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Sample records for activity c-reactive protein

  1. Gender Differences in C - reactive protein and Muscle Strengthening Activity

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Michael R.; Johnson, Tammie M.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Ford, Earl S.; Boyer, William R.; Churilla, James R.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We sought to examine the gender differences between C-reactive protein (CRP) and muscle strengthening activity (MSA) in U.S. adults (≥20 years of age). METHODS The sample (n=9,135) included participants in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Three categories of reported MSA participation were created: no MSA (referent group), some MSA (≥1 to <2 days/week), and meeting the 2008 Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) recommendation (≥2 days/week). The dependent variable was elevated CRP (>3 to 10 mg/L). RESULTS Gender stratified analysis revealed significantly lower odds of having elevated CRP for women reporting some MSA (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.45–0.83, P=0.0023), or volumes of MSA meeting the DHHS recommendation (OR 0.66; 95% CI 0.54–0.82, P=0.0004). Significantly lower odds of men having elevated CRP was observed in those reporting MSA volumes meeting the recommendation (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.61–0.88, P=0.0011). Following adjustment for WC these odds remained significant in men but not women. CONCLUSIONS Women reporting any MSA were found to have lower odds of having elevated CRP when compared to those reporting no MSA prior to adjustment for WC. Significantly lower odds in men were only observed in those meeting the recommendation. These results suggest that WC may mediate the associations between MSA and CRP and this relationship may be stronger in women. PMID:26963135

  2. Physical activity, sleep, and C-reactive protein as markers of positive health in resilient older men.

    PubMed

    Fields, Alison J; Hoyt, Robert E; Linnville, Steven E; Moore, Jeffery L

    2016-09-01

    This study explored whether physical activity and sleep, combined with the biomarker C-reactive protein, indexed positive health in older men. Many were former prisoners of war, with most remaining psychologically resilient and free of any psychiatric diagnoses. Activity and sleep were recorded through actigraphy in 120 veterans (86 resilient and 34 nonresilient) for 7 days. Resilient men had higher physical activity, significantly lower C-reactive protein levels, and 53 percent had lower cardiac-disease risk compared to nonresilient men. Sleep was adequate and not associated with C-reactive protein. Results suggest continued study is needed in actigraphy and C-reactive protein as means to index positive health.

  3. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: CRP Formal name: C-Reactive Protein Related tests: ESR , Complement , Procalcitonin , ANA , Rheumatoid Factor ...

  4. Macrophages activated by C-reactive protein through Fc gamma RI transfer suppression of immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Marjon, Kristopher D; Marnell, Lorraine L; Mold, Carolyn; Du Clos, Terry W

    2009-02-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase protein with therapeutic activity in mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus and other inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. To determine the mechanism by which CRP suppresses immune complex disease, an adoptive transfer system was developed in a model of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Injection of 200 microg of CRP 24 h before induction of ITP markedly decreased thrombocytopenia induced by anti-CD41. CRP-treated splenocytes also provided protection from ITP in adoptive transfer. Splenocytes from C57BL/6 mice were treated with 200 microg/ml CRP for 30 min, washed, and injected into mice 24 h before induction of ITP. Injection of 10(6) CRP-treated splenocytes protected mice from thrombocytopenia, as did i.v. Ig-treated but not BSA-treated splenocytes. The suppressive cell induced by CRP was found to be a macrophage by depletion, enrichment, and the use of purified bone marrow-derived macrophages. The induction of protection by CRP-treated cells was dependent on FcRgamma-chain and Syk activation, indicating an activating effect of CRP on the donor cell. Suppression of ITP by CRP-treated splenocytes required Fc gamma RI on the donor cell and Fc gamma RIIb in the recipient mice. These findings suggest that CRP generates suppressive macrophages through Fc gamma RI, which then act through an Fc gamma RIIb-dependent pathway in the recipient to decrease platelet clearance. These results provide insight into the mechanism of CRP regulatory activity in autoimmunity and suggest a potential new therapeutic approach to ITP.

  5. Estradiol inhibits vascular endothelial cells pro-inflammatory activation induced by C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Cossette, Émilie; Cloutier, Isabelle; Tardif, Kim; DonPierre, Geneviève; Tanguay, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    In addition of being an important inflammatory biomarker and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, much evidence indicates that the C-reactive protein (CRP) contributes to the atherosclerosis development process. This plasmatic protein synthesized by hepatocytes in response to inflammation and tissue injury induces pro-inflammatory molecules' expression by endothelial cells (ECs). Previous studies showed that the 17β-estradiol (E2) has beneficial effects on vascular cells by reducing in vitro pro-inflammatory molecules expressions in EC. Therefore, we hypothesize that E2 blocks or reduces CRP-mediated inflammatory responses by modulating endogenous production of CRP in EC and/or activation mechanisms. Using human aortic ECs (HAECs), we first evaluated CRP production by vascular EC and second demonstrated its self-induction. Indeed, recombinant human CRP stimulation induces a fivefold increase of CRP expression. A 1-h pre-treatment of E2 at a physiologic dose (10(-9 )M) leads to an important decrease of CRP production suggesting a partial blockage of its amplification loop mechanism. Furthermore, in HAEC, E2 reduces the secretion of the most potent agonist of CRP induction, the IL-6, by 21 %. E2 pre-treatment also decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules IL-8, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 induced by CRP and involved in leukocytes recruitment. In addition, we demonstrated that E2 could restore vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated EC migration response impaired by CRP suggesting another pro-angiogenic property of this hormone. These findings suggest that E2 can interfere with CRP pro-inflammatory effects via activation signals using its rapid, non-genomic pathway that may provide a new mechanism to improve vascular repair.

  6. Arsenite activates NFκB through induction of C-reactive protein

    SciTech Connect

    Druwe, Ingrid L.; Sollome, James J.; Sanchez-Soria, Pablo; Hardwick, Rhiannon N.; Camenisch, Todd D.; Vaillancourt, Richard R.

    2012-06-15

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein in humans. Elevated levels of CRP are produced in response to inflammatory cytokines and are associated with atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance. Exposure to inorganic arsenic, a common environmental toxicant, also produces cardiovascular disorders, namely atherosclerosis and is associated with insulin-resistance. Inorganic arsenic has been shown to contribute to cardiac toxicities through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that result in the activation of NFκB. In this study we show that exposure of the hepatic cell line, HepG2, to environmentally relevant levels of arsenite (0.13 to 2 μM) results in elevated CRP expression and secretion. ROS analysis of the samples showed that a minimal amount of ROS are produced by HepG2 cells in response to these concentrations of arsenic. In addition, treatment of FvB mice with 100 ppb sodium arsenite in the drinking water for 6 months starting at weaning age resulted in dramatically higher levels of CRP in both the liver and inner medullary region of the kidney. Further, mouse Inner Medullary Collecting Duct cells (mIMCD-4), a mouse kidney cell line, were stimulated with 10 ng/ml CRP which resulted in activation of NFκB. Pretreatment with 10 nM Y27632, a known Rho-kinase inhibitor, prior to CRP exposure attenuated NFκB activation. These data suggest that arsenic causes the expression and secretion of CRP and that CRP activates NFκB through activation of the Rho-kinase pathway, thereby providing a novel pathway by which arsenic can contribute to metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: ► Exposure to arsenic can induce the expression and secretion of CRP. ► Mice treated with NaAsO{sub 2} showed higher levels of CRP in both the liver and kidney. ► mIMCD-3 were stimulated with CRP which resulted in activation of NFκB. ► CRP activates NFκB through activation of the Rho-kinase pathway. ► Data

  7. Do Productive Activities Reduce Inflammation in Later Life? Multiple Roles, Frequency of Activities, and C-Reactive Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seoyoun; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The study investigates whether productive activities by older adults reduce bodily inflammation, as indicated by C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomeasure associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Design and Methods: The study uses a representative survey of adults aged 57–85 from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (N = 1,790). Linear regression models were used to analyze the effects of multiple roles (employment, volunteering, attending meetings, and caregiving) and the frequency of activity within each role on log values of CRP concentration (mg/L) drawn from assayed blood samples. Results: Number of roles for productive activities was associated with lower levels of CRP net of chronic conditions, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic resources. When specific types of activity were examined, volunteering manifested the strongest association with lower levels of inflammation, particularly in the 70+ group. There was no evidence that frequent engagement in volunteer activity was associated with heightened inflammation. Implications: Productive activities—and frequent volunteering in particular—may protect individuals from inflammation that is associated with increased risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. PMID:23969258

  8. The Association of C-Reactive Protein and Physical Activity Among a Church-Based Population of African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Swann Arp; Wirth, Michael D.; Khan, Samira; Murphy, E. Angela; Heiney, Sue P.; Davis, Lisa C.; Davis, Briana; Drayton, Ruby F.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Blair, Steven M.; Hébert, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Regular physical activity can reduce systemic inflammation and, thereby, the burden of chronic inflammatory-related conditions. This study examined whether regular physical activity, measured subjectively (Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity [RAPA]) and objectively (Bodymedia’s SenseWear® activity monitor [SWA]), is associated with inflammatory or glycemic control markers. Methods Subjects were 345 participants of the Healthy Eating and Active Living in the Spirit (HEALS) lifestyle intervention among African-American (AA) churches in South Carolina in 2009. Linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between both subjectively- and objectively- measured physical activity and inflammatory markers including high sensitivity c-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Results Those who participated in regular physical activity (RAPA) had lower CRP values compared to those who were sedentary (2.3 vs. 3.8 mg/L, p<0.01). Lower levels of CRP or IL-6 were observed among those in the highest quartile of active energy expenditure (CRP: 2.0 vs. 3.6 mg/L, p=0.01) or moderate-vigorous physical activity minutes (CRP=1.7 vs. 4.5 mg/L, p<0.01; IL-6=1.5 vs. 2.1 pg/mL, p=0.01) compared to their lowest respective quartiles as measured by the SWA. Conclusion Physical activity may improve chronic inflammation, which is a primary pathophysiological mechanism for numerous chronic disorders, especially among minority populations. PMID:26007295

  9. Serum levels of autoantibodies against monomeric C-reactive protein are correlated with disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Sjöwall, Christopher; Bengtsson, Anders A; Sturfelt, Gunnar; Skogh, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the relation between IgG autoantibodies against human C-reactive protein (anti-CRP) and disease activity measures in serial serum samples from 10 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), of whom four had active kidney involvement during the study period. The presence of anti-CRP was analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cut-off for positive anti-CRP test was set at the 95th centile of 100 healthy blood donor sera. Specificity of the anti-CRP antibody binding was evaluated by preincubating patient sera with either native or monomeric CRP. Disease activity was determined by the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), serum levels of CRP, anti-DNA antibodies, complement components and blood cell counts. Of 50 serum samples, 20 (40%) contained antibodies reactive with monomeric CRP, and 7 of 10 patients were positive on at least one occasion during the study. All patients with active lupus nephritis were positive for anti-CRP at flare. Frequent correlations between anti-CRP levels and disease activity measures were observed in anti-CRP-positive individuals. Accumulated anti-CRP data from all patients were positively correlated with SLEDAI scores and anti-DNA antibody levels, whereas significant inverse relationships were noted for complement factors C1q, C3 and C4, and for lymphocyte counts. This study confirms the high prevalence of anti-CRP autoantibodies in SLE and that the antibody levels are correlated with clinical and laboratory disease activity measures. This indicates that anti-CRP antibodies might have biological functions of pathogenetic interest in SLE. Further prospective clinical studies and experimental studies on effects mediated by anti-CRP antibodies are warranted. PMID:15059271

  10. C-reactive protein, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in Portuguese adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Agostinis Sobrinho, Cesar Aparecido; Moreira, Carla Marisa Maia; Mota, Jorge Augusto Pinto da Silva; Santos, Rute Marina Roberto

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the association of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration in adolescents. The sample included 386 Portuguese adolescents (n = 207, female), age 12-18 years, assessed in the year 2012. The PA was assessed with the use of accelerometers, and the cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by the Fitnessgram Pacer test. Blood samples were collected after a 10-hour fasting, and high-sensitivity PCR concentration was further assessed. Significant associations between CRP and cardiorespiratory fitness were found for females (r = -0.313; p < 0.001) and males (r = -0.163; p < 0.05); however, when adjusted by the BMI, the associations remained significant only for females (r = -0.215; p < 0.001). Regarding the association between CRP and PA, no significant associations were found for both genders. Therefore, CRP is apparently negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, with differences between males and females; for females it seems less dependent than BMI.

  11. Surfactant protein D, Club cell protein 16, Pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine, C-reactive protein, and Fibrinogen biomarker variation in chronic obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed

    Lock-Johansson, Sofie; Vestbo, Jørgen; Sorensen, Grith Lykke

    2014-11-25

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multifaceted condition that cannot be fully described by the severity of airway obstruction. The limitations of spirometry and clinical history have prompted researchers to investigate a multitude of surrogate biomarkers of disease for the assessment of patients, prediction of risk, and guidance of treatment. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of observations for a selection of recently investigated pulmonary inflammatory biomarkers (Surfactant protein D (SP-D), Club cell protein 16 (CC-16), and Pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC/CCL-18)) and systemic inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen) with COPD. The relevance of these biomarkers for COPD is discussed in terms of their biological plausibility, their independent association to disease and hard clinical outcomes, their modification by interventions, and whether changes in clinical outcomes are reflected by changes in the biomarker.

  12. Neighborhood Walkable Urban Form and C-Reactive Protein

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Walkable urban form predicts physical activity and lower body mass index, which lower C-reactive protein (CRP). However, urban form is also related to pollution, noise, social and health behavior, crowding, and other stressors, which may complement or contravene walka...

  13. Serum Albumin and C-Reactive Protein/Albumin Ratio Are Useful Biomarkers of Crohn's Disease Activity.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guangming; Tu, Jiangfeng; Liu, Lingang; Luo, Laisheng; Wu, Jiaqi; Tao, Lisha; Zhang, Chenjing; Geng, Xiaoge; Chen, Xiaojun; Ai, Xinbo; Shen, Bo; Pan, Wensheng

    2016-11-16

    BACKGROUND Serum albumin (ALB) may be low during acute inflammation, but it is also affected by nutritional status. Therefore, we hypothesized that ALB and the C-reactive protein/ALB ratio (CRP/ALB) may be associated with disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). MATERIAL AND METHODS Altogether, 100 patients with CD and 100 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were retrospectively enrolled in the current study. The patients with CD were subdivided into patients with active disease (Crohn's Disease Activity Index >150) and those in remission. ALB levels, CRP levels, and lipid profiles were measured. RESULTS ALB and CRP levels and the CRP/ALB ratio were the most useful for differentiating between active and nonactive CD. ALB levels (r=-0.50, P<0.01), CRP levels (r=0.39, P<0.01), and CRP/ALB ratio (r=0.42, P<0.01) all correlated with CD activity. These correlations were more prominent in males. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the area under the curve (AUC) representing ALB (0.79) was higher than the AUC representing CRP (0.73) or CRP/ALB ratio (0.75; P>0.05). The AUCs corresponding to ALB level, CRP level, and CRP/ALB ratio were more prominent in males versus females (P<0.05). CRP level (14.55 mg/L), ALB level (34.35 g/L), and CRP/ALB ratio (0.69) had sensitivities of 67.7%, 72.6%, and 59.7%, and specificities of 73.7%, 78.9%, and 81.6%, respectively, for CD activity. CONCLUSIONS In the present retrospective study, we found that ALB level and CRP/ALB ratio were useful biomarkers for identifying CD activity, especially in males. These results suggest that, in addition to inflammation, assessment of patient nutritional status could also aid in identifying CD activity.

  14. Immunoanalytical characteristics of C-reactive protein and high sensitivity C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Moutachakkir, Mariame; Lamrani Hanchi, Asma; Baraou, Azzedine; Boukhira, Abderrahman; Chellak, Saliha

    2017-04-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a polypeptide molecule belonging to the family of pentraxins. It has a molecular mass of 120,000 daltons and consists of five identical sub-units that contain each 206 amino acids. CRP is synthesized primarily by the liver in response to certain pro-inflammatory cytokines. It plays an important role in innate immunity, opsonization by its properties, complement activation and immunoglobulins receptor binding. CRP is a protein of the acute systemic inflammation and is, therefore, a prime marker of inflammation. As atherosclerosis has an inflammatory component, CRP can appreciate cardiovascular risk when analysed by more sensitive assays, that are able to measure extremely low concentrations of CRP, called high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP). The CRP is quantified by immunonephelometry or immunoturbidimetry. There is no standard technique. The hs-CRP quantification is based on immunonephelemetry sensitized techniques called "immunolatex". We present in this paper the main biochemical and physiological data related to CRP, explaining the need for its quantification, the problems encountered in immunoassay and the interpretation of results.

  15. No further gain can be achieved by calculating Disease Activity Score in 28 joints with high-sensitivity assay of C-reactive protein because of high intraindividual variability of C-reactive protein

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Inger M.J.; Emamifar, Amir; Andreasen, Rikke A.; Antonsen, Steen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) is commonly used to evaluate disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is a guide to treatment decision. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of lower reporting limit for C-reactive protein (CRP), with respect to intraindividual biological variability, on the calculation of DAS28 and subsequent patient classification. This study consists of 2 sections: a theoretical consideration discussing the performance of CRP in calculating DAS28 taking intraindividual biological variation and lower reporting limit for CRP into account and a cross-sectional study of RA patients applying our theoretical results. Therefore, we calculated DAS28 twice, with the actual CRP values and CRP = 9 mg/L, the latter to elucidate the positive effects of reducing the lower reporting limit of CRP from <10 to <3 mg/L. Lower-reporting limit of <10 mg/L leads to overestimate DAS28. However, reducing lower reporting limit for CRP to <3 mg/L results in optimizing DAS28 calculation. Further lowering of reporting limit for CRP to <3 mg/L does not increase the precision of DAS28 owing to the relatively large intraindividual biological variation. Five hundred twelve patients were included. There was a significant difference between recalculated and patients DAS28 (P < 0.001). One hundred nine patients had DAS28 deviation (compatible to remission to low: 66, low to moderate: 39. and moderate to high: 4). Owing to significant impact of intraindividual biologic variation on DAS28 and patient classification, special attention should be paid to calculate DAS28 when CRP values are within normal range. Furthermore, we conclude that results of different studies evaluating DAS28 and treatment response are not comparable if the reporting limits of CRP are unknown. PMID:28072726

  16. C-Reactive protein in dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, K; Kanda, T; Yamauchi, Y; Hasegawa, A; Iwasaki, T; Arai, M; Suzuki, T; Kobayashi, I; Nagai, R

    1999-01-01

    The prognosis for patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is poor, although clinical features are variable. Prediction of outcome has been difficult in individual patients based on laboratory data. In some patients with DCM, myocardial damage secondary to viral or immune-mediated myocardial inflammation may persist. To objectively assess inflammation, we measured plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) in 188 patients with idiopathic DCM over 5-8 years. All had dyspnea and fatigue at rest; all patients had a left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40% by echocardiography or by contrast or radionuclide ventriculography. We divided these patients into two groups: patients dying within 5 years following admission (n = 49) and the remainder surviving for at least 5 years (n = 139). CRP concentrations in the patients dying early were significantly higher than in the long-term survivors (1. 05 +/- 1.37 vs. 0.49 +/- 1.04 mg/dl, p < 0.05). Sixty-two percent of the patients with CRP>1.0 died within 5 years. In addition to other laboratory tests including electrocardiography and echocardiography, routine CRP measurements proved to be valuable for identifying high-risk patients who require special treatment strategies.

  17. Modified C-reactive protein is expressed by stroke neovessels and is a potent activator of angiogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Slevin, Mark; Matou-Nasri, Sabine; Turu, Marta; Luque, Ana; Rovira, Norma; Badimon, Lina; Boluda, Susana; Potempa, Lawrence; Sanfeliu, Coral; de Vera, Nuria; Krupinski, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    Native C-reactive protein (nCRP) is a pentameric oligo-protein and an acute phase reactant whose serum expression is increased in patients with inflammatory disease. We have identified by immunohistochemistry, significant expression of a tissue-binding insoluble modified version or monomeric form of CRP (mCRP) associated with angiogenic microvessels in peri-infarcted regions of patients studied with acute ischaemic stroke. mCRP, but not nCRP was expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus of damaged neurons. mCRP co-localized with CD105, a marker of angiogenesis in regions of revascularisation. In vitro investigations demonstrated that mCRP was preferentially expressed in human brain microvessel endothelial cells following oxygen-glucose deprivation and mCRP (but not column purified nCRP) associated with the endothelial cell surface, and was angiogenic to vascular endothelial cells, stimulating migration and tube formation in matrigel more strongly than fibroblast growth factor-2. The mechanism of signal transduction was not through the CD16 receptor. Western blotting showed that mCRP stimulated phosphorylation of the key down-stream mitogenic signalling protein ERK1/2. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation blocked the angiogenic effects of mCRP. We propose that mCRP may contribute to the neovascularization process and because of its abundant presence, be important in modulating angiogenesis in both acute stroke and later during neuro-recovery.

  18. Diagnostic value of C-reactive protein in acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Albu, E; Miller, B M; Choi, Y; Lakhanpal, S; Murthy, R N; Gerst, P H

    1994-01-01

    Serum C-reactive protein was measured in 56 patients hospitalized with a suspected diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Based on these determinations, four groups of patients were defined: Group A = 26 patients with acute appendicitis who had a C-reactive protein level higher than 2.5 mg/dl. Group B = 4 patients with a C-reactive protein level lower than 2.5 mg/dl who, after surgery based on a presumed diagnosis of acute appendicitis, were found to have a normal appendix. Group C = 22 patients with nonspecific abdominal pain, 18 (72 percent) of whom had an elevated C-reactive protein level, although in only 4 (7.1 percent) were these levels higher than 2.5 percent mg/dl. Group D = 4 patients who had diseases other than acute appendicitis. It is concluded that an increase in C-reactive protein levels to more than 2.5 mg/dl is not a definite indicator of acute appendicitis. However, if the C-reactive protein level in blood drawn 12 hours after the onset of symptoms is less than 2.5 mg/dl, acute appendicitis can be excluded.

  19. 21 CFR 866.5270 - C-reactive protein immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false C-reactive protein immuno-logical test system. 866....5270 C-reactive protein immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A C-reactive protein... the C-reactive protein in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of C-reactive protein aids...

  20. Value of Computerized Tomography Enterography in Predicting Crohn’s Disease Activity: Correlation with Crohn’s Disease Activity Index and C-Reactive Protein

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Kyung; Han, Na Yeon; Park, Beom Jin; Sung, Deuk Jae; Cho, Sung Beom; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Keum, Bora; Kim, Min Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background The accurate evaluation of Crohn’s disease activity is important for the treatment of the disease and for monitoring the response. Computerized tomography (CT) enterography is a useful imaging modality that reflects enteric inflammation, as well as extramural complications. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CT enterographic (CTE) findings of active Crohn’s disease and the Crohn’s disease activity index (CDAI) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Patients and Methods Fifty CT enterographies of 39 patients with Crohn’s disease in the small bowel were used in our study. The CDAI was assessed through clinical and laboratory variables. Multiple CT parameters, including mural hyperenhancement, mural thickness, mural stratification, comb sign, and mesenteric fat attenuation, were evaluated with a four-point scale. The presence or absence of enhanced lymph nodes, fibrofatty proliferation, sinus or fistula, abscess, and stricture were also assessed. Two gastrointestinal radiologists independently reviewed all CT images, and inter-observer agreement was examined. Correlations between CT findings, CRP, and CDAI were assessed using Spearman’s rank correlation and logistic regression analysis. To assess the predictive accuracy of the model, a receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis for the sum of CT enterographic scores was used. Results Mural hyperenhancement, mural thickness, comb sign, mesenteric fat density, and fibrofatty proliferation were significantly correlated with CDAI and CRP (P < 0.05). The binary logistic regression model demonstrated that mesenteric fat density, mural stratification, and the presence of enhanced lymph nodes (P < 0.05) had an influence on CDAI severity. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of the CTE index for predicting disease activity was 0.85. Using a cut-off value of 8, the sensitivity and negative predictive values were 95% and 94%, respectively

  1. Adiponectin, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen and tissue plasminogen activator antigen levels among glucose-intolerant women with and without histories of gestational diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, C.; Christophi, C. A.; Goldberg, R. B.; Perreault, L.; Dabelea, D.; Marcovina, S. M.; Pi-Sunyer, X.; Barrett-Connor, E.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To examine concentrations of biomarkers (adiponectin, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen and tissue plasminogen-activator antigen) associated with glucose homeostasis and diabetes risk by history of gestational diabetes. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of the Diabetes Prevention Program, a randomized trial of lifestyle intervention or metformin for diabetes prevention. At baseline, participants were overweight and had impaired glucose tolerance. Biomarkers at baseline and 1 year after enrolment were compared between parous women with (n=350) and without a history of gestational diabetes (n=1466). Cox proportional hazard models evaluated whether history of gestational diabetes was associated with diabetes risk, after adjustment for baseline biomarker levels as well as for change in biomarker levels, demographic factors and anthropometrics. Results At baseline, women with histories of gestational diabetes had lower adiponectin (7.5 μg/ml vs. 8.7 μg/ml; p<0.0001) and greater log C-reactive protein (−0.90 mg/l vs. −0.78 mg/l, p=0.04) levels than women without histories of gestational diabetes, but these associations did not persist after adjustment for demographic factors. Fibrinogen and tissue plasminogen-activator antigen were similar between women with and without histories of gestational diabetes. Women with and without histories of gestational diabetes had a similar pattern of changes in biomarkers within randomization arm. Adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, baseline weight, change in weight, baseline biomarker level and change in biomarker level did not significantly alter the association between history of gestational diabetes and diabetes risk. Conclusions Among women with impaired glucose tolerance, biomarkers in women with and without histories of gestational diabetes are similar and respond similarly to lifestyle changes and metformin. Adjustment for biomarker levels did not explain the higher risk of diabetes observed in women with

  2. Effects of atorvastatin on human c reactive protein metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Statins are known to reduce plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. Our goals were to define the mechanisms by which CRP was reduced by maximal dose atorvastatin. Eight subjects with combined hyperlipidemia (5 men and 3 postmenopausal women) were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled...

  3. Solid-phase classical complement activation by C-reactive protein (CRP) is inhibited by fluid-phase CRP-C1q interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoewall, Christopher; Askendal, Agneta; Almroth, Gunnel

    2007-01-05

    C-reactive protein (CRP) interacts with phosphorylcholine (PC), Fc{gamma} receptors, complement factor C1q and cell nuclear constituents, yet its biological roles are insufficiently understood. The aim was to characterize CRP-induced complement activation by ellipsometry. PC conjugated with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (PC-KLH) was immobilized to cross-linked fibrinogen. A low-CRP serum with different amounts of added CRP was exposed to the PC-surfaces. The total serum protein deposition was quantified and deposition of IgG, C1q, C3c, C4, factor H, and CRP detected with polyclonal antibodies. The binding of serum CRP to PC-KLH dose-dependently triggered activation of the classical pathway. Unexpectedly, the activation was efficiently down-regulated at CRP levels >150 mg/L. Using radial immunodiffusion, CRP-C1q interaction was observed in serum samples with high CRP concentrations. We propose that the underlying mechanism depends on fluid-phase interaction between C1q and CRP. This might constitute another level of complement regulation, which has implications for systemic lupus erythematosus where CRP is often low despite flare-ups.

  4. Synergistic trans-activation of the human C-reactive protein promoter by transcription factor HNF-1 binding at two distinct sites.

    PubMed Central

    Toniatti, C; Demartis, A; Monaci, P; Nicosia, A; Ciliberto, G

    1990-01-01

    The promoter region of the human C-reactive protein (CRP) gene comprises two distinct regions (APREs, for Acute Phase Responsive Elements) each one containing information necessary and sufficient for liver specific and IL-6 inducible expression in human hepatoma Hep3B cells. In this paper we show that both APREs contain a low affinity binding site for the liver specific transcription factor HNF-1/LF-B1. The two sites are separated by approximately 80 bp. Mutations in either of the two sites abolish inducible expression. The same effect is specifically obtained in cotransfection competition experiments when the human albumin HNF-1 site is used as competitor. However, HNF-1 is not the intranuclear mediator of IL-6 because synthetic promoters formed by multimerized copies of different HNF-1 binding sites are not transcriptionally activated by this cytokine. An expression vector encoding full length HNF-1 is capable of trans-activating transcription from the wild-type CRP promoter but not from mutants which have lost the ability to bind HNF-1. Moreover, the level of trans-activation observed with the natural promoter containing both HNF-1 binding sites is far greater than the level of mutated variants containing only one of the two sites. This result strongly suggests that two HNF-1 molecules bound simultaneously to sites distant from each other can act synergistically to activate gene expression. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. PMID:2265613

  5. C-reactive protein modulates human lung fibroblast migration.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Kazuhiko; Kohyama, Tadashi; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Kato, Jun; Takami, Kazutaka; Okazaki, Hitoshi; Desaki, Masashi; Nagase, Takahide; Rennard, Stephen I; Takizawa, Hajime

    2009-02-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) has been classically used as a marker of inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CRP on migration of human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFL-1) to human plasma fibronectin (HFn). Using the blindwell chamber technique, CRP inhibited HFL-1 migration in a dose-dependent fashion (at 1 microg/mL, inhibition: 32.5% +/- 7.1%; P < .05). Western blot analysis showed that CRP inhibited the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity in the presence of HFn. Moreover, the MAPK inhibitors SB202190 (25 microM) and SB203580 (25 microM) inhibited HFn-induced cell migration, suggesting an important role of p38 MAPK in HFn-induced migration. Taken together, these results suggest that the inhibitory effect of CRP is mediated by blocking MAPK. In summary, this study demonstrates that CRP directly modulates human lung fibroblasts migration. Thus, CRP may contribute to regulation of wound healing and may be endogenous antifibrotic factor acting on lung fibrosis.

  6. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Michael

    2015-06-01

    C-reactive protein is a better indicator of inflammation than the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. It is more sensitive and responds more quickly to changes in the clinical situation. False negative and false positive results are more common when measuring the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Renal disease, female sex and older age increase the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate has value in detecting low-grade bone infection, and in monitoring some patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

  7. Deletion of C-reactive protein ameliorates experimental cerebral malaria?

    PubMed Central

    Szalai, Alexander J.; Barnum, Scott R.; Ramos, Theresa N.

