents, 12-14 years of age (941 boys and 610 girls). Participants were selected through a multistage sampling method. The child/adolescent activity log, physical activity calendar, and stage of change scale were used for collecting data. Data were analyzed using χ(2) and F-tests. Depending on how physical activity was assessed, the prevalence of physical inactivity ranged from 77.4% to 87.1%. Analyses revealed sex and stages of change differences between those who achieved and those who did not achieve the recommended levels of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity. Girls were less active than boys. The distribution observed across the stages of change supports the need to improve the physical activity of Iranian youth, especially among girls. For interventions to be most effective, they will need to be tailored to the sex of the participants, as well as their specific stage of readiness to change.

  1. Behavior Change Techniques Present in Wearable Activity Trackers: A Critical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Kathryn; Li, Melissa; Giangregorio, Lora; Burns, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background Wearable activity trackers are promising as interventions that offer guidance and support for increasing physical activity and health-focused tracking. Most adults do not meet their recommended daily activity guidelines, and wearable fitness trackers are increasingly cited as having great potential to improve the physical activity levels of adults. Objective The objective of this study was to use the Coventry, Aberdeen, and London-Refined (CALO-RE) taxonomy to examine if the design of wearable activity trackers incorporates behavior change techniques (BCTs). A secondary objective was to critically analyze whether the BCTs present relate to known drivers of behavior change, such as self-efficacy, with the intention of extending applicability to older adults in addition to the overall population. Methods Wearing each device for a period of 1 week, two independent raters used CALO-RE taxonomy to code the BCTs of the seven wearable activity trackers available in Canada as of March 2014. These included Fitbit Flex, Misfit Shine, Withings Pulse, Jawbone UP24, Spark Activity Tracker by SparkPeople, Nike+ FuelBand SE, and Polar Loop. We calculated interrater reliability using Cohen's kappa. Results The average number of BCTs identified was 16.3/40. Withings Pulse had the highest number of BCTs and Misfit Shine had the lowest. Most techniques centered around self-monitoring and self-regulation, all of which have been associated with improved physical activity in older adults. Techniques related to planning and providing instructions were scarce. Conclusions Overall, wearable activity trackers contain several BCTs that have been shown to increase physical activity in older adults. Although more research and development must be done to fully understand the potential of wearables as health interventions, the current wearable trackers offer significant potential with regard to BCTs relevant to uptake by all populations, including older adults. PMID:27122452

  2. Changes in Eating and Physical Activity Behaviors across Seven Semesters of College: Living on or off Campus Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Meg; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Morgan, Nicole; Maggs, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood is an important period for establishing behavioral patterns that affect long-term health and chronic disease risk. Nelson and colleagues speculated that developmental changes and changes in living situation may play an important role in the nutrition and physical activity behaviors of college students.…

  3. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  4. Behavioral Activation and Therapeutic Exposure: An Investigation of Relative Symptom Changes in PTSD and Depression During the Course of Integrated Behavioral Activation, Situational Exposure, and Imaginal Exposure Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Gros, Daniel F.; Price, Matthew; Strachan, Martha; Yuen, Erica K.; Milanak, Melissa E.; Acierno, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Effectiveness of exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be adversely influenced by comorbid disorders. The present study investigated behavioral activation and therapeutic exposure (BA-TE), a new integrated treatment designed specifically for comorbid symptoms of PTSD and depression. Combat veterans with PTSD (N = 117) completed eight sessions of BA-TE that included two phases of treatment: (a) behavioral activation (BA) in which some activities involved situational exposures and (b) BA and situational exposures with imaginal exposures. Findings supported improvements in symptoms of PTSD, and overlapping symptoms of PTSD and depression, but not in nonoverlapping symptoms of depression. The findings also demonstrated a relatively consistent rate of change in PTSD and depression symptoms during BA-TE, despite the addition of imaginal exposures midway through the treatment. Together, these findings provide preliminary support for BA-TE as a treatment for PTSD and depression, and highlight the utility of transdiagnostic treatments in addressing comorbidity and symptom overlap. PMID:22679240

  5. Behavior change stages related to physical activity in adolescents from Santa Catarina: prevalence and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jaqueline Aragoni; da Silva, Kelly Samara; Lopes, Adair da Silva; Nahas, Markus Vinícius

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Verify the prevalence and sociodemographic and economic factors associated with behavior change stages for habitual physical activity practice in adolescents from Santa Catarina. Methods: Secondary analysis of a study on the Behavior of Adolescents from Santa Catarina (CompAC 2). Cross-sectional school-based study of 6,529 high-school students (males, n=2,903) from the state of Santa Catarina public education system in 2011, aged 15 to 19 years. Multinomial logistic regression (crude and adjusted) was used to measure the association. Results: The highest and lowest prevalence rates were found in the maintenance (43.9%) and precontemplation stages (7.0%), respectively. The stages of action, preparation and contemplation showed similar results: 16.2%; 17.0% and 15.6%; respectively. Male adolescents show higher prevalence in the maintenance stage in relation to females and these show a higher prevalence in preparation, contemplation and precontemplation. All the assessed variables (gender, age, area of residence, employment status, family income, maternal education and school grade), with the exception of school shift, were associated with at least one of the stages. Conclusions: A large proportion of adolescents are in the pre-adoption stages and most of these have the intention to start regular physical activity. With the exception of school shift, the assessed variables were associated with stages in different ways, showing different profiles in relation to sociodemographic and economic characteristics in each subgroup. PMID:27181341

  6. Effects of the Web Behavior Change Program for Activity and Multimodal Pain Rehabilitation: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Michaelson, Peter; Gard, Gunvor; Eriksson, Margareta K

    2016-01-01

    Background Web-based interventions with a focus on behavior change have been used for pain management, but studies of Web-based interventions integrated in clinical practice are lacking. To emphasize the development of cognitive skills and behavior, and to increase activity and self-care in rehabilitation, the Web Behavior Change Program for Activity (Web-BCPA) was developed and added to multimodal pain rehabilitation (MMR). Objective The objective of our study was to evaluate the effects of MMR in combination with the Web-BCPA compared with MMR among persons with persistent musculoskeletal pain in primary health care on pain intensity, self-efficacy, and copying, as part of a larger collection of data. Web-BCPA adherence and feasibility, as well as treatment satisfaction, were also investigated. Methods A total of 109 participants, mean age 43 (SD 11) years, with persistent pain in the back, neck, shoulder, and/or generalized pain were recruited to a randomized controlled trial with two intervention arms: (1) MMR+WEB (n=60) and (2) MMR (n=49). Participants in the MMR+WEB group self-guided through the eight modules of the Web-BCPA: pain, activity, behavior, stress and thoughts, sleep and negative thoughts, communication and self-esteem, solutions, and maintenance and progress. Data were collected with a questionnaire at baseline and at 4 and 12 months. Outcome measures were pain intensity (Visual Analog Scale), self-efficacy to control pain and to control other symptoms (Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale), general self-efficacy (General Self-Efficacy Scale), and coping (two-item Coping Strategies Questionnaire; CSQ). Web-BCPA adherence was measured as minutes spent in the program. Satisfaction and Web-BCPA feasibility were assessed by a set of items. Results Of 109 participants, 99 received the allocated intervention (MMR+WEB: n=55; MMR: n=44); 88 of 99 (82%) completed the baseline and follow-up questionnaires. Intention-to-treat analyses were performed with a sample

  7. Making Behavioral Activation More Behavioral

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Jonathan W.; Manos, Rachel C.; Busch, Andrew M.; Rusch, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral Activation, an efficacious treatment for depression, presents a behavioral theory of depression--emphasizing the need for clients to contact positive reinforcement--and a set of therapeutic techniques--emphasizing provision of instructions rather than therapeutic provision of reinforcement. An integration of Behavioral Activation with…

  8. Transient activity in monkey area MT represents speed changes and is correlated with human behavioral performance.

    PubMed

    Traschütz, Andreas; Kreiter, Andreas K; Wegener, Detlef

    2015-02-01

    Neurons in the middle temporal area (MT) respond to motion onsets and speed changes with a transient-sustained firing pattern. The latency of the transient response has recently been shown to correlate with reaction time in a speed change detection task, but it is not known how the sign, the amplitude, and the latency of this response depend on the sign and the magnitude of a speed change, and whether these transients can be decoded to explain speed change detection behavior. To investigate this issue, we measured the neuronal representation of a wide range of positive and negative speed changes in area MT of fixating macaques and obtained three major findings. First, speed change transients not only reflect a neuron's absolute speed tuning but are shaped by an additional gain that scales the tuned response according to the magnitude of a relative speed change. Second, by means of a threshold model positive and negative population transients of a moderate number of MT neurons explain detection of both positive and negative speed changes, respectively, at a level comparable to human detection rates under identical visual stimulation. Third, like reaction times in a psychophysical model of velocity detection, speed change response latencies follow a power-law function of the absolute difference of a speed change. Both this neuronal representation and its close correlation with behavioral measures of speed change detection suggest that neuronal transients in area MT facilitate the detection of rapid changes in visual input.

  9. Longitudinal Approaches to Stages of Change Measurement: Effects on Cognitive and Behavioral Physical Activity Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Philip D.; Martin, Andrew J.; Martinez, Carissa; Marsh, Herbert W.; Jackson, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The transition from school to further education and work is one of immense change that impacts physical activity attitudes and engagement in adulthood. The Stages of Change (SOC) model, which resides under the transtheoretical framework, has been proposed as one way to measure and evaluate physical activity uptake and maintenance. The current…

  10. Behavior Change with Fitness Technology in Sedentary Adults: A Review of the Evidence for Increasing Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Alycia N.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is closely linked with health and well-being; however, many Americans do not engage in regular exercise. Older adults and those with low socioeconomic status are especially at risk for poor health, largely due to their sedentary lifestyles. Fitness technology, including trackers and smartphone applications (apps), has become increasingly popular for measuring and encouraging physical activity in recent years. However, many questions remain regarding the effectiveness of this technology for promoting behavior change. Behavior change techniques such as goal setting, feedback, rewards, and social factors are often included in fitness technology. However, it is not clear which components are most effective and which are actually being used by consumers. We discuss additional strategies not typically included in fitness technology devices or apps that are promising for engaging inactive, vulnerable populations. These include action planning, restructuring negative attitudes, enhancing environmental conditions, and identifying other barriers to regular physical activity. We consider which strategies are most conducive to motivating behavior change among sedentary adults. Overall, fitness technology has the potential to significantly impact public health, research, and policies. We suggest ways in which app developers and behavior change experts can collaborate to develop successful apps. Advances are still needed to help inactive individuals determine how, when, where, and with whom they can increase their physical activity. PMID:28123997

  11. Making behavioral activation more behavioral.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Jonathan W; Manos, Rachel C; Busch, Andrew M; Rusch, Laura C

    2008-11-01

    Behavioral Activation, an efficacious treatment for depression, presents a behavioral theory of depression--emphasizing the need for clients to contact positive reinforcement--and a set of therapeutic techniques--emphasizing provision of instructions rather than therapeutic provision of reinforcement. An integration of Behavioral Activation with another behavioral treatment, Functional Analytic Psychotherapy, addresses this mismatch. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy provides a process for the therapeutic provision of immediate and natural reinforcement. This article presents this integration and offers theoretical and practical therapist guidelines on its application. Although the integration is largely theoretical, empirical data are presented in its support when available. The article ends with a discussion of future research directions.

  12. Differential patterns of amygdala and ventral striatum activation predict gender-specific changes in sexual risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Victor, Elizabeth C; Sansosti, Alexandra A; Bowman, Hilary C; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2015-06-10

    Although the initiation of sexual behavior is common among adolescents and young adults, some individuals express this behavior in a manner that significantly increases their risk for negative outcomes including sexually transmitted infections. Based on accumulating evidence, we have hypothesized that increased sexual risk behavior reflects, in part, an imbalance between neural circuits mediating approach and avoidance in particular as manifest by relatively increased ventral striatum (VS) activity and relatively decreased amygdala activity. Here, we test our hypothesis using data from seventy 18- to 22-year-old university students participating in the Duke Neurogenetics Study. We found a significant three-way interaction between amygdala activation, VS activation, and gender predicting changes in the number of sexual partners over time. Although relatively increased VS activation predicted greater increases in sexual partners for both men and women, the effect in men was contingent on the presence of relatively decreased amygdala activation and the effect in women was contingent on the presence of relatively increased amygdala activation. These findings suggest unique gender differences in how complex interactions between neural circuit function contributing to approach and avoidance may be expressed as sexual risk behavior in young adults. As such, our findings have the potential to inform the development of novel, gender-specific strategies that may be more effective at curtailing sexual risk behavior.

  13. Examination of perceived neighborhood characteristics and transportation on changes in physical activity and sedentary behavior: The Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Evenson, Kelly R; Murray, David M; Birnbaum, Amanda S; Cohen, Deborah A

    2010-09-01

    We examined the association between perceived neighborhood characteristics and transport and 2-year changes in accelerometer-determined nonschool MET-weighted moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MW-MVPA) and sedentary behavior of adolescent girls. Reporting that children do not play outdoors in their neighborhood, that their neighborhood was well lit, and that there were trails in their neighborhood were each associated with significant decreases in nonschool MW-MVPA. None of the neighborhood or transportation measures was associated with changes in nonschool sedentary behavior. Further work is needed to understand the determinants of the decline in physical activity and the increase in sedentary behavior among adolescent girls.

  14. Physical activity and motivational predictors of changes in health behavior and health among DM2 and CAD patients.

    PubMed

    Halvari, H; Healey, J; Olafsen, A H; Byrkjeland, R; Deci, E L; Williams, G C

    2016-09-30

    This study tested a physical activity intervention and the self-determination theory (SDT) process model of health-behavior change and health among 108 adult patients with both diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients were randomly assigned to an organized physical activity intervention group (led by instructors) or a non-physical activity control group. At baseline and after 12 months, we measured the following: needs satisfaction, autonomous and controlled motivation for physical activity, perceived competence for physical activity and blood sugar testing, physical activity and blood sugar testing, body weight, glucose control (HbA1c), and self-perceptions of general health and vitality. The intervention produced, as hypothesized, significant changes in all study variables in favor of the experimental group (Cohen's d effect sizes: 0.23-0.72), except the non-significant result for controlled motivation and body weight. The data supported the SDT process model, in which the effect of the intervention significantly predicted indirect changes in behavior and health through motivation variables. Considering the moderate to large effects on increases in motivation, behavior, and health, promoting organized physical activity programs that are perceived as need-supportive may have important health implications for patients with DM2 and CAD.

  15. The declining prevalence of overweight among Russian children: Income, diet, and physical activity behavior changes

    PubMed Central

    Jahns, Lisa; Adair, Linda; Mroz, Thomas; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationships among income, diet, physical activity behaviors and overweight among Russian children during a period of economic upheaval. Subjects include 2151 schoolchildren aged 7-13 derived from cross-sectional waves of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Surveys in 1995 and in 2002. Diet was assessed by 24-h recall and physical activity (hrs/week) and household income by parental questionnaire. Hours spent in vigorous activities were low (1.0-1.5 hrs/week), and time spent in sedentary behaviors increased from 31 to 37 hrs/week between 1995 and 2002. In 1995 there was a direct relationship of income to energy and fat intake, and time spent in vigorous activity, and an inverse relationship of income to hrs/wk spent in moderate activities (such as walking to school). The effect of having low income parents was less in 2002 than in 1995. Overweight prevalence did not differ significantly by income in either year, but there was a significant decline in overweight among high income children. Only hours spent in moderate physical activity was moderately protective against overweight. Income disparities do not explain trends in overweight among Russian children. PMID:21840274

  16. Managing Challenging Behaviors of Dementia in Veterans: Identifying and Changing Activators and Consequences Using STAR-VA.

    PubMed

    Curyto, Kim J; McCurry, Sue M; Luci, Katherine; Karlin, Bradley E; Teri, Linda; Karel, Michele J

    2017-02-01

    One of the most challenging clinical issues for long-term care staff is the management of dementia-related behavioral symptoms. STAR-VA is an interdisciplinary intervention for managing challenging behaviors of Veterans with dementia in Community Living Centers (CLCs) within the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. The goals of the current article are to delineate categories of challenging behaviors found in CLCs, the context in which behaviors occurred, and the interventions used by CLC clinical teams when implementing STAR-VA. In 2013, 17 CLC teams completed STAR-VA training, enrolling 71 Veteran participants. Four independent raters identified common assessment and intervention themes for six behavior categories, coding activators, consequences, goal behaviors, and care plans for each category. Successful care plans included staff changes in communication approaches, incorporation of pleasant events into care, and individualized environmental modifications. Findings illustrate the range of interventions that CLC teams may apply as a result of systematic behavioral assessment informing an understanding of activators and consequences of dementia-related behaviors. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 43(2), 33-43.].

  17. A Rodent Model of Schizophrenia Reveals Increase in Creatine Kinase Activity with Associated Behavior Changes

    PubMed Central

    Canever, Leila; Oliveira, Larissa; de Luca, Renata D'Altoé; Correa, Paulo T. F.; Fraga, Daiane de B.; Matos, Maria Paula; Scaini, Giselli; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emílio L.; Zugno, Alexandra I.

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating mental disorder characterized by positive (delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech) and negative (affective flattering, avolition and social withdrawal) symptoms as well as cognitive deficits. The frequency, severity and topography characterize the disorder as heterogeneous, the pathophysiology of schizophrenia is poorly understood. Sub-anesthetic doses of ketamine produce hyperactivity, stereotypy and abnormal social interaction and it is used as a model of schizophrenia. In this study, we induced an animal model by acute sub-anesthetic doses of ketamine and tested different behavioral parameters. We also evaluated the activity of creatine kinase (CK) in brain of rats treated with ketamine. Our results demonstrated that administration of 10, 25 and 50 mg/kg of ketamine induced an increase of covered distance in habituated and non-habituated rats to the behavioral apparatus. Ketamine administration induced significant social deficits and stereotypic behavioral in all doses tested. Finally we evaluated the effect of different doses of ketamine on creatinine kinase (CK) activity and we observed that CK activity is increased inspecific regions of the brain. Our study suggests that our animal model may be used as a model of schizophrenia and that cerebral energy metabolism might be altered in the brain of schizophrenic patients, probably leading to alterations that might be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. PMID:21270541

  18. Rapid increase in aggressive behavior precedes the decrease in brain aromatase activity during socially mediated sex change in Lythrypnus dalli.

    PubMed

    Black, Michael P; Balthazart, Jacques; Baillien, Michelle; Grober, Matthew S

    2011-01-01

    In the bluebanded goby, Lythrypnus dalli, removal of the male from a social group results in a rapid behavioral response where one female becomes dominant and changes sex to male. In a previous study, within hours of male removal, aromatase activity in the brain (bAA) of dominant females was almost 50% lower than that of control females from a group in which the male had not been removed. For those females that displayed increased aggressive behavior after the male was removed, the larger the increase in aggressive behavior, the greater the reduction in bAA. To investigate whether decreased bAA leads to increased aggression, the present study used a more rapid time course of behavioral profiling and bAA assay, looking within minutes of male removal from the group. There were no significant differences in bAA between control females (large females from groups with the male still present), females that doubled their aggressive behavior by 10 or 20 min after male removal, or females that did not double their aggressive behavior within 30 min after male removal. Further, individual variation in bAA and aggressive behavior were not correlated in these fish. Whole brain decreases in aromatase activity thus appear to follow, rather than precede, rapid increases in aggressive behavior, which provides one potential mechanism underlying the rapid increase in androgens that follows aggressive interactions in many vertebrate species. For fish species that change sex from female to male, this increase in androgens could subsequently facilitate sex change.

  19. Physical activity behavior change in persons with neurologic disorders: overview and examples from Parkinson disease and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Terry; Motl, Robert W

    2013-06-01

    Persons with chronic progressive neurologic diseases such as Parkinson disease (PD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) face significant declines in mobility and activities of daily living, resulting in a loss of independence and compromised health-related quality of life over the course of the disease. Such undesirable outcomes can be attenuated through participation in exercise and physical activity, yet there is profound and prevalent physical inactivity in persons with PD and MS that may initiate a cycle of deconditioning and worsening of disease consequences, independent of latent disease processes. This Special Interest article highlights the accruing evidence revealing the largely sedentary behaviors common among persons living with physically disabling conditions and summarizes the evidence on the benefits of physical activity in persons with PD and MS. We then examine the social cognitive theory as an approach to identifying the primary active ingredients for behavioral change and, hence, the targets of interventions for increasing physical activity levels. The design and efficacies of interventions based on the social cognitive theory for increasing physical activity in persons with PD and MS are discussed. Finally, a rationale for adopting a secondary prevention approach to delivering physical therapy services is presented, with an emphasis on the integration of physical activity behavior change interventions into the care of persons with chronic, progressive disabilities over the course of the disease.Video Abstract available (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A42) for more insights from the authors.

  20. Changing Inmate Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, John C.

    The training of all people on a correctional institution staff is discussed. The point is made that there are special problems about penal institutions in trying to effect behavior change in that people are living there against their will. This circumstance produces a basis for a subculture. It has been found that the criminal subculture is the…

  1. The Big Picture of Individual Differences in Physical Activity Behavior Change: A Transdisciplinary Approach.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Angela D; Nilsson, Renea; Tompkins, Sara Anne; Magnan, Renee E; Marcus, Bess H; Hutchison, Kent E

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to utilize a transdisciplinary framework to guide the selection of putative moderators of the effectiveness of an intervention to promote physical activity behavior adoption and maintenance in the context of a randomized controlled intervention trial. Effective interventions to increase physical activity are sorely needed, and one barrier to the identification and development of such interventions is the lack of research targeted at understanding both the mechanisms of intervention efficacy and for whom particular interventions are effective. The purpose of this paper is to outline our transdisciplinary approach to understanding individual differences in the effectiveness of a previously successful exercise promotion intervention. We explain the rationale for and operationalization of our framework, characteristics of the study to which we apply the framework, and planned analyses. By embracing a transdisciplinary orientation for individual differences important in the prediction of physical activity (spanning molecular approaches, animal models, human laboratory models, and social psychological models), we hope to have a better understanding of characteristics of individuals that are important in the adoption and maintenance of physical activity.

  2. Evaluation of Work Place Group and Internet Based Physical Activity Interventions on Psychological Variables Associated with Exercise Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Kimberley A.; Tracey, Jill; Berry, Tanya

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy) and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an “unhappy employee ”typology. Key pointsGroup-based physical activity interventions are capable of improving exercise self-efficacy and barrier self-efficacy.At pretest, participants who selected the internet physical activity intervention were significantly lower in job and life satisfaction than those who selected the group-intervention.While the internet intervention attracted more participants, the group-based physical activity intervention was more successful at changing cognitions associated with successful exercise behavior change. PMID:24149963

  3. Changes in cortical activity associated with adaptive behavior during repeated balance perturbation of unpredictable timing

    PubMed Central

    Mierau, Andreas; Hülsdünker, Thorben; Strüder, Heiko K.

    2015-01-01

    The compensation for a sudden balance perturbation, unpracticed and unpredictable in timing and magnitude is accompanied by pronounced postural instability that is suggested to be causal to falls. However, subsequent presentations of an identical perturbation are characterized by a marked decrease of the amplitude of postural reactions; a phenomenon called adaptation or habituation. This study aimed to identify cortical characteristics associated with adaptive behavior during repetitive balance perturbations based on single-trial analyses of the P1 and N1 perturbation-evoked potentials. Thirty-seven young men were exposed to ten transient balance perturbations while balancing on the dominant leg. Thirty two-channel electroencephalography (EEG), surface electromyography (EMG) of the ankle plantar flexor muscles and postural sway (i.e., Euclidean distance of the supporting platform) were recorded simultaneously. The P1 and N1 potentials were localized and the amplitude/latency was analyzed trial by trial. The best match sources for P1 and N1 potentials were located in the parietal (Brodmann area (BA) 5) and midline fronto-central cortex (BA 6), respectively. The amplitude and latency of the P1 potential remained unchanged over trials. In contrast, a significant adaptation of the N1 amplitude was observed. Similar adaptation effects were found with regard to postural sway and ankle plantarflexors EMG activity of the non-dominant (free) leg; i.e., an indicator for reduced muscular co-contraction and/or less temporary bipedal stance to regain stability. Significant but weak correlations were found between N1 amplitude and postural sway as well as EMG activity. These results highlight the important role of the midline fronto-central cortex for adaptive behavior associated with balance control. PMID:26528154

  4. Changes in cortical activity associated with adaptive behavior during repeated balance perturbation of unpredictable timing.

    PubMed

    Mierau, Andreas; Hülsdünker, Thorben; Strüder, Heiko K

    2015-01-01

    The compensation for a sudden balance perturbation, unpracticed and unpredictable in timing and magnitude is accompanied by pronounced postural instability that is suggested to be causal to falls. However, subsequent presentations of an identical perturbation are characterized by a marked decrease of the amplitude of postural reactions; a phenomenon called adaptation or habituation. This study aimed to identify cortical characteristics associated with adaptive behavior during repetitive balance perturbations based on single-trial analyses of the P1 and N1 perturbation-evoked potentials. Thirty-seven young men were exposed to ten transient balance perturbations while balancing on the dominant leg. Thirty two-channel electroencephalography (EEG), surface electromyography (EMG) of the ankle plantar flexor muscles and postural sway (i.e., Euclidean distance of the supporting platform) were recorded simultaneously. The P1 and N1 potentials were localized and the amplitude/latency was analyzed trial by trial. The best match sources for P1 and N1 potentials were located in the parietal (Brodmann area (BA) 5) and midline fronto-central cortex (BA 6), respectively. The amplitude and latency of the P1 potential remained unchanged over trials. In contrast, a significant adaptation of the N1 amplitude was observed. Similar adaptation effects were found with regard to postural sway and ankle plantarflexors EMG activity of the non-dominant (free) leg; i.e., an indicator for reduced muscular co-contraction and/or less temporary bipedal stance to regain stability. Significant but weak correlations were found between N1 amplitude and postural sway as well as EMG activity. These results highlight the important role of the midline fronto-central cortex for adaptive behavior associated with balance control.

  5. Behavioral Activation and Therapeutic Exposure: An Investigation of Relative Symptom Changes in PTSD and Depression during the Course of Integrated Behavioral Activation, Situational Exposure, and Imaginal Exposure Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gros, Daniel F.; Price, Matthew; Strachan, Martha; Yuen, Erica K.; Milanak, Melissa E.; Acierno, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Effectiveness of exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be adversely influenced by comorbid disorders. The present study investigated behavioral activation and therapeutic exposure (BA-TE), a new integrated treatment designed specifically for comorbid symptoms of PTSD and depression. Combat veterans with PTSD (N = 117)…

  6. Behavioral and Neural Plasticity of Ocular Motor Control: Changes in Performance and fMRI Activity Following Antisaccade Training

    PubMed Central

    Jamadar, Sharna D.; Johnson, Beth P.; Clough, Meaghan; Egan, Gary F.; Fielding, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    The antisaccade task provides a model paradigm that sets the inhibition of a reflexively driven behavior against the volitional control of a goal-directed behavior. The stability and adaptability of antisaccade performance was investigated in 23 neurologically healthy individuals. Behavior and brain function were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) prior to and immediately following 2 weeks of daily antisaccade training. Participants performed antisaccade trials faster with no change in directional error rate following 2 weeks of training; however this increased speed came at the cost of the spatial accuracy of the saccade (gain) which became more hypometric following training. Training on the antisaccade task resulted in increases in fMRI activity in the fronto-basal ganglia-parietal-cerebellar ocular motor network. Following training, antisaccade latency was positively associated with fMRI activity in the frontal and supplementary eye fields, anterior cingulate and intraparietal sulcus; antisaccade gain was negatively associated with fMRI activity in supplementary eye fields, anterior cingulate, intraparietal sulcus, and cerebellar vermis. In sum, the results suggest that following training, larger antisaccade latency is associated with larger activity in fronto-parietal-cerebellar ocular motor regions, and smaller antisaccade gain is associated with larger activity in fronto-parietal ocular motor regions. PMID:26733841

  7. Behavioral swimming effects and acetylcholinesterase activity changes in Jenynsia multidentata exposed to chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin individually and in mixtures.

    PubMed

    Bonansea, Rocío Inés; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Amé, María Valeria

    2016-07-01

    The pesticides cypermethrin (CYP) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) were found together in water bodies located in agricultural and urban areas. However, the impact to non-target biota from exposure to mixtures has received little attention. In the current study, we evaluated changes in swimming behavior and cholinesterase enzymes activity in Jenynsia multidentata, to investigate the possible effects of these insecticides individually and in mixtures. Moreover, differences between technical and commercial mixtures of the pesticides were evaluated. Females of J. multidentata were exposed over 96-h to CYP (0.04 and 0.4µgL(-1)), CPF (0.4 and 4µgL(-1)), individually and in a technical and commercial mixtures. Swimming behavior was recorded after 24h and 96h of exposure. Also, we measured cholinesterase enzymes activity in brain and muscle after 96h of exposure. Exposure to CYP increased the exploratory activity of J. multidentata in the upper area of the aquarium. Fish exposed to CPF (4µg L(-1)) showed a decrease in swimming activity and an increase in the time spent at the bottom of the aquarium. Interestingly, fish exposed to the technical and commercial mixture of CYP and CPF displayed a different behavior based on the concentration of exposure. Low concentration of pesticides elicited an increase in J. multidentata swimming activity with preference for the upper area of the aquarium, and high concentrations caused decrease in swimming activity with preference for the bottom area of the aquarium. Based on the response of cholinesterase enzymes, acetylcholinesterase in muscle was more sensitive to exposure to CYP, CPF and their mixtures than in brain. A decrease in swimming behavior correlates significantly with the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in muscle of J. multidentata exposed to high concentrations of pesticides. These results draw attention to the need of more studies on the potential ecotoxicological impact of pesticides and its mixtures at

  8. Psychological Barriers to Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Olson, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Adopting a healthy lifestyle often requires changing patterns of behavior. This article describes three categories of psychological barriers to behavior change: those that prevent the admission of a problem, those that interfere with initial attempts to change behavior, and those that make long-term change difficult. Strategies are identified that family physicians can use to overcome the barriers. PMID:21221258

  9. Runaway electron generation as possible trigger for enhancement of magnetohydrodynamic plasma activity and fast changes in runaway beam behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Pankratov, I. M. E-mail: rjzhou@ipp.ac.cn; Zhou, R. J. E-mail: rjzhou@ipp.ac.cn; Hu, L. Q.

    2015-07-15

    Peculiar phenomena were observed during experiments with runaway electrons: rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) signal (cyclotron radiation of suprathermal electrons). These phenomena were initially observed in TEXTOR (Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research), where these events only occurred in the current decay phase or in discharges with thin stable runaway beams at a q = 1 drift surface. These rapid changes in the synchrotron spot were interpreted by the TEXTOR team as a fast pitch angle scattering event. Recently, similar rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the non-thermal ECE signal were observed in the EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) runaway discharge. Runaway electrons were located around the q = 2 rational magnetic surface (ring-like runaway electron beam). During the EAST runaway discharge, stepwise ECE signal increases coincided with enhanced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity. This behavior was peculiar to this shot. In this paper, we show that these non-thermal ECE step-like jumps were related to the abrupt growth of suprathermal electrons induced by bursting electric fields at reconnection events during this MHD plasma activity. Enhancement of the secondary runaway electron generation also occurred simultaneously. Local changes in the current-density gradient appeared because of local enhancement of the runaway electron generation process. These current-density gradient changes are considered to be a possible trigger for enhancement of the MHD plasma activity and the rapid changes in runaway beam behavior.

  10. Runaway electron generation as possible trigger for enhancement of magnetohydrodynamic plasma activity and fast changes in runaway beam behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, I. M.; Zhou, R. J.; Hu, L. Q.

    2015-07-01

    Peculiar phenomena were observed during experiments with runaway electrons: rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) signal (cyclotron radiation of suprathermal electrons). These phenomena were initially observed in TEXTOR (Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research), where these events only occurred in the current decay phase or in discharges with thin stable runaway beams at a q = 1 drift surface. These rapid changes in the synchrotron spot were interpreted by the TEXTOR team as a fast pitch angle scattering event. Recently, similar rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the non-thermal ECE signal were observed in the EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) runaway discharge. Runaway electrons were located around the q = 2 rational magnetic surface (ring-like runaway electron beam). During the EAST runaway discharge, stepwise ECE signal increases coincided with enhanced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity. This behavior was peculiar to this shot. In this paper, we show that these non-thermal ECE step-like jumps were related to the abrupt growth of suprathermal electrons induced by bursting electric fields at reconnection events during this MHD plasma activity. Enhancement of the secondary runaway electron generation also occurred simultaneously. Local changes in the current-density gradient appeared because of local enhancement of the runaway electron generation process. These current-density gradient changes are considered to be a possible trigger for enhancement of the MHD plasma activity and the rapid changes in runaway beam behavior.

  11. Changes in jaw muscle activity and the physical properties of foods with different textures during chewing behaviors.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Hiroko; Magara, Jin; Nakamura, Yuki; Tsujimura, Takanori; Ito, Kayoko; Inoue, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate how the activity of the masseter (Mas) and suprahyoid (Hyoid) muscles is influenced by the physical properties of food, how changes in the rheological properties of food differ between different foods during the process of food reduction, and how different salivary flow rates affect bolus-making capability during masticatory behavior in healthy humans. Ten healthy adults participated in this study. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings were obtained from the Mas and Hyoid muscles, and 15 g of steamed rice and rice cake was prepared as test foods. In the ingestion test, the subjects were asked to eat each food in their usual manner. The chewing duration, number of chewing cycles before the first swallow, Mas and Hyoid EMG activity, and chewing cycle time were compared between the foods. Total chewing duration was divided into three substages: early, middle, and late; chewing cycle time and EMG activity per chewing cycle of each substage were compared between the foods and among the substages. In the spitting test, the rheological properties of the bolus at the end of each substage were compared between the foods and among the substages. Finally, stimulated salivary flow rates were measured and the relationships between salivary flow rate and chewing duration, EMG activity, and changes in physical food characteristics were investigated. There were significant differences in total chewing duration and the number of chewing cycles, but not in chewing cycle time, between the foods, which had similar hardness values. The EMG activity levels of the Mas and Hyoid per chewing cycle for the rice cake were significantly greater than for the steamed rice throughout the recording periods. While Mas activity did not change among the substages during chewing, Hyoid EMG activity decreased as chewing progressed. Chewing cycle time also gradually decreased as chewing progressed. The hardness of both foods initially increased, then gradually decreased

  12. Reduction of Aggressive Behaviors with Changes in Activity: Linking Descriptive and Experimental Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Arlene; Neuharth-Prichett, Stacey; Belfiore, Phillip J.

    1997-01-01

    A study utilized both Descriptive Analysis (DA) and Experimental Analysis (EA) to examine the function of aggressive and destructive behavior for a boy (age 9) with Down syndrome and moderate mental retardation. By linking the two methods, an intervention was designed that decreased the student's aggressive/destructive behavior. (Author/CR)

  13. Changes in CREB activation in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus blunt ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization in adolescent mice

    PubMed Central

    Soares-Simi, Sabrina L.; Pastrello, Daniel M.; Ferreira, Zulma S.; Yonamine, Mauricio; Marcourakis, Tania; Scavone, Cristoforo; Camarini, Rosana

    2013-01-01

    Drug dependence is a major health problem in adults and has been recognized as a significant problem in adolescents. We previously demonstrated that repeated treatment with a behaviorally sensitizing dose of ethanol in adult mice induced tolerance or no sensitization in adolescents and that repeated ethanol-treated adolescents expressed lower Fos and Egr-1 expression than adult mice in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In the present work, we investigated the effects of acute and repeated ethanol administration on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element-binding protein (CREB) DNA-binding activity using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and the phosphorylated CREB (pCREB)/CREB ratio using immunoblotting in both the PFC and hippocampus in adolescent and adult mice. Adult mice exhibited typical locomotor sensitization after 15 days of daily treatment with 2.0 g/kg ethanol, whereas adolescent mice did not exhibit sensitization. Overall, adolescent mice displayed lower CREB binding activity in the PFC compared with adult mice, whereas opposite effects were observed in the hippocampus. The present results indicate that ethanol exposure induces significant and differential neuroadaptive changes in CREB DNA-binding activity in the PFC and hippocampus in adolescent mice compared with adult mice. These differential molecular changes may contribute to the blunted ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization observed in adolescent mice. PMID:24379765

  14. Active Ingredients of Treatment and Client Mechanisms of Change in Behavioral Treatments for Alcohol Use Disorders: Progress 10 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Magill, M.; Kiluk, B.D.; McCrady, B.; Tonigan, J.S.; Longabaugh, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The current review revisits the article entitled: Active Ingredients of Behavioral Treatments for Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) published in Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. This work summarized proceedings from a 2004 Symposium of the same name that was held at the Annual Meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA). A decade has passed, which provides occasion for an evaluation of progress. In 2014, an RSA symposium titled Active Treatment Ingredients and Client Mechanisms of Change in Behavioral Treatments for Alcohol Use Disorders: Progress 10 Years Later did just that. Overview The current review revisits state-of-the-art research on the three treatments examined 10 years ago: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Alcohol Behavior Couples Therapy (ABCT), and Twelve Step Facilitation (TSF). Because of its empirically-validated effectiveness and robust research agenda on the study of process-outcome, Motivational Interviewing (MI) has been selected as the fourth treatment modality to be discussed. For each of these four treatments, the reviewers provide a critical assessment of current theory and research with a special emphasis on key recommendations for the future. Conclusions Noteworthy progress has been made in identifying AITs and MOBCs in these four behavioral interventions for alcohol and other drug use disorders. Not only have we established some of the mechanisms through which these evidence-based treatments work, but we have also uncovered some of the limitations in our existing frameworks and methods. Further progress in this area will require a broader view with respect to conceptual frameworks, analytic methods, and measurement instrumentation. PMID:26344200

  15. Worksite Neighborhood and Obesogenic Behaviors: Findings Among Employees in the Promoting Activity and Changes in Eating (PACE) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Barrington, Wendy E.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Duncan, Glen E.; Moudon, Anne Vernez

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding mechanisms linking neighborhood context to health behaviors may provide targets for increasing lifestyle intervention effectiveness. Although associations between home neighborhood and obesogenic behaviors have been studied, less is known about the role of worksite neighborhood. Purpose To evaluate associations between worksite neighborhood context at baseline (2006) and change in obesogenic behaviors of adult employees at follow-up (2007–2009) in a worksite randomized trial to prevent weight gain. Methods Worksite property values were used as an indicator of worksite neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES). Worksite neighborhood built environment attributes associated with walkability were evaluated as explanatory factors in relationships among worksite NSES, diet, and physical activity behaviors of employees. Behavioral data were collected at baseline (2005–2007) and follow-up (2007–2009). Multilevel linear and logistic models were constructed adjusting for covariates and accounting for clustering within worksites. Product-of-coefficients methods were used to assess mediation. Analyses were performed after study completion (2011–2012). Results Higher worksite NSES was associated with more walking (OR=1.16, 95% CI=1.03, 1.30, p=0.01). Higher density of residential units surrounding worksites was associated with more walking and eating ≥five daily servings of fruits and vegetables, independent of worksite NSES. Residential density partially explained relationships among worksite NSES, fruit and vegetable consumption, and walking. Conclusions Worksite neighborhood context may influence employees’ obesogenic behaviors. Furthermore, residential density around worksites could be an indicator of access to dietary and physical activity–related infrastructure in urban areas. This may be important given the popularity of worksites as venues for obesity prevention efforts. PMID:25442234

  16. Theory-Driven Intervention for Changing Personality: Expectancy Value Theory, Behavioral Activation, and Conscientiousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magidson, Jessica F.; Roberts, Brent W.; Collado-Rodriguez, Anahi; Lejuez, C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that personality traits may be changeable, raising the possibility that personality traits most linked to health problems can be modified with intervention. A growing body of research suggests that problematic personality traits may be altered with behavioral intervention using a bottom-up approach. That is, by…

  17. Change in Predicted Teacher Behavior Based on Experience with an Activity Oriented Elementary Science Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Carl F.

    Reported is a study into the teaching behaviors of elementary science teachers based on the philosophy of Science Curriculum Improvement Study (SCIS). One hundred eighty-four teachers were selected from a large geographical area, having widely differing backgrounds and varying education and/or experience with SCIS programs. The Predicted Role…

  18. A Structured Peer-Mentoring Method for Physical Activity Behavior Change among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Laureen H.; Petosa, Rick L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite national guidelines for regular physical activity, most adolescents are not physically active. Schools serve an estimated 60 million youth and provide an educational environment to meet the current physical activity guidelines. The obesity epidemic and chronic disease comorbidities associated with physical inactivity are not likely to be…

  19. Use of Theory in Behavior Change Interventions: An Analysis of Programs to Increase Physical Activity in Posttreatment Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Bluethmann, Shirley M; Bartholomew, L Kay; Murphy, Caitlin C; Vernon, Sally W

    2016-05-25

    Objective Theory use may enhance effectiveness of behavioral interventions, yet critics question whether theory-based interventions have been sufficiently scrutinized. This study applied a framework to evaluate theory use in physical activity interventions for breast cancer survivors. The aims were to (1) evaluate theory application intensity and (2) assess the association between extensiveness of theory use and intervention effectiveness. Methods Studies were previously identified through a systematic search, including only randomized controlled trials published from 2005 to 2013, that addressed physical activity behavior change and studied survivors who were <5 years posttreatment. Eight theory items from Michie and Prestwich's coding framework were selected to calculate theory intensity scores. Studies were classified into three subgroups based on extensiveness of theory use (Level 1 = sparse; Level 2 = moderate; and Level 3 = extensive). Results Fourteen randomized controlled trials met search criteria. Most trials used the transtheoretical model (n = 5) or social cognitive theory (n = 3). For extensiveness of theory use, 5 studies were classified as Level 1, 4 as Level 2, and 5 as Level 3. Studies in the extensive group (Level 3) had the largest overall effect size (g = 0.76). Effects were more modest in Level 1 and 2 groups with overall effect sizes of g = 0.28 and g = 0.36, respectively. Conclusions Theory use is often viewed as essential to behavior change, but theory application varies widely. In this study, there was some evidence to suggest that extensiveness of theory use enhanced intervention effectiveness. However, there is more to learn about how theory can improve interventions for breast cancer survivors.

  20. Scaling Climate Change Communication for Behavior Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, V. C.; Lappé, M.; Flora, J. A.; Ardoin, N. M.; Robinson, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    Ultimately, effective climate change communication results in a change in behavior, whether the change is individual, household or collective actions within communities. We describe two efforts to promote climate-friendly behavior via climate communication and behavior change theory. Importantly these efforts are designed to scale climate communication principles focused on behavior change rather than soley emphasizing climate knowledge or attitudes. Both cases are embedded in rigorous evaluations (randomized controlled trial and quasi-experimental) of primary and secondary outcomes as well as supplementary analyses that have implications for program refinement and program scaling. In the first case, the Girl Scouts "Girls Learning Environment and Energy" (GLEE) trial is scaling the program via a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for Troop Leaders to teach the effective home electricity and food and transportation energy reduction programs. The second case, the Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) Assembly Program, is advancing the already-scaled assembly program by using communication principles to further engage youth and their families and communities (school and local communities) in individual and collective actions. Scaling of each program uses online learning platforms, social media and "behavior practice" videos, mastery practice exercises, virtual feedback and virtual social engagement to advance climate-friendly behavior change. All of these communication practices aim to simulate and advance in-person train-the-trainers technologies.As part of this presentation we outline scaling principles derived from these two climate change communication and behavior change programs.

  1. "Hidden" social networks in behavior change interventions.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Ruth F; McAneney, Helen; Davis, Michael; Tully, Mark A; Valente, Thomas W; Kee, Frank

    2015-03-01

    We investigated whether "hidden" (or unobserved) social networks were evident in a 2011 physical activity behavior change intervention in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Results showed evidence of unobserved social networks in the intervention and illustrated how the network evolved over short periods and affected behavior. Behavior change interventions should account for the interaction among participants (i.e., social networks) and how such interactions affect intervention outcome.

  2. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations.

  3. Psychosocial Predictors of Changes in Adolescent Girls' Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors over the Course of the "Go Girls!" Group-Based Mentoring Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, A. Justine; Chen, Michelle Y.; Schmader, Toni; Jung, Mary E.; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Beauchamp, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in social cognitions targeted within a group-based mentoring program for adolescent girls were examined as predictors of changes in physical activity (PA) and dietary behavior (in two separate models) over the course of the 7-week program. Data were collected from 310 participants who participated in the program. Multilevel path models…

  4. Association between Adolescents' Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors with Change in BMI and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the association between physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) patterns during adolescents on the future increase in BMI and risk of diabetes during young adulthood. A total of 3,717 participants aged 11 to 21 at baseline who completed Waves I (1994–1995), II (1996), III (2001–2002), and IV (2008) surveys of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were analyzed. Physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns were assessed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire at Waves I, II, and III. A participant was classified as having diabetes at Wave IV according to WHO guidelines. The k-means cluster analysis was used to identify the number of PA and SB patterns assessed using interviewer-administered questionnaire. The k-means cluster analysis identified three clusters; 575 (15.5%), 2,140 (57.6%), and 1,002 (27.0%) participants belonged to the low PA high SB (LPAHSB), the LPALSB, and the HPALSB cluster respectively. Relative to the LPALSB cluster, the HPALSB cluster had lower increase in BMI from Wave III to Wave IV (P = 0.03), whereas the difference between LPAHSB cluster and LPALSB cluster was not significant (P = 0.09). The odds of developing diabetes at Wave IV was significant for the LPAHSB cluster (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.04, 2.75) but not significant for the HPALSB cluster (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.52, 1.47) relative to the LPALSB cluster. To conclude, PA but not SB during adolescence predicted change in BMI during young adulthood. SB but not PA during adolescence predicted type 2 diabetes during young adulthood. PMID:25340773

  5. Genipin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced persistent changes of emotional behaviors and neural activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and the central amygdala nucleus.

    PubMed

    Araki, Ryota; Hiraki, Yosuke; Yabe, Takeshi

    2014-10-15

    Sickness behavior is a series of behavioral and psychological changes that develop in inflammatory disease, including infections and cancers. Administration of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces sickness behavior in rodents. Genipin, an aglycon derived from an iridoid glycoside geniposide extracted from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides, has anti-inflammatory and antidepressant activities. However, the effects of genipin on inflammation-induced changes in emotional behaviors are unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of genipin on LPS-induced inflammation in BV-2 cells and sickness behavior in mice. Pretreatment with genipin inhibited LPS-induced increases in NO production and reduced the mRNA levels of inflammation-related genes (iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β and IL-6) in BV-2 cells. Oral administration of genipin ameliorated LPS-induced depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test and social behavior deficits 24h after LPS administration in mice. LPS-induced expression of mRNAs for inflammation-related genes and the number of c-fos immunopositive cells decreased in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), suggesting that genipin attenuates LPS-induced changes of emotional behaviors through inhibition of neural activation and inflammatory responses in the PVN and CeA. These novel pharmacological effects of genipin may be useful for treatment of patients with sickness behavior.

  6. The mesencephalic trigeminal sensory nucleus is involved in acquisition of active exploratory behavior induced by changing from a diet of exclusively milk formula to food pellets in mice.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Toshiaki; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Kitamura, Nobuo; Muroi, Yoshikage; Nishimura, Masakazu

    2006-09-21

    Post-weaning mice fed exclusively milk display low-frequency exploratory behavior [Ishii, T., Itou, T., and Nishimura, M. (2005) Life Sci. 78, 174-179] compared to mice fed a food pellet diet. This low-frequency exploratory behavior switched to high-frequency exploration after a switch from exclusively milk formula to a food pellet diet. Acquisition of the high-frequency exploratory behavior was irreversible. Recently, we demonstrated that the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Me5) is involved in the control of feeding and exploratory behavior in mice without modulating the emotional state [Ishii, T., Furuoka, H., Itou, T., Kitamura, N., and Nishimura, M. (2005) Brain Res. 1048, 80-86]. We therefore investigated whether the Me5 is involved in acquisition of high-frequency exploratory behavior induced by the switch in diet from an exclusively milk formula to food pellets. Mouse feeding and exploratory behaviors were analyzed using a food search compulsion apparatus, which was designed to distinguish between the two behaviors under standard living conditions. Immunohistochemical analysis of immediate early genes indicated that the Me5, which receives signals from oral proprioceptors, is transiently activated after the diet change. The change from low-frequency to high-frequency exploratory behavior was prevented in milk-fed mice by bilateral lesion of the Me5. These results suggest that the Me5 is activated by signals associated with mastication-induced proprioception and contributes to the acquisition of active exploratory behavior.

  7. Endogenous opiates mediate radiogenic behavioral change. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.

    1983-06-10

    Exposure of C57BL/6J mice to ionizing radiation caused stereotypical locomotor hyperactivity similar to that produced by morphine. Naloxone administration prevented this radiation-induced behavioral activation. These results support the hypothesis that endorphins are involved in some aspects of radiogenic behavioral change.

  8. Endogenous opiates mediate radiogenic behavioral change

    SciTech Connect

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.

    1983-07-10

    Exposure of C57BL/6J mice to ionizing radiation caused stereotypical locomotor hyperactivity similar to that produced by morphine. Naloxone administration prevented this radiation-induced behavioral activation. These results support the hypothesis that endorphins are involved in some aspects of radiogenic behavioral change.

  9. The impact of ethnic identity on changes in high risk HIV behaviors in sexually active migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Shehadeh, Nancy; Virginia McCoy, H; Rubens, Muni; Batra, Anamica; Renfrew, Roderick; Winter, Kelly

    2012-02-01

    Among migrant workers (MWs) in the US, HIV/AIDS prevalence may be as high as 13.5%. This serial cross-sectional study examines associations between Ethnic Identity (EI) in African American and Hispanic MWs and short-term changes in high-risk sexual behaviors. Baseline and 3-month follow-up data was collected from a larger HIV intervention study among MWs in Immokalee, Florida (n = 119) who reported unprotected sex in the past 30 days. The Multigroup Identity Measure was used to assess EI. A high EI score indicates less acculturation to one's new surroundings. Females had higher levels of positive behavior change. Lower EI was associated with higher levels of positive change in relation to HIV/AIDS risk behavior. Among Hispanics, education was negatively correlated with EI. Education was a predictor of behavior change. Future interventions should focus on reducing acculturation stress, which may prompt harmful coping behaviors, such as high-risk sex and substance abuse.

  10. Changing Attitudes Through Behavior Modification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whipple, W. Scott

    This article describes the philosophy and methods used by the staff at the Granite Alternative School in changing student attitudes through behavior modification. The students involved all have a failure syndrome or low self-image, and are dropouts from traditional high schools. Among the techniques used are: (1) reinforcing good behavior (praise…

  11. Social Cognitive and Planned Behavior Variables Associated with Stages of Change for Physical Activity in Spinal Cord Injury: A Multivariate Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, John; Ditchman, Nicole; Dutta, Alo; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Muller, Veronica; Chan, Fong; Kundu, Madan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To apply the constructs of social cognitive theory (SCT) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to understand the stages of change (SOC) for physical activities among individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Method: Ex post facto design using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The participants were 144 individuals with SCI…

  12. Muscle co-activity tuning in Parkinsonian hand movement: disease-specific changes at behavioral and cerebral level

    PubMed Central

    van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; Toxopeus, C. M.; de Jong, B. M.; Yavuz, P.; Valsan, G.; Conway, B. A.; Leenders, K. L.; Maurits, N. M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated simple directional hand movements based on different degrees of muscle co-activity, at behavioral and cerebral level in healthy subjects and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We compared “singular” movements, dominated by the activity of one agonist muscle, to “composite” movements, requiring conjoint activity of multiple muscles, in a center-out (right hand) step-tracking task. Behavioral parameters were obtained by EMG and kinematic recordings. fMRI was used to investigate differences in underlying brain activations between PD patients (N = 12) and healthy (age-matched) subjects (N = 18). In healthy subjects, composite movements recruited the striatum and cortical areas comprising bilaterally the supplementary motor area and premotor cortex, contralateral medial prefrontal cortex, primary motor cortex, primary visual cortex, and ipsilateral superior parietal cortex. Contrarily, the ipsilateral cerebellum was more involved in singular movements. This striking dichotomy between striatal and cortical recruitment vs. cerebellar involvement was considered to reflect the complementary roles of these areas in motor control, in which the basal ganglia are involved in movement selection and the cerebellum in movement optimization. Compared to healthy subjects, PD patients showed decreased activation of the striatum and cortical areas in composite movement, while performing worse at behavioral level. This implies that PD patients are especially impaired on tasks requiring highly tuned muscle co-activity. Singular movement, on the other hand, was characterized by a combination of increased activation of the ipsilateral parietal cortex and left cerebellum. As singular movement performance was only slightly compromised, we interpret this as a reflection of increased visuospatial processing, possibly as a compensational mechanism. PMID:26300761

  13. Adolescent Behavior Change: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Educational Programs and Studies Information Service.

    This focus paper contains reprints of 11 articles intended to provide an overview of the key issues in the area of adolescent behavior change as it relates to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) education. Included are: (1) "Preventing HIV Infection and AIDS in Children and Adolescents" (J.…

  14. Pro-Active Behavior Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, James E., Jr.

    The paper outlines the basic tactics in pro-active behavior management, a behavior modification approach for use with severely handicapped students which reorders the staff/student relationship by focusing on positive interaction. Pro-active behavior management is noted to involve interruption of established behavior chains, environmental…

  15. Activation patterns in superficial layers of neocortex change between experiences independent of behavior, environment, or the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Takehara-Nishiuchi, Kaori; Insel, Nathan; Hoang, Lan T; Wagner, Zachary; Olson, Kathy; Chawla, Monica K; Burke, Sara N; Barnes, Carol A

    2013-09-01

    Previous work suggests that activation patterns of neurons in superficial layers of the neocortex are more sensitive to spatial context than activation patterns in deep cortical layers. A possible source of this laminar difference is the distribution of contextual information to the superficial cortical layers carried by hippocampal efferents that travel through the entorhinal cortex and subiculum. To evaluate the role that the hippocampus plays in determining context sensitivity in superficial cortical layers, behavior-induced expression of the immediate early gene Arc was examined in hippocampus-lesioned and control rats after exposing them to 2 distinct contexts. Contrary to expectations, hippocampal lesions had no observable effect on Arc expression in any neocortical layer relative to controls. Furthermore, another group of intact animals was exposed to the same environment twice, to determine the reliability of Arc-expression patterns across identical contextual and behavioral episodes. Although this condition included no difference in external input between 2 epochs, the significant layer differences in Arc expression still remained. Thus, laminar differences in activation or plasticity patterns are not likely to arise from hippocampal sources or differences in external inputs, but are more likely to be an intrinsic property of the neocortex.