    2014-01-01

    Background C-reactive protein (CRP) level correlates with parasitemia and severity of malaria, but whether this reflects causality remains unknown. Methods Using CRP-transgenic and CRP-deficient mice we compared the onset and severity of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA). Results CRP-deficient mice were most resistant to ECM. Conclusions CRP might contribute to the development of cerebral malaria, rather than protect against it. PMID:25002461

  8. Complement factor H binding of monomeric C-reactive protein downregulates proinflammatory activity and is impaired with at risk polymorphic CFH variants

    PubMed Central

    Molins, Blanca; Fuentes-Prior, Pablo; Adán, Alfredo; Antón, Rosa; Arostegui, Juan I.; Yagüe, Jordi; Dick, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and immune-mediated processes are pivotal to the pathogenic progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been shown to be associated with an increased risk for AMD, the pathophysiological importance of the prototypical acute-phase reactant in the etiology of the disease is unknown, and data regarding the exact role of CRP in ocular inflammation are limited. In this study, we provide mechanistic insight into how CRP contributes to the development of AMD. In particular, we show that monomeric CRP (mCRP) but not the pentameric form (pCRP) upregulates IL-8 and CCL2 levels in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Further, we show that complement factor H (FH) binds mCRP to dampen its proinflammatory activity. FH from AMD patients carrying the “risk” His402 polymorphism displays impaired binding to mCRP, and therefore proinflammatory effects of mCRP remain unrestrained. PMID:26961257

  9. Impact of C-reactive protein (CRP) on surfactant function

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.J.; Sanders, R.L.; McAdam, K.P.; Hales, C.A.; Thompson, B.T.; Gelfand, J.A.; Burke, J.F. )

    1989-12-01

    Plasma levels of the acute-phase reactant, C-reactive protein (CRP), increase up to one thousand-fold as a result of trauma or inflammation. CRP binds to phosphorylcholine (PC) in a calcium-ion dependent manner. The structural homology between PC and the major phospholipid component of surfactant, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), led to the present study in which we examined if CRP levels might be increased in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and subsequently interfere with surfactant function. Our results showed that CRP levels in the bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) was increased in patients with ARDS (97.8 +/- 84.2 micrograms/mg total protein vs. 4.04 +/- 2.2 micrograms/mg total protein in normals). Our results show that CRP binds to liposomes containing DPPC and phosphatidylglycerol (PG). As a result of this interaction, CRP inhibits the surface activity of a PG-DPPC mixture when tested with a Wilhelmy surfactometer or with the Enhorning pulsating bubble apparatus. Furthermore, the surface activity of a clinically used surfactant replacement, Surfactant TA (2 mg/ml), was also severely impaired by CRP in a dose-dependent manner (doses used ranging from 24.5 to 1,175 micrograms/ml). In contrast, human serum albumin (HSA) at 500 and 900 micrograms/ml had no inhibitory effect on Surfactant TA surface activity. These results suggest that CRP, although not an initiating insult in ARDS, may contribute to the subsequent abnormalities of surfactant function and thus the pathogenesis of the pulmonary dysfunction seen in ARDS.

  10. C-reactive protein inhibits insulin activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase via the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif of FcgammaRIIB and SHIP-1.

    PubMed

    Tanigaki, Keiji; Mineo, Chieko; Yuhanna, Ivan S; Chambliss, Ken L; Quon, Michael J; Bonvini, Ezio; Shaul, Philip W

    2009-06-05

    Insulin promotes the cardiovascular protective functions of the endothelium including NO production by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), which it stimulates via Akt kinase which phosphorylates eNOS Ser1179. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase reactant that is positively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. We previously showed that CRP inhibits eNOS activation by insulin by blunting Ser1179 phosphorylation. We now elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. We first show in mice that CRP inhibits insulin-induced eNOS phosphorylation, indicating that these processes are operative in vivo. In endothelial cells we find that CRP attenuates insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation, and CRP antagonism of eNOS is negated by expression of constitutively active Akt; the inhibitory effect of CRP on Akt is also observed in vivo. A requirement for the IgG receptor FcgammaRIIB was demonstrated in vitro using blocking antibody, and reconstitution experiments with wild-type and mutant FcgammaRIIB in NIH3T3IR cells revealed that these processes require the ITIM (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif) of the receptor. Furthermore, we find that endothelium express SHIP-1 (Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase 1), that CRP induces SHIP-1 stimulatory phosphorylation in endothelium in culture and in vivo, and that SHIP-1 knockdown by small interfering RNA prevents CRP antagonism of insulin-induced eNOS activation. Thus, CRP inhibits eNOS stimulation by insulin via FcgammaRIIB and its ITIM, SHIP-1 activation, and resulting blunted activation of Akt. These findings provide mechanistic linkage among CRP, impaired insulin signaling in endothelium, and greater cardiovascular disease risk in type 2 diabetes.

  11. Neighborhood Walkable Urban Form and C-Reactive Protein

    PubMed Central

    King, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Background Walkable urban form predicts physical activity and lower body mass index, which lower C-reactive protein (CRP). However, urban form is also related to pollution, noise, social and health behavior, crowding, and other stressors, which may complement or contravene walkability effects. Purpose This paper assesses within-neighborhood correlation of CRP, and whether three features of walkable urban form (residential density, street connectivity, and land use mix) are associated with CRP levels. Methods CRP measures (n=610) and sociodemographic data come from the 2001–3 Chicago Community Adult Health Study, linked with objective built environment data. Results Within-neighborhood correlations of CRP are greater than those of related health measures. A one standard deviation increase in residential density predicts significantly higher log CRP (e.g. β=0.11, p<.01) in Chicago, while a one standard deviation increase in land use mix predicts significantly lower CRP (e.g. β=−0. 19, p<0.01). Street connectivity is unrelated to CRP in this highly walkable city. Discussion Results suggest residential density may be a risk factor for inflammation, while greater walkability of mixed land use areas may be protective. It may be that negative aspects of density overcome the inflammatory benefits of walking. PMID:24096140

  12. Purification of recombinant C-reactive protein mutants

    PubMed Central

    Thirumalai, Avinash; Singh, Sanjay K.; Hammond, David J.; Gang, Toh B.; Ngwa, Donald N.; Pathak, Asmita; Agrawal, Alok

    2017-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an evolutionarily conserved protein, a component of the innate immune system, and an acute phase protein in humans. In addition to its raised level in blood in inflammatory states, CRP is also localized at sites of inflammation including atherosclerotic lesions, arthritic joints and amyloid plaque deposits. Results of in vivo experiments in animal models of inflammatory diseases indicate that CRP is an anti-pneumococcal, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-arthritic and an anti-amyloidogenic molecule. The mechanisms through which CRP functions in inflammatory diseases are not fully defined; however, the ligand recognition function of CRP in its native and non-native pentameric structural conformations and the complement-activating ability of ligand-complexed CRP have been suggested to play a role. One tool to understand the structure-function relationships of CRP and determine the contributions of the recognition and effector functions of CRP in host defense is to employ site-directed mutagenesis to create mutants for experimentation. For example, CRP mutants incapable of binding to phosphocholine are generated to investigate the importance of the phosphocholine-binding property of CRP in mediating host defense. Recombinant CRP mutants can be expressed in mammalian cells and, if expressed, can be purified from the cell culture media. While the methods to purify wild-type CRP are well established, different purification strategies are needed to purify various mutant forms of CRP if the mutant does not bind to either calcium or phosphocholine. In this article, we report the methods used to purify pentameric recombinant wild-type and mutant CRP expressed in and secreted by mammalian cells. PMID:1460031

  13. Disease-associated glycosylated molecular variants of human C-reactive protein activate complement-mediated hemolysis of erythrocytes in tuberculosis and Indian visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Ansar, Waliza; Mukhopadhyay, Sumi; Habib, S K Hasan; Basu, Shyamasree; Saha, Bibhuti; Sen, Asish Kumar; Mandal, C N; Mandal, Chitra

    2009-12-01

    Human C-reactive protein (CRP), as a mediator of innate immunity, removed damaged cells by activating the classical complement pathway. Previous studies have successfully demonstrated that CRPs are differentially induced as glycosylated molecular variants in certain pathological conditions. Affinity-purified CRPs from two most prevalent diseases in India viz. tuberculosis (TB) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) have differential glycosylation in their sugar composition and linkages. As anemia is a common manifestation in TB and VL, we assessed the contributory role of glycosylated CRPs to influence hemolysis via CRP-complement-pathway as compared to healthy control subjects. Accordingly, the specific binding of glycosylated CRPs with erythrocytes was established by flow-cytometry and ELISA. Significantly, deglycosylated CRPs showed a 7-8-fold reduced binding with erythrocytes confirming the role of glycosylated moieties. Scatchard analysis revealed striking differences in the apparent binding constants (10(4)-10(5) M(-1)) and number of binding sites (10(6)-10(7)sites/erythrocyte) for CRP on patients' erythrocytes as compared to normal. Western blotting along with immunoprecipitation analysis revealed the presence of distinct molecular determinants on TB and VL erythrocytes specific to disease-associated CRP. Increased fragility, hydrophobicity and decreased rigidity of diseased-erythrocytes upon binding with glycosylated CRP suggested membrane damage. Finally, the erythrocyte-CRP binding was shown to activate the CRP-complement-cascade causing hemolysis, even at physiological concentration of CRP (10 microg/ml). Thus, it may be postulated that CRP have a protective role towards the clearance of damaged-erythrocytes in these two diseases.

  14. Admission levels of C-reactive protein and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in patients with acute myocardial infarction with and without cardiogenic shock or heart failure on admission.

    PubMed

    Akkus, Mehmet Necdet; Polat, Gurbuz; Yurtdas, Mustafa; Akcay, Burak; Ercetin, Neslihan; Cicek, Dilek; Doven, Oben; Sucu, Nehir

    2009-01-01

    Scarce data exist on the relationship of C-reactive protein (CRP) or plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) to the occurrence of heart failure (HF) or cardiogenic shock (CS) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and on the relationship between these biomarkers and mortality in CS patients. Thus, we compared high-sensitivity CRP and PAI-1 antigen plasma levels on admission among 3 age- and gender-matched AMI patients groups (consisting of 60 patients with CS, 60 with HF, and 60 without HF on admission), after determining that PAI-1 levels did not vary significantly diurnally in these groups by comparing the data among subgroups which were divided according to admission time within the groups. For CS patients, we also conducted regression analyses to examine the relations of these biomarkers to mortality. CRP levels both in CS (P < 0.001) and HF (P < 0.05) patients were significantly higher compared to those without HF, PAI-1 levels in CS patients were significantly higher compared to both those with (P < 0.05) and without HF (P > 0.01), and CRP and PAI-1 were independent predictors of in-hospital (Odds ratio [OR] = 6.12, 95% confidence intervals [95%CI] = 1.47-25.54 and OR = 5.92, 95%CI = 1.31-26.77, respectively) and 1-year mortality (OR = 5.53, 95%CI = 1.21-25.17 and OR = 5.48, 95%CI = 1.09-27.52, respectively) in CS patients. In conclusion, at admission, CRP is associated with the occurrence of CS and HF and PAI-1 is associated with the occurrence of CS after AMI, and they are of prognostic value in CS complicating AMI.

  15. C-Reactive Protein in Stable Cystic Fibrosis: An Additional Indicator of Clinical Disease Activity and Risk of Future Pulmonary Exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Matouk, Elias; Nguyen, Dao; Benedetti, Andrea; Bernier, Joanie; Gruber, James; Landry, Jennifer; Rousseau, Simon; Ahlgren, Heather G; Lands, Larry C; Wojewodka, Gabriella; Radzioch, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In stable adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, we assessed the role of baseline high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) on CF clinical variables and frequency of intravenous (IV) treated pulmonary exacerbations (PExs) 1-year post-baseline. Methods We recruited 51 clinically stable CF patients from our Adult CF Center. We incorporated collected parameters into Matouk CF clinical score and CF questionnaire-revised quality of life score (QOL). We used the clinical minus complications subscores as a clinical disease activity score (CDAS). We dichotomized our patients according to the cohort median baseline hs-CRP of 5.2 mg/L. Results Patients in the high hs-CRP group (≥ 5.2 mg/L) demonstrated worse CDAS (r=0.67, p=0.0001) and QOL scores (r=0.57, p=0.0017) at a given FEV1% predicted. In both hs-CRP groups, prior-year IV-treated PExs and baseline CDASs were significant predictors of future IV-treated PExs. Interestingly, the association between baseline CDAS and future PExs frequency was more robust in the high compared to the low hs-CRP group (r=−0.88, p<0.0001, r=−0.48, p=0.017, respectively) with a steeper regression slope (p=0.001). In addition, a significant interaction was demonstrated between elevated baseline hs-CRP levels and CDASs for the prediction of increased risk of future PExs (p=0.02). This interaction provided an additional indicator of clinical disease activity and added another dimension to the prior year PExs frequency phenotype to identify patients at increased risk for future PExs. Conclusion Stable CF patients with elevated baseline hs-CRP (≥ 5.2 mg/L) demonstrated worse clinical disease activity and QOL scores at a given level of disease severity (FEV1% predicted). Elevated baseline hs-CRP values combined with clinical disease activity scores are associated with increased risk for future IV-treated PExs even in those with mild clinical disease activity scores. PMID:28066689

  16. C-Reactive Protein: Clinical and Epidemiological Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, María Sofía; Toledo, Alexandra; Añez, Roberto; Torres, Yaquelín; Apruzzese, Vanessa; Silva, Carlos; Bermúdez, Valmore

    2014-01-01

    An important etiopathogenic component of cardiovascular disease is atherosclerosis, with inflammation being an essential event in the pathophysiology of all clinical pictures it comprises. In recent years, several molecules implicated in this process have been studied in order to assess cardiovascular risk in both primary and secondary prevention. C-reactive protein is a plasmatic protein of the pentraxin family and an acute phase reactant, very useful as a general inflammation marker. Currently, it is one of the most profoundly researched molecules in the cardiovascular field, yet its clinical applicability regarding cardiovascular risk remains an object of discussion, considered by some as a simple marker and by others as a true risk factor. In this sense, numerous studies propose its utilization as a predictor of cardiovascular risk through the use of high-sensitivity quantification methods for the detection of values <1 mg/L, following strict international guidelines. Increasing interest in these clinical findings has led to the creation of modified score systems including C-reactive protein concentrations, in order to enhance risk scores commonly used in clinical practice and offer improved care to patients with cardiovascular disease, which remains the first cause of mortality at the worldwide, national, and regional scenarios. PMID:24653858

  17. Comparison of the Disease Activity Score using Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and C-reactive Protein in African-Americans with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tamhane, Ashutosh; Redden, David T.; McGwin, Gerald; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Westfall, Andrew O.; Reynolds, Richard J.; Hughes, Laura B.; Conn, Doyt L.; Callahan, Leigh F.; Jonas, Beth L.; Smith, Edwin A.; Brasington, Richard D.; Moreland, Larry W.; Bridges, S. Louis

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Disease Activity Score based on 28 joints (DAS28) has been increasingly used in clinical practice and research studies of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Studies have reported discordance between DAS28 based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) versus C-reactive protein (CRP) in RA patients. However such comparison is lacking in African-Americans with RA. METHODS This analysis included participants from the Consortium for the Longitudinal Evaluation of African Americans with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (CLEAR) Registry which enrolls self-declared African-Americans with RA. Using tender and swollen joint counts separate ESR-based and CRP-based DAS28 scores (DAS28-ESR3 and DAS28-CRP3) were calculated, as were DAS28-ESR4 and DAS28-CRP4, which included the patient’s assessment of disease activity. The scores were compared using paired t-test, simple agreement and kappa, correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS Of the 233 included participants, 85% were women, mean age at enrollment was 52.6 years, and median disease duration at enrollment was 21 months. Mean DAS28-ESR3 was significantly higher than DAS28-CRP3 (4.8 vs. 3.9; p<0.001). Similarly, mean DAS28-ESR4 was significantly higher than DAS28-CRP4 (4.7 vs. 3.9; p<0.001). ESR-based DAS28 remained higher than CRP-based DAS28 even when stratified by age, sex, and disease duration. Overall agreement was not high between DAS28-ESR3 and DAS28-CRP3 (50%) or between DAS28-ESR4 and DAS28-CRP4 (59%). DAS28-CRP3 underestimated disease activity in 47% of the participants relative to DAS28-ESR3 and DAS28-CRP4 in 40% of the participants relative to DAS28-ESR4. CONCLUSION There was significant discordance between the ESR-based and CRP-based DAS28 which could impact clinical treatment decisions in African-Americans with RA. PMID:23950187

  18. C-reactive protein as a marker of periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Kanaparthy, Rosaiah; Kanaparthy, Aruna; Mahendra, Muktishree

    2012-01-01

    Periodontal subgingival pathogens affect local and systemic immune and inflammatory response and cause the release of cytokines; this results in periodontal destruction and initiation of an acute phase systemic inflammatory response characterized by the release of C-reactive proteins (CRP). This study set out to evaluate the serum concentration of CRP that can be used as a marker of periodontal disease as well as a risk indicator for cardiovascular disease. Based on their periodontal status, 45 patients were divided into three groups. The following clinical parameters were recorded: plaque index, gingival index, bleeding index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment levels. Scoring was done on six tooth surfaces for all teeth. For the CRP assessment, blood samples were collected from subjects at the time of clinical examination. The results indicated an increase in serum CRP levels in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis as compared to controls.

  19. Comparison of C-reactive protein and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Helal, Imed; Zerelli, Lilia; Krid, Madiha; ElYounsi, Fethi; Ben Maiz, Hedi; Zouari, Bechir; Adelmoula, Jaouida; Kheder, Adel

    2012-05-01

    Chronic inflammation is highly prevalent in patients on hemodialysis (HD), as evidenced by increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). We compared CRP to high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) to determine whether it has any clinical implications and prognostic significance in terms of mortality. CRP was measured using a standard immunoturbidometric assay on the COBAS® INTEGRA system and hs-CRP was measured using the Dade Behring on the Konelab Nephelometer in 50 patients on HD. CRP (≥6 mg/L) and hs-CRP (≥3 mg/L) levels were elevated in 30% and 54% of the patients, respectively. A significant correlation was noted between hs-CRP and CRP levels (r = 0.98, P <0.001). Deming regression analysis showed that the slope was near one (r = 0.90; 0.83-0.94) and that the intercept was small. Multivariate regression confirmed that age above 40 years (RR = 3.69, P = 0.027) and duration on HD greater than five years (RR = 3.71, P = 0.028) remained significant independent predictors of serum hs-CRP. Thirteen patients died during follow-up (26%). Multivariate Cox regression demonstrated that hs-CRP (RR = 1.062, P = 0.03) and CRP levels (RR = 1.057, P = 0.009) and age (RR = 1.078, P = 0.001) were the most powerful predictors of mortality. The CRP standard assay presents a reasonable alternative to the hs-CRP assay in patients on HD. The advantages of the CRP standard assay are its online and real-time availability as well as lower costs, particularly in developing countries.

  20. Fluorescent detection of C-reactive protein using polyamide beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadeesh, Shreesha; Chen, Lu; Aitchison, Stewart

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial infection causes Sepsis which is one of the leading cause of mortality in hospitals. This infection can be quantified from blood plasma using C - reactive protein (CRP). A quick diagnosis at the patient's location through Point-of- Care (POC) testing could give doctors the confidence to prescribe antibiotics. In this paper, the development and testing of a bead-based procedure for CRP quantification is described. The size of the beads enable them to be trapped in wells without the need for magnetic methods of immobilization. Large (1.5 mm diameter) Polyamide nylon beads were used as the substrate for capturing CRP from pure analyte samples. The beads captured CRP either directly through adsorption or indirectly by having specific capture antibodies on their surface. Both methods used fluorescent imaging techniques to quantify the protein. The amount of CRP needed to give a sufficient fluorescent signal through direct capture method was found suitable for identifying bacterial causes of infection. Similarly, viral infections could be quantified by the more sensitive indirect capture method. This bead-based assay can be potentially integrated as a disposable cartridge in a POC device due to its passive nature and the small quantities needed.

  1. Prospects and advancements in C-reactive protein detection

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Pranjal; Suman, Pankaj; Airon, Himangi; Mukherjee, Monalisa; Kumar, Prabhanshu

    2014-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is one of the earliest proteins that appear in the blood circulation in most systemic inflammatory conditions and this is the reason for its significance, even after identification of many organ specific inflammatory markers which appear relatively late during the course of disease. Earlier methods of CRP detection were based on the classical methods of antigen-antibody interaction through precipitation and agglutination reactions. Later on, CRP based enzymatic assays came into the picture which were further modified by integration of an antigen-antibody detection system with surface plasma spectroscopy. Then came the time for the development of electrochemical biosensors where nanomaterials were used to make a highly sensitive and portable detection system based on silicon nanowire, metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor/bipolar junction transistor, ZnS nanoparticle, aptamer, field emission transmitter, vertical flow immunoassay etc. This editorial attempts to summarize developments in the field of CRP detection, with a special emphasis on biosensor technology. This would help in translating the latest development in CRP detection in the clinical diagnosis of inflammatory conditions at an early onset of the diseases. PMID:25237625

  2. Prospects and advancements in C-reactive protein detection.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Pranjal; Suman, Pankaj; Airon, Himangi; Mukherjee, Monalisa; Kumar, Prabhanshu

    2014-03-26

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is one of the earliest proteins that appear in the blood circulation in most systemic inflammatory conditions and this is the reason for its significance, even after identification of many organ specific inflammatory markers which appear relatively late during the course of disease. Earlier methods of CRP detection were based on the classical methods of antigen-antibody interaction through precipitation and agglutination reactions. Later on, CRP based enzymatic assays came into the picture which were further modified by integration of an antigen-antibody detection system with surface plasma spectroscopy. Then came the time for the development of electrochemical biosensors where nanomaterials were used to make a highly sensitive and portable detection system based on silicon nanowire, metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor/bipolar junction transistor, ZnS nanoparticle, aptamer, field emission transmitter, vertical flow immunoassay etc. This editorial attempts to summarize developments in the field of CRP detection, with a special emphasis on biosensor technology. This would help in translating the latest development in CRP detection in the clinical diagnosis of inflammatory conditions at an early onset of the diseases.

  3. Metabolic syndrome and C-reactive protein in bank employees

    PubMed Central

    Cattafesta, Monica; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza; Salaroli, Luciane Bresciani

    2016-01-01

    Background The ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (us-CRP) is used for the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, but it is not well described as a marker for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods An observational and transversal study of bank employees evaluated anthropometric, hemodynamic, and biochemical data. CRP values were determined using commercial kits from Roche Diagnostics Ltd, and MS criteria were analyzed according to National Cholesterol Education Program’s – Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATP III). Results A total of 88 individuals had MS, and 77.3% (n=68) of these showed alterations of us-CRP (P=0.0001, confidence interval [CI] 0.11–0.34). Individuals with MS had higher mean values of us-CRP in global measures (P=0.0001) and stratified by sex (P=0.004) than individuals without the syndrome. This marker exhibited significant differences with varying criteria for MS, such as waist circumference (P=0.0001), triglycerides (P=0.002), and diastolic blood pressure (P=0.007), and the highest levels of us-CRP were found in individuals with more MS criteria. Conclusion us-CRP was strongly associated with the presence of MS and MS criteria in this group of workers. us-CRP is a useful and effective marker for identifying the development of MS and may be used as a reference in routine care. PMID:27274294

  4. Role of C reactive protein (CRP) in leptin resistance.

    PubMed

    Hribal, Marta Letizia; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Sesti, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Increased plasma levels of both leptin and C reactive protein (CRP) have been reported in a number of conditions, including obesity, and have been linked to cardiovascular pathophysiological processes and increased cardiovascular risk; interestingly these two biomarkers appear to be able to reciprocally regulate their bioavailability, through complex mechanisms that have not been completely clarified yet. Here we first review clinical evidence suggesting not only that the circulatory levels of CRP and leptin show an independent correlation, but also that assessing them in tandem may result in an increased ability to predict cardiovascular disease. We summarize also molecular studies showing that leptin is able to promote CRP production from hepatocytes and endothelial cells in vitro and discuss the studies addressing the possibility that in vivo leptin administration may be able to modulate plasma CRP levels. Furthermore, we describe two studies demonstrating that CRP directly binds leptin in extra-cellular settings, thus impairing its biological actions. Finally we report genetic evidence that common variations at the leptin receptor locus are associated with CRP blood levels. Overall, the data reviewed here show that the chronic elevation of CRP observed in obese subjects may worsen leptin resistance, contributing to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, and highlight a potential link between conditions, such as leptin resistance and endothelial dysfunction, that may be amenable of pharmacological treatment targeted to the disruption of leptin-CRP interaction.

  5. C-reactive protein, platelets, and patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Meinarde, Leonardo; Hillman, Macarena; Rizzotti, Alina; Basquiera, Ana Lisa; Tabares, Aldo; Cuestas, Eduardo

    2016-12-01

    The association between inflammation, platelets, and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) has not been studied so far. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether C-reactive protein (CRP) is related to low platelet count and PDA. This was a retrospective study of 88 infants with a birth weight ≤1500 g and a gestational age ≤30 weeks. Platelet count, CRP, and an echocardiogram were assessed in all infants. The subjects were matched by sex, gestational age, and birth weight. Differences were compared using the χ(2), t-test, or Mann-Whitney U-test, as appropriate. Significant variables were entered into a logistic regression model. The association between CRP and platelets was evaluated by correlation and regression analysis. Platelet count (167 000 vs. 213 000 µl(-1), p = 0.015) was lower and the CRP (0.45 vs. 0.20 mg/dl, p = 0.002) was higher, and the platelet count correlated inversely with CRP (r = -0.145, p = 0.049) in the infants with vs. without PDA. Only CRP was independently associated with PDA in a logistic regression model (OR 64.1, 95% confidence interval 1.4-2941, p = 0.033).

  6. C-Reactive Protein and Cognition Are Unrelated to Leukoaraiosis

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Fabricio Correia; Rosset, Idiane; Moriguchi, Emilio Hideyuki; Picon, Paulo Dornelles; Chaves, Marcia Lorena Fagundes; Roriz-Cruz, Matheus

    2014-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with leukoaraiosis in elderly brain. However, several studies indicate that leukoaraiosis is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. It is unknown how the effect of CRP on cognition is mediated by leukoaraiosis. The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between serum levels of CRP, the presence of leukoaraiosis, and cognitive impairment in a population of coronary patients over 50 years old. CRP levels explained 7.18% (P: 0.002) of the variance of the MMSE. The adjustment for the presence of leukoaraiosis little changed this variance (5.98%, P: 0.005), indicating that only a small portion of the CRP influence on cognition was mediated via leukoaraiosis. Patients with CRP levels ≥5.0 had 2.9 (95% CI: 1.26–6.44) times more chance to present cognitive impairment (P: 0.012). We found that elevated serum levels of CRP were associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment in elderly and it was not mediated by presence of leukoaraiosis. PMID:24587705

  7. C-reactive protein makes human endothelium stiff and tight.

    PubMed

    Kusche-Vihrog, Kristina; Urbanova, Katarina; Blanqué, Anja; Wilhelmi, Marianne; Schillers, Hermann; Kliche, Katrin; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Brand, Eva; Oberleithner, Hans

    2011-02-01

    Elevation of C-reactive protein (CRP) in human blood accompanies inflammatory processes, including cardiovascular diseases. There is increasing evidence that the acute-phase reactant CRP is not only a passive marker protein for systemic inflammation but also affects the vascular system. Further, CRP is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and the development of hypertension. Another crucial player in atherosclerotic processes is the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone. Even in low physiological concentrations, it stimulates the expression and membrane insertion of the epithelial sodium channel, thereby increasing the mechanical stiffness of endothelial cells. This contributes to the progression of endothelial dysfunction. In the present study, the hypothesis was tested that the acute application of CRP (25 mg/L), in presence of aldosterone (0.5 nmol/L; 24 hour incubation), modifies the mechanical stiffness and permeability of the endothelium. We found that endothelial cells stiffen in response to CRP. In parallel, endothelial epithelial sodium channel is inserted into the plasma membrane, while, surprisingly, the endothelial permeability decreases. CRP actions are prevented either by the inhibition of the intracellular aldosterone receptors using spironolactone (5 nmol/L) or by the inactivation of epithelial sodium channel using specific blockers. In contrast, inhibition of the release of the vasodilating gas nitric oxide via blockade of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway has no effect on the CRP-induced stiffening of endothelial cells. The data indicate that CRP enhances the effects of aldosterone on the mechanical properties of the endothelium. Thus, CRP could counteract any decrease in arterial blood pressure that accompanies severe acute inflammatory processes.

  8. Association of C-reactive protein with mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Rosebud O.; Geda, Yonas E.; Knopman, David S.; Christianson, Teresa J.H.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Kullo, Iftikhar J.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Inflammation is suggested to play a role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease, and may also be involved in the pathogenesis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study examined the association of inflammatory markers in serum or plasma with prevalent MCI and MCI subtypes in a population-based sample. Methods Olmsted County, MN, residents aged 70–89 years on October 1, 2004, were evaluated using the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, a neurological evaluation, and neuropsychological testing. Information ascertained for each participant was reviewed by an expert panel of neuropsychologists, physicians, and nurses, and a diagnosis of normal cognition, MCI, or dementia was made by consensus. C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis alpha (TNFα), and adiponectin were measured at baseline. Results Among 313 subjects with MCI and 1,570 cognitively normal subjects, a CRP level in the upper quartile (> 3.3 mg/L) was significantly associated with MCI (odds ratio [OR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00–2.01) and with non-amnestic MCI (na-MCI; OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.12–3.78) after adjusting for age, sex, and years of education. However, there was no association with amnestic MCI (a-MCI; OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.81–1.82). No association was observed with the other inflammatory markers. Conclusions Plasma CRP is associated with prevalent MCI and with na-MCI in elderly, non-demented persons in the population-based setting. These findings suggest an involvement of inflammation in the pathogenesis of MCI. PMID:19751919

  9. C - Reactive Protein, Inflammatory Conditions and Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Ravi; Gona, Philimon; Nam, Byung-Ho; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Wilson, Peter W. F.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Background It is uncertain to what extent high C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations reflect the presence of inflammatory conditions in the community. Methods We evaluated 3782 Framingham participants (mean age 55 years; 52% women) free of baseline cardiovascular disease. Logistic regression models examined the prevalence of common inflammatory conditions by CRP categories whereas a separate matched case-referent analysis evaluated the prevalence of uncommon inflammatory conditions. Cox models were used to assess the influence of common inflammatory conditions on relations between CRP and incident cardiovascular disease. Results Common inflammatory conditions were reported by nearly half of the participants; these individuals were more likely to have markedly-high CRP concentrations (>10mg/L, P for trend=0.001). In multivariable models, there were increased odds of having at least one common inflammatory condition with CRP concentrations of 1–3.0, 3.01–10, and >10mg/L, compared to the referent category (<1mg/L); the respective odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were 1.41 (1.07–1.86), 1.45 (1.07–2.98) and 1.64 (1.09–2.47) in men, and 1.08 (0.82–1.43), 1.07 (0.80–1.44) and 1.38 (0.97–1.96) in women. In case-referent analyses, uncommon inflammatory conditions were more common in individuals with CRP >10mg/L compared to those with CRP <1mg/L (12.1% versus 6.6%; P=0.0001). In multivariable models, higher CRP categories were not associated with incident cardiovascular disease, and with additional adjustment for inflammatory conditions, results remained unchanged. Conclusion There is high prevalence of common and uncommon inflammatory conditions in individuals with high CRP concentrations. Higher CRP concentrations should be interpreted with caution in cardiovascular disease risk assessment. PMID:18060926

  10. No further gain can be achieved by calculating Disease Activity Score in 28 joints with high-sensitivity assay of C-reactive protein because of high intraindividual variability of C-reactive protein: A cross-sectional study and theoretical consideration.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Inger M J; Emamifar, Amir; Andreasen, Rikke A; Antonsen, Steen

    2017-01-01

    Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) is commonly used to evaluate disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is a guide to treatment decision.The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of lower reporting limit for C-reactive protein (CRP), with respect to intraindividual biological variability, on the calculation of DAS28 and subsequent patient classification.This study consists of 2 sections: a theoretical consideration discussing the performance of CRP in calculating DAS28 taking intraindividual biological variation and lower reporting limit for CRP into account and a cross-sectional study of RA patients applying our theoretical results. Therefore, we calculated DAS28 twice, with the actual CRP values and CRP = 9 mg/L, the latter to elucidate the positive effects of reducing the lower reporting limit of CRP from <10 to <3 mg/L.Lower-reporting limit of <10 mg/L leads to overestimate DAS28. However, reducing lower reporting limit for CRP to <3 mg/L results in optimizing DAS28 calculation. Further lowering of reporting limit for CRP to <3 mg/L does not increase the precision of DAS28 owing to the relatively large intraindividual biological variation.Five hundred twelve patients were included. There was a significant difference between recalculated and patients DAS28 (P < 0.001). One hundred nine patients had DAS28 deviation (compatible to remission to low: 66, low to moderate: 39. and moderate to high: 4).Owing to significant impact of intraindividual biologic variation on DAS28 and patient classification, special attention should be paid to calculate DAS28 when CRP values are within normal range. Furthermore, we conclude that results of different studies evaluating DAS28 and treatment response are not comparable if the reporting limits of CRP are unknown.

  11. Role of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein measurements in HIV patients

    PubMed Central

    Vishwanath, Arun; Quaiser, Saif; Khan, Ruhi

    2016-01-01

    As we herald into the 21st century, the quality of life and the repertoire of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have considerably improved. However, considerable work is still needed to educate the population about primary and secondary prevention modalities. Moreover, regular monitoring of immune response with patients on HAART with conventional biomarkers is still a problem in low resource settings which needs to be addressed. We aim to review high-sensitivity C-reactive protein as a potential biomarker in this regard. PMID:27890944

  12. Predictive value of C-reactive protein in critically ill patients after abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sapin, Frédéric; Biston, Patrick; Piagnerelli, Michael

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The development of sepsis after abdominal surgery is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Due to inflammation, it may be difficult to diagnose infection when it occurs, but measurement of C-reactive protein could facilitate this diagnosis. In the present study, we evaluated the predictive value and time course of C-reactive protein in relation to outcome in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after abdominal surgery. METHODS: We included patients admitted to the ICU after abdominal surgery over a period of two years. The patients were divided into two groups according to their outcome: favorable (F; left the ICU alive, without modification of the antibiotic regimen) and unfavorable (D; death in the ICU, surgical revision with or without modification of the antibiotic regimen or just modification of the regimen). We then compared the highest C-reactive protein level on the first day of admission between the two groups. RESULTS: A total of 308 patients were included: 86 patients had an unfavorable outcome (group D) and 222 had a favorable outcome (group F). The groups were similar in terms of leukocytosis, neutrophilia, and platelet count. C-reactive protein was significantly higher at admission in group D and was the best predictor of an unfavorable outcome, with a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 72% for a threshold of 41 mg/L. No changes in C-reactive protein, as assessed based on the delta C-reactive protein, especially at days 4 and 5, were associated with a poor prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: A C-reactive protein cut-off of 41 mg/L during the first day of ICU admission after abdominal surgery was a predictor of an adverse outcome. However, no changes in the C-reactive protein concentration, especially by day 4 or 5, could identify patients at risk of death. PMID:28226029

  13. The significance of C-reactive protein levels in women with premature rupture of membranes.

    PubMed

    Ismail, M A; Zinaman, M J; Lowensohn, R I; Moawad, A H

    1985-02-15

    In a prospective study of 100 patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes, clinical chorioamnionitis was present in 18 and histologic chorioamnionitis was present in 63. Patients who were managed conservatively for premature rupture of membranes were monitored by C-reactive protein determination, white blood cell and differential counts, maternal temperature, and fetal heart tone. C-reactive protein was measured nephelometrically (Immuno-chemistry Analyzer II, Beckman). Elevated C-reactive protein levels correlated well with both the pathologic and the clinical diagnosis of chorioamnionitis. Elevated C-reactive protein levels (at least 12 to 24 hours before delivery) were more sensitive than other standard laboratory or clinical tests in predicting chorioamnionitis both by clinical and pathologic criteria. When C-reactive protein values were normal, clinical chorioamnionitis was rarely found, whereas pathologically diagnosed chorioamnionitis was found half of the time. We conclude that although the C-reactive protein level is a very sensitive predictor of infectious morbidity in premature rupture of membranes, its specificity is not high.

  14. Data in support of a central role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 polymorphism in recurrent cardiovascular disease risk in the setting of high HDL cholesterol and C-reactive protein using Bayesian network modeling.

    PubMed

    Corsetti, James P; Salzman, Peter; Ryan, Dan; Moss, Arthur J; Zareba, Wojciech; Sparks, Charles E

    2016-09-01

    Data is presented that was utilized as the basis for Bayesian network modeling of influence pathways focusing on the central role of a polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) on recurrent cardiovascular disease risk in patients with high levels of HDL cholesterol and C-reactive protein (CRP) as a marker of inflammation, "Influences on Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-2 Polymorphism-Associated Recurrent Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Patients with High HDL Cholesterol and Inflammation" (Corsetti et al., 2016; [1]). The data consist of occurrence of recurrent coronary events in 166 post myocardial infarction patients along with 1. clinical data on gender, race, age, and body mass index; 2. blood level data on 17 biomarkers; and 3. genotype data on 53 presumptive CVD-related single nucleotide polymorphisms. Additionally, a flow diagram of the Bayesian modeling procedure is presented along with Bayesian network subgraphs (root nodes to outcome events) utilized as the data from which PAI-2 associated influence pathways were derived (Corsetti et al., 2016; [1]).

  15. Correlation between erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein level in patients with rheumatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kotulska, Anna; Kopeć-Mędrek, Magdalena; Grosicka, Anida; Kubicka, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and serum level of C-reactive protein (CRP) are the acute phase reactants most commonly determined in patients with rheumatic diseases. The indices are affected by different factors, but both of them are applied for evaluation of the disease activity in patients with inflammatory disorders of the musculoskeletal system. Material and methods The authors compared the results of ESR and CRP, which were carried out during routine diagnosis in 200 patients admitted to the Department of Rheumatology. Results A significant correlation between ESR and CRP was found (ESR after 1 h/CRP: correlation coefficient 0.6944, ESR after 2 h/CRP: correlation coefficient 0.6126). There was no difference in ESR or CRP between male and female patients, and patients older than 40 years had higher ESR and CRP. Conclusions The obtained results support the usefulness of both indices in the clinical practice of rheumatologists. PMID:27407254

  16. Mollusc C-reactive protein crosses species barrier and reverses hepatotoxicity of lead in rodent models.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sandip; Chatterjee, Sarmishtha; Sarkar, Shuvasree; Agarwal, Soumik; Kundu, Rakesh; Maitra, Sudipta; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2013-08-01

    Achatina fulica C-reactive protein (ACRP) reversed the toxic effects of lead nitrate both in vivo in mice and in vitro in rat hepatocytes restoring the basal level of cell viability, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and superoxides. Cytotoxicity was also significantly ameliorated in rat hepatocytes by in vitro pre-treatments with individual subunits (60, 62, 90 and 110 kDa) of ACRP. Annexin V-Cy3/CFDA dual staining showed significant reduction in the number of apoptotic hepatocytes pre-treated with ACRP. ACRP induced restoration of mitochondrial membrane potential was remarkable. ACRP pre-treatment prevented Pb-induced apoptosis mediated by caspase activation. The antagonistic effect of ACRP may be due to scavenging of reactive oxygen species which maintained the homeostasis of cellular redox potential as well as reduced glutathione status. The results suggest that ACRP crosses the species barrier and it may be utilized as a viable exogenous agent of cytoprotection against heavy metal related toxicity.

  17. C-reactive protein and genetic variants and cognitive decline in old age: The PROSPER Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of chronic inflammation, have been associated with cognitive impairment in old age. However, it is unknown whether CRP is causally linked to cognitive decline. Within the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) tri...

  18. LIFESTYLE DETERMINANTS OF C-REACTIVE PROTEIN IN MIDDLE-AGED, URBAN CHINESE MEN

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Raquel; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Cai, Hui; Elasy, Tom; Cai, Qiuyin; Zhang, Xianglan; Fazio, Sergio; Linton, MacRae; Li, Honglan; Xu, Wang Hong; Yang, Gong; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2011-01-01

    Background Increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), common in aging populations, are associated with higher risk for chronic diseases, including diabetes and coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between lifestyle factors and high CRP among middleaged men living in Shanghai, China. PMID:21111583

  19. 21 CFR 866.5270 - C-reactive protein immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false C-reactive protein immuno-logical test system. 866.5270 Section 866.5270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5270 - C-reactive protein immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false C-reactive protein immuno-logical test system. 866.5270 Section 866.5270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  1. 21 CFR 866.5270 - C-reactive protein immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false C-reactive protein immuno-logical test system. 866.5270 Section 866.5270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  2. 21 CFR 866.5270 - C-reactive protein immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false C-reactive protein immuno-logical test system. 866.5270 Section 866.5270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  3. Magnesium Status and Its Relationship with C-Reactive Protein in Obese Women.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Ana Raquel Soares; Cruz, Kyria Jayanne Clímaco; Morais, Jennifer Beatriz Silva; Severo, Juliana Soares; de Freitas, Taynáh Emannuelle Coelho; Veras, Antonio Lobão; da Rocha Romero, Amanda Batista; Colli, Célia; do Nascimento Nogueira, Nadir; Torres-Leal, Francisco Leonardo; do Nascimento Marreiro, Dilina

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between magnesium status and C-reactive protein concentration in obese and nonobese women. This cross-sectional study included 131 women, aged between 20 and 50 years, who were divided into two groups: obese (n=65) and control (n=66) groups. Magnesium intake was monitored using 3-day food records and NutWin software version 1.5. The plasma, erythrocyte, and urinary magnesium concentrations were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. C-reactive protein concentration in serum was measured by immunoturbidimetric assay. The mean values of the magnesium content in the diet were lower than those recommended, though there was no significant difference between groups (p>0.05). The mean concentrations of plasma and erythrocyte magnesium were within the normal range, with no significant difference between groups (p>0.05). Urinary excretion of this mineral was less than the reference values in both groups, with no significant difference (p>0.05). The mean concentration of serum C-reactive protein was within the normal range in both groups, with no significant difference (p>0.05). There was a positive correlation between urinary magnesium and serum C-reactive protein (p=0.015). Obese patients ingest low dietary magnesium content, which seems to induce hypomagnesuria as a compensatory mechanism to keep plasma concentrations of the mineral at adequate levels. The study shows a positive correlation between urinary magnesium concentrations and serum C-reactive protein, suggesting the influence of hypomagnesuria on this inflammatory protein in obese women.

  4. Effect of simvastatin on the antihypertensive activity of losartan in hypertensive hypercholesterolemic animals and patients: role of nitric oxide, oxidative stress, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Zaher, Ahmed O; Elkoussi, Alaa Eldin A; Abudahab, Lotfy H; Elbakry, Mohammed H; Elsayed, Elsayed Abu-Elwafa

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated whether simvastatin has antihypertensive activity and can enhance the antihypertensive effect of losartan in hypertensive hypercholesterolemic animals and patients. Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were induced in rats by L-NAME and cholesterol-enriched diet, respectively. In these animals, repeated administration of simvastatin decreased the systolic blood pressure, enhanced its progressive reductions induced by repeated administration of losartan, and corrected the compromised lipid profile. Concomitantly, repeated administration of simvastatin, losartan, or simvastatin in combination with losartan to these animals increased nitric oxide (NO) production and decreased the elevated serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. Effects of combined treatment were greater than those of simvastatin or losartan alone. In hypertensive hypercholesterolemic patients, repeated administration of losartan decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, increased NO production, and decreased the elevated serum MDA and hs-CRP levels. Addition of simvastatin to losartan therapy enhanced these effects and corrected the compromised lipid profile. Simvastatin inhibited the contractile responses of isolated aortic rings induced by angiotensin II and enhanced the inhibitory effect of losartan on this preparation. l-arginine and acetylcholine enhanced, while L-NAME inhibited the effects of simvastatin, losartan, and their combination on these contractile responses. Thus, simvastatin exerts antihypertensive effect in hypertensive hypercholesterolemic animals and enhances the antihypertensive effect of losartan in hypertensive hypercholesterolemic animals and patients. Besides, its cholesterol-lowering effect, the ability of simvastatin to ameliorate endothelial dysfunction through increasing NO bioavailability and through suppression of oxidative stress and vascular inflammation may play an important role in these

  5. C-Reactive Protein: An In-Depth Look into Structure, Function, and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Juan; Martínez, María Sofía; Chávez-Castillo, Mervin; Núñez, Victoria; Añez, Roberto; Torres, Yaquelin; Toledo, Alexandra; Chacín, Maricarmen; Silva, Carlos; Pacheco, Enrique; Rojas, Joselyn; Bermúdez, Valmore

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the adult population worldwide, with atherosclerosis being its key pathophysiologic component. Atherosclerosis possesses a fundamental chronic inflammatory aspect, and the involvement of numerous inflammatory molecules has been studied in this scenario, particularly C-reactive protein (CRP). CRP is a plasma protein with strong phylogenetic conservation and high resistance to proteolysis, predominantly synthesized in the liver in response to proinflammatory cytokines, especially IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF. CRP may intervene in atherosclerosis by directly activating the complement system and inducing apoptosis, vascular cell activation, monocyte recruitment, lipid accumulation, and thrombosis, among other actions. Moreover, CRP can dissociate in peripheral tissue—including atheromatous plaques—from its native pentameric form into a monomeric form, which may also be synthesized de novo in extrahepatic sites. Each form exhibits distinct affinities for ligands and receptors, and exerts different effects in the progression of atherosclerosis. In view of epidemiologic evidence associating high CRP levels with cardiovascular risk—reflecting the biologic impact it bears on atherosclerosis—measurement of serum levels of high-sensitivity CRP has been proposed as a tool for assessment of cardiovascular risk. PMID:27433484

  6. The Reliability of Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints–C-Reactive Protein Might Be Overestimated in a Subgroup of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients, When the Score Is Solely Based on Subjective Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie; Asmussen Andreasen, Rikke; van Bui Hansen, Mark Nam; Emamifar, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Background Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints (DAS28) is a scoring system to evaluate disease activity and treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A DAS28 score of greater than 3.2 is a well-described limit for treatment intensification; however, the reliability of DAS28 might be overestimated. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of DAS28 in RA, especially focusing on a subgroup of patients with a DAS28 score of greater than 3.2. Methods Data from RA patients registered in the local part of Danish DANBIO Registry were collected in May 2015. Patients were categorized into 2 groups: First, those with DAS28 >3.2 with at least one swollen joint (SJ) or elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) (“objective group”), and second, patients with a DAS28 >3.2 who had no SJ, and CRP values were within the reference range (“subjective group”). Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints, Clinical Disease Activity Index, and Health Assessment Questionnaire scores were calculated for each group. We defined new score, DAS28 subjective, to focus on subjective parameters. Results Two hundred thirty patients were included; 198 (86.1%) and 32 (13.9%) patients were in the objective and subjective groups, respectively. Patients in the subjective group had lower mean values of DAS28 (P < 0.001) and Evaluator Global Assessment (P < 0.001) with less common immunoglobulin M rheumatoid factor (P < 0.001) and anti–cyclic citrullinated peptide positivity (P = 0.02) and contrarily higher mean values of tender joints (P = 0.04) and DAS28 based on subjective parameters (P = 0.003) compared with the objective group. Conclusions Rheumatoid arthritis scoring systems should be used cautiously in patients who are considered for treatment intensification. Patients with central sensitization and psychological problems and those with false-positive diagnosis of RA are at high risk of overtreatment. PMID:27870649

  7. [Plasma concentration of C-reactive protein in patients with high estrogen levels].

    PubMed

    Ricoux, R; Pontet, M; Tresca, J P; Engler, R

    1994-01-01

    The monitoring of inflammatory activity in patients with a high level of estrogen is controversial because the significance of a raised estradiol level on C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations is a debated question. This prompted us to assay CRP by a sensitive Elisa in a sample of 30 patients with ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization, thus with high levels of estradiol. For 15 of these women, six to nine plasma samples were analyzed allowing a kinetic study of plasma levels of CRP, estradiol and sex steroid-binding plasma protein (SBP). No significant correlation was found between the concentrations of estradiol and CRP for the 30 patients. In the kinetic study, as mean estradiol levels rose exponentially from 50 to 1400 ng/l between day 5 and 14, the CRP level tended to vary markedly from one patient to another and sometimes from day to day, but there was never any relation with estradiol level. Furthermore, CRP did not significantly modify the slope of the regression line between estradiol concentration and the day of the menstrual cycle. In contrast, the effect of estradiol on SBP was clear, which supports the absence of estradiol effect on CRP level.

  8. Isolation of human C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P component.

    PubMed

    De Beer, F C; Pepys, M B

    1982-01-01

    Procedures are described for the isolation in high yield of consistent, highly purified preparations of human C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid P component (SAP). CRP was obtained from malignant ascitic and pleural fluids by calcium-dependent affinity chromatography on pneumococcal C-polysaccharide covalently coupled to cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose. It was then gel filtered on Ultrogel AcA44 (acrylamide-agarose beads) in the presence of calcium ions, combining molecular sieve chromatography with removal of contaminating SAP by its affinity of agarose. Residual trace contaminants were removed by immunoabsorption with anti-normal human serum and anti-SAP antibodies insolubilised on Sepharose and/or by absorption with Sepharose-Con A to remove glycoproteins and Blue-Sepharose to remove albumin. After a final gel filtration step on Sephacryl S-300 35-45% of the initial CRP was recovered in pure form according to biochemical and immunochemical criteria. SAP was isolated from normal serum by calcium-dependent affinity chromatography on unsubstituted Sepharose beads, followed by solid-phase immunoabsorption of contaminants and finally gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300. At least 50% of the SAP in the starting material was recovered in pure form according to biochemical and immunochemical criteria. Ready availability of such preparations facilitates biochemical, biophysical and particularly biological studies of these plasma proteins.

  9. How accurate are leukocyte indices and C-reactive protein for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis?

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Orlando; Ohlsson, Arne

    1998-01-01

    Early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is often difficult to make. Treatment on the basis of clinical suspicion and risk factors may result in overtreatment. A previous review of the usefulness of C-reactive protein and leukocyte indices concluded that these test results should be interpreted with caution. The present paper reviews and, when appropriate, revises, in light of new information, the conclusions reached in the previous systematic review of the topic. PMID:20401235

  10. Effects of nutritional supplementation on periodontal parameters, carotenoid antioxidant levels, and serum C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Harpenau, Lisa A; Cheema, Abida T; Zingale, Joseph A; Chambers, David W; Lundergan, William P

    2011-05-01

    Few studies have focused on the role of nutrition in periodontal disease. The purpose of this trial was to determine the effect of a nutritional supplement on gingival inflammation, bleeding, probing depth, clinical attachment level, carotenoid antioxidant level, and C-reactive protein. The test supplement, consisting of a standard multivitamin formula, as well as several phytonutrients associated with antiinflammatory/antioxidant effects, provided modest benefits in reducing inflammation; however, further studies with larger populations and longer intervention are warranted.

  11. An Intrinsically Disordered Motif Mediates Diverse Actions of Monomeric C-reactive Protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Yun; Wang, Jing; Meng, Fan; Jia, Zhe-Kun; Su, Yang; Bai, Qi-Feng; Lv, Ling-Ling; Ma, Fu-Rong; Potempa, Lawrence A; Yan, Yong-Bin; Ji, Shang-Rong; Wu, Yi

    2016-04-15

    Most proinflammatory actions of C-reactive protein (CRP) are only expressed following dissociation of its native pentameric assembly into monomeric form (mCRP). However, little is known about what underlies the greatly enhanced activities of mCRP. Here we show that a single sequence motif, i.e. cholesterol binding sequence (CBS; a.a. 35-47), is responsible for mediating the interactions of mCRP with diverse ligands. The binding of mCRP to lipoprotein component ApoB, to complement component C1q, to extracellular matrix components fibronectin and collagen, to blood coagulation component fibrinogen, and to membrane lipid component cholesterol, are all found to be markedly inhibited by the synthetic CBS peptide but not by other CRP sequences tested. Likewise, mutating CBS in mCRP also greatly impairs these interactions. Functional experiments further reveal that CBS peptide significantly reduces the effects of mCRP on activation of endothelial cells in vitro and on acute induction of IL-6 in mice. The potency and specificity of CBS are critically determined by the N-terminal residues Cys-36, Leu-37, and His-38; while the versatility of CBS appears to originate from its intrinsically disordered conformation polymorphism. Together, these data unexpectedly identify CBS as the major recognition site of mCRP and suggest that this motif may be exploited to tune the proinflammatory actions of mCRP.

  12. The Acute-Phase Proteins Serum Amyloid A and C Reactive Protein in Transudates and Exudates

    PubMed Central

    Okino, Alessandra M.; Bürger, Cristiani; Cardoso, Jefferson R.; Lavado, Edson L.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Campa, Ana

    2006-01-01

    The distinction between exudates and transudates is very important in the patient management. Here we evaluate whether the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA), in comparison with C reactive protein (CRP) and total protein (TP), can be useful in this discrimination. CRP, SAA, and TP were determined in 36 exudate samples (27 pleural and 9 ascitic) and in 12 transudates (9 pleural and 3 ascitic). CRP, SAA, and TP were measured. SAA present in the exudate corresponded to 10% of the amount found in serum, that is, the exudate/serum ratio (E/S) was 0.10 ± 0.13. For comparison, the exudate/serum ratio for CRP and TP was 0.39 ± 0.37 and 0.68 ± 0.15, respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between serum and exudate SAA concentration (r = 0.764;p < 0.0001). The concentration of SAA in transudates was low and did not overlap with that found in exudates (0.02-0.21 versus 0.8–360.5 g/mL). SAA in pleural and ascitic exudates results mainly from leakage of the serum protein via the inflamed membrane. A comparison of the E/S ratio of SAA and CRP points SAA as a very good marker in discriminating between exudates and transudates. PMID:16864904

  13. Nonobese, exercising children diagnosed with dyslipidemia have normal C-reactive protein

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Miguel Arturo Salazar; Vázquez, Beatriz Yadira Salazar; Intaglietta, M; Cabrales, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Nonobese children age 10.4 ± 1.1 years diagnosed with dyslipidemia (n = 51) were compared to normal children age 10.8 ± 1.1 years (n = 38). Affected individuals had increased total cholesterol: 223 ± 23 vs 152 ± 17 mg/dl, p < 0.001; and decreased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol: 41.9 ± 4.1 vs 57.6 ± 5.7 mg/dl, p < 0.001 and triglycerides: 90.8 ± 40.5 vs 65.7 ± 25.0 mg/dl, p < 0.002. Fasting glucose was also significantly elevated (p < 0.02). All other parameters, including blood pressure, were not statistically different between groups. The concentration of C-reactive protein was not statistically different between groups. Analysis of medical records showed that this anomaly may be related to this group (as well as the control group) performing regular, daily exercise. This activity was quantified via a self administered questionnaire, and found to be statistically identical in controls and dyslipidemic individuals. Exercise is associated with the release of antiinflammatory cytokines, therefore our results support the contention that it is a significant factor in promoting health conditions from an early stage in life. PMID:19436676

  14. Targeting C-reactive protein for the treatment of cardiovascular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepys, Mark B.; Hirschfield, Gideon M.; Tennent, Glenys A.; Ruth Gallimore, J.; Kahan, Melvyn C.; Bellotti, Vittorio; Hawkins, Philip N.; Myers, Rebecca M.; Smith, Martin D.; Polara, Alessandra; Cobb, Alexander J. A.; Ley, Steven V.; Andrew Aquilina, J.; Robinson, Carol V.; Sharif, Isam; Gray, Gillian A.; Sabin, Caroline A.; Jenvey, Michelle C.; Kolstoe, Simon E.; Thompson, Darren; Wood, Stephen P.

    2006-04-01

    Complement-mediated inflammation exacerbates the tissue injury of ischaemic necrosis in heart attacks and strokes, the most common causes of death in developed countries. Large infarct size increases immediate morbidity and mortality and, in survivors of the acute event, larger non-functional scars adversely affect long-term prognosis. There is thus an important unmet medical need for new cardioprotective and neuroprotective treatments. We have previously shown that human C-reactive protein (CRP), the classical acute-phase protein that binds to ligands exposed in damaged tissue and then activates complement, increases myocardial and cerebral infarct size in rats subjected to coronary or cerebral artery ligation, respectively. Rat CRP does not activate rat complement, whereas human CRP activates both rat and human complement. Administration of human CRP to rats is thus an excellent model for the actions of endogenous human CRP. Here we report the design, synthesis and efficacy of 1,6-bis(phosphocholine)-hexane as a specific small-molecule inhibitor of CRP. Five molecules of this palindromic compound are bound by two pentameric CRP molecules, crosslinking and occluding the ligand-binding B-face of CRP and blocking its functions. Administration of 1,6-bis(phosphocholine)-hexane to rats undergoing acute myocardial infarction abrogated the increase in infarct size and cardiac dysfunction produced by injection of human CRP. Therapeutic inhibition of CRP is thus a promising new approach to cardioprotection in acute myocardial infarction, and may also provide neuroprotection in stroke. Potential wider applications include other inflammatory, infective and tissue-damaging conditions characterized by increased CRP production, in which binding of CRP to exposed ligands in damaged cells may lead to complement-mediated exacerbation of tissue injury.

  15. Evaluation of a C-reactive protein latex agglutination detection test with sera from patients with sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Schalla, W O; Arko, R J; Thompson, S E

    1984-01-01

    A total of 149 sera, including 79 pre- and posttreatment sera from 33 patients with disseminated gonococcal infections, 18 from patients with uncomplicated gonococcal infections, 6 from patients with pelvic inflammatory disease, 4 from patients with genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections, and 42 from normal volunteers, were examined for C-reactive protein with a latex agglutination C-reactive protein detection kit (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.). Results were quantitated with LC-Partigen C-reactive protein radial immuno-diffusion plates (Calbiochem-Behring, La Jolla, Calif.). Positive latex agglutination results were observed in all of the pretreatment sera and some of the posttreatment sera of patients with disseminated gonococcal infections and in two sera from patients with pelvic inflammatory disease, which corresponded to quantitative C-reactive protein levels in the radial immunodiffusion plates. C-reactive protein levels were not detectable in the serum samples from normal volunteers or patients with uncomplicated gonococcal infections or genital chlamydial infections. Positive latex agglutination occurred as early as 20 s in sera with high C-reactive protein levels, and all positive results were observed within 90 s of the 3-min test limit. Positive latex test results were obtained with C-reactive protein levels as low as 1 mg/dl (10 micrograms/ml). PMID:6440907

  16. Increased dietary protein attenuates C-reactive protein and creatine kinase responses to exercise-induced energy deficit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined if dietary protein (P) modulates responses of C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatine kinase (CK), biomarkers of inflammation and muscle damage, during exercise-induced energy deficit (DEF). Thirteen healthy men (22 +/- 1 y, VO2peak 60 +/- 2 ml.kg-1.min-1) balanced energy expenditure (EE...

  17. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Sidoroff, Marianne; Karikoski, Riitta; Raivio, Taneli; Savilahti, Erkki; Kolho, Kaija-Leena

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To study whether high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) measurement can aid the assessment of disease activity and glucocorticoid treatment in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: CRP levels were measured in 39 children with IBD undergoing colonoscopy [median age 12.8 years, Crohn’s disease (CD) n = 20], in 22 other children with IBD followed for acute response to glucocorticoids, and in 33 paediatric non-IBD patients. When standard CRP level was below detection limit (< 5 mg/L), hs-CRP was analyzed. RESULTS: Sixty-four percent (25/39) of the children with IBD undergoing colonoscopy displayed undetectable (< 5 mg/L) standard CRP levels. Of these, the hs-CRP measurement could not differentiate between active (median, 0.2 mg/L, range, 0.007-1.37, n = 17) or quiescent (0.1 mg/L, 0.01-1.89, n = 8, P = NS) disease. Patients with ileocolonic CD had higher CRP levels (14 mg/L, 0.06-45, n = 13) than patients with no ileal involvement (0.18 mg/L, 0.01-9, n = 7, P < 0.01) or ulcerative colitis (UC) (0.13 mg/L, 0.007-23, P < 0.05). In children with active IBD treated with systemic glucocorticoids, the standard CRP was undetectable in 59% of the patients. The hs-CRP levels did not differ between patients that responded to steroid therapy and in non-responders. CONCLUSION: The measurement of hs-CRP did not prove useful in the assessment of disease activity or glucocorticoid treatment in paediatric IBD patients that had undetectable standard CRP. PMID:20556836

  18. Structure and functionalities of the human c-reactive protein compared to the zebrafish multigene family of c-reactive-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Bello-Perez, Melissa; Falco, Alberto; Medina, Regla; Encinar, Jose Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz; Perez, Luis; Estepa, Amparo; Coll, Julio

    2017-04-01

    Because of the recent discovery of multiple c-reactive protein (crp)-like genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio) with predicted heterogeneous phospholipid-binding amino acid sequences and heterogeneous transcript expression levels in viral survivors and adaptive-deficient mutants, zebrafish constitute an attractive new model for exploring the evolution of these protein's functions, including their possible participation in fish trained immunity. Circulating human CRP belongs to the short pentraxin family of oligomeric proteins that are characteristic of early acute-phase innate responses and is widely used as a clinical inflammation marker. In contrast to pentameric human CRP (pCRP), zebrafish CRPs are trimeric (tCRP); however monomeric CRP (mCRP) conformations may also be generated when associated with cellular membranes as occurs in humans. Compared to human CRP, zebrafish CRP-like proteins show homologous amino acid sequence stretches that are consistent with, although not yet demonstrated, cysteine-dependent redox switches, calcium-binding spots, phosphocholine-binding pockets, C1q-binding domains, regions interacting with immunoglobulin Fc receptors (FcR), unique mCRP epitopes, mCRP binding peptides to cholesterol-enriched rafts, protease target sites, and/or binding sites to monocyte, macrophage, neutrophils, platelets and/or endothelial cells. Amino acid variations among the zebrafish CRP-like multiprotein family and derived isoforms in these stretches suggest that functional heterogeneity best fits the wide variety of aquatic pathogens. As occurs in humans, phospholipid-tagged tCRP-like multiproteins might also influence local inflammation and induce innate immune responses; however, in addition, different zebrafish tCRP-like proteins and/or isoforms might fine tune new still unknown functions. The information reviewed here could be of value for future studies not only to comparative but also medical immunologists and/or fisheries sectors. This review also

  19. C-reactive protein mediates protection from lipopolysaccharide through interactions with Fc gamma R.

    PubMed

    Mold, Carolyn; Rodriguez, Wilfredo; Rodic-Polic, Bojana; Du Clos, Terry W

    2002-12-15

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a component of the acute phase response to infection, inflammation, and trauma. A major activity of acute phase proteins is to limit the inflammatory response. It has been demonstrated that CRP protects mice from lethal doses of LPS. In the mouse, CRP binds to the regulatory receptor, FcgammaRIIb, and to the gamma-chain-associated receptor, FcgammaRI. The goal ofthis study was to determine whether FcgammaRs are necessary for the protective effect of CRP. The ability of CRP to protect mice from a lethal dose of LPS was confirmed using injections of 500 and 250 micro g of CRP at 0 and 12 h. CRP treatment of FcgammaRIIb-deficient mice increased mortality after LPS challenge and increased serum levels of TNF and IL-12 in response to LPS. CRP did not protect FcR gamma-chain-deficient mice from LPS-induced mortality. Treatment of normal mice, but not gamma-chain-deficient mice, with CRP increased IL-10 levels following LPS injection. In vitro, in the presence of LPS, CRP enhanced IL-10 synthesis and inhibited IL-12 synthesis by bone marrow macrophages from normal, but not gamma-chain-deficient mice. The protective effect of CRP appears to be mediated by binding to FcgammaRI and FcgammaRII resulting in enhanced secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and the down-regulation of IL-12. These results suggest that CRP can alter the cytokine profile of mouse macrophages by acting through FcgammaR leading to a down-regulation of the inflammatory response.