  16. Psychosocial and Environmental Determinants of Eating Behaviors, Physical Activity, and Weight Change among College Students: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCaille, Lara J.; Dauner, Kim Nichols; Krambeer, Rachel J.; Pedersen, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to identify factors that college students perceived as contributing to healthy and unhealthy eating patterns, physical activity (PA) levels, and weight change. Participants: Forty-nine 18- to 22-year-old students at a midwestern university participated. Methods: Six focus groups (3 with each gender) were…

  17. Behavior Change and the Freshman 15: Tracking Physical Activity and Dietary Patterns in 1st-Year University Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Mary Elizabeth; Bray, Steven Russell; Ginis, Kathleen Anne Martin

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors assessed the stability of diet and physical activity and their relationship to weight changes in first-year university women. Methods: They collected anthropometric and body composition data from 101 resident women at the beginning of their first year of college and again at 12 months. The authors obtained…

  18. Health Behavior Change Challenge: Understanding Stages of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Claire F.

    2011-01-01

    This semester-long activity requires students to reflect on their own strengths and weaknesses in attempting to take on a personally meaningful health behavior change challenge. This assignment affords them the opportunity to take a deeper look at theory and health concepts learned throughout the semester and to see how it has informed their own…

  19. Changes in intentions, planning, and self-efficacy predict changes in behaviors: an application of latent true change modeling.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Tabea; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Wiedemann, Amelie U; Geiser, Christian; Lippke, Sonia; Schüz, Benjamin; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2010-09-01

    Can latent true changes in intention, planning, and self-efficacy account for latent change in two health behaviors (physical activity as well as fruit and vegetable intake)? Baseline data on predictors and behaviors and corresponding follow-up data four weeks later were collected from 853 participants. Interindividual differences in change and change-change associations were analyzed using structural equation modeling. For both behaviors, similar prediction patterns were found: changes in intention and self-efficacy predicted changes in planning, which in turn corresponded to changes in behavior. This evidence confirms that change predicts change, which is an inherent precondition in behavior change theories.

  20. Cognitive processes mediating behavioral change.

    PubMed

    Bandura, A; Adams, N E; Beyer, J

    1977-03-01

    The present experiment was designed to test the theory that psychological procedures achieve changes in behavior by altering the level and strength of self-efficacy. In this formulation, perceived self-efficacy. In this formulation, perceived self-efficacy influences level of performance by enhancing intensity and persistence of effort. Adult phobics were administered treatments based upon either performance mastery experiences, vicarious experiences., or they received no treatment. Their efficacy expectations and approach behavior toward threats differing on a similarity dimension were measured before and after treatment. In accord with our prediction, the mastery-based treatment produced higher, stronger, and more generalized expectations of personal efficacy than did the treatment relying solely upon vicarious experiences. Results of a microanalysis further confirm the hypothesized relationship between self-efficacy and behavioral change. Self-efficacy was a uniformly accurate predictor of performance on tasks of varying difficulty with different threats regardless of whether the changes in self-efficacy were produced through enactive mastery or by vicarious experience alone.

  1. Behavior Change Outcomes of Marathon Group Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhlemann, Max R.; Weigel, Richard G.

    1977-01-01

    This study evaluated behavior change occurring after a marathon group experience, with a focus on individualized rather than shared behavioral change criteria. The individualization of behavior change criteria is based on the assertion that few, if any, single change criteria are appropriate or realistic for assessing change in all individuals.…

  2. IJBNPA in 2016: Strategy for advancing the science of behavior change in nutrition and physical activity, and associated editorial priorities.

    PubMed

    Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley

    2016-07-11

    The goal of the International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (IJBNPA) is to be the leading diet and physical activity journal. To achieve this aim we embrace and publish a number of different research designs from small, but in depth, qualitative studies to large scale cohort studies. IJBNPA prioritises research based on randomised controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews (with or without meta-analyses, as appropriate), and well conducted observational studies that expand knowledge and understanding of the area. IJBNPA will also consider and publish other study designs that are of sufficient quality such as strong or ground-breaking methodological papers, rigorous qualitative studies, debate papers and commentaries. However, due to the demands on the journal, we publish pilot studies only in exceptional circumstances and we do not publish protocol papers or letters to the editors. The goal of this editorial is to highlight to our readers and authors the process by which we identify which papers to review and publish along with our editorial priorities.

  3. Counseling and Behavior Change in Pediatric Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Wilfley, Denise E.; Kass, Andrea E.; Kolko, Rachel P.

    2013-01-01

    To effectively intervene with overweight and obese youth, it is imperative that primary care providers and behavioral interventionists work in concert to help families implement healthy behaviors across socioenvironmental domains (i.e., family/home, peer, community). As health care providers are often the first line of intervention for families, one critical component to implementing the socioenvironmental approach is to infuse intervention strategies into the primary care setting. In this paper, we review current office-based counseling practices and provide evidence-based recommendations for addressing weight status and strategies for encouraging behavior change with children and families, primarily by increasing social support. By providing such collaborative, targeted efforts, consistent health messages and support will be delivered across children’s everyday contexts, thereby helping youth to achieve successful implementation of eating and activity behaviors and sustainable weight loss outcomes. PMID:22093859

  4. HIV counseling for behavior change.

    PubMed

    Grinstead, O A

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this paper was to provide a framework for discussion in the working group on HIV Counseling for Behavior Change at the Third USAID HIV/AIDS Prevention Conference. The paper begins with a section defining HIV counseling and describing different types of HIV counseling. Next, points of consensus and controversy regarding the conduct and evaluation of HIV counseling are discussed. This is followed by a section outlining findings to date on the effectiveness of HIV counseling, and a discussion of methodological issues in evaluating counseling outcomes. Finally, the paper includes a list of key issues for further research.

  5. Patient Teaching To Promote Behavioral Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarmann, Lembi; Daugherty, JoAnn; Riegel, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    Patient education is an essential component of nurses' professional role. Research on effective patient teaching suggests the efficacy of a combined approach to behavior change: stages of change, motivational interviewing, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. (Contains 51 references.) (JOW)

  6. Altered resting-state neural activity and changes following a craving behavioral intervention for Internet gaming disorder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Tao; Yao, Yuan-Wei; Potenza, Marc N; Xia, Cui-Cui; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Liu, Ben; Ma, Shan-Shan; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2016-07-06

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has become a serious mental health issue worldwide. Evaluating the benefits of interventions for IGD is of great significance. Thirty-six young adults with IGD and 19 healthy comparison (HC) subjects were recruited and underwent resting-state fMRI scanning. Twenty IGD subjects participated in a group craving behavioral intervention (CBI) and were scanned before and after the intervention. The remaining 16 IGD subjects did not receive an intervention. The results showed that IGD subjects showed decreased amplitude of low fluctuation in the orbital frontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, and exhibited increased resting-state functional connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, compared with HC subjects. Compared with IGD subjects who did not receive the intervention, those receiving CBI demonstrated significantly reduced resting-state functional connectivity between the: (1) orbital frontal cortex with hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus; and, (2) posterior cingulate cortex with supplementary motor area, precentral gyrus, and postcentral gyrus. These findings suggest that IGD is associated with abnormal resting-state neural activity in reward-related, default mode and executive control networks. Thus, the CBI may exert effects by reducing interactions between regions within a reward-related network, and across the default mode and executive control networks.

  7. Altered resting-state neural activity and changes following a craving behavioral intervention for Internet gaming disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin-Tao; Yao, Yuan-Wei; Potenza, Marc N.; Xia, Cui-Cui; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Liu, Ben; Ma, Shan-Shan; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has become a serious mental health issue worldwide. Evaluating the benefits of interventions for IGD is of great significance. Thirty-six young adults with IGD and 19 healthy comparison (HC) subjects were recruited and underwent resting-state fMRI scanning. Twenty IGD subjects participated in a group craving behavioral intervention (CBI) and were scanned before and after the intervention. The remaining 16 IGD subjects did not receive an intervention. The results showed that IGD subjects showed decreased amplitude of low fluctuation in the orbital frontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, and exhibited increased resting-state functional connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, compared with HC subjects. Compared with IGD subjects who did not receive the intervention, those receiving CBI demonstrated significantly reduced resting-state functional connectivity between the: (1) orbital frontal cortex with hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus; and, (2) posterior cingulate cortex with supplementary motor area, precentral gyrus, and postcentral gyrus. These findings suggest that IGD is associated with abnormal resting-state neural activity in reward-related, default mode and executive control networks. Thus, the CBI may exert effects by reducing interactions between regions within a reward-related network, and across the default mode and executive control networks. PMID:27381822

  8. Activity changes in jaw motor neurons induced by egg-laying hormone contribute to the feeding suppression during egg-laying behavior in Aplysia kurodai.

    PubMed

    Narusuye, Kenji; Hamaguchi, Aya; Nagahama, Tatsumi

    2013-01-01

    Egg-laying behavior in Aplysia is accompanied by behavioral changes such as feeding suppression. We investigated the effects of the egg-laying hormone (ELH) on food intake, the activity patterns of jaw muscles, and the activity of buccal neurons (multi-action neuron [MA1] and jaw-closing motor neuron [JC2]), which are elements of the feeding neural circuits controlling jaw movements in Aplysia kurodai. Injection of ELH into the body cavity inhibited the intake of seaweed. After ELH application, the rhythmic activity of jaw muscles that was induced by preferred taste stimulation elicited fewer ingestion-like responses and increased the number of rejection-like responses. ELH applied to the buccal ganglia increased the firing activity of JC2 during spontaneous rhythmic responses and during the rhythmic feeding-like responses that were evoked by electrical stimulation of the esophageal nerves. In the 2 types of rhythmic responses, the Dn (normalized value of the delay time of JC2 firing onset) decreased after ELH application as compared with the control. Furthermore, ELH decreased the size of MA1-induced inhibitory postsynaptic currents in JC2. These results suggest that ELH changes the buccal motor program from ingestion to rejection on the basis of our previous results, and may contribute to a decrease in food intake during egg laying.

  9. Climate Change: An Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Garry

    1995-01-01

    Presents a segment of the Geoscience Education booklet, Climate Change, that contains information and activities that enable students to gain a better appreciation of the possible effects human activity has on the Earth's climate. Describes the Terrace Temperatures activity that leads students through an investigation using foraminifera data to…

  10. Can a Free Wearable Activity Tracker Change Behavior? The Impact of Trackers on Adults in a Physician-Led Wellness Group

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbluth, Sandra; Phillips, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Background Wearable activity trackers (trackers) are increasingly popular devices used to track step count and other health indicators. Trackers have the potential to benefit those in need of increased physical activity, such as adults who are older and face significant health challenges. These populations are least likely to purchase trackers and most likely to face challenges in using them, yet may derive educational, motivational, and health benefits from their use once these barriers are removed. Objective The aim of this pilot research is to investigate the use of trackers by adults with chronic medical conditions who have never used trackers previously. Specifically, we aim to determine (1) if participants would accept and use trackers to increase their physical activity; (2) if there were barriers to use besides cost and training; (3) if trackers would educate participants on their baseline and ongoing activity levels and support behavior change; and (4) if clinical outcomes would show improvements in participants’ health. Methods This study was conducted with patients (N=10) in a 12-week physician-led wellness group offered by Family Doctors, LLC. Patients were given trackers in the second week of The Wellness Group and were interviewed 2 to 4 weeks after it ended. The study investigators analyzed the interview notes to extract themes about the participants’ attitudes and behavior changes and collected and analyzed participants’ clinical data, including weight and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol over the course of the study. Results Over the 12 to 14 weeks of tracker use, improvements were seen in clinical outcomes, attitudes towards the trackers, and physical activity behaviors. Participants lost an average of 0.5 lbs per week (SD 0.4), with a mean total weight loss of 5.97 lbs (P=.004). Other short-term clinical outcomes included a 9.2% decrease in LDL levels (P=.038). All participants reported an increase in well-being and confidence in

  11. Why behavior change is difficult to sustain.

    PubMed

    Bouton, Mark E

    2014-11-01

    Unhealthy behavior is responsible for much human disease, and a common goal of contemporary preventive medicine is therefore to encourage behavior change. However, while behavior change often seems easy in the short run, it can be difficult to sustain. This article provides a selective review of research from the basic learning and behavior laboratory that provides some insight into why. The research suggests that methods used to create behavior change (including extinction, counterconditioning, punishment, reinforcement of alternative behavior, and abstinence reinforcement) tend to inhibit, rather than erase, the original behavior. Importantly, the inhibition, and thus behavior change more generally, is often specific to the "context" in which it is learned. In support of this view, the article discusses a number of lapse and relapse phenomena that occur after behavior has been changed (renewal, spontaneous recovery, reinstatement, rapid reacquisition, and resurgence). The findings suggest that changing a behavior can be an inherently unstable and unsteady process; frequent lapses should be expected. In the long run, behavior-change therapies might benefit from paying attention to the context in which behavior change occurs.

  12. Rewarding safe behavior: strategies for change.

    PubMed

    Fell-Carlson, Deborah

    2004-12-01

    Effective, sustainable safety incentives are integrated into a performance management system designed to encourage long term behavior change. Effective incentive program design integrates the fundamental considerations of compensation (i.e., valence, instrumentality, expectancy, equity) with behavior change theory in the context of a strong merit based performance management system. Clear expectations are established and communicated from the time applicants apply for the position. Feedback and social recognition are leveraged and used as rewards, in addition to financial incentives built into the compensation system and offered periodically as short term incentives. Rewards are tied to specific objectives intended to influence specific behaviors. Objectives are designed to challenge employees, providing opportunities to grow and enhance their sense of belonging. Safety contests and other awareness activities are most effective when used to focus safety improvement efforts on specific behaviors or processes, for a predetermined period of time, in the context of a comprehensive safety system. Safety incentive programs designed around injury outcomes can result in unintended, and undesirable, consequences. Safety performance can be leveraged by integrating safety into corporate cultural indicators. Symbols of safety remind employees of corporate safety goals and objectives (e.g., posted safety goals and integrating safety into corporate mission and vision). Rites and ceremonies provide opportunities for social recognition and feedback and demonstrate safety is a corporate value. Feedback opportunities, rewards, and social recognition all provide content for corporate legends, those stories embellished over time, that punctuate the overall system of organizational norms, and provide examples of the organizational safety culture in action.

  13. Changing Behaviors by Changing the Classroom Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guardino, Caroline A.; Fullerton, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This case study explores the possibility of affecting classroom behaviors by modifying the classroom environment. Although this type of research previously has been conducted in self-contained special education classrooms (Guardino, 2009), this is the first study to explore modifications in an inclusive classroom. The results of this study align…

  14. Long-Term Treatment with Losartan Attenuates Seizure Activity and Neuronal Damage Without Affecting Behavioral Changes in a Model of Co-morbid Hypertension and Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tchekalarova, Jana D; Ivanova, Natasha; Atanasova, Dimitrina; Pechlivanova, Daniela M; Lazarov, Nikolai; Kortenska, Lidia; Mitreva, Rumiana; Lozanov, Valentin; Stoynev, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Over the last 10 years, accumulated experimental and clinical evidence has supported the idea that AT1 receptor subtype is involved in epilepsy. Recently, we have shown that the selective AT1 receptor antagonist losartan attenuates epileptogenesis and exerts neuroprotection in the CA1 area of the hippocampus in epileptic Wistar rats. This study aimed to verify the efficacy of long-term treatment with losartan (10 mg/kg) after kainate-induced status epilepticus (SE) on seizure activity, behavioral and biochemical changes, and neuronal damage in a model of co-morbid hypertension and epilepsy. Spontaneous seizures were video- and EEG-monitored in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) for a 16-week period after SE. The behavior was analyzed by open field, elevated plus maze, sugar preference test, and forced swim test. The levels of serotonin in the hippocampus and neuronal loss were estimated by HPLC and hematoxylin and eosin staining, respectively. The AT1 receptor antagonism delayed the onset of seizures and alleviated their frequency and duration during and after discontinuation of treatment. Losartan showed neuroprotection mostly in the CA3 area of the hippocampus and the septo-temporal hilus of the dentate gyrus in SHRs. However, the AT1 receptor antagonist did not exert a substantial influence on concomitant with epilepsy behavioral changes and decreased 5-HT levels in the hippocampus. Our results suggest that the antihypertensive therapy with an AT1 receptor blocker might be effective against seizure activity and neuronal damage in a co-morbid hypertension and epilepsy.

  15. Identifying Opinion Leaders to Promote Behavior Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Thomas W.; Pumpuang, Patchareeya

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews 10 techniques used to identify opinion leaders to promote behavior change. Opinion leaders can act as gatekeepers for interventions, help change social norms, and accelerate behavior change. Few studies document the manner in which opinion leaders are identified, recruited, and trained to promote health. The authors categorize…

  16. Development of new physical activity and sedentary behavior change self-efficacy questionnaires using item response modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theoretically, increased levels of physical activity self-efficacy (PASE) should lead to increased physical activity, but few studies have reported this effect among youth. This failure may be at least partially attributable to measurement limitations. In this study, Item Response Modeling (IRM) was...

  17. Massage Changes Babies' Body, Brain and Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Chihiro; Shiga, Takashi

    Tactile stimulation is an important factor in mother-infant interactions. Many studies on both human and animals have shown that tactile stimulation during the neonatal period has various beneficial effects in the subsequent growth of the body and brain. In particular, massage is often applied to preterm human babies as “touch care”, because tactile stimulation together with kinesthetic stimulation increases body weight, which is accompanied by behavioral development and the changes of endocrine and neural conditions. Among them, the elevation of insulin-like growth factor-1, catecholamine, and vagus nerve activity may underlie the body weight gain. Apart from the body weight gain, tactile stimulation has various effects on the nervous system and endocrine system. For example, it has been reported that tactile stimulation on human and animal babies activates parasympathetic nervous systems, while suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalcortical (HPA) axis, which may be related to the reduction of emotionality, anxiety-like behavior, and pain sensitivity. In addition, animal experiments have shown that tactile stimulation improves learning and memory. Facilitation of the neuronal activity and the morphological changes including the hippocampal synapse may underlie the improvement of the learning and memory. In conclusion, it has been strongly suggested that tactile stimulation in early life has beneficial effects on body, brain structure and function, which are maintained throughout life.

  18. It’s About Me: Patients’ Experiences of Patient Participation in the Web Behavior Change Program for Activity in Combination With Multimodal Pain Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Michaelson, Peter; Eriksson, Margareta K; Gard, Gunvor

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients’ participation in their health care is recognized as a key component in high-quality health care. Persons with persistent pain are recommended treatments with a cognitive approach from a biopsychosocial explanation of pain, in which a patient’s active participation in their rehabilitation is in focus. Web-based interventions for pain management have the potential to increase patient participation by enabling persons to play a more active role in rehabilitation. However, little is known about patients’ experiences of patient participation in Web-based interventions in clinical practice. Objective The objective of our study was to explore patients’ experiences of patient participation in a Web Behavior Change Program for Activity (Web-BCPA) in combination with multimodal rehabilitation (MMR) among patients with persistent pain in primary health care. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 women and 4 men, with a mean age of 45 years. Data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Results One theme, “It’s about me,” and 4 categories, “Take part in a flexible framework of own priority,” “Acquire knowledge and insights,” “Ways toward change,” and “Personal and environmental conditions influencing participation,” were developed. Patient participation was depicted as being confirmed in an individualized and structured rehabilitation framework of one’s own choice. Being confirmed was fundamental to patient participation in the interaction with the Web-BCPA and with the health care professionals in MMR. To acquire knowledge and insights about pain and their life situation, through self-reflection in the solitary work in the Web-BCPA and through feedback from the health care professionals in MMR, was experienced as patient participation by the participants. Patient participation was described as structured ways to reach their goals of behavior change, which included analyzing resources and restrictions

  19. “Hidden” Social Networks in Behavior Change Interventions

    PubMed Central

    McAneney, Helen; Davis, Michael; Tully, Mark A.; Valente, Thomas W.; Kee, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether “hidden” (or unobserved) social networks were evident in a 2011 physical activity behavior change intervention in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Results showed evidence of unobserved social networks in the intervention and illustrated how the network evolved over short periods and affected behavior. Behavior change interventions should account for the interaction among participants (i.e., social networks) and how such interactions affect intervention outcome. PMID:25602895

  20. Left Lateral Prefrontal Activity Reflects a Change of Behavioral Tactics to Cope with a Given Rule: An fNIRS Study

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Naoki; Shirasawa, Naoko; Kanoh, Shin’ichiro

    2016-01-01

    catch the red-colored ball. Thus, activation of the left LPFC corresponded more closely to the increase in cognitive control underlying the behavioral change made to cope with the additional rule. PMID:27847475

  1. Motor Behavior Activates Bergmann Glial Networks

    PubMed Central

    Nimmerjahn, Axel; Mukamel, Eran A.; Schnitzer, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Although it is firmly established neuronal activity is a prime determinant of animal behavior, relationships between astrocytic excitation and animal behavior have remained opaque. Cerebellar Bergmann glia are radial astrocytes that are implicated in motor behavior and exhibit Ca2+-excitation. However, Ca2+-excitation in these cells has not previously been studied in behaving animals. Using two-photon microscopy we found that Bergmann glia exhibit three forms of Ca2+-excitation in awake behaving mice. Two of these are ongoing within the cerebellar vermis. During locomotor performance concerted Ca2+-excitation arises in networks of at least hundreds of Bergmann glia extending across several hundred microns or more. Concerted Ca2+-excitation was abolished by anesthesia or blockade of either neural activity or glutamatergic transmission. Thus, large networks of Bergmann glia can be activated by specific animal behaviors and undergo excitation of sufficient magnitude to potentially initiate macroscopic changes in brain dynamics or blood flow. PMID:19447095

  2. Effects of Three Motivationally Targeted Mobile Device Applications on Initial Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Change in Midlife and Older Adults: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hekler, Eric B.; Grieco, Lauren A.; Winter, Sandra J.; Sheats, Jylana L.; Buman, Matthew P.; Banerjee, Banny; Robinson, Thomas N.; Cirimele, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    . Analytic app: d = 1.89,CI = 1.17, 2.61; Affect vs. Control app: d = 1.19,CI = 0.56, 1.81; Affect vs. Analytic app: d = 1.41,CI = 0.74, 2.07). Conclusion The results provide initial support for the use of a smartphone-delivered social frame in the early induction of both physical activity and sedentary behavior changes. The information obtained also sets the stage for further investigation of subgroups that might particularly benefit from different motivationally framed apps in these two key health promotion areas. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01516411 PMID:27352250

  3. Behavioral interventions for office-based care: behavior change.

    PubMed

    Delfino, Matthew; Larzelere, Michele McCarthy

    2014-03-01

    Family physicians play an important role in identifying and treating the behavioral etiologies of morbidity and mortality. Changing behavior is a challenging process that begins with identifying a patient's readiness to change. Interventions, such as motivational interviewing, are used to increase a patient's desire to change, and cognitive behavioral therapy can be initiated to increase a patient's likelihood of change, particularly if barriers are identified. After patients embark on change, family physicians are uniquely positioned to connect them to self-help programs, more intensive psychotherapy, and newer technology-based support programs, and to provide repeated, brief, positive reinforcement. Specific behavioral interventions that can be effective include computerized smoking cessation programs; electronic reminders and support delivered by family physicians or other clinicians for weight loss; linkage to community-based programs for seniors; increased length and demands of in-school programs to support exercise participation by children; and access reduction education to prevent firearm injury.

  4. Dutch Young Adults Ratings of Behavior Change Techniques Applied in Mobile Phone Apps to Promote Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Belmon, Laura S; te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background Interventions delivered through new device technology, including mobile phone apps, appear to be an effective method to reach young adults. Previous research indicates that self-efficacy and social support for physical activity and self-regulation behavior change techniques (BCT), such as goal setting, feedback, and self-monitoring, are important for promoting physical activity; however, little is known about evaluations by the target population of BCTs applied to physical activity apps and whether these preferences are associated with individual personality characteristics. Objective This study aimed to explore young adults’ opinions regarding BCTs (including self-regulation techniques) applied in mobile phone physical activity apps, and to examine associations between personality characteristics and ratings of BCTs applied in physical activity apps. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among healthy 18 to 30-year-old adults (N=179). Data on participants’ gender, age, height, weight, current education level, living situation, mobile phone use, personality traits, exercise self-efficacy, exercise self-identity, total physical activity level, and whether participants met Dutch physical activity guidelines were collected. Items for rating BCTs applied in physical activity apps were selected from a hierarchical taxonomy for BCTs, and were clustered into three BCT categories according to factor analysis: “goal setting and goal reviewing,” “feedback and self-monitoring,” and “social support and social comparison.” Results Most participants were female (n=146), highly educated (n=169), physically active, and had high levels of self-efficacy. In general, we observed high ratings of BCTs aimed to increase “goal setting and goal reviewing” and “feedback and self-monitoring,” but not for BCTs addressing “social support and social comparison.” Only 3 (out of 16 tested) significant associations between personality

  5. Children's Emotion and Behavior In Painting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, I-Ju

    2013-01-01

    This study adopted various methods such as qualitative research, observation, interviews, and document collection to examine the emotional responses, behavior changes, and counseling effects on a single-parent child in a skipped-generation family before or after a series of painting activities. The participant was asked to take part in 50-minute…

  6. Long-Term Post-Stroke Changes Include Myelin Loss, Specific Deficits in Sensory and Motor Behaviors and Complex Cognitive Impairment Detected Using Active Place Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Barone, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be

  7. Long-term post-stroke changes include myelin loss, specific deficits in sensory and motor behaviors and complex cognitive impairment detected using active place avoidance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Zhuang, Jian; Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M; Barone, Frank C

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be

  8. Lifestyle Assessment: Helping Patients Change Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ciliska, Donna; Wilson, Douglas M. C.

    1984-01-01

    This article is the second in a series of six on lifestyle assessment and behavior change. The first article presented an assessment tool called FANTASTIC, which has been tested for reliability and is currently in wide use. After assessment, family physicians must help patients decide to change—and give them guidance on how to change—unhealthy behaviors. This article explains how the family physician can use educational, behavioral and relaxation strategies to increase patients' motivation, maintain their commitment and teach them the skills needed to effect changes in health behavior.

  9. Postoperative maladaptive behavioral changes in children.

    PubMed

    Yuki, Koichi; Daaboul, Dima G

    2011-06-01

    Induction of anesthesia can be a very stressful period for a child and his family and can be associated with increased risk of psychological disturbances. These disturbances are categorized as preoperative anxiety, emergence delirium and postoperative behavioral changes. Several tools have been developed to measure these psychological manifestations as well as the baseline personality traits of these patients. Postoperative negative behavioral changes, such as sleep and eating disorders, separation anxiety, temper tantrum, aggression toward authorities, may occur in up to 60% of all children undergoing general anesthesia. Several studies found a strong association between these postoperative behavioral changes, the distress of the child on induction and his individual personality characteristics, although a cause-effect relationship could not be determined. Understanding the risk factors for behavior changes helps us determine the best way for prevention and treatment of these changes in the perioperative period.

  10. A Behavior Change Model for Internet Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Thorndike, Frances P.; Cox, Daniel J.; Kovatchev, Boris P.; Gonder-Frederick, Linda A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The Internet has become a major component to health care and has important implications for the future of the health care system. One of the most notable aspects of the Web is its ability to provide efficient, interactive, and tailored content to the user. Given the wide reach and extensive capabilities of the Internet, researchers in behavioral medicine have been using it to develop and deliver interactive and comprehensive treatment programs with the ultimate goal of impacting patient behavior and reducing unwanted symptoms. To date, however, many of these interventions have not been grounded in theory or developed from behavior change models, and no overarching model to explain behavior change in Internet interventions has yet been published. Purpose The purpose of this article is to propose a model to help guide future Internet intervention development and predict and explain behavior changes and symptom improvement produced by Internet interventions. Results The model purports that effective Internet interventions produce (and maintain) behavior change and symptom improvement via nine nonlinear steps: the user, influenced by environmental factors, affects website use and adherence, which is influenced by support and website characteristics. Website use leads to behavior change and symptom improvement through various mechanisms of change. The improvements are sustained via treatment maintenance. Conclusion By grounding Internet intervention research within a scientific framework, developers can plan feasible, informed, and testable Internet interventions, and this form of treatment will become more firmly established. PMID:19802647

  11. CAPE: Automatically Predicting Changes in Group Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliva, Amy; Subrahmanian, V. S.; Martinez, Vanina; Simari, Gerardo

    There is now intense interest in the problem of forecasting what a group will do in the future. Past work [1, 2, 3] has built complex models of a group’s behavior and used this to predict what the group might do in the future. However, almost all past work assumes that the group will not change its past behavior. Whether the group is a group of investors, or a political party, or a terror group, there is much interest in when and how the group will change its behavior. In this paper, we develop an architecture and algorithms called CAPE to forecast the conditions under which a group will change its behavior. We have tested CAPE on social science data about the behaviors of seven terrorist groups and show that CAPE is highly accurate in its predictions—at least in this limited setting.

  12. Verbal Cueing as a Behavior Change Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Alfonso G.; Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.

    A study involving four boys (9 to 14 years old) labeled as emotionally handicapped was conducted to examine the effect of a verbal cueing technique (involving an illogical statement which evokes psychological reactance) on behaviorally disordered children. Illogical statements made by the teacher produced positive change in target behaviors (such…

  13. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  14. Health behavior change: can genomics improve behavioral adherence?

    PubMed

    McBride, Colleen M; Bryan, Angela D; Bray, Molly S; Swan, Gary E; Green, Eric D

    2012-03-01

    The National Human Genome Research Institute recommends pursuing "genomic information to improve behavior change interventions" as part of its strategic vision for genomics. The limited effectiveness of current behavior change strategies may be explained, in part, by their insensitivity to individual variation in adherence responses. The first step in evaluating whether genomics can inform customization of behavioral recommendations is evidence reviews to identify adherence macrophenotypes common across behaviors and individuals that have genetic underpinnings. Conceptual models of how biological, psychological, and environmental factors influence adherence also are needed. Researchers could routinely collect biospecimens and standardized adherence measurements of intervention participants to enable understanding of genetic and environmental influences on adherence, to guide intervention customization and prospective comparative effectiveness studies.

  15. A Test of Major Assumptions about Behavior Change: A Comprehensive Look at the Effects of Passive and Active HIV-Prevention Interventions Since the Beginning of the Epidemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albarracin, Dolores; Gillette, Jeffrey C.; Earl, Allison N.; Glasman, Laura R.; Durantini, Marta R.; Ho, Moon-Ho

    2005-01-01

    This meta-analysis tested the major theoretical assumptions about behavior change by examining the outcomes and mediating mechanisms of different preventive strategies in a sample of 354 HIV-prevention interventions and 99 control groups, spanning the past 17 years. There were 2 main conclusions from this extensive review. First, the most…

  16. Does Concern Motivate Behavior Change?: Exploring the Relationship between Physical Activity and Body Mass Index among Low-Income Housing Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamers, Sara L.; Allen, Jennifer; Yang, May; Stoddard, Anne; Harley, Amy; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore relationships between concerns and physical activity and body mass index (BMI) among a racially/ethnically diverse low-income population. Method: A cross-sectional survey documented behavioral risks among racially/ethnically diverse low-income residents in the Boston area (2005-2009). Multivariable logistic regressions were…

  17. Changes in physical activity, physical fitness, self-perception and quality of life following a 6-month physical activity counseling and cognitive behavioral therapy program in outpatients with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Probst, Michel; Adriaens, An; Pieters, Guido; De Hert, Marc; Stubbs, Brendon; Soundy, Andy; Vanderlinden, Johan

    2014-10-30

    The aim of the current study was to explore the associations between changes in the number of binges, physical activity participation, physical fitness, physical self-perception and quality of life following a 6-month physical activity counseling and cognitive behavioral program in patients with binge eating disorder (BED). In total 34 (31 women) outpatients with BED (38.5±10.7 years) completed a 6-month 1-day per week group-based program. Participants completed the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, the Baecke Physical Activity questionnaire, the Physical Self Perception Profile and performed a 6-min walk test (6MWT) at baseline, after 3 and 6 months. Except for physical activity at work, physical strength and self-worth perception, all parameters significantly improved after 6 months. The effect sizes ranged from -0.33 for the number of binges to 1.67 for participation in sports activities. Significant increases in leisure time physical activity were associated with significant improvements in physical health related quality of life, perceived sports competence and physical fitness and in perceived body attractiveness. The significant reduction in the number of binges was associated with significant improvements in physical health related quality of life. Future research should focus on detailing which techniques can stimulate physical activity participation in patients with BED.

  18. A Test of Major Assumptions About Behavior Change: A Comprehensive Look at the Effects of Passive and Active HIV-Prevention Interventions Since the Beginning of the Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Albarracín, Dolores; Gillette, Jeffrey C.; Earl, Allison N.; Glasman, Laura R.; Durantini, Marta R.; Ho, Moon-Ho

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis tested the major theoretical assumptions about behavior change by examining the outcomes and mediating mechanisms of different preventive strategies in a sample of 354 HIV-prevention interventions and 99 control groups, spanning the past 17 years. There were 2 main conclusions from this extensive review. First, the most effective interventions were those that contained attitudinal arguments, educational information, behavioral skills arguments, and behavioral skills training, whereas the least effective ones were those that attempted to induce fear of HIV. Second, the impact of the interventions and the different strategies behind them was contingent on the gender, age, ethnicity, risk group, and past condom use of the target audience in ways that illuminate the direction of future preventive efforts. PMID:16351327

  19. Healthy behavior change in practical settings.

    PubMed

    Young, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The core principle of implementing healthy behavior change is making the healthy choice the easy choice. Putting this motto into practice requires us to remove the barriers that individuals face when trying to live a healthy lifestyle. It is important to look at the bigger picture when helping our patients reach optimal health, looking closely at exercise levels and home life. Environmental factors can cause strain and present challenges for people trying to develop and maintain good health. At the Care Management Institute and at Kaiser Permanente, we are making strides to change default behaviors so optimal lifestyles become the norm, rather than the exception.

  20. Specifying active components of educational interventions to promote adherence to treatment in glaucoma patients: application of a taxonomy of behavior change techniques

    PubMed Central

    Berzins, Kathryn M; Gray, Trish A; Waterman, Heather; Francis, Jill J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In response to recent calls for clearer specification of behavior change interventions, the purpose of this study was to apply a system of taxonomy for behavior change techniques (BCTs) to two educational interventions to improve adherence to glaucoma eye drops. Clarification of constituent BCTs will promote easy and reliable application of the interventions in clinical settings and research. Methods A published taxonomy of BCTs was used to code two interventions (group and individual) to increase adherence to eye drops. Intervention materials were coded by assigning a BCT label to each text unit. We noted the frequency with which each BCT occurred, compared the interventions in terms of the BCTs that were delivered, and identified whether the taxonomy was sufficient to describe the intervention components. Results The individual intervention consisted of 94 text units. Fifty-seven were identified as targeting behavior change and coded using 18 BCTs, many coded more than once. In the group intervention, 165 units of text were identified, and 125 were coded using 22 BCTs. The most frequently coded BCT was “provide information about behavior–health link” in the group intervention and “prompt barrier identification” in the individual intervention. The interventions included similar BCTs. All text units targeting behavior change were codable into BCTs. Conclusion The similarity of the two interventions may have implications for the cost-effectiveness of the interventions. The taxonomy was found sufficient to describe both interventions. This level of specification can be used to ensure that precisely the same intervention that has been pilot tested is reproducible in the clinical setting and in any further research. PMID:26185475

  1. Behavioral Changes Predicting Temporal Changes in Perceived Popular Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Buskirk-Cohen, Allison; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2010-01-01

    The primary objectives of this investigation were to determine the extent to which young adolescents are stable in high perceived popular status across the middle school transition and to examine whether changes in social behaviors predict the stability, gain, and loss of perceived popular status after the transition. The sample included 672 young…

  2. Effects of habitual anger on employees' behavior during organizational change.

    PubMed

    Bönigk, Mareike; Steffgen, Georges

    2013-11-25

    Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees' habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior-mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident's negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed.

  3. Behavior Change after Adventure Education Courses: Do Work Colleagues Notice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Heather M.; Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    In this case study, a mixed-method approach is used to examine the extent and type of changes in workplace attitudes and behavior, as self-reported by soldiers who had participated in 6- to 10-day "Experiential Leadership Development Activities" (ELDAs) delivered by the New Zealand Army Leadership Centre. Observations made by workplace…

  4. Behavioral transitions and weight change patterns within the PREMIER trial.

    PubMed

    Bartfield, Jessica K; Stevens, Victor J; Jerome, Gerald J; Batch, Bryan C; Kennedy, Betty M; Vollmer, William M; Harsha, David; Appel, Lawrence J; Desmond, Renee; Ard, Jamy D

    2011-08-01

    Little is known about the transition in behaviors from short-term weight loss to maintenance of weight loss. We wanted to determine how short-term and long-term weight loss and patterns of weight change were associated with intervention behavioral targets. This analysis includes overweight/obese participants in active treatment (n = 507) from the previously published PREMIER trial, an 18-month, multicomponent lifestyle intervention for blood pressure reduction, including 33 intervention sessions and recommendations to self-monitor food intake and physical activity daily. Associations between behaviors (attendance, recorded days/week of physical activity, food records/week) and weight loss of ≥5% at 6 and 18 months were examined using logistic regression. We characterized the sample using 5 weight change categories (weight gained, weight stable, weight loss then relapse, late weight loss, and weight loss then maintenance) and analyzed adherence to the behaviors for each category, comparing means with ANOVA. Participants lost an average of 5.3 ± 5.6 kg at 6 months and 4.0 ± 6.7 kg (4.96% of body weight) by 18 months. Higher levels of attendance, food record completion, and recorded days/week of physical activity were associated with increasing odds of achieving 5% weight loss. All weight change groups had declines in the behaviors over time; however, compared to the other four groups, the weight loss/maintenance group (n = 154) had statistically less significant decline in number of food records/week (48%), recorded days/week of physical activity (41.7%), and intervention sessions attended (12.8%) through 18 months. Behaviors associated with short-term weight loss continue to be associated with long-term weight loss, albeit at lower frequencies. Minimizing the decline in these behaviors may be important in achieving long-term weight loss.

  5. Changing behavior towards sustainable practices using Information Technology.

    PubMed

    Iveroth, Einar; Bengtsson, Fredrik

    2014-06-15

    This article addresses the question of how to change individuals' behavior towards more sustainable practices using Information Technology (IT). By following a multidisciplinary and socio-technical perspective, this inquiry is answered by applying a new framework-The Commonality Framework for IT-enabled Change-on a case study of sustainable behavioral change. The framework is grounded in practice theory and is used to analyze the implementation of an IT-system aimed at changing citizens' behavior towards more sustainable transport logistics and procurement in Uppsala, Sweden. The article applies case study research design and the empirical data consists of surveys, in-depth and semi-structured interviews, observations and archival documents. The results show how the change towards sustainable practices is an entanglement of both social and technical-structural elements across time. In this process, structures such as IT are the enablers, and the actors and their social activities are the tipping-point factors that ultimately determine the success of changing individuals' behavior towards a more sustainable direction. This article provides a more balanced view of how both actor and structure related properties interact during the on-going work with change towards greater sustainability practices than earlier research has offered. More specifically, the article offers both a lower-level theory and a method from which we can analyze change processes where technology is seen in its context, and where both technology and the human actor is brought forth to center stage.

  6. Voluntary exercise enhances activity rhythms and ameliorates anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in the sand rat model of circadian rhythm-related mood changes.

    PubMed

    Tal-Krivisky, Katy; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; Einat, Haim

    2015-11-01

    Physical exercise is a non-pharmacological treatment for affective disorders. The mechanisms of its effects are unknown although some suggest a relationship to synchronization of circadian rhythms. One way to explore mechanisms is to utilize animal models. We previously demonstrated that the diurnal fat sand rat is an advantageous model for studying the interactions between photoperiods and mood. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of voluntary exercise on activity rhythms and anxiety and depression-like behaviors in sand rats as a step towards better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Male sand rats were housed in short photoperiod (SP; 5h light/19 h dark) or neutral light (NP; 12h light/12h dark) regimens for 3 weeks and divided into subgroups with or without running wheels. Activity was monitored for 3 additional weeks and then animals were tested in the elevated plus-maze, the forced swim test and the social interaction test. Activity rhythms were enhanced by the running wheels. As hypothesized, voluntary exercise had significant effects on SP animals' anxiety- and depression-like behaviors but not on NP animals. Results are discussed in the context of interactions between physical exercise, circadian rhythms and mood. We suggest that the sand rat model can be used to explore the underlying mechanism of the effects of physical exercise for mood disorders.

  7. Behavior Change Counseling Curricula for Medical Trainees: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hauer, Karen E.; Carney, Patricia A.; Chang, Anna; Satterfield, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Unhealthy behaviors contribute to half of U.S. deaths. However, physicians lack sufficient skill in counseling patients to change behaviors. Characterizing effective published curricular interventions for behavior-change counseling for medical trainees would inform educators toward improved training. Method The authors conducted a systematic literature search of studies published 1965–2011 evaluating curricula on behavior change counseling for medical trainees. Included studies described: (1) behavior change counseling, (2) teaching interventions for medical trainees, and (3) assessment of interventions. The authors extracted eligible articles, rated outcomes for learners and patients using Kirkpatrick’s hierarchy, and determined study quality. Results Of 2,788 identified citations, 109 met inclusion criteria. Most studies were performed in the United States (98), 93 at a single institution, and 81 in primary care settings. Curricular topics for counseling included smoking (67 studies), nutrition (30), alcohol/drug use (26), and exercise (22). Although most studies did not include theoretical frameworks, 39 used the Transtheoretical Model of Change. Sixty-two studies involved eight or fewer hours of curricular time, and 51 spanned four or fewer weeks. The studies with highest-level outcomes and quality employed multiple curricular techniques and included practice of counseling techniques in either simulated or actual clinical settings. Conclusions Existing literature suggests that trainees learn behavior change counseling through active, realistic practice and implementation of reminder and feedback systems within actual clinical practice settings. Multi-institutional medical education research on methods of teaching behavior-change counseling that influence patients’ health outcomes are needed to ensure trainees’ clinical competence and improve patient care. PMID:22622220

  8. Modeling behavioral thermoregulation in a climate change sentinel.

    PubMed

    Moyer-Horner, Lucas; Mathewson, Paul D; Jones, Gavin M; Kearney, Michael R; Porter, Warren P

    2015-12-01

    When possible, many species will shift in elevation or latitude in response to rising temperatures. However, before such shifts occur, individuals will first tolerate environmental change and then modify their behavior to maintain heat balance. Behavioral thermoregulation allows animals a range of climatic tolerances and makes predicting geographic responses under future warming scenarios challenging. Because behavioral modification may reduce an individual's fecundity by, for example, limiting foraging time and thus caloric intake, we must consider the range of behavioral options available for thermoregulation to accurately predict climate change impacts on individual species. To date, few studies have identified mechanistic links between an organism's daily activities and the need to thermoregulate. We used a biophysical model, Niche Mapper, to mechanistically model microclimate conditions and thermoregulatory behavior for a temperature-sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps). Niche Mapper accurately simulated microclimate conditions, as well as empirical metabolic chamber data for a range of fur properties, animal sizes, and environmental parameters. Niche Mapper predicted pikas would be behaviorally constrained because of the need to thermoregulate during the hottest times of the day. We also showed that pikas at low elevations could receive energetic benefits by being smaller in size and maintaining summer pelage during longer stretches of the active season under a future warming scenario. We observed pika behavior for 288 h in Glacier National Park, Montana, and thermally characterized their rocky, montane environment. We found that pikas were most active when temperatures were cooler, and at sites characterized by high elevations and north-facing slopes. Pikas became significantly less active across a suite of behaviors in the field when temperatures surpassed 20°C, which supported a metabolic threshold predicted by Niche Mapper. In general

  9. Decision making in the transtheoretical model of behavior change.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, James O

    2008-01-01

    Decision making is an integral part of the transtheoretical model of behavior change. Stage of change represents a temporal dimension for behavior change and has been the key dimension for integrating principles and processes of change from across leading theories of psychotherapy and behavior change. The decision-making variables representing the pros and cons of changing have been found to have systematic relationships across the stages of change for 50 health-related behaviors. Implications of these patterns of relationships are discussed in the context of helping patients make more effective decisions to decrease health risk behaviors and increase health-enhancing behaviors.

  10. Modifying Student Behavior in an Open Classroom through Changes in the Physical Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Carol S.

    1977-01-01

    Spatial distribution of activity in a second-third grade open classroom was observed before and after a change in the physical design, to test the hypothesis that minor changes in the physical setting would produce predictable, desirable changes in student behavior. In most cases the desired behavior changes were produced. (Author/MV)

  11. Effects of Habitual Anger on Employees’ Behavior during Organizational Change

    PubMed Central

    Bönigk, Mareike; Steffgen, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees’ habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior—mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident’s negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed. PMID:24287849

  12. Rehabilitation of Communicative Abilities in Patients with a History of TBI: Behavioral Improvements and Cerebral Changes in Resting-State Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Katiuscia; Gabbatore, Ilaria; Geda, Elisabetta; Duca, Sergio; Cauda, Franco; Bara, Bruno G.; Bosco, Francesca M.

    2016-01-01

    A targeted training program for the rehabilitation of communicative abilities—Cognitive Pragmatic Treatment (CPT)—has been developed and previously tested on a sample of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), whose performance was found to have improved. Since cortical plasticity has been recognized as the main mechanism of functional recovery, we investigated whether and how behavioral improvements following the training program are accompanied by brain modifications. Eight TBI patients took part in the training program and were behaviorally assessed pre- and post-treatment; six of these patients were also evaluated with pre- and post-treatment resting state (rs) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). At the end of the rehabilitation program patients showed improvement in overall communicative performance, in both comprehension and production tasks. A follow-up retest revealed the stability of these results 3 months after completing the training program. At the brain level, we found significant increases in the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) index in the bilateral precentral gyrus, in the right middle and superior temporal gyri, in the right cingulate gyrus, and in the left inferior parietal lobule. We discuss these differences of brain activity in terms of their possible contribution to promoting recovery. PMID:27047353

  13. Sevoflurane and emergence behavioral changes in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Moos, Daniel D

    2005-02-01

    Sevoflurane has rapidly replaced halothane as the inhaled anesthetic agent of choice for the pediatric population. Benefits of sevoflurane use include a quick induction and emergence from anesthesia, a nonpungent odor, which allows for mask induction, and decreased airway irritation, which results in a decrease in the incidence of bronchospasm and laryngospasm. Despite the positive aspects of sevoflurane, there are several side effects, including seizures during induction and maintenance, elevations in plasma inorganic fluoride and compound A concentrations, and an increased incidence of emergence delirium when compared to halothane. The purpose of this article is to inform perianesthesia nurses of the common complication of emergence behavioral changes associated with sevoflurane.

  14. Social Transitions Cause Rapid Behavioral and Neuroendocrine Changes

    PubMed Central

    Maruska, Karen P.

    2015-01-01

    In species that form dominance hierarchies, there are often opportunities for low-ranking individuals to challenge high-ranking ones, resulting in a rise or fall in social rank. How does an animal rapidly detect, process, and then respond to these social transitions? This article explores and summarizes how these social transitions can rapidly (within 24 h) impact an individual’s behavior, physiology, and brain, using the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, as a model. Male A. burtoni form hierarchies in which a few brightly-colored dominant males defend territories and spawn with females, while the remaining males are subordinate, more drab-colored, do not hold a territory, and have minimal opportunities for reproduction. These social phenotypes are plastic and reversible, meaning that individual males may switch between dominant and subordinate status multiple times within a lifetime. When the social environment is manipulated to create males that either ascend (subordinate to dominant) or descend (dominant to subordinate) in rank, there are rapid changes in behavior, circulating hormones, and levels of gene expression in the brain that reflect the direction of transition. For example, within minutes, males ascending in status show bright coloration, a distinct eye-bar, increased dominance behaviors, activation of brain nuclei in the social behavior network, and higher levels of sex steroids in the plasma. Ascending males also show rapid changes in levels of neuropeptide and steroid receptors in the brain, as well as in the pituitary and testes. To further examine hormone–behavior relationships in this species during rapid social ascent, the present study also measured levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, estradiol, progestins, and cortisol in the plasma during the first week of social ascent and tested for correlations with behavior. Plasma levels of all steroids were rapidly increased at 30 min after social ascent, but were not correlated

  15. Social Transitions Cause Rapid Behavioral and Neuroendocrine Changes.

    PubMed

    Maruska, Karen P

    2015-08-01

    In species that form dominance hierarchies, there are often opportunities for low-ranking individuals to challenge high-ranking ones, resulting in a rise or fall in social rank. How does an animal rapidly detect, process, and then respond to these social transitions? This article explores and summarizes how these social transitions can rapidly (within 24 h) impact an individual's behavior, physiology, and brain, using the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, as a model. Male A. burtoni form hierarchies in which a few brightly-colored dominant males defend territories and spawn with females, while the remaining males are subordinate, more drab-colored, do not hold a territory, and have minimal opportunities for reproduction. These social phenotypes are plastic and reversible, meaning that individual males may switch between dominant and subordinate status multiple times within a lifetime. When the social environment is manipulated to create males that either ascend (subordinate to dominant) or descend (dominant to subordinate) in rank, there are rapid changes in behavior, circulating hormones, and levels of gene expression in the brain that reflect the direction of transition. For example, within minutes, males ascending in status show bright coloration, a distinct eye-bar, increased dominance behaviors, activation of brain nuclei in the social behavior network, and higher levels of sex steroids in the plasma. Ascending males also show rapid changes in levels of neuropeptide and steroid receptors in the brain, as well as in the pituitary and testes. To further examine hormone-behavior relationships in this species during rapid social ascent, the present study also measured levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, estradiol, progestins, and cortisol in the plasma during the first week of social ascent and tested for correlations with behavior. Plasma levels of all steroids were rapidly increased at 30 min after social ascent, but were not correlated with

  16. Applying behavioral science to behavior change communication: the pathways to change tools.

    PubMed

    Petraglia, Joseph; Galavotti, Christine; Harford, Nicola; Pappas-DeLuca, Katina A; Mooki, Maungo

    2007-10-01

    Entertainment-education (EE) is a popular vehicle for behavior change communication (BCC) in many areas of public health, especially in the developing world where soap operas and other serial drama formats play a central role in encouraging people to avoid risky behavior. Yet BCC/EE developers have been largely unable to integrate behavioral theory and research systematically into storylines and scripts, depending instead on external, technical oversight of what should be an essentially local, creative process. This article describes how the Modeling and Reinforcement to Combat HIV/AIDS project at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has developed a set of tools through which creative writers can exercise greater control over the behavioral content of their stories. The Pathways to Change tools both guide scriptwriters as they write BCC/EE storylines and help project managers monitor BCC/EE products for theoretical fidelity and sensitivity to research.

  17. Individual behavior, culture, and social change

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Sigrid S.

    2004-01-01

    The principle of operant selection is examined as a prototype of cultural selection, and the role of the social environment is suggested as the critical element in the emergence of cultural phenomena. Operant contingencies are compared to cultural selection contingencies, designated as metacontingencies. Both of these types of contingency relations result in evolving lineages of recurrences that can become increasingly complex in the number and organization of their elements. In addition to its role in the recurring interlocking behavioral contingencies that constitute cultural organization, operant behavior plays another role in cultures. Although the operants of individuals are functionally independent of one another, the behavior of each person may contribute to a cumulative effect that is relevant to the well-being of many people. Similarly, the outcomes of metacontingencies may also contribute to a cumulative effect. The relation between independently evolving operant lineages, or between independently evolving cultural lineages, and their cumulative effect is identified as a macrocontingency. Macrocontingencies do not involve cultural-level selection per se. Effective cultural engineering requires identifying the macrocontingencies that produce less than desirable effects and altering the relevant operant contingencies or metacontingencies to produce change in the cumulative effects. PMID:22478424

  18. Color change as a potential behavioral strategy

    PubMed Central

    Korzan, Wayne J.; Robison, Rex R.; Zhao, Sheng; Fernald, Russell D.

    2008-01-01

    Within species, color morphs may enhance camouflage, improve communication and/or confer reproductive advantage. However, in the male cichlid Astatotilapia burtoni, body color may also signal a behavioral strategy. A. burtoni live in a lek-like social system in Lake Tanganyika, Africa where bright blue or yellow territorial (T) males (together ~ 10–30% of the population) are reproductively capable and defend territories containing food with a spawning site. In contrast, nonterritorial (NT) males are smaller, cryptically colored, shoal with females and have regressed gonads. Importantly, males switch between these social states depending on their success in aggressive encounters. Yellow and blue morphs were thought to be adaptations to particular habitats, but they co-exist both in nature and in the laboratory. Importantly, individual males can switch colors so we asked whether color influences behavioral and hormonal profiles. When pairing territorial males with opposite colored fish, yellow males became dominant over blue males significantly more frequently. Moreover, yellow T males had significantly higher levels of 11-ketotosterone than blue T males while only blue NT males had higher levels of the stress hormone cortisol compared to the other groups. Thus color differences alone predict dominance status and hormone profiles in T males. Since T males can and do change color, this suggests that A. burtoni may use color as a flexible behavioral strategy. PMID:18586245

  19. Collective purchase behavior toward retail price changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Hiromichi; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2011-02-01

    By analyzing a huge amount of point-of-sale data collected from Japanese supermarkets, we find power law relationships between price and sales numbers. The estimated values of the exponents of these power laws depend on the category of products; however, they are independent of the stores, thereby implying the existence of universal human purchase behavior. The rate of sales numbers around these power laws are generally approximated by log-normal distributions implying that there are hidden random parameters, which might proportionally affect the purchase activity.

  20. Recent Perplexing Behavior in Solar Activity Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopresto, James C.

    1997-05-01

    Calcium K and Hα and SOHO He II UV plage and sunspot ara have been monitored using images on the INTERNET since November of 1992. The purpose of the project is to determine the degree of correlation between changing plage area and solar irradiance changes (also obtained via the INTERNET). Also the project provides a low cost process to involve undergraduates in astronomy research. When using weighted weekly averages for both spot Hα plage pixel counts, we see the expected decline from the last maximum. The activity continues to decline, or at best, has flattened out over the past several months. In contrast, the K-line plage pixel count from both Big Bear and Sacramento Peak show an upswing since mid-1995 or earlier. The k2 measurments from both Kitt Peak and Sacramento Peak are in general agreement with the spot and Hα behavior, indicating wer are in, or barely passed minimum. Images high in the chromosphere, detailing the magnetic network, may be more senstive to smaller field changes. This might be a partial explanation for the earlier upswing in K line and He 304 activity, which are receiving radiation near or at the top of the chromosphere.

  1. Molecular changes during egg activation

    PubMed Central

    Krauchunas, Amber R.

    2014-01-01

    Egg activation is the final transition that an oocyte goes through to become a developmentally competent egg. This transition is usually triggered by a calcium-based signal that is often, but not always, initiated by fertilization. Activation encompasses a number of changes within the egg. These include changes to the egg's membranes and outer coverings to prevent polyspermy and support the developing embryo, as well as resumption and completion of the meiotic cell cycle, mRNA poly-adenylation, translation of new proteins, and the degradation of specific maternal mRNAs and proteins. The transition from an arrested, highly differentiated cell, the oocyte, to a developmentally active, totipotent cell, the activated egg or embryo, represents a complete change in cellular state. This is accomplished by altering ion concentrations and widespread changes in both the proteome and the suite of mRNAS present in the cell. Here, we review the role of calcium and zinc in the events of egg activation, and the importance of macromolecular changes during this transition. The latter include the degradation and translation of proteins, protein post-translational regulation through phosphorylation, and the cytoplasmic polyadenylation, or the degradation, of maternal mRNAs. PMID:23287037

  2. Behavioral effects of cyclic changes in serotonin during the human menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Warren, D E; Tedford, W H; Flynn, W E

    1979-03-01

    Many cyclic changes during the menstrual cycle (temperature, depression, motor activity, pain sensitivity, etc.) are closely paralleled by changes in brain serotonin level. These changes, in turn, are associated with peripheral hormone levels which are comparatively regular and easily measured. Their measurement may be useful both in predicting behavior and in accounting for atypical menstrual-related behavior.

  3. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Dreibelbis, Robert; Kroeger, Anne; Hossain, Kamal; Venkatesh, Mohini; Ram, Pavani K

    2016-01-14

    Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashing infrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks). No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed. Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%), increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed.

  4. Making Activity Recognition Robust against Deceptive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Saeb, Sohrab; Körding, Konrad; Mohr, David C

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare services increasingly use the activity recognition technology to track the daily activities of individuals. In some cases, this is used to provide incentives. For example, some health insurance companies offer discount to customers who are physically active, based on the data collected from their activity tracking devices. Therefore, there is an increasing motivation for individuals to cheat, by making activity trackers detect activities that increase their benefits rather than the ones they actually do. In this study, we used a novel method to make activity recognition robust against deceptive behavior. We asked 14 subjects to attempt to trick our smartphone-based activity classifier by making it detect an activity other than the one they actually performed, for example by shaking the phone while seated to make the classifier detect walking. If they succeeded, we used their motion data to retrain the classifier, and asked them to try to trick it again. The experiment ended when subjects could no longer cheat. We found that some subjects were not able to trick the classifier at all, while others required five rounds of retraining. While classifiers trained on normal activity data predicted true activity with ~38% accuracy, training on the data gathered during the deceptive behavior increased their accuracy to ~84%. We conclude that learning the deceptive behavior of one individual helps to detect the deceptive behavior of others. Thus, we can make current activity recognition robust to deception by including deceptive activity data from a few individuals.

  5. Making Activity Recognition Robust against Deceptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Saeb, Sohrab; Körding, Konrad; Mohr, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare services increasingly use the activity recognition technology to track the daily activities of individuals. In some cases, this is used to provide incentives. For example, some health insurance companies offer discount to customers who are physically active, based on the data collected from their activity tracking devices. Therefore, there is an increasing motivation for individuals to cheat, by making activity trackers detect activities that increase their benefits rather than the ones they actually do. In this study, we used a novel method to make activity recognition robust against deceptive behavior. We asked 14 subjects to attempt to trick our smartphone-based activity classifier by making it detect an activity other than the one they actually performed, for example by shaking the phone while seated to make the classifier detect walking. If they succeeded, we used their motion data to retrain the classifier, and asked them to try to trick it again. The experiment ended when subjects could no longer cheat. We found that some subjects were not able to trick the classifier at all, while others required five rounds of retraining. While classifiers trained on normal activity data predicted true activity with ~38% accuracy, training on the data gathered during the deceptive behavior increased their accuracy to ~84%. We conclude that learning the deceptive behavior of one individual helps to detect the deceptive behavior of others. Thus, we can make current activity recognition robust to deception by including deceptive activity data from a few individuals. PMID:26659118

  6. The Effect of GCSB-5 a New Herbal Medicine on Changes in Pain Behavior and Neuroglial Activation in a Rat Model of Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hee Kyung; Kim, So-Yeon; Choi, Mi Jung; Baek, Seung Ok; Kwak, Sang Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lumbar disc herniation can induce sciatica by mechanical compression and/or chemical irritation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of GCSB-5 (Shinbaro®) and NSAIDs on pain-related behavior and on the expressions of microglia, astrocytes, CGRP, TRPV1, IL-6, and CX3CL1 in a rat model of lumbar disc herniation. Methods 112 male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent implantation of nucleus pulposus to a dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Rats were divided into five groups as follows; a saline group (the vehicle control group) (n=27), a 10 mg/kg aceclofenac group (the aceclofenac group) (n=22), and 100, 300 or 600 mg/kg GCSB-5 groups (the GCSB-5 100, 300, or 600 groups) (n=21 for each group). Rats were tested for mechanical allodynia at 3 days after surgery and at 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, 28 days, 35 days, 42 days, 49 days, and 56 days after treatment commencement. Immunohistochemical staining of microglia (Iba1), astrocytes (GFAP), CGRP, and TRPV1, and PCR for IL-6 and CX3CL1 were performed on spinal dorsal horns and DRGs at 56 days after medication commencement. Results After 56 days of GCSB-5 300 administration, mechanical withdrawal thresholds were significantly increased (p<0.05), and immunohisto-chemical expressions of Iba1, GFAP, CGRP, and TRPV1 were reduced than other groups, but this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion These results indicate GCSB-5 reduces mechanical allodynia and downregulates neuroglial activity and the expressions of CGRP and TRPV1 in the spinal segments of a rat model of lumbar disc herniation. PMID:26962414

  7. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-11-01

    The rapid development of the Internet technology enables humans to explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e., traces), we can get insights about the dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, books, and movies rating, are comprehensively investigated by using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique and the multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three types of media show similar scaling properties with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based on their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of the interevent time series in the three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest that a stronger long-range correlations exist in these collective behaviors. Furthermore, their information complexities vary in the three groups. To explain the differences of the collective behaviors restricted to the three groups, we study the dynamic behavior of human activity at the individual level, and find that the dynamic behaviors of a few users have extremely small scaling exponents associated with long-range anticorrelations. By comparing the interevent time distributions of four representative users, we can find that the bimodal distributions may bring forth the extraordinary scaling behaviors. These results of the analysis of the online human activity in the e-commerce may not only provide insight into its dynamic behaviors but may also be applied to acquire potential economic interest.

  8. Locust dynamics: behavioral phase change and swarming.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Chad M; D'Orsogna, Maria R; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah; Bernoff, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Locusts exhibit two interconvertible behavioral phases, solitarious and gregarious. While solitarious individuals are repelled from other locusts, gregarious insects are attracted to conspecifics and can form large aggregations such as marching hopper bands. Numerous biological experiments at the individual level have shown how crowding biases conversion towards the gregarious form. To understand the formation of marching locust hopper bands, we study phase change at the collective level, and in a quantitative framework. Specifically, we construct a partial integrodifferential equation model incorporating the interplay between phase change and spatial movement at the individual level in order to predict the dynamics of hopper band formation at the population level. Stability analysis of our model reveals conditions for an outbreak, characterized by a large scale transition to the gregarious phase. A model reduction enables quantification of the temporal dynamics of each phase, of the proportion of the population that will eventually gregarize, and of the time scale for this to occur. Numerical simulations provide descriptions of the aggregation's structure and reveal transiently traveling clumps of gregarious insects. Our predictions of aggregation and mass gregarization suggest several possible future biological experiments.

  9. Persistent Focal Behavior and Physical Activity Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erfle, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the proclivity and performance attributes of focal students across time and activities using data from 9,345 students. Three systematic focal behavior partitions are examined: Across activities, across time, and across activities and time. A student's performance is focal if it ends in 0 or 5 for push-ups and 0 for curl-ups.…

  10. Behavioral responses of Atlantic cod to sea temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Carla; Olsen, Esben Moland; Moland, Even; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Knutsen, Halvor

    2015-05-01

    Understanding responses of marine species to temperature variability is essential to predict impacts of future climate change in the oceans. Most ectotherms are expected to adjust their behavior to avoid extreme temperatures and minimize acute changes in body temperature. However, measuring such behavioral plasticity in the wild is challenging. Combining 4 years of telemetry-derived behavioral data on juvenile and adult (30-80 cm) Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), and in situ ocean temperature measurements, we found a significant effect of sea temperature on cod depth use and activity level in coastal Skagerrak. During summer, cod were found in deeper waters when sea surface temperature increased. Further, this effect of temperature was stronger on larger cod. Diel vertical migration, which consists in a nighttime rise to shallow feeding habitats, was stronger among smaller cod. As surface temperature increased beyond ∼15°C, their vertical migration was limited to deeper waters. In addition to larger diel vertical migrations, smaller cod were more active and travelled larger distances compared to larger specimens. Cold temperatures during winter tended, however, to reduce the magnitude of diel vertical migrations, as well as the activity level and distance moved by those smaller individuals. Our findings suggest that future and ongoing rises in sea surface temperature may increasingly deprive cod in this region from shallow feeding areas during summer, which may be detrimental for local populations of the species.

  11. Changing Learner Behavior through Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, Harold R.; Volk, Trudi L.

    1990-01-01

    Addressed is the effectiveness of environmental education for promoting responsible citizenship behavior. A model of environmental citizenship behavior is presented. Goals for instruction in environmental education are discussed. (CW)

  12. Changing Social Behavior and Cognitive Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Jon J.

    1978-01-01

    An overview is presented of systematic behavioral analysis as a method for modifying both social and cognitive behaviors through reinforcement. Various techniques are explained: response differentiation, shaping, chaining, fading, extinction, timeout, and response cost. (SJL)

  13. Characterizing Behavioral and Brain Changes Associated with Practicing Reasoning Skills

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Allyson P.; Miller Singley, Alison T.; Wendelken, Carter; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2015-01-01

    We have reported previously that intensive preparation for a standardized test that taxes reasoning leads to changes in structural and functional connectivity within the frontoparietal network. Here, we investigated whether reasoning instruction transfers to improvement on unpracticed tests of reasoning, and whether these improvements are associated with changes in neural recruitment during reasoning task performance. We found behavioral evidence for transfer to a transitive inference task, but no evidence for transfer to a rule generation task. Across both tasks, we observed reduced lateral prefrontal activation in the trained group relative to the control group, consistent with other studies of practice-related changes in brain activation. In the transitive inference task, we observed enhanced suppression of task-negative, or default-mode, regions, consistent with work suggesting that better cognitive skills are associated with more efficient switching between networks. In the rule generation task, we found a pattern consistent with a training-related shift in the balance between phonological and visuospatial processing. Broadly, we discuss general methodological considerations related to the analysis and interpretation of training-related changes in brain activation. In summary, we present preliminary evidence for changes in brain activation associated with practice of high-level cognitive skills. PMID:26368278

  14. Characterizing Behavioral and Brain Changes Associated with Practicing Reasoning Skills.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Allyson P; Miller Singley, Alison T; Wendelken, Carter; Bunge, Silvia A

    2015-01-01

    We have reported previously that intensive preparation for a standardized test that taxes reasoning leads to changes in structural and functional connectivity within the frontoparietal network. Here, we investigated whether reasoning instruction transfers to improvement on unpracticed tests of reasoning, and whether these improvements are associated with changes in neural recruitment during reasoning task performance. We found behavioral evidence for transfer to a transitive inference task, but no evidence for transfer to a rule generation task. Across both tasks, we observed reduced lateral prefrontal activation in the trained group relative to the control group, consistent with other studies of practice-related changes in brain activation. In the transitive inference task, we observed enhanced suppression of task-negative, or default-mode, regions, consistent with work suggesting that better cognitive skills are associated with more efficient switching between networks. In the rule generation task, we found a pattern consistent with a training-related shift in the balance between phonological and visuospatial processing. Broadly, we discuss general methodological considerations related to the analysis and interpretation of training-related changes in brain activation. In summary, we present preliminary evidence for changes in brain activation associated with practice of high-level cognitive skills.

  15. Changes in Thermoregulatory Behavior during Microwave Irradiation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    level. For ectothermic species, these behaviors represent most of the thermoregulatory response available to the organism . For endothermic species, these...Voluntary behavioral action is an organism’s first defense against exogenous thermal challenge. Endotherms and ectotherms alike use behavioral...diverse as the thermotropisms of unicellular organisms and the complex behavior-plus-technology of man’s lunar walk share a common purpose--that of

  16. Prioritizing multiple health behavior change research topics: expert opinions in behavior change science.

    PubMed

    Amato, Katie; Park, Eunhee; Nigg, Claudio R

    2016-06-01

    Multiple health behavior change (MHBC) approaches are understudied. The purpose of this study is to provide strategic MHBC research direction. This cross-sectional study contacted participants through the Society of Behavioral Medicine email listservs and rated the importance of 24 MHBC research topics (1 = not at all important, 5 = extremely important) separately for general and underserved populations. Participants (n = 76) were 79 % female; 76 % White, 10 % Asian, 8 % African American, 5 % Hispanic, and 1 % Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander. Top MHBC research priorities were predictors of behavior change and the sustainability, long-term effects, and dissemination/translation of interventions for both populations. Recruitment and retention of participants (t(68) = 2.17, p = 0.000), multi-behavioral indices (t(68) = 3.54, p = 0.001), and measurement burden (t(67) = 5.04, p = 0.001) were important for the underserved. Results identified the same top research priorities across populations. For the underserved, research should emphasize recruitment, retention, and measurement burden.

  17. Changes in thermoregulatory behavior during microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, E.R.

    1981-10-01

    Voluntary behavioral action is an organism's first defense against exogenous thermal challenge. Endotherms and ectotherms alike use behavioral strategies whenever possible to counteract inhospitable alterations in the exchange of thermal energy between their bodies and the environment. Responses as diverse as the thermotropisms of unicellular organisms and the complex behavior-plus-technology of man's lunar walk share a common purpose--that of providing a hospitable microclimate so that the internal body temperature may be regulated with precision at a characteristic (neutral) level. For ectothermic species, these behaviors represent most of the thermoregulatory response available to the organism. For endothermic species, these behaviors represent most of the thermoregulatory response available to the organism. For endothermic species, these behaviors ensure minimal involvement of innate mechanisms of heat production and heat loss during thermoregulation, thus conserving the body's energy stores and water.

  18. Delphinid behavioral responses to incidental mid-frequency active sonar.

    PubMed

    Henderson, E Elizabeth; Smith, Michael H; Gassmann, Martin; Wiggins, Sean M; Douglas, Annie B; Hildebrand, John A

    2014-10-01

    Opportunistic observations of behavioral responses by delphinids to incidental mid-frequency active (MFA) sonar were recorded in the Southern California Bight from 2004 through 2008 using visual focal follows, static hydrophones, and autonomous recorders. Sound pressure levels were calculated between 2 and 8 kHz. Surface behavioral responses were observed in 26 groups from at least three species of 46 groups out of five species encountered during MFA sonar incidents. Responses included changes in behavioral state or direction of travel, changes in vocalization rates and call intensity, or a lack of vocalizations while MFA sonar occurred. However, 46% of focal groups not exposed to sonar also changed their behavior, and 43% of focal groups exposed to sonar did not change their behavior. Mean peak sound pressure levels when a behavioral response occurred were around 122 dB re: 1 μPa. Acoustic localizations of dolphin groups exhibiting a response gave insight into nighttime movement patterns and provided evidence that impacts of sonar may be mediated by behavioral state. The lack of response in some cases may indicate a tolerance of or habituation to MFA sonar by local populations; however, the responses that occur at lower received levels may point to some sensitization as well.

  19. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Dreibelbis, Robert; Kroeger, Anne; Hossain, Kamal; Venkatesh, Mohini; Ram, Pavani K.

    2016-01-01

    Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashing infrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks). No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed. Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%), increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed. PMID:26784210

  20. Age Related Changes in Preventive Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…

  1. Climate change and related activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The production and consumption of energy contributes to the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and is the focus of other environmental concerns as well. Yet the use of energy contributes to worldwide economic growth and development. If we are to achieve environmentally sound economic growth, we must develop and deploy energy technologies that contribute to global stewardship. The Department of Energy carries out an aggressive scientific research program to address some of the key uncertainties associated with the climate change issue. Of course, research simply to study the science of global climate change is not enough. At the heart of any regime of cost-effective actions to address the possibility of global climate change will be a panoply of new technologies-technologies both to provide the services we demand and to use energy more efficiently than in the past. These, too, are important areas of responsibility for the Department. This report is a brief description of the Department`s activities in scientific research, technology development, policy studies, and international cooperation that are directly related to or have some bearing on the issue of global climate change.

  2. Climate change and related activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The production and consumption of energy contributes to the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and is the focus of other environmental concerns as well. Yet the use of energy contributes to worldwide economic growth and development. If we are to achieve environmentally sound economic growth, we must develop and deploy energy technologies that contribute to global stewardship. The Department of Energy carries out an aggressive scientific research program to address some of the key uncertainties associated with the climate change issue. Of course, research simply to study the science of global climate change is not enough. At the heart of any regime of cost-effective actions to address the possibility of global climate change will be a panoply of new technologies-technologies both to provide the services we demand and to use energy more efficiently than in the past. These, too, are important areas of responsibility for the Department. This report is a brief description of the Department's activities in scientific research, technology development, policy studies, and international cooperation that are directly related to or have some bearing on the issue of global climate change.

  3. Joint modeling of longitudinal data in multiple behavioral change.

    PubMed

    Charnigo, Richard; Kryscio, Richard; Bardo, Michael T; Lynam, Donald; Zimmerman, Rick S

    2011-06-01

    Multiple behavioral change is an exciting and evolving research area, albeit one that presents analytic challenges to investigators. This manuscript considers the problem of modeling jointly trajectories for two or more possibly non-normally distributed dependent variables, such as marijuana smoking and risky sexual activity, collected longitudinally. Of particular scientific interest is applying such modeling to elucidate the nature of the interaction, if any, between an intervention and personal characteristics, such as sensation seeking and impulsivity. The authors describe three analytic approaches: generalized linear mixed modeling, group-based trajectory modeling, and latent growth curve modeling. In particular, the authors identify identify the strengths and weaknesses of these analytic approaches and assess their impact (or lack thereof) on the psychological and behavioral science literature. The authors also compare what investigators have been doing analytically versus what they might want to be doing in the future and discuss the implications for basic and translational research.

  4. Crisis and chaos in behavioral nutrition and physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resnicow and Vaughn challenged the field of behavioral nutrition and physical activity to conduct research in new ways. They challenged the predictiveness of our models, sensitivity to initial conditions, factors predisposing to change, and measurement procedures. While the predictiveness of our mod...

  5. Climate change and related activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The greenhouse'' process regulates the Earth's climate at a level to sustain life, making our planet unique. The term climate'' refers not only to temperature, but also to the entire system of precipitation, cloudiness, and winds, as well as to the distribution of these features in space and time. The production and consumption of energy contributes to the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and is the focus of other environmental concerns as well. Yet the use of energy contributes to worldwide economic growth and development. It we are to achieve environmentally sound economic growth, we must develop and deploy energy technologies that contribute to global stewardship. Global climate change is a significant issue for the US Department of Energy (DOE) because greenhouse gases are emitted from the production and use of fossil fuels. Energy use and production now contribute more than half of the total manmade emissions on a global basis. DOE carries out an aggressive scientific research program to address some of the key uncertainties associated with the climate change issue. Of course, research simply to study the science of global climate change is not enough. At the heart of any regime of cost-effective actions to address the possibility of global climate change will be a panoply of new technologies -- technologies both to provide the services we demand and to use energy more efficiently than in the past. These, too, are important areas of responsibility for DOE. This report is a brief description of DOE's activities in scientific research, technology development, policy studies, and international cooperation that are directly related to or have some bearing on the issue of global climate change.

  6. Climate change and related activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The ``greenhouse`` process regulates the Earth`s climate at a level to sustain life, making our planet unique. The term ``climate`` refers not only to temperature, but also to the entire system of precipitation, cloudiness, and winds, as well as to the distribution of these features in space and time. The production and consumption of energy contributes to the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and is the focus of other environmental concerns as well. Yet the use of energy contributes to worldwide economic growth and development. It we are to achieve environmentally sound economic growth, we must develop and deploy energy technologies that contribute to global stewardship. Global climate change is a significant issue for the US Department of Energy (DOE) because greenhouse gases are emitted from the production and use of fossil fuels. Energy use and production now contribute more than half of the total manmade emissions on a global basis. DOE carries out an aggressive scientific research program to address some of the key uncertainties associated with the climate change issue. Of course, research simply to study the science of global climate change is not enough. At the heart of any regime of cost-effective actions to address the possibility of global climate change will be a panoply of new technologies -- technologies both to provide the services we demand and to use energy more efficiently than in the past. These, too, are important areas of responsibility for DOE. This report is a brief description of DOE`s activities in scientific research, technology development, policy studies, and international cooperation that are directly related to or have some bearing on the issue of global climate change.

  7. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination at a Time of Changing Sexual Behavior.

    PubMed

    Baussano, Iacopo; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Brisson, Marc; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence varies widely worldwide. We used a transmission model to show links between age-specific sexual patterns and HPV vaccination effectiveness. We considered rural India and the United States as examples of 2 heterosexual populations with traditional age-specific sexual behavior and gender-similar age-specific sexual behavior, respectively. We simulated these populations by using age-specific rates of sexual activity and age differences between sexual partners and found that transitions from traditional to gender-similar sexual behavior in women <35 years of age can result in increased (2.6-fold in our study) HPV16 prevalence. Our model shows that reductions in HPV16 prevalence are larger if vaccination occurs in populations before transitions in sexual behavior and that increased risk for HPV infection attributable to transition is preventable by early vaccination. Our study highlights the importance of using time-limited opportunities to introduce HPV vaccination in traditional populations before changes in age-specific sexual patterns occur.

  8. Sexual Risk and Intravaginal Practice Behavior Changes During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, Chloe A; Abrams, Elaine J; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Justman, Jessica; Blanchard, Kelly; Jones, Heidi E

    2017-02-01

    Data suggest that pregnant women in some settings have high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). We examined changes in sexual risk behaviors and intravaginal practices during pregnancy that may contribute to HIV and STI incidence using data from the Methods for Improved Reproductive Health in Africa study conducted in South Africa and Zimbabwe 2003-2006. We used a crossover design and modified Poisson regression to compare behaviors among HIV negative women 18-45 years during pregnant and non-pregnant periods. Among the 4802 women <45 years at enrollment, 483 (10.1 %) had a pregnancy and were included in the analysis. Compared to non-pregnant periods, pregnancy was associated with fewer than 3 sex acts per week (adjusted risk ratio [ARR] 0.89; 95 % CI 0.79-0.99) but more sex acts without condoms (ARR 1.32; 95 % CI 1.15-1.51). Pregnancy was also associated with decreased reporting of other sexual risk behaviors including any anal sex, multiple sexual partners, and/or sex in exchange for drugs or money. Women also reported less intravaginal wiping during pregnancy (ARR 0.84; 95 % CI 0.76-0.93). We found pregnancy decreased sexual activity and some high-risk sexual behaviors but increased the risk of sex without a condom.

  9. Health behavior change among office workers: an exploratory study to prevent repetitive strain injuries.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Els R

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this evidence-based study is to investigate the impact of a multi-component intervention on health behavior change among office/computer workers in preventing repetitive strain injuries. Forty office workers employed in an administrative office in Michigan participated in this project. The subjects completed a comprehensive questionnaire at three different times in 1994 and 1995. The intervention took place between time 2 and time 3 and included posters, e-mail tips, mini-workshops, and activities of a Wellness Ergonomic Team. A theoretical model was tested to identify factors influencing healthy behaviors. Study findings revealed positive behavior change for 62% of the participants. The factors most strongly related to health behavior change appear to be self-efficacy, the intention to change one's behavior, and perceived health status. Better understanding of health behavior change coupled with ergonomic modifications is a significant step toward the prevention of repetitive strain injuries resulting from computer use.

  10. Preventing Drug Abuse Through Behavior Change Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, John J.

    1973-01-01

    This article discusses several principles derived from learning theory which aid in understanding the use and abuse of drugs and illustrates their role in behavioral group counseling, a promising new strategy for drug abuse prevention. (JC)

  11. Theory as a Foundation for Behavior Change in Serious Games

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will highlight the benefits of designing Games for Health (i.e., games created to change health behavior) using informed by behavioral and communication theories. The need to include choice, link adoption of new behavior to personal values, and build confidence in ability to succes...

  12. Stability of a Prey-Predator Model with Behavior Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wendi

    2010-04-01

    A prey-predator system with hawk and dove behavior changes is studied, which allows the same time scale for population growth and individual behavior changes. Through stability analysis, we find that the four patterns in dynamical behaviors persist when the restriction is removed that the time scale of the behavior changes is much faster than that of population growth. The patterns include the bistability of an eqUilibrium of predator survival and an equilibrium of predator extinction, the coexistence of two stable equilibria of predator survival, a monostable equilibrium that describes the coexistence of prey and predators, and the extinction of predators for all positive initial values.

  13. Self-Determination Theory: Intrinsic Motivation and Behavioral Change.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Marie

    2017-03-01

    Motivation is a central concept in behavioral change. This article reviews the self-determination theory with an emphasis on "intrinsic motivation," which is facilitated when three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) are met. Intrinsic motivation is associated with improved well-being and sustained behavioral change.

  14. Changing a Partner's Behavior: Some College Student Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, David; Zusman, Marty; Shearouse, Holly; Raji, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    One-hundred-and-twenty-seven undergraduates at a large southeastern university completed a confidential anonymous 33 item questionnaire designed to assess the degree to which undergraduate college students expect to change the behavior of their dating partners. The data revealed that changing a partner's behavior is normative and had been learned…

  15. National Study of Behavioral and Life Changes since September 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad R.; Seo, Dong-Chul

    2004-01-01

    Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9-11), terrorism poses a continuous threat to those living in the United States. A substantial number of people may have experienced behavioral and life changes since the attacks, with possible implications for public health. This study investigated behavioral and life changes American people have…

  16. Car App's Persuasive Design Principles and Behavior Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Chao; Wan, Lili; Min, Daihwan

    2016-01-01

    The emphasis of this study lies in behavior change after using car apps that assist users in using their vehicles and establishing a process for examining the interrelationship between car app's persuasive characteristics and behavior change. A categorizing method was developed and 697 car apps were investigated and classified into eight…

  17. Educational Decentralization and Behavior Change Needs in Indonesia. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Joseph

    This working paper examines behavior change as a key element in creating an enabling environment to sustain educational reform in Indonesia. It recommends elevating the importance of a formalized behavior change framework and methodology so that future plans for educational reform in Indonesia will include social marketing as a planned…

  18. Can We Really Get our Patients to Change Unhealthy Behaviors?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    UNCLASSIFIEDU.S. Army Public Health Command (Provisional) 5 BF Skinner , 1938 Behavior of Organisms Edward Thorndike and John Watson expanded Associative Learning...Can We Really Get our Patients to Change Unhealthy Behaviors ? Colonel Heidi A. Warrington BSN, MPH, ARNP-BC PH PHC Chief Nurse Executive...Patients to Change Unhealthy Behaviors ? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK

  19. Incentivizing behavior change to improve diabetes care

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Cengiz, Eda; Wagner, Julie A.; Hood, Korey K.; Carria, Lori; Tamborlane, William V.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral economics refers to the study of psychological and cognitive factors that relate to decision-making processes. This field is being applied increasingly to health care settings, in which patients receive tangible reinforcers or incentives for meeting objective behavioral criteria consistent with healthy lifestyles. This paper reviews the background and efficacy of reinforcement interventions in general, and then as applied to behaviors related to diabetes prevention and management. Specifically, reinforcement interventions have been applied with some notable success toward promoting greater attendance at medical appointments, enhancing weight loss efforts, augmenting exercising regimes, improving medication adherence, and increasing blood glucose monitoring. Suggestions for promising areas of future research are provided, keeping in mind the controversial nature of these interventions. PMID:23574494

  20. Using Multitheory Model of Health Behavior Change to Predict Adequate Sleep Behavior.

    PubMed

    Knowlden, Adam P; Sharma, Manoj; Nahar, Vinayak K

    The purpose of this article was to use the multitheory model of health behavior change in predicting adequate sleep behavior in college students. A valid and reliable survey was administered in a cross-sectional design (n = 151). For initiation of adequate sleep behavior, the construct of behavioral confidence (P < .001) was found to be significant and accounted for 24.4% of the variance. For sustenance of adequate sleep behavior, changes in social environment (P < .02), emotional transformation (P < .001), and practice for change (P < .001) were significant and accounted for 34.2% of the variance.

  1. Examining Children's Physical Activity and Play Behaviors during School Playtime over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgers, Nicola D.; Carter, Laura M.; Stratton, Gareth; McKenzie, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    School playtime (recess) provides children an opportunity to engage in a range of active and sedentary play behaviors on a daily basis. However, little data have investigated changes in playtime behaviors over time. The aim of this study was to investigate how children's physical activity levels, the size of their social group, play behaviors and…

  2. Tracking Health Data Is Not Enough: A Qualitative Exploration of the Role of Healthcare Partnerships and mHealth Technology to Promote Physical Activity and to Sustain Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Young, Heather M; Pande, Amit; Han, Jay J

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the recent explosion of the mobile health (mHealth) industry and consumer acquisition of mHealth tools such as wearable sensors and applications (apps), limited information is known about how this technology can sustain health behavior change and be integrated into health care. Objective The objective of the study was to understand potential users’ views of mHealth technology, the role this technology may have in promoting individual activity goals aimed at improving health, and the value of integrating mHealth technology with traditional health care. Methods Four focus groups were conducted with adults interested in sharing their views on how mHealth technology could support wellness programs and improve health. Participants (n=30) were enrolled from an employee population at an academic health institution. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to code transcripts and identify overarching themes. Results Our findings suggest that tracking health data alone may result in heightened awareness of daily activity, yet may not be sufficient to sustain use of mHealth technology and apps, which often have low reuse rates. Participants suggested that context, meaning, and health care partnerships need to be incorporated to engage and retain users. In addition to these findings, drivers for mHealth technology previously identified in the literature, including integration and control of health data were confirmed in this study. Conclusions This study explores ways that mHealth technologies may be used to not only track data, but to encourage sustained engagement to achieve individual health goals. Implications of these findings include recommendations for mHealth technology design and health care partnership models to sustain motivation and engagement, allowing individuals to achieve meaningful behavior change. PMID:26792225

  3. Individual effects of seasonal changes, visitor density, and concurrent bear behavior on stereotypical behaviors in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Kelly, Krista R; Harrison, Michelle L; Size, Daniele D; MacDonald, Suzanne E

    2015-01-01

    Stereotypical behaviors in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus) can be detrimental to their welfare. These behaviors can be reduced through enrichment programs but are often not completely eliminated, so identifying potential triggers is important. The present study investigated the influences of seasonal changes, visitor density, and concurrent bear activity on stereotypical behaviors exhibited by 3 captive polar bears at the Toronto Zoo. All bears exhibited these behaviors; however, individual differences were found in duration and form. The male exhibited less stereotypical behavior during spring, and the females exhibited less stereotypical behavior during winter. An increase in visitor density was associated with more stereotypical behavior in 1 female but less stereotypical behavior in the other 2 bears. All bears engaged in more stereotypical behaviors when the other bears were inactive, and 1 female engaged in more stereotypical behaviors when the other bears were out of sight. Further, when conspecifics were active, all bears engaged in less stereotypical behaviors. Given the variability among individual bears, future enrichment programs must be tailored to the needs of individuals to maximize efficacy.

  4. Incorporating Student Activities into Climate Change Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, H.; Kelly, K.; Klein, D.; Cadavid, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    atmospheric circulation with applications of the Lorenz model, explored the land-sea breeze problem with the Dynamics and Thermodynamics Circulation Model (DTDM), and developed simple radiative transfer models. Class projects explored the effects of varying the content of CO2 and CH4 in the atmosphere, as well as the properties of paleoclimates in atmospheric simulations using EdGCM. Initial assessment of student knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors associated with these activities, particularly about climate change, was measured. Pre- and post-course surveys provided student perspectives about the courses and their learning about remote sensing and climate change concepts. Student performance on the tutorials and course projects evaluated students' ability to learn and apply their knowledge about climate change and skills with remote sensing to assigned problems or proposed projects of their choice. Survey and performance data illustrated that the exercises were successful in meeting their intended learning objectives as well as opportunities for further refinement and expansion.

  5. Design and Protocol of a Randomized Multiple Behavior Change Trial: Make Better Choices 2 (MBC2)

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Christine A.; Steglitz, Jeremy; Johnston, Winter; Warnick, Jennifer; Adams, Tiara; McFadden, H.G.; Siddique, Juned; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Background Suboptimal diet and inactive lifestyle are among the most prevalent preventable causes of premature death. Interventions that target multiple behaviors are potentially efficient; however the optimal way to initiate and maintain multiple health behavior changes is unknown. Objective The Make Better Choices 2 (MBC2) trial aims to examine whether sustained healthful diet and activity change are best achieved by targeting diet and activity behaviors simultaneously or sequentially. Study Design Approximately 250 inactive adults with poor quality diet will be randomized to 3 conditions examining the best way to prescribe healthy diet and activity change. The 3 intervention conditions prescribe: 1) an increase in fruit and vegetable consumption (F/V+), decrease in sedentary leisure screen time (Sed−), and increase in physical activity (PA+) simultaneously (Simultaneous); 2) F/V+ and Sed− first, and then sequentially add PA+ (Sequential); or 3) Stress Management Control that addresses stress, relaxation, and sleep. All participants will receive a smartphone application to self-monitor behaviors and regular coaching calls to help facilitate behavior change during the 9 month intervention. Healthy lifestyle change in fruit/vegetable and saturated fat intakes, sedentary leisure screen time, and physical activity will be assessed at 3, 6, and 9 months. Significance MBC2 is a randomized m-Health intervention examining methods to maximize initiation and maintenance of multiple healthful behavior changes. Results from this trial will provide insight about an optimal technology supported approach to promote improvement in diet and physical activity. PMID:25625810

  6. Transtheoretical model of health behavior change applied to voice therapy.

    PubMed

    van Leer, Eva; Hapner, Edie R; Connor, Nadine P

    2008-11-01

    Studies of patient adherence to health behavior programs, such as physical exercise, smoking cessation, and diet, have resulted in the formulation and validation of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behavior change. Although widely accepted as a guide for the development of health behavior interventions, this model has not been applied to vocal rehabilitation. Because resolution of vocal difficulties frequently depends on a patient's ability to make changes in vocal and health behaviors, the TTM may be a useful way to conceptualize voice behavior change processes, including the patient's readiness for change. The purpose of this paper is to apply the TTM to the voice therapy process to: (1) provide an organizing framework for understanding of behavior change in voice therapy, (2) explain how treatment adherence problems can arise, and (3) provide broad strategies to improve treatment adherence. Given the significant role of treatment adherence in treatment outcome, considering readiness for behavior change should be taken into account when planning treatment. Principles of health behavior change can aid speech pathologists in such understanding and estimating readiness for voice therapy.

  7. Collaboration: Experiences in Changing the Behavior of Female Behavior Changers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmer, Joan D.; And Others

    In response to the inflexibility and inadequacy of counseling psychology, research methodology, and the psychology of women, the panel pursued four objectives: (1) to investigate psychological and political transformations of women in the change process; (2) to view women's outlooks which lead to under-utilization of talent; (3) to challenge…

  8. Beyond Behavior: Eliciting Broader Change With Motivational Interviewing

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Christopher C.; Ingersoll, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    Descriptions of Motivational interviewing (MI) usually focus on helping clients change a single problematic behavior. In contrast, the current case study shows that MI can serve as a more comprehensive psychotherapy, focused not only on multiple problem behaviors but also on broader change consistent with its roots in client-centered therapy. In this case, the therapist interwove a focus on several discrete behaviors with a focus on broader lifestyle change as well as increased clarity of client cognitions, values, and choices, resulting in several lasting changes. PMID:19760743

  9. Relationship of Physical Activity to Eating Behaviors and Weight Loss in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakicic, John M.; Wing, Rena R.; Winters-Hart, Carena

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether change in physical activity would relate to compliance with changes in dietary intake and eating behaviors in an 18-month behavioral weight loss program, also noting the contribution of exercise to weight loss. Data on 104 women indicated that physical activity related to long-term weight loss and was part of a constellation of…

  10. Behavior Management and Behavioral Change: How Can We Tell Them Apart?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olive, Edna

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the differences between behavior management and behavior change helps adults identify the differences between the two and teaches them what they can do to be effective in the use of both. This article introduces Positive Behavior Facilitation (PBF) Tool #3 which aims to support adults in understanding the differences between behavior…

  11. 7α-Hydroxypregnenolone regulates diurnal changes in sexual behavior of male quail.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yuki; Haraguchi, Shogo; Nagino, Koki; Ishikawa, Kei; Fukahori, Yoko; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    In the Japanese quail, 7α-hydroxypregnenolone, a previously undescribed avian neurosteroid, is actively produced in the brain. 7α-Hydroxypregnenolone acts as a novel neuronal activator to stimulate locomotor activity of quail. Therefore, in this study, we determined whether 7α-hydroxypregnenolone changes the expression of sexual behavior in Japanese quail. We first measured diurnal changes in sexual behavior of male quail exposed to a long-day photoperiod. We found that sexual behavior of male quail was high in the morning when endogenous 7α-hydroxypregnenolone level is high. Subsequently, we centrally administered 7α-hydroxypregnenolone in the evening when endogenous 7α-hydroxypregnenolone level is low. In the 30 min after intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection, 7α-hydroxypregnenolone dose dependently increased the frequency of sexual behavior of male quail. However, 7β-hydroxypregnenolone, a stereoisomer of 7α-hydroxypregnenolone, did not effect on the frequency of sexual behavior of male quail. In addition, to confirm the action of 7α-hydroxypregnenolone on sexual behavior, male birds received an ICV injection of ketoconazole, an inhibitor of cytochrome P450s, and behavioral experiments were performed in the morning. Ketoconazole significantly decreased the frequency of sexual behavior of male quail, whereas administration of 7α-hydroxypregnenolone to ketoconazole-treated males increased the frequency of their sexual behavior. These results indicate that 7α-hydroxypregnenolone regulates diurnal changes in sexual behavior of male quail.

  12. Dynamic brain mapping of behavior change: tracking response initiation and inhibition to changes in reinforcement rate.

    PubMed

    Schlund, Michael W; Magee, Sandy; Hudgins, Caleb D

    2012-10-01

    Adaptive behavior change is supported by executive control processes distributed throughout a prefrontal-striatal-parietal network. Yet, the temporal dynamics of regions in the network have not been characterized. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we tracked changes brain activation while subjects initiated and inhibited responding in accordance with changes in reinforcement rate. During imaging, subjects completed a free-operant task that involved repeated transitions between fixed-ratio reinforcement and extinction (RF:EXT), where reinforcement rate decreased and responding was inhibited, and between extinction and fixed-ratio reinforcement (EXT:RF), where reinforcement rate increased and responding was initiated. Our whole-brain temporal assessment revealed that transitions which required initiating and inhibiting responding prompted positive phasic responses in a prefrontal-parietal network, the insula and thalamus. However, response initiation prompted by an increase in reinforcement rate during the EXT:RF transition elicited positive phasic responses in reward-sensitive striatal regions. Furthermore, response inhibition prompted by a decrease in reinforcement rate during the RF:EXT transition elicited negative phasic responses in ventral frontal regions sensitive to value and contingency. Our findings highlight the temporal dynamics of a brain network that supports behavioral changes (initiation and inhibition) resulting from changes in local reinforcement rates.

  13. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sonal

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate. PMID:24600281

  14. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sonal

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate.

  15. Weight loss and related behavior changes among lesbians.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Sarah; Young, Laura; Dietrich, Mary; Blakemore, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are known risk factors for several modifiable, if not preventable diseases. Growing evidence suggests that lesbians may have higher rates of obesity than other women. This study was designed to describe weight loss and behavior changes related to food choices and exercise habits among lesbians who participated in a predominantly lesbian, mainstream, commercial weight loss program. Behavioral changes were recorded in exercise, quality of food choices, and number of times dining out. Although there were several limitations based on sample size and heterogeneity, the impact of a lesbian-supportive environment for behavior change was upheld.

  16. Concurrent reinforcement schedules: behavior change and maintenance without extinction.

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Hannah; McComas, Jennifer J; Thompson, Andrea L; Paone, Debra

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of concurrent schedules of reinforcement on negatively reinforced problem behavior and task completion with 3 children with autism. Results indicated that problem behavior occurred at high levels and relatively few tasks were completed when problem behavior produced a break (from tasks) and task completion produced either no consequence or a break. By contrast, problem behavior was eliminated and tasks were completed when problem behavior produced a break and task completion produced a break with access to preferred activities. Treatment gains were maintained without the use of extinction when the response requirement was increased and the schedule of reinforcement was thinned. PMID:12102135

  17. Concurrent reinforcement schedules: behavior change and maintenance without extinction.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Hannah; McComas, Jennifer J; Thompson, Andrea L; Paone, Debra

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of concurrent schedules of reinforcement on negatively reinforced problem behavior and task completion with 3 children with autism. Results indicated that problem behavior occurred at high levels and relatively few tasks were completed when problem behavior produced a break (from tasks) and task completion produced either no consequence or a break. By contrast, problem behavior was eliminated and tasks were completed when problem behavior produced a break and task completion produced a break with access to preferred activities. Treatment gains were maintained without the use of extinction when the response requirement was increased and the schedule of reinforcement was thinned.

  18. Changing Conceptions of Activation Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Philip D.

    1981-01-01

    Provides background material which relates to the concept of activation energy, fundamental in the study of chemical kinetics. Compares the related concepts of the Arrhenius activation energy, the activation energy at absolute zero, the enthalpy of activation, and the threshold energy. (CS)

  19. Psychology Departments Are Changing Their Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2008-01-01

    The neuroscience revolution has brought a set of difficult, at times uncomfortable, changes in university-based research psychology. The technologies that allow scholars to probe the structures and functions of the human brain are also causing profound alterations in the structures and functions of psychology departments: curricula, hiring…

  20. Can Big Pharma Behavior Change to Benefit Patients?

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Saul; Chu, Gilbert

    2005-03-09

    Professors Rosenberg and Chu will discuss how the behavior of large pharmaceutical companies can sometimes compromise the needs of patients. The behavior includes strategies for lobbying Congress, exploiting patent law, targeting large consumer markets, creating demand from patients, and influencing physicians. In some cases, this behavior has created ethical and legal problems. The talk will conclude with a discussion of possible ways to encourage changes that will benefit patients.

  1. Higher Education's Impact on Changing the Sustainable Behaviors of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stary, Wendy Rae

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to establish understanding of the capability of universities to change the behaviors of students towards pro-sustainability behaviors. In particular, the University of Wisconsin-Stout was studied due to the nature of pro-sustainability initiatives already implemented on the campus and the ease with which the…

  2. Investigating Changes in Child Behavior during Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine; Lasserre-Cortez, Shannon A.

    This longitudinal study used repeated measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA) and latent growth curve modeling to examine behavior change in 228 elementary school students over grades 1, 2, and 3 who varied in risk status. Of particular interest were the developmental trajectories for behaviors along four dimensions as rated yearly by teachers on…

  3. The Enduring Behavioral Changes in Rats with Experimental Phenylketonuria*

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Arnold E.; Rowe, Vernon; Guroff, Gordon

    1974-01-01

    The biochemical features of phenylketonuria have been reproduced in developing rat pups by administering to them a combination of p-chloro-DL-phenylalanine plus L-phenylalanine for the first 21 days after birth. During the treatment period, the experimental animals show delayed eye opening and decreased brain weight compared with controls given saline. Neuropathological examination of developing animals reveals deficient myelination and some inhibition of cerebellar maturation. When tested as adults, after a long recovery period, animals with phenylketonuria are hyperactive in activity wheels. Adult rats are deficient in reversing a position choice and demonstrate impaired performance in a Y-maze. Rats treated with p-chloro-DL-phenylalanine plus L-phenylalanine during the vulnerable period of rapid brain development thus have enduring behavioral changes that persist throughout life. Images PMID:4521053

  4. Neural circuit changes mediating lasting brain and behavioral response to predator stress.

    PubMed

    Adamec, Robert E; Blundell, Jacqueline; Burton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews recent work which points to critical neural circuitry involved in lasting changes in anxiety like behavior following unprotected exposure of rats to cats (predator stress). Predator stress may increase anxiety like behavior in a variety of behavioral tests including: elevated plus maze, light dark box, acoustic startle, and social interaction. Studies of neural transmission in two limbic pathways, combined with path and covariance analysis relating physiology to behavior, suggest long term potentiation like changes in one or both of these pathways in the right hemisphere accounts for stress induced changes in all behaviors changed by predator stress except light dark box and social interaction. Findings will be discussed within the context of what is known about neural substrates activated by predator odor.

  5. The Role of Communication in Ensuring Sustained Behavior Change

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In Part 2 of a three-part webinar series on communications strategies and methods, we address how communications tools can be used throughout the implementation of climate and clean energy programs to achieve behavior change and ensure sustained.

  6. Innovative Interventions to Promote Behavioral Change in Overweight or Obese Individuals: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Okorodudu, Daniel E.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Corsino, Leonor

    2015-01-01

    The overweight and obesity trends have risen over the past few decades placing significant burdens on healthcare in terms of increased morbidity and cost. Behavioral change therapy is an effective treatment strategy and includes goal setting, self-monitoring, problem solving, and reinforcement tactics. Traditionally, behavior change therapy has been delivered using face-to-face counseling along with paper and pen recording of dietary intake and physical activity. The current advances in technology provide opportunities to deliver interventions using cellphones, internet and active video games. These new methods to deliver behavior change for the management and prevention of obesity are being developed in order to increase access, improve convenience, decrease cost and increase participant engagement. In this review, we present new approaches to promote behavior changes in the management of obesity. Currently available data shows promising results. However, future research is needed to address study limitations and implementation challenges of these innovative interventions. PMID:25011006

  7. Innovative interventions to promote behavioral change in overweight or obese individuals: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Okorodudu, Daniel E; Bosworth, Hayden B; Corsino, Leonor

    2015-05-01

    The overweight and obesity trends have risen over the past few decades, placing significant burdens on health care in terms of increased morbidity and cost. Behavioral change therapy is an effective treatment strategy and includes goal setting, self-monitoring, problem solving, and reinforcement tactics. Traditionally, behavior change therapy has been delivered using face-to-face counseling along with paper and pen recording of dietary intake and physical activity. The current advances in technology provide opportunities to deliver interventions using cellphones, internet, and active video games. These new methods to deliver behavior change for the management and prevention of obesity are being developed in order to increase access, improve convenience, decrease cost, and increase participant engagement. In this review, we present new approaches to promote behavior changes in the management of obesity. Currently available data show promising results. However, future research is needed to address study limitations and implementation challenges of these innovative interventions.

  8. Training as related to behavioral change. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Nertney, R.J.; Buys, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This guide provides a basis for upgrading safety training programs and is based on the MORT philosophy of systemic upgrade and repair. It attempts to change the old reactive approach to accidents and events: ``If we tell or train people one more time, it won`t happen again and everything will be all right.`` The ultimate objective of training programs is to change behavior of people. Many factors beyond our control influence human behavior on the job. Training elements must not be considered out of context. Behavioral changes may not occur due to emotional physiological sociological environmental, or managerial reasons. Once dominant factors have been identified it is possible to recognize problems and make effective changes. Training will ordinarily provide an effective solution to a behavioral problem only if the following conditions are met: Skill deficiencies are involved; performance is LTA now and has been in the past. It is possible to reach the desired optimum safety only if these conditions are met: Training is specifically targeted on priority safety problems; Safety problems are sensitive to training; Elements of training programs are coherent and mutually consistent; Training programs are consistent with communications to the trainees from other sources; Desired behavioral changes are logically related to existing individual and organizational attitudes. Efforts to alter human stereotype behavior will likely result in high error frequencies. The old behavior is likely to recur under stressful conditions.

  9. Neural response to pictorial health warning labels can predict smoking behavioral change

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Philip J.; Newman-Norlund, Roger D.; Baer, Jessica; Thrasher, James F.

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve our understanding of how pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) influence smoking behavior, we examined whether brain activity helps to explain smoking behavior above and beyond self-reported effectiveness of HWLs. We measured the neural response in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the amygdala while adult smokers viewed HWLs. Two weeks later, participants’ self-reported smoking behavior and biomarkers of smoking behavior were reassessed. We compared multiple models predicting change in self-reported smoking behavior (cigarettes per day [CPD]) and change in a biomarkers of smoke exposure (expired carbon monoxide [CO]). Brain activity in the vmPFC and amygdala not only predicted changes in CO, but also accounted for outcome variance above and beyond self-report data. Neural data were most useful in predicting behavioral change as quantified by the objective biomarker (CO). This pattern of activity was significantly modulated by individuals’ intention to quit. The finding that both cognitive (vmPFC) and affective (amygdala) brain areas contributed to these models supports the idea that smokers respond to HWLs in a cognitive-affective manner. Based on our findings, researchers may wish to consider using neural data from both cognitive and affective networks when attempting to predict behavioral change in certain populations (e.g. cigarette smokers). PMID:27405615

  10. How Traumatic Violence Permanently Changes Shopping Behavior.

    PubMed

    Sigirci, Ozge; Rockmore, Marc; Wansink, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic experiences - such as combat, living in a conflict country or war-torn nation, or experiencing a violent crime or natural disaster - change social relationships and may also influence a life-time of consumer relationships with brands and shopping. Our focus on this previously overlooked area is centered on an analysis of the long-term shopping habits of 355 combat veterans. We show that those who experienced heavy trauma (e.g., heavy combat) exhibited similar disconnection from brands as others have experienced in social relationships. They became more transactional in that they were more open to switching brands, to trying new products, and buying the least expensive alternative (p < 0.01). In contrast, those who had experienced a light trauma were more influenced by ads and more open to buying brands even when they cost more (p < 0.00). Trauma, such as combat, may change one's decision horizon. Functionality and price become more important, which is consistent with the idea that they are more focused on the present moment than on building on the past or saving for the future.

  11. How Traumatic Violence Permanently Changes Shopping Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sigirci, Ozge; Rockmore, Marc; Wansink, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic experiences – such as combat, living in a conflict country or war-torn nation, or experiencing a violent crime or natural disaster – change social relationships and may also influence a life-time of consumer relationships with brands and shopping. Our focus on this previously overlooked area is centered on an analysis of the long-term shopping habits of 355 combat veterans. We show that those who experienced heavy trauma (e.g., heavy combat) exhibited similar disconnection from brands as others have experienced in social relationships. They became more transactional in that they were more open to switching brands, to trying new products, and buying the least expensive alternative (p < 0.01). In contrast, those who had experienced a light trauma were more influenced by ads and more open to buying brands even when they cost more (p < 0.00). Trauma, such as combat, may change one’s decision horizon. Functionality and price become more important, which is consistent with the idea that they are more focused on the present moment than on building on the past or saving for the future. PMID:27656152

  12. Maintenance of health behavior change in preventive cardiology. Internalization and self-regulation of new behaviors.

    PubMed

    Bellg, Albert J

    2003-01-01

    Long-term health behavior maintenance remains a challenge for patients and health behavior interventionists. Resource-intensive systems of external reinforcement and behavioral cues can support behavior maintenance; an alternative approach is to promote patient internalization and self-regulation of health behaviors. Based in part on organismic internalization theory, self-determination theory, and the experience of patients successful at maintaining health behaviors, the health behavior internalization model (HBIM) is proposed to describe motivational factors associated with internalization processes and hypothesizes that integrated internalization may be associated with long-term health behavior maintenance. The HBIM identifies four self-needs (ownership, self-determination, security, and support) and four behavior-related needs (preference, context, competence, and coping) as motivating health behavior internalization. Behavior change strategies promoting integrated internalization are identified from self-determination theory, motivational interviewing, and transtheoretical model interventions. Other health behavior change constructs are reviewed in relation to internalization processes, and potential limits to the model are discussed.

  13. Social marketing: a behavior change technology for infection control.

    PubMed

    Mah, Manuel W; Deshpande, Sameer; Rothschild, Michael L

    2006-09-01

    Changing health care worker behaviors is a core function of infection control programs. The social change technologies of education and institutional policy are limited in their capacity to achieve desired behaviors on a sustained basis because they do not address the importance of opportunity and ability in practice enhancement. Social marketing addresses the health care worker's lack of opportunity and ability by offering a bundle of benefits at low cost with high accessibility and by doing this better than the behavioral status quo. This article introduces some social marketing concepts and explicates them in the context of hand hygiene promotion.

  14. Applied behavior analysis: understanding and changing behavior in the community-a representative review.

    PubMed

    Luyben, Paul D

    2009-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis, a psychological discipline, has been characterized as the science of behavior change (Chance, 2006). Research in applied behavior analysis has been published for approximately 40 years since the initial publication of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis in 1968. The field now encompasses a wide range of human behavior. Although much of the published research centers on problem behaviors that occur in schools and among people with disabilities, a substantial body of knowledge has emerged in community settings. This article provides a review of the behavioral community research published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis as representative of this work, including research in the areas of home and family, health, safety, community involvement and the environment, recreation and sports, crime and delinquency, and organizations. In the interest of space, research in schools and with people with disabilities has been excluded from this review.

  15. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Lee, Sang; Gilman, Jodi M; Kim, Byoung Woo; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Livengood, Sherri L; Raman, Kalyan; Lee, Myung Joo; Kuster, Jake; Stern, Daniel B; Calder, Bobby; Mulhern, Frank J; Blood, Anne J; Breiter, Hans C

    2015-01-01

    Loss aversion (LA), the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years), or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years). We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI) to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc) response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1) the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing; (2) its activation to both positive and negative stimuli; (3) its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS) of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations) relative to approach responses (positive valuations) with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task.

  16. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Lee, Sang; Gilman, Jodi M.; Kim, Byoung Woo; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Livengood, Sherri L.; Raman, Kalyan; Lee, Myung Joo; Kuster, Jake; Stern, Daniel B.; Calder, Bobby; Mulhern, Frank J.; Blood, Anne J.; Breiter, Hans C.

    2015-01-01

    Loss aversion (LA), the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years), or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years). We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI) to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc) response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1) the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing; (2) its activation to both positive and negative stimuli; (3) its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS) of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations) relative to approach responses (positive valuations) with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task. PMID:25983682

  17. AIDS and behavioral change to reduce risk: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, M H; Joseph, J G

    1988-01-01

    Published reports describing behavioral changes in response to the threat of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) are reviewed. These studies demonstrate rapid, profound, but expectably incomplete alterations in the behavior of both homosexual/bisexual males and intravenous drug users. This is true in the highest risk metropolitan areas such as New York City and in areas with lower AIDS incidence. Risk reduction is occurring more frequently through the modification of sexual or drug-use behavior than through its elimination. In contrast to aggregate data, longitudinal descriptions of individual behavior demonstrate considerable instability or recidivism. Behavioral change in the potentially vulnerable heterosexual adolescent and young adult populations is less common, as is risk reduction among urban minorities. Reports of AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes generally parallel the pattern of behavioral changes. Nonetheless, few studies investigate the relationship of knowledge and attitudes to risk reduction. Future studies should provide much-needed information about the determinants as well as the magnitude of behavioral changes required to reduce the further spread of AIDS. PMID:3279837

  18. Some current dimensions of the behavioral economics of health-related behavior change.

    PubMed

    Bickel, Warren K; Moody, Lara; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Health-related behaviors such as tobacco, alcohol and other substance use, poor diet and physical inactivity, and risky sexual practices are important targets for research and intervention. Health-related behaviors are especially pertinent targets in the United States, which lags behind most other developed nations on common markers of population health. In this essay we examine the application of behavioral economics, a scientific discipline that represents the intersection of economics and psychology, to the study and promotion of health-related behavior change. More specifically, we review what we consider to be some core dimensions of this discipline when applied to the study health-related behavior change. Behavioral economics (1) provides novel conceptual systems to inform scientific understanding of health behaviors, (2) translates scientific understanding into practical and effective behavior-change interventions, (3) leverages varied aspects of behavior change beyond increases or decreases in frequency, (4) recognizes and exploits trans-disease processes and interventions, and (5) leverages technology in efforts to maximize efficacy, cost effectiveness, and reach. These dimensions are overviewed and their implications for the future of the field discussed.