  20. The connection between C-reactive protein (CRP) and diabetic vasculopathy. Focus on preclinical findings.

    PubMed

    Mugabo, Yves; Li, Ling; Renier, Geneviève

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence supports a central role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is an inflammatory atherothrombotic condition associated with a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease. In patients with type 2 diabetes, low grade inflammation is reflected by increased plasma levels of several biomarkers of inflammation such as C-reactive protein (CRP). Small increases in CRP predict the likelihood of developing cardiovascular events both in diabetic and nondiabetic populations. In addition, in apparently healthy subjects, increased levels of CRP predict the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. There is some evidence that CRP, besides its predictive role in determining cardiovascular risk, may represent an active participant in atherogenesis. CRP is expressed in human atherosclerotic plaques and both vascular cells and monocytes/macrophages appear to represent a significant source of CRP in the inflammatory vessel wall. By activating the main cell types present in the atherosclerotic lesions, CRP generated within the coronary plaques may contribute to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Data on vascular CRP regulation are scarce. Current evidence suggests that inflammatory and metabolic factors associated with diabetes, such as high glucose, adipokines, modified lipoproteins and free fatty acids may trigger CRP production by endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and monocytes/macrophages. These data suggest that local CRP concentration in diabetic atherosclerotic plaques could be higher than in nondiabetic ones. Given the possible correlation between local CRP production and the degree of severity of coronary artery disease or the nature of the lesion, such alteration may contribute to the accelerated development of vascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  1. The regulation of superoxide generation and nitric oxide synthesis by C-reactive protein.

    PubMed Central

    Ratnam, S; Mookerjea, S

    1998-01-01

    Activated macrophages utilize both reactive oxygen intermediates and reactive oxynitrogen intermediates for defence against microbes. However, simultaneous generation of superoxide (O- 2;) and nitric oxide (NO) could be harmful to host cells due to the production of peroxynitrite, nitrogen dioxide and hydroxyl radicals. Therefore, the regulation of the production of these molecules is critical to host survival. During periods of inflammation or infection, the level of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) increases in many species. Human and rat CRP have been shown to bind and interact with phagocytic cells. Since many of the interactions of CRP involve the binding to the phosphocholine ligand, we studied the role of CRP in O- 2; and NO generation through the modulation of phosphatidylcholine (PC) metabolism in macrophages. This study has shown that, while rat CRP inhibited phorbol myristate acetate- (PMA) induced release of O- 2; by rat macrophages, CRP-treated macrophages released NO in a time- and dose-dependent manner. CRP increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enzyme as well as iNOS mRNA levels in rat macrophages. Tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate (D609), an inhibitor to PC phospholipase C (PC-PLC), suppressed iNOS induction but enhanced PMA-induced release of O- 2;. These data indicate that an increased level of CRP during periods of inflammation may result in differential regulation of macrophage NADPH oxidase and iNOS activity. Increased hepatic synthesis of CRP may contribute to the mechanism by which phagocytic cells avoid simultaneous O- 2; and NO synthesis, and this could possibly be mediated through the regulation of PC-PLC. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9767445

  2. Biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles for high-sensitivity immunomagnetic detection of human C-reactive protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horng, H. E.; Yang, S. Y.; Hong, Chin-Yih; Liu, C. M.; Tsai, P. S.; Yang, H. C.; Wu, C. C.

    2006-06-01

    In this work, we developed immunomagnetic detection techniques for detecting human C-reactive protein (CRP). To enhance the technique's sensitivity to human CRP, biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles were used as markers, and a superconductive quantum interference device gradiometer system was adapted to measure the saturated magnetization of magnetically labeled CRP-anti-CRP immune complexes. Sensitivity for human CRP was found to be as high as 1ng in 0.1ml, i.e., 10ng/ml in concentration. This sensitivity is much higher than that of conventional enzyme linked immunosorbent assay by one order of magnitude.

  3. [Presence of C-reactive protein in the development of acute mumps infection. Preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Strati, I; Copelovici, Y; Cajal, N; Marinescu, G; Vulcan, V

    1987-01-01

    Investigations conducted on subjects with epidemic parotitis serologically confirmed (hemagglutination inhibition) allowed the detection of amounts of C reactive protein (Crp) higher than the normal level in 34% of the serum samples collected during the first twelve days of illness. After that, the Crp gradually decreased. The results showed that Crp is present in more than 40% of the subjects with uncomplicated mumps and in 55 to 75% of the cases with such complications as meningitis or orchitis. In most of the subjects, the Crp was found only in the first sample, but not in the second. Nevertheless, high amounts were found later, simultaneously with anti-mumps antibodies.

  4. C reactive protein rapid assay techniques for monitoring resolution of infection in immunosuppressed patients.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, R I; Stone, P C; Hudson, A G; Stuart, J

    1984-01-01

    Three rapid assay techniques (latex agglutination, laser nephelometry, and EMIT enzyme immunoassay) have been evaluated for serial monitoring of the serum C reactive protein (CRP) concentration in immunosuppressed patients with fever. Radial immunodiffusion assay was used as a reference method. Latex agglutination reliably distinguished between normal and raised serum CRP concentrations. Enzyme immunoassay also provided a result within minutes, showed particularly close correlation (r = 0.967) with the reference method, and was free from interference by lipaemic or icteric sera. In 27% of 55 episodes of fever studied serially in immunosuppressed patients, the enzyme immunoassay provided clinically useful information by indicating incomplete resolution of infection despite resolution of fever. PMID:6430971

  5. Antipneumococcal effects of C-reactive protein and monoclonal antibodies to pneumococcal cell wall and capsular antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Briles, D E; Forman, C; Horowitz, J C; Volanakis, J E; Benjamin, W H; McDaniel, L S; Eldridge, J; Brooks, J

    1989-01-01

    Antibodies to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides are well known for their ability to protect against pneumococcal infection. Recent studies indicate that antibodies to cell wall antigens, including pneumococcal surface protein A and the phosphocholine (PC) determinant of teichoic acids as well as human C-reactive protein (which also binds to PC), can protect mice against pneumococcal infection. In the present study we compared the protective effects of these agents as measured by mouse protection, the blood bactericidal assay, and clearance of pneumococci from the blood and peritoneal cavity. Our findings extend previous results indicating that human C-reactive protein and antibodies to noncapsular antigens are generally less protective than anticapsular antibodies. The new results obtained indicate the following: (i) mouse protection studies with intraperitoneal and intravenous infections provide very similar results; (ii) monoclonal immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) antibodies to PC, like IgG1, IgG2b, and IgG3 antibodies to PC, are highly protective against pneumococcal infection in mice; (iii) human antibody to PC is able to protect against pneumococcal infection in mice; (iv) antibodies to PspA are effective at mediating blood and peritoneal clearance of pneumococci; (v) complement is required for the in vivo protective effects of both IgG and IgM antibodies to PC; (vi) IgG1, IgG2b, and IgG3 anti-PC antibodies all mediate complement-dependent lysis of PC-conjugated erythrocytes; and (vii) antibodies and human C-reactive proteins that are reactive with capsular antigens but not cell wall antigens are able to mediate significant antibacterial activity in the blood bactericidal assay. PMID:2707854

  6. Lipid, Lipoproteins, C-Reactive Protein, and Hemostatic Factors at Baseline in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE — Individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) appear to be at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) due at least in part to an increased prevalence of risk factors. We evaluated lipid, lipoprotein, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) levels at study entry in the largest multiethnic cohort of participants with IGT described, namely in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS — Measurements were performed at the baseline visit of 3,819 randomized participants of the DPP. Among 3,622 participants who were not taking lipid-lowering medicines, cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed in relation to demographic, anthropometric, and metabolic measures. Major determinants of risk factors were assessed in multivariate analysis. RESULTS — Over 40% of participants had elevated triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and CRP levels and reduced HDL cholesterol levels. Men had higher triglyceride and tPA and lower HDL cholesterol concentrations and smaller LDL particle size than women, whereas women had higher CRP and fibrinogen levels. African Americans had less dyslipidemia but higher fibrinogen levels, and Asian Americans had lower CRP and fibrinogen levels than Caucasians and Hispanics. The surrogate measure of insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) had the strongest association with HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and tPA levels and LDL particle size. BMI had the greatest influence on CRP and fibrinogen levels. Using median splits of indexes of insulin resistance and insulin secretion (insulin-to-glucose ratio), participants with greater insulin resistance had a more adverse CVD risk-factor profile, whereas insulin secretion had little influence on risk factors. CONCLUSIONS — The pattern of CVD risk factors in participants with IGT in the DPP exhibits substantial heterogeneity and is significantly influenced by race, sex, and age, as well as

  7. Correlation of Plasma Protein Carbonyls and C-Reactive Protein with GOLD Stage Progression in COPD Patients.

    PubMed

    Torres-Ramos, Yessica D; García-Guillen, María L; Olivares-Corichi, Ivonne M; Hicks, J J

    2009-04-14

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To investigate the correlation between the progression of COPD and plasma biomarkers of chronic inflammation and oxidative injury, blood samples were obtained from healthy volunteers (HV, n = 14) and stabilized COPD patients. The patients were divided into three groups according to their GOLD stage (II, n = 34; III, n = 18; IV, n = 20). C-reactive protein (CRP), protein carbonyls (PC), malondialdehyde (MDA), susceptible lipoperoxidation of plasma substrates (SLPS), and myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) were measured. The plasma concentration of SLPS was measured as the amount of MDA generated by a metal ion-catalyzed reaction in vitro. PC, SLPS, and CPR were increased significantly (p < 0.001) in COPD patients when compared to HV. MDA concentrations and MPO activities were not significantly different from those of the HV group. In conclusion, increased oxidation of lipids and proteins resulting in a progressive increase in the amount of total plasma carbonyls and oxidative stress the presence of oxidative stress during COPD progression, concomitant with an increased oxidation of lipids and proteins resulting in a progressive and significant increase in the amount of total carbonyls formed from lipid-derived aldehydes and direct amino acid side chain oxidation in plasma, may serve as a biomarker and independent monitor of COPD progression and oxidative stress injury.

  8. Correlation of Plasma Protein Carbonyls and C-Reactive Protein with GOLD Stage Progression in COPD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Ramos, Yessica D; García-Guillen, María L; Olivares-Corichi, Ivonne M; Hicks, J. J

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To investigate the correlation between the progression of COPD and plasma biomarkers of chronic inflammation and oxidative injury, blood samples were obtained from healthy volunteers (HV, n = 14) and stabilized COPD patients. The patients were divided into three groups according to their GOLD stage (II, n = 34; III, n = 18; IV, n = 20). C-reactive protein (CRP), protein carbonyls (PC), malondialdehyde (MDA), susceptible lipoperoxidation of plasma substrates (SLPS), and myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) were measured. The plasma concentration of SLPS was measured as the amount of MDA generated by a metal ion-catalyzed reaction in vitro. PC, SLPS, and CPR were increased significantly (p < 0.001) in COPD patients when compared to HV. MDA concentrations and MPO activities were not significantly different from those of the HV group. In conclusion, increased oxidation of lipids and proteins resulting in a progressive increase in the amount of total plasma carbonyls and oxidative stress the presence of oxidative stress during COPD progression, concomitant with an increased oxidation of lipids and proteins resulting in a progressive and significant increase in the amount of total carbonyls formed from lipid-derived aldehydes and direct amino acid side chain oxidation in plasma, may serve as a biomarker and independent monitor of COPD progression and oxidative stress injury. PMID:19461898

  9. Effects of periodontal therapy on C-reactive protein and HDL in serum of subjects with periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Anne Carolina Eleutério; Carneiro, Valéria Martins de Araújo; Guimarães, Maria do Carmo Machado

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in the sera and its association with body mass index and high density lipoprotein in subjects with severe periodontitis. Methods Sera from 28 subjects (mean age: 34.36±6.24; 32% men) with severe periodontitis and 27 healthy controls (mean age: 33.18±6.42; 33% men) were collected prior to periodontal therapy. Blood samples were obtained from 23 subjects who completed therapy (9-12 months). Oral and systemic parameters such as the number of blood cells, glucose examination, lipid profile, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels accessed by high-sensitivity immunonephelometry assay, were included. Results Before therapy, in the periodontitis group, the ratio of subjects with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein <0.3 mg/dL was statistically lower than in the control group (P<0.0216). After therapy, the ratio of subjects with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein <0.3 mg/dL was significantly higher (65.22%) (P<0.0339). The mean value for body mass index was statistically lower in subjects with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein <0.3 mg/dL (24.63±4.19), compared with those with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein >0.3 mg/dL (28.91±6.03) (P<0.0411). High density lipoprotein presented a mean value statistically higher after therapy (P<0.0027). Conclusion In systemically healthy subjects with periodontitis, periodontal therapy was associated with decreased levels of circulating high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and increase of high density lipoprotein in serum. The clinical trial was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.br/, No. RBR-24T799. PMID:24896165

  10. The role of C-reactive protein in innate and acquired inflammation: new perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Trial, JoAnn; Potempa, Lawrence A.; Entman, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    The participation of C-reactive protein (CRP) in host defense against microorganisms has been well described. More controversial has been its role in chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease. Our recent publications explain the reasons for some of the confusion concerning CRP as a risk factor for disease and whether it is pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory. We found that two isoforms of CRP, pentameric (pCRP) and monomeric (mCRP), on microparticles (MPs), were not measureable by standard clinical assays. When we investigated MPs by imaging cytometry in plasma from controls versus patients with peripheral artery disease, we found that MPs from endothelial cells bearing mCRP were elevated. This elevation did not correlate with the soluble pCRP measured by high-sensitivity CRP assays. The data suggest that detection of mCRP on MPs may be a more specific marker in diagnosis, measurement of progression, and risk sensitivity in chronic disease. In an in vitro model of vascular inflammation, pCRP was anti-inflammatory and mCRP was pro-inflammatory for macrophage and T cell polarization. When we further investigated pCRP under defined conditions, we found that pCRP in the absence of a phosphocholine ligand had no inflammatory consequences. When combined with phosphocholine ligands, pCRP signaled through two Fcγ receptors (FcγRI and FcγRII) via phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (pSYK) to activate monocytes. Phosphocholine itself, when bound to pCRP, induced a congruent M2 macrophage and Th2 response. Phosphocholine is also the head group on the lipid phosphatidylcholine, which can become oxidized. Liposomes bearing oxidized phosphatidylcholine without pCRP promoted a uniform M1 macrophage and Th1 pro-inflammatory response. When oxidized liposomes were bound to pCRP, there was a disjunction in the macrophage and T cell response: monocytes matured into M2 macrophages, but the T cells polarized into a Th1 phenotype. The CRP-bound liposomes signaled

  11. Influence of ACE I/D Polymorphism on Circulating Levels of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1, D-Dimer, Ultrasensitive C-Reactive Protein and Transforming Growth Factor β1 in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Sara Santos; Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina; Sabino, Adriano de Paula; Evangelista, Fernanda Cristina Gontijo; Gomes, Karina Braga; Dusse, Luci Maria SantAna; Rios, Danyelle Romana Alves

    2016-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence that chronic renal and cardiovascular diseases are associated with coagulation disorders, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and fibrosis. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion polymorphism (ACE I/D polymorphism) has also be linked to cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, this study aimed to compare plasma levels of ultrassensible C-reactive protein (usCRP), PAI-1, D-dimer and TGF-β1 in patients undergoing HD with different ACE I/D polymorphisms. Methods The study was performed in 138 patients at ESRD under hemodialysis therapy for more than six months. The patients were divided into three groups according to the genotype. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood cells (leukocytes). ACE I/D polymorphism was investigated by single polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Plasma levels of D-dimer, PAI-1 and TGF-β1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the determination of plasma levels of usCRP was performed by immunonephelometry. Data were analyzed by the software SigmaStat 2.03. Results Clinical characteristics were similar in patients with these three ACE I/D polymorphisms, except for interdialytic weight gain. I allele could be associated with higher interdialytic weight gain (P = 0.017). Patients genotyped as DD and as ID had significantly higher levels of PAI-1 than those with II genotype. Other laboratory parameters did not significantly differ among the three subgroups (P = 0.033). Despite not reaching statistical significance, plasma levels of usCRP were higher in patients carrying the D allele. Conclusion ACE I/D polymorphisms could be associated with changes in the regulation of sodium, fibrinolytic system, and possibly, inflammation. Our data showed that high levels of PAI-1 are detected when D allele is present, whereas greater interdialytic gain is associated with the presence of I allele. However, further studies with different experimental designs are necessary to elucidate the

  12. Amino acid sequence homology between rat and human C-reactive protein.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J A; Bruton, C J; Anderson, J K; Mole, J E; De Beer, F C; Baltz, M L; Pepys, M B

    1984-01-01

    The rat serum protein that undergoes Ca2+-dependent binding to pneumococcal C-polysaccharide and to phosphocholine residues, and that is evidently a member of the pentraxin family of proteins by virtue of its appearance under the electron microscope, has been variously designated as rat C-reactive protein (CRP) [de Beer, Baltz, Munn, Feinstein, Taylor, Bruton, Clamp & Pepys (1982) Immunology 45, 55-70], 'phosphoryl choline-binding protein' [Nagpurkar & Mookerjea (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 7440-7448] and rat serum amyloid P component (SAP) [Pontet, D'Asnieres, Gache, Escaig & Engler (1981) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 671, 202-210]. The partial amino acid sequence (45 residues) towards the C-terminus of this protein was determined, and it showed 71.7% identity with the known sequence of human CRP but only 54.3% identity with human SAP. Since human CRP and SAP are themselves approximately 50% homologous, the level of identity between the rat protein and human SAP is evidence only of membership of the pentraxin family. In contrast, the much greater resemblance to human CRP confirms that the rat C-polysaccharide-binding/phosphocholine-binding protein is in fact rat CRP. PMID:6477504

  13. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and its Association with Periodontal Disease: A Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Tushika; Pandey, Anita; D, Deepa; Asthana, Ashish K

    2014-07-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic infection of the gums characterised by a loss of attachment between the tooth and bone, and bone loss. C-reactive protein (CRP) elevation is a part of the acute phase response to acute and chronic inflammation. Many epidemiological studies have shown that serum CRP levels were elevated in patients with chronic periodontitis. CRP levels increase to hundreds of μg/ml within hours following infection. It out-performs erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in terms of responsiveness and specificity for inflammation. While CRP elevation is suggestive of inflammation or infection in the appropriate clinical context, it can also occur with obesity and renal dysfunction. Conversely, a lack of CRP elevation in inflammation may be seen with hepatic failure, as well as during flares of conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus.

  14. Polymorphism of the C-reactive protein gene is associated with mortality in bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Carita; Huttunen, Reetta; Syrjänen, Jaana; Laine, Janne; Vuento, Risto; Hurme, Mikko

    2006-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an important molecule in the defence against bacterial infections. To discover if variation in the CRP gene is associated with clinical outcome of bacteraemia, we investigated 147 microbiologically verified bacteraemia patients (mean age 59 y, range 19-93 y) and determined whether CRP -717A>G, +1059G>C or +1444C>T single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with clinical outcome of bacteraemia and/or CRP concentration caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, beta-haemolytic streptococci or Escherichia coli. The patients were genotyped for CRP gene polymorphisms, CRP was measured and clinical outcomes were recorded. The CRP -717A>G, a promoter region polymorphism was strongly associated with mortality from Streptococcus pneumoniae but did not correlate with plasma CRP concentration. These results suggest that mortality from Streptococcus pneumoniae may be associated with polymorphism of the promoter region of the CRP gene.

  15. Time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay for C-reactive protein using colloidal semiconducting nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Härmä, Harri; Toivonen, Juha; Soini, Juhani T; Hänninen, Pekka; Parak, Wolfgang J

    2011-01-01

    Besides the typical short-lived fluorescence with decay times in the nanosecond range, colloidal II/VI semiconductor nanoparticles dispersed in buffer also possess a long-lived fluorescence component with decay times in the microsecond range. Here, the signal intensity of the long-lived luminescence at microsecond range is shown to increase 1,000-fold for CdTe nanoparticles in PBS buffer. This long-lived fluorescence can be conveniently employed for time-gated fluorescence detection, which allows for improved signal-to-noise ratio and thus the use of low concentrations of nanoparticles. The detection principle is demonstrated with a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay for the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) using CdSe-ZnS nanoparticles and green light excitation.

  16. Optimization of fluoroimmunoassay against C-reactive protein exploiting immobilized-antigen glass slide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namsoo; Cho, Yong-Jin

    2013-03-01

    An optimization experiment for an indirect-competitive (IC) fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) against C-reactive protein (CRP) was conducted exploiting an immobilized-antigen glass slide and an anti-CRP antibody tagged with fluorescent silica nanoparticles (FSNPs). The optimized conditions for the IC FIA were as follows: time and concentration of treatment with glutaraldehyde, 30 min and 1.5%, respectively; time of reaction with coating antigen and concentration of coating antigen for immobilization, 1 h and 0.1 mg/mL, respectively; concentration of FSNP-anti-CRP antibody conjugate coupled by the biotin-avidin interaction, the bioconjugate, for immune reaction, 0.250 mg/mL; concentration of bovine serum albumin (BSA) for blocking and time of blocking with BSA, 3% and 30 min, respectively. By using the glass slide, a highly sensitive detection against CRP was possible with the limit of detection below 0.1 ng/mL.

  17. Detection of C-reactive protein in evanescent wave field using microparticle-tracking velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yu-Jui; Sheen, Horn-Jiunn; Liu, Yi-Hsing; Tsai, Jing-Fa; Wu, Tzu-Heng; Wu, Kuang-Chong; Lin, Shiming

    2010-09-07

    A new technique is developed to measure the nanoparticles' brownian motions by employing microparticle-tracking velocimetry (micro-PTV) in evanescent wave field, which can provide high signal-to-noise ratio images for analyzing nanoparticles' movements. This method enables real-time detection of C-reactive proteins (CRPs) during the rapid interaction between CRPs and anti-CRP-coated nanobeads as CRP concentrations are related to the nanobeads' brownian velocity in the equilibrium state. The smallest observable nanobeads with 185 nm were utilized in this experiment to detect CRP concentrations as low as 0.1 microg/mL even in a high-viscosity solution. Further, the dissociation constant, K(D), can be evaluated based on the experimental results.

  18. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) assay using metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Keegan, Gemma L.; Stranik, Ondrej; Brennan-Fournet, Margaret E.; McDonagh, Colette

    2015-07-01

    Fluorescence has been extensively employed in the area of diagnostic immunoassays. A significant enhancement of fluorescence can be achieved when noble metal nanoparticles are placed in close proximity to fluorophores. This effect, referred to as metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF), has the potential to produce immunoassays with a high sensitivity and a low limit of detection (LOD). In this study, we investigate the fluorescence enhancement effect of two different nanoparticle systems, large spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold edge-coated triangular silver nanoplates, and both systems were evaluated for MEF. The extinction properties and electric field enhancement of both systems were modeled, and the optimum system, spherical AgNPs, was used in a sandwich immunoassay for human C-reactive protein with a red fluorescent dye label. A significant enhancement in the fluorescence was observed, which corresponded to an LOD improvement of 19-fold compared to a control assay without AgNPs.

  19. Reference measurement procedure development for C-reactive protein in human serum.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Eric L; Bunk, David M

    2009-10-15

    This paper describes the development of a reference measurement procedure to quantify human C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum using affinity techniques prior to tryptic digestion and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the certification of reference materials in clinically relevant ranges. The absence of a suitable internal standard for the CRP measurement, necessary to eliminate potential measurement bias in both the affinity purification and trypsin digestion steps, was addressed using the method of standard addition. The standard addition quantification approach was combined with affinity purification, using an anti-CRP monoclonal antibody conjugated to polystyrene beads, trypsin digestion of the purified protein, and LC-MS/MS analysis of CRP tryptic peptides. The effectiveness of intact protein affinity purification was evaluated through the measurement of CRP in several serum-based CRP control materials, yielding levels that were comparable to their expected mean concentration values. Quantitative results were confirmed with an external calibration approach. This study demonstrates the feasibility of affinity purification with LC-MS/MS for the reference measurement procedure development of low abundance serum protein analytes.

  20. C-reactive protein is a biomarker of AFP-negative HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    She, Sha; Xiang, Yi; Yang, Min; Ding, Xiangchun; Liu, Xiaoyan; Ma, Lina; Liu, Qing; Liu, Bin; Lu, Zhenhui; Li, Shiying; Liu, Yi; Ran, Xiaoping; Xu, Xiaoming; Hu, Huaidong; Hu, Peng; Zhang, Dazhi; Ren, Hong; Yang, Yixuan

    2015-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive cancers worldwide and is associated with the high rates of morbidity and mortality. α-fetoprotein (AFP) is common used in diagnosis of HCC; however, a growing body of research is questioning the diagnostic power of AFP. There is, therefore, an urgent need to develop additional novel non-invasive techniques for the early diagnosis of HCC, particularly for patients with AFP-negative [AFP(-)] HCC. Accordingly, in the present study, we employed iTRAQ-based mass spectro-metry to analyze the plasma proteins of subjects with AFP(-) HBV-related HCC, AFP(+) HBV-related HCC and non-malignant cirrhosis. We identified 14 aberrantly expressed proteins specific to the HCC patients, including 10 upregulated and 4 downregulated proteins. We verified C-reactive protein (CRP) overexpression by ELISA and immunohistochemical staining of clinical samples. Per ROC curve analyses, CRP was positive in 73.3% of patients with HBV-related HCC, and CRP overexpression had significant diagnostic power for AFP(-) HBV-related HCC. Furthermore, we found that silencing CRP caused a >2-fold decease in HBV replication. Additionally, we determined that this reduction in HBV replication involved the interferon-signaling pathway. However, silencing CRP also promoted HCC invasion and migration in vitro. In conclusion, we demonstrated that CRP can serve as a diagnostic biomarker for AFP(-) HBV-related HCC.

  1. C-reactive protein, sodium azide, and endothelial connexin43 gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsueh-Hsiao; Yeh, Hung-I; Wang, Chi-Young; Su, Cheng-Huang; Wu, Yih-Jer; Tseng, Yuen-Yi; Lin, Yi-Chun; Tsai, Cheng-Ho

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the effect of C-reactive protein (CRP) and sodium azide (NaN(3)) on endothelial Cx43 gap junctions. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) were treated with (a) detoxified CRP, (b) detoxified dialyzed CRP, (c) detoxified dialyzed CRP plus NaN(3), (d) NaN(3), or (e) dialyzed NaN(3). The concentration of CRP in all preparations was fixed to 25 microg/ml and that of NaN(3) in the preparations of (c) to (e) was equivalent to that contained in the 25 microg/ml CRP purchased commercially. The results showed that both the expression of Cx43 protein and gap junctional communication function post-48-h incubation were reduced and inhibited by the detoxified CRP, NaN(3), or detoxified dialyzed CRP plus NaN(3), but not by the detoxified dialyzed CRP or dialyzed NaN(3). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of cells treated for 72 h also showed a pattern of transcriptional regulation essentially the same as that for the proteins. We concluded that CRP does not have a significant effect on Cx43 gap junctions of HAEC, but NaN(3) inhibited the viability of cells and downregulate their junctions.

  2. Serum C-Reactive Protein in Children with Liver Disease and Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Kalvandi, Gholamreza; Honar, Naser; Geramizadeh, Bita; Ataollahi, Maryam; Rahmani, Asghar; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir

    2016-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of peritonitis as a complication of cirrhosis is an important clinical problem. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate serum C-reactive protein levels as a diagnostic factor for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in child patients with liver disease. Methods In this study, 150 children diagnosed with liver disease and ascites upon admission to Nemazee Teaching Hospital (Shiraz, Iran) were examined. Patients were divided into spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and sterile ascetic fluid groups according to the PMN count ≥ 250/mm3 in the ascetic fluids. Routine laboratory tests were conducted and quantitative C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured for all of the patients. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of CRP was evaluated for diagnosis of SBP. Results Of 150 cirrhotic patients, 109 patients presented without SBP (52.29% male, mean age: 5.02 ± 4.49 years) and 41 patients presented with SBP (51.21% male, mean age: 4.71 years). Cell counts, protein levels, albumin levels, and lactate dehydrogenize (LDH) levels of the ascetic fluid and serum samples in the SBP group were higher than the rates for those without SBP (P < 0.05(. The mean ± SD of CRP in the SBP group (36.89 ± 23.43) increased significantly compared to the rate among those without SBP (21.59 ± 15.43, P = 0.001). The percentages for sensitivity and specificity of CRP, the diagnosis of SBP based on the PMN count ≥ 250/mm3, and cultured ascites were 69.23%, 90.25%, 88.43%, and 84.32%, respectively. The areas under the curve of CRP for SBP based on the PMN count ≥ 250/mm3 and cultured ascites was 0.94 (CI 95%: 0.90 to 0.96) and 0.85 (CI 95%: 0.84 to 0.92), respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusions Our study showed that CRP is a marker with high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of SBP in cirrhotic children. PMID:27795726

  3. Inhibiting C-reactive protein for the treatment of cardiovascular disease: promising evidence from rodent models.

    PubMed

    Szalai, Alexander J; McCrory, Mark A; Xing, Dongqi; Hage, Fadi G; Miller, Andrew; Oparil, Suzanne; Chen, Yiu-Fai; Mazzone, Michelle; Early, Richard; Henry, Scott P; Zanardi, Thomas A; Graham, Mark J; Crooke, Rosanne M

    2014-01-01

    Raised blood C-reactive protein (CRP) level is a predictor of cardiovascular events, but whether blood CRP is causal in the disease process is unknown. The latter would best be defined by pharmacological inhibition of the protein in the context of a randomized case-control study. However, no CRP specific drug is currently available so such a prospective study cannot be performed. Blood CRP is synthesized primarily in the liver and the liver is an organ where antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) drugs accumulate. Taking advantage of this we evaluated the efficacy of CRP specific ASOs in rodents with experimentally induced cardiovascular damage. Treating rats for 4 weeks with a rat CRP-specific ASO achieved >60% reduction of blood CRP. Notably, this effect was associated with improved heart function and pathology following myocardial infarction (induced by ligation of the left anterior descending artery). Likewise in human CRP transgenic mice treated for 2 weeks with a human CRP-specific ASO, blood human CRP was reduced by >70% and carotid artery patency was improved (2 weeks after surgical ligation). CRP specific ASOs might pave the way towards a placebo-controlled trial that could clarify the role of CRP in cardiovascular disease.

  4. C-reactive protein enhances IgG-mediated phagocyte responses and thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Rick; Heitink-Pollé, Katja M J; Porcelijn, Leendert; Bentlage, Arthur E H; Bruin, Marrie C A; Visser, Remco; Roos, Dirk; Schasfoort, Richard B M; de Haas, Masja; van der Schoot, C Ellen; Vidarsson, Gestur

    2015-03-12

    Immune-mediated platelet destruction is most frequently caused by allo- or autoantibodies via Fcγ receptor-dependent phagocytosis. Disease severity can be predicted neither by antibody isotype nor by titer, indicating that other factors play a role. Here we show that the acute phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP), a ligand for Fc receptors on phagocytes, enhances antibody-mediated platelet destruction by human phagocytes in vitro and in vivo in mice. Without antiplatelet antibodies, CRP was found to be inert toward platelets, but it bound to phosphorylcholine exposed after oxidation triggered by antiplatelet antibodies, thereby enhancing platelet phagocytosis. CRP levels were significantly elevated in patients with allo- and autoantibody-mediated thrombocytopenias compared with healthy controls. Within a week, intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in children with newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia led to significant decrease of CRP levels, increased platelet numbers, and clinically decreased bleeding severity. Furthermore, the higher the level of CRP at diagnosis, the longer it took before stable platelet counts were reached. These data suggest that CRP amplifies antibody-mediated platelet destruction and may in part explain the aggravation of thrombocytopenia on infections. Hence, targeting CRP could offer new therapeutic opportunities for these patients.

  5. Detection of C-reactive protein based on immunoassay using antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tsai, H Y; Hsu, C F; Chiu, I W; Fuh, C Bor

    2007-11-01

    We report a detection method for C-reactive protein (CRP) based on competitive immunoassay using magnetic nanoparticles under magnetic fields. Functional magnetic nanoparticles were prepared and conjugated with anti-CRP for immunoassay. Magnetic nanoparticles labeled with anti-CRP were flowed through a separation channel to form depositions for selective capture of CRP under magnetic fields. Free CRP and a fixed number of CRP-labeled particles were used to compete for a limited number of anti-CRP binding sites on the magnetic nanoparticles. The deposited percentages of CRP-labeled particles at various concentrations of free CRP were determined and used as a reference plot. The determination of CRP in the unknown sample was deduced from the reference plot using the deposited percentages. The running time was less than 10 min. The CRP concentration of serum sample was linearly over the range of 1.2-310 microg/mL for deposited percentages of CRP-labeled particles. The detection limit of this method was 0.12 microg/mL which was approximately 8-fold lower than the typical clinical cutoff concentration (1 microug/mL). This method can provide a fast, simple, and sensitive way for protein detection based on competitive immunoassay using magnetic nanoparticles under magnetic fields.