  19. Correlation changes in EEG, conditioned and behavioral reactions with various degrees of oxygen insufficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agadzhanyan, N. A.; Zakharova, I. N.; Kalyuzhnyy, L. V.; Dvorzhak, I. I.; Moravek, M.; Tsmiral, Y. I.

    1974-01-01

    The dynamics of change in bioelectric activity of the brain during acute hypoxia are studied for the time that working capacity and active consciousness are preserved, and to establish the correlation between EEG changes and behavioral reactions under oxygen starvation. Changes in body functions and behavioral disturbances are related to the degree of oxygen saturation in the blood, to bioelectric activity of the brain, and to an increase in conditioned reflexes. The capacity for adequate reaction to external signals and for coordinated psychomotor activity after loss of consciousness returns to man after 30 seconds. Repeated effects of hypoxia produce changes in the physiological reactions of the body directed toward better adaptation to changing gaseous environments.

  20. Changing Family Habits: A Case Study into Climate Change Mitigation Behavior in Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leger, Michel T.; Pruneau, Diane

    2012-01-01

    A case-study methodology was used to explore the process of change as experienced by 3 suburban families in an attempt to incorporate climate change mitigation behavior into their day to day life. Cross-case analysis of the findings revealed the emergence of three major conceptual themes associated with behavior adoption: collectively applied…

  1. State Political Process Change and Educational Interest Group Political Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Robert E.

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of changes in New York State political and legislative processes on the political behavior and strategies of education interest groups in seeking State policy change for education. Historical methods were utilized in examining the problem. As interest groups seek their objectives, they…

  2. Identifying Indicators of Behavior Change: Insights from Wildfire Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Martha C.; Agrawal, Shruti; Jakes, Pamela J.; Kruger, Linda E.; Nelson, Kristen C.; Sturtevant, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Environmental educators are challenged to document behavior changes, because change rarely depends solely on outcomes of education programs, but on many factors. An analysis of 15 communities in the United States that have increased their preparedness for wildfire allowed us to explore how education programs encouraged individual and community…

  3. Human Behavioral Contributions to Climate Change: Psychological and Contextual Drivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swim, Janet K.; Clayton, Susan; Howard, George S.

    2011-01-01

    We are facing rapid changes in the global climate, and these changes are attributable to human behavior. Humans produce this global impact through our use of natural resources, multiplied by the vast increase in population seen in the past 50 to 100 years. Our goal in this article is to examine the underlying psychosocial causes of human impact,…

  4. Issue Paper on Physiological and Behavioral Changes in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This issue paper provides a summary of information from the published literature related to behavioral and physiological changes during pregnancy and lactation that may affect women’s exposure or susceptibility to environmental contaminants, provides potentially useful exposure factor data for this population of women, and highlights data gaps. Background Exposures to environmental contaminants can pose a risk to pregnant women’s health, the developing fetus, children, and adults later in their lives. Assessing risks to this potentially susceptible population requires an understanding of the physiological and behavioral changes that occur during pregnancy and lactation. Many physiological and anatomical changes occur in a woman’s organ systems during the course of pregnancy and lactation. For example, blood volume and cardiac output increase during pregnancy, and other metabolic functions are altered to provide for the demands of the fetus. Nutritional demands are greater during pregnancy and lactation. There also are changes in behavior during both pregnancy and lactation. For example, water consumption during pregnancy and lactation increases. These behavioral and physiological changes can lead to different environmental exposures than these women might otherwise experience in the absence of pregnancy or lactation. The purpose of the issue paper is to provide a summary of data available on physiological and behavioral changes in pregnant a

  5. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames.

    PubMed

    Straker, Leon M; Fenner, Ashley A; Howie, Erin K; Feltz, Deborah L; Gray, Cindy M; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian Floyd; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M

    2015-02-01

    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline areas, including behavioral sciences (health behavior change, motor learning, and serious games), business production (marketing and sales), and technology engineering and design (human-computer interaction/ergonomics and flow). Both direct and indirect pathways to impact on population levels of habitual physical activity are proposed, along with the concept of a game use lifecycle. Examples of current active and sedentary electronic games are used to understand how such principles may be applied. Furthermore, limitations of the current usage of theoretical principles are discussed. A suggested list of principles for best practice in active videogame design is proposed along with suggested research ideas to inform practice to enhance physical activity.

  6. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames

    PubMed Central

    Fenner, Ashley A.; Howie, Erin K.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Gray, Cindy M.; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian “Floyd”; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline areas, including behavioral sciences (health behavior change, motor learning, and serious games), business production (marketing and sales), and technology engineering and design (human–computer interaction/ergonomics and flow). Both direct and indirect pathways to impact on population levels of habitual physical activity are proposed, along with the concept of a game use lifecycle. Examples of current active and sedentary electronic games are used to understand how such principles may be applied. Furthermore, limitations of the current usage of theoretical principles are discussed. A suggested list of principles for best practice in active videogame design is proposed along with suggested research ideas to inform practice to enhance physical activity. PMID:26181680

  7. Network Effects of Risk Behavior Change Following Prophylactic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Rajaraman, Rajmohan; Sun, Zhifeng; Sundaram, Ravi; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S.

    2013-01-01

    We formulated a network-based model to understand how risk behavior change in conjunction with failure of prophylactic interventions can lead to unintended outcomes where “less (intervention) is more (effective).” Our model captures the distinction between one- and two-sided risk behavior change. In one-sided situations (e.g. influenza/H1N1) it is sufficient for either individual in an interaction to exhibit risk behavior change whereas in two-sided situations (e.g. AIDS/HIV) it is necessary for both individuals in the interaction to exhibit risk behavior change, for a potential transmission of the disease. A central discovery is that this phenomenon occurs at differing levels of intervention coverage depending upon the “sidedness” of the interaction. We find that for one-sided interactions, sufficiently high vaccination coverage is necessary for mitigating the effects of risk behavior; for two-sided interactions, it is essential to combine prophylactic treatments with programs aimed at reducing risky behavior. Furthermore, again dependent on the “sidedness,” targeting highly connected nodes can be strictly worse than uniformly random interventions at the same level of coverage. PMID:23936290

  8. Changes in marriage and fertility behavior. Behavior versus attitudes of young adults.

    PubMed

    Moore, K A; Stief, T M

    1991-03-01

    Hoping to determine whether recent changes in marriage and fertility behavior are simply temporary or more permanent, the attitudes and values of young adults were compared to the recent trends. The data come from the 1987 wave of the National Survey of Children, which has tracked a nationally representative sample of young people since 1976. The following behaviors and their corresponding attitudes are discussed: sexual activity, pregnancy, nonmarital childbearing, abortion, marriage and cohabitation, and divorce. Also considered are how blacks and whites differ in their behavior and attitudes. Since the 1970s, the incidence of premarital intercourse has increased substantially among adolescents and has resulted in a rise in the pregnancy rate. Adolescents strongly disapprove of sexual activity among younger teens, but accept it for older adolescents. Nonmarital childbearing increased by about 50% from 1970 to 1987. Adolescents, however, generally hold negative attitudes toward adolescent pregnancy, and the majority of sexually experienced teens report wanting to avoid pregnancy. In 1985, over 40% of teens who became pregnant obtained an abortion. Adolescents are divided on the acceptability of abortion -- except in instances of rape, in which case most accept abortion. Young adults strongly favor delayed marriage and oppose divorce, feeling that couples should not get married unless they intend to stay together for life. About 1/2 of young adults approve of cohabitation and only 1/5 are opposed to nonmarital childbearing. Based on the policy implications of the findings, it is concluded that the attitudes and values of young adults do not reflect the demise of the family, as has been predicted.

  9. How Has Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Therapy Changed?: An Historical Analysis of Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donohue, William; Fryling, Mitch

    2007-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy are now nearly a half century old. It is interesting to ask if and how these disciplines have changed over time, particularly regarding some of their key internal controversies (e.g., role of cognitions). We examined the first five years and the 2000-2004 five year period of the "Journal of Applied…

  10. Strategies for Maintaining Positive Behavior Change Stemming from Functional Behavioral Assessment in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Robert A.; Hendrickson, Jo M.

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses strategies and procedures for promoting maintenance and generalization of student behavior changes resulting from interventions based on functional behavioral assessment. Strategies include self-management techniques, cognitive mediation, self-advocacy training, use of peers, booster training, environmental modifications,…

  11. A Change Impact Analysis to Characterize Evolving Program Behaviors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rungta, Neha Shyam; Person, Suzette; Branchaud, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Change impact analysis techniques estimate the potential effects of changes made to software. Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE) is an intraprocedural technique for characterizing the impact of software changes on program behaviors. DiSE first estimates the impact of the changes on the source code using program slicing techniques, and then uses the impact sets to guide symbolic execution to generate path conditions that characterize impacted program behaviors. DiSE, however, cannot reason about the flow of impact between methods and will fail to generate path conditions for certain impacted program behaviors. In this work, we present iDiSE, an extension to DiSE that performs an interprocedural analysis. iDiSE combines static and dynamic calling context information to efficiently generate impacted program behaviors across calling contexts. Information about impacted program behaviors is useful for testing, verification, and debugging of evolving programs. We present a case-study of our implementation of the iDiSE algorithm to demonstrate its efficiency at computing impacted program behaviors. Traditional notions of coverage are insufficient for characterizing the testing efforts used to validate evolving program behaviors because they do not take into account the impact of changes to the code. In this work we present novel definitions of impacted coverage metrics that are useful for evaluating the testing effort required to test evolving programs. We then describe how the notions of impacted coverage can be used to configure techniques such as DiSE and iDiSE in order to support regression testing related tasks. We also discuss how DiSE and iDiSE can be configured for debugging finding the root cause of errors introduced by changes made to the code. In our empirical evaluation we demonstrate that the configurations of DiSE and iDiSE can be used to support various software maintenance tasks

  12. Public perception of climate change voluntary mitigation and barriers to behavior change.

    PubMed

    Semenza, Jan C; Hall, David E; Wilson, Daniel J; Bontempo, Brian D; Sailor, David J; George, Linda A

    2008-11-01

    Mitigating global climate change requires not only government action but also cooperation from consumers. Population-based, cross-sectional surveys were conducted among 1202 respondents in Portland OR and Houston TX between June and September 2007 regarding awareness, concern, and behavior change related to climate change. The data were subjected to both quantitative and qualitative analyses. Awareness about climate change is virtually universal (98% in Portland and 92% in Houston) with the vast majority reporting some level of concern (90% in Portland and 82% in Houston). A multivariate analysis revealed significant predictors of behavior change: individuals with heightened concern about climate change (p<0.001); respondents with higher level of education (p= 0.03); younger compared with older individuals (p<0.001); and Portlanders more likely to change behavior compared with Houstonians (p<0.001). Of those who changed behavior, 43% reported having reduced their energy usage at home, 39% had reduced gasoline consumption, and 26% engaged in other behaviors, largely recycling. Qualitative data indicate a number of cognitive, behavioral, and structural obstacles to voluntary mitigation. Although consumers are interested in global climate change-mitigation strategies and willing to act accordingly, considerable impediments remain. Government policy must eliminate economic, structural, and social barriers to change and advance accessible and economical alternatives. Individual-level mitigation can be a policy option under favorable contextual conditions, as these results indicate, but must be accompanied by mitigation efforts from industry, commerce, and government.

  13. Adult Tea Green Leafhoppers, Empoasca onukii (Matsuda), Change Behaviors under Varying Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Longqing; Vasseur, Liette; Huang, Huoshui; Zeng, Zhaohua; Hu, Guiping; Liu, Xin; You, Minsheng

    2017-01-01

    Insect behaviors are often influenced by light conditions including photoperiod, light intensity, and wavelength. Understanding pest insect responses to changing light conditions may help with developing alternative strategies for pest control. Little is known about the behavioral responses of leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) to light conditions. The behavior of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda, was examined when exposed to different light photoperiods or wavelengths. Observations included the frequency of locomotion and cleaning activities, and the duration of time spent searching. The results suggested that under normal photoperiod both female and male adults were generally more active in darkness (i.e., at night) than in light. In continuous darkness (DD), the locomotion and cleaning events in Period 1 (7:00–19:00) were significantly increased, when compared to the leafhoppers under normal photoperiod (LD). Leafhoppers, especially females, changed their behavioral patterns to a two day cycle under DD. Under continuous illumination (continuous quartz lamp light, yellow light at night, and green light at night), the activities of locomotion, cleaning, and searching were significantly suppressed during the night (19:00–7:00) and locomotion activities of both females and males were significantly increased during the day (7:00–19:00), suggesting a shift in circadian rhythm. Our work suggests that changes in light conditions, including photoperiod and wavelength, can influence behavioral activities of leafhoppers, potentially affecting other life history traits such as reproduction and development, and may serve as a method for leafhopper behavioral control. PMID:28103237

  14. Analysis of behavioral change techniques in community-led total sanitation programs.

    PubMed

    Sigler, Rachel; Mahmoudi, Lyana; Graham, Jay Paul

    2015-03-01

    The lack of sanitation facilitates the spread of diarrheal diseases-a leading cause of child deaths worldwide. As of 2012, an estimated 1 billion people still practiced open defecation (OD). To address this issue, one behavioral change approach used is community-led total sanitation (CLTS). It is now applied in an estimated 66 countries worldwide, and many countries have adopted this approach as their main strategy for scaling up rural sanitation coverage. While it appears that many of the activities used in CLTS-that target community-level changes in sanitation behaviors instead of household-level changes-have evolved out of existing behavior change frameworks and techniques, it is less clear how these activities are adapted by different organizations and applied in different country contexts. The aims of this study are to (i) show which behavior change frameworks and techniques are the most common in CLTS interventions; (ii) describe how activities are implemented in CLTS interventions by region and context; and (3) determine which activities program implementers considered the most valuable in achieving open defecation free (ODF) status and sustaining it. The results indicate that a wide range of activities are conducted across the different programs and often go beyond standard CLTS activities. CLTS practitioners ranked follow-up and monitoring activities as the most important activities for achieving an ODF community, yet only 1 of 10 organizations conducted monitoring and follow-up throughout their project. Empirical studies are needed to determine which specific behavioral change activities are most effective at ending OD and sustaining it.

  15. Carrots and sticks fail to change behavior in cocaine addiction

    PubMed Central

    Ersche, Karen D.; Gillan, Claire M.; Jones, P. Simon; Williams, Guy B.; Ward, Laetitia H. E.; Luijten, Maartje; de Wit, Sanne; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is a major public health problem that is particularly difficult to treat. Without medically proven pharmacological treatments, interventions to change the maladaptive behavior of addicted individuals mainly rely on psychosocial approaches. Here we report on impairments in cocaine-addicted patients to act purposefully toward a given goal and on the influence of extended training on their behavior. When patients were rewarded for their behavior, prolonged training improved their response rate toward the goal but simultaneously rendered them insensitive to the consequences of their actions. By contrast, overtraining of avoidance behavior had no effect on patient performance. Our findings illustrate the ineffectiveness of punitive approaches and highlight the potential for interventions that focus on improving goal-directed behavior and implementing more desirable habits to replace habitual drug-taking. PMID:27313048

  16. Influence of parameter changes to stability behavior of rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzen, C. P.; Nordmann, R.

    1982-01-01

    The occurrence of unstable vibrations in rotating machinery requires corrective measures for improvement of the stability behavior. A simple approximate method is represented to find out the influence of parameter changes to the stability behavior. The method is based on an expansion of the eigenvalues in terms of system parameters. Influence coefficients show the effect of structural modifications. The method first of all was applied to simple nonconservative rotor models. It was approved for an unsymmetric rotor of a test rig.

  17. Behavioral Ecology of Narwhals in a Changing Arctic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Behavioral Ecology of Narwhals in a Changing Arctic...Award Number: N000141110201 LONG-TERM GOALS Our primary goal is to understand baseline narwhal (Monodon monoceros) behavioral ecology in...the pack ice of Baffin Bay. We will collect data on the species’ acoustic, movement, and diving ecology in the offshore pack ice of Baffin Bay over a

  18. [Severe behavioral changes in a patient with Fahr's disease].

    PubMed

    Kümmer, Arthur; de Castro, Maila; Caramelli, Paulo; Cardoso, Francisco; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio

    2006-09-01

    We report on a case of a 40 year-old man with Fahrs disease, defined by idiopathic bilateral basal ganglia calcification, who developed depressive disorder, motor and phonic tics, stereotyped behaviors such as punding and personality changes with significant social and familiar implications. We discuss about the psychopathology of Fahrs disease and the relevance of the basal ganglia in the determination of humans behavior.

  19. Nurses as practice change facilitators for healthy behaviors.

    PubMed

    Holtrop, Jodi Summers; Baumann, Jeanne; Arnold, Anita K; Torres, Trissa

    2008-01-01

    This study used nurses as practice change consultants to help primary care medical practices improve their delivery of health behavior services to patients. Nurse consultants worked with 20 practices from 2 healthcare systems. In each practice, the nurses helped clinicians and staff to develop a practice-specific protocol so that they could identify and intervene with the health behavior of their patients. As a result of the nurse consultant intervention, health behavior delivery was improved. This article describes the specific methods and the lessons learned through this study. We encourage practices to use nurse consultants as one way of improving quality of care.

  20. Implicit Processes, Self-Regulation, and Interventions for Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    St Quinton, Tom; Brunton, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to regulate and subsequently change behavior is influenced by both reflective and implicit processes. Traditional theories have focused on conscious processes by highlighting the beliefs and intentions that influence decision making. However, their success in changing behavior has been modest with a gap between intention and behavior apparent. Dual-process models have been recently applied to health psychology; with numerous models incorporating implicit processes that influence behavior as well as the more common conscious processes. Such implicit processes are theorized to govern behavior non-consciously. The article provides a commentary on motivational and volitional processes and how interventions have combined to attempt an increase in positive health behaviors. Following this, non-conscious processes are discussed in terms of their theoretical underpinning. The article will then highlight how these processes have been measured and will then discuss the different ways that the non-conscious and conscious may interact. The development of interventions manipulating both processes may well prove crucial in successfully altering behavior. PMID:28337164

  1. Development of the Systems Thinking Scale for Adolescent Behavior Change.

    PubMed

    Moore, Shirley M; Komton, Vilailert; Adegbite-Adeniyi, Clara; Dolansky, Mary A; Hardin, Heather K; Borawski, Elaine A

    2017-03-01

    This report describes the development and psychometric testing of the Systems Thinking Scale for Adolescent Behavior Change (STS-AB). Following item development, initial assessments of understandability and stability of the STS-AB were conducted in a sample of nine adolescents enrolled in a weight management program. Exploratory factor analysis of the 16-item STS-AB and internal consistency assessments were then done with 359 adolescents enrolled in a weight management program. Test-retest reliability of the STS-AB was .71, p = .03; internal consistency reliability was .87. Factor analysis of the 16-item STS-AB indicated a one-factor solution with good factor loadings, ranging from .40 to .67. Evidence of construct validity was supported by significant correlations with established measures of variables associated with health behavior change. We provide beginning evidence of the reliability and validity of the STS-AB to measure systems thinking for health behavior change in young adolescents.

  2. Quantitative stove use and ventilation guidance for behavior change strategies.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michael A; Chiang, Ranyee A

    2015-01-01

    Achieving World Health Organization air quality targets and aspirational fuel savings targets through clean cooking solutions will require high usage rates of high-performing products and low usage rates of traditional stoves. Catalyzing this shift is challenging as fuel and stove use practices associated with new technologies generally differ from those used with traditional technologies. Accompanying this shift with ventilation improvements can help further reduce exposure to emissions of health damaging pollutants. Behavior change strategies will be central to these efforts to move users to new technologies and minimize exposure to emissions. In this article, the authors show how behavior change can be linked to quantitative guidance on stove usage, household ventilation rates, and performance. The guidance provided here can help behavior change efforts in the household energy sector set and achieve quantitative goals for usage and ventilation rates.

  3. Behavior changes in SIS STD models with selective mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, J.M.; Li, J.

    1997-08-01

    The authors propose and analyze a heterogeneous, multigroup, susceptible-infective-susceptible (SIS) sexually transmitted disease (STD) model where the desirability and acceptability in partnership formations are functions of the infected individuals. They derive explicit formulas for the epidemic thresholds, prove the existence and uniqueness of the equilibrium states for the two-group model and provide a complete analysis of their local and global stability. The authors then investigate the effects of behavior changes on the transmission dynamics and analyze the sensitivity of the epidemic to the magnitude of the behavior changes. They verify that if people modify their behavior to reduce the probability of infection with individuals in highly infected groups, through either reduced contacts, reduced partner formations, or using safe sex, the infection level may be decreased. However, if people continue to have intragroup and intergroup partnerships, then changing the desirability and acceptability formation cannot eradicate the epidemic once it exceeds the epidemic threshold.

  4. Behavioral Change Strategies for Improving Complementary Feeding and Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Osendarp, Saskia J M; Roche, Marion L

    2016-01-01

    Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding, has been identified as one of the most effective interventions to improve child survival, stunting and wasting. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that effective promotion of breastfeeding and complementary feeding, with or without food provision, has the potential to improve IYCF practices and child nutrition. However, in many countries, breastfeeding practices and complementary feeding practices are still far from optimal. The lack of implementation of available, effective, affordable interventions in scale-up programs is in part attributed to a lack of innovative, creative and effective behavioral change strategies that enable and encourage caregivers. Successful behavioral change strategies should be based on a rigorous situational analysis and formative research, and the findings and insights of formative research should be used to further design interventions that address the identified barriers and enablers, to select delivery channels, and to formulate appropriate and effective messages. In addition, successful behavioral change interventions should a priori define and investigate the program impact pathway to target behavioral change and should assess intermediary behavioral changes and indicators to learn why the expected outcome was achieved or not achieved by testing the program theory. The design of behavioral change communication must be flexible and responsive to shifts in societies and contexts. Performance of adequate IYCF also requires investments to generate community demand through social mobilization, relevant media and existing support systems. Applying these principles has been shown to be effective in improving IYCF practices in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Ethiopia and is recommended to be adopted by other programs and countries in order to accelerate progress in improving child nutrition.

  5. Has microblogging changed stock market behavior? Evidence from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xi; Shen, Dehua; Zhang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the stock market behavior for a long-lived subset of firms in Shanghai and Shenzhen CSI 300 Index (CSI 300 Index) both before and after the establishment of firms' Microblogging in Sina Weibo. The empirical results show a significant increase in the relative trading volume as well as the decreases in the daily expected stock return and firm-level volatility in the post-Sina Weibo period. These findings suggest that Sina Weibo as an alternative information interaction channel has changed the information environment for individual stock, enhanced the speed of information diffusion and therefore changed the overall stock market behavior.

  6. Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO) Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Physical Activity, Food Intake, Eating Behaviors, Psychological Health, and Modeled Change in Body Mass Index in Overweight/Obese Caucasian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Harbron, Janetta; van der Merwe, Lize; Zaahl, Monique G.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Senekal, Marjanne

    2014-01-01

    The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is currently recognized as the most robust predictor of polygenic obesity. We investigated associations between the FTO rs1421085 and rs17817449 polymorphisms and the FTO rs1421085–rs17817449 haplotype and dietary intake, eating behavior, physical activity, and psychological health, as well as the effect of these associations on BMI. N = 133 treatment seeking overweight/obese Caucasian adults participated in this study. Genotyping was performed from whole blood samples. Weight and height was measured and a non-quantified food frequency questionnaire was completed to assess food group intake. Validated questionnaires were completed to assess physical activity (Baecke questionnaire), psychological health (General Health questionnaire, Rosenburg self-esteem scale and Beck Depression Inventory), and eating behavior (Three Factor Eating questionnaire). The risk alleles of the FTO polymorphisms were associated with poorer eating behaviors (higher hunger, internal locus for hunger, and emotional disinhibition scores), a higher intake of high fat foods and refined starches and more depressive symptoms. The modeled results indicate that interactions between the FTO polymorphisms or haplotypes and eating behavior, psychological health, and physical activity levels may be associated with BMI. The clinical significance of these results for implementation as part of weight management interventions needs further investigation. PMID:25102252

  7. Active Commuting: Workplace Health Promotion for Improved Employee Well-Being and Organizational Behavior.

    PubMed

    Page, Nadine C; Nilsson, Viktor O

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This paper describes a behavior change intervention that encourages active commuting using electrically assisted bikes (e-bikes) for health promotion in the workplace. This paper presents the preliminary findings of the intervention's impact on improving employee well-being and organizational behavior, as an indicator of potential business success. Method: Employees of a UK-based organization participated in a workplace travel behavior change intervention and used e-bikes as an active commuting mode; this was a change to their usual passive commuting behavior. The purpose of the intervention was to develop employee well-being and organizational behavior for improved business success. We explored the personal benefits and organizational co-benefits of active commuting and compared these to a travel-as-usual group of employees who did not change their behavior and continued taking non-active commutes. Results: Employees who changed their behavior to active commuting reported more positive affect, better physical health and more productive organizational behavior outcomes compared with passive commuters. In addition, there was an interactive effect of commuting mode and commuting distance: a more frequent active commute was positively associated with more productive organizational behavior and stronger overall positive employee well-being whereas a longer passive commute was associated with poorer well-being, although there was no impact on organizational behavior. Conclusion: This research provides emerging evidence of the value of an innovative workplace health promotion initiative focused on active commuting in protecting and improving employee well-being and organizational behavior for stronger business performance. It considers the significant opportunities for organizations pursuing improved workforce well-being, both in terms of employee health, and for improved organizational behavior and business success.

  8. Active Commuting: Workplace Health Promotion for Improved Employee Well-Being and Organizational Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Page, Nadine C.; Nilsson, Viktor O.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This paper describes a behavior change intervention that encourages active commuting using electrically assisted bikes (e-bikes) for health promotion in the workplace. This paper presents the preliminary findings of the intervention’s impact on improving employee well-being and organizational behavior, as an indicator of potential business success. Method: Employees of a UK-based organization participated in a workplace travel behavior change intervention and used e-bikes as an active commuting mode; this was a change to their usual passive commuting behavior. The purpose of the intervention was to develop employee well-being and organizational behavior for improved business success. We explored the personal benefits and organizational co-benefits of active commuting and compared these to a travel-as-usual group of employees who did not change their behavior and continued taking non-active commutes. Results: Employees who changed their behavior to active commuting reported more positive affect, better physical health and more productive organizational behavior outcomes compared with passive commuters. In addition, there was an interactive effect of commuting mode and commuting distance: a more frequent active commute was positively associated with more productive organizational behavior and stronger overall positive employee well-being whereas a longer passive commute was associated with poorer well-being, although there was no impact on organizational behavior. Conclusion: This research provides emerging evidence of the value of an innovative workplace health promotion initiative focused on active commuting in protecting and improving employee well-being and organizational behavior for stronger business performance. It considers the significant opportunities for organizations pursuing improved workforce well-being, both in terms of employee health, and for improved organizational behavior and business success. PMID:28119640

  9. Behavioral Disinhibition Can Foster Intentions to Healthy Lifestyle Change by Overcoming Commitment to Past Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fennis, Bob M.; Andreassen, Tor W.; Lervik-Olsen, Line

    2015-01-01

    To curb the trend towards obesity and unhealthy living, people may need to change their entire lifestyle to a healthier alternative, something that is frequently perceived to be problematic. The present research, using a large, representative community sample, hypothesized and found that a key factor responsible for why people do not intend to change lifestyles is a sense of commitment to past behavior. However we also found that the contribution of commitment was attenuated for individuals with a stronger tendency for behavioral disinhibition thus underscoring the “bright side” of this individual difference characteristic that traditionally has been mainly associated with impulsive and indulging behavior. Overall, the present findings add to our understanding of factors inhibiting and promoting healthy behavior change. PMID:26559409

  10. Friendship networks and physical activity and sedentary behavior among youth: a systematized review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity and increased participation in sedentary leisure-time activities are two important obesity-risk behaviors that impact the health of today’s youth. Friend’s health behaviors have been shown to influence individual health behaviors; however, current evidence on the specific role of friendship networks in relation to levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior is limited. The purpose of this review was to summarize evidence on friendship networks and both physical activity and sedentary behavior among children and adolescents. Method After a search of seven scientific databases and reference scans, a total of thirteen articles were eligible for inclusion. All assessed the association between friendship networks and physical activity, while three also assessed sedentary behavior. Results Overall, higher levels of physical activity among friends are associated with higher levels of physical activity of the individual. Longitudinal studies reveal that an individual’s level of physical activity changes to reflect his/her friends’ higher level of physical activity. Boys tend to be influenced by their friendship network to a greater extent than girls. There is mixed evidence surrounding a friend’s sedentary behavior and individual sedentary behavior. Conclusion Friends’ physical activity level appears to have a significant influence on individual’s physical activity level. Evidence surrounding sedentary behavior is limited and mixed. Results from this review could inform effective public health interventions that harness the influence of friends to increase physical activity levels among children and adolescents. PMID:24289113

  11. Cage Change Influences Serum Corticosterone and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Skye; Miller, Melinda M.; Filipski, Sarah B.; Tolwani, Ravi J.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental variables and husbandry practices can influence physiology and alter behavior in mice. Our study evaluated the effects of cage change on serum corticosterone levels and anxiety-like behaviors in C57BL/6 male mice. We examined the effects of 3 different methods of performing cage transfer and of transferring mice to a clean or a dirty familiar cage microenvironment. The 3 different handling methods were forceps transfer, gentle transfer with gloved hands, and a passive transfer technique that did not involve active handling. Active handling methods and transfer to both clean and dirty cage microenvironments significantly increased serum corticosterone 15 min after cage change; however, at 60 min after cage change, levels were comparable to those of unmanipulated mice. Although the effects were transient, cage change altered anxiety-like behaviors in the open field when behavioral testing was performed on the same day. These results demonstrate that the timing of cage change can influence behavioral results, an effect that is an important consideration for rodent behavioral studies. PMID:21838975

  12. Anterior cingulate dopamine turnover and behavior change in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Catherine L; Bell, Brian; Palotti, Matthew; Oh, Jen; Christian, Bradley T; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Sojkova, Jitka; Buyan-Dent, Laura; Nickles, Robert J; Harding, Sandra J; Stone, Charles K; Johnson, Sterling C; Holden, James E

    2015-12-01

    Subtle cognitive and behavioral changes are common in early Parkinson's disease. The cause of these symptoms is probably multifactorial but may in part be related to extra-striatal dopamine levels. 6-[(18) F]-Fluoro-L-dopa (FDOPA) positron emission tomography has been widely used to quantify dopamine metabolism in the brain; the most frequently measured kinetic parameter is the tissue uptake rate constant, Ki. However, estimates of dopamine turnover, which also account for the small rate of FDOPA loss from areas of specific trapping, may be more sensitive than Ki for early disease-related changes in dopamine biosynthesis. The purpose of the present study was to compare effective distribution volume ratio (eDVR), a metric for dopamine turnover, to cognitive and behavioral measures in Parkinson's patients. We chose to focus the investigation on anterior cingulate cortex, which shows highest FDOPA uptake within frontal regions and has known roles in executive function. Fifteen non-demented early-stage PD patients were pretreated with carbidopa and tolcapone, a central catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitor, and then underwent extended imaging with FDOPA PET. Anterior cingulate eDVR was compared with composite scores for language, memory, and executive function measured by neuropsychological testing, and behavior change measured using two informant-based questionnaires, the Cambridge Behavioral Inventory and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version. Lower mean eDVR (thus higher dopamine turnover) in anterior cingulate cortex was related to lower (more impaired) behavior scores. We conclude that subtle changes in anterior cingulate dopamine metabolism may contribute to dysexecutive behaviors in Parkinson's disease.

  13. Probability Learning: Changes in Behavior Across Time and Development.

    PubMed

    Plate, Rista C; Fulvio, Jacqueline M; Shutts, Kristin; Green, C Shawn; Pollak, Seth D

    2017-01-25

    Individuals track probabilities, such as associations between events in their environments, but less is known about the degree to which experience-within a learning session and over development-influences people's use of incoming probabilistic information to guide behavior in real time. In two experiments, children (4-11 years) and adults searched for rewards hidden in locations with predetermined probabilities. In Experiment 1, children (n = 42) and adults (n = 32) changed strategies to maximize reward receipt over time. However, adults demonstrated greater strategy change efficiency. Making the predetermined probabilities more difficult to learn (Experiment 2) delayed effective strategy change for children (n = 39) and adults (n = 33). Taken together, these data characterize how children and adults alike react flexibly and change behavior according to incoming information.

  14. A comparison of functional brain changes associated with surgical versus behavioral weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Amanda S.; Bruce, Jared M.; Ness, Abigail R.; Lepping, Rebecca J.; Malley, Stephen; Hancock, Laura; Powell, Josh; Patrician, Trisha M.; Breslin, Florence J.; Martin, Laura E.; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Brooks, William M.; Savage, Cary R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Few studies have examined brain changes in response to effective weight loss; none have compared different methods of weight-loss intervention. We compared functional brain changes associated with a behavioral weight loss intervention to those associated with bariatric surgery. Methods 15 obese participants were recruited prior to adjustable gastric banding surgery and 16 obese participants were recruited prior to a behavioral diet intervention. Groups were matched for demographics and amount of weight lost. fMRI scans (visual food motivation paradigm while hungry and following a meal) were conducted before, and 12 weeks after surgery/behavioral intervention. Results When compared to bariatric patients in the pre-meal analyses, behavioral dieters showed increased activation to food images in right medial PFC and left precuneus following weight loss. When compared to behavioral dieters, bariatric patients showed increased activation in in bilateral temporal cortex following the weight loss. Conclusions Behavioral dieters showed increased responses to food cues in medial PFC – a region associated with valuation and processing of self-referent information – when compared to bariatric patients. Bariatric patients showed increased responses to food cues in brain regions associated with higher level perception—when compared to behavioral dieters. The method of weight loss determines unique changes in brain function. PMID:24115765

  15. Social Integration and Health Behavioral Change in San Luis, Honduras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuestion, Michael J.; Calle, Ana Quijano; Drasbek, Christopher; Harkins, Thomas; Sagastume, Lourdes J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the effects of social integration on behavioral change in the course of an intensive, community-based public health intervention. The intervention trained volunteers and mobilized local organizations to promote 16 key family health practices in rural San Luis, Honduras, during 2004 to 2006. A mixed methods approach is used.…

  16. Religion Does Matter for Climate Change Attitudes and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Mark; Duncan, Roderick; Parton, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on the relationship between religion and climate change attitudes and behavior. Further, while there have been some studies examining the relationship between environmental attitudes and religion, most are focused on Christian denominations and secularism, and few have examined other religions such as Buddhism. Using an online survey of 1,927 Australians we examined links between membership of four religious groupings (Buddhists, Christian literalists and non-literalists, and Secularists) and climate change attitudes and behaviors. Differences were found across religious groups in terms of their belief in: (a) human induced climate change, (b) the level of consensus among scientists, (c) their own efficacy, and (d) the need for policy responses. We show, using ordinal regression, that religion explains these differences even after taking into account socio-demographic factors, knowledge and environmental attitude, including belief in man's dominion over nature. Differences in attitude and behavior between these religious groups suggest the importance of engaging denominations to encourage change in attitudes and behavior among their members.

  17. Watershed Outreach Professionals' Behavior Change Practices, Challenges, and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Meghan; Little, Samuel; Phelps, Kaitlin; Roble, Carrie; Zint, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the practices, challenges, and needs of Chesapeake Bay watershed outreach professionals, as related to behavior change strategies and best outreach practices. Data were collected through a questionnaire e-mailed to applicants to the Chesapeake Bay Trust's environmental outreach grant program (n = 108, r = 56%). Almost all…

  18. Religion Does Matter for Climate Change Attitudes and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on the relationship between religion and climate change attitudes and behavior. Further, while there have been some studies examining the relationship between environmental attitudes and religion, most are focused on Christian denominations and secularism, and few have examined other religions such as Buddhism. Using an online survey of 1,927 Australians we examined links between membership of four religious groupings (Buddhists, Christian literalists and non-literalists, and Secularists) and climate change attitudes and behaviors. Differences were found across religious groups in terms of their belief in: (a) human induced climate change, (b) the level of consensus among scientists, (c) their own efficacy, and (d) the need for policy responses. We show, using ordinal regression, that religion explains these differences even after taking into account socio-demographic factors, knowledge and environmental attitude, including belief in man’s dominion over nature. Differences in attitude and behavior between these religious groups suggest the importance of engaging denominations to encourage change in attitudes and behavior among their members. PMID:26247206

  19. Anger Management Program Participants Gain Behavioral Changes in Interpersonal Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pish, Suzanne; Clark-Jones, Teresa; Eschbach, Cheryl; Tiret, Holly

    2016-01-01

    RELAX: Alternatives to Anger is an educational anger management program that helps adults understand and manage anger, develop communication skills, manage stress, and make positive behavioral changes in their interpersonal relationships. A sample of 1,168 evaluation surveys were collected from RELAX: Alternatives to Anger participants over 3…

  20. Help Preferences among Employees Who Wish to Change Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Roger; Cleal, Bryan; Jakobsen, Mette Øllgaard; Villadsen, Ebbe; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the help preferences of employees in the Danish police who had acknowledged that they wished to change health behaviors. In addition, we explored whether preferences varied with age, gender, chronic health concerns, positive expectations of good health, and past experiences of in-house health promotion services (i.e.,…

  1. Effects of Behavioral History on Resistance to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Adam H.; Cirino, Sergio; Mayfield, Kristin H.; da Silva, Stephanie P.; Okouchi, Hiroto; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether differential resistance to change would occur under identical variable-interval schedules as a function of a differential behavioral history. In Experiment 1, each of 3 pigeons first pecked at different rates under a multiple variable-ratio differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedule. In a subsequent condition,…

  2. Energy Challenges: Isolating Results Due to Behavior Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton, Kelly; Pallant, Eric; Bradshaw-Wilson, Casey; Choate, Beth; Carbone, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Approximately 700 colleges and universities have committed to climate neutrality, which will require significant reductions in energy consumption. This paper aims to explore the effectiveness of an Annual Energy Challenge in curtailing electricity use by changing consumption behaviors at one liberal arts college.…

  3. Information acquisition and behavioral change: a social marketing application.

    PubMed

    Golden, L L; Johnson, K

    1991-01-01

    Previous literature provides insight into the importance of beliefs and other intrapersonal variables for health-related information acquisition and behavioral change. The results of an empirical investigation evidence the unique strength of the role of core health beliefs for each of the multi-level measures. Directions for the development of effective marketing strategy are discussed.

  4. Persuasion: Attitude/Behavior Change. A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.

    Designed for teachers, students and researchers of the psychological dimensions of attitude and behavior change, this annotated bibliography lists books, bibliographies and articles on the subject ranging from general introductions and surveys through specific research studies, and from theoretical position essays to literature reviews. The 42…

  5. Ethical Theories for Promoting Health through Behavioral Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Janelle K.; Price, James H.

    1983-01-01

    Arguments based on the philosophies of natural law, utilitarianism, paternalism, and distributive justice are examined for their pertinence to health behavior change strategies. Health educators should prepare individuals to make health-generating decisions but may need to limit the conditions under which they intervene. (Author/PP)

  6. The Feldenkrais Method: A Dynamic Approach to Changing Motor Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Patricia A.; Ulrich, Beverly D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Feldenkrais Method of somatic education, noting parallels with a dynamic systems theory (DST) approach to motor behavior. Feldenkrais uses movement and perception to foster individualized improvement in function. DST explains that a human-environment system continually adapts to changing conditions and assembles behaviors…

  7. Peer Mentoring for Health Behavior Change: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petosa, R. L.; Smith, Laureen H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peer mentoring can be a powerful complement to health instruction. Mentoring has been used to change health behaviors and promote sustainable lifestyle patterns in adults and, more recently, among adolescents. Purpose: This article reviews the use of peer mentoring to promote health practices and describes how this approach can be used…

  8. Changes in health behaviors and their associations with depressive symptoms among Israelis aged 50 +

    PubMed Central

    Khalaila, Rabia; Litwin, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the longitudinal association between changes in health behaviors and depression, and to determine the mediating effect of health characteristics on this association. Method Based on the first and second waves of the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE)-Israel, depressive symptoms of 1,524 Israelis aged 50 or older were analyzed using logistic regression. Results Changes in physical activity and body weight are associated with depressive symptoms after adjusting for confounders. However, after adding measures of health, the respective correlations of weight gain and commenced physical activity with depression disappear, and the correlation between continued activity and depression is reduced. Discussion Changes in health behaviors are related to mental health in late life, but their effect is mediated by physical and functional health. Future interventions should nevertheless target older individuals who stop physical activity and those who remain inactive to lessen the risk of depression. PMID:24401321

  9. Longitudinal change in everyday function and behavioral symptoms in frontotemporal dementia

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Claire M.; Clemson, Lindy; Hornberger, Michael; Leyton, Cristian E.; Hodges, John R.; Piguet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The relationship between behavioral changes and functional decline in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is not well understood. Methods: Thirty-nine patients (21 behavioral variant FTD [bvFTD], 18 semantic variant primary progressive aphasia [svPPA]) were followed up longitudinally (2–4 years follow-up). Functional (Disability Assessment for Dementia) and behavioral (Cambridge Behavioural Inventory Revised) assessments were included for between-group (pairwise comparisons, mixed model analysis) and within-group analyses (bivariate correlations). Results: Functionally, patients with bvFTD were more impaired than patients with svPPA at baseline and continued to be at follow-up, despite similar disease duration. By contrast, behavioral impairments differed between patient groups at baseline and at follow-up. At baseline, patients with bvFTD exhibited higher levels of apathy and changes in eating than patients with svPPA; disinhibited and stereotypical behaviors were similar. Over the years, patients with bvFTD showed reduction in disinhibition and stereotypical behavior while apathy and eating changes increased. By contrast, all measured behaviors increased in patients with svPPA over time. Finally, only apathy made longitudinal contributions to functional disability in patients with svPPA, whereas apathy and stereotypical behavior were associated with increased disability in patients with bvFTD. Conclusions: Despite shared overlapping baseline behavioral symptoms, patients with bvFTD are more functionally impaired than patients with svPPA. Apathy has a strong role in disability for both bvFTD and svPPA, but stereotypical behaviors only contributed to functional deficits in patients with bvFTD. Our findings suggest that rigid/compulsive behaviors may in fact support activity engagement in patients with svPPA. Taken together, our results indicate that interventions to reduce disability in the FTD spectrum require an alternative rationale in

  10. Context change explains resurgence after the extinction of operant behavior

    PubMed Central

    Trask, Sydney; Schepers, Scott T.; Bouton, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Extinguished operant behavior can return or “resurge” when a response that has replaced it is also extinguished. Typically studied in nonhuman animals, the resurgence effect may provide insight into relapse that is seen when reinforcement is discontinued following human contingency management (CM) and functional communication training (FCT) treatments, which both involve reinforcing alternative behaviors to reduce behavioral excess. Although the variables that affect resurgence have been studied for some time, the mechanisms through which they promote relapse are still debated. We discuss three explanations of resurgence (response prevention, an extension of behavioral momentum theory, and an account emphasizing context change) as well as studies that evaluate them. Several new findings from our laboratory concerning the effects of different temporal distributions of the reinforcer during response elimination and the effects of manipulating qualitative features of the reinforcer pose a particular challenge to the momentum-based model. Overall, the results are consistent with a contextual account of resurgence, which emphasizes that reinforcers presented during response elimination have a discriminative role controlling behavioral inhibition. Changing the “reinforcer context” at the start of testing produces relapse if the organism has not learned to suppress its responding under conditions similar to the ones that prevail during testing. PMID:27429503

  11. Facilitating Behavior Change with Low-Literacy Patient Education Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Hilary K.; Wallace, Andrea S.; DeWalt, Darren A.; Schillinger, Dean; Arnold, Connie L.; Shilliday, Betsy Bryant; Delgadillo, Adriana; Bengal, Nikki; Davis, Terry C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe a process for developing low-literacy health education materials that increase knowledge and activate patients toward healthier behaviors. Methods: We developed a theoretically informed process for developing educational materials. This process included convening a multidisciplinary creative team, soliciting stakeholder…

  12. The effectiveness of mass communication to change public behavior.

    PubMed

    Abroms, Lorien C; Maibach, Edward W

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the ways in which mass communication has been used -- or can be used -- to promote beneficial changes in behavior among members of populations. We use an ecological perspective to examine the ways in which mass media interventions can be used to influence public behavior both directly and indirectly. Mass media interventions that seek to influence people directly -- by directly targeting the people burdened by the public health problem of concern and/or the people who influence them -- have a long basis in public health history, and recent reviews have clarified our expectations about what can be expected from such approaches. Mass media interventions that seek to influence people indirectly -- by creating beneficial changes in the places (or environments) in which people live and work -- have equal if not greater potential to promote beneficial changes in population health behaviors, but these are currently less explored options. To have the greatest possible beneficial influence on public behavior with the public health resources available, we recommend that public health program planners assess their opportunities to use media to target both people and places in a manner that complements and extends other investments being made in population health enhancement.

  13. Mechanical behavior, modeling, and color change of electrospun fiber mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedicini, Angelo

    The process of electrospinning and the physical properties of electrospun fibers are presented in this thesis. In electrospinning, polymeric fibers having diameters ranging from 50 nanometers to 1 micrometer are prepared by applying high static charge to a polymer solution. The mechanical properties and molecular morphology of some electrospun polymers are shown to be fundamentally different compared to their bulk analogs. Experimental results indicate that the mechanical behavior of electrospun polyurethane fiber mats is influenced by fiber mat morphology, molecular orientation, and surface flaws on electrospun fibers. This research characterizes the mechanical behavior of randomly oriented electrospun polyurethane mats and sheds light on general differences in behavior between electrospun and bulk materials. Further, the mechanical response of random fiber mats is modeled based on the mechanical characterization of aligned electrospun fibers. Also, empirical models are employed to relate the tensile properties of electrospun materials to their bulk analogs. The crystallinity and melting behavior of a family of electrospun polyesters is studied and provides insight to the rapid cooling and effects on solidification and crystallization of electrospun polymeric fibers. The results indicate a commonly accepted idea in electrospinning, that electrospun fibers result from rapid solvent evaporation and experience quench-like solidification from a jet of polymer solution. A qualitative study illustrates a color change phenomenon in a series of electrospun polymer/solvent systems. Color change is produced by electrospinning, and subsequent heating, and occurs at characteristic temperatures dependent on the polymer system used. These color change systems are also demonstrated as candidates for imageable media.

  14. Pubertal Development and Behavior: Hormonal Activation of Social and Motivational Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Erika E.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of dramatic changes including rapid physical growth, the onset of sexual maturation, the activation of new drives and motivations, and a wide array of social and affective changes and challenges. This review focuses on behavioral changes in this interval and is organized by the claim that a key set of these adolescent changes…

  15. Bereavement, postdisaster trauma, and behavioral changes in tsunami survivors.

    PubMed

    Suar, Damodar; Das, Sitanshu Sekhar; Alat, Priya

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether the death of family members intensifies the survivors' posttraumatic stress and behavioral changes. Data were collected by interviewing 416 adult survivors from nine habitations of the Nagapattinam district in the state of Tamil Nadu in India 14 months after the 2004 tsunami. Compared to those nonbereaved, bereaved survivors reported more posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, negative affect, deteriorated mental health, adverse physical health symptoms, alcohol consumption, family conflicts, and fear. When a tsunami trauma includes death of a loved one, psychological, physical, and behavioral ramifications are especially severe.

  16. A Systematic Review of Financial Incentives for Dietary Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Purnell, Jason Q.; Gernes, Rebecca; Stein, Rick; Sherraden, Margaret S.; Knoblock-Hahn, Amy

    2014-01-01

    In light of the obesity epidemic, there is growing interest in the use of financial incentives for dietary behavior change. Previous reviews of the literature have focused on randomized, controlled trials and found mixed results. The purpose of this systematic review is to update and expand upon previous reviews by considering a broader range of study designs, including RCTs, quasi-experimental, observational, and simulation studies testing the use of financial incentives to change dietary behavior and to inform both dietetic practice and research. The review was guided by theoretical consideration of the type of incentive used based upon the principles of operant conditioning. There was further examination of whether studies were carried out with an institutional focus and whether incentives took the form of assets or savings. Studies published between 2006 and 2012 were selected for review, and data were extracted regarding study population, intervention design, outcome measures, study duration and follow-up, and key findings. Twelve studies meeting selection criteria were reviewed, with eleven finding a positive association between incentives and dietary behavior change in the short-term. All studies pointed to more specific information on the type, timing, and magnitude of incentives needed to motivate individuals to change behavior, the types of incentives and disincentives most likely to affect the behavior of various socioeconomic groups, and promising approaches for potential policy and practice innovations. Limitations of studies are noted, including the lack of theoretical guidance in the selection of incentive structures and the absence of basic experimental data. Future research should consider these factors even as policymakers and practitioners continue to experiment with this potentially useful approach to addressing obesity. PMID:24836967

  17. A systematic review of financial incentives for dietary behavior change.

    PubMed

    Purnell, Jason Q; Gernes, Rebecca; Stein, Rick; Sherraden, Margaret S; Knoblock-Hahn, Amy

    2014-07-01

    In light of the obesity epidemic, there is growing interest in the use of financial incentives for dietary behavior change. Previous reviews of the literature have focused on randomized controlled trials and found mixed results. The purpose of this systematic review is to update and expand on previous reviews by considering a broader range of study designs, including randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental, observational, and simulation studies testing the use of financial incentives to change dietary behavior and to inform both dietetic practice and research. The review was guided by theoretical consideration of the type of incentive used based on the principles of operant conditioning. There was further examination of whether studies were carried out with an institutional focus. Studies published between 2006 and 2012 were selected for review, and data were extracted regarding study population, intervention design, outcome measures, study duration and follow-up, and key findings. Twelve studies meeting selection criteria were reviewed, with 11 finding a positive association between incentives and dietary behavior change in the short term. All studies pointed to more specific information on the type, timing, and magnitude of incentives needed to motivate individuals to change behavior, the types of incentives and disincentives most likely to affect the behavior of various socioeconomic groups, and promising approaches for potential policy and practice innovations. Limitations of the studies are noted, including the lack of theoretical guidance in the selection of incentive structures and the absence of basic experimental data. Future research should consider these factors, even as policy makers and practitioners continue to experiment with this potentially useful approach to addressing obesity.

  18. Stability and change: Stress responses and the shaping of behavioral phenotypes over the life span.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Michael B; Kaiser, Sylvia; Tiedtke, Tobias; Sachser, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, maternal signals conveyed via influences on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity may shape behavior of the young to be better adapted for prevailing environmental conditions. However, the mother's influence extends beyond classic stress response systems. In guinea pigs, several hours (h) of separation from the mother activates not only the HPA axis, but also the innate immune system, which effects immediate behavioral change, as well as modifies behavioral responsiveness in the future. Moreover, the presence of the mother potently suppresses the behavioral consequences of this innate immune activation. These findings raise the possibility that long-term adaptive behavioral change can be mediated by the mother's influence on immune-related activity of her pups. Furthermore, the impact of social partners on physiological stress responses and their behavioral outcomes are not limited to the infantile period. A particularly crucial period for social development in male guinea pigs is that surrounding the attainment of sexual maturation. At this time, social interactions with adults can dramatically affect circulating cortisol concentrations and social behavior in ways that appear to prepare the male to best cope in its likely future social environment. Despite such multiple social influences on the behavior of guinea pigs at different ages, inter-individual differences in the magnitude of the cortisol response remain surprisingly stable over most of the life span. Together, it appears that throughout the life span, physiological stress responses may be regulated by social stimuli. These influences are hypothesized to adjust behavior for predicted environmental conditions. In addition, stable individual differences might provide a means of facilitating adaptation to less predictable conditions.

  19. Measuring homework completion in behavioral activation.

    PubMed

    Busch, Andrew M; Uebelacker, Lisa A; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an observer-based coding system for the characterization and completion of homework assignments during Behavioral Activation (BA). Existing measures of homework completion are generally unsophisticated, and there is no current measure of homework completion designed to capture the particularities of BA. The tested scale sought to capture the type of assignment, realm of functioning targeted, extent of completion, and assignment difficulty. Homework assignments were drawn from 12 (mean age = 48, 83% female) clients in two trials of a 10-session BA manual targeting treatment-resistant depression in primary care. The two coders demonstrated acceptable or better reliability on most codes, and unreliable codes were dropped from the proposed scale. In addition, correlations between homework completion and outcome were strong, providing some support for construct validity. Ultimately, this line of research aims to develop a user-friendly, reliable measure of BA homework completion that can be completed by a therapist during session.

  20. A Review of Multiple Health Behavior Change Interventions for Primary Prevention.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Judith J; Prochaska, James O

    2011-05-01

    Most individuals engage in multiple unhealthy lifestyle behaviors with the potential for negative health consequences. Yet most health promotion research has addressed risk factors as categorically separate entities, and little is known about how to effectively promote multiple health behavior change (MHBC). This review summarizes the recent literature (January 2004 to December 2009) on randomized clinical trials evaluating MHBC interventions for primary prevention. Combining all the studies across all the reviews, fewer than 150 studies were identified. This is a fraction of the number of trials conducted on changing individual behavioral risks. Three primary behavioral clusters dominated: (1) the energy balance behaviors of physical activity and diet; (2) addictive behaviors like smoking and other drugs; and (3) disease-related behaviors, specifically cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer related. Findings were largely disappointing for studies of diet and physical activity, particularly with youth. Treating 2 addictions, including smoking, resulted in greater long-term sobriety from alcohol and illicit drugs. MHBC intervention effects were stronger and more consistent for cancer prevention than CVD prevention. MHBC interventions offer a new paradigm for broader, more comprehensive health promotion; however, the potential value in maximizing intervention impact is largely unmet.

  1. A Review of Multiple Health Behavior Change Interventions for Primary Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Prochaska, James O.

    2013-01-01

    Most individuals engage in multiple unhealthy lifestyle behaviors with the potential for negative health consequences. Yet most health promotion research has addressed risk factors as categorically separate entities, and little is known about how to effectively promote multiple health behavior change (MHBC). This review summarizes the recent literature (January 2004 to December 2009) on randomized clinical trials evaluating MHBC interventions for primary prevention. Combining all the studies across all the reviews, fewer than 150 studies were identified. This is a fraction of the number of trials conducted on changing individual behavioral risks. Three primary behavioral clusters dominated: (1) the energy balance behaviors of physical activity and diet; (2) addictive behaviors like smoking and other drugs; and (3) disease-related behaviors, specifically cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer related. Findings were largely disappointing for studies of diet and physical activity, particularly with youth. Treating 2 addictions, including smoking, resulted in greater long-term sobriety from alcohol and illicit drugs. MHBC intervention effects were stronger and more consistent for cancer prevention than CVD prevention. MHBC interventions offer a new paradigm for broader, more comprehensive health promotion; however, the potential value in maximizing intervention impact is largely unmet. PMID:24358034

  2. Anesthesia, Brain Changes, and Behavior: Insights from Neural Systems Biology.

    PubMed

    Colon, Elisabeth; Bittner, Edward A; Kussman, Barry; McCann, Mary Ellen; Soriano, Sulpicio; Borsook, David

    2017-02-08

    Long-term consequences of anesthetic exposure in humans are not well understood. It is possible that alterations in brain function occur beyond the initial anesthetic administration. Research in children and adults has reported cognitive and/or behavioral changes after surgery and general anesthesia that may be short lived in some patients, while in others, such changes may persist. The changes observed in humans are corroborated by a large body of evidence from animal studies that support a role for alterations in neuronal survival (neuroapoptosis) or structure (altered dendritic and glial morphology) and later behavioral deficits at older age after exposure to various anesthetic agents during fetal or early life. The potential of anesthetics to induce long-term alterations in brain function, particularly in vulnerable populations, warrants investigation. In this review, we critically evaluate the available preclinical and clinical data on the developing and aging brain, and in known vulnerable populations to provide insights into potential changes that may affect the general population of patients in a more, subtle manner. In addition this review summarizes underlying processes of how general anesthetics produce changes in the brain at the cellular and systems level and the current understanding underlying mechanisms of anesthetics agents on brain systems. Finally, we present how neuroimaging techniques currently emerge as promising approaches to evaluate and define changes in brain function resulting from anesthesia, both in the short and the long-term.

  3. The Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program: Adapting Behavioral Activation as a Treatment for Depression in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Elizabeth; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Schloredt, Kelly; Martell, Christopher; Rhew, Isaac; Hubley, Samuel; Dimidjian, Sona

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine implementation feasibility and initial treatment outcomes of a behavioral activation (BA) based treatment for adolescent depression, the Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program (A-BAP). A randomized, controlled trial was conducted with 60 clinically referred adolescents with a depressive disorder who were randomized to receive either 14 sessions of A-BAP or uncontrolled evidenced-based practice for depression. The urban sample was 64% female, predominantly Non-Hispanic White (67%), and had an average age of 14.9 years. Measures of depression, global functioning, activation, and avoidance were obtained through clinical interviews and/or through parent and adolescent self-report at preintervention and end of intervention. Intent-to-treat linear mixed effects modeling and logistic regression analysis revealed that both conditions produced statistically significant improvement from pretreatment to end of treatment in depression, global functioning, and activation and avoidance. There were no significant differences across treatment conditions. These findings provide the first step in establishing the efficacy of BA as a treatment for adolescent depression and support the need for ongoing research on BA as a way to enhance the strategies available for treatment of depression in this population.

  4. Knowledge gain and behavioral change in citizen-science programs.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Rebecca C; Gray, Steven A; Howe, David V; Brooks, Wesley R; Ehrenfeld, Joan G

    2011-12-01

    Citizen-science programs are often touted as useful for advancing conservation literacy, scientific knowledge, and increasing scientific-reasoning skills among the public. Guidelines for collaboration among scientists and the public are lacking and the extent to which these citizen-science initiatives change behavior is relatively unstudied. Over two years, we studied 82 participants in a three-day program that included education about non-native invasive plants and collection of data on the occurrence of those plants. Volunteers were given background knowledge about invasive plant ecology and trained on a specific protocol for collecting invasive plant data. They then collected data and later gathered as a group to analyze data and discuss responsible environmental behavior with respect to invasive plants. We tested whether participants without experience in plant identification and with little knowledge of invasive plants increased their knowledge of invasive species ecology, participation increased knowledge of scientific methods, and participation affected behavior. Knowledge of invasive plants increased on average 24%, but participation was insufficient to increase understanding of how scientific research is conducted. Participants reported increased ability to recognize invasive plants and increased awareness of effects of invasive plants on the environment, but this translated into little change in behavior regarding invasive plants. Potential conflicts between scientific goals, educational goals, and the motivation of participants must be considered during program design.

  5. Validation of Health Behavior and Stages of Change Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Ramirez, Leivy Patricia; De la Roca-Chiapas, Jose Maria; Colunga-Rodriguez, Cecilia; Preciado-Serrano, Maria de Lourdes; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Pedroza-Cabrera, Francisco Javier; Martinez-Arriaga, Reyna Jazmin

    2017-01-01

    Background The transtheoretical model (TTM) has been widely used to promote healthy behaviors in different groups. However, a questionnaire has not yet been developed to evaluate the health behaviors that medical practitioners often consider in individuals with cancer or at a high risk of developing cancer. Purpose The aim of this study was to construct and validate the Health Behavior and Stages of Change Questionnaire (HBSCQ), which is based on the TTM and health recommendations related to risk and factors that protect against cancer. Methods Content validity was conducted in two phases (qualitative and quantitative). Item difficulty index, item discrimination index, and discrimination coefficient were obtained based on the classical test theory. Finally, Cronbach’s alpha was used. Results Measure of concordance showed scores considered adequate and excellent. The item discrimination index obtained a rating of “excellent” and suggested the preservation of all items. The discrimination coefficient scores are >0.74. The global internal consistency of the HBSCQ was 0.384. HBSCQ specification between groups of internal consistency for the sample of men was 0.712 and that for the sample of women was 0.378. Conclusion/implications for practice The HBSCQ represents a proposal for a fast, simple, and innovative screening test, which aims to identify persons who may benefit from interventions to promote health behaviors delimited to the stage of change. PMID:28356769

  6. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy--theoretic premises and practical strategies.

    PubMed

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient's everyday speech. The SLP's plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3) Repetition; 4) Cognitive activation; 5) Negative practice; 6) Inhibition through interruption; 7) Decomposing complex behavior; 8) The 'each time-every time' principle; and 9) Successive implementation of automaticity.

  7. Modeling and Reinforcement to Combat HIV: The MARCH Approach to Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Galavotti, Christine; Pappas-DeLuca, Katina A.; Lansky, Amy

    2001-01-01

    Theory and research suggest that behavioral interventions to prevent HIV/AIDS may be most effective when they are personalized and affectively compelling, when they provide models of desired behaviors, and when they are linked to social and cultural narratives. Effective strategies must also take into account the opportunities and obstacles present in the local environment. The Modeling and Reinforcement to Combat HIV (MARCH) projects combine key aspects of individual behavior change with efforts to change social norms. There are 2 main components to the program: entertainment as a vehicle for education (longrunning serialized dramas on radio or television portray role models evolving toward the adoption of positive behaviors) and interpersonal reinforcement at the community level (support from friends, family members, and others can help people initiate behavior changes; support through changes in social norms is necessary for behavioral effects to be sustained over time). Both media and interpersonal intervention activities should be linked to existing resources in the community and, wherever possible, provide increased access to preventive services, supplies, and other supporting elements. PMID:11574317

  8. Age-Related Changes in Demand–Withdraw Communication Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Holley, Sarah R.; Haase, Claudia M.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Demand–withdraw communication is a set of conflict-related behaviors in which one partner blames or pressures while the other partner withdraws or avoids. The present study examined age-related changes in these behaviors longitudinally over the course of later life stages. One hundred twenty-seven middle-aged and older long-term married couples were observed at 3 time points across 13 years as they engaged in a conversation about an area of relationship conflict. Husbands’ and wives’ demand–withdraw behaviors (i.e., blame, pressure, withdrawal, avoidance) were objectively rated by trained coders at each time point. Data were analyzed using dyad-level latent growth curve models in a structural equation modeling framework. For both husbands and wives, the results showed a longitudinal pattern of increasing avoidance behavior over time and stability in all other demand and withdraw behaviors. This study supports the notion that there is an important developmental shift in the way that conflict is handled in later life. PMID:23913982

  9. Impaired cortical mitochondrial function following TBI precedes behavioral changes

    PubMed Central

    Watson, William D.; Buonora, John E.; Yarnell, Angela M.; Lucky, Jessica J.; D’Acchille, Michaela I.; McMullen, David C.; Boston, Andrew G.; Kuczmarski, Andrew V.; Kean, William S.; Verma, Ajay; Grunberg, Neil E.; Cole, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) pathophysiology can be attributed to either the immediate, primary physical injury, or the delayed, secondary injury which begins minutes to hours after the initial injury and can persist for several months or longer. Because these secondary cascades are delayed and last for a significant time period post-TBI, they are primary research targets for new therapeutics. To investigate changes in mitochondrial function after a brain injury, both the cortical impact site and ipsilateral hippocampus of adult male rats 7 and 17 days after a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury were examined. State 3, state 4, and uncoupler-stimulated rates of oxygen consumption, respiratory control ratios (RCRs) were measured and membrane potential quantified, and all were significantly decreased in 7 day post-TBI cortical mitochondria. By contrast, hippocampal mitochondria at 7 days showed only non-significant decreases in rates of oxygen consumption and membrane potential. NADH oxidase activities measured in disrupted mitochondria were normal in both injured cortex and hippocampus at 7 days post-CCI. Respiratory and phosphorylation capacities at 17 days post-CCI were comparable to naïve animals for both cortical and hippocampus mitochondria. However, unlike oxidative phosphorylation, membrane potential of mitochondria in the cortical lining of the impact site did not recover at 17 days, suggesting that while diminished cortical membrane potential at 17 days does not adversely affect mitochondrial capacity to synthesize ATP, it may negatively impact other membrane potential-sensitive mitochondrial functions. Memory status, as assessed by a passive avoidance paradigm, was not significantly impaired until 17 days after injury. These results indicate pronounced disturbances in cortical mitochondrial function 7 days after CCI which precede the behavioral impairment observed at 17 days. PMID:24550822

  10. Folkbiology Meets Microbiology: A Study of Conceptual and Behavioral Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Terry Kit-fong; Chan, Carol K. K.; Chan, Tsz-kit; Cheung, Mike W. L.; Ho, Johnson Y. S.; Ip, Grace W. M.

    2008-01-01

    Health education can offer a valuable window onto conceptual and behavioral change. In Study 1, we mapped out 3rd-grade Chinese children's beliefs about causes of colds and flu and ways they can be prevented. We also explored older adults' beliefs as a possible source of the children's ideas. In Study 2, we gave 3rd- and 4th-grade Chinese children…

  11. Developing Interventions to Change Recycling Behaviors: A Case Study of Applying Behavioral Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainforth, Heather L.; Sheals, Kate; Atkins, Lou; Jackson, Richard; Michie, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and the Behavior Change Wheel (BCW) are frameworks that can be used to develop recycling interventions. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the utility of these frameworks for developing recycling interventions. 20 semistructured interviews with university building users were analyzed using the TDF and…

  12. Background activities, induction, and behavioral allocation in operant performance.

    PubMed

    Baum, William M; Davison, Michael

    2014-09-01

    In experiments on operant behavior, other activities, called "background" activities, compete with the operant activities. Herrnstein's (1970) formulation of the matching law included background reinforcers in the form of a parameter rO, but remained vague about the activities (BO) that produce rO. To gain more understanding, we analyzed data from three studies of performance with pairs of variable-interval schedules that changed frequently in the relative rate at which they produced food: Baum and Davison (2014), Belke and Heyman (1994), and Soto, McDowell, and Dallery (2005). Results sometimes deviated from the matching law, suggesting variation in rO. When rO was calculated from the matching equation, two results emerged: (a) rO is directly proportional to BO, as in a ratio schedule; and (b) rO and BO depend on the food rate, which is to say that BO consists of activities induced by food, as a phylogenetically important event. Other activities unrelated to food (BN ) correspond to Herrnstein's original conception of rO and may be included in the matching equation. A model based on Baum's (Baum, 2012) concepts of allocation, induction, and contingency explained the deviations from the matching law. In the model, operant activity B, BO, and BN competed unequally in the time allocation: B and BO both replaced BN , BO replaced lever pressing (Soto et al.), and key pecking replaced BO (Baum & Davison). Although the dependence of rO and BO on food rate changes Herrnstein's (1970) formulation, the model preserved the generalized matching law for operant activities by incorporating power-function induction.

  13. Is nursing preceptor behavior changed by attending a preceptor class?

    PubMed

    Sanford, Pamela G; Tipton, Phyllis Hart

    2016-07-01

    Nursing preceptors initiate new staff to the professional environment. To be successful, preceptors must be willing and knowledgeable in their role, both clinically and as an instructor. This study evaluated the effects of a 4-hour preceptor class to change preceptor behavior. Twenty-seven class participants commented on the class and their goals, and 18 completed a follow-up survey 2 months later. Among those 18, 90% had achieved at least one of their goals. One barrier to achieving planned changes was having the opportunity to precept over the time period. Participants indicated that improved listening skills, application of content, and team building all supported their improvement as a preceptor.

  14. Behavior change, health, and health disparities: An introduction

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) focuses on behavior change, health, and health disparities, topics of fundamental importance to improving population health in the U.S. and other industrialized countries. While the U.S. health care system and those of other industrialized countries were developed to manage infectious disease and acute illnesses, it is chronic health conditions that most need to be understood and managed in the 21st century. The evidence is clear that personal behavior patterns like cigarette smoking and physical inactivity/obesity are critically important proximal causes of chronic disease (cardiovascular disease, site-specific cancers, type-2 diabetes) and as such behavior change will need to be a key component of their management. As the outstanding contributions to this Special Issue illustrate, substantial headway is being made in advancing knowledge including developing effective prevention and treatment strategies, with cigarette smoking being an excellent example that change is possible. That said, cigarette smoking continues to be responsible for approximately 480,000 premature deaths annually in the U.S. alone and 5 million globally. So more needs to be done, especially in economically disadvantaged populations. The same certainly applies to the challenges of the obesity epidemic, which of course is a more recent problem and understandably efforts to curtail it are in earlier stages of development. PMID:25456804

  15. Investigation into Measurable Behavioral Change in Behaviorally/Emotionally Handicapped Students as It Relates to the Provision of Instruction in Alternative Behaviors. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. for Exceptional Children.

    The study examined the effects of instruction in new behavior on behavioral change in behaviorally or emotionally handicapped students by comparing Ifd (intensity, frequency, and duration) behavior scores of students who received special behavioral instruction (N=360) with students not receiving this instruction (N=360). The study also…

  16. Gonadal Maturation Changes Chemotaxis Behavior and Neural Processing in the Olfactory Circuit of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Manabi; Aoyama, Itaru; Hino, Takahiro; Teramoto, Takayuki; Ishihara, Takeshi

    2016-06-20

    Many animal species change their behavior according to their stage of development. However, the mechanisms involved in translating their developmental stage into the modifications of the neuronal circuits that underlie these behavioral changes remain unknown. Here we show that Caenorhabditis elegans changes its olfactory preferences during development. Larvae exhibit a weak chemotactic response to the food-associated odor diacetyl, whereas adults exhibit a strong response. We show that germline loss, caused either by laser ablation of germline precursor cells or mutations, results in a diacetyl-specific chemotactic defect in adult animals. These results suggest that germline cells, which proliferate dramatically during the larval stages, enhance chemotaxis to diacetyl. Removal experiments of specific neurons suggested that AWA olfactory neurons and their downstream interneurons, AIA and AIB, are required for germline-dependent chemotactic enhancement. Calcium imaging in animals lacking germline cells indicates that the neural responses of AWA and AIB to diacetyl stimuli are decreased compared with animals with an intact germline. These changes in neural activities may at least partly explain the behavioral change of animals lacking germline cells. Furthermore, this germline-dependent chemotactic change depends on the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO. We find that organismal behavior changes throughout development by integrating information about physiological status from internal tissues to modify a simple sensory circuit.

  17. Ionic changes during experimentally induced seizure activity.

    PubMed

    Lux, H D; Heinemann, U

    1978-01-01

    Changes in intra- and extracellular ionic activity and their relation to generation and termination of seizure phenomena can be studied with the help of ion-selective microelectrodes. Transient changes in extracellular potassium activity (aK) of the cortex regularly accompany paroxysmal activity induced by electrical stimulation and pentylenetetrazol injections or occur within active penicillin and aluminum foci. A rise of aK from baseline levels of about 3 mmoles/l up to ceiling levels of 8--12 mmoles/l, followed by subnormal K activity, is typically found during seizure discharge. Extracellular K accumulation during seizures facilitates the spread into extrafocal regions. Ceiling levels of extracellular aK are characterized by pronounced K reabsorption which is probably a limiting mechanism for the rise in extracellular aK. It may be a consequence of a simultaneous rise in intracellular Na activity that an electrogenic Na--K exchange process is involved in the termination of ictal activity. Seizures are also accompanied by significant reductions in extracellular Ca2+ activity (aCa) to as low as 0.7 mmoles/l (resting aCa 1.25 mmoles/l). There is no critical level of lowered aCa at which a seizure ultimately results. However, unlike changes in aK reductions in aCa can precede ictal activity. Thus, a fall of aCa occurs before the onset of paroxysmal periods during cyclical spike driving in a penicillin focus and before seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol. Ca2+-dependent mechanisms may contribute to seizure generation. In addition to changes in aK and aCa, intracellular chloride activity (aCl) can increase during seizure activity, as a result of an impaired chloride extrusion mechanism, which would lead to a reduced efficacy of inhibitory synaptic transmission and, therefore, to facilitation of seizure generation.

  18. Association of Active Play-Related Parenting Behaviors, Orientations, and Practices with Preschool Sedentary Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Kane, Christy; Lee, Hyo; Beets, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors, practices, beliefs, and attitudes greatly influence children's active play behavior; however, little research has examined these parental influences on preschool children's sedentary behavior (SB). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parental influences on preschool SB. Methods:…

  19. Solar activities and Climate change hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hady, A. A., II

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the geological history of Earth, climate change is one of the recurrent natural hazards. In recent history, the impact of man brought about additional climatic change. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary, both solar activities and building-up of green-house gases effect added to the climatic changes. This paper discusses if the global worming caused by the green-house gases effect will be equal or less than the global cooling resulting from the solar activities. In this respect, we refer to the Modern Dalton Minimum (MDM) which stated that starting from year 2005 for the next 40 years; the earth's surface temperature will become cooler than nowadays. However the degree of cooling, previously mentioned in old Dalton Minimum (c. 210 y ago), will be minimized by building-up of green-house gases effect during MDM period. Regarding to the periodicities of solar activities, it is clear that now we have a new solar cycle of around 210 years. Keywords: Solar activities; solar cycles; palaeoclimatic changes; Global cooling; Modern Dalton Minimum.

  20. The cognitive-behavioral system of leadership: cognitive antecedents of active and passive leadership behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Dóci, Edina; Stouten, Jeroen; Hofmans, Joeri

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we propose a cognitive-behavioral understanding of active and passive leadership. Building on core evaluations theory, we offer a model that explains the emergence of leaders’ active and passive behaviors, thereby predicting stable, inter-individual, as well as variable, intra-individual differences in both types of leadership behavior. We explain leaders’ stable behavioral tendencies by their fundamental beliefs about themselves, others, and the world (core evaluations), while their variable, momentary behaviors are explained by the leaders’ momentary appraisals of themselves, others, and the world (specific evaluations). By introducing interactions between the situation the leader enters, the leader’s beliefs, appraisals, and behavior, we propose a comprehensive system of cognitive mechanisms that underlie active and passive leadership behavior. PMID:26441721

  1. Fuzzy Behavior Modulation with Threshold Activation for Autonomous Vehicle Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tunstel, Edward

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes fuzzy logic techniques used in a hierarchical behavior-based architecture for robot navigation. An architectural feature for threshold activation of fuzzy-behaviors is emphasized, which is potentially useful for tuning navigation performance in real world applications. The target application is autonomous local navigation of a small planetary rover. Threshold activation of low-level navigation behaviors is the primary focus. A preliminary assessment of its impact on local navigation performance is provided based on computer simulations.

  2. Active Behavior Recognition in Beyond Visual Range Air Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Active Behavior Recognition in Beyond Visual Range Air Combat Ron Alford RONALD.ALFORD.CTR@NRL.NAVY.MIL ASEE Postdoctoral Fellow; Naval Research...planning and recognition, as well as its im- plementation in a beyond visual range air combat simulator. We found that it yields better behavior recognition...SUBTITLE Active Behavior Recognition in Beyond Visual Range Air Combat 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  3. Mass media and behavior change: hand in hand.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, Johns Hopkins University's Population communication Services has conducted evaluations of mass media campaigns in developing countries which communications personnel have designed to change health and sex behavior. The mass media campaigns involved relaying health and family planning information via radio, television, and pamphlets. The evaluations showed that these campaigns were an effective technique to promote behavior change, e.g. they have boosted demand for contraceptives, condom sales, clinic visits, and inquiries to hotlines. A 6-part television drama incorporating health and family planning into its storyline stimulated behavior change in Pakistan in 1991. 36% of people surveyed after the drama series said they would limit the number of children they would have. 44% planned to improve communication with their spouse. An amusing television promotion in Brazil which ran for 6 months in the late 1980s prompted 58% of new clinic patients in 1 town to seek a vasectomy. 1 clinic experienced an 81% increase in vasectomies. A 6-month campaign to promote condom use in Colombia in 1988-89 resulted in a 75% rise in condom sales. In the mid 1980, a 6-9 month mass media popular music campaign (2 songs and videos disseminated via television, radio, and print materials) in Mexico and Latin America strove to encourage youth to be responsible for their sexual behavior. During the campaign, an adult counseling center received an 800% increase in letters (50-450 letters/month). 4 radio and 5 television spots promoting health and family planning in Kwara State, Nigeria in 1984-87 increased family planning acceptors 500% from 258 to 1526 in the 7 existing clinics. Other successful campaigns took place in the Philippines, Zimbabwe, Indonesia, Turkey, Bolivia and Honduras.

  4. Treatment-associated changes in body composition, health behaviors, and mood as predictors of change in body satisfaction in obese women: effects of age and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N = 246; M(age) = 43 years; M BMI = 39 kg/m(2)) initiating a 6-month cognitive-behaviorally based physical activity and nutrition treatment were assessed on possible predictors of body satisfaction change. At baseline, African American and younger women had significantly higher body satisfaction. The treatment was associated with significant within-group improvements in mood, health behaviors (physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake), and body composition (waist circumference). A multiple regression analysis indicated that mood, health behavior, and body composition changes explained a significant 27% of the variance in body satisfaction change. Of these predictors, changes in mood (β = -.36, p < .001) and health behaviors (β = .18, p = .01) made significant, unique contributions to the variance in change in body satisfaction that was accounted for, while only the measure of actual physiological change (body composition) did not. Neither age nor race/ethnicity was a significant moderator when each was entered separately into the multiple regression equation. Practical implications for leveraging manageable changes in behavioral factors for improving body satisfaction were discussed.

  5. Physical Activity, Sports Participation, and Suicidal Behavior among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David R.; Blanton, Curtis J.

    2002-01-01

    Used data from the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to evaluate the relationship between physical activity, sports participation, and suicide among college students. Overall, selected physical activity patterns were associated in a non-systematic manner with decreased or increased odds of suicidal behavior among male and female…

  6. Behavioral Activation Is an Evidence-Based Treatment for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturmey, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Recent reviews of evidence-based treatment for depression did not identify behavioral activation as an evidence-based practice. Therefore, this article conducted a systematic review of behavioral activation treatment of depression, which identified three meta-analyses, one recent randomized controlled trial and one recent follow-up of an earlier…

  7. Cerebral blood volume changes during brain activation

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Steffen Norbert; Streicher, Markus Nikolar; Trampel, Robert; Turner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral blood volume (CBV) changes significantly with brain activation, whether measured using positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), or optical microscopy. If cerebral vessels are considered to be impermeable, the contents of the skull incompressible, and the skull itself inextensible, task- and hypercapnia-related changes of CBV could produce intolerable changes of intracranial pressure. Because it is becoming clear that CBV may be useful as a well-localized marker of neural activity changes, a resolution of this apparent paradox is needed. We have explored the idea that much of the change in CBV is facilitated by exchange of water between capillaries and surrounding tissue. To this end, we developed a novel hemodynamic boundary-value model and found approximate solutions using a numerical algorithm. We also constructed a macroscopic experimental model of a single capillary to provide biophysical insight. Both experiment and theory model capillary membranes as elastic and permeable. For a realistic change of input pressure, a relative pipe volume change of 21±5% was observed when using the experimental setup, compared with the value of approximately 17±1% when this quantity was calculated from the mathematical model. Volume, axial flow, and pressure changes are in the expected range. PMID:22569192

  8. Lane change behavior with a side blind zone alert system.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Raymond J; Hankey, Jonathan M

    2008-03-01

    This in-traffic study explored the effect of a side blind zone alert (SBZA) system on driver lane change behavior. Such a system may help drivers avoid lane change crashes by warning them with a side mirror display when a vehicle is detected in their blind zone. Participants drove with and without the SBZA system enabled, and were instructed to evaluate vehicle ride characteristics and only given an "incidental" system explanation. Overall, drivers failed to execute "over the shoulder" (blind zone) glances for 68 and 85% of the left and right lane changes, respectively. This suggests that the SBZA display provides information to the driver that often fails to be obtained via over the shoulder glances. In addition, when the SBZA system was enabled there was a 31% reduction in left lane changes attempted without the driver checking the left mirror, and a 23% reduction in right lane changes attempted without the driver checking the inside mirror. These results, coupled with the assumption that "did not see other vehicle" is a principal causal factor in many lane change crashes, suggests that the SBZA system may assist drivers in avoiding lane change crashes.

  9. AChE inhibition: one dominant factor for swimming behavior changes of Daphnia magna under DDVP exposure.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zongming; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Xiaoguang; Qi, Pingping; Zhang, Biao; Zeng, Yang; Fu, Rongshu; Miao, Mingsheng

    2015-02-01

    As a key enzyme that hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in cholinergic synapses of both vertebrates and invertebrates, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is strongly inhibited by organophosphates. AChE inhibition may induce the decrease of swimming ability. According to previous research, swimming behavior of different aquatic organisms could be affected by different chemicals, and there is a shortage of research on direct correlation analysis between swimming behavior and biochemical indicators. Therefore, swimming behavior and whole-body AChE activity of Daphnia magna under dichlorvos (DDVP) exposure were identified in order to clarify the relationship between behavioral responses and AChE inhibition in this study. In the beginning, AChE activity was similar in all treatments with the control. During all exposures, the tendency of AChE activity inhibition was the same as the behavioral responses of D. magna. The AChE activity of individuals without movement would decrease to about zero in several minutes. The correlation analysis between swimming behavior of D. magna and AChE activity showed that the stepwise behavioral response was mainly decided by AChE activity. All of these results suggested that the toxicity characteristics of DDVP as an inhibitor of AChE on the swimming behavior of organisms were the same, and the AChE activity inhibition could induce loss of the nerve conduction ability, causing hyperactivity, loss of coordination, convulsions, paralysis and other kinds of behavioral changes, which was illustrated by the stepwise behavioral responses under different environmental stresses.

  10. Psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Wayne W; Sagarin, Brad J

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gays is characterized by a focus on negative attitudes and minimal use of behavioral dependent variables. In an attempt to rectify this situation, the present study explored the psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior in an undergraduate sample using the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Findings suggest that intentions predict activism behavior (in the form of signing an online petition supporting the construction of a new lesbian, gay, and bisexual resource center on their campus). In addition, attitudes toward the possible outcomes of the behavior, attitudes toward the behavior itself, and self-identity were found to predict intentions. Directions for future research on pro-gay activism are discussed.

  11. Stellar activity: Astrophysics relevant to global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisch, Bernhard M.

    1994-01-01

    FRESIP will obtain a great deal of data on stellar activity and flares on F, G and K dwarfs. Rotation periods, flare distributions and possibly stellar cycles will emerge. This apparently curiosity-driven research actually has implications for our understanding of global climate change. Significant climate change during the seventeenth-century Maunder Minimum is thought to be related to a change in the solar condition. Recently acquired data from the Greenland Ice-core Project suggest that far greater climate changes on decade time scales may have occurred during the previous interglacial. It is possible that a yet more drastic change in state of the Sun was responsible. We have no relevant solar data, but can begin to explore this possibility by observing an ensemble of solar-like stars.

  12. Being surveyed can change later behavior and related parameter estimates

    PubMed Central

    Zwane, Alix Peterson; Zinman, Jonathan; Van Dusen, Eric; Pariente, William; Null, Clair; Miguel, Edward; Kremer, Michael; Hornbeck, Richard; Giné, Xavier; Duflo, Esther; Devoto, Florencia; Crepon, Bruno; Banerjee, Abhijit

    2011-01-01

    Does completing a household survey change the later behavior of those surveyed? In three field studies of health and two of microlending, we randomly assigned subjects to be surveyed about health and/or household finances and then measured subsequent use of a related product with data that does not rely on subjects' self-reports. In the three health experiments, we find that being surveyed increases use of water treatment products and take-up of medical insurance. Frequent surveys on reported diarrhea also led to biased estimates of the impact of improved source water quality. In two microlending studies, we do not find an effect of being surveyed on borrowing behavior. The results suggest that limited attention could play an important but context-dependent role in consumer choice, with the implication that researchers should reconsider whether, how, and how much to survey their subjects. PMID:21245314

  13. Shallow outgassing changes disrupt steady lava lake activity, Kilauea Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, M. R.; Orr, T. R.; Swanson, D. A.; Lev, E.

    2015-12-01

    Persistent lava lakes are a testament to sustained magma supply and outgassing in basaltic systems, and the surface activity of lava lakes has been used to infer processes in the underlying magmatic system. At Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i, the lava lake in Halema`uma`u Crater has been closely studied for several years with webcam imagery, geophysical, petrological and gas emission techniques. The lava lake in Halema`uma`u is now the second largest on Earth, and provides an unprecedented opportunity for detailed observations of lava lake outgassing processes. We observe that steady activity is characterized by continuous southward motion of the lake's surface and slow changes in lava level, seismic tremor and gas emissions. This normal, steady activity can be abruptly interrupted by the appearance of spattering - sometimes triggered by rockfalls - on the lake surface, which abruptly shifts the lake surface motion, lava level and gas emissions to a more variable, unstable regime. The lake commonly alternates between this a) normal, steady activity and b) unstable behavior several times per day. The spattering represents outgassing of shallowly accumulated gas in the lake. Therefore, although steady lava lake behavior at Halema`uma`u may be deeply driven by upwelling of magma, we argue that the sporadic interruptions to this behavior are the result of shallow processes occurring near the lake surface. These observations provide a cautionary note that some lava lake behavior is not representative of deep-seated processes. This behavior also highlights the complex and dynamic nature of lava lake activity.

  14. Developmental changes in infant brain activity during naturalistic social experiences.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emily J H; Venema, Kaitlin; Lowy, Rachel; Earl, Rachel K; Webb, Sara Jane

    2015-11-01

    Between 6 and 12 months, typically developing infants undergo a socio-cognitive "revolution." The Interactive Specialization (IS) theory of brain development predicts that these behavioral changes will be underpinned by developmental increases in the power and topographic extent of socially selective cortical responses. To test this hypothesis, we used EEG to examine developmental changes in cortical selectivity for ecologically valid dynamic social versus non-social stimuli in a large cohort of 6- and 12-month-old infants. Consistent with the Interactive Specialization model, results showed that differences in EEG Θ activity between social and non-social stimuli became more pronounced and widespread with age. Differences in EEG activity were most clearly elicited by a live naturalistic interaction, suggesting that measuring brain activity in ecologically valid contexts is central to mapping social brain development in infancy.

  15. Empiric validation of a process for behavior change.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Diane L; Goldberg, Linn; MacKinnon, David P; Ranby, Krista W; Kuehl, Kerry S; Moe, Esther L

    2016-09-01

    Most behavior change trials focus on outcomes rather than deconstructing how those outcomes related to programmatic theoretical underpinnings and intervention components. In this report, the process of change is compared for three evidence-based programs' that shared theories, intervention elements and potential mediating variables. Each investigation was a randomized trial that assessed pre- and post- intervention variables using survey constructs with established reliability. Each also used mediation analyses to define relationships. The findings were combined using a pattern matching approach. Surprisingly, knowledge was a significant mediator in each program (a and b path effects [p<0.01]). Norms, perceived control abilities, and self-monitoring were confirmed in at least two studies (p<0.01 for each). Replication of findings across studies with a common design but varied populations provides a robust validation of the theory and processes of an effective intervention. Combined findings also demonstrate a means to substantiate process aspects and theoretical models to advance understanding of behavior change.

  16. Understanding and Promoting Effective Engagement With Digital Behavior Change Interventions.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Lucy; Spring, Bonnie J; Riper, Heleen; Morrison, Leanne G; Crane, David H; Curtis, Kristina; Merchant, Gina C; Naughton, Felix; Blandford, Ann

    2016-11-01

    This paper is one in a series developed through a process of expert consensus to provide an overview of questions of current importance in research into engagement with digital behavior change interventions, identifying guidance based on research to date and priority topics for future research. The first part of this paper critically reflects on current approaches to conceptualizing and measuring engagement. Next, issues relevant to promoting effective engagement are discussed, including how best to tailor to individual needs and combine digital and human support. A key conclusion with regard to conceptualizing engagement is that it is important to understand the relationship between engagement with the digital intervention and the desired behavior change. This paper argues that it may be more valuable to establish and promote "effective engagement," rather than simply more engagement, with "effective engagement" defined empirically as sufficient engagement with the intervention to achieve intended outcomes. Appraisal of the value and limitations of methods of assessing different aspects of engagement highlights the need to identify valid and efficient combinations of measures to develop and test multidimensional models of engagement. The final section of the paper reflects on how interventions can be designed to fit the user and their specific needs and context. Despite many unresolved questions posed by novel and rapidly changing technologies, there is widespread consensus that successful intervention design demands a user-centered and iterative approach to development, using mixed methods and in-depth qualitative research to progressively refine the intervention to meet user requirements.

  17. Smoking automaticity and tolerance moderate brain activation during explore-exploit behavior

    PubMed Central

    Addicott, Merideth A.; Pearson, John M.; Froeliger, Brett; Platt, Michael L.; McClernon, F. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive trade-off between exploration and exploitation is a key component in models of reinforcement learning. Over the past decade, these models have been applied to the study of reward-seeking behavior. Drugs of addiction induce reward-seeking behavior and modify its underlying neurophysiological processes. These neurophysiological changes may underlie a behavioral shift from a flexible, exploratory mode to a focused, exploitative mode, which precedes the development of inflexible, habitual drug use. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between explore/exploit behavior and drug addiction by examining the neural correlates of this behavior in cigarette smokers. Participants (n = 22) with a range of smoking behaviors completed a smoking dependence motives questionnaire and played a 6-armed bandit task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Exploratory behavior produced greater activation in the bilateral superior parietal and bilateral frontal cortices than exploitative behavior. Exploitative behavior produced greater activation in the bilateral superior and middle temporal gyri than exploratory behavior. fMRI data and orthogonalized smoking dependence motive scores were entered into multiple linear regression analyses. After controlling for nicotine tolerance, smoking automaticity positively correlated with activation in the same bilateral parietal regions preferentially activated by exploratory choices. These preliminary results link smoking dependence motives to variation in the neural processes that mediate exploratory decision making. PMID:25453166

  18. "Monkey see, monkey do": Peers' behaviors predict preschoolers' physical activity and dietary intake in childcare centers.

    PubMed

    Ward, Stéphanie; Bélanger, Mathieu; Donovan, Denise; Boudreau, Jonathan; Vatanparast, Hassan; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Leis, Anne; Humbert, M Louise; Carrier, Natalie

    2017-04-01

    Preschoolers observe and imitate the behaviors of those who are similar to them. Therefore, peers may be role models for preschoolers' dietary intake and physical activity in childcare centers. This study examined whether peers' behaviors predict change in preschoolers' dietary intake and physical activity in childcare centers over 9months. A total of 238 preschoolers (3 to 5years old) from 23 childcare centers in two Canadian provinces provided data at the beginning (October 2013 and 2014) and the end (June 2014 and 2015) of a 9-month period for this longitudinal study. Dietary intake was collected at lunch using weighed plate waste and digital photography on two consecutive weekdays. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers over five days. Multilevel linear regressions were used to estimate the influence of peers' behaviors on preschoolers' change in dietary intake and physical activity over 9months. Results showed that preschoolers whose dietary intake or physical activity level deviated the most from those of their peers at the beginning of the year demonstrated greater change in their intakes and activity levels over 9months, which enabled them to become more similar to their peers (all β 95% CI ranged from -0.835 to -0.074). This study suggests that preschoolers' dietary intake and physical activity may be influenced by the behaviors of their peers in childcare centers. Since peers could play an important role in promoting healthy eating behaviors and physical activity in childcare centers, future studies should test interventions based on positive role modeling by children.

  19. Inescapable Stress Changes Walking Behavior in Flies - Learned Helplessness Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Batsching, Sophie; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Like other animals flies develop a state of learned helplessness in response to unescapable aversive events. To show this, two flies, one 'master', one 'yoked', are each confined to a dark, small chamber and exposed to the same sequence of mild electric shocks. Both receive these shocks when the master fly stops walking for more than a second. Behavior in the two animals is differently affected by the shocks. Yoked flies are transiently impaired in place learning and take longer than master flies to exit from the chamber towards light. After the treatment they walk more slowly and take fewer and shorter walking bouts. The low activity is attributed to the fly's experience that its escape response, an innate behavior to terminate the electric shocks, does not help anymore. Earlier studies using heat pulses instead of electric shocks had shown similar effects. This parallel supports the interpretation that it is the uncontrollability that induces the state. PMID:27875580

  20. Acculturation is Not Related to Physical Activity Stage of Change for Children in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Rotter, Markus; Nigg, Claudio R; Renda, Gloria A; Novotny, Rachel

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between acculturation and physical activity stages of change is unexplored. Stages of change conceptualize behavior change as a progression through a series of five stages indicating the readiness to change behavior. The level of acculturation can be assessed using the Ethnocultural Identity Behavioral Index (EIBI) which is based on three factors: Cultural Activities, Social Interaction and Language Opportunities. The purpose of this project was to explore the relationship between parental acculturation and physical activity stages of change in Hawai'i children. Participants (N = 85; 62% female; aged 5-8 years; 22% Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islanders, 42% Asian, 25% White, and 11% Other) completed the EIBI and a physical activity stages of change measure. Acculturation factor means were: Cultural Activities = 4 (SD = 1.26), Social Interaction = 3 (SD = 1.04), and Language Opportunities = 4 (SD = 1.29). The physical activity stages of change distribution was Precontemplation = 11 (13%), Contemplation/Preparation = 15 (18%), and Action/Maintenance = 59 (69%). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for Cultural Activities F(3, 81) = 0.77, P = .47, Social Interaction F(3, 81) = 0.93, P = .40; and Language Opportunities F(3, 81) = 1.34, P = .27 showed no significant differences between physical activity stages of change. The results of our study do not show an association between acculturation and readiness to change for physical activity. The lack of differences may be due to participants being moderately acculturated, possibly lessening the differentiation of acculturation by physical activity stages of change.

  1. Clemastine Enhances Myelination in the Prefrontal Cortex and Rescues Behavioral Changes in Socially Isolated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dupree, Jeffrey L.; Gacias, Mar; Frawley, Rebecca; Sikder, Tamjeed; Naik, Payal; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Altered myelin structure and oligodendrocyte function have been shown to correlate with cognitive and motor dysfunction and deficits in social behavior. We and others have previously demonstrated that social isolation in mice induced behavioral, transcriptional, and ultrastructural changes in oligodendrocytes of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, whether enhancing myelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation could be beneficial in reversing such changes remains unexplored. To test this hypothesis, we orally administered clemastine, an antimuscarinic compound that has been shown to enhance oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination in vitro, for 2 weeks in adult mice following social isolation. Clemastine successfully reversed social avoidance behavior in mice undergoing prolonged social isolation. Impaired myelination was rescued by oral clemastine treatment, and was associated with enhanced oligodendrocyte progenitor differentiation and epigenetic changes. Clemastine induced higher levels of repressive histone methylation (H3K9me3), a marker for heterochromatin, in oligodendrocytes, but not neurons, of the PFC. This was consistent with the capability of clemastine in elevating H3K9 histone methyltransferases activity in cultured primary mouse oligodendrocytes, an effect that could be antagonized by cotreatment with muscarine. Our data suggest that promoting adult myelination is a potential strategy for reversing depressive-like social behavior. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Oligodendrocyte development and myelination are highly dynamic processes influenced by experience and neuronal activity. However, whether enhancing myelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation is beneficial to treat depressive-like behavior has been unexplored. Mice undergoing prolonged social isolation display impaired myelination in the prefrontal cortex. Clemastine, a Food and Drug Administration-approved antimuscarinic compound that has been shown to enhance myelination under

  2. Changing behavior: evidence based practice supporting hair removal with clippers.

    PubMed

    Waddington, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Evidence based practice demonstrates using clippers immediately before surgery, when perioperative hair removal is necessary, results in the fewest surgical site infections (Kjonniksen, Andersen, Sondenaa, & Segadal, 2002). In addition, one of The Joint Commission's national patient safety goals for 2008 is "to reduce the risk of healthcare associated infections" (The Joint Commission, 2008, Goal 7). Therefore, a project was undertaken to change perioperative nursing care in a large teaching hospital from using razors for hair removal in the perioperative setting to using clippers. Change is difficult and encompasses many interdisciplinary areas. A description of the process of utilizing evidence to change behavior in the perioperative setting and its outcomes will be provided in this paper. Klevens, et al., (2007) reported that 22% of healthcare associated infections were the result of surgical site infections (SSIs). Changing practice to utilizing clippers for hair removal is an extrinsic factor of SSIs that can be easily modified. Otorhinolaryngology (ORL) patients that require hair removal before surgery (i.e., acoustic neuroma, cranial-facial resections, and head and neck reconstruction) may benefit from this change in practice. Perioperative nurses are in a prime position to reduce the incidence of SSIs in ORL patients.

  3. Exploring eating and activity behaviors with parent-child dyads using event history calendars.

    PubMed

    Danford, Cynthia A; Martyn, Kristy K

    2013-08-01

    Despite advances in science, the prevalence of childhood obesity persists and outcomes remain inconsistent. An event history calendar (EHC) is a tool to facilitate understanding of family life dynamics influencing eating and activity choices. This tool uses reflection to assess temporally linked behavior in the context of life events so that choices related to eating and activity are more explicit. Fourteen parent-child (6-14 years) dyads completed an EHC and interview 2 months following a healthy eating/activity intervention. Phenomenological analysis revealed themes including "awareness" of activity/eating behaviors, "healthy lessons," "family time," and "barriers" to change. The EHC facilitated participant communication and understanding by making connections between behaviors, habits, and events in family context, so that eating and activity behaviors could be realistically reviewed. This tool has potential to guide development of individualized interventions through barrier identification and goal establishment in research and clinical settings to help counteract childhood obesity over time.

  4. Is nursing preceptor behavior changed by attending a preceptor class?

    PubMed Central

    Tipton, Phyllis Hart

    2016-01-01

    Nursing preceptors initiate new staff to the professional environment. To be successful, preceptors must be willing and knowledgeable in their role, both clinically and as an instructor. This study evaluated the effects of a 4-hour preceptor class to change preceptor behavior. Twenty-seven class participants commented on the class and their goals, and 18 completed a follow-up survey 2 months later. Among those 18, 90% had achieved at least one of their goals. One barrier to achieving planned changes was having the opportunity to precept over the time period. Participants indicated that improved listening skills, application of content, and team building all supported their improvement as a preceptor. PMID:27365870

  5. Readiness to change smoking behavior in adolescents with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Apodaca, Timothy R; Abrantes, Ana M; Strong, David R; Ramsey, Susan E; Brown, Richard A

    2007-06-01

    There has been recent increased interest in utilizing motivational interviewing (MI) to increase adolescent readiness to quit smoking, but attempts to impact quit rates have thus far been discouraging. A better understanding of factors associated with adolescent readiness to quit smoking prior to receiving any intervention may provide guidance when tailoring future MI interventions in order to increase their effectiveness with this population. Adolescent smokers (N=191) who had been admitted to a psychiatric hospital and enrolled in a clinical trial evaluating MI completed questionnaires that assessed smoking behavior and variables thought to be related to smoking. Confidence to quit smoking and negative beliefs about smoking were significant predictors of adolescents' baseline readiness to quit smoking. The failure to demonstrate relationships between health consequences and readiness suggest that caution may be warranted in the use of feedback, a common component of MI-based interventions. Such feedback tends to focus on health consequences, which was unrelated to adolescent baseline readiness to change smoking behavior in the current study. Parallels between current results and the Theory of Planned Behavior are discussed in consideration of developing more effective MI-based interventions for adolescent smokers.

  6. Assessing the success of invasive species prevention efforts at changing the behaviors of recreational boaters.

    PubMed

    Cole, Ellen; Keller, Reuben P; Garbach, Kelly

    2016-12-15

    Aquatic invasive species (AIS) pose major conservation challenges in freshwater ecosystems. In response, conservation organizations invest considerable resources in outreach to encourage AIS prevention behaviors among recreational boaters. Despite this, remarkably little is known about whether these efforts catalyze significant changes in boaters' perceptions, or whether they cause changes in behaviors that reduce AIS risk. We interviewed managers at the 14 Illinois organizations active in AIS outreach to determine regional priorities for, and investment in, AIS outreach. The results show a network of collaboration that reinforces a limited set of conservation messages. Next, we surveyed 515 recreational boaters to evaluate access to outreach, knowledge of AIS, and consistency of prevention behavior. Boater recognition of prevention slogans and knowledge of AIS and AIS prevention behavior was similar across Illinois regions despite large regional differences in investment in outreach. Most boaters (94%) report never intentionally moving organisms among waterbodies. Fewer reported that they Always perform recommended actions to reduce risk of AIS spread on their boat interior (68%), boat exterior (63%), or fishing tackle (47%). Recognition of prevention slogans and the number of AIS recognized were significantly, positively, associated with Always performing AIS prevention behavior on the vectors of the boat exterior, and fishing tackle, respectively. Our results suggest that increasing knowledge may be a necessary condition for higher adoption of AIS prevention behaviors, but that this alone may not be sufficient. Instead, efforts targeted at boaters who do not currently practice the recommended actions are likely to be necessary.

  7. Self-reflection as a tool for behavior change.

    PubMed

    Dilley, J W

    1998-08-01

    People at risk for HIV frequently have difficulty maintaining their commitment to safer sex practices and often make decisions to abandon these practices. A randomized long-term study, which includes a one-time counseling intervention, by the UCSF AIDS Health Project is looking at how people use justifications to rationalize risky behavior. A case study of a gay man's decision to have unprotected anal intercourse with a massage therapist is presented. Researchers are further evaluating the effectiveness of one-time counseling interventions, since they may prove helpful in reducing high-risk activity.

  8. Influence of Enriched Environment on Viral Encephalitis Outcomes: Behavioral and Neuropathological Changes in Albino Swiss Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bento-Torres, João; Trévia, Nonata; de Almeida Lins, Nara Alves; Passos, Aline; Santos, Zaire; Diniz, José Antonio Picanço; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando; Cunningham, Colm; Perry, Victor Hugh; Picanço Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2011-01-01

    An enriched environment has previously been described as enhancing natural killer cell activity of recognizing and killing virally infected cells. However, the effects of environmental enrichment on behavioral changes in relation to virus clearance and the neuropathology of encephalitis have not been studied in detail. We tested the hypothesis that environmental enrichment leads to less CNS neuroinvasion and/or more rapid viral clearance in association with T cells without neuronal damage. Stereology-based estimates of activated microglia perineuronal nets and neurons in CA3 were correlated with behavioral changes in the Piry rhabdovirus model of encephalitis in the albino Swiss mouse. Two-month-old female mice maintained in impoverished (IE) or enriched environments (EE) for 3 months were behaviorally tested. After the tests, an equal volume of Piry virus (IEPy, EEPy)-infected or normal brain homogenates were nasally instilled. Eight days post-instillation (dpi), when behavioral changes became apparent, brains were fixed and processed to detect viral antigens, activated microglia, perineuronal nets, and T lymphocytes by immuno- or histochemical reactions. At 20 or 40 dpi, the remaining animals were behaviorally tested and processed for the same markers. In IEPy mice, burrowing activity decreased and recovered earlier (8–10 dpi) than open field (20–40 dpi) but remained unaltered in the EEPy group. EEPy mice presented higher T-cell infiltration, less CNS cell infection by the virus and/or faster virus clearance, less microgliosis, and less damage to the extracellular matrix than IEPy. In both EEPy and IEPy animals, CA3 neuronal number remained unaltered. The results suggest that an enriched environment promotes a more effective immune response to clear CNS virus and not at the cost of CNS damage. PMID:21264301

  9. Sphingomyelin interfacial behavior: the impact of changing acyl chain composition.

    PubMed Central

    Li, X M; Smaby, J M; Momsen, M M; Brockman, H L; Brown, R E

    2000-01-01

    Sphingomyelins (SMs) containing homogeneous acyl chains with 12, 14, 16, 18, 24, or 26 carbons were synthesized and characterized using an automated Langmuir-type film balance. Surface pressure was monitored as a function of lipid molecular area at constant temperatures between 10 degrees C and 30 degrees C. SM containing lauroyl (12:0) acyl chains displayed only liquid-expanded behavior. Increasing the length of the saturated acyl chain (e.g., 14:0, 16:0, or 18:0) resulted in liquid-expanded to condensed two-dimensional phase transitions at many temperatures in the 10-30 degrees C range. Similar behavior was observed for SMs with lignoceroyl (24:0) or (cerotoyl) 26:0 acyl chains, but isotherms showed only condensed behavior at 10 and 15 degrees C. Insights into the physico-mechanical in-plane interactions occurring within the different SM phases and accompanying changes in SM phase state were provided by analyzing the interfacial area compressibility moduli. At similar surface pressures, SM fluid phases were less compressible than those of phosphatidylcholines with similar chain structures. The area per molecule and compressibility of SM condensed phases depended upon the length of the saturated acyl chain and upon spreading temperature. Spreading of SMs with very long saturated acyl chains at temperatures 30-35 degrees below T(m) resulted in condensed films with lower in-plane compressibilities, but consistently larger cross-sectional molecular areas than the condensed phases achieved by spreading at temperatures only 10-20 degrees below T(m). This behavior is discussed in terms of the enhancement of SM lateral aggregation by temperature reduction, a common approach used during domain isolation from biomembranes. PMID:10733971

  10. The Unusual Acid-Accumulating Behavior during Ripening of Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) is Linked to Changes in Transcription and Enzyme Activity Related to Citric and Malic Acid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    González-Agüero, Mauricio; Tejerina Pardo, Luis; Zamudio, María Sofía; Contreras, Carolina; Undurraga, Pedro; Defilippi, Bruno G

    2016-04-25

    Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) is a subtropical fruit characterized by a significant increase in organic acid levels during ripening, making it an interesting model for studying the relationship between acidity and fruit flavor. In this work, we focused on understanding the balance between the concentration of organic acids and the gene expression and activity of enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of these metabolites during the development and ripening of cherimoya cv. "Concha Lisa". Our results showed an early accumulation of citric acid and other changes associated with the accumulation of transcripts encoding citrate catabolism enzymes. During ripening, a 2-fold increase in malic acid and a 6-fold increase in citric acid were detected. By comparing the contents of these compounds with gene expression and enzymatic activity levels, we determined that cytoplasmic NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (cyNAD-MDH) and mitochondrial citrate synthase (mCS) play important regulatory roles in the malic and citric acid biosynthetic pathways.

  11. Behavioral Activation for Moderately Depressed University Students: Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawrysiak, Michael; Nicholas, Christopher; Hopko, Derek R.

    2009-01-01

    Although depression is prevalent among university students, limited and dated research has examined the efficacy of behavioral interventions in treating this population (C. Lee, 2005). On the basis of a modified version of the Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD; D. R. Hopko & C. W. Lejuez, 2007; C. W. Lejuez, D. R. Hopko, & S. D.…

  12. CME planning series: article five of five, using commitment to change within educational activities.

    PubMed

    van Hoof, Thomas J

    2009-03-01

    Commitment to change is an educational practice that encourages participants to commit to doing something differently in their respective practices based on an educational activity. Evidence suggests that such commitment increases the likelihood that changes in behavior will occur above and beyond what might be expected from participation without explicit commitments. Educators should consider options for incorporating this practice into their educational activities.

  13. Parent predictors of child weight change in family based behavioral obesity treatment.

    PubMed

    Boutelle, Kerri N; Cafri, Guy; Crow, Scott J

    2012-07-01

    Family based behavioral treatment for overweight and obese children includes parenting skills targeting the modification of child eating and activity change. The purpose of this study was to examine parenting skills and parent weight change as predictors of child weight change in a sample of 80 parent/child dyads who were enrolled in a family based behavioral weight loss program for childhood obesity. Eighty overweight and obese children and their parents who enrolled in treatment in two sites were included in the study. Variables included those related to parent modeling (parent BMI), home food environment, parenting (parent and child report), and demographics. Results suggested that parent BMI change was a significant predictor of child weight, in that a reduction of 1 BMI unit in the parent was associated with a 0.255 reduction in child BMI. None of the other variables were significant in the final model. This study is consistent with other research showing that parent weight change is a key contributor to child weight change in behavioral treatment for childhood obesity. Researchers and clinicians should focus on encouraging parents to lose weight to assist their overweight and obese child in weight management.

  14. Classroom Activities and Demonstrations for Use in Behavioral Science Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cology, Lorry J.

    This compilation provides descriptions of and resource materials for 25 classroom activities or demonstrations for behavioral science courses. For each activity, the following information is provided: subject area, source, time required and materials needed. In addition, discussion questions and comments on the value and use of the activities are…

  15. Active-Learning Exercises for Consumer Behavior Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Timothy J.

    1995-01-01

    Presents 13 active-learning activities designed for use in consumer behavior courses. The exercises involve students in brief activities, such as analysis of persuasion techniques in advertising, and follow-up discussion. Reports that students found the exercises enjoyable and worthwhile. (CFR)

  16. Changes of Photosynthetic Behaviors in Kappaphycus alvarezii Infected by Epiphyte.

    PubMed

    Pang, Tong; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Qian; Lin, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Epiphytic filamentous algae (EFA) were noted as a serious problem to reduce the production and quality of K. alvarezii. The morphological studies revealed that the main epiphyte on K. alvarezii was Neosiphonia savatieri in China. Though the harmful effects of EFA on the production of K. alvarezii have been reported, the detailed mechanism of the N. savatieri in limiting the production of K. alvarezii has not been studied yet. The present paper studied the effects of N. savatieri infection on photosynthetic behaviors in K. alvarezii by detecting chlorophyll fluorescence transient in vivo. The results revealed that damage of oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), decrease of active reaction centers (RCs), and the plastoquinone (PQ) pool as well as significant reduction in the performance indexes (PI) of PSII were caused by the infection of N. savatieri. The influence of N. savatieri on photosynthetic activity of K. alvarezii should be one of the important reasons to reduce the production of K. alvarezii infected by N. savatieri.