  6. Binding of human C-reactive protein to monocytes: analysis by flow cytometry.

    PubMed Central

    Ballou, S P; Cleveland, R P

    1991-01-01

    An opsonic role has been proposed as a major function of C-reactive protein (CRP) in humans. In support of this hypothesis, recent radiolabelled ligand binding studies have provided evidence for the presence of specific receptors for soluble human CRP on human phagocytic cells, including neutrophils and monocytes. In order to confirm specific binding of CRP to monocytes and to quantify the percentage of such cells capable of expressing binding sites, we employed a sensitive biotin-avidin fluorescence assay to study the CRP-monocyte interaction. It was observed that 67% of monocytes bound biotinylated CRP in a dose-dependent manner, that the binding was calcium dependent, and that it could be inhibited by 60% in the presence of a greater than 20-fold excess of competing native CRP. In other experiments, neither IgG nor heat-aggregated IgG inhibited the binding of CRP to monocytes; and no significant binding to lymphocyte population could be detected. These studies confirm the ability of human CRP to bind to a majority of human monocytes in a calcium-dependent and specific manner, and provide further support for a biologically important interaction of this acute-phase protein with phagocytic cells. PMID:2025959

  7. Elevation of C-reactive protein levels in patients with transfusion-related acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, Rick; Kim, Michael; Rondina, Matthew T.; Porcelijn, Leendert; Semple, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion-related fatalities and is characterized by the onset of acute respiratory distress within six hours following blood transfusion. In most cases, donor antibodies are suggested to be involved, however, the pathogenesis is poorly understood. A two-hit model is generally assumed to underlie TRALI pathogenesis where the first hit consists of a patient predisposing factor such as inflammation and the second hit is due to donor antibodies present in the transfused blood. We recently demonstrated that the acute phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP) could enhance murine anti-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-mediated TRALI. Whether CRP is increased in human TRALI patients which would support its role as a risk factor for human TRALI, is currently unknown. For that purpose, we measured CRP levels in the plasma of human TRALI patients and found CRP levels to be significantly elevated compared to transfused control patients. These data support the notion that CRP may be a novel first hit risk factor in human TRALI and that modulation of CRP levels could be an effective therapeutic strategy for this serious adverse event of transfusion. PMID:27793007

  8. Rapid and quantitative detection of C-reactive protein based on quantum dots and immunofiltration assay

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengfei; Bao, Yan; Draz, Mohamed Shehata; Lu, Huiqi; Liu, Chang; Han, Huanxing

    2015-01-01

    Convenient and rapid immunofiltration assays (IFAs) enable on-site “yes” or “no” determination of disease markers. However, traditional IFAs are commonly qualitative or semi-quantitative and are very limited for the efficient testing of samples in field diagnostics. Here, we overcome these limitations by developing a quantum dots (QDs)-based fluorescent IFA for the quantitative detection of C-reactive proteins (CRP). CRP, the well-known diagnostic marker for acute viral and bacterial infections, was used as a model analyte to demonstrate performance and sensitivity of our developed QDs-based IFA. QDs capped with both polyethylene glycol (PEG) and glutathione were used as fluorescent labels for our IFAs. The presence of the surface PEG layer, which reduced the non-specific protein interactions, in conjunction with the inherent optical properties of QDs, resulted in lower background signal, increased sensitivity, and ability to detect CRP down to 0.79 mg/L with only 5 µL serum sample. In addition, the developed assay is simple, fast and can quantitatively detect CRP with a detection limit up to 200 mg/L. Clinical test results of our QD-based IFA are well correlated with the traditional latex enhance immune-agglutination aggregation. The proposed QD-based fluorescent IFA is very promising, and potentially will be adopted for multiplexed immunoassay and in field point-of-care test. PMID:26491289

  9. C-reactive protein and the acute phase reaction in geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, Thomas; Triebel, Jakob; Bollheimer, Cornelius; Christ, Michael; Sieber, Cornel; Fassbender, Klaus; Heppner, Hans Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    The C-reactive protein (CRP), first described as a serum component capable of precipitating the C-polysaccharide of pneumococci, is one of the most important proteins because the serum concentration rises in the acute phase reaction. The acute phase reaction is the nonspecific reaction of the body to noxious stimuli of the most varied kinds, such as infections, burns, neoplasms and tissue trauma. The CRP is synthesized in liver parenchymal cells by cytokines which are derived from stimulated leucocytes and released into the circulation. Because of its molecular structure and in synergy with the complement system, it is able to precipitate and/or lyse microorganisms, thereby rendering them harmless. Measurement of the serum CRP concentration can provide important information with respect to the diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. Due to immunosenescence in geriatric patients the synthesis of CRP appears to be limited to inflammatory stimuli; however, this phenomenon does not appear to be of major clinical relevance. Despite the introduction of new parameters of the acute phase reaction, sometimes with better performance, such as interleukin-6, procalcitonin and the soluble endotoxin receptor sCD14, measurement of CRP for diagnosis and treatment monitoring is still justified even in geriatric patients as testing is rapid, economic and nearly ubiquitously available round the clock. Biochemical markers of the acute phase reaction should always be interpreted together with the clinical picture and their specific limitations.

  10. Site-directed immobilisation of antibody fragments for detection of C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Vikholm-Lundin, Inger; Albers, Willem M

    2006-01-15

    C-reactive protein, CRP antibody Fab'-fragments have been attached on pre-cleaned gold slides and protein repellent polymers have been used to block the remaining free space in between the antibody fragments. At optimal conditions the antibody fragments are site-directly immobilised on the surface and non-specific binding is reduced. The amount of Fab'-fragments in the polymer host monolayer has been optimised for various buffers. Binding of CRP to Fab'-fragment/polymer layers produced in phosphate buffered saline decreased with NaCl salt concentration. In a 1M NaCl phosphate buffer, the antibodies seem to be randomly oriented on the surface with a similar response to CRP as that of an antibody F(ab)(2)-fragment layer. In a 150 mM NaCl phosphate buffer, on the other hand, the fragments seem to be site-directly oriented and the response to CRP was fivefold. The highest response to CRP was obtained to a layer with a Fab'-fragment concentration of 60 microg/ml. CRP could be detected in a concentration range of 1 ng/ml to 50 microg/ml from a standard solution in phosphate buffer and in a range of 4 ng/ml to 50 microg/ml from serum/PBS. CRP was, moreover, successfully detected in patient samples with good reproducibility. The layer would thus be sensitive enough to analyse the CRP concentration in human serum for predicting cardiovascular disease.

  11. A review of C-reactive protein: A diagnostic indicator in periodontal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ramamoorthy, Renuka Devi; Nallasamy, Vijaykumar; Reddy, Raghavendra; Esther, Nalini; Maruthappan, Yuvaraja

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is a local inflammatory process mediating the destruction of periodontal tissues, triggered by bacterial insult. Recent evidence suggests the presence of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease may significantly affect systemic health conditions such as coronary heart disease, stroke, or adverse pregnancy outcome. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein which reflects a measure of the acute phase response. CRP is used as one of the markers of choice in monitoring the acute phase response because it increases to a relatively high concentration compared to basal concentration. CRP has been shown to predict cardiovascular (CV) mortality in recent studies, and elevated CRP levels have been observed in middle-aged patients with periodontitis. Combination of chronic infections like periodontitis with elevated CRP is associated with higher chronic heart diseases. The recognition of the relationship between periodontal diseases and atherosclerotic events is relatively recent and mostly based on the inflammatory hypothesis of atherosclerosis. Periodontal disease is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and possibly one of its causes. Hence, even associations of modest magnitude have a large impact. The cost to the society directly attributable to atherosclerotic sequelae is very large. Periodontitis is treatable; moreover, it is preventable. Experimental conformation of this shows that another widely prevalent and preventable contributor to the burden of cardiovascular disease would be added to the options available of the clinicians and public health practitioners for the control of the epidemic of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23066303

  12. The evaluation of increase in hemodialysis frequency on C-reactive protein levels and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Ali Akbar; Soleimani, Ali Reza; Nikoueinejad, Hassan; Sarbolouki, Shokooh

    2013-03-16

    Malnutrition and inflammation are the most important causes of cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of increase in hemodialysis frequency on C-reactive protein (CRP) level and nutritional markers in contrast to previous routine method. 18 hemodialysis patients with a mean age of 53±16 years were randomly selected in this before-and-after clinical trial. The patients under a standard hemodialysis of 3 times/4 h per week were converted to 4 times/4 h for a period of 6 weeks. The CRP, albumin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL serum levels, anthropometric indices and 24-h diet recall intake was assessed before and after of the period. The data were analyzed using paired t-test, and P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. All patients completed the study. Mean weight, body mass index and serum albumin increased while serum CRP level decreased significantly after the intervention (P<0.03). Triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, as well as energy, protein and fat intake had no significant change before and after the study. Increase in dialysis frequency decreased systemic inflammation and improved the nutritional state of hemodialysis patients. Therefore, it may decrease the risk of cardiovascular events in these patients.

  13. Rapid and quantitative detection of C-reactive protein based on quantum dots and immunofiltration assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengfei; Bao, Yan; Draz, Mohamed Shehata; Lu, Huiqi; Liu, Chang; Han, Huanxing

    2015-01-01

    Convenient and rapid immunofiltration assays (IFAs) enable on-site "yes" or "no" determination of disease markers. However, traditional IFAs are commonly qualitative or semi-quantitative and are very limited for the efficient testing of samples in field diagnostics. Here, we overcome these limitations by developing a quantum dots (QDs)-based fluorescent IFA for the quantitative detection of C-reactive proteins (CRP). CRP, the well-known diagnostic marker for acute viral and bacterial infections, was used as a model analyte to demonstrate performance and sensitivity of our developed QDs-based IFA. QDs capped with both polyethylene glycol (PEG) and glutathione were used as fluorescent labels for our IFAs. The presence of the surface PEG layer, which reduced the non-specific protein interactions, in conjunction with the inherent optical properties of QDs, resulted in lower background signal, increased sensitivity, and ability to detect CRP down to 0.79 mg/L with only 5 µL serum sample. In addition, the developed assay is simple, fast and can quantitatively detect CRP with a detection limit up to 200 mg/L. Clinical test results of our QD-based IFA are well correlated with the traditional latex enhance immune-agglutination aggregation. The proposed QD-based fluorescent IFA is very promising, and potentially will be adopted for multiplexed immunoassay and in field point-of-care test.

  14. Plasma C-Reactive Protein Levels Are Associated With Improved Outcome in ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Ednan K.; Khan, Uzma A.; Januzzi, James L.; Gong, Michelle N.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Christiani, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) has been studied as a marker of systemic inflammation and outcome in a number of diseases, but little is known about its characteristics in ARDS. We sought to examine plasma levels of CRP in patients with ARDS and their relationship to outcome and measures of illness severity. Methods: We measured CRP levels in 177 patients within 48 h of disease onset and tested the association of protein level with 60-day mortality, 28-day daily organ dysfunction scores, and number of ventilator-free days. Results: We found that CRP levels were significantly lower in nonsurvivors when compared with survivors (p = 0.02). Mortality rate decreased with increasing CRP decile (p = 0.02). An increasing CRP level was associated with a significantly higher probability of survival at 60 days (p = 0.005). This difference persisted after adjustment for age and severity of illness in a multivariable model (p = 0.009). Multivariable models were also used to show that patients in the group with higher CRP levels had significantly lower organ dysfunction scores (p = 0.001) and more ventilator-free days (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Increasing plasma levels of CRP within 48 h of ARDS onset are associated with improved survival, lower organ failure scores, and fewer days of mechanical ventilation. These data appear to be contrary to the established view that CRP is solely a marker of systemic inflammation. PMID:19411291

  15. Rosuvastatin, inflammation, C-reactive protein, JUPITER, and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease--a perspective.

    PubMed

    Kones, Richard

    2010-12-09

    The major public health concern worldwide is coronary heart disease, with dyslipidemia as a major risk factor. Statin drugs are recommended by several guidelines for both primary and secondary prevention. Rosuvastatin has been widely accepted because of its efficacy, potency, and superior safety profile. Inflammation is involved in all phases of atherosclerosis, with the process beginning in early youth and advancing relentlessly for decades throughout life. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-studied, nonspecific marker of inflammation which may reflect general health risk. Considerable evidence suggests CRP is an independent predictor of future cardiovascular events, but direct involvement in atherosclerosis remains controversial. Rosuvastatin is a synthetic, hydrophilic statin with unique stereochemistry. A large proportion of patients achieve evidence-based lipid targets while using the drug, and it slows progression and induces regression of atherosclerotic coronary lesions. Rosuvastatin lowers CRP levels significantly. The Justification for Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) trial was designed after the observation that when both low density lipoprotein and CRP were reduced, patients fared better than when only LDL was lowered. Advocates and critics alike acknowledge that the benefits of rosuvastatin in JUPITER were real. After a review, the US Food and Drug Administration extended the indications for rosuvastatin to include asymptomatic JUPITER-eligible individuals with one additional risk factor. The American Heart Association and Centers of Disease Control and Prevention had previously recognized the use of CRP in persons with "intermediate risk" as defined by global risk scores. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines went further and recommended use of statins in persons with low LDL and high CRP levels at intermediate risk. The JUPITER study focused attention on ostensibly healthy individuals with

  16. Rosuvastatin, inflammation, C-reactive protein, JUPITER, and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease – a perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kones, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The major public health concern worldwide is coronary heart disease, with dyslipidemia as a major risk factor. Statin drugs are recommended by several guidelines for both primary and secondary prevention. Rosuvastatin has been widely accepted because of its efficacy, potency, and superior safety profile. Inflammation is involved in all phases of atherosclerosis, with the process beginning in early youth and advancing relentlessly for decades throughout life. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-studied, nonspecific marker of inflammation which may reflect general health risk. Considerable evidence suggests CRP is an independent predictor of future cardiovascular events, but direct involvement in atherosclerosis remains controversial. Rosuvastatin is a synthetic, hydrophilic statin with unique stereochemistry. A large proportion of patients achieve evidence-based lipid targets while using the drug, and it slows progression and induces regression of atherosclerotic coronary lesions. Rosuvastatin lowers CRP levels significantly. The Justification for Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) trial was designed after the observation that when both low density lipoprotein and CRP were reduced, patients fared better than when only LDL was lowered. Advocates and critics alike acknowledge that the benefits of rosuvastatin in JUPITER were real. After a review, the US Food and Drug Administration extended the indications for rosuvastatin to include asymptomatic JUPITER-eligible individuals with one additional risk factor. The American Heart Association and Centers of Disease Control and Prevention had previously recognized the use of CRP in persons with “intermediate risk” as defined by global risk scores. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines went further and recommended use of statins in persons with low LDL and high CRP levels at intermediate risk. The JUPITER study focused attention on ostensibly healthy individuals

  17. The association between serum C-reactive protein and macronutrients and antioxidants intake in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Kooshki, A; Samadipour, E; Akbarzadeh, R

    2015-01-01

    Background:Despite the high levels of inflammation in hemodialysis patients and the effects of diet on systemic inflammation, such as the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, few studies have evaluated the relationship of macronutrients and antioxidants intake with serum C-reactive protein (CRP). Therefore, this study assessed the relationship between serum high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) with macronutrients and antioxidants intake and serum albumin. Methods:This cross-sectional study used census sampling to select 75 hemodialysis patients (35 men and 40 women) who attended the hemodialysis department of Vaseie Hospital of Sabzevar, Iran. After obtaining the written consent, all the patients were interviewed and dietary data was collected by using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire including 160 food items. Diet analysis was performed with Nutritionist IV. Before being connected to the dialysis machine, 5 cc fasting blood samples were obtained from all participants and serum hs-CRP and albumin levels were measured. All the statistical analyses were conducted with SPSS -for Windows, version 16.0. Results:The patients’ mean body mass index was 20.09 ± 3.27 kg/ m2. The participants’ intake of antioxidants and all macronutrients, except for carbohydrates and proteins, was less than the standard levels. Moreover, the hs-CRP had significant inverse relationships with serum albumin (P=0.0001) and vitamin E and C intakes but was not significant. Also, a significant relationship was observed between hs-CRP levels and the intake of energy (P=0.002) and protein (P=0.0001). Conclusion:Our findings indicated hs-CRP levels of hemodialysis patients to have significant inverse relationships with serum albumin and vitamin E and C intakes but was not significant. Also, a significant relationship was observed between hs-CRP levels and the intake of energy and protein.

  18. [C-reactive protein in the assessment of iron status in patients on hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Rathaus, M

    2009-01-01

    Iron availability is a prerequisite for an efficient hematopoietic response to erythropoietin. Dynamic evaluation of iron status is difficult in hemodialysis patients and can be further complicated by the presence of an inflammatory state. Several cytokines, in particular interleukin 6 (IL-6), stimulate the production of hepcidin in the liver. This hormone is the main regulator of the extracellular iron concentration through its effect on the iron channel ferroportin, present in several cell types. IL-6 is also the major stimulus for the production of C-reactive protein (CRP), a nonspecific but sensitive marker of inflammation. Measurement of hepcidin is technically difficult and has so far been limited to research. On the other hand, measurement of CRP, which is both sensitive and easily measurable with automated techniques, might possibly be used as a surrogate measure of iron status in hemodialysis patients. Several studies have suggested the value of CRP in this context, but they dealt with small patient groups and single-time-point measurements. Even the definition of normal values of CRP in dialysis patients is uncertain. During the period between 2003 and 2007, we performed 8322 measurements of CRP in 401 hemodialysis patients followed for 3-60 months. All parameters of iron balance (serum iron, TSAT, percent hypochromic RBC and Hgb concentration in reticulocytes) were clearly affected by the presence of an inflammatory state. We believe that measurement of CRP must be part of the routine hematological assessment of hemodialyzed patients to allow the correct interpretation of data in anemia treatment.

  19. Neighborhood stressors and cardiovascular health: crime and C-reactive protein in Dallas, USA.

    PubMed

    Browning, Christopher R; Cagney, Kathleen A; Iveniuk, James

    2012-10-01

    We apply neighborhood-based theories of social organization and environmental stress to examine variation in a key indicator of inflammation-related cardiovascular risk-C-reactive protein (CRP). Specifically, we emphasize the potentially health-compromising role of rapid increases in the crime rate or "crime spikes" (focusing on a particularly fear-inducing crime - burglary). We also consider the extent to which the magnitude and significance of the association between burglary rate change and inflammatory processes varies by gender. Data on CRP, neighborhood of residence, and individual-level characteristics for adult women and men ages 30-65 are drawn from the 2000-2002 Dallas Heart Study. Results from neighborhood fixed effects models using piecewise linear splines to estimate short-term burglary rate change effects offer support for the hypothesis that crime spikes are associated with CRP. Specifically, we find that short-term burglary rate change is independently associated with CRP for men. Short-term burglary rate change was not associated with CRP for women. These findings shed light on the contextual processes that influence cardiovascular health and point to the potentially important role of short-term changes in environmental stressors in shaping health outcomes.

  20. Validation of an immunoturbidimetric method for determination of porcine serum C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Saco, Yolanda; Fraile, Lorenzo; Giménez, Mercè; Canalias, Francesca; Bassols, Anna

    2010-10-01

    Measurement of porcine C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum is an important tool for monitoring health and welfare in pigs. In this study, an immunoturbidimetric method from Olympus System Reagent (OSR 6147) used to measure human CRP in serum that employ a human traceable calibrator has been evaluated in porcine serum samples. Intra- and inter-assay imprecision were lower than that obtained with the porcine-specific commercially available ELISA. The expected difference in serum CRP between healthy and non-healthy pigs was detected. CRP values measured by the immunoturbidimetric method showed a good correlation with those obtained by ELISA, although differences in absolute CRP values were observed. When an in-house porcine standard was used a better agreement was obtained. In conclusion, the immunoturbidimetric method of Olympus can be used with porcine samples. The easier use of this method should facilitate the implementation of CRP serum determination for diagnostic and prognostic purposes in swine medicine. The results emphasize the need to establish species-specific standard and methods to decrease inter-laboratory discrepancies.

  1. COPD assessment test score and serum C-reactive protein levels in stable COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyung Koo; Kim, Kang; Lee, Hyun; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Koh, Won-Jung; Park, Hye Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background An eight-item questionnaire of the COPD assessment test (CAT) is widely used to quantify the impact of COPD on the patient’s health status. C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with disease severity and adverse health outcomes of patients with COPD. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between CAT score and serum CRP levels in stable COPD patients. Methods We evaluated the medical records of 226 patients with CAT and serum CRP measured within a week at Samsung Medical Center between October 2013 and October 2015. Results Serum CRP levels had a significantly positive relationship with CAT score (Spearman’s r=0.20, P=0.003). Patients with elevated serum CRP levels (>0.3 mg/dL) were significantly more likely to have CAT scores of ≥14. The adjusted odds ratio for elevated serum CRP levels in total CAT score was 1.06 (95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.09). Among CAT components, cough (adjusted P=0.005), phlegm (adjusted P=0.001), breathlessness going up hills/stairs (adjusted P=0.005), low confidence leaving home (adjusted P=0.002), and feeling low in energy (adjusted P=0.019) were independently associated with elevated serum CRP levels. Conclusion In stable COPD patients, serum CRP levels were independently associated with total CAT score and CAT components related to respiratory symptoms, confidence leaving home, and energy. PMID:27994452

  2. Ratio of C-Reactive Protein to Albumin Predicts Muscle Mass in Adult Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Tong; Wu, Pei-Yu; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Hsu, Yung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the ratio of C-reactive protein to albumin (CRP–Alb ratio) is associated with clinical outcomes in patients with disease. We examined the predictive value of this ratio in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). In this cross-sectional study, 91 eligible adult HD patients were analyzed, and the correlation between the CRP–Alb ratio and skeletal muscle mass normalized for body weight (SMM/wt; estimated using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer) was investigated. The mean age of the study participants was 54.9 ± 6.6 years (ranging from 27 to 64 years); 43 (47.2%) were men. The mean values for the SMM/wt were 39.1% ± 5.4%. The CRP–Alb ratio was found to be negatively correlated with SMM/wt (r = −0.33, P = 0.002) and creatinine (r = −0.20, P = 0.056). All the univariate significant and nonsignificant relevant covariates were selected for multivariable stepwise regression analysis. We determined that the homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance and CRP–Alb ratio were independent risk determinants for SMM/wt (βHOMA-IR = −0.18 and βCRP–Alb ratio = −3.84, adjusted R2 = 0.32). This study indicated that the CRP–Alb ratio may help clinicians in predicting muscle mass in adult patients undergoing HD. PMID:27768746

  3. C-reactive protein/albumin ratio as prognostic score in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Many studies have examined histopathological factors and various prognostic scores related to inflammation to predict outcomes. Here, we examined the prognostic value of the C-reactive protein/albumin (CRP/alb) ratio in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Materials and Methods This retrospective study included 40 patients with OSCC. Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we focused on the correlation of the CRP/alb ratio with clinicopathological characteristics and with overall survival. We then compared five inflammation-based prognostic scores, CRP/alb ratio, modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and prognostic nutritional index (PNI), based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results The optimal cut-off value for the CRP/alb ratio was 0.085. The group with a high CRP/alb ratio had a high TNM clinical stage (P=0.002) and larger primary tumors (P=0.029), with statistically significant differences in lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. In addition, when the CRP/alb ratio was high, multivariate analysis showed a lower survival rate (P=0.002; hazard ratio=6.078), and the ROC curve showed more outstanding discriminatory ability regarding overall survival compared to other inflammation-based prognostic scores. Conclusion The CRP/alb ratio can be an independent prognostic factor when predicting prognosis in OSCC and has good prognostic ability. PMID:27847731

  4. Impact of the dietary fatty acid intake on C-reactive protein levels in US adults.

    PubMed

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Gao, Hong-Kai; Vatanparast, Hassan; Kengne, Andre Pascal

    2017-02-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the effects of diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) occur through mechanisms involving subclinical inflammation. We assessed whether reported dietary fatty acid intake correlates with a serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentration in a population-based sample of US men and women.In this cross-sectional analysis, participants were selected from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and restricted to those with available data on dietary intake, biochemical and anthropometric measurements from 2001 to 2010. All statistical analyses accounted for the survey design and sample weights by using SPSS Complex Samples v22.0 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY).Of the 17,689 participants analyzed, 8607 (48.3%) were men. The mean age was 45.8 years in the overall sample, 44.9 years in men, and 46.5 years in women (P = 0.047). The age-, race-, and sex-adjusted mean dietary intakes of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), PUFAs 18:2 (octadecadienoic), and PUFAs 18:3 (octadecatrienoic) monotonically decreased across hs-CRP quartiles (P < 0.001), whereas dietary cholesterol increased across hs-CRP quartiles (P < 0.001)This study provides further evidence of an association between fatty acid intake and subclinical inflammation markers. hs-CRP concentrations are likely modulated by dietary fatty acid intake. However, the causality of this association needs to be demonstrated in clinical trials.

  5. Sensitive detection of C-reactive protein using optical fiber Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Sridevi, S; Vasu, K S; Asokan, S; Sood, A K

    2015-03-15

    An accurate and highly sensitive sensor platform has been demonstrated for the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) using optical fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The CRP detection has been carried out by monitoring the shift in Bragg wavelength (ΔλB) of an etched FBG (eFBG) coated with an anti-CRP antibody (aCRP)-graphene oxide (GO) complex. The complex is characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. A limit of detection of 0.01mg/L has been achieved with a linear range of detection from 0.01mg/L to 100mg/L which includes clinical range of CRP. The eFBG sensor coated with only aCRP (without GO) show much less sensitivity than that of aCRP-GO complex coated eFBG. The eFBG sensors show high specificity to CRP even in the presence of other interfering factors such as urea, creatinine and glucose. The affinity constant of ∼1.1×10(10)M(-1) has been extracted from the data of normalized shift (ΔλB/λB) as a function of CRP concentration.

  6. Physical functioning related to C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels in mid-life women

    PubMed Central

    Tomey, Kristin; Sowers, MaryFran; Zheng, Huiyong; Jackson, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether subclinical inflammatory markers high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen are related to measures of physical functioning in midlife women. Our sample included 543 participants in the Michigan site of Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Predictors included CRP from serum and fibrinogen from plasma. Performance-based outcomes included measures of gait, hand grip strength, flexibility, stair climb, 40-foot walk, and chair rise. Perception of physical functioning was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 questionnaire. Regression analyses adjusted for relevant covariates. Cross-sectional associations were identified between higher CRP and more time spent in double support (with both feet on the floor while walking), shorter forward reach, slower 2-lb lift, and slower stair climb. Higher CRP and fibrinogen were associated with worse perceived functioning in cross-sectional analyses. Predictive associations across time were found between higher CRP and increased time spent in double support, diminishing forward reach distance and grip strength and worse perceived physical functioning. Predictive associations across time were also found between higher fibrinogen and greater time spent in double support, slower stair climb and worse perceived physical functioning. Our results suggest that inflammatory processes are associated with poor physical functioning in midlife women. PMID:19819323

  7. A time-resolved immunofluorometric assay for porcine C-reactive protein quantification in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Subiela, S; Eckersall, P D; Campbell, F M; Parra, M D; Fuentes, P; Ceron, J J

    2007-01-01

    A time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TR-IFMA) for C-reactive protein (CRP) determination in whole blood of pigs was developed and validated. CRP was isolated from porcine acute-phase serum by affinity chromatography on agarose, coupled with phosphorylethanolamine and polyclonal antibodies to porcine CRP were purified from antiserum raised in sheep immunized with porcine CRP. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) were in the range 3.13-7.19% and 7.06-15.66%, respectively, showing good precision. The assay measured the CRP values in a proportional and linear manner (r=0.99); additionally, CRP concentrations measured in whole blood by the present TR-IFMA and in serum by an established immunoturbidimetric assay were highly correlated (R(2)=0.97). The limit of detection of the method was 0.0028 mg/L. Significantly lower CRP concentrations were observed after 7 days of sample storage at 4 degrees C. The injection of turpentine oil caused a significant increase in CRP concentrations and significantly higher CRP concentrations were observed in pigs with pathological processes compared to healthy animals.

  8. Quantitative capillary reversed passive latex agglutination test for C-reactive protein (CRP) in the dog.

    PubMed

    Tagata, K; Yokoyama, S; Ginbo, T; Honda, M; Okimura, T; Odakura, M; Nomura, M; Yamamoto, S

    1996-01-01

    A capillary reversed passive latex agglutination test (capillary RPLA) was developed which allows quantification of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) within approximately 15 min. The logarithmic regression line (calibration curve) obtained after measuring each CRP concentration three times in twofold dilutions of a standard canine serum containing 222 micrograms/ml of CRP was y = 6.394 + 0.030x (r = 0.995). Capillary RPLA permitted quantification of CRP in the range 6.9-222 micrograms/ml. The coefficients of variation ranged from 10.28% to 12.40%. The recovery rates (percentage recovery) of CRP by capillary RPLA were within the range 87% to 106%. On measuring the CRP concentrations in sera from 78 dogs by capillary RPLA, single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), close correlations were demonstrated between SRID and capillary RPLA (y = 7.250 + 1.109x, r = 0.978), between SRID and ELISA (y = 3.042 + 1.059x, r = 0.967), and between capillary RPLA and ELISA (y = 1.778 + 0.929x, r = 0.962). Capillary RPLA may be considered useful as a routine biochemical technique for measurement of serum CRP concentration in the dog.