  17. [Physical activity, eating behavior, and pathology].

    PubMed

    Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio; Estébanez Humanes, Sonia; Santiago Fernández, María José

    2008-09-01

    Intense physical activity has been reported in patients with eating disorders, and hyperactivity can be found in more than 80% in severe stages. The beginning of food restriction occurs at earlier ages if there is an intense physical activity; body dissatisfaction is more intense among patients who practice exercise; and the presence of intense activity in anorexia nervosa usually precedes to the restrictive diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of exercise at the beginning of the eating disorder, and to analyze possible differences in the kind of exercise, according to age, sex and diagnostic subgroups. In order to evaluate the exercise 745 patients were assessed by the Eating Disorders Examination (EDE). The presence of physical activity (driving to caloric consumption, weight loss or modification of body shape), kind of activity, and its intensity were considered. Only the presence of moderate or high intensity clearly related with the mentioned objectives was considered. 407 patients (54.63%) engaged in exercise: 68.96% with anorexia, 68.96% with bulimia, and 34.73% with other non-specified eating disorders. There were not significant differences between men and women. Hyperactivity was the most frequent (47.42%), followed by gym activity (25.79%). Taking into account the different clinic subgroups, we could observe significant differences. To assess eating disorders, a correct evaluation of the physical activity should be necessary in order to include this aspect in treatment programs.

  18. Behavioral activating effects of adrafinil in aged canines.

    PubMed

    Siwak, C T; Gruet, P; Woehrlé, F; Schneider, M; Muggenburg, B A; Murphey, H L; Callahan, H; Milgram, N W

    2000-06-01

    Adrafinil, a vigilance enhancing pharmaceutical, was administered to aged dogs for 14 consecutive days at doses of 10, 20, 30, or 40 mg/kg using a crossover design. The effects on spontaneous behavior in a 10-min canine open-field test were systematically recorded every fourth day, starting with day 1 of treatment. The open field tests were given 2 or 10 h following oral administration of capsules containing either adrafinil or lactose, the placebo control. Adrafinil caused an increase in locomotor activity at the three highest doses at both the 2- and 10-h intervals and during both the first (days 1 and 5) and second treatment week (days 9 and 13). Adrafinil also caused a transient increase in directed sniffing. At the highest dose level, adrafinil caused a decrease in urination frequency. The increased locomotion was generally unaccompanied by stereotypical behavior in the test session. There was some variability; a subpopulation of animals showed either no effect, or decreased locomotion. The individual differences were correlated with changes in serum levels of adrafinil 10 h following treatment.

  19. The lung mechanical behavior change with 100% oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hsuan-Tso

    In medicine, delivery of hyperbaric oxygen to the lung is necessary and quite common to use for critical care. However, it is known that too much oxygen, under different conditions, can be toxic. For example, at an oxygen fraction of 50% at normal atmospheric pressure, the alveoli will show damage after long periods of exposure (several hours). Prolonged or high oxygen concentrations (up to 50%) can cause oxidative damage to cell membranes, the collapse of the alveoli in the lungs, retinal detachment, and seizures. Oxygen toxicity is managed by reducing the exposure to elevated oxygen levels. The possible mechanisms of oxygen toxicity are not fully understood, but the two main hypotheses in literature are direct point out cellular damage or surfactant dysfunction. Most previous studies have focused on long-term (greater than 4 hours) exposure and the effects on lung. Very little is known regarding the short-term effects of oxygen on lung. In this study, we choose to investigate short-term (five tidal volume) changes in lung under oxygen. To test this, we measured any sensitive mechanical behavior change in the lung using indentation. In the experiments, we measured excised mammalian lungs inflated with air or 100% oxygen, to different pressure (4, 12, 25cmH2O) and different indenter displacement (1, 2, 3mm). Our results show the lung becomes stiffer even when exposed to oxygen in the short term. In addition, inflating air again, the lung mechanical property shows some reversible behavior. This phenomenon is more obvious at low inflation pressure than in high pressure after exposure oxygen. We suggest that pulmonary surfactant plays an important role in the observed change. Also, we can say that the exposure time for oxygen toxicity to occur could be shorted that previously thought short-term. This conclusion is important to understand and accommodate oxygen toxicity in the lung.

  20. Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors with Dietary Behaviors among US High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Shannon; Demissie, Zewditu; Kann, Laura; Galuska, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors are each associated with overweight and obesity among youth. However, the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors are complex and not well understood. Purpose. To describe the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors among a representative sample of US high school students. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS). Using logistic regression models which controlled for sex, race/ethnicity, grade, body weight status, and weight management goals, we compared dietary behaviors among students who did and did not meet national recommendations for PA and sedentary behaviors. Results. Students who participated in recommended levels of daily PA (DPA) and muscle strengthening PA (MSPA) were more likely than those who did not to eat fruits and vegetables. Students who exceeded recommended limits for television (TV) and computer/video game (C/VG) screen time were less likely than those who did not to consume fruits and vegetables and were more likely to consume fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusions. Researchers may want to address PA, sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors jointly when developing health promotion and obesity prevention programs for youth. PMID:26101666

  1. The Empowering Role of Mobile Apps in Behavior Change Interventions: The Gray Matters Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Chris D; McClean, Sally I; Cleland, Ian; Tschanz, JoAnn T; Clark, Christine J; Norton, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    better in attaining their recommended daily goals (mean 56.21 SD 30.4%) than those who increased their BMI (mean 40.12 SD 29.1%), t80 = −2.449, P=.017. In total, 69.2% (n=18) of those who achieved a mean performance percentage of 60% or higher, across all domains, reduced their BMI during the study, whereas 60.7% (n=34) who did not, increased their BMI. One-way analysis of variance of systolic blood pressure category changes showed a significant correlation between reported efforts to reduce stress and category change as a whole, P=.035. An exit survey highlighted that respondents (n=83) reported that the app motivated them to perform physical activity (85.4%) and make healthier food choices (87.5%). Conclusions In this study, the ubiquitous nature of the mobile phone excelled as a delivery platform for the intervention, enabling the dissemination of educational intervention material while simultaneously monitoring and encouraging positive behavior change, resulting in desirable clinical effects. Sustained effort to maintain the achieved behaviors is expected to mitigate future AD risk. Trial Registration ClinicalTrails.gov NCT02290912; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02290912 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6ictUEwnm) PMID:27485822

  2. A latchable thermally activated phase change actuator for microfluidic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Christiane; Sachsenheimer, Kai; Rapp, Bastian E.

    2016-03-01

    Complex microfluidic systems often require a high number of individually controllable active components like valves and pumps. In this paper we present the development and optimization of a latchable thermally controlled phase change actuator which uses a solid/liquid phase transition of a phase change medium and the displacement of the liquid phase change medium to change and stabilize the two states of the actuator. Because the phase change is triggered by heat produced with ohmic resistors the used control signal is an electrical signal. In contrast to pneumatically activated membrane valves this concept allows the individual control of several dozen actuators with only two external pressure lines. Within this paper we show the general working principle of the actuator and demonstrate its general function and the scalability of the concept at an example of four actuators. Additionally we present the complete results of our studies to optimize the response behavior of the actuator - the influence of the heating power as well as the used phase change medium on melting and solidifying times.

  3. Classroom Activities about Water and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, M.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this activity is to demonstrate practical work and experiments in the classroom, with students on Water: Water is the most neccesary Earth's resource, although it is decreasing because many human activities are changing its quality and its availability. The activity is designed in order to recreate experiments, simulations, and determine the aspects of the problematic environment currently plaguing our planet, especially those related to water and climate change. The selected activities have to be easy to make, and easy to understand. Each activity will be illustrated, explained and described using pictures and short texts, so teachers could replay them in their classroom. 1. Simulation of the Ocean Water Currents Convection to understand the heat distribution in our planet. 2. Ocean Water Stratification According to Water Salinity. We can understand the behaviour of water when we mix water from different densities 3. Melting of the Arctic and Antarctic Polar Caps. In this experiment, we can see the consequences of changing environment and climate conditions as it pertains to ice and our polar ice caps. We want to show the different behaviours of continental and floating ice and to evaluate the consequences of their melting. 4. Detecting water pollution. Here, we can analyse some water patterns and get to know the existence or absence of pollutants in the water, as well as learning how to determine its pH level, hardness, nitrogen composition, bacteria content and more. 5. Creating a home treatment. We show the necessity to preserve the water quality through a suitable treatment.

  4. The importance of behavior theory in control system modeling of physical activity sensor data.

    PubMed

    Riley, William T; Martin, Cesar A; Rivera, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    Among health behaviors, physical activity has the most extensive record of research using passive sensors. Control systems and other system dynamic approaches have long been considered applicable for understanding human behavior, but only recently has the technology provided the precise and intensive longitudinal data required for these analytic approaches. Although sensors provide intensive data on the patterns and variations of physical activity over time, the influences of these variations are often unmeasured. Health behavior theories provide an explanatory framework of the putative mediators of physical activity changes. Incorporating the intensive longitudinal measurement of these theoretical constructs is critical to improving the fit of control system model of physical activity and for advancing behavioral theory. Theory-based control models also provide guidance on the nature of the controllers which serve as the basis for just-in-time adaptive interventions based on these control system models.

  5. Differential control of renal and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity during freezing behavior in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Misa; Nagata, Keiko; Miki, Kenju

    2010-10-01

    The present study was designed to document changes in sympathetic nerve activity and cardiovascular function when conscious rats were challenged with a noise stressor to induce freezing behavior. The potential contribution of the arterial baroreceptors in regulating sympathetic nerve activity and cardiovascular adjustments during the freezing behavior was then examined. Wistar male rats were assigned to sham-operated (SO) and sinoaortic-denervated (SAD) groups and instrumented chronically with electrodes for measurements of renal (RSNA) and lumbar (LSNA) sympathetic nerve activity, electroencephalogram, electromyogram, and electrocardiogram and catheters for measurements of systemic arterial and central venous pressure. Both SO and SAD rats were exposed to 90 dB of white noise for 10 min, causing freezing behavior in both groups. In SO rats, freezing behavior was associated with an immediate and significant (P < 0.05) increase in RSNA, no changes in LSNA or mean arterial pressure, and a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in heart rate. SAD attenuated the magnitude of the immediate increase in RSNA and had no influence on the response in LSNA during freezing behavior compared with SO rats. Moreover, in SAD rats, mean arterial pressure increased significantly (P < 0.05) while heart rate did not change during the freezing behavior. These data indicate that freezing behavior evokes regionally different changes in sympathetic outflows, which may be involved in generating the patterned responses of cardiovascular function to stressful or threatening sensory stimulation. Moreover, it is suggested that the arterial baroreceptors are involved in generating the differential changes in RSNA and LSNA and thus the patterned changes in cardiovascular functions observed during freezing behavior in conscious rats.

  6. Neuroimaging mechanisms of change in psychotherapy for addictive behaviors: emerging translational approaches that bridge biology and behavior.

    PubMed

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Chung, Tammy

    2013-06-01

    Research on mechanisms of behavior change provides an innovative method to improve treatment for addictive behaviors. An important extension of mechanisms of change research involves the use of translational approaches, which examine how basic biological (i.e., brain-based mechanisms) and behavioral factors interact in initiating and sustaining positive behavior change as a result of psychotherapy. Articles in this special issue include integrative conceptual reviews and innovative empirical research on brain-based mechanisms that may underlie risk for addictive behaviors and response to psychotherapy from adolescence through adulthood. Review articles discuss hypothesized mechanisms of change for cognitive and behavioral therapies, mindfulness-based interventions, and neuroeconomic approaches. Empirical articles cover a range of addictive behaviors, including use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine, and pathological gambling and represent a variety of imaging approaches including fMRI, magneto-encephalography, real-time fMRI, and diffusion tensor imaging. Additionally, a few empirical studies directly examine brain-based mechanisms of change, whereas others examine brain-based indicators as predictors of treatment outcome. Finally, two commentaries discuss craving as a core feature of addiction, and the importance of a developmental approach to examining mechanisms of change. Ultimately, translational research on mechanisms of behavior change holds promise for increasing understanding of how psychotherapy may modify brain structure and functioning and facilitate the initiation and maintenance of positive treatment outcomes for addictive behaviors.

  7. Neuroimaging mechanisms of change in psychotherapy for addictive behaviors: Emerging translational approaches that bridge biology and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Chung, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    Research on mechanisms of behavior change provides an innovative method to improve treatment for addictive behaviors. An important extension of mechanisms of change research involves the use of translational approaches, which examine how basic biological (i.e., brain-based mechanisms) and behavioral factors interact in initiating and sustaining positive behavior change as a result of psychotherapy. Articles in this special issue include integrative conceptual reviews and innovative empirical research on brain-based mechanisms that may underlie risk for addictive behaviors and response to psychotherapy from adolescence through adulthood. Review articles discuss hypothesized mechanisms of change for cognitive and behavioral therapies, mindfulness-based interventions, and neuroeconomic approaches. Empirical articles cover a range of addictive behaviors, including use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine, and pathological gambling and represent a variety of imaging approaches including fMRI, magneto-encephalography, real time fMRI, and diffusion tensor imaging. Additionally, a few empirical studies directly examined brain-based mechanisms of change, whereas others examined brain-based indicators as predictors of treatment outcome. Finally, two commentaries discuss craving as a core feature of addiction, and the importance of a developmental approach to examining mechanisms of change. Ultimately, translational research on mechanisms of behavior change holds promise for increasing understanding of how psychotherapy may modify brain structure and functioning and facilitate the initiation and maintenance of positive treatment outcomes for addictive behaviors. PMID:23815447

  8. Practical considerations in the design and development of smartphone apps for behavior change

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Walter R.; Vilardaga, Roger; Wolfe, Nathanael; Bricker, Jonathan B.; McDonell, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The fast adoption of smartphone applications (apps) by behavioral scientists pose a new host of opportunities as well as knowledge and interdisciplinary challenges. Therefore, this brief report will discuss the lessons we have learned during the development and testing of smartphone apps for behavior change, and provide the reader with guidance and recommendations about this design and development process. We hope that the guidance and perspectives presented in this brief report will empower behavioral scientists to test the efficacy of smartphone apps for behavior change, further advance the contextual behavioral etiology of behavioral disorders and help move the field towards personalized behavior change technologies. PMID:25485231

  9. Changes in Pilot Behavior with Predictive System Status Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    1998-01-01

    Research has shown a strong pilot preference for predictive information of aircraft system status in the flight deck. However, changes in pilot behavior associated with using this predictive information have not been ascertained. The study described here quantified these changes using three types of predictive information (none, whether a parameter was changing abnormally, and the time for a parameter to reach an alert range) and three initial time intervals until a parameter alert range was reached (ITIs) (1 minute, 5 minutes, and 15 minutes). With predictive information, subjects accomplished most of their tasks before an alert occurred. Subjects organized the time they did their tasks by locus-of-control with no predictive information and for the 1-minute ITI, and by aviatenavigate-communicate for the time for a parameter to reach an alert range and the 15-minute conditions. Overall, predictive information and the longer ITIs moved subjects to performing tasks before the alert actually occurred and had them more mission oriented as indicated by their tasks grouping of aviate-navigate-communicate.

  10. Heterogeneity of muscle activity during sedentary behavior.

    PubMed

    Pesola, Arto J; Laukkanen, Arto; Tikkanen, Olli; Finni, Taija

    2016-11-01

    Replacing sitting by standing has been hypothesized to reduce the health risks of sitting, based on the assumption that muscles are passive during sitting and active during standing. Interventions have been more effective in overweight (OW) than in normal weight (NW) individuals, but subjects' muscle activities have not been quantified. This study compared quadriceps and hamstring muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity between 57 NW (body mass index (BMI) 22.5 ± 1.5 kg/m(2), female n = 36) and 27 OW (BMI 28.4 ± 2.9 kg/m(2), female n = 8) subjects during non-fatiguing standing (15 s, EMGstanding) and sitting (30 min). EMG amplitude was normalized to EMG measured during maximal isometric knee extension and flexion (% EMGMVC), and sitting muscle inactivity and bursts were determined using 4 thresholds (60% or 90% EMGstanding and 1% or 2% EMGMVC). Comparisons were adjusted for sex, age, knee extension strength, and the individual threshold. Standing EMG amplitude was 36% higher in OW (1.9% ± 1.5% EMGMVC) than in NW (1.4% ± 1.4% EMGMVC, P < 0.05) subjects. During sitting, muscles were inactive 89.8% ± 12.7% of the measurement time with 12.7 ± 14.2 bursts/min across all thresholds. On average, 6% more activity was recorded in NW than in OW individuals for 3 of the 4 thresholds (P < 0.05 for 60% or 90% EMGstanding and 1% EMGMVC). In conclusion, the OW group had higher muscle activity amplitude during standing but more muscle inactivity during sitting for 3/4 of the thresholds tested. Interventions should test whether the observed heterogeneity in muscle activity affects the potential to gain cardiometabolic benefits from replacing sitting with standing.

  11. Behavioral responses of Escherichia coli to changes in redox potential.

    PubMed

    Bespalov, V A; Zhulin, I B; Taylor, B L

    1996-09-17

    Escherichia coli bacteria sensed the redox state in their surroundings and they swam to a niche that had a preferred reduction potential. In a spatial redox gradient of benzoquinone/benzoquinol, E. coli cells migrated to form a sharply defined band. Bacteria swimming out of either face of the band tumbled and returned to the preferred conditions at the site of the band. This behavioral response was named redox taxis. Redox molecules, such as substituted quinones, that elicited redox taxis, interact with the bacterial electron transport system, thereby altering electron transport and the proton motive force. The magnitude of the behavioral response was dependent on the reduction potential of the chemoeffector. The Tsr, Tar, Trg, Tap, and CheR proteins, which have a role in chemotaxis, were not essential for redox taxis. A cheB mutant had inverted responses in redox taxis, as previously demonstrated in aerotaxis. A model is proposed in which a redox effector molecule perturbs the electron transport system, and an unknown sensor in the membrane detects changes in the proton motive force or the redox status of the electron transport system, and transduces this information into a signal that regulates phosphorylation of the CheA protein. A similar mechanism has been proposed for aerotaxis. Redox taxis may play an important role in the distribution of bacterial species in natural environments.

  12. Changes in Thai sexual behavior lower HIV spread.

    PubMed

    1997-06-02

    More than 700,000 people are thought to be HIV positive in Thailand. A booming sex industry and social attitudes which support the male patronage of prostitutes are major factors in the spread of disease in the country. A 4-day workshop on sexual behavior and AIDS in Thailand was attended by representatives from Burma, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. According to the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the percentage of military conscripts in northern Thailand who visited a brothel in the past year fell from 58% in 1991 to 23% in 1995, while the percentage of recruits using condoms during their most recent brothel visits increased from 60% to 90% over the same period. Statistics from the Thai Public Health Ministry indicate that the percentage of men in the general population who used condoms when visiting a brothel increased from 40% in 1990 to 90% in 1994. Furthermore, a nationwide survey among military conscripts found the prevalence of HIV infection fell from 3.7% in 1993 to 2.5% in 1995, with the downward trend continuing in 1996. This success in reducing the level of sexual risk behavior and the incidence of HIV infection in Thailand lends hope for the possibility of changing the course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic elsewhere.

  13. [Changes in scholar's behavior and development through the family care].

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Ana Carmen Alonso Nachtigall; Costenaro, Regina Gema Santini; Rangel, Rosiane Filipin; Ferreira, Carla Lizandra de Lima; Lacerda, Maria Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the contributions of nursing in the family relationships of scholars who have changes in school behavior and performance. It's an action research, based on the questioning method, using the Arc Method, implemented in five stages: reality observation, key-points, theory, possible solutions, and application to reality. The research happened in a municipal school, located in the west of Santa Maria-RS. 25 scholars' families participated in the sample, during March to May of 2012. It was noticed that the dream of having an ideal family exists, but the lived reality is still permeated by a lot of difficulties and require modifications. Thus, take care of the family relationships shows up as a possibility of society to develop worthily, considering the powerful influence it has on the people character development and formation.

  14. Symbol Sense Behavior in Digital Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokhove, Christian; Drijvers, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The algebraic expertise that mathematics education is aiming for includes both procedural skills and conceptual understanding. To capture the latter, notions such as symbol sense, gestalt view and visual salience have been developed. We wonder if digital activities can be designed that not only require procedural algebraic skills, but also invite…

  15. HURRICANE CHANGES: EXAMINING ENHANCED MOTIVATION TO CHANGE DRUG USING BEHAVIORS AMONG KATRINA EVACUEES

    PubMed Central

    Tiburcio, Nelson Jose; Twiggs, Robert; Dunlap, Eloise E.

    2010-01-01

    Substance use disorders are credited with greater amounts of death and illness than all other preventable health problems. Billions of dollars are spent on efforts to control drug supplies and fund various treatment approaches, but relatively little resources have been directed towards investigating how environmental conditions can contribute to or detract from substance user’s individual motivation to change behavior. Hurricane Katrina caused untold property damage and upheaval, in addition to the vast numbers of people whose lives it drastically affected. This article examines how surviving this ordeal, subsequent evacuation, and eventual resettlement in New Orleans or re-location to a different city (in this case, Houston) impacted individuals’ motivation to change their substance use patterns and behaviors. This article’s approach is grounded in the values of the social work profession and examines: 1) the role of life events in motivating change of substance using behaviors in the absence of formal treatment interventions; and 2) participant resilience in overcoming the adversities inherent to this disaster. PMID:21852981

  16. Changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns induced by single short-term fasting in mice.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Yuko; Asakura, Kyo; Kugino, Kenji; Kurokawa, Mamoru; Asakura, Tomiko; Nakata, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    In humans, emaciation from long-term dietary deficiencies, such as anorexia, reportedly increases physical activity and brain atrophy. However, the effects of single short-term fasting on brain tissue or behavioral activity patterns remain unclear. To clarify the impact of malnutrition on brain function, we conducted a single short-term fasting study as an anorexia model using male adult mice and determined if changes occurred in migratory behavior as an expression of brain function and in brain tissue structure. Sixteen-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were divided into either the fasted group or the control group. Experiments were conducted in a fixed indoor environment. We examined the effects of fasting on the number of nerve cells, structural changes in the myelin and axon density, and brain atrophy. For behavior observation, the amount of food and water consumed, ingestion time, and the pattern of movement were measured using a time-recording system. The fasted mice showed a significant increase in physical activity and their rhythm of movement was disturbed. Since the brain was in an abnormal state after fasting, mice that were normally active during the night became active regardless of day or night and performed strenuous exercise at a high frequency. The brain weight did not change by a fast, and brain atrophy was not observed. Although no textural change was apparent by fasting, the neuronal neogenesis in the subventricular zone and hippocampus was inhibited, causing disorder of the brain function. A clear association between the suppression of encephalic neuropoiesis and overactivity was not established. However, it is interesting that the results of this study suggest that single short-term fasting has an effect on encephalic neuropoiesis.

  17. Are Health Behavior Change Interventions That Use Online Social Networks Effective? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Lucy K; Ferrar, Katia; Marshall, Simon; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2014-01-01

    Background The dramatic growth of Web 2.0 technologies and online social networks offers immense potential for the delivery of health behavior change campaigns. However, it is currently unclear how online social networks may best be harnessed to achieve health behavior change. Objective The intent of the study was to systematically review the current level of evidence regarding the effectiveness of online social network health behavior interventions. Methods Eight databases (Scopus, CINAHL, Medline, ProQuest, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Web of Science and Communication & Mass Media Complete) were searched from 2000 to present using a comprehensive search strategy. Study eligibility criteria were based on the PICOS format, where “population” included child or adult populations, including healthy and disease populations; “intervention” involved behavior change interventions targeting key modifiable health behaviors (tobacco and alcohol consumption, dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior) delivered either wholly or in part using online social networks; “comparator” was either a control group or within subject in the case of pre-post study designs; “outcomes” included health behavior change and closely related variables (such as theorized mediators of health behavior change, eg, self-efficacy); and “study design” included experimental studies reported in full-length peer-reviewed sources. Reports of intervention effectiveness were summarized and effect sizes (Cohen’s d and 95% confidence intervals) were calculated wherever possible. Attrition (percentage of people who completed the study), engagement (actual usage), and fidelity (actual usage/intended usage) with the social networking component of the interventions were scrutinized. Results A total of 2040 studies were identified from the database searches following removal of duplicates, of which 10 met inclusion criteria. The studies involved a total of 113,988 participants

  18. Behaviors and Knowledge of Healthcorps New York City High School Students: Nutrition, Mental Health, and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Moonseong; Irvin, Erica; Ostrovsky, Natania; Isasi, Carmen; Blank, Arthur E.; Lounsbury, David W.; Fredericks, Lynn; Yom, Tiana; Ginsberg, Mindy; Hayes, Shawn; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background: HealthCorps provides school wellness programming using curricula to promote changes in nutrition, mental health, and physical activity behaviors. The research objective was to evaluate effects of implementing its curricula on nutrition, mental health, and physical activity knowledge and behavior. Methods: Pre- and postsurvey data were…

  19. Controlling neural activity in Caenorhabditis elegans to evoke chemotactic behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocabas, Askin; Shen, Ching-Han; Guo, Zengcai V.; Ramanathan, Sharad

    2013-03-01

    Animals locate and track chemoattractive gradients in the environment to find food. With its simple nervous system, Caenorhabditis elegans is a good model system in which to understand how the dynamics of neural activity control this search behavior. To understand how the activity in its interneurons coordinate different motor programs to lead the animal to food, here we used optogenetics and new optical tools to manipulate neural activity directly in freely moving animals to evoke chemotactic behavior. By deducing the classes of activity patterns triggered during chemotaxis and exciting individual neurons with these patterns, we identified interneurons that control the essential locomotory programs for this behavior. Notably, we discovered that controlling the dynamics of activity in just one interneuron pair was sufficient to force the animal to locate, turn towards and track virtual light gradients.

  20. The Neurocognitive Connection between Physical Activity and Eating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Richard J.; Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Bond, Dale S.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    As obesity rates increase worldwide, health care providers require methods to instill the lifestyle behaviors necessary for sustainable weight loss. Designing effective weight loss interventions requires an understanding of how these behaviors are elicited, how they relate to each other, and whether they are supported by common neurocognitive mechanisms. This may provide valuable insights to optimize existing interventions and develop novel approaches to weight control. Researchers have begun to investigate the neurocognitive underpinnings of eating behavior and the impact of physical activity on cognition and the brain. This review attempts to bring these somewhat disparate, yet interrelated lines of literature together in order to examine a hypothesis that eating behavior and physical activity share a common neurocognitive link. The link pertains to executive functions, which rely on brain circuits located in the prefrontal cortex. These advanced cognitive processes are of limited capacity and undergo relentless strain in the current obesogenic environment. The increased demand on these neurocognitive resources as well as their overuse and/or impairment may facilitate impulses to overeat, contributing to weight gain and obesity. This impulsive eating drive may be counteracted by physical activity due to its enhancement of neurocognitive resources for executive functions and goal-oriented behavior. By enhancing the resources that facilitate “top-down” inhibitory control, increased physical activity may help compensate and suppress the hedonic drive to overeat. Understanding how physical activity and eating behaviors interact on a neurocognitive level may help to maintain a healthy lifestyle in an obesogenic environment. PMID:21676151

  1. Thermoforming of Tracheal Cartilage: Viability, Shape Change, and Mechanical Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Yongseok; Protsenko, Dmitriy; Holden, Paul K.; Chlebicki, Cara; Wong, Brian J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Trauma, emergent tracheostomy, and prolonged intubation are common causes of severe deformation and narrowing of the trachea. Laser technology may be used to reshape tracheal cartilage using minimally invasive methods. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the dependence of tracheal cartilage shape change on temperature and laser dosimetry using heated saline bath immersion and laser irradiation, respectively, (2) the effect of temperature on the mechanical behavior of cartilage, and (3) tissue viability as a function of laser dosimetry. Materials and Methods Ex vivo rabbit trachea cartilage specimens were bent and secured around a cylinder (6 mm), and then immersed in a saline bath (45 and 72°C) for 5– 100 seconds. In separate experiments, tracheal specimens were irradiated with a diode laser (λ = 1.45 μm, 220–400 J/cm2). Mechanical analysis was then used to determine the elastic modulus in tension after irradiation. Fluorescent viability assays combined with laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) were employed to image and identify thermal injury regions. Results Shape change transition zones, between 62 and 66°C in the saline heating bath and above power densities of 350 J/cm2 (peak temperatures 65±10°C) for laser irradiation were identified. Above these zones, the elastic moduli were higher (8.2±4 MPa) than at lower temperatures (4.5±3 MPa). LSCM identified significant loss of viable chondrocytes within the laser-irradiation zones. Conclusion Our results indicate a change in mechanical properties occurs with laser irradiation and further demonstrates that significant thermal damage is concurrent with clinically relevant shape change in the elastic cartilage tissues of the rabbit trachea using the present laser and dosimetry parameters. PMID:18798288

  2. Age Differences and Changes of Coping Behavior in Three Age Groups: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Kliegel, Matthias; Rott, Christoph; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    With increasing age, older adults are more likely to be challenged by an increasing number of physical, functional and social losses. As a result, coping with losses becomes a central theme in very late life. This study investigated age differences and age changes in active behavioral, active cognitive and avoidance coping and related coping to…

  3. Complementary Tools to Empower and Sustain Behavior Change: Motivational Interviewing and Mindfulness.

    PubMed

    Sohl, Stephanie Jean; Birdee, Gurjeet; Elam, Roy

    2016-11-01

    Improving health behaviors is fundamental to preventing and controlling chronic disease. Healthcare providers who have a patient-centered communication style and appropriate behavioral change tools can empower patients to engage in and sustain healthy behaviors. This review highlights motivational interviewing and mindfulness along with other evidence-based strategies for enhancing patient-centered communication and the behavior change process. Motivational interviewing and mindfulness are especially useful for empowering patients to set self-determined, or autonomous, goals for behavior change. This is important because autonomously motivated behavioral change is more sustainable. Additional strategies such as self-monitoring are discussed as useful for supporting the implementation and maintenance of goals. Thus, there is a need for healthcare providers to develop such tools to empower sustained behavior change. The additional support of a new role, a health coach who specializes in facilitating the process of health-related behavior change, may be required to substantially impact public health.

  4. Changes in Illness-Related Behavior and Dysphoria Accompanying Behavioral Treatment of Recurrent Headache.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Jeanetta C.; Lohr, Jeffrey M.

    Psychophysiologic research indicates that muscle-contraction headache often is not characterized by excessive or unusual muscular activity, and muscular changes seldom accompany headache improvement resulting from treatment. Multidimensional models have been proposed, which emphasize the interdependence of physiological and psychological systems…

  5. Behavioral and cognitive changes after early postnatal lesions of the rat mediodorsal thalamus.

    PubMed

    Ouhaz, Zakaria; Ba-M'hamed, Saadia; Mitchell, Anna S; Elidrissi, Abdeslem; Bennis, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    Early insults to the thalamus result in functional and/or structural abnormalities in the cerebral cortex. However, differences in behavioral and cognitive changes after early insult are not well characterized. The present study assessed whether early postnatal damage to mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD), reciprocally interconnected with the prefrontal cortex, causes behavioral and cognitive alterations in young adult rats. Rat pups at postnatal day 4 received bilateral electrolytic lesion of MD, or a MD Sham lesion or were anesthetized controls; on recovery they were returned to their mothers until weaning. Seven weeks later, all rats were tested with the following behavioral and cognitive paradigms: T-maze test, open field test, actimetry, elevated plus maze test, social interactions test and passive avoidance test. Rats with bilateral MD damage presented with disrupted recognition memory, deficits in shifting response rules, significant hypoactivity, increased anxiety-like behavior, deficits in learning associations as well as decreased locomotor activity, and reduced social interactions compared to MD Sham lesion and anesthetized Control rats. The lesion also caused significant decreases in pyramidal cell density in three frontal cortex regions: medial infralimbic cortex, dorsolateral anterior cortex, and cingulate Cg1 cortex. The present findings suggest a functional role for MD in the postnatal maturation of affective behavior. Further some of the behavioral and cognitive alterations observed in these young adult rats after early MD lesion are reminiscent of those present in major psycho-affective disorders, such as schizophrenia in humans.

  6. Hippocampus and subregions of the dorsal striatum respond differently to a behavioral strategy change on a spatial navigation task

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Paul S.; Amemiya, Seiichiro

    2015-01-01

    Goal-directed and habit-based behaviors are driven by multiple but dissociable decision making systems involving several different brain areas, including the hippocampus and dorsal striatum. On repetitive tasks, behavior transitions from goal directed to habit based with experience. Hippocampus has been implicated in initial learning and dorsal striatum in automating behavior, but recent studies suggest that subregions within the dorsal striatum have distinct roles in mediating habit-based and goal-directed behavior. We compared neural activity in the CA1 region of hippocampus with anterior dorsolateral and posterior dorsomedial striatum in rats on a spatial choice task, in which subjects experienced reward delivery changes that forced them to adjust their behavioral strategy. Our results confirm the importance of the hippocampus in evaluating predictive steps during goal-directed behavior, while separate circuits in the basal ganglia integrated relevant information during automation of actions and recognized when new behaviors were needed to continue obtaining rewards. PMID:26084902

  7. Impulsive approach tendencies towards physical activity and sedentary behaviors, but not reflective intentions, prospectively predict non-exercise activity thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cheval, Boris; Sarrazin, Philippe; Pelletier, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the determinants of non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) is crucial, given its extensive health benefits. Some scholars have assumed that a proneness to react differently to environmental cues promoting sedentary versus active behaviors could be responsible for inter-individual differences in NEAT. In line with this reflection and grounded on the Reflective-Impulsive Model, we test the assumption that impulsive processes related to sedentary and physical activity behaviors can prospectively predict NEAT, operationalized as spontaneous effort exerted to maintain low intensity muscle contractions within the release phases of an intermittent maximal isometric contraction task. Participants (n = 91) completed a questionnaire assessing their intentions to adopt physical activity behaviors and a manikin task to assess impulsive approach tendencies towards physical activity behaviors (IAPA) and sedentary behaviors (IASB). Participants were then instructed to perform a maximal handgrip strength task and an intermittent maximal isometric contraction task. As hypothesized, multilevel regression analyses revealed that spontaneous effort was (a) positively predicted by IAPA, (b) negatively predicted by IASB, and (c) was not predicted by physical activity intentions, after controlling for some confounding variables such as age, sex, usual PA level and average force provided during the maximal-contraction phases of the task. These effects remained constant throughout all the phases of the task. This study demonstrated that impulsive processes may play a unique role in predicting spontaneous physical activity behaviors. Theoretically, this finding reinforces the utility of a motivational approach based on dual-process models to explain inter-individual differences in NEAT. Implications for health behavior theories and behavior change interventions are outlined.

  8. Weight Gain Prevention: Identifying Theory-Based Targets for Health Behavior Change in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Kathryn A.; Parks, Serena L.; Anderson, Eileen; Winett, Richard; Davy, Brenda M.

    2008-01-01

    Young adults attending college are more vulnerable to weight gain than the general population. We sought to identify health behavior change targets related to weight management in college students. Based on the social cognitive theory model for health behavior change, we investigated the health-related lifestyle behaviors and physiological characteristics of this population. Forty-three college students (18.3±0.1 years) completed a series of quantitative assessments (body weight and composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, diet and activity habits) and structured qualitative assessments (structured interview or focus group). Participants were predominantly normal-weight (mean BMI=22.2±0.4 kg/m2) and fit (VO2max = 50.5±1.5 ml/kg/min). However, healthy eating and physical activity were not considered high priorities, despite having ample free time, high exercise self-efficacy, positive outcome expectations for exercise, and a desire to exercise more. Participants reported that regularly engaging in exercise was difficult. This may have been due to poor planning/time management, satisfaction with body image, lack of accountability and feelings of laziness. Dietary patterns generally met recommendations but were low in fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Social support for exercise and healthy dietary habits were important factors associated with health behaviors. Students reported a decline in exercise and dietary habits relative to high school, which may contribute to college weight gain. Our results suggest that this population may not have adequate self-regulatory skills, such as planning and self-monitoring, to maintain healthy behaviors in the college environment. Dietitians working with young adults attending college may use these findings to guide the behavioral therapy component of their weight management medical nutrition therapy goals and outcomes. PMID:18926139

  9. Impact on behavioral changes due to chronic use of sertraline in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Shatavisa; Sen, Sukanta; Biswas, Arunava; Barman, Tapan Kumar; Tripathi, Santanu Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Despite having better tolerability and a wide range of clinical applications over other antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are also known to be associated with serious adverse effects like suicidal ideation on chronic use. The present study had explored the impact of the chronic use of sertraline, an SSRI, on the behavioral changes in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 Wistar albino rats of either sex; divided into five groups. Four groups were subjected to chronic mild stress induced by using various stressors randomly scheduled in a week and continued for a period of 3 weeks. The stressed rodents were subjected to sertraline treatment for 9 weeks in different human therapeutic doses extrapolated to animal doses. Behavioral changes were monitored, assessed, and evaluated throughout the treatment phase with the help of tests such as locomotor activity test, forced swim test, tail suspension test, antianxiety test, and sucrose preference test (SPT). Results: All tests except SPT, demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) reduction in depressive-like activity in the stressed rodents by the mid-treatment phase, followed by an abrupt onset of the depressive state by the end of the treatment phase. SPT showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in sucrose consumption throughout the treatment phase. Conclusion: Behavioral changes following chronic sertraline administration conferred gradual remission of depression state on initial treatment phase, followed by a reversal of effect on chronic use. PMID:26729959

  10. Evidence that implementation intentions reduce drivers' speeding behavior: testing a new intervention to change driver behavior.

    PubMed

    Brewster, Sarah E; Elliott, Mark A; Kelly, Steve W

    2015-01-01

    Implementation intentions have the potential to break unwanted habits and help individuals behave in line with their goal intentions. We tested the effects of implementation intentions in the context of drivers' speeding behavior. A randomized controlled design was used. Speeding behavior, goal intentions and theoretically derived motivational pre-cursors of goal intentions were measured at both baseline and follow-up (one month later) using self-report questionnaires. Immediately following the baseline questionnaire, the experimental (intervention) group (N=117) specified implementation intentions using a volitional help sheet, which required the participants to link critical situations in which they were tempted to speed with goal-directed responses to resist the temptation. The control group (N=126) instead received general information about the risks of speeding. In support of the hypotheses, the experimental group reported exceeding the speed limit significantly less often at follow-up than did the control group. This effect was specific to 'inclined abstainers' (i.e., participants who reported speeding more than they intended to at baseline and were therefore motivated to reduce their speeding) and could not be attributed to any changes in goal intentions to speed or any other measured motivational construct. Also in line with the hypotheses, implementation intentions attenuated the past-subsequent speeding behavior relationship and augmented the goal intention - subsequent speeding behavior relationship. The findings imply that implementation intentions are effective at reducing speeding and that they do so by weakening the effect of habit, thereby helping drivers to behave in accordance with their existing goal intentions. The volitional help sheet used in this study is an effective tool for promoting implementation intentions to reduce speeding.

  11. The effect of active video gaming on children's physical activity, behavior preferences and body composition.

    PubMed

    Graves, Lee E F; Ridgers, Nicola D; Atkinson, Greg; Stratton, Gareth

    2010-11-01

    Active video game interventions typically provide children a single game that may become unappealing. A peripheral device (jOG) encourages step-powered gaming on multiple games. This trial evaluated the effect of jOG on children's objectively measured PA, body fat and self-reported behaviors. 42 of 58 eligible children (8-10 y) randomly assigned to an intervention (jOG) or control (CON) completed the trial. Intervention children received two jOG devices for home use. Analyses of covariance compared the intervention effect at 6 and 12 weeks from baseline. No differences were found between groups for counts per minute (CPM; primary outcome) at 6 and 12 weeks (p > .05). Active video gaming increased (adjusted change 0.95 (95% CI 0.25, 1.65) h·d⁻¹, p <.01) and sedentary video gaming decreased (-0.34 (-1.24, 0.56) h·d⁻¹, p > .05) at 6 weeks relative to CON. No body fat changes were observed between groups. Targeted changes in video game use did not positively affect PA. Larger trials are needed to verify the impact of active video games on children's PA and health.

  12. Dietary restriction protects against chronic-ethanol-induced changes in exploratory behavior in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Lucas S N M; Gualberto, Felipe A S; Pereira, Silvia R C; Barros, Paula A; Franco, Glaura C; Ribeiro, Angela M

    2006-03-17

    Chronic ethanol intake causes various types of neural damage and behavioral impairments, probably acting through oxidative stress and excitotoxicity, while dietary restriction is considered by some authors to protect the central nervous system from these kinds of damage. In the present study, a factorial experimental design was used to investigate the effects of chronic ethanol and dietary restriction treatments, associated or not, on Wistar rats' exploratory behavior, spatial memory aspects and cortical and hippocampal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Dietary restriction lasted for the whole experiment, while ethanol treatment lasted for only 3 weeks. Despite the short ethanol treatment duration, for two behavior categories assessed, moving and rearing, an interaction was observed between the effects of chronic ethanol and dietary restriction. There were no significant differences in AChE activities among the groups. Cerebellar neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOs) activity was measured as a first step to assess oxidative stress. Dietary restriction significantly reduced NO formation. The present results indicate that dietary restriction might exert a protective effect against chronic-ethanol-induced changes in exploratory behavior. It is hypothesized that the mechanisms underlying this protection can involve prevention of oxidative stress.

  13. Behavior Modification is not...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tawney, James W.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Identified are misconceptions of behavior modification procedures according to which behavior modification is connected mistakenly with noncontingent reinforcement, partial change of a teacher's behavior, decelerations of inappropriate behaviors only, dependency producing technology, teacher dominated activity, a single type of classroom…

  14. The changing brain--insights into the mechanisms of neural and behavioral adaptation to the environment.

    PubMed

    Bergersen, L H; Bramham, C R; Hugdahl, K; Sander, M; Storm-Mathisen, J

    2013-09-05

    The Kavli Prize in Neuroscience was awarded for the third time in September 2012, by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters in Oslo. The accompanying Kavli Prize Symposium on Neuroscience, held in Bergen and Trondheim, was a showcase of excellence in neuroscience research. The common theme of the Symposium presentations was the mechanisms by which animals adapt to their environment. The symposium speakers--Michael Greenberg, Erin Schuman, Chiara Cirelli, Michael Meaney, Catherine Dulac, Hopi Hoekstra, and Stanislas Dehaene--covered topics ranging from the molecular and cellular levels to the systems level and behavior. Thus a single amino acid change in a transcriptional repressor can disrupt gene regulation through neural activity (Greenberg). Deep sequencing analysis of the neuropil transcriptome indicates that a large fraction of the synaptic proteome is synthesized in situ in axons and dendrites, permitting local regulation (Schuman). The nature of the 'reset' function that makes animals dependent of sleep is being revealed (Cirelli). Maternal behavior can cause changes in gene expression that stably modify behavior in the offspring (Meaney). Removal of a single sensory channel protein in the vomero-nasal organ can switch off male-specific and switch on female-specific innate behavior of mice in response to environmental stimulation (Dulac). Innate behaviors can be stably transmitted from parent to offspring through generations even when those behaviors cannot be expressed, as illustrated by the elaborate burrowing behavior in a rodent species, in which independent genetic regions regulate distinct modules of the burrowing pattern (Hoekstra). Finally, at the other extreme of the nature-nurture scale, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis in children and adults identified a brain area specifically involved in reading (Dehaene). As the area must originally have developed for a purpose other than reading, such as shape recognition, this

  15. Activity anorexia: An interplay between basic and applied behavior analysis.

    PubMed

    Pierce, W D; Epling, W F; Dews, P B; Estes, W K; Morse, W H; Van Orman, W; Herrnstein, R J

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between basic research with nonhumans and applied behavior analysis is illustrated by our work on activity anorexia. When rats are fed one meal a day and allowed to run on an activity wheel, they run excessively, stop eating, and die of starvation. Convergent evidence, from several different research areas, indicates that the behavior of these animals and humans who self-starve is functionally similar. A biobehavioral theory of activity anorexia is presented that details the cultural contingencies, behavioral processes, and physiology of anorexia. Diagnostic criteria and a three-stage treatment program for activity-based anorexia are outlined. The animal model permits basic research on anorexia that for practical and ethical reasons cannot be conducted with humans. Thus, basic research can have applied importance.

  16. Associations between poor sleep quality and stages of change of multiple health behaviors among participants of employee wellness program

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Siu-kuen Azor; Grandner, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Using the Transtheoretical Model of behavioral change, this study evaluates the relationship between sleep quality and the motivation and maintenance processes of healthy behavior change. Methods The current study is an analysis of data collected in 2008 from an online health risk assessment (HRA) survey completed by participants of the Kansas State employee wellness program (N = 13,322). Using multinomial logistic regression, associations between self-reported sleep quality and stages of change (i.e. precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance) in five health behaviors (stress management, weight management, physical activities, alcohol use, and smoking) were analyzed. Results Adjusted for covariates, poor sleep quality was associated with an increased likelihood of contemplation, preparation, and in some cases action stage when engaging in the health behavior change process, but generally a lower likelihood of maintenance of the healthy behavior. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that poor sleep quality was associated with an elevated likelihood of contemplating or initiating behavior change, but a decreased likelihood of maintaining healthy behavior change. It is important to include sleep improvement as one of the lifestyle management interventions offered in EWP to comprehensively reduce health risks and promote the health of a large employee population. PMID:26046013

  17. Another Test of the Effect of Group Composition on Member Behavior Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bixenstine, V. Edwin; Abascal, Juan

    1985-01-01

    Examined the effects of personal warmth and success modeling on behavior change among females experiencing assertion deficits. Results indicated both confederate warmth and success modeling influenced the level of assertion change behavior reported by group members. Attributions for influence to effect change and change performance are discussed.…

  18. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  19. Central Amygdala Somatostatin Neurons Gate Passive and Active Defensive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kai; Garcia da Silva, Pedro; Albeanu, Dinu F.

    2016-01-01

    The central amygdala (CeA) has a key role in learning and expression of defensive responses. Recent studies indicate that somatostatin-expressing (SOM+) neurons in the lateral division of the CeA (CeL) are essential for the acquisition and recall of conditioned freezing behavior, which has been used as an index of defensive response in laboratory animals during Pavlovian fear conditioning. However, how exactly these neurons participate in fear conditioning and whether they contribute to the generation of defensive responses other than freezing remain unknown. Here, using fiber-optic photometry combined with optogenetic and molecular techniques in behaving mice, we show that SOM+ CeL neurons are activated by threat-predicting sensory cues after fear conditioning and that activation of these neurons suppresses ongoing actions and converts an active defensive behavior to a passive response. Furthermore, inhibition of these neurons using optogenetic or molecular methods promotes active defensive behaviors. Our results provide the first in vivo evidence that SOM+ neurons represent a CeL population that acquires learning-dependent sensory responsiveness during fear conditioning and furthermore reveal an important role of these neurons in gating passive versus active defensive behaviors in animals confronted with threat. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The ability to develop adaptive behavioral responses to threat is fundamental for survival. Recent studies indicate that the central lateral amygdala (CeL), in particular its somatostatin-expressing neurons, is crucial for both learning and the expression of defensive response. However, how exactly these neurons participate in such processes remains unclear. Here we show for the first time in behaving mice that the somatostatin-expressing neurons in the CeL acquire learning-dependent responsiveness to sensory cues predicting a threat. Furthermore, our results indicate that these neurons gate the behavioral output of an animal

  20. Understanding change in recycling and littering behavior across a school social network.

    PubMed

    Long, Jennifer; Harré, Niki; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2014-06-01

    Understanding how communities change requires examining how individuals' beliefs and behaviors are shaped by those around them. This paper investigates behavior change across a large social network following a recycling intervention in a New Zealand high school community. We used a mixed methods design, combining focus group data with social network analysis from two waves of a questionnaire that measured friendship networks; recycling and littering behaviors; perceived behavioral norms; and teacher, friend, and parent encouragement for these behaviors. Recycling behavior increased significantly over the course of our study. Supporting the importance of social networks in this context, both littering and recycling behavior showed clear social clustering. Further, the degree of change in an individuals' littering and recycling behavior across time was predicted by friends' prior behavior. Focus group data provided insight into students' perceptions of social interactions and how these contributed to littering and recycling behavior.

  1. Harnessing the power of conversations with virtual humans to change health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Albright, Glenn; Adam, Cyrille; Serri, Deborah; Bleeker, Seth; Goldman, Ron

    2016-01-01

    patient self-confidence and active involved in the decision-making processes. These simulations have demonstrated a capability to address major health and public health concerns where effective conversations are necessary to bring about changes in attitudes and behaviors.

  2. Harnessing the power of conversations with virtual humans to change health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Cyrille; Serri, Deborah; Bleeker, Seth; Goldman, Ron

    2016-01-01

    patient self-confidence and active involved in the decision-making processes. These simulations have demonstrated a capability to address major health and public health concerns where effective conversations are necessary to bring about changes in attitudes and behaviors. PMID:28293614

  3. Social descent with territory loss causes rapid behavioral, endocrine and transcriptional changes in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Maruska, Karen P.; Becker, Lisa; Neboori, Anoop; Fernald, Russell D.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In social species that form hierarchies where only dominant males reproduce, lower-ranking individuals may challenge higher-ranking ones, often resulting in changes in relative social status. How does a losing animal respond to loss of status? Here, using the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, we manipulated the social environment, causing males to descend in rank, and then examined changes in behavior, circulating steroids and immediate early gene (IEG) expression (cfos, egr-1) in micro-dissected brain regions as a proxy for neuronal activation. In particular, we examined changes in the conserved ‘social behavior network’ (SBN), a collection of brain nuclei known to regulate social behaviors across vertebrates. Astatotilapia burtoni has rapidly reversible dominant–subordinate male phenotypes, so that within minutes, descending males lost their bright body coloration, switched to submissive behaviors and expressed higher plasma cortisol levels compared with non-descending and control males. Descending males had higher IEG expression throughout the SBN, but each brain region showed a distinct IEG-specific response in either cfos or egr-1 levels, but not both. Overall, SBN IEG patterns in descending males were distinctly different from the pattern observed in males ascending (subordinate to dominant) in social status. These results reveal that the SBN rapidly coordinates the perception of social cues about status that are of opposite valence, and translates them into appropriate phenotypic changes. This shows for the first time in a non-mammalian vertebrate that dropping in social rank rapidly activates specific socially relevant brain nuclei in a pattern that differs from when males rise to a higher status position. PMID:23788709

  4. Social descent with territory loss causes rapid behavioral, endocrine and transcriptional changes in the brain.

    PubMed

    Maruska, Karen P; Becker, Lisa; Neboori, Anoop; Fernald, Russell D

    2013-10-01

    In social species that form hierarchies where only dominant males reproduce, lower-ranking individuals may challenge higher-ranking ones, often resulting in changes in relative social status. How does a losing animal respond to loss of status? Here, using the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, we manipulated the social environment, causing males to descend in rank, and then examined changes in behavior, circulating steroids and immediate early gene (IEG) expression (cfos, egr-1) in micro-dissected brain regions as a proxy for neuronal activation. In particular, we examined changes in the conserved 'social behavior network' (SBN), a collection of brain nuclei known to regulate social behaviors across vertebrates. Astatotilapia burtoni has rapidly reversible dominant-subordinate male phenotypes, so that within minutes, descending males lost their bright body coloration, switched to submissive behaviors and expressed higher plasma cortisol levels compared with non-descending and control males. Descending males had higher IEG expression throughout the SBN, but each brain region showed a distinct IEG-specific response in either cfos or egr-1 levels, but not both. Overall, SBN IEG patterns in descending males were distinctly different from the pattern observed in males ascending (subordinate to dominant) in social status. These results reveal that the SBN rapidly coordinates the perception of social cues about status that are of opposite valence, and translates them into appropriate phenotypic changes. This shows for the first time in a non-mammalian vertebrate that dropping in social rank rapidly activates specific socially relevant brain nuclei in a pattern that differs from when males rise to a higher status position.

  5. Neural changes associated with semantic processing in healthy aging despite intact behavioral performance.

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Jacinthe; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Grimault, Stephan; Pineault, Jessica; Joubert, Sven

    2015-10-01

    Semantic memory recruits an extensive neural network including the left inferior prefrontal cortex (IPC) and the left temporoparietal region, which are involved in semantic control processes, as well as the anterior temporal lobe region (ATL) which is considered to be involved in processing semantic information at a central level. However, little is known about the underlying neuronal integrity of the semantic network in normal aging. Young and older healthy adults carried out a semantic judgment task while their cortical activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Despite equivalent behavioral performance, young adults activated the left IPC to a greater extent than older adults, while the latter group recruited the temporoparietal region bilaterally and the left ATL to a greater extent than younger adults. Results indicate that significant neuronal changes occur in normal aging, mainly in regions underlying semantic control processes, despite an apparent stability in performance at the behavioral level.

  6. So much data, so little time: Using sequential data analysis to monitor behavioral changes.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tywanquila

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-three infants (M = 13.7 months, SD = 3.73) and their primary caregivers were observed and video-taped in three 20-min play sessions. Over the course of a month, changes in infant behaviors and caregiver responsiveness to those behaviors were monitored. Repeated-measures ANOVAs indicated that caregiver responsiveness to infant object-related and dyadic behaviors significantly increased over the course of the sessions. However, the ANOVAs did not specify exactly which caregiver behaviors changed. Sequential data analysis revealed that caregivers specifically increased their use of dyadic vocal behaviors in response to all infant behaviors. This study reveals that although ANOVAs are useful for providing information about macro, overall changes in caregiver behavior, sequential data analysis is a useful tool for evaluating micro, moment-to-moment changes in behavior. With sequential analysis, specific behavioral patterns can be examined and, if necessary, steps can be taken to modify and monitor those behaviors over time. •Sequential data analysis was used to monitor changes in caregiver behavior.•Non-culture-specific behavioral codes and techniques were used to quantify caregiver responsiveness to infant object-related and dyadic behaviors.•When compared to ANOVA, sequential data analysis is more useful for assessing micro-level behavioral changes in infant-caregiver interactions.

  7. Changes of Photosynthetic Behaviors in Kappaphycus alvarezii Infected by Epiphyte

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Tong; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Qian; Lin, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Epiphytic filamentous algae (EFA) were noted as a serious problem to reduce the production and quality of K. alvarezii. The morphological studies revealed that the main epiphyte on K. alvarezii was Neosiphonia savatieri in China. Though the harmful effects of EFA on the production of K. alvarezii have been reported, the detailed mechanism of the N. savatieri in limiting the production of K. alvarezii has not been studied yet. The present paper studied the effects of N. savatieri infection on photosynthetic behaviors in K. alvarezii by detecting chlorophyll fluorescence transient in vivo. The results revealed that damage of oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), decrease of active reaction centers (RCs), and the plastoquinone (PQ) pool as well as significant reduction in the performance indexes (PI) of PSII were caused by the infection of N. savatieri. The influence of N. savatieri on photosynthetic activity of K. alvarezii should be one of the important reasons to reduce the production of K. alvarezii infected by N. savatieri. PMID:21845201

  8. Age-dependent change in exploratory behavior of male rats following exposure to threat stimulus: effect of juvenile experience.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Hiroyuki

    2007-07-01

    The ontogeny of exploratory behavior depending on the intensity of threat in a modified open-field was investigated in male rats aged 40, 65, and 130 days, by comparing with less threatening condition with no shock and more threatening condition where they were exposed to mild electric shock. The number of crossings in a dim peripheral alley was counted as the level of activity. The total duration of stay in the central area was measured as the level of exploration. The number of entries and stretch-attend postures into a bright center square were measured as active exploratory behavior and the risk assessment behavior, respectively. When exposed to mild shock prior to the test, 40-day-old rats decreased these exploratory behaviors, while 65- and 130-day-old rats increased active exploratory behavior (Experiment 1). A lower level of exploratory behavior following a mild shock was found in 65 and 130-day-old rats isolated during the juvenile stage, but not in rats isolated after puberty (Experiment 2). These findings suggest that the direction of changes in exploratory behavior of male rats following an increase in potential danger showed ontogenetic transition, which is mediated by social experiences as juveniles, but not as adults. This transition may be associated with the emergence of active exploratory behavior during the juvenile stage, which is activated by social interaction.

  9. Understanding Adolescent Sexual Behavior in a Changing Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Anne McCreary

    1972-01-01

    The author suggests dealing with the problem of adolescent sexual behavior through accurate information and wide knowledge of all aspects of human sexual behavior and skill in problem solving. (Author/BY)

  10. Behaviorism and the Stages of Scientific Activity

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J

    2010-01-01

    Following from an earlier analysis by B. F. Skinner, the present article suggests that the verbal processes in science may usefully be viewed as following a three-stage progression. This progression starts with (a) identification of basic data, then moves to (b) description of relations among those data, and ultimately concludes with (c) the deployment of higher order concepts in statements about organizations of data. The article emphasizes the importance of viewing theory and explanation as examples of verbal processes at the later stages, guided by the stimulus control from the earlier stages. The article further suggests that many theories and explanations in traditional psychology often take a form that appears to be from the later stages. However, adequate activity at the earlier stages has not preceded those theories and explanations. They therefore do not have the benefit of suitable stimulus control from the earlier stages. Rather, they reflect some degree of stimulus control by many mentalistic assumptions about causal entities and relations. Ultimately, traditional theories and explanations influenced by mentalistic assumptions occasion less effective interaction with natural events (e.g., through prediction and control) than they might otherwise. PMID:22479126

  11. Behaviorism and the stages of scientific activity.

    PubMed

    Moore, J

    2010-01-01

    Following from an earlier analysis by B. F. Skinner, the present article suggests that the verbal processes in science may usefully be viewed as following a three-stage progression. This progression starts with (a) identification of basic data, then moves to (b) description of relations among those data, and ultimately concludes with (c) the deployment of higher order concepts in statements about organizations of data. The article emphasizes the importance of viewing theory and explanation as examples of verbal processes at the later stages, guided by the stimulus control from the earlier stages. The article further suggests that many theories and explanations in traditional psychology often take a form that appears to be from the later stages. However, adequate activity at the earlier stages has not preceded those theories and explanations. They therefore do not have the benefit of suitable stimulus control from the earlier stages. Rather, they reflect some degree of stimulus control by many mentalistic assumptions about causal entities and relations. Ultimately, traditional theories and explanations influenced by mentalistic assumptions occasion less effective interaction with natural events (e.g., through prediction and control) than they might otherwise.

  12. Self-Regulation, Self-Efficacy and Health Behavior Change in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdie, Nola; McCrindle, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Presents an overview of self-regulation models: theory of planned behavior, protection motivation theory, health belief model, action control theory, transtheoretical model of behavior change, health action process, and precaution adoption process. Applies models to health behavior change in older adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes.…

  13. Behavior Problems and Placement Change in a National Child Welfare Sample: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Gregory A.; James, Sigrid; Monn, Amy R.; Raghavan, Ramesh; Wells, Rebecca S.; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: There is ongoing debate regarding the impact of youth behavior problems on placement change in child welfare compared to the impact of placement change on behavior problems. Existing studies provide support for both perspectives. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine the relations of behavior problems and placement…

  14. Designing serious video games for health behavior change: Current status and future directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of o...

  15. Interventions to Reduce College Student Drinking: State of the Evidence for Mechanisms of Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Allecia E.; Carey, Kate B.

    2015-01-01

    Interventions to reduce college student drinking, although efficacious, generally yield only small effects on behavior change. Examining mechanisms of change may help to improve the magnitude of intervention effects by identifying effective and ineffective active ingredients. Informed by guidelines for establishing mechanisms of change, we conducted a systematic review of alcohol interventions for college students to identify (a) which constructs have been examined and received support as mediators, (b) circumstances that enhance the likelihood of detecting mediation, and (c) the extent of evidence for mechanisms of change. We identified 61 trials that examined 22 potential mediators of intervention efficacy. Descriptive norms consistently mediated normative feedback interventions. Motivation to change consistently failed to mediate motivational interviewing interventions. Multiple active ingredient interventions were not substantially more likely to find evidence of mediation than single ingredient interventions. Delivering intervention content remotely reduced likelihood of finding support for mediation. With the exception of descriptive norms, there is inadequate evidence for the psychosocial constructs purported as mechanisms of change in the college drinking literature. Evidence for mechanisms will be yielded by future studies that map all active ingredients to targeted psychosocial outcomes and that assess potential mediators early, inclusively, and at appropriate intervals following interventions. PMID:26164065

  16. Interventions to reduce college student drinking: State of the evidence for mechanisms of behavior change.

    PubMed

    Reid, Allecia E; Carey, Kate B

    2015-08-01

    Interventions to reduce college student drinking, although efficacious, generally yield only small effects on behavior change. Examining mechanisms of change may help to improve the magnitude of intervention effects by identifying effective and ineffective active ingredients. Informed by guidelines for establishing mechanisms of change, we conducted a systematic review of alcohol interventions for college students to identify (a) which constructs have been examined and received support as mediators, (b) circumstances that enhance the likelihood of detecting mediation, and (c) the extent of evidence for mechanisms of change. We identified 61 trials that examined 22 potential mediators of intervention efficacy. Descriptive norms consistently mediated normative feedback interventions. Motivation to change consistently failed to mediate motivational interviewing interventions. Multiple active ingredient interventions were not substantially more likely to find evidence of mediation than single ingredient interventions. Delivering intervention content remotely reduced likelihood of finding support for mediation. With the exception of descriptive norms, there is inadequate evidence for the psychosocial constructs purported as mechanisms of change in the college drinking literature. Evidence for mechanisms will be yielded by future studies that map all active ingredients to targeted psychosocial outcomes and that assess potential mediators early, inclusively, and at appropriate intervals following interventions.

  17. Cultural Context and Modification of Behavior Change Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L.

    2009-01-01

    Although social and cultural contexts act on each level of the multilevel ecologic model to affect cancer risk, health behavior, and cancer screening and promotion in health behavior research, people have yet to develop theories that sufficiently integrate the social and environmental context with group and individual behavior. The "Behavioral…

  18. Global lightning activity and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Price, C.G.

    1993-12-31

    The relationship between global lightning frequencies and global climate change is examined in this thesis. In order to study global impacts of climate change, global climate models or General Circulations Models (GCMs) need to be utilized. Since these models have coarse resolutions many atmospheric phenomena that occur at subgrid scales, such as lightning, need to be parameterized whenever possible. We begin with a simple parameterization used to Simulate total (intracloud and cloud-to-ground) lightning frequencies. The parameterization uses convective cloud top height to approximate lightning frequencies. Then we consider a parameterization for simulating cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning around the globe. This parameterization uses the thickness of the cold cloud sector in thunderstorms (0{degrees}C to cloud top) to calculate the proportion of CG flashes in a particular thunderstorm. We model lightning in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM. We present two climate change scenarios. One for a climate where the solar constant is reduced by 2% (5.9{degrees}C global cooling), and one for a climate with twice the present concentration of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere (4.2{degrees}C global warming). The results imply a 24%/30% decrease/increase in global lightning frequencies for the cooler/warmer climate. The possibility of using the above findings to monitor future global warming is discussed. The earth`s ionospheric potential, which is regulated by global thunderstorm activity, could supply valuable information regarding global surface temperature fluctuations. Finally, we look at the implications of changes in both lightning frequencies and the hydrological cycle, as a result of global warming, on natural forest fires. In the U.S. the annual mean number of lightning fires could increase by 40% while the area burned may increase by 65% in a 2{times}CO{sub 2} climate. On a global scale the largest increase in lightning fires can be expected in the tropics.

  19. The Impact of Postsecondary Fitness and Wellness Courses on Physical Activity Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Joshua Charles

    2013-01-01

    Regular physical activity contributes to decreasing health risk factors. With the intent of establishing long-term behavioral changes that attribute to overall physical wellbeing, many U.S. universities offer fitness and wellness courses. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a postsecondary fitness and wellness course on physical…

  20. Search Query Data to Monitor Interest in Behavior Change: Application for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Lucas J.; Dunsiger, Shira I.

    2012-01-01

    There is a need for effective interventions and policies that target the leading preventable causes of death in the U.S. (e.g., smoking, overweight/obesity, physical inactivity). Such efforts could be aided by the use of publicly available, real-time search query data that illustrate times and locations of high and low public interest in behaviors related to preventable causes of death. Objectives This study explored patterns of search query activity for the terms ‘weight’, ‘diet’, ‘fitness’, and ‘smoking’ using Google Insights for Search. Methods Search activity for ‘weight’, ‘diet’, ‘fitness’, and ‘smoking’ conducted within the United States via Google between January 4th, 2004 (first date data was available) and November 28th, 2011 (date of data download and analysis) were analyzed. Using a generalized linear model, we explored the effects of time (month) on mean relative search volume for all four terms. Results Models suggest a significant effect of month on mean search volume for all four terms. Search activity for all four terms was highest in January with observable declines throughout the remainder of the year. Conclusions These findings demonstrate discernable temporal patterns of search activity for four areas of behavior change. These findings could be used to inform the timing, location and messaging of interventions, campaigns and policies targeting these behaviors. PMID:23110198

  1. Effects of physical education, extracurricular sports activities, and leisure satisfaction on adolescent aggressive behavior: A latent growth modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Park, Sanghyun; Chiu, Weisheng; Won, Doyeon

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the longitudinal influence of physical education classes, extracurricular sports activities, and leisure satisfaction on aggressive behavior among South Korean adolescents. Data were drawn from the Korea Youth Panel Survey. We used latent growth curve modeling to explain the growth trajectory of adolescent aggressive behaviors and a multi-group analysis to investigate gender differences in aggressive behavior. The results indicated that adolescents' aggressive behavior significantly changed with age. There were significant gender-based differences in the level of and changes in aggressive behavior over time. Both extracurricular sports activities and leisure satisfaction had significant influences on the changes in adolescents' aggressive behavior with age, whereas physical education classes did not.

  2. Operant behavior to obtain palatable food modifies ERK activity in the brain reward circuit.

    PubMed

    Guegan, Thomas; Cutando, Laura; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Santini, Emanuela; Fisone, Gilberto; Martinez, Albert; Valjent, Emmanuel; Maldonado, Rafael; Martin, Miquel

    2013-03-01

    Food palatability produces behavioral modifications that resemble those induced by drugs of abuse. Palatability-induced behavioral changes require both, the activation of the endogenous cannabinoid system, and changes in structural plasticity in neurons of the brain reward pathway. The ERK intracellular pathway is activated by CB1 receptors (CB1-R) and plays a crucial role in neuroplasticity. We investigated the activation of the ERK signaling cascade in the mesocorticolimbic system induced by operant training to obtain highly palatable isocaloric food and the involvement of the CB1-R in these responses. Using immunofluorescence techniques, we analyzed changes in ERK intracellular pathway activation in the mesocorticolimbic system of wild-type and CB1 knockout mice (CB1-/-) trained on an operant paradigm to obtain standard, highly caloric or highly palatable isocaloric food. Operant training for highly palatable isocaloric food, but not for standard or highly caloric food, produced a robust activation of the ERK signaling cascade in the same brain areas where this training modified structural plasticity. These changes induced by the operant training were absent in CB1-/-. We can conclude that the activation of the ERK pathway is associated to the neuroplasticity induced by operant training for highly palatable isocaloric food and might be involved in CB1-R mediated alterations in behavior and structural plasticity.

  3. Animal model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproate: behavioral changes and liver parameters.

    PubMed

    Bambini-Junior, Victorio; Rodrigues, Leticia; Behr, Guilherme Antônio; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Riesgo, Rudimar; Gottfried, Carmem

    2011-08-23

    Autism is characterized by behavioral impairments in three main domains: social interaction; language, communication and imaginative play; and range of interests and activities. This syndrome has attracted social attention by its high prevalence. The animal model induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) has been proposed to study autism. Several characteristics of behavioral abnormalities found in the VPA rats, such as repetitive/stereotypic-like activity and deficit in social interaction have been correlated with autism. Features like flexibility to change strategy, social memory and metabolic status of the induced rats have not been examined. Thus, the main aim of this work was to investigate additional behavioral rodent similarities with autism, as well as, liver redox parameters after prenatal exposure to VPA. Young rats from the VPA group presented aberrant approach to a stranger rat, decreased conditioned place preference to conspecifics, normal spatial learning and a lack of flexibility to change their strategy. As adults, they presented inappropriate social approach to a stranger rat, decreased preference for social novelty, apparently normal social recognition and no spatial learning deficits. Examination of the liver from the VPA group presented significantly increased (12%) levels of catalase (CAT) activity, no alteration in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and a decrease in the SOD/CAT ratio. TBARS, sulfhydril and carbonyl contents, and serum levels of aminotransferases remained unchanged. In summary, rats prenatally exposed to VPA presented decreased flexibility to change strategy and social impairments similar to the autism symptoms, contributing to the understanding of neurodevelopmental symptoms and oxidative imbalance associated to the autism spectrum disorder.

  4. Social marketing of condoms: selling protection and changing behavior.

    PubMed

    Townsend, S

    1991-06-01

    Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi.

  5. Changes in single-molecule integrin dynamics linked to local cellular behavior

    PubMed Central

    Jaqaman, Khuloud; Galbraith, James A.; Davidson, Michael W.; Galbraith, Catherine G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in light microscopy permit visualization of the behavior of individual molecules within dense macromolecular ensembles in live cells. It is now conceptually possible to relate the dynamic organization of molecular machinery to cellular function. However, inherent heterogeneities, as well as disparities between spatial and temporal scales, pose substantial challenges in deriving such a relationship. New approaches are required to link discrete single-molecule behavior with continuous cellular-level processes. Here we combined intercalated molecular and cellular imaging with a computational framework to detect reproducible transient changes in the behavior of individual molecules that are linked to cellular behaviors. Applying our approach to integrin transmembrane receptors revealed a spatial density gradient underlying characteristic molecular density increases and mobility decreases, indicating the subsequent onset of local protrusive activity. Integrin mutants further revealed that these density and mobility transients are separable and depend on different binding domains within the integrin cytoplasmic tail. Our approach provides a generalizable paradigm for dissecting dynamic spatiotemporal molecular behaviors linked to local cellular events. PMID:27009207

  6. A profile of the behavioral changes produced by facilitation of AMPA-type glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Davis, C M; Moskovitz, B; Nguyen, M A; Tran, B B; Arai, A; Lynch, G; Granger, R

    1997-09-01

    A newly developed group of benzoylpiperidine drugs that enhance AMPA-receptor-gated currents ("ampakines") has been shown to improve memory encoding in rats across a variety of experimental paradigms. The present experiments were intended to i) provide a partial profile of the behavioral changes produced by ampakines, ii) test if two ampakines (BDP-12 and BDP-20) that differ significantly in their effects on AMPA receptor kinetics produce similar behavioral profiles, and iii) determine if physiological potency is reflected in behavioral potency. BDP-20 reduced two measures of exploratory activity in aged rats but increased speed of performance in a radial maze; the drug also caused substantially improved retention of spatial information. These results are similar to those obtained with BDP-12, an analog that differs from BDP-20 in its effects on ligand binding to the AMPA receptor and on the physiological responses of the receptors to glutamate. BDP-20 was approximately ten-fold more potent in behavioral effects than BDP-12, which agrees with the relative potencies of the two drugs as assessed with excised patches and excitatory synaptic responses. These findings indicate that ampakines, though differing in their effects on AMPA-receptor-mediated responses, have similar effects at the behavioral level.

  7. Chronic social stress in puberty alters appetitive male sexual behavior and neural metabolic activity.

    PubMed

    Bastida, Christel C; Puga, Frank; Gonzalez-Lima, Francisco; Jennings, Kimberly J; Wommack, Joel C; Delville, Yvon

    2014-07-01

    Repeated social subjugation in early puberty lowers testosterone levels. We used hamsters to investigate the effects of social subjugation on male sexual behavior and metabolic activity within neural systems controlling social and motivational behaviors. Subjugated animals were exposed daily to aggressive adult males in early puberty for postnatal days 28 to 42, while control animals were placed in empty clean cages. On postnatal day 45, they were tested for male sexual behavior in the presence of receptive female. Alternatively, they were tested for mate choice after placement at the base of a Y-maze containing a sexually receptive female in one tip of the maze and an ovariectomized one on the other. Social subjugation did not affect the capacity to mate with receptive females. Although control animals were fast to approach females and preferred ovariectomized individuals, subjugated animals stayed away from them and showed no preference. Cytochrome oxidase activity was reduced within the preoptic area and ventral tegmental area in subjugated hamsters. In addition, the correlation of metabolic activity of these areas with the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and anterior parietal cortex changed significantly from positive in controls to negative in subjugated animals. These data show that at mid-puberty, while male hamsters are capable of mating, their appetitive sexual behavior is not fully mature and this aspect of male sexual behavior is responsive to social subjugation. Furthermore, metabolic activity and coordination of activity in brain areas related to sexual behavior and motivation were altered by social subjugation.

  8. Behavioral changes in adult and young rats as indications of cholinesterase inhibition

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase has long been accepted as the basis for neurotoxicity produced by organophosphorus (OP) and N-methyl carbamate chemicals. Functional or behavioral alterations result from acute exposure to these chemicals. We have evaluated behavioral changes an...

  9. Change leadership behaviors to change performance results: the foundation of top customer satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Stephanie G

    2002-01-01

    Raising customer satisfaction in health-care organizations has been a priority for the past 5 years or more. Articles and books continue to be written on the topic and speeches and presentations are given to eager audiences of professionals who have a deep desire to improve customer satisfaction. Yet research indicates that customer satisfaction, on average, in the health-care industry barely has improved. This column will examine why some organizations, using the same best practice techniques and approaches for top customer satisfaction, achieve wonderful results as most others achieve meager results, at best. The answer to achieving top customer satisfaction lies in the leadership of the organization. When leaders change their thinking and behaviors, results will change.

  10. Dyadic planning of health-behavior change after prostatectomy: a randomized-controlled planning intervention.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Silke; Scholz, Urte; Gralla, Oliver; Roigas, Jan; Knoll, Nina

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of dyadic planning for health-behavior change. Dyadic planning refers to planning health-behavior change together with a partner. We assumed that dyadic planning would affect the implementation of regular pelvic-floor exercise (PFE), with other indicators of social exchange and self-regulation strategies serving as mediators. In a randomized-controlled trial at a German University Medical Center, 112 prostatectomy-patients with partners were randomly assigned to a dyadic PFE-planning condition or one of three active control conditions. Questionnaire data were assessed at multiple time points within six months post-surgery, measuring self-reported dyadic PFE-planning and pelvic-floor exercise as primary outcomes and social exchange (support, control) and a self-regulation strategy (action control) as mediating mechanisms. There were no specific intervention effects with regard to dyadic PFE-planning or pelvic-floor exercise, as two active control groups also showed increases in either of these variables. However, results suggested that patients instructed to plan dyadically still benefited from self-reported dyadic PFE-planning regarding pelvic-floor exercise. Cross-sectionally, received negative control from partners was negatively related with PFE only in control groups and individual action control mediated between self-reported dyadic PFE-planning and PFE for participants instructed to plan PFE dyadically. Longitudinally, action control mediated between self-reported dyadic PFE-planning and pelvic-floor exercise for all groups. Findings provide support for further investigation of dyadic planning in health-behavior change with short-term mediating effects of behavior-specific social exchange and long-term mediating effects of better self-regulation.

  11. Granular flow behavior at sharp changes in slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Giovanni; De Blasio, Fabio; Locatelli, Michele

    2015-04-01

    This study extends some recent experiments and analyses performed by the authors to examine the behavior of granular flows along path characterised by sharp changes in slope. In particular, various series of experiments along a bi-linear broken slope (an inclined initial sector followed by a horizontal one) have been completed using a uniform (Hostun, 0.32 mm) sand and a uniform fine gravel (2 mm grains). 60 new have been performed by releasing different volumes (1.5, 2.1 and 5.1 L) on surfaces characterized by different slope angles (35-60°), type of materials (wood and plexiglass), with or without an erodible layer (sand), or in presence of a shallow water pond (0.5 cm). These geometrical features are typical of many large rock and snow avalanches, rock falls and of chalk flows. The latter are usually typical of coastal cliffs where a shallow water environment is typical. The evolution of the flow has been monitored through a laser profilometer at 120 Hz sampling frequency and high speed camera, and in this way it has been possible to follow the evolution of the flow and deposition, and to analyse the change in deposition mode at varying the slope angle, the material and the basal friction. This is an extremely interesting development in the study of the evolution of the deposition and of the final morphology typical of such phenomena, and can support the testing of numerical models. Propagation and deposition occur forward or backward accordingly to the slope angle and the basal friction. Forward movement and deposition occur at high slope angles and with low basal friction. The opposite is true for the backward deposition. The internal "layering" within the deposit is also strongly controlled by the combination of such parameters. The time evolution of the flow allowed to determine the velocity of flow and the mode of deposition through the analysis of the change in thickness, position of the front and of the flow tail. Presence of water reduces the runout of

  12. Social exclusion induces early-stage perceptual and behavioral changes in response to social cues.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Taishi; Nittono, Hiroshi; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Social exclusion is so aversive that it causes broad cognitive and behavioral changes to regulate the individual's belonging status. The present study examined whether such changes also occur at early neural or automatic behavioral levels in response to social cues. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and facial electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded during a task in which participants viewed smiling, disgusted, and neutral faces after experiencing social exclusion or inclusion. Social exclusion was manipulated using a simple ball-tossing game (Cyberball), and need threat was assessed after the game. We found that zygomaticus major muscle activity, which reflects facial mimicry, was larger in response to smiling faces after exclusion than after inclusion. In addition, P1 amplitude, which reflects visual attention, was larger for disgusted faces than for neutral faces following social exclusion. N170 amplitude, which reflects structural encoding of the face, was correlated with heightened need threat. These findings demonstrate that social exclusion induces immediate and rapid changes in attention, perception, and automatic behavior. These findings reflect the rapid and primary regulation of belonging.

  13. Observational methods used to assess rat behavior: general activity.

    PubMed

    Paul, Carol Ann; Beltz, Barbara; Berger-Sweeney, Joanne

    2007-09-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe activity-inactivity continuum is an important parameter of behavior, and quantification of overall locomotor activity in the rat should identify it as a naturally nocturnal animal. Disruptions in nocturnal activity can be caused by damage in visual inputs to the brain or damage in the hypothalamus. Many commercial devices are available to measure activity automatically; some can be integrated with a computer to allow overnight monitoring in the absence of an observer. A less sophisticated but still accurate method of measuring activity is to create a home-made activity chamber by replacing the bottom of a box with Plexiglas or by marking lines on the bottom of a clean rat cage so that the observer can record rat activity by noting when the lines are crossed, while simultaneously recording other behaviors. Activity in rat pups can be observed as soon as they are 10 days old using smaller activity chambers. This protocol describes the construction of a home-made activity chamber and how to measure four activities: locomotion, rearing, circling, and grooming.

  14. Behavioral correlates of changes in hippocampal gray matter structure during acquisition of foreign vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Bellander, Martin; Berggren, Rasmus; Mårtensson, Johan; Brehmer, Yvonne; Wenger, Elisabeth; Li, Tie-Qiang; Bodammer, Nils C; Shing, Yee-Lee; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Lövdén, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Experience can affect human gray matter volume. The behavioral correlates of individual differences in such brain changes are not well understood. In a group of Swedish individuals studying Italian as a foreign language, we investigated associations among time spent studying, acquired vocabulary, baseline performance on memory tasks, and gray matter changes. As a way of studying episodic memory training, the language learning focused on acquiring foreign vocabulary and lasted for 10weeks. T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive testing were performed before and after the studies. Learning behavior was monitored via participants' use of a smartphone application dedicated to the study of vocabulary. A whole-brain analysis showed larger changes in gray matter structure of the right hippocampus in the experimental group (N=33) compared to an active control group (N=23). A first path analyses revealed that time spent studying rather than acquired knowledge significantly predicted change in gray matter structure. However, this association was not significant when adding performance on baseline memory measures into the model, instead only the participants' performance on a short-term memory task with highly similar distractors predicted the change. This measure may tap similar individual difference factors as those involved in gray matter plasticity of the hippocampus.

  15. Determinants of physical activity based on the theory of planned behavior in Iranian Military Staff's Wives: a path analysis.

    PubMed

    Gholamnia Shirvani, Zeinab; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2014-11-30

    Level of physical activity as a key determinant of healthy lifestyle less than is required in individuals particularly women. Applying theories of behavioral change about complex behaviors such as physical activity leads to identify effective factors and their relations. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of physical activity behavior based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in military staff's wives in Tehran. This cross-sectional study was performed in 180 military personnel's spouses residing in organizational houses, in Tehran, Iran in 2014. The participants were randomly selected with multi-stage cluster sampling. The validity and reliability of the theory based scale evaluated before conducting the path analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS16 and LISREL8.8. The results indicated the model explained 77% and 17% of intention and behavior variance. Subjective norms (Beta=0.83) and intention (Beta=0.37) were the strongest predictors of intention and behavior, respectively. The instrumental and affective attitude had no significant path to intention and behavior. The direct relation of perceived behavioral control to behavior was non-significant. This research demonstrated relative importance and relationships of Theory of Planned Behavior constructs in physical activity behavior of military personnel's spouses in Tehran. It is essential to consider these determinants in designing of educational interventions for promoting and maintaining physical activity behavior in this target group.

  16. Maternal immune activation affects litter success, size and neuroendocrine responses related to behavior in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    French, Susannah S; Chester, Emily M; Demas, Gregory E

    2013-07-02

    It is increasingly evident that influences other than genetics can contribute to offspring phenotype. In particular, maternal influences are an important contributing factor to offspring survival, development, physiology and behavior. Common environmental pathogens such as viral or bacterial microorganisms can induce maternal immune responses, which have the potential to alter the prenatal environment via multiple independent pathways. The effects of maternal immune activation on endocrine responses and behavior are less well studied and provide the basis for the current study. Our approach in the current study was two-pronged: 1) quantify sickness responses during pregnancy in adult female hamsters experiencing varying severity of immune responsiveness (i.e., differing doses of lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and 2) assess the effects of maternal immune activation on offspring development, immunocompetence, hormone profiles, and social behavior during adulthood. Pregnancy success decreased with increasing doses of LPS, and litter size was reduced in LPS dams that managed to successfully reproduce. Unexpectedly, pregnant females treated with LPS showed a hypothermic response in addition to the more typical anorexic and body mass changes associated with sickness. Significant endocrine changes related to behavior were observed in the offspring of LPS-treated dams; these effects were apparent in adulthood. Specifically, offspring from LPS treated dams showed significantly greater cortisol responses to stressful resident-intruder encounters compared with offspring from control dams. Post-behavior cortisol was elevated in male LPS offspring relative to the offspring of control dams, and was positively correlated with the frequency of bites during agonistic interactions, and cortisol levels in both sexes were related to defensive behaviors, suggesting that changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness may play a regulatory role in the observed behavioral

  17. Behavioral assessment of physical activity in obese preschool children.

    PubMed

    Hustyi, Kristin M; Normand, Matthew P; Larson, Tracy A

    2011-01-01

    We measured changes in physical activity in 2 obese preschool children when a package intervention was evaluated in a reversal design. Physical activity was measured via direct observation and pedometers. Although the intervention produced only modest increases in activity, the results provide preliminary concurrent validation for the dependent measures used, in that the two measures covaried and a similar degree of change was observed with each across baseline and intervention phases.

  18. Behavioral responses of goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) to parasitic activity of botflies.

    PubMed

    Blank, David; Yang, Weikang

    2014-02-01

    We studied behavioral responses of goitered gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa) to hypodermic botfly (family Hypodermatidae) activity in the naturally arid conditions of Kazakhstan. We found that the reactions of goitered gazelles are very similar to the insect-repelling behaviors of other ruminants and that most behavioral responses of goitered gazelles, such as frantic running, tail movements, and grooming, are not specific to botflies. The seasonal and diurnal changes in the intensity of the behavioral responses of the goitered gazelles coincided with the parasitic activities of botfly maggots. Surprisingly, the group size of the goitered gazelles decreased during the breeding of these parasitic insects instead of increasing, as was expected according to our predictions. As an alternative, the goitered gazelles chose an opposite strategy of dispersion throughout the area to avoid infestation. This strategy is well-known for other species of ungulates and was quite effective, because their infestation rate was relatively low.

  19. A simulation modeling framework to optimize programs using financial incentives to motivate health behavior change

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sanjay; Kiernan, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction While increasingly popular among mid- to large-size employers, using financial incentives to induce health behavior change among employees has been controversial, in part due to poor quality and generalizability of studies to date. Thus, fundamental questions have been left unanswered: to generate positive economic returns on investment, what level of incentive should be offered for any given type of incentive program and among which employees? Methods We constructed a novel modeling framework that systematically identifies how to optimize marginal return on investment from programs incentivizing behavior change by integrating commonly-collected data on health behaviors and associated costs. We integrated “demand curves” capturing individual differences in response to any given incentive with employee demographic and risk factor data. We also estimated the degree of self-selection that could be tolerated, i.e., the maximum percentage of already-healthy employees who could enroll in a wellness program while still maintaining positive absolute return on investment. In a demonstration analysis, the modeling framework was applied to data from 3,000 worksite physical activity programs across the nation. Results For physical activity programs, the incentive levels that would optimize marginal return on investment ($367/employee/year) were higher than average incentive levels currently offered ($143/employee/year). Yet a high degree of self-selection could undermine the economic benefits of the program; if more than 17% of participants came from the top 10% of the physical activity distribution, the cost of the program would be expected to always be greater than its benefits. Discussion Our generalizable framework integrates individual differences in behavior and risk to systematically estimate the incentive level that optimizes marginal return on investment. PMID:25977362

  20. Behavior change to prevent or delay Type 2 diabetes: Psychology in action.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Elizabeth M

    2016-10-01

    Self-management is critical for the prevention and control of chronic health conditions. Research shows that dietary and physical activity behaviors related to obesity are inextricably linked to the development, course, and outcomes of Type 2 diabetes and its comorbidities. Therefore, a compelling case has been made for behavioral lifestyle intervention as the first-line approach. Academic psychologists and other behavioral scientists have contributed to all stages of obesity and diabetes prevention research and practice. They have made seminal contributions to the evidence-based science of health behavior change with the National Institutes of Health funded Diabetes Prevention Program randomized clinical trial and subsequent translation and dissemination efforts as exemplars. Beginning with social-cognitive learning theory and behavior modification for obesity, research psychologists have elucidated the critical elements associated with treatment efficacy and have demonstrated the benefits of identifying individuals at elevated risk and providing early intervention. Most often, the psychologist's role has been to design and evaluate programs based on behavioral principles, or supervise, train, and facilitate adherence to interventions, rather than function as the primary provider. Lifestyle interventions have made a strong public health impact, but pressing challenges remain. Issues include difficulties with long-term weight loss maintenance, heterogeneity of treatment response, pragmatic translation and dissemination concerns such as optimal training and delivery formats, scalability of lifestyle intervention programs, reimbursement, and a need for environmental and policy approaches that promote healthy lifestyle norms and behaviors for all communities. Health psychology should be at the forefront in addressing all of these concerns. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Changes in voiding behavior in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Biallosterski, B. T.; Prickaerts, J.; Rahnama’i, M. S.; de Wachter, S.; van Koeveringe, G. A.; Meriaux, C.

    2015-01-01

    Besides cognitive decline and behavioral alteration, urinary incontinence often occurs in patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To determine whether the transgenic mouse model of AD, APP/PS1 (APPSL/PS1M146L) mouse, shows alteration of the urinary bladder function and anxiety, as for patients with AD, we examined the urinary marking behavior in relation to affective behavior. At 18 months of age voiding behavior of APP/PS1 and wild type (WT) mice was assessed by using a modified filter paper assay in combination with video tracing, with the cage divided into a center and corner zones. Anxiety-related behavior and locomotion were respectively tested in an elevated zero maze (EZM) and an open field (OF). The APP/PS1 mice urinated more in the center zone than the WT mice. The total volume of markings was significantly lower in the APP/PS1 mice. In both groups, the average volume of a marking in the corner zone was larger than in the center zone. In the EZM, the APP/PS1 mice spent less time in the open arms of the arena, considered as anxiogenic zones, than the WT mice. During the OF task, the APP/PS1 mice covered a longer distance than the WT mice. These findings show that the APP/PS1 mice have a different voiding behavior compared to the WT mice, i.e., urinating with small volumes and voiding in the center of the cage, and suggest that increased locomotor activity and anxiety-related behaviors are factors in the change in voiding pattern in the APP/PS1 mouse. PMID:26379542

  2. The young and adolescents: Initiating change in children’s eating behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited success in existing interventions for initiating dietary behavior change among children is forcing a more detailed analysis of how to promote change. The mediating variable model provides a conceptual framework for understanding how behavior change interventions work and integrates more basi...

  3. Physical activity behavior predicts endogenous pain modulation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Naugle, Kelly M; Ohlman, Thomas; Naugle, Keith E; Riley, Zachary A; Keith, NiCole R

    2017-03-01

    Older adults compared with younger adults are characterized by greater endogenous pain facilitation and a reduced capacity to endogenously inhibit pain, potentially placing them at a greater risk for chronic pain. Previous research suggests that higher levels of self-reported physical activity are associated with more effective pain inhibition and less pain facilitation on quantitative sensory tests in healthy adults. However, no studies have directly tested the relationship between physical activity behavior and pain modulatory function in older adults. This study examined whether objective measures of physical activity behavior cross-sectionally predicted pain inhibitory function on the conditioned pain modulation (CPM) test and pain facilitation on the temporal summation (TS) test in healthy older adults. Fifty-one older adults wore an accelerometer on the hip for 7 days and completed the CPM and TS tests. Measures of sedentary time, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were obtained from the accelerometer. Hierarchical linear regressions were conducted to determine the relationship of TS and CPM with levels of physical activity, while controlling for demographic, psychological, and test variables. The results indicated that sedentary time and LPA significantly predicted pain inhibitory function on the CPM test, with less sedentary time and greater LPA per day associated with greater pain inhibitory capacity. Additionally, MVPA predicted pain facilitation on the TS test, with greater MVPA associated with less TS of pain. These results suggest that different types of physical activity behavior may differentially impact pain inhibitory and facilitatory processes in older adults.

  4. Behavioral Assessment of Physical Activity in Obese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustyi, Kristin M.; Normand, Matthew P.; Larson, Tracy A.

    2011-01-01

    We measured changes in physical activity in 2 obese preschool children when a package intervention was evaluated in a reversal design. Physical activity was measured via direct observation and pedometers. Although the intervention produced only modest increases in activity, the results provide preliminary concurrent validation for the dependent…

  5. Active recognition enhances the representation of behaviorally relevant information in single auditory forebrain neurons.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Daniel P; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2013-04-01

    Sensory systems are dynamic. They must process a wide range of natural signals that facilitate adaptive behaviors in a manner that depends on an organism's constantly changing goals. A full understanding of the sensory physiology that underlies adaptive natural behaviors must therefore account for the activity of sensory systems in light of these behavioral goals. Here we present a novel technique that combines in vivo electrophysiological recording from awake, freely moving songbirds with operant conditioning techniques that allow control over birds' recognition of conspecific song, a widespread natural behavior in songbirds. We show that engaging in a vocal recognition task alters the response properties of neurons in the caudal mesopallium (CM), an avian analog of mammalian auditory cortex, in European starlings. Compared with awake, passive listening, active engagement of subjects in an auditory recognition task results in neurons responding to fewer song stimuli and a decrease in the trial-to-trial variability in their driven firing rates. Mean firing rates also change during active recognition, but not uniformly. Relative to nonengaged listening, active recognition causes increases in the driven firing rates in some neurons, decreases in other neurons, and stimulus-specific changes in other neurons. These changes lead to both an increase in stimulus selectivity and an increase in the information conveyed by the neurons about the animals' behavioral task. This study demonstrates the behavioral dependence of neural responses in the avian auditory forebrain and introduces the starling as a model for real-time monitoring of task-related neural processing of complex auditory objects.

  6. Superfluid Behavior of Active Suspensions from Diffusive Stretching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatori, S. C.; Brady, J. F.

    2017-01-01

    The current understanding is that the non-Newtonian rheology of active matter suspensions is governed by fluid-mediated hydrodynamic interactions associated with active self-propulsion. Here we discover an additional contribution to the suspension shear stress that predicts both thickening and thinning behavior, even when there is no nematic ordering of the microswimmers with the imposed flow. A simple micromechanical model of active Brownian particles in homogeneous shear flow reveals the existence of off-diagonal shear components in the swim stress tensor, which are independent of hydrodynamic interactions and fluid disturbances. Theoretical predictions from our model are consistent with existing experimental measurements of the shear viscosity of active suspensions, but also suggest new behavior not predicted by conventional models.

  7. School environment, sedentary behavior and physical activity in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Sara Crosatti; Coledam, Diogo Henrique Constantino; Stabelini, Antonio; Elias, Rui Gonçalves Marques; de Oliveira, Arli Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To analyze physical activity and sedentary behavior in preschool children during their stay at school and the associated factors. Methods: 370 preschoolers, aged 4–6 years, stratified according to gender, age and school region in the city of Londrina, PR, participated in the study. A questionnaire was applied to principals of preschools to analyze the school infrastructure and environment. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were estimated using accelerometers for five consecutive days during the children's stay at school. The odds ratio (OR) was estimated through binary logistic regression. Results: At school, regardless of age, preschoolers spend relatively more time in sedentary behaviors (89.6–90.9%), followed by light (4.6–7.6%), moderate (1.3–3.0%) and vigorous (0.5–2.3%) physical activity. The indoor recreation room (OR 0.20, 95%CI 0.05–0.83) and the playground (OR 0.08, 95%CI 0.00–0.80) protect four-year-old schoolchildren from highly sedentary behavior. An inverse association was found between the indoor recreation room and physical activity (OR 0.20, 95%CI 0.00–0.93) in five-year-old children. The indoor recreation room (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.35–1.77), the playground (OR 2.82, 95%CI 1.14–6.96) and the recess (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.35–1.77) are factors that increase the chance of six-year-old schoolchildren to be active. Conclusions: The school infrastructure and environment should be seen as strategies to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in preschool children. PMID:26975560

  8. [Change of host's behavior including man under the influence of parasites].

    PubMed

    Sergiev, V P

    2010-01-01

    Directed modulation of hosts' behavior favouring transmission of pathogen was noted in many parasites and, above all, in helminthes, which life cycle includes the consequent change of several hosts. It turned out that parasites use the same neuromediators for change of behavior of both mammals and hosts belonging to other animal classes. In fishes as well as in mammals, monoamines-neurotransmitters assist in brain functioning. Norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin affect the alimentation, motion activity, aggression and social behaviour. Changes in concentration ratio of serotonin and its metabolites in invaded species were more pronounced, which pointed to directed effects of pathogens on serotonin activity. The same effect of some pathogens on human behaviour does not have selective significance because humans are not an essential link in life cycle of many parasites. Although the mentioned effect on behaviour could lead to negative consequences. For examples, persons with latent toxoplasmosis are significantly more frequent become members or victims of traffic accidents due to decreased ability for concentration of attention.

  9. Prefrontal Brain Activity Predicts Temporally Extended Decision-Making Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarkoni, Tal; Braver, Todd S.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Green, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    Although functional neuroimaging studies of human decision-making processes are increasingly common, most of the research in this area has relied on passive tasks that generate little individual variability. Relatively little attention has been paid to the ability of brain activity to predict overt behavior. Using functional magnetic resonance…

  10. Development and Pilot Investigation of Behavioral Activation for Negative Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mairs, Hilary; Lovell, Karina; Campbell, Malcolm; Keeley, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Negative symptoms cause functional impairment and impede recovery from psychosis, not least, because of limited developments in empirically validated treatments. This article details a pilot evaluation of a behavioral activation (BA) treatment with eight people presenting with psychosis and marked negative symptoms. The rationale for this…

  11. Behavioral Activation for Depressed Teens: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritschel, Lorie A.; Ramirez, Cynthia L.; Jones, Meredith; Craighead, W. Edward

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral activation (BA) is a psychosocial intervention that has shown promising treatment outcome results with depressed adults. The current pilot study evaluated a version of BA adapted for depressed adolescents. Six teens (3 male, 3 female, ages 14-17) who met criteria for major depressive disorder participated in the study. Participants were…

  12. Unsupervised detection and analysis of changes in everyday physical activity data.

    PubMed

    Sprint, Gina; Cook, Diane J; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-10-01

    Sensor-based time series data can be utilized to monitor changes in human behavior as a person makes a significant lifestyle change, such as progress toward a fitness goal. Recently, wearable sensors have increased in popularity as people aspire to be more conscientious of their physical health. Automatically detecting and tracking behavior changes from wearable sensor-collected physical activity data can provide a valuable monitoring and motivating tool. In this paper, we formalize the problem of unsupervised physical activity change detection and address the problem with our Physical Activity Change Detection (PACD) approach. PACD is a framework that detects changes between time periods, determines significance of the detected changes, and analyzes the nature of the changes. We compare the abilities of three change detection algorithms from the literature and one proposed algorithm to capture different types of changes as part of PACD. We illustrate and evaluate PACD on synthetic data and using Fitbit data collected from older adults who participated in a health intervention study. Results indicate PACD detects several changes in both datasets. The proposed change algorithms and analysis methods are useful data mining techniques for unsupervised, window-based change detection with potential to track users' physical activity and motivate progress toward their health goals.

  13. Longitudinal Behavioral Change in Infants with Neuromotor Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Joneen; Shepherd, Kristen; Reuter, Jeanette

    This study examined behavioral development during the first year of life of 41 infants diagnosed with cerebral palsy, hypotonia, or hypertonia. The KID Scale, an empirically normed, caregiver-report inventory which covers behavior in five domains (cognitive, motor, language, self help, and social) was administered at about 5, 9, and 12 months…

  14. Acculturation is Not Related to Physical Activity Stage of Change for Children in Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Rotter, Markus; Renda, Gloria A; Novotny, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between acculturation and physical activity stages of change is unexplored. Stages of change conceptualize behavior change as a progression through a series of five stages indicating the readiness to change behavior. The level of acculturation can be assessed using the Ethnocultural Identity Behavioral Index (EIBI) which is based on three factors: Cultural Activities, Social Interaction and Language Opportunities. The purpose of this project was to explore the relationship between parental acculturation and physical activity stages of change in Hawai‘i children. Participants (N = 85; 62% female; aged 5–8 years; 22% Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islanders, 42% Asian, 25% White, and 11% Other) completed the EIBI and a physical activity stages of change measure. Acculturation factor means were: Cultural Activities = 4 (SD = 1.26), Social Interaction = 3 (SD = 1.04), and Language Opportunities = 4 (SD = 1.29). The physical activity stages of change distribution was Precontemplation = 11 (13%), Contemplation/Preparation = 15 (18%), and Action/Maintenance = 59 (69%). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for Cultural Activities F(3, 81) = 0.77, P = .47, Social Interaction F(3, 81) = 0.93, P = .40; and Language Opportunities F(3, 81) = 1.34, P = .27 showed no significant differences between physical activity stages of change. The results of our study do not show an association between acculturation and readiness to change for physical activity. The lack of differences may be due to participants being moderately acculturated, possibly lessening the differentiation of acculturation by physical activity stages of change. PMID:26918206

  15. Batch Mode Active Learning for Regression With Expected Model Change.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenbin; Zhang, Muhan; Zhang, Ya

    2016-04-20

    While active learning (AL) has been widely studied for classification problems, limited efforts have been done on AL for regression. In this paper, we introduce a new AL framework for regression, expected model change maximization (EMCM), which aims at choosing the unlabeled data instances that result in the maximum change of the current model once labeled. The model change is quantified as the difference between the current model parameters and the updated parameters after the inclusion of the newly selected examples. In light of the stochastic gradient descent learning rule, we approximate the change as the gradient of the loss function with respect to each single candidate instance. Under the EMCM framework, we propose novel AL algorithms for the linear and nonlinear regression models. In addition, by simulating the behavior of the sequential AL policy when applied for k iterations, we further extend the algorithms to batch mode AL to simultaneously choose a set of k most informative instances at each query time. Extensive experimental results on both UCI and StatLib benchmark data sets have demonstrated that the proposed algorithms are highly effective and efficient.

  16. Measuring adaptations of motivational interviewing: the development and validation of the behavior change counseling index (BECCI).

    PubMed

    Lane, Claire; Huws-Thomas, Michelle; Hood, Kerenza; Rollnick, Stephen; Edwards, Karen; Robling, Michael

    2005-02-01

    One of the most common challenges faced by health professionals is encouraging patients to change their behavior to improve their health. This paper reports the development of a checklist, the behavior change counseling index (BECCI). This aims to measure practitioner competence in behavior change counseling (BCC), an adaptation of motivational interviewing suitable for brief consultations in healthcare settings. The checklist has demonstrated acceptable levels of validity, reliability and responsiveness, and aims to assist trainers and researchers in assessing change in practitioner behavior before, during and after training in BCC. BECCI will also provide valuable information about the standard of BCC that practitioners were trained to deliver in studies of BCC as an intervention.

  17. Climatic Change and Dynamics of Northern Hemisphere Storm-tracks: Changes in Transient Eddies Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynova, Yuliya; Krupchatnikov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    An evidence of our understanding of the general circulation is whether we can predict changes in the general circulation that might be associated with past or future climate changes. Changes in the location, intensity or seasonality of major climatological features of the general circulation could be more important than average temperature changes, particularly where these changes could affect local hydrology, energy balances, etc. Under these major climatological features we assume the poleward expansion of the tropical circulation (Hadley circulation), static stability (changes in the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere), role of SST forcing, sea ice extension, extratropical eddies behavior. We have a question: would the climate change significantly affect the location and intensity of midlatitude storm-tracks and associated jets? Mean-flow interaction in midlatitudes produces low-frequency variations in the latitude of the jets. It is reasonable to think that a modest climate change might significantly affects the jets location and their associated storm tracks. The storm-tracks are defined as the region of strong baroclinicity (maximum meridional temperature gradient), which are determined on the basis of eddy statistics like eddy fluxes of angular momentum, energy, and water (with the use of high-bandpass filter). In the Northern Hemisphere, there are two major storms: in the region of Atlantic and Pacific. The storm-tracks play important role in the dynamics of weather and climate. They affect the global energy cycle and the hydrological cycle, and as a result they bring heavy rains and other hazardous weather phenomena in the middle latitudes. The recent increase in global tropopause heights is closely associated with systematic temperature changes below and above the tropopause. Temperature increases in the troposphere and decreases in the stratosphere. The pattern of warming and cooling also affects the zonal wind structure in the region of

  18. Propagation of maternal behavior across generations is associated with changes in non-maternal cognitive and behavioral processes.

    PubMed

    Lovic, Vedran; Fleming, Alison S

    2015-08-01

    Over a number of years we have studied the phenomenology of maternal behavior from endocrine, neural, experiential, and ontogenetic perspectives. Here, we focus on the effects of early life experiences with and without the mother on subsequent maternal and non-maternal behaviors of the offspring. We have used an artificial rearing procedure, which entails removing rat pups from their mother and raising them in isolation, while controlling and manipulating several aspects of their upbringing. As adults, mother-reared (MR) and artificially-reared (AR) rats are assessed on their own maternal behavior, as well several other behaviors. While both AR and MR rats nurse and successfully wean their young, the AR rats spend less time licking, grooming, and crouching over their young. Hence, being raised in social isolation does not seem to affect primary maternal motivational dynamics. Instead, isolation rearing produces alterations in the ongoing execution of the behavior and its effective organization. Here, we present evidence that changes in maternal behavior, as a result of social isolation from mother and siblings, are due to changes in top-down (e.g., sustained attention, flexibility) and bottom-up process (e.g., increased stimulus-driven behavior). These changes are likely due to alterations in brain dopamine systems, which are sensitive to early life manipulations and are modulators of bottom-up and top-down processes. Finally, we draw parallels between the rat and human maternal behavior. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan.

  19. Behavioral inspiratory inhibition: inactivated and activated respiratory cells.

    PubMed

    Orem, J

    1989-11-01

    1. Eleven adult cats were trained to stop inspiration in response to a conditioning stimulus. The conditioning stimuli were presented at the onset of inspiration at intervals of approximately 20-30 s. Intratracheal pressures, diaphragmatic activity, and the extracellular activity of single medullary respiratory neurons were recorded while the animals performed this response. 2. Inactivation of the diaphragm to the conditioning stimuli occurred at latencies that varied from 40 to 110 ms and averaged 74 +/- 32 (SD) ms. 3. The subjects of this report are 38 inspiratory neurons that were inactivated and 19 cells that were activated when inspiration was stopped behaviorally. These cells were located in the region of n. ambiguus and the ventrolateral n. of tractus solitarius. 4. The inspiratory cells that were inactivated behaviorally had the following characteristics: 1) Most had an augmenting inspiratory profile with (n = 14) or without (n = 9) postinspiratory activity. Other types were inspiratory throughout (n = 5), decrementing inspiratory (n = 3), tonic inspiratory (n = 4), early inspiratory (n = 2), and expiratory-inspiratory (n = 1). 2) Their mean discharge rate was 39 +/- 2.7 (SE) Hz. 3) The latency of their inactivation in response to the task averaged 81 +/- 4.9 (SE) ms, and 4) Their activity corresponded closely to breathing not only during the behavioral response but also during eupnea (eta 2 = 0.62 +/- 0.04, mean +/- SE) and respiratory acts such as sneezing, sniffing, meowing, and purring. 5. The cells that were activated when inspiration was stopped behaviorally had the following characteristics. 1) As a group, they had discharge profiles related to every phase of the respiratory cycle. 2) They were recorded in the same region as, and often simultaneously with, respiratory cells that were inactivated. 3) Their activity patterns were highly variable such that the signal strength and consistency of the respiratory component of that activity were weak (eta 2

  20. Behavior change interventions: the potential of ontologies for advancing science and practice.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Kai R; Michie, Susan; Hekler, Eric B; Gibson, Bryan; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Ahern, David; Cole-Lewis, Heather; Ellis, Rebecca J Bartlett; Hesse, Bradford; Moser, Richard P; Yi, Jean

    2017-02-01

    A central goal of behavioral medicine is the creation of evidence-based interventions for promoting behavior change. Scientific knowledge about behavior change could be more effectively accumulated using "ontologies." In information science, an ontology is a systematic method for articulating a "controlled vocabulary" of agreed-upon terms and their inter-relationships. It involves three core elements: (1) a controlled vocabulary specifying and defining existing classes; (2) specification of the inter-relationships between classes; and (3) codification in a computer-readable format to enable knowledge generation, organization, reuse, integration, and analysis. This paper introduces ontologies, provides a review of current efforts to create ontologies related to behavior change interventions and suggests future work. This paper was written by behavioral medicine and information science experts and was developed in partnership between the Society of Behavioral Medicine's Technology Special Interest Group (SIG) and the Theories and Techniques of Behavior Change Interventions SIG. In recent years significant progress has been made in the foundational work needed to develop ontologies of behavior change. Ontologies of behavior change could facilitate a transformation of behavioral science from a field in which data from different experiments are siloed into one in which data across experiments could be compared and/or integrated. This could facilitate new approaches to hypothesis generation and knowledge discovery in behavioral science.

  1. Teaching behavior change concepts and skills during the third-year medicine clerkship.

    PubMed

    Moser, Eileen M; Stagnaro-Green, Alex

    2009-07-01

    Risky health behaviors and social factors are linked to half of all causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Physicians report lack of training as one of the barriers to providing behavior change counseling. Formal behavior change curricula are infrequent in medical schools, and where they are available, they are often isolated from clinical experiences or presented through a limited approach. The authors developed the Health Beliefs and Behavior (HBB) course at University of Medicine and Dentistry-New Jersey Medical School (UMDNJ-NJMS) to teach the impact of unhealthy behaviors on health and wellness, to broaden students' understanding of the many factors that affect behavior, and to give medical students tools to facilitate health behavior change in patients. To the authors' knowledge, this is the only comprehensive, clinically integrated course on health behavior change in a U.S. medical school.The authors intercalated the 60-hour HBB course in the four-week, third-year internal medicine clerkship ambulatory block. Thus, students practice learned techniques in both the ambulatory and classroom settings, and they gain insight into health behavior by applying learned health models to patients and engaging in experiential exercises. Course components stress the biopsychosocial and patient-centered approach. The authors measure the impact of the course through student surveys. Third-year medical students at UMDNJ-NJMS who have completed the HBB course report enhanced understanding of the principles of behavior change and improved ability to perform behavior change counseling.

  2. Uncertainty-dependent activity within the ventral striatum predicts task-related changes in response strategy.

    PubMed

    Buzzell, George A; Roberts, Daniel M; Fedota, John R; Thompson, James C; Parasuraman, Raja; McDonald, Craig G

    2016-04-01

    Recent neuroimaging work has demonstrated that the ventral striatum (VS) encodes confidence in perceptual decisions. However, it remains unclear whether perceptual uncertainty can signal the need to adapt behavior (such as by responding more cautiously) and whether such behavioral changes are related to uncertainty-dependent activity within the VS. Changes in response strategy have previously been observed following errors and are associated with both medial frontal cortex (MFC) and VS, two components of the performance-monitoring network. If uncertainty can elicit changes in response strategy (slowing), then one might hypothesize that these changes rely on the performance-monitoring network. In the present study, we investigated the link between perceptual uncertainty and task-related behavioral adaptations (response slowing and accuracy increases), as well as how such behavioral changes relate to uncertainty-dependent activity within MFC and VS. Our participants performed a two-choice perceptual decision-making task in which perceptual uncertainty was reported on each trial while behavioral and event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected. Analysis of the behavioral data revealed that uncertain (but correct) responses led to slowing on subsequent trials, a phenomenon that was positively correlated with increased accuracy. Critically, post-uncertainty slowing was negatively correlated with the VS activity elicited by uncertain responses. In agreement with previous reports, increases in MFC activation were observed for uncertain responses, although MFC activity was not correlated with post-uncertainty slowing. These results suggest that perceptual uncertainty can serve as a signal to adapt one's response strategy and that such behavioral changes are closely tied to the VS, a key node in the performance-monitoring network.