  9. Presence of multimeric isoforms of human C-reactive protein in tissues and blood

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiling; Xu, Wei; Xue, Xue; Wang, Qi; Han, Lu; Li, Wenzhi; Lv, Shulan; Liu, Dong; Richards, Jendai; Shen, Zhujun; Ma, Li; Song, Qing

    2016-01-01

    The baseline concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) has been associated with a wide array of human diseases. In epidemiological studies and in the clinic, CRP is typically measured as a pentamer, composed of 5 identical CRP subunits. The present study aimed to determine whether other isoforms were present in the blood by examining CRP conformations. Transgenic rats expressing human CRP under the mouse albumin promoter were generated and genotyped. Non-reducing western blotting was performed using the blood and tissues of transgenic rats and human patients. CRP concentrations in human blood were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition to the pentameric isoform, CRP was detected as a trimer and tetramer in the blood of human CRP transgenic rats. Furthermore, trimeric and tetrameric CRP was observed in various tissues, including aorta, liver, kidney, pancreas, heart and skeletal muscle. Notably, these two isoforms appeared to be age-associated, as they were detected only in the blood and tissues of older transgenic rats. The existence of additional CRP isoforms was confirmed in the blood of human patients by non-reducing western blotting. Clinical and epidemiological studies typically focus on CRP concentration. However, the results of the present study suggest that, in addition to concentration, CRP conformation may require analysis. PMID:27840940

  10. Interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein as prognostic biomarkers in metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Maria; Kersten, Christian; Sorbye, Halfdan; Skovlund, Eva; Glimelius, Bengt; Pfeiffer, Per; Johansen, Julia S.; Kure, Elin H.; Ikdahl, Tone; Tveit, Kjell Magne; Christoffersen, Thoralf; Guren, Tormod Kyrre

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to explore the prognostic significance of IL-6 and markers of systemic inflammatory response (SIR), in particular C-reactive protein (CRP), in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients, in the total study population and according to RAS and BRAF mutation status. Results High levels of pretreatment serum IL-6 or CRP were associated with impaired outcome, in terms of reduced PFS and OS. Patients with low versus high serum IL-6 levels had median OS of 26.0 versus 16.6 months, respectively (P < 0.001). Stratified according to increasing CRP levels, median OS varied from 24.3 months to 12.3 months, (P < 0.001). IL-6 and CRP levels affected overall prognosis also in adjusted analyses. The effect of IL-6 was particularly pronounced in patients with BRAF mutation (interaction P = 0.004). Materials and Methods IL-6 and CRP were determined in pre-treatment serum samples from 393 patients included in the NORDIC-VII trial, in which patients with mCRC received first line treatment. The effect of serum IL-6 and CRP on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was estimated. Conclusions High baseline serum consentrations of IL-6 or CRP were associated with impaired prognosis in mCRC. IL-6 and CRP give independent prognostic information in addition to RAS and BRAF mutation status. PMID:27738330

  11. Interpersonal Violence, PTSD, and Inflammation: Potential Psychogenic Pathways to Higher C-reactive Protein Levels

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Nicole M.; Chesney, Samantha A.; Gerhart, James I.; Goldsmith, Rachel E.; Luborsky, Judith L.; Stevens, Natalie R.; Hobfoll, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Interpersonal violence (IPV) is major public health concern with wide-ranging sequelae including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and possible alterations of immune and inflammation processes. There is a need to identify the psycho-biological pathways through which IPV may translate to altered inflammatory processes since both PTSD and inflammation are associated with serious physical health conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the relationships between IPV, psychological distress, and the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP), in a sample of 139 urban women who have a high likelihood for having experienced IPV. Participants were recruited from an outpatient gynecology clinic to complete self-report measures about their IPV histories and psychological symptoms, as well as to have their blood sampled using a finger stick. Results indicated that exposure to IPV predicted the presence of probable depression and PTSD diagnoses. Individuals who experience clinical levels of PTSD exhibited higher CRP levels, and this relationship held after adjusting for comorbid depression. Correlational analyses suggested that reexperiencing symptoms may explain the link between PTSD diagnosis and higher levels of CRP. Follow-up path analytic models provided good fit to the overall data, and indicated that the relationship between probable PTSD status and CRP is not explained by higher BMI. Overall, these findings call for increased attention to the role of PTSD in explaining links between trauma and diminished health. PMID:23701836

  12. Blood count and C-reactive protein evolution in gastric cancer patients with total gastrectomy surgery

    PubMed Central

    CSENDES J., Attila; MUÑOZ Ch., Andrea; BURGOS L., Ana María

    2014-01-01

    Background The complete blood count (CBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are useful inflammatory parameters for ruling out acute postoperative inflammatory complications. Aim To determine their changes in gastric cancer patients submitted to total gastrectomy. Methods This is a prospective study, with 36 patients with gastric cancer who were submitted to elective total gastrectomy. On the first, third and fifth postoperative day (POD), blood count and CRP changes were assessed. Patients with postoperative complications were excluded. Results Twenty-one (58%) were men and 15 (42%) women. The mean age was 65 years. The leukocytes peaked on the 1st POD with a mean of 13,826 u/mm³, and decreased to 8,266 u/mm³ by the 5th POD. The bacilliforms peaked on the 1st POD with a maximum value of 1.48%. CRP reached its maximum level on the 3rd POD with a mean of 144.64 mg/l±44.84. Preoperative hematocrit (HCT) was 35% and 33.67% by the 5th POD. Hemoglobin, showed similar values. Conclusions Leukocytes increased during the 1st POD but reached normal values by the 5th POD. CRP peaked on the 3rd POD but did not reach normal values by the 5th POD. PMID:25626929

  13. Reduction in trunk fat predicts cardiovascular exercise training-related reductions in C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Vieira, V J; Hu, L; Valentine, R J; McAuley, E; Evans, E M; Baynard, T; Woods, J A

    2009-05-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We sought to determine (1) if 10 months of cardiovascular exercise training (Cardio) reduces CRP in a group of older adults, (2) if such a reduction is related to improvements in trunk fat, fitness, and/or psychosocial variables, and (3) if the effect of Cardio on CRP differs between men and women. Community-dwelling residents (n=127; 60-83 yrs) were randomized to a Flex group (n=61) where they participated in 2-75 min supervised sessions per wk during which they performed non-cardiovascular flexibility and balance exercises or a Cardio group (n=66) where they participated in three supervised sessions per wk during which they performed cardiovascular exercises for approximately 45-60 min at 60-70% maximal oxygen uptake. The main outcome measures were serum CRP, cardiovascular fitness, total and central adiposity, and self-reported psychosocial function. Cardio experienced a reduction in CRP (-0.5mg/L), as well as improvements in fitness (+7%) and total (-1.5%) and central (i.e., trunk) (-2.5%) adiposity. These relationships were not modified by sex. Regression analyses indicated that only the reduction in trunk fat was significantly related to the reduction in CRP. Ten months of cardiovascular exercise training reduced CRP in previously sedentary older adults and this effect was partially mediated by a reduction in trunk fat.

  14. Label-free detection of C-reactive protein using a carbon nanofiber based biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rakesh K.; Periyakaruppan, Adaikkappan; Meyyappan, M.; Koehne, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    We report the sensitive detection of C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker for cardiac disease, using a carbon nanofiber based biosensor platform. Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers were grown using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition to fabricate nanoelectrode arrays in a 3 X 3 configuration. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used for the CRP detection. The CV responses show a 25 % reduction in redox current upon the immobilization of anti-CRP on the electrode where as a 30% increase in charge transfer resistance is seen from EIS. Further reduction in redox current and increase in charge transfer resistance result from binding of CRP on anti-CRP immobilized surface, proportional to the concentration of the CRP target. The detection limit of the sensor is found to be ~90 pM or ~11 ng/ml, which is in the clinically relevant range. Control tests using non-specific myoglobin antigen confirmed the specificity of the present approach. PMID:24709327

  15. [Inflammation mediators (C reactive protein) in children with proteic-energetic malnutrition and in eutrophic children].

    PubMed

    Amesty-Valbuena, Alis; Pereira, Nayda; Castillo, José L; García, Doris; Nuñez, José R; Cayana, Neyda; Morán, Aida; Parra, Maria A; Troconiz, Carmen

    2004-03-01

    A multicentrical clinical study was designed with the purpose of measuring C-reactive protein (CRP) in normal and malnourished children, with and without infection. Blood samples were collected without anticoagulant from 109 venezuelan children, between the ages of 6 months and 6 years. The statistical analysis was carried out using the t Student and ANOVA. The values of CRP were higher (80.80 +/- 38.39 mg/L) in severe malnourished infected than non-infected malnourished children (8.17 +/- 3.06 mg/L, p < 0.001). There were statistical differences between severe malnourished infected and eutrophic infected children (p < 0.001). There was also a difference between the non infected, severely malnourished children and the rest of them, although they kept their values within a normal range. These findings indicate that the malnourished child is able to produce CRP in response to infection but in a different way that the eutrophic child. In children without infection, the CRP levels were kept within the normal range.

  16. Cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and C-reactive protein levels in nonsmoking individuals with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, C.O.; Catai, A.M.; Moura-Tonello, S.C.G.; Lopes, S.L.B.; Benze, B.G.; Del Vale, A.M.; Leal, A.M.O.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and pulmonary function and the relationship with metabolic variables and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nineteen men with diabetes and 19 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. All individuals were given incremental cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function tests. In the exercise test, maximal workload (158.3±22.3 vs 135.1±25.2, P=0.005), peak heart rate (HRpeak: 149±12 vs 139±10, P=0.009), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak: 24.2±3.2 vs 18.9±2.8, P<0.001), and anaerobic threshold (VO2VT: 14.1±3.4 vs 12.2±2.2, P=0.04) were significantly lower in individuals with diabetes than in control subjects. Pulmonary function test parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol), and CRP plasma levels were not different in control subjects and individuals with DM. No correlations were observed between hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), CRP and pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise test performance. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that nonsmoking individuals with DM have decreased cardiorespiratory fitness that is not correlated with resting pulmonary function parameters, HbA1c, and CRP plasma levels. PMID:24760118

  17. Cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and C-reactive protein levels in nonsmoking individuals with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Francisco, C O; Catai, A M; Moura-Tonello, S C G; Lopes, S L B; Benze, B G; Del Vale, A M; Leal, A M O

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and pulmonary function and the relationship with metabolic variables and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nineteen men with diabetes and 19 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. All individuals were given incremental cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function tests. In the exercise test, maximal workload (158.3 ± 22.3 vs 135.1 ± 25.2, P=0.005), peak heart rate (HRpeak: 149 ± 12 vs 139 ± 10, P=0.009), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak: 24.2 ± 3.2 vs 18.9 ± 2.8, P<0.001), and anaerobic threshold (VO2VT: 14.1 ± 3.4 vs 12.2 ± 2.2, P=0.04) were significantly lower in individuals with diabetes than in control subjects. Pulmonary function test parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol), and CRP plasma levels were not different in control subjects and individuals with DM. No correlations were observed between hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), CRP and pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise test performance. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that nonsmoking individuals with DM have decreased cardiorespiratory fitness that is not correlated with resting pulmonary function parameters, HbA1c, and CRP plasma levels.

  18. C-reactive protein level and microbial aetiology in patients hospitalised with acute exacerbation of COPD.

    PubMed

    Clark, Tristan W; Medina, Marie-Jo; Batham, Sally; Curran, Martin D; Parmar, Surendra; Nicholson, Karl G

    2015-01-01

    Both viruses and bacteria are thought to cause exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, the relative importance of each remains uncertain. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels increase during exacerbations but the relationship with aetiology is not established. We aimed to explore the relationship between serum CRP and the rate of detection of viruses and bacteria. This was a prospectively recruited, observational study of patients hospitalised with exacerbations of COPD. Nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for respiratory viruses by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Sputum and blood were collected for bacterial culture and urine tested for pneumococcal antigen. CRP levels were measured on sera. CRP and other factors associated with viral, bacterial or mixed detection were assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. 264 patients with exacerbations of COPD were studied: 26% tested positive for respiratory viruses only, 13% had bacteria only, 12% had mixed viral/bacterial detection, and 49% had no pathogens detected. CRP level and temperature were strongly associated with viral detection rate (p<0.001 and p=0.004, respectively) and mixed viral/bacterial detection rate (p=0.02 and p=0.03, respectively) on multivariate analysis. Bacterial detection rate was not associated with CRP level or body temperature. This study supports the role of viruses as important aetiological agents causing exacerbations of COPD.

  19. Predicting Outcome of Childhood Bacterial Meningitis With a Single Measurement of C-Reactive Protein

    PubMed Central

    Peltola, Heikki; Roine, Irmeli; Cruzeiro, Manuel Leite; Bernardino, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, shows high serum levels in invasive bacterial infections. We investigated the potential of a single CRP measurement at different phases of acute childhood bacterial meningitis to predict outcomes. Methods: Using whole-blood finger-prick samples with no centrifugation, CRP was measured quantitatively on arrival and on day 3 or 4 in children participating in 2 prospective, randomized, double-blind treatment studies conducted in Latin America or Angola. The results were compared with patient outcomes. Results: Although initial CRP values from 669 children gave useful prognostic information, the 3rd or 4th day measurements taken from 275 children associated significantly with seizures, slow recovery and low scores on the Glasgow Outcome Scale, with odds ratios for CRP values above the median (62 mg/L) ranging from 2 to 6, 2 to 5, and 3 to 5 (Latin America–Angola), respectively. Hearing impairment, although not full deafness, was 3 to 7 times more likely if CRP was above the median soon after hospitalization. Conclusions: Especially in resource-poor settings, clinicians have few simple-enough tools to identify the child with meningitis who requires maximum attention. CRP is a worthy addition. PMID:26986770

  20. Evaluation of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis fluid C-reactive protein in patients with peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Kumaresan; Padmanabhan, Giri; Vijayaraghavan, Bhooma

    2016-05-01

    Severe peritonitis causing death is one of the most devastating complications of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Since the predictive value of C-reactive protein (CRP) in PD fluid has not been assessed, the objective of the present study is to evaluate its predictive value and clinical correlation in patients on PD with peritonitis. One hundred and twenty patients on continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) were enrolled and their serum and fluid CRP (Fl. CRP) were evaluated at the start of CAPD. All patients who developed peritonitis were further evaluated for serum and fluid CRP. The patients were categorized into four groups, namely: normal patients (control group), patients with peritonitis, patients with peritonitis leading to catheter removal, and death due to peritonitis. Sixty-five patients developed peritonitis of whom, catheter removal was performed in eight patients. Five patients died due to peritonitis-related complications. Fl. CRP showed a significant difference among the three groups, unlike S. CRP. Estimation of CRP in the peritoneal fluid may be a useful marker to monitor the onset of peritonitis.

  1. Narrative review: Assessment of C-reactive protein in risk prediction for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Liu, Kiang; Tian, Lu; Greenland, Philip

    2006-07-04

    Some experts propose C-reactive protein (CRP) as a screening tool for prediction of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Many epidemiologic studies show positive associations between elevated CRP levels and incident CVD. Assessment of the value of new prognostic tests, however, must rely on understanding of test characteristics rather than on associations measured by relative risks. In the case of CRP, test characteristics must be judged in the context of currently available CVD risk prediction algorithms. In this review of literature published before January 2006, the authors describe what is known about the additional utility of CRP in risk prediction. They find no definitive evidence that, for most individuals, CRP adds substantial predictive value above that provided by risk estimation using traditional risk factors for CVD. Use of CRP may add to risk estimation in a limited subset of individuals who are at intermediate predicted risk according to the Framingham risk score. The authors propose that many questions still must be addressed before CRP is incorporated into risk prediction algorithms and before universal screening with CRP can be recommended.

  2. Absence of diurnal variation of C-reactive protein concentrations in healthy human subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier-Ewert, H. K.; Ridker, P. M.; Rifai, N.; Price, N.; Dinges, D. F.; Mullington, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) in otherwise healthy subjects has been shown to predict future risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. CRP is synthesized by the liver in response to interleukin-6, the serum concentration of which is subject to diurnal variation. METHODS: To examine the existence of a time-of-day effect for baseline CRP values, we determined CRP concentrations in hourly blood samples drawn from healthy subjects (10 males, 3 females; age range, 21-35 years) during a baseline day in a controlled environment (8 h of nighttime sleep). RESULTS: Overall CRP concentrations were low, with only three subjects having CRP concentrations >2 mg/L. Comparison of raw data showed stability of CRP concentrations throughout the 24 h studied. When compared with cutoff values of CRP quintile derived from population-based studies, misclassification of greater than one quintile did not occur as a result of diurnal variation in any of the subjects studied. Nonparametric ANOVA comparing different time points showed no significant differences for both raw and z-transformed data. Analysis for rhythmic diurnal variation using a method fitting a cosine curve to the group data was negative. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that baseline CRP concentrations are not subject to time-of-day variation and thus help to explain why CRP concentrations are a better predictor of vascular risk than interleukin-6. Determination of CRP for cardiovascular risk prediction may be performed without concern for diurnal variation.

  3. Dual-Quantum-Dots-Labeled Lateral Flow Strip Rapidly Quantifies Procalcitonin and C-reactive Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, XiaoPing; Huang, YunYe; Lin, ZhongShi; Xu, Liang; Yu, Hao

    2016-03-01

    In the article, a dual-quantum-dots-labeled (dual-QDs-labeled) lateral flow strip (LFS) method was developed for the simultaneous and rapid quantitative detection of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the blood. Two QD-antibody conjugates with different fluorescence emission spectra were produced and sprayed on the LFS to capture PCT and CRP in the blood. Furthermore, a double antibody sandwich method for PCT and, meanwhile, a competitive inhibition method for CRP were employed in the LFS. For PCT and CRP in serum assayed by the dual-QDs-labeled LFS, their detection sensitivities reached 0.1 and 1 ng/mL, respectively, and their linear quantitative detection ranges were from 0.3 to 200 ng/mL and from 50 to 250 μg/mL, respectively. There was little evidence that the PCT and CRP assays would be interfered with each other. The correlations for testing CRP and PCT in clinical samples were 99.75 and 97.02 %, respectively, between the dual-QDs-labeled LFS we developed and commercial methods. The rapid quantification of PCT and CRP on dual-QDs-labeled LFS is of great clinical value to distinguish inflammation, bacterial infection, or viral infection and to provide guidance for the use of antibiotics or other medicines.

  4. [C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase as single prognostic factors of severity in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Zrnić, Irena Krznarić; Milić, Sandra; Fisić, Elizabeta; Radić, Mladen; Stimac, Davor

    2007-01-01

    Ranson and Glasgow scores are routinely used for prediction of severity in acute pancreatitis. We undertook a prospective study to investigate the role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as potential single predictors of severity in acute pancreatitis. In our study we included 100 patients with diagnosis of acute pancreatitis admitted to our hospital during last two years. The inclusion criteria consisted of a combination of clinical features, a typical case history, elevation of serum pancreatic enzymes and diagnosis confirmed by imaging studies (ultrasound or computerised tomography). We used Ranson score for assesment of severity and compared it with single parameters as LDH and CRP on the first and the third day after admission. Cut off values for predicting local and systemic complications were > or =3 for Ranson score, 320 IU for LDH and 5 mg/L for CRP. Ranson score showed highest sensitivity in the prediction of local and systemic complication of acute pancreatitis. Specificity and diagnostic accuracy were highest for LDH on the first day (67.74; 57%). Diagnostic accuracy for Ranson score and CRP on the third day after admission was around 50%. We can conclude that LDH and CRP are available, simple and economical biochemical parameters that can help us predict complications of acute pancreatitis in the early phase of the disease. They showed similar diagnostic accuracy as the far more clinically used Ranson score.

  5. Obesity and C-reactive protein in various populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, J; Joseph, L; Pilote, L

    2013-03-01

    Obesity has been associated with elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation and predictor of cardiovascular risk. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the associations between obesity and CRP according to sex, ethnicity and age. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched through October 2011. Data from 51 cross-sectional studies that used body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) as measure of obesity were independently extracted by two reviewers and aggregated using random-effects models. The Pearson correlation (r) for BMI and ln(CRP) was 0.36 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30-0.42) in adults and 0.37 (CI, 0.31-0.43) in children. In adults, r for BMI and ln(CRP) was greater in women than men by 0.24 (CI, 0.09-0.37), and greater in North Americans/Europeans than Asians by 0.15 (CI, 0-0.28), on average. In North American/European children, the sex difference in r for BMI and ln(CRP) was 0.01 (CI, -0.08 to 0.06). Although limited to anthropometric measures, we found similar results when WC and WHR were used in the analyses. Obesity is associated with elevated levels of CRP and the association is stronger in women and North Americans/Europeans. The sex difference only emerges in adulthood.

  6. Predictors of C-Reactive Protein in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    PubMed Central

    Lindau, Stacy Tessler; Wroblewski, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Inflammation plays an important role in many chronic degenerative diseases associated with aging, and social, economic, and behavioral factors that contribute to inflammation may lead to differential burdens of morbidity and mortality in later life. This study examines socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity as predictors of C-reactive protein (CRP) among older adults in the United States and considers the degree to which health behaviors, medical conditions and medication use, and psychosocial factors account for these associations. Methods. Multiple linear regression analysis of survey data for 1,580 participants, 57–85 years of age, in a population-based nationally representative sample of community-residing older adults in the United States. Results. Educational attainment, household wealth, and race/ethnicity were independently associated with CRP, with limited evidence for interactions with age. Health-related behaviors and usage of medications related to inflammation accounted for substantial proportions of these associations. Discussion. These results highlight the fundamental causes of inflammation among older adults and suggest pathways through which social disparities in inflammation may be reduced. PMID:20172904

  7. Efficacy of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein level in determining periprosthetic hip infections.

    PubMed

    Costa, Christopher R; Johnson, Aaron J; Naziri, Qais; Maralunda, German A; Delanois, Ronald E; Mont, Michael A

    2012-04-01

    The diagnosis of periprosthetic hip infections is often challenging. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level blood laboratory tests are commonly used to aid in the diagnosis. We studied the sensitivity, specificity, and false-negative rates of ESR and CRP level in a prospective group of patients who underwent revision total hip arthroplasty between 2000 and 2008. Seventy-seven patients with periprosthetic hip infections and ESR and CRP data were identified. Chi-square analysis was performed to determine the significance of false-negatives, compared with sex, body mass index, primary diagnosis, infection type, and immunity status. ESR had 89% sensitivity and 69% specificity. CRP level had 93% sensitivity and 40% specificity. The false-negative rate was 10.8% for ESR and 7% for CRP level. The false-negative rate for ESR and CRP level combined (with either result positive) was 3%. All false-negatives in the combined group were immunocompromised. Chi-square analysis did not find a significant correlation between false-negatives and any other variables. ESR and CRP level are useful in the diagnosis of periprosthetic hip infections. Ordering these tests concurrently reduces the chance of false-negative results.

  8. Impact of the dietary fatty acid intake on C-reactive protein levels in US adults

    PubMed Central

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Gao, Hong-Kai; Vatanparast, Hassan; Kengne, Andre Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Growing evidence suggests that the effects of diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) occur through mechanisms involving subclinical inflammation. We assessed whether reported dietary fatty acid intake correlates with a serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentration in a population-based sample of US men and women. In this cross-sectional analysis, participants were selected from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and restricted to those with available data on dietary intake, biochemical and anthropometric measurements from 2001 to 2010. All statistical analyses accounted for the survey design and sample weights by using SPSS Complex Samples v22.0 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY). Of the 17,689 participants analyzed, 8607 (48.3%) were men. The mean age was 45.8 years in the overall sample, 44.9 years in men, and 46.5 years in women (P = 0.047). The age-, race-, and sex-adjusted mean dietary intakes of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), PUFAs 18:2 (octadecadienoic), and PUFAs 18:3 (octadecatrienoic) monotonically decreased across hs-CRP quartiles (P < 0.001), whereas dietary cholesterol increased across hs-CRP quartiles (P < 0.001) This study provides further evidence of an association between fatty acid intake and subclinical inflammation markers. hs-CRP concentrations are likely modulated by dietary fatty acid intake. However, the causality of this association needs to be demonstrated in clinical trials. PMID:28207502

  9. Elevated C-reactive protein level predicts lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding

    PubMed Central

    TOMIZAWA, MINORU; SHINOZAKI, FUMINOBU; HASEGAWA, RUMIKO; SHIRAI, YOSHINORI; MOTOYOSHI, YASUFUMI; SUGIYAMA, TAKAO; YAMAMOTO, SHIGENORI; ISHIGE, NAOKI

    2016-01-01

    Lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding can be caused by colorectal polyps or cancer. The aim of the present study was to identify blood test variables and medications that can predict lower GI bleeding, which would allow for appropriate colonoscopy. The medical records of patients who underwent colonoscopy from September 2014 to September 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The selected patients included 278 men (mean age, 67.0±11.5 years) and 249 women (mean age, 69.6±12.0 years). The diagnosis, medications, and blood test variables were compared between patients with and without bleeding. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with lower GI bleeding. The presence of colorectal polyp and cancer was associated with lower GI bleeding (P=0.0044) with an odds ratio of 6.71 (P=0.0148). No lower GI bleeding was observed in patients taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, or anticoagulants. The C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were significantly higher in patients with lower GI bleeding (P=0.0227). The Hb levels were lower in patients with lower GI bleeding, however this finding was not statistically significant (P>0.05). No blood test variable was associated with lower GI bleeding. Elevated CRP was associated with lower GI bleeding, while there was no association between the medications and lower GI bleeding. PMID:27284411

  10. The value of C-reactive protein in screening for future coronary heart disease events.

    PubMed

    Wald, David S; Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Bestwick, Jonathan P

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) events, has been proposed as a means of screening for future CHD. In prospective studies about a three-fold increase in risk of CHD observed between the top fifth and bottom fifth of the CRP distribution has been taken to support the use of CRP as a screening test. This however gives an over-optimistic impression of its value, because people in the middle of the distribution, where most CHD events occur, are excluded from the analysis. A different analysis is needed to assess whether screening is worthwhile. Examination of the relative frequency distributions of CRP in individuals from 22 prospective studies of individuals without previous cardiovascular disease who subsequently did and did not have a CHD event shows that the detection rate (or sensitivity) was 18% for a false-positive rate of 10% (CRP cut-off 6.65 mg/L); a poor screening test. Whatever CRP cut-off is used, the overlap in CRP values between affected and unaffected individuals is too great for CRP to usefully discriminate between those who will and will not have a CHD event.

  11. Associations of High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Levels in Schizophrenia and Comparison Groups

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jamie; Depp, Colin; Martin, Averria Sirkin; Daly, Rebecca; Glorioso, Danielle K; Palmer, Barton W; Jeste, Dilip V

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by physical (mainly metabolic and cardiovascular) comorbidity and shortened lifespan. High sensitivity C- reactive protein (hs-CRP), an inflammatory marker of hepatic origin linked to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and mortality in the general population, has been reported to be elevated in people with schizophrenia. However, the relationship of hs-CRP to psychiatric and medical risk factors, after controlling for potentially confounding variables such as smoking, is not well established in schizophrenia. We assessed hs-CRP levels along with various demographic, psychiatric, and metabolic measures in 88 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 71 age epoch-matched comparison subjects with no history of a major psychiatric illness. hs-CRP levels were significantly higher in individuals with schizophrenia than in comparison subjects. Higher hs-CRP levels in schizophrenia group were associated with female gender, more severe negative symptoms, greater medical comorbidity, and worse metabolic risk factors including BMI, fasting glucose, and hemoglobin A1c levels. hs-CRP was not related to age, race, education, smoking status, antipsychotic dosage, or cognitive impairment. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the relationship between hs-CRP and long-term health outcomes including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and mortality in schizophrenia. PMID:26341579

  12. Production of modified C-reactive protein in U937-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ciubotaru, Irina; Potempa, Lawrence A; Wander, Rosemary C

    2005-11-01

    Plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) has been proposed to be a strong independent predictor for cardiovascular disease. This circulating form of CRP (native CRP or nCRP) is well described. Recently, the existence of a conformationally distinct isoform of CRP (modified CRP or mCRP) has been reported. The relevance of each CRP isoform to atherosclerotic disease is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the natural expression of CRP in undifferentiated, differentiated, and stimulated macrophages, cells known to contribute to atherogenesis in vivo, and to determine whether transcribed CRP was expressed as nCRP or mCRP. Macrophages were generated from U937 monocytes using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Differentiated macrophages were further stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). In undifferentiated, differentiated, and stimulated cells, CRP expression was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and CRP protein production was measured by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry (cellular CRP) or high-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (secreted CRP). CRP transcript was minimally expressed in undifferentiated cells. Expression increased markedly in macrophages during differentiation and was not affected by LPS at 24 hrs. Cellular CRP protein increased in a time-dependent manner after LPS stimulation, and this induction was mediated via interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1beta. A small amount of secreted CRP was detected in the media of differentiated cells, but it was not significantly increased after LPS stimulation. Using specific monoclonal antibodies, our data indicate that cellular CRP is directly translated as the mCRP rather than the nCRP isomer. These results indicate that U937-derived macrophages are a good cell model to further study the production of mCRP under conditions relevant for the atherogenic process.

  13. C-reactive protein and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein levels in dogs infected with Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed Central

    Rikihisa, Y; Yamamoto, S; Kwak, I; Iqbal, Z; Kociba, G; Mott, J; Chichanasiriwithaya, W

    1994-01-01

    To elucidate whether acute-phase protein responses occur in dogs infected with Ehrlichia canis, C-reactive protein (CRP) and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) levels were serially measured in the plasma of five dogs experimentally inoculated with E. canis and 10 sham-inoculated or noninoculated control dogs. The CRP concentration was measured by a canine-specific capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the AAG concentration was measured by a canine-specific radial immunodiffusion method. In all E. canis-inoculated dogs, a 3.3- to 6.5-fold increase in the plasma CRP concentration and a 1.9- to 8.6-fold increase in the plasma AAG concentration over the preinoculation level occurred at days 4 to 6 postexposure. Despite the persistence of E. canis and high antibody titers, both CRP and AAG concentrations gradually declined to preexposure levels by day 34 postexposure. E. canis-infected dogs had mild and transient clinical signs which resolved without treatment by day 14 postexposure. The CRP and AAG concentrations in control inoculated or nontreated dogs remained within the normal range throughout the experimental period. Of 12 dogs naturally infected with E. canis, 75% had greater than 50 micrograms of CRP per ml and 83% had greater than 500 micrograms of AAG per ml. All of these 12 dogs had chronic and severe clinical signs of canine ehrlichiosis. Thus, elevations in the levels of acute-phase proteins occur in both acute and chronic canine ehrlichiosis. Determination of CRP and AAG concentrations may help in assessing the severity of inflammatory damage in dogs with E. canis infections. PMID:8027343

  14. Canine Pancreas-Specific Lipase and C-reactive Protein in Dogs Treated With Anticonvulsants (Phenobarbital and Potassium Bromide).

    PubMed

    Albarracín, Viviana; Teles, Mariana; Meléndez-Lazo, Antonio; Rodón, Jaume; Pastor, Josep

    2015-06-01

    Animals treated with anticonvulsant drugs may have increased canine pancreas-specific lipase (cPLI) values. Inflammatory conditions and specifically acute pancreatitis are of major concern in these animals. Elevation in C-reactive protein is being associated with inflammatory status in dogs and it has been correlated with the clinical severity of pancreatitis. In the present study, we investigated if there is a correlation between the cPLI increase, changes in C-reactive protein and hepatic enzymes, as well as the incidence of severe acute pancreatitis (AP) in dogs with anticonvulsant treatment (phenobarbital, or potassium bromide or both). Increased values of pancreas-specific lipase were found in 6.8% of the animals in treatment with anticonvulsants, and this increase is correlated with the increase in triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase but not with C-reactive protein levels, which suggests a possible induction or release phenomenon rather than a clear severe AP. C-reactive protein levels did not affect cPLI values on the population studied. Only 2 animals had clinical and analytical data suggestive of AP, indicating a low prevalence (0.6%). In conclusion, cPLI may be increased in a low percentage of animals with anticonvulsants treatment and its increase may not be associated with severe AP. It may be induced by the anticonvulsants drugs; however, further studies are advised to rule out other possible causes that increased cPLI.