  3. Adolescents Engaging in Risky Sexual Behavior: Sexual Activity and Associated Behavioral Risk Factors in Bolivian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in La…

  4. Association of Active and Sedentary Behaviors with Postmenopausal Estrogen Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dallal, Cher M.; Brinton, Louise A.; Matthews, Charles E.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Hartman, Terryl J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Falk, Roni T.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Gierach, Gretchen L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Physical activity may reduce endogenous estrogens but few studies have assessed effects on estrogen metabolism and none have evaluated sedentary behavior in relation to estrogen metabolism. We assessed relationships between accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary behavior and 15 urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites (EM) among postmenopausal controls from a population-based breast cancer case-control study conducted in Poland (2000-2003). Methods Postmenopausal women (N=542) were ages 40 to 72 years and not currently using hormone therapy. Accelerometers, worn for seven days, were used to derive measures of average activity (counts/day) and sedentary behavior (<100 counts/min/day). EM were measured in 12-hour urine samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. EM were analyzed individually, in metabolic pathways (C-2, -4, or -16), and as ratios relative to parent estrogens. Geometric means of EM by tertiles of accelerometer-measures, adjusted for age and body mass, were computed using linear models. Results High activity was associated with lower levels of estrone and estradiol (p-trend=0.01) while increased sedentary time was positively associated with these parent estrogens (p-trend=0.04). Inverse associations were observed between high activity and 2-methoxyestradiol, 4-methoxyestradiol, 17-epiestriol and 16-epiestriol (p-trend=0.03). Sedentary time was positively associated with methylated catechols in the 2- and 4-hydroxylation pathways (p-trend≤0.04). Women in the highest tertile of activity had increased hydroxylation at the C-2, -4, and -16 sites relative to parent estrogens (p-trend≤0.02) while increased sedentary time was associated with a lower 16-pathway:parent estrogen ratio (p-trend=0.01). Conclusions Higher activity was associated with lower urinary estrogens, possibly through increased estrogen hydroxylation and subsequent metabolism, while sedentary behavior may reduce metabolism. PMID:26460631

  5. Effect of Bacopa monniera extract on methylmercury-induced behavioral and histopathological changes in rats.

    PubMed

    Christinal, Johnson; Sumathi, Thangarajan

    2013-10-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a well-recognized environmental contaminant with established health risk to human beings by fish and marine mammal consumption. Bacopa monniera (BM) is a perennial herb and is used as a nerve tonic in Ayurveda, a traditional medicine system in India. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of B. monniera extract (BME) on MeHg-induced toxicity in rat cerebellum. Male Wistar rats were administered with MeHg orally at a dose of 5 mg/kg b.w. for 21 days. Experimental rats were given MeHg and also administered with BME (40 mg/kg, orally) 1 h prior to the administration of MeHg for 21 days. After treatment period, MeHg exposure significantly decreases the body weight and also caused the following behavioral changes. Decrease tail flick response, longer immobility time, significant decrease in motor activity, and spatial short-term memory. BME pretreatment reverted the behavioral changes to normal. MeHg exposure decreases the DNA and RNA content in cerebellum and also caused some pathological changes in cerebellum. Pretreatment with BME restored all the changes to near normal. These findings suggest that BME has a potent efficacy to alleviate MeHg-induced toxicity in rat cerebellum.

  6. The Effects of Positive Behavior Interventions and Support on Changing the Behavior of Red Zone Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Fredrick

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve culture, safety, and climate, numerous schools nationwide are implementing Positive Behavior Interventions and Support (PBIS). The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the Positive Behavior Interventions and Support (PBIS) model for reducing high-risk behaviors of students identified as red zone. The…

  7. Exploring behavioral markers of long-term physical activity maintenance: a case study of system identification modeling within a behavioral intervention.

    PubMed

    Hekler, Eric B; Buman, Matthew P; Poothakandiyil, Nikhil; Rivera, Daniel E; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Morgan, Adrienne Aiken; McCrae, Christina S; Roberts, Beverly L; Marsiske, Michael; Giacobbi, Peter R

    2013-10-01

    Efficacious interventions to promote long-term maintenance of physical activity are not well understood. Engineers have developed methods to create dynamical system models for modeling idiographic (i.e., within-person) relationships within systems. In behavioral research, dynamical systems modeling may assist in decomposing intervention effects and identifying key behavioral patterns that may foster behavioral maintenance. The Active Adult Mentoring Program was a 16-week randomized controlled trial of a group-based, peer-delivered physical activity intervention targeting older adults. Time-intensive (i.e., daily) physical activity reports were collected throughout the intervention. We explored differential patterns of behavior among participants who received the active intervention (N = 34; 88% women, 64.1 ± 8.3 years of age) and either maintained 150 minutes/week of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA; n = 10) or did not (n = 24) at 18 months following the intervention period. We used dynamical systems modeling to explore whether key intervention components (i.e., self-monitoring, access to an exercise facility, behavioral initiation training, behavioral maintenance training) and theoretically plausible behavioral covariates (i.e., indoor vs. outdoor activity) predicted differential patterns of behavior among maintainers and nonmaintainers. We found that maintainers took longer to reach a steady-state of MVPA. At week 10 of the intervention, nonmaintainers began to drop whereas maintainers increased MVPA. Self-monitoring, behavioral initiation training, percentage of outdoor activity, and behavioral maintenance training, but not access to an exercise facility, were key variables that explained patterns of change among maintainers. Future studies should be conducted to systematically explore these concepts within a priori idiographic (i.e., N-of-1) experimental designs.

  8. On their best behavior: how animal behavior can help determine the combined effects of species interactions and climate change.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Jason P; Barton, Brandon T

    2013-09-01

    The increasingly appreciated link between climate change and species interactions has the potential to help us understand and predict how organisms respond to a changing environment. As this connection grows, it becomes even more important to appreciate the mechanisms that create and control the combined effect of these factors. However, we believe one such important set of mechanisms comes from species' behavior and the subsequent trait-mediated interactions, as opposed to the more often studied density-mediated effects. Behavioral mechanisms are already well appreciated for mitigating the separate effects of the environment and species interactions. Thus, they could be at the forefront for understanding the combined effects. In this review, we (1) show some of the known behaviors that influence the individual and combined effects of climate change and species interactions; (2) conceptualize general ways behavior may mediate these combined effects; and (3) illustrate the potential importance of including behavior in our current tools for predicting climate change effects. In doing so, we hope to promote more research on behavior and other mechanistic factors that may increase our ability to accurately predict climate change effects.

  9. Using social and behavior change communication to increase HIV testing and condom use: the Malawi BRIDGE Project.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Rimal, Rajiv N; Carrasco, Maria; Fajobi, OlaOluwa; Soko, Anthony; Limaye, Rupali; Mkandawire, Glory

    2014-01-01

    While overall HIV prevalence in Malawi has decreased, it is still high in the southern region of the country. Behavioral prevention activities are crucial to continue the reduction in HIV prevalence. Behavior change is influenced by many factors. Previous work indicates knowledge about HIV transmission, self-efficacy to protect oneself from exposure, and accurate risk perception of one's susceptibility all impact sexual behavior. The current study looks at the effects of a behavior change communication program in Malawi called the BRIDGE II Project on psychosocial and behavioral variables. The program sought to address barriers to individual action and confront societal norms related to sexual risk behavior through a mix of community-based activities and mass media messages delivered through local radio stations. Using cohort data (n = 594), we examined the effect of BRIDGE exposure on three variables that affect HIV behaviors: knowledge, self-efficacy, and risk perception, as well as two behavioral outcomes: HIV testing and condom use at last sex. Data were collected at baseline and for a midterm evaluation. Regression analyses showed exposure to BRIDGE was significantly associated with knowledge level (β = 0.20, p < .001) and self-efficacy (β = 0.35, p < .001) at midterm when controlling for baseline scores, but not risk perception. Psychosocial variables did not show a significant relationship to either behavioral outcome. However, program exposure was a significant predictor of both HIV testing in the past year (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40, p < .001) and condom use at last sex (OR = 1.26, p < .05). This study suggests such a communication intervention may play an important role in not only affecting HIV-related behaviors themselves, but also critical factors that affect HIV behaviors, including knowledge and self-efficacy. It is recommended that communication efforts around HIV risk reduction be increased.

  10. Predicting active users' personality based on micro-blogging behaviors.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Li, Ang; Hao, Bibo; Guan, Zengda; Zhu, Tingshao

    2014-01-01

    Because of its richness and availability, micro-blogging has become an ideal platform for conducting psychological research. In this paper, we proposed to predict active users' personality traits through micro-blogging behaviors. 547 Chinese active users of micro-blogging participated in this study. Their personality traits were measured by the Big Five Inventory, and digital records of micro-blogging behaviors were collected via web crawlers. After extracting 839 micro-blogging behavioral features, we first trained classification models utilizing Support Vector Machine (SVM), differentiating participants with high and low scores on each dimension of the Big Five Inventory [corrected]. The classification accuracy ranged from 84% to 92%. We also built regression models utilizing PaceRegression methods, predicting participants' scores on each dimension of the Big Five Inventory. The Pearson correlation coefficients between predicted scores and actual scores ranged from 0.48 to 0.54. Results indicated that active users' personality traits could be predicted by micro-blogging behaviors.

  11. Effect of individual behavior on epidemic spreading in activity-driven networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Alessandro; Frasca, Mattia; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-10-01

    In this work we study the effect of behavioral changes of individuals on the propagation of epidemic diseases. Specifically, we consider a susceptible-infected-susceptible model over a network of contacts that evolves in a time scale that is comparable to the individual disease dynamics. The phenomenon is modeled in the context of activity-driven networks, in which contacts occur on the basis of activity potentials. To offer insight into behavioral strategies targeting both susceptible and infected individuals, we consider two separate behaviors that may emerge in respiratory syndromes and sexually transmitted infections. The first is related to a reduction in the activity of infected individuals due to quarantine or illness. The second is instead associated with a selfish self-protective behavior of susceptible individuals, who tend to reduce contact with the rest of the population on the basis of a risk perception. Numerical and theoretical results suggest that behavioral changes could have a beneficial effect on the disease spreading, by increasing the epidemic threshold and decreasing the steady-state fraction of infected individuals.

  12. Behavioral changes and brain energy metabolism dysfunction in rats treated with methamphetamine or dextroamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Feier, Gustavo; Valvassori, Samira S; Lopes-Borges, Jéssica; Varela, Roger B; Bavaresco, Daniela V; Scaini, Giselli; Morais, Meline O; Andersen, Monica L; Streck, Emilio L; Quevedo, João

    2012-11-14

    Studies have demonstrated that AMPHs produce long-term damage to the brain dopaminergic, serotoninergic and glutamatergic regions. Prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus and striatum appear to be involved in the toxicity and behavioral changes induced by AMPHs. A single dose of AMPH causes mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in rat brain. The goal of the present study was thus to investigate the potency of two amphetamines, dextroamphetamine (d-AMPH) and methamphetamine (m-AMPH), on the behavior and energetic dysfunction in the brain of rats. d-AMPH and m-AMPH increased the crossing and rearing behaviors. The numbers of visits to the center were increased by d-AMPH and m-AMPH only at 2mg/kg. Likewise, at a high dose (2 mg/kg), the injection of m-AMPH increased the amount of sniffing. The AMPHs significantly decreased the activities of Krebs cycle enzymes (citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase) and mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes (I-IV); nevertheless, this effect varied depending on the brain region evaluated. In summary, this study demonstrated that at high doses, m-AMPH, increased stereotyped (sniffing) behavior in rats, but d-AMPH did not. However, this study shows that d-AMPH and m-AMPH seem to have similar effects on the brains energetic metabolism.

  13. Effects of Mechanical Activation on the HCl Leaching Behavior of Titanaugite, Ilmenite, and Their Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Hu, Huiping; Wei, Liangping; Chen, Qiyuan; Tan, Jun

    2010-12-01

    Structural changes of mechanically activated titanaugite were investigated systematically using X-ray diffraction, particle size analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The hydrochloric acid leaching behavior of mechanically activated titanaugite and ilmenite single minerals and their mixtures also was studied. The results show that with increasing milling time, the crystallite size, lattice strain, and particle size changed continuously. Mechanical activation evidently improved the leaching reactivity of titanaugite and ilmenite with 20 wt pct HCl at 378 K (105 °C). The leaching behavior of ilmenite was promoted at the initial stage and then was inhibited when mixed with a mass ratio of titanaugite to ilmenite of 1:1. When the mass ratio of titanaugite to ilmenite decreased to 1:9, the leaching of titanaugite was promoted, whereas the leaching of ilmenite was inhibited throughout the whole process. The leaching inhibition of ilmenite is related to the formation of hydrous silicon dioxide from the dissolution of titanaugite.

  14. Exploring environmental identity and behavioral change in an Environmental Science course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2013-06-01

    This ethnographic study at a public high school in the Northeastern United States investigates the process of change in students' environmental identity and proenvironmental behaviors during an Environmental Science course. The study explores how sociocultural factors, such as students' background, social interactions, and classroom structures, impact the environmental identity and behavior of students. In this investigation, the identity theory of emotion of Stryker (2004) from the field of sociology is utilized in the interpretation of students' reactions to classroom experiences as they proceed through the Environmental Science course. The participants in this study are an Environmental Science teacher and the 10-12th grade students in her Environmental Science elective course. The researcher collected data for a period of six months, attending class on a daily basis. Data was collected through participant observation, videotaping, interviews, and cogenerative dialogues. The results of this study inform science educators by illuminating important elements, such as students' emotional responses to activities in class, conflicting elements of students' identities, and students' openness and willingness to critically reflect upon new information, which contribute to whether a student is likely to change their views towards the environment and pro-environmental behaviors.

  15. Sex difference in psychological behavior changes induced by long-term social isolation in mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming; Wu, Chun Fu; Liu, Wen; Yang, Jing Yu; Chen, Duo

    2004-01-01

    Social isolation can induce psychological behavior changes. It is interesting to know whether there is sex difference in responding to social isolation or not. The present study compared the behavior difference between male and female mice isolated for 1-4 months. The results showed that the isolated male mice had higher accounts of locomotor activity than the isolated female and group-housed ones. Both isolated male and female mice spent shorter time in the dark box than the group-housed mice in the light/dark test, and isolated male mice spent less time in the closed arms than isolated female and group-housed mice when isolated for 2, 3 and 4 months in the elevated plus-maze test. These results suggest that isolation induce an anxiolytic-like effect. The immobile time in the forced swimming test was shortened in male mice isolated for 1 and 2 months. Both isolated male and female mice showed shorter time in pentobarbital-induced loss of righting reflex and less body weight gain. These results demonstrated that there was a sex difference in psychological behavior changes in mice undergoing social isolation and the male mice were more easily affected by isolation.

  16. Behavioral Response of Invertebrates to Experimental Simulation of Pre-Seismic Chemical Changes

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Rachel A.; Conlan, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary We exposed two invertebrates to hydrogen peroxide to mimic some of the conditions that occur before large earthquakes. Water fleas changed their position in an aquarium to avoid the hydrogen peroxide but earthworms appeared not to be affected and did not change position. We discuss this in the context of unusual animal behavior often seen before earthquakes. Abstract Unusual behavior before earthquakes has been reported for millennia but no plausible mechanism has been identified. One possible way in which animals could be affected by pre-earthquake processes is via stress activated positive holes leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide at the rock water interface. Aquatic and fossorial animals could be irritated by H2O2 and move down the concentration gradient. Here, we carry out avoidance tests with hydrogen peroxide in two model organisms; Daphnia pulex and earthworms. Daphnia were found to move away from increasing concentrations of H2O2 but earthworms appeared unaffected. It is possible that earthworm swarming behavior, reported frequently before earthquakes, is caused by electric field shifts or another unknown mechanism, whereas zooplankton may be affected by increasing levels of H2O2. PMID:26479230

  17. Copper acutely impairs behavioral function and muscle acetylcholinesterase activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Haverroth, Gabriela M B; Welang, Chariane; Mocelin, Riciéri N; Postay, Daniela; Bertoncello, Kanandra T; Franscescon, Francini; Rosemberg, Denis B; Dal Magro, Jacir; Dalla Corte, Cristiane L

    2015-12-01

    Copper is a heavy metal found at relatively high concentrations in surface waters around the world. Copper is a micronutrient at low concentrations and is essential to several organisms. At higher concentrations copper can become toxic, which reveal the importance of studying the toxic effects of this metal on the aquatic life. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of copper on the behavior and biochemical parameters of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish were exposed for 24h at a concentration of 0.006 mg/L Cu. After the exposure period, behavioral profile of animals was recorded through 6 min using two different apparatuses tests: the Novel Tank and the Light-Dark test. After behavioral testing, animals were euthanized with a solution of 250 mg/L of tricaine (MS-222). Brain, muscle, liver and gills were extracted for analysis of parameters related to oxidative stress and accumulation of copper in these tissues. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was determined in brain and muscle. Results showed acute exposure to copper induces significant changes in behavioral profile of zebrafish by changing locomotion and natural tendency to avoid brightly lit area. On the other hand, there were no significant effects on parameters related to oxidative stress. AChE activity decreased significantly in zebrafish muscle, but there were no significant changes in cerebral AChE activity. Copper levels in tissues did not increase significantly compared to the controls. Taken together, these results indicate that a low concentration of copper can acutely affect behavioral profile of adult zebrafish which could be partially related to an inhibition on muscle AChE activity. These results reinforce the need of additional tests to establishment of safe copper concentrations to aquatic organisms and the importance of behavioral parameters in ecotoxicological studies.

  18. Putting Theory Into Practice: A Case Study of Diabetes-Related Behavioral Change Interventions on Chicago's South Side

    PubMed Central

    Peek, Monica E.; Ferguson, Molly J.; Roberson, Tonya P.; Chin, Marshall H.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes self-management is central to diabetes care overall, and much of self-management entails individual behavior change, particularly around dietary patterns and physical activity. Yet individual-level behavior change remains a challenge for many persons with diabetes, particularly for racial/ethnic minorities who disproportionately face barriers to diabetes-related behavioral changes. Through the South Side Diabetes Project, officially known as “Improving Diabetes Care and Outcomes on the South Side of Chicago,” our team sought to improve health outcomes and reduce disparities among residents in the largely working-class African American communities that comprise Chicago's South Side. In this article, we describe several aspects of the South Side Diabetes Project that are directly linked to patient behavioral change, and discuss the theoretical frameworks we used to design and implement our programs. We also briefly discuss more downstream program elements (e.g., health systems change) that provide additional support for patient-level behavioral change. PMID:25359248

  19. Developmental Changes in Dopamine Neurotransmission in Adolescence: Behavioral Implications and Issues in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstrom, Dustin; Collins, Paul; White, Tonya; Luciana, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increased risk-taking, novelty-seeking, and locomotor activity, all of which suggest a heightened appetitive drive. The neurotransmitter dopamine is typically associated with behavioral activation and heightened forms of appetitive behavior in mammalian species, and this pattern of activation has been described in…

  20. Increased Exposure to Rigid Routines Can Lead to Increased Challenging Behavior Following Changes to Those Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Leah E.; Oliver, Chris; Callaghan, Eleanor; Woodcock, Kate A.

    2015-01-01

    Several neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with preference for routine and challenging behavior following changes to routines. We examine individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome, who show elevated levels of this behavior, to better understand how previous experience of a routine can affect challenging behavior elicited by disruption to…

  1. Changes in the pattern of exploratory behavior are associated with the emergence of social dominance relationships in male rats.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the establishment of dominance relationships and subordination on exploratory behavior for both postpubertal and adult male rats. Prior to an open field test, subjects were housed either in isolation (IS) or in littermate pairs (PS) with mild dominance relationships without overt victory or defeat, or in pairs with clear hierarchical relationships as dominants (DOM) or subordinates (SUB). Stretch-attend postures and entries into the center area of the open-field were measured as an index of passive and active exploratory behavior, respectively, and crossings in the peripheral area were counted as activity. SUB rats, both postpubertal and adult, displayed less activity and lower levels of active exploratory behavior, whereas adult IS rats showed higher levels of active exploratory behavior compared to the other groups. Furthermore, both DOM and PS rats exhibited a more passive pattern of exploratory behavior in adulthood than in postpuberty. Thus the results show that an increase in the active exploratory pattern is inhibited by the establishment of social relationships among adult rats, while a decrease in activity is a primarily effect of subordination. The capacity to change exploratory patterns following subordination is found even in the postpubertal stage when adultlike social relationships have not yet appeared.

  2. Longitudinal changes in lifestyle behaviors and health status in colon cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Satia, Jessie A; Campbell, Marci K; Galanko, Joseph A; James, Aimee; Carr, Carol; Sandler, Robert S

    2004-06-01

    Lifestyle changes in persons diagnosed with cancer are important because they may impact prognosis, co-morbidities, and survival. This report describes longitudinal changes in lifestyle behaviors and health status among colon cancer survivors (n = 278) and population-based controls (n = 459) in North Carolina (39% African American), and examines demographic and psychosocial correlates of healthy lifestyle changes following a colon cancer diagnosis. Data are from surveys of a population-based cohort of colon cancer patients on diagnosis (the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study, NCCCS) and approximately 2 years post-diagnosis [the North Carolina Strategies to Improve Diet, Exercise, and Screening Study (NC STRIDES)], and population-based controls. Both studies collected information on demographic/lifestyle characteristics and medical history. The NCCCS reflects pre-diagnosis or pre-interview patterns, whereas NC STRIDES queried on current practices. Between the NCCCS and NC STRIDES, colon cancer survivors reported significant increases in vegetable intake, physical activity, and supplement use (all P <0.01) and a non-statistically significant increase in fruit/juice consumption (0.1 serving), with larger fruit/vegetable changes in African Americans than Whites. Controls increased physical activity and supplement use and fewer reported arthritic symptoms (P < 0.05). Survivors who were older and female had an almost 3 times higher likelihood of having used at least one new dietary supplement post-diagnosis, whereas being retired correlated with increased vegetable intake, all P < 0.05. Having more barriers to increasing fruit/vegetable intake was inversely associated with taking a new supplement (P < 0.05 only in controls). Colon cancer survivors reported making significant improvements in multiple health-related behaviors. Health care providers should communicate with persons diagnosed with colon cancer to ensure that they are making healthy lifestyle changes.

  3. Changes in dive behavior during naval sonar exposure in killer whales, long-finned pilot whales, and sperm whales.

    PubMed

    Sivle, L D; Kvadsheim, P H; Fahlman, A; Lam, F P A; Tyack, P L; Miller, P J O

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic underwater sound in the environment might potentially affect the behavior of marine mammals enough to have an impact on their reproduction and survival. Diving behavior of four killer whales (Orcinus orca), seven long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas), and four sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) was studied during controlled exposures to naval sonar [low frequency active sonar (LFAS): 1-2 kHz and mid frequency active sonar (MFAS): 6-7 kHz] during three field seasons (2006-2009). Diving behavior was monitored before, during and after sonar exposure using an archival tag placed on the animal with suction cups. The tag recorded the animal's vertical movement, and additional data on horizontal movement and vocalizations were used to determine behavioral modes. Killer whales that were conducting deep dives at sonar onset changed abruptly to shallow diving (ShD) during LFAS, while killer whales conducting deep dives at the onset of MFAS did not alter dive mode. When in ShD mode at sonar onset, killer whales did not change their diving behavior. Pilot and sperm whales performed normal deep dives (NDD) during MFAS exposure. During LFAS exposures, long-finned pilot whales mostly performed fewer deep dives and some sperm whales performed shallower and shorter dives. Acoustic recording data presented previously indicates that deep diving (DD) is associated with feeding. Therefore, the observed changes in dive behavior of the three species could potentially reduce the foraging efficiency of the affected animals.

  4. Changes in dive behavior during naval sonar exposure in killer whales, long-finned pilot whales, and sperm whales

    PubMed Central

    Sivle, L. D.; Kvadsheim, P. H.; Fahlman, A.; Lam, F. P. A.; Tyack, P. L.; Miller, P. J. O.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic underwater sound in the environment might potentially affect the behavior of marine mammals enough to have an impact on their reproduction and survival. Diving behavior of four killer whales (Orcinus orca), seven long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas), and four sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) was studied during controlled exposures to naval sonar [low frequency active sonar (LFAS): 1–2 kHz and mid frequency active sonar (MFAS): 6–7 kHz] during three field seasons (2006–2009). Diving behavior was monitored before, during and after sonar exposure using an archival tag placed on the animal with suction cups. The tag recorded the animal's vertical movement, and additional data on horizontal movement and vocalizations were used to determine behavioral modes. Killer whales that were conducting deep dives at sonar onset changed abruptly to shallow diving (ShD) during LFAS, while killer whales conducting deep dives at the onset of MFAS did not alter dive mode. When in ShD mode at sonar onset, killer whales did not change their diving behavior. Pilot and sperm whales performed normal deep dives (NDD) during MFAS exposure. During LFAS exposures, long-finned pilot whales mostly performed fewer deep dives and some sperm whales performed shallower and shorter dives. Acoustic recording data presented previously indicates that deep diving (DD) is associated with feeding. Therefore, the observed changes in dive behavior of the three species could potentially reduce the foraging efficiency of the affected animals. PMID:23087648

  5. Changing Work, Changing Health: Can Real Work-Time Flexibility Promote Health Behaviors and Well-Being?

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin L.; Tranby, Eric; Huang, Qinlei

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates a change in the structuring of work time, using a natural experiment to test whether participation in a corporate initiative (Results Only Work Environment; ROWE) predicts corresponding changes in health-related outcomes. Drawing on job strain and stress process models, we theorize greater schedule control and reduced work-family conflict as key mechanisms linking this initiative with health outcomes. Longitudinal survey data from 659 employees at a corporate headquarters shows that ROWE predicts changes in health-related behaviors, including almost an extra hour of sleep on work nights. Increasing employees’ schedule control and reducing their work-family conflict are key mechanisms linking the ROWE innovation with changes in employees’ health behaviors; they also predict changes in well-being measures, providing indirect links between ROWE and well-being. This study demonstrates that organizational changes in the structuring of time can promote employee wellness, particularly in terms of prevention behaviors. PMID:22144731

  6. Changing work, changing health: can real work-time flexibility promote health behaviors and well-being?

    PubMed

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin L; Tranby, Eric; Huang, Qinlei

    2011-12-01

    This article investigates a change in the structuring of work time, using a natural experiment to test whether participation in a corporate initiative (Results Only Work Environment; ROWE) predicts corresponding changes in health-related outcomes. Drawing on job strain and stress process models, we theorize greater schedule control and reduced work-family conflict as key mechanisms linking this initiative with health outcomes. Longitudinal survey data from 659 employees at a corporate headquarters shows that ROWE predicts changes in health-related behaviors, including almost an extra hour of sleep on work nights. Increasing employees' schedule control and reducing their work-family conflict are key mechanisms linking the ROWE innovation with changes in employees' health behaviors; they also predict changes in well-being measures, providing indirect links between ROWE and well-being. This study demonstrates that organizational changes in the structuring of time can promote employee wellness, particularly in terms of prevention behaviors.

  7. Health Behaviors in a Representative Sample of Older Canadians: Prevalences, Reported Change, Motivation to Change, and Perceived Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsom, Jason T.; Kaplan, Mark S.; Huguet, Nathalie; McFarland, Bentson H.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Prevalence estimates of healthy behaviors and preventive care among older adults have not received sufficient attention, despite important health benefits such as longevity and better quality of life. Moreover, little is known about general population prevalences of older adults' efforts to change behavior, motivations to improve health…

  8. Patterns of neural circuit activation and behavior during dominance hierarchy formation in freely behaving crayfish.

    PubMed

    Herberholz, J; Issa, F A; Edwards, D H

    2001-04-15

    Creation of a dominance hierarchy within a population of animals typically involves a period of agonistic activity in which winning and losing decide relative positions in the hierarchy. Among crayfish, fighting between size-matched animals leads to an abrupt change of behavior as the new subordinate retreats and escapes from the attacks and approaches of the dominant (Issa et al., 1999). We used high-speed videography and electrical recordings of aquarium field potentials to monitor the release of aggressive and defensive behavior, including the activation of neural circuits for four different tail-flip behaviors. We found that the sequence of tail-flip circuit excitation traced the development of their dominance hierarchy. Offensive tail flipping, attacks, and approaches by both animals were followed by a sharp rise in the frequency of nongiant and medial giant escape tail flips and a fall in the frequency of offensive tail flips of the new subordinate. These changes suggest that sudden, coordinated changes in the excitability of a set of neural circuits in one animal produce the changes in behavior that mark its transition to subordinate status.

  9. Harnessing different motivational frames via mobile phones to promote daily physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in aging adults.

    PubMed

    King, Abby C; Hekler, Eric B; Grieco, Lauren A; Winter, Sandra J; Sheats, Jylana L; Buman, Matthew P; Banerjee, Banny; Robinson, Thomas N; Cirimele, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    Mobile devices are a promising channel for delivering just-in-time guidance and support for improving key daily health behaviors. Despite an explosion of mobile phone applications aimed at physical activity and other health behaviors, few have been based on theoretically derived constructs and empirical evidence. Eighty adults ages 45 years and older who were insufficiently physically active, engaged in prolonged daily sitting, and were new to smartphone technology, participated in iterative design development and feasibility testing of three daily activity smartphone applications based on motivational frames drawn from behavioral science theory and evidence. An "analytically" framed custom application focused on personalized goal setting, self-monitoring, and active problem solving around barriers to behavior change. A "socially" framed custom application focused on social comparisons, norms, and support. An "affectively" framed custom application focused on operant conditioning principles of reinforcement scheduling and emotional transference to an avatar, whose movements and behaviors reflected the physical activity and sedentary levels of the user. To explore the applications' initial efficacy in changing regular physical activity and leisure-time sitting, behavioral changes were assessed across eight weeks in 68 participants using the CHAMPS physical activity questionnaire and the Australian sedentary behavior questionnaire. User acceptability of and satisfaction with the applications was explored via a post-intervention user survey. The results indicated that the three applications were sufficiently robust to significantly improve regular moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity and decrease leisure-time sitting during the 8-week behavioral adoption period. Acceptability of the applications was confirmed in the post-intervention surveys for this sample of midlife and older adults new to smartphone technology. Preliminary data exploring sustained use

  10. Changes in voluntary torque and electromyographic activity following oral baclofen.

    PubMed

    Hornby, T George; Heckman, C J; Harvey, Richard L; Rymer, W Zev

    2004-12-01

    The consequences of baclofen intake on voluntary motor behaviors remain unclear. We studied the effects of single oral doses of baclofen on voluntary, isometric knee extension torques and surface and single motor unit (MU) electromyographic (EMG) activity from the vastus lateralis in 11 individuals without neurological injury. Examination of submaximal to maximal contractions of varying duration performed pre- and post-baclofen ingestion revealed significant decreases in maximal knee torques and EMG magnitude, accompanied by an increase in slope of the torque-EMG relation. A decreased slope of the torque-MU firing rate relation was also demonstrated post-baclofen, but without changes in minimal firing rates or recruitment forces. During sustained contractions at < or =25% of maximal voluntary torque elicited after baclofen ingestion, increased EMG activity was observed without significant differences in MU firing rates. Our results demonstrate a clear reduction in the maximal torque-generating ability following baclofen. Specific changes in MU firing patterns indicate that weakness may be due partly to reduced motoneuronal excitability, although use of MU discharge patterns to assess these effects is limited in its sensitivity.

  11. [Promoting sustainable behavior change in body weight control].

    PubMed

    Camolas, José; Santos, Osvaldo; Moreira, Pedro; do Carmo, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    There is a wide acknowledgement of obesity as a relevant clinical entity. Such relevance can be inferred by the huge worldwide amount of research and related health promotion and clinical efforts. Though the evidence sustains some cues for the therapeutic success, the overall long-term effectiveness of obesity treatment tends to be not so satisfactory. Scientific literature is not unequivocal in key areas of nutritional intervention, such as the magnitude of caloric restriction, proportion of macronutrients, meal frequency, among others. The same applies to the area of physical activity recommendation for weight control. As a correlate of this scenario of incertitude, there is a proliferation of interventions and there is a clear need to integrate the scientific and clinical evidence. This paper presents a narrative literature review of key issues of clinical practice in obesity, regarding a set of actions that, in the overall, have as main purpose the promotion of reduction and/or control of body weight. The role of the health professional is highlighted as a facilitator of acquisition of habits that favor weight control, by integrating the professional's scientific knowledge with the patient's readiness for and capacity to change.

  12. Changes in active site histidine hydrogen bonding trigger cryptochrome activation.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Abir; Manahan, Craig C; Top, Deniz; Yee, Estella F; Lin, Changfan; Young, Michael W; Thiel, Walter; Crane, Brian R

    2016-09-06

    Cryptochrome (CRY) is the principal light sensor of the insect circadian clock. Photoreduction of the Drosophila CRY (dCRY) flavin cofactor to the anionic semiquinone (ASQ) restructures a C-terminal tail helix (CTT) that otherwise inhibits interactions with targets that include the clock protein Timeless (TIM). All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicate that flavin reduction destabilizes the CTT, which undergoes large-scale conformational changes (the CTT release) on short (25 ns) timescales. The CTT release correlates with the conformation and protonation state of conserved His378, which resides between the CTT and the flavin cofactor. Poisson-Boltzmann calculations indicate that flavin reduction substantially increases the His378 pKa Consistent with coupling between ASQ formation and His378 protonation, dCRY displays reduced photoreduction rates with increasing pH; however, His378Asn/Arg variants show no such pH dependence. Replica-exchange MD simulations also support CTT release mediated by changes in His378 hydrogen bonding and verify other responsive regions of the protein previously identified by proteolytic sensitivity assays. His378 dCRY variants show varying abilities to light-activate TIM and undergo self-degradation in cellular assays. Surprisingly, His378Arg/Lys variants do not degrade in light despite maintaining reactivity toward TIM, thereby implicating different conformational responses in these two functions. Thus, the dCRY photosensory mechanism involves flavin photoreduction coupled to protonation of His378, whose perturbed hydrogen-bonding pattern alters the CTT and surrounding regions.

  13. Changes in active site histidine hydrogen bonding trigger cryptochrome activation

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Abir; Manahan, Craig C.; Top, Deniz; Yee, Estella F.; Lin, Changfan; Young, Michael W.; Thiel, Walter; Crane, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Cryptochrome (CRY) is the principal light sensor of the insect circadian clock. Photoreduction of the Drosophila CRY (dCRY) flavin cofactor to the anionic semiquinone (ASQ) restructures a C-terminal tail helix (CTT) that otherwise inhibits interactions with targets that include the clock protein Timeless (TIM). All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicate that flavin reduction destabilizes the CTT, which undergoes large-scale conformational changes (the CTT release) on short (25 ns) timescales. The CTT release correlates with the conformation and protonation state of conserved His378, which resides between the CTT and the flavin cofactor. Poisson-Boltzmann calculations indicate that flavin reduction substantially increases the His378 pKa. Consistent with coupling between ASQ formation and His378 protonation, dCRY displays reduced photoreduction rates with increasing pH; however, His378Asn/Arg variants show no such pH dependence. Replica-exchange MD simulations also support CTT release mediated by changes in His378 hydrogen bonding and verify other responsive regions of the protein previously identified by proteolytic sensitivity assays. His378 dCRY variants show varying abilities to light-activate TIM and undergo self-degradation in cellular assays. Surprisingly, His378Arg/Lys variants do not degrade in light despite maintaining reactivity toward TIM, thereby implicating different conformational responses in these two functions. Thus, the dCRY photosensory mechanism involves flavin photoreduction coupled to protonation of His378, whose perturbed hydrogen-bonding pattern alters the CTT and surrounding regions. PMID:27551082

  14. Videos Influence Behavior Change Measures for Voice and Speech in Individuals with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kopf, Lisa M.; Graetzer, Simone; Huh, Jina

    2015-01-01

    The majority of individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) experience voice and speech difficulties at some point over the course of the disease. Voice therapy has been found to help improve voice and speech in individuals with PD, but the majority of these individuals do not enroll in voice therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether watching short videos about voice symptoms and treatment in Parkinson’s disease influences readiness to change, stages of change, and self-efficacy in individuals with PD. Eight individuals with PD participated in the study. Fifteen videos were chosen, three representing each of the five stages of change. We chose videos from YouTube that represented variety in speakers, content, and genre. We found that readiness to change significantly increased after watching videos, suggesting that watching videos helped these individuals move closer to actively improving their voice and speech. In addition, five of the eight participants showed forward movement in stages of change. Finally, self-efficacy demonstrated a positive trend following video watching. Overall, our results demonstrate that watching videos available on the internet can influence individuals with Parkinson’s disease in changing vocal behavior. Implications for future wireless health applications are described. PMID:26949753

  15. Videos Influence Behavior Change Measures for Voice and Speech in Individuals with Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kopf, Lisa M; Graetzer, Simone; Huh, Jina

    2015-10-01

    The majority of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience voice and speech difficulties at some point over the course of the disease. Voice therapy has been found to help improve voice and speech in individuals with PD, but the majority of these individuals do not enroll in voice therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether watching short videos about voice symptoms and treatment in Parkinson's disease influences readiness to change, stages of change, and self-efficacy in individuals with PD. Eight individuals with PD participated in the study. Fifteen videos were chosen, three representing each of the five stages of change. We chose videos from YouTube that represented variety in speakers, content, and genre. We found that readiness to change significantly increased after watching videos, suggesting that watching videos helped these individuals move closer to actively improving their voice and speech. In addition, five of the eight participants showed forward movement in stages of change. Finally, self-efficacy demonstrated a positive trend following video watching. Overall, our results demonstrate that watching videos available on the internet can influence individuals with Parkinson's disease in changing vocal behavior. Implications for future wireless health applications are described.

  16. Gamification: What It Is and Why It Matters to Digital Health Behavior Change Developers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This editorial provides a behavioral science view on gamification and health behavior change, describes its principles and mechanisms, and reviews some of the evidence for its efficacy. Furthermore, this editorial explores the relation between gamification and behavior change frameworks used in the health sciences and shows how gamification principles are closely related to principles that have been proven to work in health behavior change technology. Finally, this editorial provides criteria that can be used to assess when gamification provides a potentially promising framework for digital health interventions. PMID:25658754

  17. Gamification: what it is and why it matters to digital health behavior change developers.

    PubMed

    Cugelman, Brian

    2013-12-12

    This editorial provides a behavioral science view on gamification and health behavior change, describes its principles and mechanisms, and reviews some of the evidence for its efficacy. Furthermore, this editorial explores the relation between gamification and behavior change frameworks used in the health sciences and shows how gamification principles are closely related to principles that have been proven to work in health behavior change technology. Finally, this editorial provides criteria that can be used to assess when gamification provides a potentially promising framework for digital health interventions.

  18. Reciprocal Reinforcement Between Wearable Activity Trackers and Social Network Services in Influencing Physical Activity Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Wearable activity trackers (WATs) are emerging consumer electronic devices designed to support physical activities (PAs), which are based on successful behavior change techniques focusing on goal-setting and frequent behavioral feedbacks. Despite their utility, data from both recent academic and market research have indicated high attrition rates of WAT users. Concurrently, evidence shows that social support (SS), delivered/obtained via social network services or sites (SNS), could increase adherence and engagement of PA intervention programs. To date, relatively few studies have looked at how WATs and SS may interact and affect PAs. Objective The purpose of this study was to explore how these two Internet and mobile technologies, WATs and SNS, could work together to foster sustainable PA behavior changes and habits among middle-aged adults (40-60 years old) in Taiwan. Methods We used purposive sampling of Executive MBA Students from National Taiwan University of Science and Technology to participate in our qualitative research. In-depth interviews and focus groups were conducted with a total of 15 participants, including 9 WAT users and 6 nonusers. Analysis of the collected materials was done inductively using the thematic approach with no preset categories. Two authors from different professional backgrounds independently annotated and coded the transcripts, and then discussed and debated until consensus was reached on the final themes. Results The thematic analysis revealed six themes: (1) WATs provided more awareness than motivation in PA with goal-setting and progress monitoring, (2) SS, delivered/obtained via SNS, increased users’ adherence and engagement with WATs and vice versa, (3) a broad spectrum of configurations would be needed to deliver WATs with appropriately integrated SS functions, (4) WAT design, style, and appearance mattered even more than those of smartphones, as they are body-worn devices, (5) the user interfaces of WATs left a

  19. The influence of behavior preceding a reinforced response on behavior change in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Kazdin, A E

    1977-01-01

    The influence of behavior that immediately precedes a reinforced target response on the effectiveness of a reinforcement contingency was examined in two experiments with mentally retarded children in a special-education classroom. Two reinforcement schedules were examined in each experiment. For each schedule, a prespecified period of attentive behavior served as the target response. The schedules differed in whether inattentive or attentive behavior was required immediately to precede the target response. These schedules were examined with one child in a simultaneous treatment design using praise as the reinforcer (Experiment I), and with two children in separate reversal designs using tokens as the reinforcer (Experiment II). While attentive behavior increased under each schedule, the increase was greater when attentive rather than inattentive behavior preceded the reinforced response. The results indicated that the effect of a contingency may be determined not only by the specific response reinforced but also by the behavior that immediately precedes that response.

  20. Peripheral and Central Neuroinflammatory Changes and Pain Behaviors in an Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Samuel S.; Perera, Chamini J.; Makker, Preet G. S.; Lees, Justin G.; Carrive, Pascal; Moalem-Taylor, Gila

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a widespread and debilitating symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Although central neuroinflammation and demyelination have been implicated in MS-related pain, the contribution of peripheral and central mechanisms during different phases of the disease remains unclear. In this study, we used the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) to examine both stimulus-evoked and spontaneous pain behaviors, and neuroinflammatory changes, over the course of chronic disease. We found that mechanical allodynia of the hind paw preceded the onset of clinical EAE but was unmeasurable at clinical peak. This mechanical hypersensitivity coincided with increased microglial activation confined to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The development of facial mechanical allodynia also emerged in preclinical EAE, persisted at the clinical peak, and corresponded with pathology of the peripheral trigeminal afferent pathway. This included T cell infiltration, which arose prior to overt central lesion formation and specific damage to myelinated neurons during the clinical peak. Measurement of spontaneous pain using the mouse grimace scale, a facial expression-based coding system, showed increased facial grimacing in mice with EAE during clinical disease. This was associated with multiple peripheral and central neuroinflammatory changes including a decrease in myelinating oligodendrocytes, increased T cell infiltration, and macrophage/microglia and astrocyte activation. Overall, these findings suggest that different pathological mechanisms may underlie stimulus-evoked and spontaneous pain in EAE, and that these behaviors predominate in unique stages of the disease. PMID:27713744

  1. Peripheral and Central Neuroinflammatory Changes and Pain Behaviors in an Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Samuel S; Perera, Chamini J; Makker, Preet G S; Lees, Justin G; Carrive, Pascal; Moalem-Taylor, Gila

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a widespread and debilitating symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Although central neuroinflammation and demyelination have been implicated in MS-related pain, the contribution of peripheral and central mechanisms during different phases of the disease remains unclear. In this study, we used the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) to examine both stimulus-evoked and spontaneous pain behaviors, and neuroinflammatory changes, over the course of chronic disease. We found that mechanical allodynia of the hind paw preceded the onset of clinical EAE but was unmeasurable at clinical peak. This mechanical hypersensitivity coincided with increased microglial activation confined to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The development of facial mechanical allodynia also emerged in preclinical EAE, persisted at the clinical peak, and corresponded with pathology of the peripheral trigeminal afferent pathway. This included T cell infiltration, which arose prior to overt central lesion formation and specific damage to myelinated neurons during the clinical peak. Measurement of spontaneous pain using the mouse grimace scale, a facial expression-based coding system, showed increased facial grimacing in mice with EAE during clinical disease. This was associated with multiple peripheral and central neuroinflammatory changes including a decrease in myelinating oligodendrocytes, increased T cell infiltration, and macrophage/microglia and astrocyte activation. Overall, these findings suggest that different pathological mechanisms may underlie stimulus-evoked and spontaneous pain in EAE, and that these behaviors predominate in unique stages of the disease.

  2. Changes in sexual behavior following a sex education program in Brazilian public schools.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Heloísa Helena Siqueira Monteiro; Mello, Maeve Brito de; Sousa, Maria Helena; Makuch, Maria Yolanda; Bertoni, Neilane; Faúndes, Anibal

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes an evaluation of possible changes in sexual behavior in adolescents who participated in a school-based sex education program in selected public schools in four municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The program is inserted within the context of reproductive rights, deals with risks involved in unsafe sexual practices and focuses on the positive aspects of sexuality. A quasi-experimental design with pre and post-tests and a non-equivalent control group was used to evaluate the intervention. A total of 4,795 questionnaires were included in this analysis. The program succeeded in more than doubling consistent condom use with casual partners and in increasing the use of modern contraceptives during last intercourse by 68%. The intervention had no effect on age at first intercourse or on adolescents' engagement in sexual activities. The sex education program was effective in generating positive changes in the sexual behavior of adolescents, while not stimulating participation in sexual activities.

  3. A novel EEG for alpha brain state training, neurobiofeedback and behavior change.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Bruce; Arthur, David

    2013-08-01

    Mindfulness meditation, with the resulting alpha brain state, is gaining a strong following as an adjunct to health, so too is applying self-affirmation to stimulate behavior change through subconscious re-programming. Until recently the EEG technology needed to demonstrate this has been cumbersome and required specialist training. This paper reports a pilot study using a remote EEG headband, which through a sophisticated algorithm, provides a real-time EEG readout unencumbered by conventional artifacts. In a convenience sample of 13, the difference in brain waves was examined while the subjects were occupied in an 'attention' and an 'alpha mind state' exercise. There was a significant difference in the mean scores for theta, delta, beta and gamma brain waves. Alpha brain waves remained static suggesting an ability of the headset to discriminate a mindful state and to provide real-time, easy to interpret feedback for the facilitator and subject. The findings provide encouragement for research applications in health care activities providing neurobiofeedback to subjects involved in mindfulness behavior change activities.

  4. Human sexual behavior related to pathology and activity of the brain.

    PubMed

    Komisaruk, Barry R; Rodriguez Del Cerro, Maria Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Reviewed in this chapter are: (1) correlations among human sexual behavior, brain pathology, and brain activity, including caveats regarding the interpretation of "cause and effect" among these factors, and the degree to which "hypersexuality" and reported changes in sexual orientation correlated with brain pathology are uniquely sexual or are attributable to a generalized disinhibition of brain function; (2) the effects, in some cases inhibitory, in others facilitatory, on sexual behavior and motivation, of stroke, epileptic seizures, traumatic brain injury, and brain surgery; and (3) insights into sexual motivation and behavior recently gained from functional brain imaging research and its interpretive limitations. We conclude from the reviewed research that the neural orchestra underlying the symphony of human sexuality comprises, rather than brain "centers," multiple integrated brain systems, and that there are more questions than answers in our understanding of the control of human sexual behavior by the brain - a level of understanding that is still in embryonic form.

  5. Engendering Behavior Change through Single-Session Workshops: Lessons Learned from Extension's Private well Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Alyson; Gold, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a follow-up mail survey conducted in 2009, we found that structured, one-time workshops can influence and impact participant behavior change. Survey results suggest that brief workshops, staffed by key resource personnel, can have a powerful influence on participant behavior change and fill an important gap in rural drinking water…

  6. Evidence-Based Behavior Change Curriculum for the Ambulatory Clerkship: The Double Helix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Geoffrey C.; Markakis, Kathryn M.; Ossip-Klein, Deborah; McIntosh, Scott; Tripler, Scott; Grady-Weliky, Tana

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a rationale regarding the importance of physician behavior change counseling. To describe the double helix behavior change curriculum at the University of Rochester (UR). To provide initial evidence that the curriculum is effective. Design/methodology/approach: Evidence that physician use of the 5A's model is effective in…

  7. Educational Differences in Healthy Behavior Changes and Adherence among Middle-Aged Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Although the better-educated are more likely to practice healthy behaviors when measured at one point in time, there is no clear evidence regarding whether more educated people are more likely to initiate healthy behavior changes in the face of new chronic conditions and whether they are better able to adhere to these healthy changes, once made. I…

  8. A Prospective Study of Extreme Weight Change Behaviors among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined changes in extreme weight change attitudes and behaviors (exercise dependence, food supplements, drive for thinness, bulimia) among adolescent boys and girls over a 16 month period. It also investigated the impact of body mass index, puberty, body image, depression and positive affect on these attitudes and behaviors 16 months…

  9. Testing Theories of Dietary Behavior Change in Youth Using the Mediating Variable Model with Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerin, Ester; Barnett, Anthony; Baranowski, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review and critique current experimentally-based evidence of theoretical mechanisms of dietary behavior change in youth and provide recommendations on ways to enhance theory evaluation. Methods: Interventions that examined mediators of dietary behavior change in youth (age 5-18 years) were identified via electronic database searches…

  10. From Knowledge to Action: Tips for Encouraging and Measuring Program-Related Behavior Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chazdon, Scott; Horntvedt, Jody; Templin, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to document the behavior changes that result from Extension programming. This article describes an evaluation method we call the "action items method." Unlike other approaches for measuring behavior change, this method requires program participants to define their own action plans as part of a program and then asks them…

  11. Promoting Behavior Change Using Social Norms: Applying a Community Based Social Marketing Tool to Extension Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Warner, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Most educational programs are designed to produce lower level outcomes, and Extension educators are challenged to produce behavior change in target audiences. Social norms are a very powerful proven tool for encouraging sustainable behavior change among Extension's target audiences. Minor modifications to program content to demonstrate the…

  12. Character, School Leadership, and the Brain: Learning How To Integrate Knowledge with Behavioral Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Raymond L.; Roberts, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that character is at the core of leadership, and that character development requires behavioral change as well as knowledge acquisition. Discusses how incorporating behavioral change into administrator preparation programs requires faculty to consider recent findings in neuroscience on how the brain learns, and the incorporation of these…

  13. Symptoms and physical activity behavior in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Motl, Robert W; Snook, Erin M; Schapiro, Randall T

    2008-10-01

    We examined overall and specific symptoms as correlates of physical activity in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Participants (N = 133) completed questionnaires that measured overall symptoms; and specific symptoms of depression, pain, and fatigue; difficulty walking; and physical activity. Initial analyses indicated that higher levels of overall symptoms (r = -.50), fatigue (r = -.26), and difficulty walking (r = -.46) were associated with lower levels of physical activity. Path analysis demonstrated that higher levels of overall symptoms were directly and indirectly associated with lower levels of physical activity; the indirect pathway involved difficulty walking (gamma beta = -.17). Such findings indicate that walking difficulty may partially explain the negative relationship between overall symptoms and physical activity behavior in MS.

  14. Effects of swimming activity on the copulatory behavior of sexually active male rats.

    PubMed

    Allouh, M Z

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has long been associated with better sexual function. This study investigated the effects of moderate swimming exercise on the copulatory behavior of sexually potent male rats. Two sets of sexually potent male rats -highly active and moderately active- were identified depending on baseline sexual activity. Each of the two sets of rats was further randomly divided into two groups (swimming and sedentary). There were 16 rats in each of the four study groups (highly active swimming, highly active sedentary, moderately active swimming and moderately active sedentary). The copulatory behavior parameters and serum testosterone levels were measured and compared between the rats of the swimming and sedentary groups following a month long training period in which rats were made to swim for 1 h every alternate day. Swimming significantly improved the sexual performance of highly active rats, as indicated by increased intromission frequency and intromission ratio, compared with the sedentary controls. Swimming improved both sexual desire and performance, as indicated by reduced mount latency and increased intromission ratio, respectively, in swimming moderately active rats compared with the sedentary moderately active controls. Therefore, swimming activity improves the copulatory behavior of both highly active and moderately active male rats.

  15. Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Young, Brittany M; Nigogosyan, Zack; Walton, Léo M; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A; Grogan, Scott W; Tyler, Mitchell E; Edwards, Dorothy F; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A; Williams, Justin C; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n = 8) or no therapy (n = 6). Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and 1 month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI) values during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy, but not in the absence of therapy, to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere) as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions.

  16. Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface

    PubMed Central

    Young, Brittany M.; Nigogosyan, Zack; Walton, Léo M.; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A.; Grogan, Scott W.; Tyler, Mitchell E.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A.; Williams, Justin C.; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n = 8) or no therapy (n = 6). Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and 1 month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI) values during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy, but not in the absence of therapy, to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere) as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions. PMID:25076886

  17. Dynamical model of financial markets: fluctuating ‘temperature’ causes intermittent behavior of price changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozuki, Naoki; Fuchikami, Nobuko

    2003-11-01

    We present a model of financial markets originally proposed for a turbulent flow, as a dynamic basis of its intermittent behavior. Time evolution of the price change is assumed to be described by Brownian motion in a power-law potential, where the ‘temperature’ fluctuates slowly. The model generally yields a fat-tailed distribution of the price change. Specifically a Tsallis distribution is obtained if the inverse temperature is χ2-distributed, which qualitatively agrees with intraday data of foreign exchange market. The so-called ‘volatility’, a quantity indicating the risk or activity in financial markets, corresponds to the temperature of markets and its fluctuation leads to intermittency.

  18. Changes in Attitudes and Behaviors toward Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Social Support for Middle School Students Using the AFIT App as a Supplement to Instruction in a Physical Education Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watterson, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Finding ways to improve nutritional and physical activity components with today's adolescents is a significant problem. The obesity epidemic is over 10 years old and little research has been done on successful interventions that motivate today's students using the latest technology. A total of 140 middle school students and four physical…

  19. Attentional dynamics during free picture viewing: Evidence from oculomotor behavior and electrocortical activity

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Thomas; Graupner, Sven-Thomas; Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Pannasch, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Most empirical evidence on attentional control is based on brief presentations of rather abstract stimuli. Results revealed indications for a dynamic interplay between bottom-up and top-down attentional mechanisms. Here we used a more naturalistic task to examine temporal signatures of attentional mechanisms on fine and coarse time scales. Subjects had to inspect digitized copies of 60 paintings, each shown for 40 s. We simultaneously measured oculomotor behavior and electrophysiological correlates of brain activity to compare early and late intervals (1) of inspection time of each picture (picture viewing) and (2) of the full experiment (time on task). For picture viewing, we found an increase in fixation duration and a decrease of saccadic amplitude while these parameters did not change with time on task. Furthermore, early in picture viewing we observed higher spatial and temporal similarity of gaze behavior. Analyzing electrical brain activity revealed changes in three components (C1, N1 and P2) of the eye fixation-related potential (EFRP); during picture viewing; no variation was obtained for the power in the frontal beta- and in the theta activity. Time on task analyses demonstrated no effects on the EFRP amplitudes but an increase of power in the frontal theta and beta band activity. Thus, behavioral and electrophysiological measures similarly show characteristic changes during picture viewing, indicating a shifting balance of its underlying (bottom-up and top-down) attentional mechanisms. Time on task also modulated top-down attention but probably represents a different attentional mechanism. PMID:23759704

  20. Change in the Making: Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Univ., Lowell. Tsongas Industrial History Center.

    This field trip program, three 45-minute hands-on workshops and a 30-45-minute interpretive tour, provides students with the opportunity to explore the many ways that the Industrial Revolution significantly changed modes of U.S. work, lifestyle, and land use. The workshops complement one another by exploring different aspects of these changes.…