  15. The Complementary Role of High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in the Diagnosis and Severity Assessment of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khakzad, Mohammad Reza; Javanbakht, Maryam; Shayegan, Mohammad Reza; Kianoush, Sina; Omid, Fatemeh; Hojati, Maryam; Meshkat, Mojtaba

    2012-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a beneficial diagnostic test for the evaluation of inflammatory response. Extremely low levels of CRP can be detected using high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) test. A considerable body of evidence has demonstrated that inflammatory response has an important role in the pathophysiology of autism. In this study, we evaluated…

  16. Effects of Different Exercise Intensities with Isoenergetic Expenditures on C-Reactive Protein and Blood Lipid Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsao, Te Hung; Yang, Chang Bin; Hsu, Chin Hsing

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different exercise intensities on C-reactive protein (CRP), and whether changes in CRP levels correlated with blood lipid levels. Ten men exercised at 25%, 65%, and 85% of their maximum oxygen consumption rates. Participants' blood was analyzed for CRP and blood lipid levels before and after the exercise sessions.…

  17. C-reactive protein is a prognostic indicator in patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gerhardt, Thomas; Milz, Sabine; Schepke, Michael; Feldmann, Georg; Wolff, Martin; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Dumoulin, Franz Ludwig

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate prognostic indicators for the outcome of patients with perihilar extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in an unselected cohort. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 98 patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. Twenty-three patients (23.5%) underwent tumor resection. Patients with non-resectable tumors underwent either transpapillary or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. Additionally, 32 patients (32.7%) received photodynamic therapy (PDT) and 18 patients (18.4%) systemic chemotherapy. Predefined variables at the time of diagnosis and characteristics considering the mode of treatment were entered into a Cox’s proportional hazards model. Included in the analysis were age, tumor stage following the modified Bismuth-Corlette classification, bilirubin, prothrombin time (PT), C-reactive protein (CRP), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), history of weight loss, surgical resection, chemotherapy and PDT. RESULTS: The Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall median survival was 10.5 (95%CI: 8.4-12.6) mo. In the univariate analysis, low Bismuth stage, low CRP and surgical resection correlated significantly with better survival. In the multivariate analysis, only CRP (P = 0.005) and surgical resection (P = 0.029) were found to be independently predictive of survival in the cohort. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis identified a CRP level of 11.75 mg/L as the value associated with the highest sensitivity and specificity predicting a survival > 5 mo. Applying Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with a CRP < 12 mg/L at the time of diagnosis had a significantly longer median survival than patients with higher values (16.2 vs 7.6 mo; P = 0.009). CONCLUSION: This retrospective analysis identified CRP level at the time of diagnosis as a novel indicator for the prognosis of patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. It should be evaluated in future prospective trials on this entity. PMID:17006987

  18. Increased ultrasensitive C-reactive protein is not associated with obesity in hospitalized heart failure patients

    PubMed Central

    Schommer, Vânia Ames; Stein, Airton Tetelbom; Marcadenti, Aline; Wittke, Estefania Inez; Galvão, André Luís Câmara; Rosito, Guido Bernardo Aranha

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the association between obesity and levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with heart failure admitted to a tertiary hospital. Methods: Cross-sectional study with a consecutive sampling of hospitalized patients with heart failure. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected, and the nutritional status was assessed through indicators such as body mass index (in kg/m2), waist circumference (in cm), waist-hip ratio, triceps skinfold (in mm) and subscapularis skinfold (in mm). Neck circumference (in cm) was measured as well as serum levels of hs-CRP, in mg/L. Results: Among 123 patients, the mean age was 61.9±12.3 years and 60.2% were male. The median of hs-CRP was 8.87mg/L (3.34 to 20.01). A tendency to an inverse correlation between neck circumference and hs-CRP was detected (r=-0.167; p=0.069). In the multiple linear regression analysis, after adjustment for age, disease severity (NYHA classification III and IV, low ejection fraction, left ventricular dysfunction during diastole), and infectious conditions there was an inverse association between hs-CRP and neck circumference (ß=-0.196; p=0.03) and subscapularis skinfold (ß=-0.005; p=0.01) in the total sample, which was not maintained after the stratification by sex. Conclusion: Increased levels of hs-CRP in patients hospitalized for heart failure were not associated with obesity. PMID:27759823

  19. Serum leptin, C-reactive protein, and cancer mortality in the NHANES III.

    PubMed

    Wulaningsih, Wahyu; Holmberg, Lars; Ng, Tony; Rohrmann, Sabine; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    Adipokines, such as leptin, may affect cancer through its link with inflammation and obesity. We investigated the association between leptin, C-reactive protein, and risk of cancer death while accounting general and abdominal obesity. From the Third National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES III), we selected 5957 adult men and women with baseline measurements of serum leptin and CRP. Multivariable Cox regression was used to assess leptin and CRP levels (low, moderate, high) in relation to risk of cancer death. Stratification analyses were performed for obesity as defined by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Fine and Gray regression was performed to account for death from cardiovascular disease and other causes as competing events. A total of 385 participants died of cancer during a mean follow-up of 18 years. After adjusting for BMI and waist circumference, an inverse association with log-transformed leptin was found for women, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.51-1.30) and 0.40 (95% CI: 0.24-0.68) for moderate and high compared to low levels of leptin, respectively; P(trend) = 0.0007). No association for leptin was observed in men, but higher CRP corresponded to increased risk of dying from cancer (HR: 2.98; 95% CI: 1.57-5.64 for the highest vs. lowest categories of CRP). Similar associations were observed with competing risk analysis also adjusted for BMI and waist circumference. Contrasting associations of serum leptin and CRP with cancer mortality may indicate sex-specific biological or environmental pathways linking obesity and cancer in men and women which warrant mechanistic investigations.

  20. Models for the analysis of C-reactive protein in statin trials.

    PubMed

    Southworth, Harry; Dane, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Elevation in C-reactive protein (CRP) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease progression and levels are reduced by treatment with statins. However, on-treatment CRP, given baseline CRP and treatment, is not normally distributed and outliers exist even when transformations are applied. Although classical non-parametric tests address some of these issues, they do not enable straightforward inclusion of covariate information. The aims of this study were to produce a model that improved efficiency and accuracy of analysis of CRP data. Estimation of treatment effects and identification of outliers were addressed using controlled trials of rosuvastatin. The robust statistical technique of MM-estimation was used to fit models to data in the presence of outliers and was compared with least-squares estimation. To develop the model, appropriate transformations of the response and baseline variables were selected. The model was used to investigate how on-treatment CRP related to baseline CRP and estimated treatment effects with rosuvastatin. On comparing least-squares and MM-estimation, MM-estimation was superior to least-squares estimation in that parameter estimates were more efficient and outliers were clearly identified. Relative reductions in CRP were higher at higher baseline CRP levels. There was also evidence of a dose-response relationship between CRP reductions from baseline and rosuvastatin. Several large outliers were identified, although there did not appear to be any relationships between the incidence of outliers and treatments. In conclusion, using robust estimation to model CRP data is superior to least-squares estimation and non-parametric tests in terms of efficiency, outlier identification and the ability to include covariate information.

  1. A colorimetric homogeneous immunoassay system for the C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Byun, Ju-Young; Shin, Yong-Beom; Kim, Dong-Myung; Kim, Min-Gon

    2013-03-07

    The C-reactive protein (CRP), which has a five repeat pentameric structure, is known to be a marker for acute inflammation and a potential risk predictor for cardiovascular disease. A simple and rapid homogeneous assay method for the detection of CRP, based on a gold nanoparticle (AuNP) aggregation induced colorimetric response, has been developed. In the technique, aggregation of CRP antibody-conjugated AuNPs is induced by addition of CRP as a consequence of its unique pentameric structure. CRP-promoted aggregation of the antibody-conjugated AuNPs results in a change of the wavelength maximum in the UV/Vis-spectrum. This homogeneous assay displays a typical hook effect, in which the signal level is directly proportional to CRP concentration until a critical concentration of CRP (the hook point) is reached. Above this concentration, the signal level decreases as the CRP concentration increases. The maximum shift in the absorption maximum was found to occur when the CRP antigen concentration is 100 ng mL(-1). In order to improve the linearity of the method, we employed a procedure, which takes advantage of a saturation phenomenon that leads to the hook effect, to increase the dynamic range of the CRP assay. Specifically, the use of CRP pre-spiked serum promotes maximum aggregation at the low CRP concentrations and, as a result, leads to an increase in the dynamic range for CRP detection. The applicability of the new homogenous assay system was demonstrated by its utilization for qualitative analysis of CRP in serum samples. The combined observations made in this effort show that the method using CRP antibody-conjugated AuNPs is both rapid and simple and, consequently, it can potentially be applied to onsite diagnosis.

  2. Diet quality is associated with circulating C-reactive protein but not irisin levels in humans

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung Hee; Zaichenko, Lesya; Peter, Patricia; Davis, Cynthia R.; Crowell, Judith A.; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adherence to a healthy diet has been shown to decrease the incidence of obesity and associated comorbidities. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an established inflammatory marker and irisin was recently identified as a molecule which may play a role in energy regulation and obesity but whether diet alters irisin levels remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the association between circulating irisin, leptin, and CRP levels and dietary quantity and quality using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) and the Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED). Materials/Methods The study evaluated dietary data and biomarker levels of 151 participants between 2009 and 2011 (71 male vs. 80 female, over 35 years old, obese 43.7%). AHEI and aMED scores were calculated based on data derived from self-administered 110-item food-frequency questionnaires estimating usual nutrient intake over the past year. Cross-sectional associations between dietary quantity, quality, body composition by bioelectric impedance, and biomarker levels including irisin, leptin, and CRP after fasting were assessed. Results CRP, but not irisin, was negatively correlated with AHEI (r = −0.34) and aMED (r = −0.31). Irisin was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.22), fat mass (r = 0.21), waist circumference (r = 0.24), waist-hip ratio (r = 0.20), leptin (r = 0.32), and CRP (r = 0.25). Participants with the highest AHEI scores tended to have 11.6% lower concentrations of irisin (P for trend =0.09), but they were not significant after adjustment for potential confounders. Better diet quality was associated with lower CRP concentrations (P for trend=0.02) in multivariate model. Percentage of energy from carbohydrate was inversely associated with CRP. Conclusions Unlike CRP, irisin is not associated with dietary quality or quantity. PMID:24315778

  3. Relation of circulating C-reactive protein to progression of aortic valve stenosis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Pedro L; Santos, Jose L; Kaski, Juan Carlos; Cruz, Ignacio; Arribas, Antonio; Villacorta, Eduardo; Cascon, Manuel; Palacios, Igor F; Martin-Luengo, Candido

    2006-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a marker of inflammation and predicts outcome in apparently healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease. Systemic inflammation is present in patients with aortic valve stenosis (AS). The aim of this prospective study was to assess whether CRP levels predict the progression of AS severity. Blood samples for high-sensitivity CRP measurements and echocardiographic data were obtained in 43 patients (70% men; mean age 73 +/- 8 years) with asymptomatic degenerative AS at study entry. On the basis of repeat echocardiographic assessment at 6 months, patients were grouped as (1) slow progressors (a decrease in aortic valve area [AVA] <0.05 cm2 and/or an increase in aortic peak velocity <0.15 m/s) and (2) rapid progressors (a decrease in AVA > or =0.05 cm2 and/or an increase in aortic peak velocity > or =0.15 m/s). Plasma CRP levels were significantly higher in rapid progressors than slow progressors (median 5.1 [range 2.3 to 11.3] vs 2.1 [range 1.0 to 3.1] mg/L, p = 0.007). In multivariate analysis, CRP levels >3 mg/L were independently associated with rapid AS progression (odds ratio 9.1, 95% confidence interval 2.2 to 37.3). In conclusion, CRP levels are higher in patients with degenerative AS who show rapid valve disease progression. These findings suggest that inflammation may have a pathogenic role in degenerative AS.

  4. Disposable immunosensors for C-reactive protein based on carbon nanotubes field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Justino, Celine I L; Freitas, Ana C; Amaral, José P; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Cardoso, Susana; Duarte, Armando C

    2013-04-15

    Label-free immunosensors based on single-walled carbon nanotubes field effect transistor (NTFET) devices were developed for the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) which is currently the best validated inflammatory biomarker associated with cardiovascular diseases. The immunoreaction principle consists in the direct adsorption of CRP specific antibodies (anti-CRP) to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) networks. Such anti-CRP are the molecular receptors of CRP antigens which, in turn, can be detected by the developed NTFET devices in a linear dynamic range of 10(-4)-10(2) μg/mL. Thus, typical values of CRP (in blood serum) for healthy persons (<1 μg/mL), and higher levels (>5 μg/mL) corresponding to pathological states, can be both detected with the NTFET immunosensors, becoming an advantageous alternative as the basis for the development of analytical instrumentation for assessment of risk of occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. A log-log linear regression was applied to the experimental data with a correlation coefficient of r=0.9962 (p<0.001), and there is no statistical difference (from ANOVA) between individual NTFET devices (p=0.9582), demonstrating acceptable reproducibility. According to the experimental results, the estimate of detection limit (LOD, 10(-4)μg/mL) is 3-fold lower than that of some conventional immunoassay techniques for blood serum (e.g., LOD of 0.2 μg/mL for high-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and the dynamic range (10(-4)-10(2)μg/mL) is about 6-fold higher. Furthermore, this simple and low-cost methodology allows the use of sample volumes as low as 1 μL for the label-free detection of CRP.

  5. Serum C-reactive protein, fibrinogen and D-dimer in patients with progressive cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Ruo-shi; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Sheng-ming; Liu, Xi; Wang, Jing; Gao, Yong-zhe; Shu, Min; Mei, Bin; Li, Hua-gang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective Progressive cerebral infarctions increase mortality and functional disability through mechanisms which have yet to be completely understood. The goal of this study was to explore the dynamic changes of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen (FIB) and D-dimer (D-D) in order to better characterize progressive cerebral infarction. Methods The amount of serum CRP, FIB and D-D was measured in 82 patients with progressive cerebral infarction by taking samples from the internal carotid artery (progressive group), and in 186 patients with non-progressive cerebral infarction (non-progressive group) by using an automatic biochemical analyzer during the next day (day 1), day 3, day 7, and day 14 after being admitted to hospital. Carotid vascular ultrasound and neurological deficit score (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, NIHSS) were also recorded. Results Carotid stenosis ratio was significantly higher in the progressive group than in the non-progressive group (P < 0.01) on admission. In the progressive group, CRP increased significantly on day 3, followed by a decline on day 7 and day 14, but was significantly higher than those in the non-progressive group (P < 0.01). The levels of FIB and D-D increased in the progressive group more than those in the non-progressive group on day 3, day 7, and day 14 (P < 0.01). The progressive group patients’ NIHSS score gradually increased after admission, which was opposite to the non-progressive group patients whom followed a downward trend. The difference between these two groups was significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion Observing changes of CRP, FIB and D-D may contribute to early identification and timely treatment of progressing ischemic strokes. PMID:28123826

  6. Plasma C-Reactive Protein and Clinical Outcomes after Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Ryu; Ago, Tetsuro; Hata, Jun; Wakisaka, Yoshinobu; Kuroda, Junya; Kuwashiro, Takahiro; Kitazono, Takanari; Kamouchi, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) is elevated in response to inflammation caused by brain infarction, the association of CRP with clinical outcomes after acute ischemic stroke remains uncertain. This study examined whether plasma high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) levels at onset were associated with clinical outcomes after acute ischemic stroke independent of conventional risk factors and acute infections after stroke. Methods We prospectively included 3653 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke who had been functionally independent and were hospitalized within 24 h of onset. Plasma hsCRP levels were measured on admission and categorized into quartiles. The association between hsCRP levels and clinical outcomes, including neurological improvement, neurological deterioration, and poor functional outcome (modified Rankin scale ≥3 at 3 months), were investigated using a logistic regression analysis. Results Higher hsCRP levels were significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes after adjusting for age, sex, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, stroke subtype, conventional risk factors, intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular therapy, and acute infections during hospitalization (multivariate-adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence interval] in the highest quartile versus the lowest quartile as a reference: 0.80 [0.65–0.97] for neurological improvement, 1.72 [1.26–2.34] for neurological deterioration, and 2.03 [1.55–2.67] for a poor functional outcome). These associations were unchanged after excluding patients with infectious diseases occurring during hospitalization, or those with stroke recurrence or death. These trends were similar irrespective of stroke subtypes or baseline stroke severity, but more marked in patients aged <70 years (Pheterogeneity = 0.001). Conclusions High plasma hsCRP is independently associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes after acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27258004

  7. Utility of C-reactive protein and hematological parameters in the detection of neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Mannan, M A; Shahidullah, M; Noor, M K; Islam, F; Alo, D; Begum, N A

    2010-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to find out and compare the usefulness of C-reactive protein (CRP) and hematological value with the blood culture in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. This prospective and cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Neonatology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) during the period of July 2003 to January 2005. One hundred cases of suspected septicemia and fifty of controls were enrolled in this study. Blood was collected for the estimation of CRP, hematological parameters (total leukocyte count, differential count, platelet count) and blood culture from the newborns having suspected sepsis and CRP and hematological parameters from the control. CRP was raised in 72% of cases and 4% of control. Total leukocyte count (TLC) was elevated in a total of 10% cases and only in 4% controls. Leucopenia occurred in 6% cases. In 50% cases of culture proven sepsis there was thrombocytopenia. Sensitivity and specificity of CRP were 78.6%and 62.5% respectively in suspected neonatal sepsis & 92.86% and 36.11% respectively in culture proven sepsis. This study concluded that CRP is most sensitive method (93%) in culture proven sepsis and (79%) in suspected sepsis and its positive predictive value in suspected sepsis amounts to 88%. In this study among the suspected sepsis TLC and its differential count didn't show any positive results significantly but thrombocytopenia was present in 50% cases of culture positive sepsis. Therefore, CRP can be taken as alternate method for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis specially in developing countries like Bangladesh.

  8. Circadian Misalignment Increases C-Reactive Protein and Blood Pressure in Chronic Shift Workers.

    PubMed

    Morris, Christopher J; Purvis, Taylor E; Mistretta, Joseph; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2017-03-01

    Shift work is a risk factor for inflammation, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classical risk factors. Shift workers' behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in shift workers, independent of differences in work stress, food quality, and other factors that are likely to differ between night and day shifts. Thus, our objectives were to determine the independent effect of circadian misalignment on 24-h high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP; a marker of systemic inflammation) and blood pressure levels-cardiovascular disease risk factors-in chronic shift workers. Chronic shift workers undertook two 3-day laboratory protocols that simulated night work, comprising 12-hour inverted behavioral and environmental cycles (circadian misalignment) or simulated day work (circadian alignment), using a randomized, crossover design. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h hs-CRP by 11% ( p < 0.0001). Circadian misalignment increased 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 1.4 mmHg and 0.8 mmHg, respectively (both p ≤ 0.038). The misalignment-mediated increase in 24-h SBP was primarily explained by an increase in SBP during the wake period (+1.7 mmHg; p = 0.017), whereas the misalignment-mediated increase in 24-h DBP was primarily explained by an increase in DBP during the sleep opportunity (+1.8 mmHg; p = 0.005). Circadian misalignment per se increases hs-CRP and blood pressure in shift workers. This may help explain the increased inflammation, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease risk in shift workers.

  9. Pleiotropy among Common Genetic Loci Identified for Cardiometabolic Disorders and C-Reactive Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ligthart, Symen; de Vries, Paul S.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Dehghan, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Pleiotropic genetic variants have independent effects on different phenotypes. C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with several cardiometabolic phenotypes. Shared genetic backgrounds may partially underlie these associations. We conducted a genome-wide analysis to identify the shared genetic background of inflammation and cardiometabolic phenotypes using published genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We also evaluated whether the pleiotropic effects of such loci were biological or mediated in nature. First, we examined whether 283 common variants identified for 10 cardiometabolic phenotypes in GWAS are associated with CRP level. Second, we tested whether 18 variants identified for serum CRP are associated with 10 cardiometabolic phenotypes. We used a Bonferroni corrected p-value of 1.1×10-04 (0.05/463) as a threshold of significance. We evaluated the independent pleiotropic effect on both phenotypes using individual level data from the Women Genome Health Study. Evaluating the genetic overlap between inflammation and cardiometabolic phenotypes, we found 13 pleiotropic regions. Additional analyses showed that 6 regions (APOC1, HNF1A, IL6R, PPP1R3B, HNF4A and IL1F10) appeared to have a pleiotropic effect on CRP independent of the effects on the cardiometabolic phenotypes. These included loci where individuals carrying the risk allele for CRP encounter higher lipid levels and risk of type 2 diabetes. In addition, 5 regions (GCKR, PABPC4, BCL7B, FTO and TMEM18) had an effect on CRP largely mediated through the cardiometabolic phenotypes. In conclusion, our results show genetic pleiotropy among inflammation and cardiometabolic phenotypes. In addition to reverse causation, our data suggests that pleiotropic genetic variants partially underlie the association between CRP and cardiometabolic phenotypes. PMID:25768928

  10. C-Reactive Protein Levels Among U.S. Adults Exposed to Parental Incarceration.

    PubMed

    Boch, Samantha J; Ford, Jodi L

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have linked childhood adversity to low-grade inflammation via C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. This study analyzed the association between low-grade inflammation and prior biological parental incarceration. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (1994-2008) were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression models. Measures included high-sensitivity (hs)-CRP (<3 mg/L = reference, 3-10 mg/L = low-grade inflammation, and >10 mg/L = acute inflammation), parent incarceration occurring in the child's lifetime, and frequency and timing of incarceration with respect to child's age (0-18 years or >18 years vs. never) of incarceration. Analyses were stratified by child's gender. Final sample sizes were n = 5,396 males and n = 6,447 females for maternal incarceration and n = 4,956 males and n = 5,860 females for paternal incarceration. In models with and without potential mediators, females whose fathers were ever incarcerated were more likely to have hs-CRP levels of 3-10 mg/L than females whose fathers were never incarcerated (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [1.09, 1.91]). Additionally, daughter's age (<18 years; AOR: 1.48, 95% CI: [1.11, 1.97]) and frequency of father's incarceration were significant (AOR: 1.24, 95% CI: [1.04, 1.49]). No mediating effects were observed. Males whose fathers were incarcerated when they were ≥18 years were less likely to have hs-CRP levels of 3-10 mg/L than those whose father was never incarcerated; the association was nonsignificant in the mediated model. Further investigation is needed on the physiological effects of exposure to parental incarceration and interventions to support children.

  11. Social isolation, C-reactive protein, and coronary heart disease mortality among community-dwelling adults.

    PubMed

    Heffner, Kathi L; Waring, Molly E; Roberts, Mary B; Eaton, Charles B; Gramling, Robert

    2011-05-01

    Social isolation confers increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) events and mortality. In two recent studies, low levels of social integration among older adults were related to higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, suggesting a possible biological link between social isolation and CHD. The current study examined relationships among social isolation, CRP, and 15-year CHD death in a community sample of US adults aged 40 years and older without a prior history of myocardial infarction. A nested case-cohort study was conducted from a parent cohort of community-dwelling adults from the southeastern New England region of the United States (N = 2321) who were interviewed in 1989 and 1990. CRP levels were measured from stored sera provided by the nested case-cohort (n = 370), which included all cases of CHD death observed through 2005 (n = 48), and a random sample of non-cases. We found that the most socially isolated individuals had two-and-a-half times the odds of elevated CRP levels compared to the most socially integrated. In separate logistic regression models, both social isolation and CRP predicted later CHD death. The most socially isolated continued to have more than twice the odds of CHD death compared to the most socially integrated in a model adjusting for CRP and more traditional CHD risk factors. The current findings support social isolation as an independent risk factor of both high levels of CRP and CHD death in middle-aged adults without a prior history of myocardial infarction. Prospective study of inflammatory pathways related to social isolation and mortality are needed to fully delineate whether and how CRP or other inflammatory markers contribute to mechanisms linking social isolation to CVD health.

  12. Maternal Serum C-Reactive Protein in Women with Preterm Prelabor Rupture of Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Stepan, Martin; Cobo, Teresa; Musilova, Ivana; Hornychova, Helena; Jacobsson, Bo; Kacerovsky, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) as a predictor of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) in women with preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes (PPROM) before and after 32 weeks of gestation. Methods This study was a prospective observational cohort study of 386 women. Maternal serum CRP concentrations were evaluated, and amniotic fluid samples were obtained via transabdominal amniocentesis at the time of admission. Placentas underwent histopathological examination after delivery. MIAC was defined based on a positive PCR for Ureaplasma species, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia trachomatis and/or positive 16S rRNA gene amplification. HCA was defined based on the Salafia classification. Results Maternal CRP was significantly higher in women with MIAC and HCA (median 9.0 mg/l) than in women with HCA alone (median 6.9 mg/l), MIAC alone (median 7.4 mg/l) and without MIAC or HCA (median 4.5 mg/l) (p<0.0001). CRP was a weak predictor of the occurrence of MIAC and HCA before and after 32 weeks of gestation. Only the 95th percentile of CRP and PPROM before 32 weeks exhibited a false-positive rate of 1%, a positive predictive value of 90% and a positive likelihood ratio of 13.2 to predict MIAC and HCA. However, the low sensitivity of 15% limits the clinical utility of this detection. Conclusion CRP is a poor predictor of the occurrence of MIAC and HCA, even at early gestational ages. PMID:26942752

  13. C-reactive protein as a systemic marker of inflammation in periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Pejcic, A; Kesic, L J; Milasin, J

    2011-03-01

    Periodontitis has been identified as a potential risk factor for systemic pathologies such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aims of this investigation were to assess the relationship between periodontitis and systemic inflammatory factor, as well as to discover whether there is a relation to the severity of periodontitis and to the periodontopathogens. Periodontal examinations and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level measurements were performed in 50 patients with periodontitis. Periodontal health indicators included the gingival bleeding on probing index and periodontal disease status. The patients with moderate periodontitis had low attachment loss and pocket depth <4 mm. The patients with severe periodontitis had high attachment loss and pocket depth >5 mm. The control group comprised 25 volunteers with healthy gingiva, gingival sulcus <2 mm and no attachment loss. The presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in subgingival plaque samples was analysed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The periodontal parameters and CRP levels were significantly higher in the patients with periodontitis. Patients who had severe periodontitis, with high levels of mean clinical attachment loss, and subjects with moderate periodontitis had higher mean CRP levels. The percentage of subjects with elevated levels of CRP >5 mg/l was greater in the higher clinical attachment loss group compared to the group with lower attachment loss. The presence of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were also associated with elevated CRP levels and poor periodontal status. Periodontitis and the presence of P. gingivalis are associated with an enhanced inflammatory response expressed by higher CRP levels. The association of periodontitis with CRP levels appears to be a contributing factor for CVD and might be a possible intermediate pathway in this association.

  14. Total Leucocyte Count, C-reactive Protein and Neutrophil Count: Diagnostic Aid in Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Shafi, Sheikh Muzamil; Afsheen, Misbha; Reshi, Farooq A.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aim: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute intraabdominal affections seen in surgical departments, which can be treated easily if an accurate diagnosis is made in time. Otherwise, delay in diagnosis and treatment can lead to diffuse peritonitis. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 110 patients who were operated for acute appendicitis to determine the role and predictive value of the total leucocyte count (TLC), C-reactive protein (CRP) and percentage of neutrophil count in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Preoperative TLC, CRP and percentage of neutrophil count were determined and were compared with the results of the histopathology of the removed appendix. Results: Of all the patients studied, 92 had histopathologically positive appendicitis. The TLC was found to be significantly high in 90 patients who proved to have acute appendicitis, whereas CRP was high in only 88 patients and neutrophil percentage was raised in 91; four had a normal CRP level. Thus, TLC had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 97.82%, 55.55% and 91.8%, respectively. CRP had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 95.6%, 77.77% and 95.6% respectively. Percentage of neutrophil count had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 98.9%, 38.88% and 89.21%, respectively. When used in combination, there was a marked improvement in the specificity and the positive predictive value to 88.04% and 98.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The inflammatory markers, i.e., TLC, CRP and neutrophil count can be helpful in the diagnosis when measured together as this increases their specificity and positive predictive value. PMID:19568576

  15. Flaxseed oil supplementation decreases C-reactive protein levels in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Joana R N; Alencastro, Mariana Gascue de; Konrath, Anita Vieceli; Cargnin, Marina; Manfro, Roberto Ceratti

    2012-12-01

    Malnutrition and chronic inflammation in dialysis patients negatively impact their survival prognosis, and nutrients, such as omega-3 oils, are postulated to reduce proinflammatory response. In this randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated the effects of flaxseed oil (FO) on the inflammatory state of patients with chronic renal failure undergoing renal replacement therapy with hemodialysis (HD). We hypothesized that FO supplementation lowers C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. One hundred sixty patients with chronic renal failure who received HD therapy of 3 dialysis units over a 3-month period in South Brazil were included. The patients received blind doses of FO (1 g twice a day) and placebo (mineral oil, 1 g twice a day) for a period of 120 days. Inflammation was observed in 89 patients (61%) at the beginning of the study. There was a correlation between CRP and the body mass index (R(s) = 0.22; P = .022) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (R(s) = -0.23; P = .032), and the CRP levels decreased significantly over time in the group that received FO compared with the control group (P < .001). During the study period, 33.3% of the FO group changed from an inflamed to a not-inflamed category, whereas only 16.9% changed in the mineral oil group (P = .04). We conclude that the administration of FO decreases the CRP levels and that inflammation in HD patients appears to be correlated to their body mass index and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Studies with a larger number of patients and over a longer duration are necessary to corroborate these findings.

  16. Association of HIV Infection and HIV/HCV Coinfection With C-Reactive Protein Levels

    PubMed Central

    Reingold, Jason S.; Wanke, Christine; Kotler, Donald P.; Lewis, Cora E.; Tracy, Russell; Heymsfield, Steven; Tien, Phyllis C.; Bacchetti, Peter; Scherzer, Rebecca; Grunfeld, Carl; Shlipak, Michael G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Inflammation is a potential mechanism to explain the accelerated atherosclerosis observed in HIV- and hepatitis C virus (HCV)–infected persons. We evaluated C-reactive protein (CRP) in HIV-infected and HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals in the era of effective antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Design Cross-sectional study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) cohort and controls from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Methods CRP levels were measured in 1135 HIV-infected participants from the FRAM cohort and 281 controls from the CARDIA study. The associations of HIV and HIV/HCV infection with CRP levels were estimated by multivariable linear regression. Results Compared with controls, HIV monoinfection was associated with an 88% higher CRP level in men (P < 0.0001) but with no difference in women (5%; P = 0.80) in multivariate analysis. CRP levels were not associated with ARV therapy, HIV RNA level, or CD4 cell count. Compared with controls, HIV/HCV coinfection was associated with a 41% lower CRP level in women (P = 0.012) but with no difference in men (+4%; P = 0.90). Among HIV-infected participants, HCV coinfection was associated with 50% lower CRP levels after multivariable analysis (P < 0.0001) in men and women. Greater visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were strongly associated with CRP levels. Among HIV- infected participants, CRP levels were 17% (P < 0.001) and 21% (P = 0.002) higher per doubling of VAT and SAT; among controls, CRP levels were 34% (P < 0.001) and 61% (P = 0.009) higher, respectively. Conclusions In the absence of HCV coinfection, HIV infection is associated with higher CRP levels in men. HCV coinfection is associated with lower CRP levels in men and women. PMID:18344877

  17. [Plasma endotoxin, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and organ functions in patients with major burns].

    PubMed

    Ulrich, D; Noah, E M; Pallua, N

    2001-07-01

    Sepsis is one of the most frequent causes of death after major burn injury. Usually, sepsis appears as a consequence of a gram-negative bacteriaemia with release of endotoxins. In this study, the plasma endotoxin levels of seven patients (three female, four male; average age 51.3 +/- 23.8 years) with burns between 43.5 and 78 % Total Body Surface Area (Abbreviated Burn Severity Index 8 - 12) were determined for five days after thermal trauma every three hours by ELISA and compared with the concentration of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP). A calculation of the Horrowitz-Index (PaO(2)/FiO(2)) and the Pressure-Adjusted Heart Rate (HR x CVP/MAP) took place to show a possible correlation between the endotoxin concentration and the cardiopulmonary organ function. Additionally, we analysed whether operative treatment can influence the level of plasma endotoxin in the early phase after burn injury. At any time after burn trauma, endotoxins could be detected in the plasma of all patients. Between the second and third day, there was a considerable increase in the endotoxin concentration with a maximum after 57 hours of 0.48 +/- 0.32 EU/ml. Two patients with sepsis and death in the further course had a rather distinctive increase. From the fourth day on, occasional episodes of increases in endotoxin concentration were noted. Postoperatively, there was a short increase in plasma endotoxin on the second and fourth day. The plasma endotoxin level showed no correlation with the PCT and CRP or with the oxygenation in the patients' blood. However, a positive correlation could be observed with the Pressure-Adjusted Heart Rate (p = 0.0061; r(2) = 0.212). An explanation for the endotoxin increase after 57 hours could be the translocation of intestinal bacteria, the beginning of bacterial colonisation or decomposition products of the burn wound with protein-protein complexes. Later on, infectious diseases such as pneumonia with gram-negative bacteria are of importance

  18. Platelet-Monocyte Aggregates and C-Reactive Protein are Associated with VTE in Older Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Lauren; Kaplan, David; Kraiss, Larry W.; Casper, T. Charles; Pendleton, Robert C.; Peters, Christopher L.; Supiano, Mark A.; Zimmerman, Guy A.; Weyrich, Andrew S.; Rondina, Matthew T.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence implicates platelets as key mediators of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Nevertheless, the pathways by which platelets and circulating procoagulant proteins synergistically orchestrate VTE remain incompletely understood. We prospectively determined whether activated platelets and systemic procoagulant factors were associated with VTE in 32 older orthopedic surgery patients. Circulating platelet-monocyte aggregates (PMAs), p-selectin expression (P-SEL), and integrin αIIbβ3 activation (PAC-1 binding) were assessed pre-operatively and 24 hours post-operatively. The proinflammatory and procoagulant molecule C-reactive protein (CRP), which induces PMA formation in vitro, along with plasma d-dimer and fibrinogen levels were also measured. The primary outcome was VTE occurring within 30 days post-operatively. Overall, 40.6% of patients developed VTE. Patients with VTE had a significant increase in circulating PMAs and CRP post-operatively, compared to those without VTE. Changes in PMA and CRP in VTE patients were significantly correlated (r2 = 0.536, p = 0.004). In contrast, P-SEL expression and PAC-1 binding, fibrinogen levels, and d-dimers were not associated with VTE. This is the first study to identify that increased circulating PMAs and CRP levels are early markers associated with post-surgical VTE. Our findings also provide new clinical evidence supporting the interplay between PMAs and CRP in patients with VTE. PMID:27270163

  19. Complement-dependent acute-phase expression of C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P-component.

    PubMed

    Szalai, A J; van Ginkel, F W; Wang, Y; McGhee, J R; Volanakis, J E

    2000-07-15

    The acute-phase response (APR) is regulated by TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 acting alone, in combination, or in concert with hormones. The anaphylotoxin C5a, generated during complement activation, induces in vitro the synthesis of these cytokines by leukocytes and of acute-phase proteins by HepG2 cells. However, there is no clear evidence for a role of C5a or any other complement activation product in regulation of the APR in vivo. In this study, using human C-reactive protein (CRP) transgenic mice deficient in C3 or C5, we investigated whether complement activation contributes to induction of the acute-phase proteins CRP and serum amyloid P-component (SAP). Absence of C3 or C5 resulted in decreased LPS-induced up-regulation of the CRP transgene and the mouse SAP gene. Also, LPS induced both the IL-1beta and IL-6 genes in normocomplementemic mice, but in complement-deficient mice it significantly induced only IL-6. Like LPS injection, activation of complement by cobra venom factor led to significant elevation of serum CRP and SAP in normocomplementemic mice but not in complement-deficient mice. Injection of recombinant human C5a into human CRP transgenic mice induced the IL-1beta gene and caused significant elevation of both serum CRP and SAP. However, in human CRP transgenic IL-6-deficient mice, recombinant human C5a did not induce the CRP nor the SAP gene. Based on these data, we conclude that during the APR, C5a generated as a consequence of complement activation acts in concert with IL-6 and/or IL-1beta to promote up-regulation of the CRP and SAP genes.

  20. Elevated C-reactive protein levels and metabolic syndrome in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Zuliani, Giovanni; Volpato, Stefano; Galvani, Matteo; Blè, Alessandro; Bandinelli, Stefania; Corsi, Anna Maria; Lauretani, Fulvio; Maggio, Marcello; Guralnik, Jack M.; Fellin, Renato; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) and “low grade” systemic inflammation (LGSI) are very common findings in the older population. Although MS and LGSI have been associated in adults, it is not known what is the real contribution of MS, and its single components, to LGSI in older persons, due to the potential confounding effect of comorbidity and aging. We investigated the relationship between increased C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels, a marker of LGSI, and MS in 1044 older (≥65 years) community dwelling Italian individuals enrolled the InChianti study. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the NCEP-ATP III-AHA/NHLBI criteria. High sensitivity CRP (hs.CRP) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and defined as high when >3 mg/L. The overall prevalence of MS was 31%. The prevalence of high hs.CRP was 54.5% in subjects with, and 41.3% in those without MS (p < 0.001). MS was associated with high hs.CRP levels after adjustment for age, gender, and comorbidity (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.46-2.55). Compared to subjects with MS and no LGSI, individuals with MS and LGSI were characterized by higher waist circumference, BMI, and HOMA score. Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed the association between waist circumference and high hs.CRP levels in subjects with MS (waist circumference III vs. I tertile OR: 2.60, 95% CI: 1.79-3.77) independent of age, gender, and important confounding variables including comorbidity. Additional analyses, conducted with and without dichotomization of hs.CRP levels, confirmed the central role of waist circumference in the LGSI phenomenon, independent of gender and diagnosis of MS. We conclude that in older individuals, MS is associated with LGSI, but the association is mainly supported by a strong independent correlation between waist circumference and high hs.CRP levels. In the absence of this specific MS component, it seems that the contribution of MS to LGSI would be modest at best. PMID:18845301

  1. [Septic arthritis in children with normal initial C-reactive protein: clinical and biological features].

    PubMed

    Basmaci, R; Ilharreborde, B; Bonacorsi, S; Kahil, M; Mallet, C; Aupiais, C; Doit, C; Dugué, S; Lorrot, M

    2014-11-01

    Septic arthritis has to be suspected in children with joint effusion and fever so as to perform joint aspiration, which will confirm the diagnosis by bacteriological methods, and to perform surgical treatment by joint lavage. Since development of current molecular methods, such as real-time PCR, Kingella kingae has become the first microbial agent of osteoarticular infections in young children, whereas Staphylococcus aureus is second. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an aid used to diagnose septic arthritis, but its elevation could be moderate. In a previous study, conducted at our hospital, 10% of children hospitalized for S. aureus or K. kingae septic arthritis had a CRP level<10 mg/L. To determine if diagnosis of septic arthritis could be made by other parameters, we analyzed the clinical and biologic features of these patients and compared them to those of children hospitalized for septic arthritis with initial CRP ≥10 mg/L. Among the 89 children with septic arthritis, 10% (n=9) had initial CRP<10 mg/L (K. kingae, n=5/63 ; S. aureus, n=4/26). Initial temperature and fibrinogen were significantly lower in the CRP<10 mg/L group than in the other (37.3°C vs. 37.9°C, P=0.039 and 4.19 vs. 5.72 g/L, P=0.003, respectively). Age, symptom duration before diagnosis, as well as leukocyte and platelet counts were similar in both groups. Two children (2/89=2.2%) with S. aureus septic arthritis had no fever, CRP elevation, or fibrinogen elevation. In the CRP-negative group, three of four children with S. aureus arthritis and one of five with K. kingae arthritis had a high CRP level (34, 40, 61, and 13 mg/L, respectively) 3 days after surgery and antibiotic treatment. One child with K. kingae septic arthritis and initial CRP<10 mg/L needed a second surgical drainage because of relapse of arthritis. In the S. aureus arthritis group, none of the children with initial CRP<10 mg/L experienced complications, while six of those with initial CRP≥10 mg/L needed a second surgical act

  2. Elevated C-reactive protein levels, psychological distress, and depression in 73, 131 individuals.

    PubMed

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT The pathogenesis of depression is not fully understood, but studies suggest that low-grade systemic inflammation contributes to the development of depression. OBJECTIVE To test whether elevated plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with psychological distress and depression. DESIGN We performed cross-sectional and prospective analyses of CRP levels in 4 clinically relevant categories using data from 2 general population studies. SETTING The Copenhagen General Population and the Copenhagen City Heart studies. PARTICIPANTS We examined 73 131 men and women aged 20 to 100 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES We ascertained psychological distress with 2 single-item self-reports and depression using self-reported antidepressant use, register-based prescription of antidepressants, and register-based hospitalization with depression. RESULTS In cross-sectional analyses, increasing CRP levels were associated with increasing risk for psychological distress and depression (P = 3 × 10-8 to P = 4 × 10-105 for trend). For self-reported use of antidepressants, the odds ratio was 1.38 (95% CI, 1.23-1.55) for CRP levels of 1.01 to 3.00 mg/L, 2.02 (1.77-2.30) for 3.01 to 10.00 mg/L, and 2.70 (2.25-3.25) for greater than 10.00 mg/L compared with 0.01 to 1.00 mg/L. For prescription of antidepressants, the corresponding odds ratios were 1.08 (95% CI, 0.99-1.17), 1.47 (1.33-1.62), and 1.77 (1.52-2.05), respectively; for hospitalization with depression, 1.30 (1.01-1.67), 1.84 (1.39-2.43), and 2.27 (1.54-3.32), respectively. In prospective analyses, increasing CRP levels were also associated with increasing risk for hospitalization with depression (P = 4 × 10-8 for trend). CONCLUSIONS Elevated levels of CRP are associated with increased risk for psychological distress and depression in the general population.

  3. Clinical utility of C-reactive protein to predict treatment response during cystic fibrosis pulmonary exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Kirkpatrick, Gordon; Chen, Virginia; Skolnik, Kate; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Wilcox, Pearce; Quon, Bradley S.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale C-reactive protein (CRP) is a systemic marker of inflammation that correlates with disease status in cystic fibrosis (CF). The clinical utility of CRP measurement to guide pulmonary exacerbation (PEx) treatment decisions remains uncertain. Objectives To determine whether monitoring CRP during PEx treatment can be used to predict treatment response. We hypothesized that early changes in CRP can be used to predict treatment response. Methods We reviewed all PEx events requiring hospitalization for intravenous (IV) antibiotics over 2 years at our institution. 83 PEx events met our eligibility criteria. CRP levels from admission to day 5 were evaluated to predict treatment non-response, using a modified version of a prior published composite definition. CRP was also evaluated to predict time until next exacerbation (TUNE). Measurements and main results 53% of 83 PEx events were classified as treatment non-response. Paradoxically, 24% of PEx events were characterized by a ≥ 50% increase in CRP levels within the first five days of treatment. Absolute change in CRP from admission to day 5 was not associated with treatment non-response (p = 0.58). Adjusted for FEV1% predicted, admission log10 CRP was associated with treatment non-response (OR: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.14 to 5.91; p = 0.03) and shorter TUNE (HR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.13 to 2.27; p = 0.008). The area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve of admission CRP to predict treatment non-response was 0.72 (95% CI 0.61–0.83; p<0.001). 23% of PEx events were characterized by an admission CRP of > 75 mg/L with a specificity of 90% for treatment non-response. Conclusions Admission CRP predicts treatment non-response and time until next exacerbation. A very elevated admission CRP (>75mg/L) is highly specific for treatment non-response and might be used to target high-risk patients for future interventional studies aimed at improving exacerbation outcomes. PMID:28178305

  4. Ability of Serum C-Reactive Protein Concentrations to Predict Complications After Laparoscopy-Assisted Gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kecheng; Xi, Hongqing; Wu, Xiaosong; Cui, Jianxin; Bian, Shibo; Ma, Liangang; Li, Jiyang; Wang, Ning; Wei, Bo; Chen, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC), are widely available in clinical practice. However, their predictive roles for infectious complications following laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG) have not been investigated. Our aim was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of CRP concentrations and WBC counts for early detection of infectious complications following LAG and to construct a nomogram for clinical decision-making. The clinical data of consecutive patients who underwent LAG with curative intent between December 2013 and March 2015 were prospectively collected. Postoperative complications were recorded according to the Clavien–Dindo classification. The diagnostic value of CRP concentrations and WBC counts was evaluated by area under the curve of receiver-operating characteristic curves. Optimal cutoff values were determined by Youden index. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors for complications, after which a nomogram was constructed. Twenty-nine of 278 patients (10.4%) who successfully underwent LAG developed major complications (grade ≥III). CRP concentration on postoperative day 3 (POD 3) and WBC count on POD 7 had the highest diagnostic accuracy for major complications with an area under the curve value of 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79–0.92] and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.56–0.79) respectively. An optimal cutoff value of 172.0 mg/L was identified for CRP, yielding a sensitivity of 0.79 (95% CI, 0.60–0.92) and specificity 0.74 (95% CI, 0.68–0.80). Multivariate analysis identified POD3 CRP concentrations ≥172.0 mg/L, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status ≥1, presence of preoperative comorbidity, and operation time ≥240 min as risk factors for major complications after LAG. The optimal cut-off value of CRP on POD3 to predict complications following LAG was 172.0 mg/L and a CRP-based nomogram may

  5. Decay-Accelerating Factor Attenuates C-Reactive Protein-Potentiated Tissue Injury After Mesenteric Ischemia/Reperfusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    potenti - ates IR-triggered intestinal injury as well as remote lung damage, whereas the treatment with human DAF re- markably attenuates the CRP...was increased by 6.7-fold of LU ET AL.: EFFECT OF DAF IN CRP- POTENTIATED TISSUE INJURY AFTER MESENTERIC IR e105 FIG. 1. DAF treatment mitigates CRP...Decay-Accelerating Factor Attenuates C-Reactive Protein- Potentiated Tissue Injury After Mesenteric Ischemia/Reperfusion Xinyue Lu, M.D., Ph.D

  6. Patients with Clinical Acute Appendicitis Should have Pre-operative Full Blood Count and C-Reactive Protein Assays

    PubMed Central

    Birchley, D

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The role of inflammatory markers in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis has not been clearly defined. The aims of this prospective audit were to define the role of the serum markers of inflammation total white cell count, neutrophil count and C-reactive protein in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis with particular reference to the discrimination between uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis, and the prediction of abscess. PATIENTS AND METHODS The author compiled a prospective database over a 13-month period of all appendicectomies performed. After five exclusions (three having no notes for review and two having confounding second morbidity in the presence of a normal appendix), the data relating to 75 patients were analysed. RESULTS In patients judged on clinical grounds to require laparotomy for suspected acute appendicitis, white cell count and neutrophil count distinguish acute appendicitis from normal appendices when used as categorical variables, though they do not reflect the presence of abscess. C-reactive protein neither distinguishes appendicitis from normal, nor predicts abscess when used as a categorical variable, though higher levels suggest abscess. CONCLUSIONS Laboratory tests of the white cell count, neutrophil count and C-reactive protein are more effective in supporting a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis in patients with typical clinical features than in excluding the diagnosis. PMID:16460636

  7. Clinical significance of C-reactive protein levels in the determination of pathological type of acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Feng-Qin; Zhang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the significance of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the discrimination of acute appendicitis pathology and its guiding role in the timing of surgery. Methods: 307 patients in our hospital from July 2012 to December 2013 were selected, who received appendectomy and simultaneous detections of WBC, neutrophil percentage and CRP; and Logistic regression analysis and Roc analysis of these indicators were conducted; Roc curve was drawn. Results: Logistic regression analysis showed that the proportion of neutrophils and CRP were the risk factors to determine gangrenous appendicitis, but the box chart and Roc curves showed that C-reactive protein was superior to neutrophil classification in determining gangrenous appendicitis (areas under the curve were 0.882 and 0.667 respectively), and the best diagnostic cutoff value was 44.42 mg/L (sensitivity 73.1%, specificity 89.5%). Conclusion: C-reactive protein levels can help distinguish pathological types of acute appendicitis, which can be used as a reference index for surgery determination. PMID:26550344

  8. Insulin counter-regulatory factors, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein during olanzapine administration: effects of the antidiabetic metformin.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Trino; Sandia, Ignacio; Lacruz, Anny; Rangel, Nairy; de Mendoza, Soaira; Beaulieu, Serge; Contreras, Quilianio; Galeazzi, Tatiana; Vargas, Doritza

    2007-03-01

    In this study, the Authors assessed some insulin counter-regulatory factors, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein after olanzapine administration, and the effect of metformin on these variables, 37 patients with chronic schizophrenia were given olanzapine (10 mg/day for 14 weeks). Nineteen patients received metformin (850-2550 mg/day) and 18 received placebo in a randomized, double-blind protocol. The following variables were quantified before and after olanzapine: cortisol, leptin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, glucagon, growth hormone, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein. Results were correlated with the changes in body weight and the insulin resistance index. We have reported elsewhere that metformin did not prevent olanzapine-induced weight gain, and the insulin resistance index significantly decreased after metformin and placebo; Baptista T, et al. Can J Psychiatry 2006; 51: 192-196. Cortisol, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and fibrinogen levels significantly decreased in both groups. Glucagon significantly increased after metformin (P=0.03). Leptin tended to increase after placebo (P=0.1) and displayed a small nonsignificant reduction after metformin. The C-reactive protein did not change significantly in any group. Contrarily to most published studies, olanzapine was associated with decreased insulin resistance. Decrements in cortisol, fibrinogen and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels point to an improvement in the metabolic profile. The trend for leptin to increase after placebo, but not after metformin in spite of similar weight gain suggests a beneficial effect of this antidiabetic agent.

  9. Recreational Exercise before and during Pregnancy in relation to Plasma C-Reactive Protein Concentrations in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Cupul-Uicab, Lea A.; Rogan, Walter J.; Eggesbo, Merete; Travlos, Gregory; Wilson, Ralph; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pregnant women who are physically active have a lower risk of preeclampsia and gestational diabetes than women who were less active. One possible mechanism is a reduction in low-grade inflammation, measured by C-reactive protein (CRP). The association between exercise and CRP in pregnant women, however, has not been adequately investigated. Methods A total of 537 pregnant women enrolled around the 17th week of gestation in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study from 2003 to 2004 were studied. Self-reported recreational exercise was recalled for both 3 months before pregnancy and early pregnancy. The total energy expenditure from recreational exercise (total recreational exercise, MET-hours/week) was estimated and low-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise was defined. Plasma CRP concentrations were measured during pregnancy. Results In adjusted linear regression models, mean CRP concentration was 1.0% lower [95 % confidence interval: -1.9 %, -0.2 %] with each 1 MET-hour/week of total recreational exercise before pregnancy. Additionally, vigorous-intensity exercise before pregnancy was more strongly related to a reduction in CRP levels than low- or moderate-intensity exercise. However, we observed no association of recreational exercise during pregnancy with CRP levels. Conclusions Recreational exercise, especially vigorous before pregnancy, may reduce the risk of maternal inflammation during pregnancy. PMID:25111060

  10. A common site within factor H SCR 7 responsible for binding heparin, C-reactive protein and streptococcal M protein.

    PubMed

    Giannakis, Eleni; Jokiranta, T Sakari; Male, Dean A; Ranganathan, Shoba; Ormsby, Rebecca J; Fischetti, Vince A; Mold, Carolyn; Gordon, David L

    2003-04-01

    The complement inhibitor factor H (fH) interacts via its seventh short consensus repeat (SCR) domain with multiple ligands including heparin, streptococcal M protein and C-reactive protein (CRP). The aim of this study was to localize the residues in SCR 7 required for these interactions. We initially built a homology model of fH SCR 6-7 using the averaged NMR structures of fH SCR 15-16 and vaccinia control protein SCR 3-4 as templates. Electrostatic potentials of the model's surface demonstrated a co-localization of three clusters of positively charged residues on SCR 7, labeled site A (R369 and K370), site B (R386 and K387) and site C (K392). These residues, localized to the linker region preceding SCR 7 and to the end of a "hypervariable loop" in SCR 7, were systematically replaced with uncharged alanine residues in an fH construct containing SCR 1-7. The resulting proteins were expressed in the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris. By ELISA analysis we demonstrated: first, that substituting site A inhibited heparin and CRP binding; secondly, that substituting site B inhibited binding to heparin, CRP and M protein; and thirdly, that substituting site C clearly inhibited only heparin binding.

  11. C-reactive protein augments hypoxia-induced apoptosis through mitochondrion-dependent pathway in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Wang, Junhong; Zhu, Shushu; Chen, Xiangjian; Wu, Hengfang; Yang, Di; Zhang, Jinan

    2008-03-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an important predictive factor for cardiac disorders including acute myocardial infarction. Therapeutic inhibition of CRP has been shown to be a promising new approach to cardioprotection in acute myocardial infarction in rat models, but the direct effects of CRP on cardiac myocytes are poorly defined. In this study, we investigated the effects of CRP on cardiac myocytes and its molecular mechanism involved. Neonatal rat cardiac myocytes were exposed to hypoxia for 8 h. Hypoxia induced myocyte apoptosis under serum-deprived conditions, which was accompanied by cytochrome c release from mitochondria into cytosol, as well as activation of Caspase-9, Caspase-3. Hypoxia also increased Bax and decreased Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression, thereby significantly increasing Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Cotreatment of CRP (100 mug/ml) under hypoxia significantly increased the percentage of apoptotic myocytes, translocation of cytochrome c, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and the activity of Caspase-9 and Caspase-3. However, no effects were observed on myocyte apoptosis when cotreatment of CRP under normoxia. Furthermore, Bcl-2 overexpression significantly improved cellular viability through inhibition of hypoxia or cotreatment with CRP induced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio changes and cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol, and significantly blocked the activity of Caspase-9 and Caspase-3. The present study demonstrates that CRP could enhance apoptosis in hypoxia-stimulated myocytes through the mitochondrion-dependent pathway but CRP alone has no effects on neonatal rat cardiac myocytes under normoxia. Bcl-2 overexpression might prevent CRP-induced apoptosis by inhibiting cytochrome c release from the mitochondria and block activation of Caspase-9 and Caspase-3.

  12. Role of serum C-reactive protein and leukocyte count in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in Nepalese population.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, C S; Adhikari, S; Kumar, M

    2008-03-01

    Various diagnostic modalities have been reported to influence the negative appendicectomy. C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute phase reactant, may improve the accuracy of diagnosing acute appendicitis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the utility of CRP as a diagnostic tool among patients clinically suspected to have acute appendicitis. The role of total leukocyte (WBC) count was also studied. A total of 145 diagnosed cases of acute appendicitis were studied over a period of one and half years. CRP was raised in 91 cases and was normal in 54 cases. The sensitivity and specificity of CRP estimation in diagnosing appendicitis was 74.8% and 66.7% respectively and the sensitivity and specificity for total WBC count was 78.6 and 54.8% respectively. The present study suggests that we cannot rely wholly on CRP or on WBC count for operative decision. Clinical judgment is still the best modality for the diagnosis and operative management of acute appendicitis. It seems wiser to use active observation, which should identify most patients with non-specific pain and reserve operation for those who need it most.

  13. Neurokinin 3 receptor and phosphocholine transferase: missing factors for pathogenesis of C-reactive protein in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Parchim, Nicholas F; Wang, Wei; Iriyama, Takayuki; Ashimi, Olaide A; Siddiqui, Athar H; Blackwell, Sean; Sibai, Baha; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2015-02-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP), an innate immune mediator, is elevated in the circulation before symptoms in patients with preeclampsia, a severe hypertensive pregnancy disorder with high mortality and morbidity. However, the specific sources underlying increased CRP and the role of elevated CRP in preeclampsia are undefined. Here, we report that circulating CRP levels are significantly increased in a large cohort of normotensive pregnant individuals when compared with nulligravid women and is further increased in patients with preeclampsia. These findings led us to discover further that placental syncytiotrophoblasts are previously unrecognized cellular sources of CRP and underlie elevated CRP in normotensive pregnant women and the additional increase in patients with preeclampsia. Next, we demonstrated that injection of CRP induces preeclampsia features, including hypertension (157 mm Hg CRP treated versus 119 mm Hg control), proteinuria (35.0 mg/μg CRP treated versus 14.1 mg/μg control), kidney, and placental damage and increased levels of sFlt-1 in pregnant mice but not in nonpregnant mice. Our study implicates that phosphocholine transferase, a placental-specific enzyme post-translationally modifying neurokinin B, is essential for the pathogenic role of CRP in preeclampsia through activation of the neurokinin 3 receptor. Overall, our studies have provided significant new insight on the pathogenic role of CRP in preeclampsia and highlighted innovative therapeutic strategies.

  14. Inhibition of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Human C-Reactive Protein Transgenic Mice Is FcγRIIB Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xian-Zhen; Wright, Tyler T.; Jones, Nicholas R.; Ramos, Theresa N.; Skibinski, Gregory A.; McCrory, Mark A.; Barnum, Scott R.; Szalai, Alexander J.

    2011-01-01

    We showed earlier that experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in human C-reactive protein (CRP) transgenic mice (CRPtg) has delayed onset and reduced severity compared to wild-type mice. Since human CRP is known to engage Fc receptors and Fc receptors are known to play a role in EAE in the mouse, we sought to determine if FcγRI, FcγRIIb, or FcγRIII was needed to manifest human CRP-mediated protection of CRPtg. We report here that in CRPtg lacking either of the two activating receptors, FcγRI and FcγRIII, the beneficial effects of human CRP are still observed. In contrast, if CRPtg lack expression of the inhibitory receptor FcγRIIB, then the beneficial effect of human CRP is abrogated. Also, subcutaneous administration of purified human CRP stalled progression of ongoing EAE in wild-type mice, but similar treatment failed to impede EAE progression in mice lacking FcγRIIB. The results reveal that a CRP → FcγRIIB axis is responsible for protection against EAE in the CRPtg model. PMID:21151582

  15. Inhibition of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Human C-Reactive Protein Transgenic Mice Is FcγRIIB Dependent.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xian-Zhen; Wright, Tyler T; Jones, Nicholas R; Ramos, Theresa N; Skibinski, Gregory A; McCrory, Mark A; Barnum, Scott R; Szalai, Alexander J

    2010-10-12

    We showed earlier that experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in human C-reactive protein (CRP) transgenic mice (CRPtg) has delayed onset and reduced severity compared to wild-type mice. Since human CRP is known to engage Fc receptors and Fc receptors are known to play a role in EAE in the mouse, we sought to determine if FcγRI, FcγRIIb, or FcγRIII was needed to manifest human CRP-mediated protection of CRPtg. We report here that in CRPtg lacking either of the two activating receptors, FcγRI and FcγRIII, the beneficial effects of human CRP are still observed. In contrast, if CRPtg lack expression of the inhibitory receptor FcγRIIB, then the beneficial effect of human CRP is abrogated. Also, subcutaneous administration of purified human CRP stalled progression of ongoing EAE in wild-type mice, but similar treatment failed to impede EAE progression in mice lacking FcγRIIB. The results reveal that a CRP → FcγRIIB axis is responsible for protection against EAE in the CRPtg model.

  16. C-reactive protein (CRP) induces chemokine secretion via CD11b/ICAM-1 interaction in human adherent monocytes.

    PubMed

    Montecucco, Fabrizio; Steffens, Sabine; Burger, Fabienne; Pelli, Graziano; Monaco, Claudia; Mach, François

    2008-10-01

    Several studies support C-reactive protein (CRP) as a systemic cardiovascular risk factor. The recent detection of CRP in arterial intima suggests a dual activity in atherosclerosis as a circulating and tissue mediator on vascular and immune cells. In the present paper, we focused on the inflammatory effects of CRP on human monocytes, which were isolated by Ficoll-Percoll gradients and cultured in adherence to polystyrene, endothelial cell monolayer, or in suspension. Chemokine levels, adhesion molecule, and chemokine receptor expression were detected by ELISA, flow cytometry, and real-time RT-PCR. Migration assays were performed in a Boyden chamber. Stimulation with CRP induced release of CCL2, CCL3, and CCL4 in adherent monocytes through the binding to CD32a, CD32b, and CD64, whereas no effect was observed in suspension culture. This was associated with CRP-induced up-regulation of adhesion molecules membrane-activated complex 1 (Mac-1) and ICAM-1 on adherent monocytes. Blockade of Mac-1/ICAM-1 interaction inhibited the CRP-induced chemokine secretion. In addition, CRP reduced mRNA and surface expression of corresponding chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2, and CCR5 in adherent monocytes. This effect was a result of chemokine secretion, as coincubation with neutralizing anti-CCL2, anti-CCL3, and anti-CCL4 antibodies reversed the effect of CRP. Accordingly, a reduced migration of CRP-treated monocytes to CCL2 and CCL3 was observed. In conclusion, our data suggest an in vitro model to study CRP activities in adherent and suspension human monocytes. CRP-mediated induction of adhesion molecules and a decrease of chemokine receptors on adherent monocytes might contribute to the retention of monocytes within atherosclerotic lesions and recruitment of other circulating cells.

  17. Complement Factor H Binds at Two Independent Sites to C-reactive Protein in Acute Phase Concentrations*♦

    PubMed Central

    Okemefuna, Azubuike I.; Nan, Ruodan; Miller, Ami; Gor, Jayesh; Perkins, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Factor H (FH) regulates the activation of C3b in the alternative complement pathway, both in serum and at host cell surfaces. It is composed of 20 short complement regulator (SCR) domains. The Y402H polymorphism in FH is a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein that binds Ca2+. We established the FH-CRP interaction using improved analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and synchrotron x-ray scattering methods. Physiological FH and CRP concentrations were used in 137 mm NaCl and 2 mm Ca2+, in which the occurrence of denatured CRP was avoided. In solution, AUC revealed FH-CRP binding. The FH-CRP interaction inhibited the formation of higher FH oligomers, indicating that CRP blocked FH dimerization sites at both SCR-6/8 and SCR-16/20. SPR confirmed the FH-CRP interaction and its NaCl concentration dependence upon using either immobilized FH or CRP. The SCR-1/5 fragment of FH did not bind to CRP. In order of increasing affinity, SCR-16/20, SCR-6/8 (His-402), and SCR-6/8 (Tyr-402) fragments bound to CRP. X-ray scattering showed that FH became more compact when binding to CRP, which is consistent with CRP binding at two different FH sites. We concluded that FH and CRP bind at elevated acute phase concentrations of CRP in physiological buffer. The SCR-16/20 site is novel and indicates the importance of the FH-CRP interaction for both age-related macular degeneration and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. PMID:19850925

  18. Comparison of osteoprotegerin to traditional atherosclerotic risk factors and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein for diagnosis of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mogelvang, Rasmus; Pedersen, Sune H; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Bjerre, Mette; Iversen, Allan Z; Galatius, Soren; Frystyk, Jan; Jensen, Jan S

    2012-02-15

    Atherosclerosis is the main cause of cardiovascular disease, but the extent of atherosclerosis in individual patients is difficult to estimate. A biomarker of the atherosclerotic burden would be very valuable. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of plasma osteoprotegerin (OPG) to clinical and subclinical atherosclerotic disease in a large community-based, cross-sectional population study. In the Copenhagen City Heart Study, OPG concentrations were measured in 5,863 men and women. A total of 494 participants had been hospitalized for ischemic heart disease or ischemic stroke, and compared to controls, this group with clinical atherosclerosis had higher mean OPG (1,773 vs 1,337 ng/L, p <0.001) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (2.3 vs 1.6 mg/L, p <0.001). In a multivariate model with age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, smoking status, estimated glomerular filtration rate, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and OPG, OPG remained significantly associated with clinical atherosclerosis (p <0.01); high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, in contrast, did not (p = 0.74). In the control group without clinical atherosclerosis, OPG was independently associated with hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and subclinical peripheral atherosclerosis as measured by ankle brachial index. For each doubling of the plasma OPG concentration, the risk for subclinical peripheral atherosclerosis increased by 50% (p <0.001) after multivariate adjustment. In conclusion, OPG appears to be a promising biomarker of atherosclerosis that is independently associated with traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis, subclinical peripheral atherosclerosis, and clinical atherosclerotic disease such as ischemic heart disease and ischemic stroke.

  19. Variations in C-reactive protein, plasma free radicals and fibrinogen values in patients with osteoarthritis treated with Pycnogenol.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, G; Cesarone, M R; Errichi, S; Zulli, C; Errichi, B M; Vinciguerra, G; Ledda, A; Di Renzo, A; Stuard, S; Dugall, M; Pellegrini, L; Gizzi, G; Ippolito, E; Ricci, A; Cacchio, M; Cipollone, G; Ruffini, I; Fano, F; Hosoi, M; Rohdewald, P

    2008-01-01

    In a previous, double-blind, placebo-controlled study we evaluated the efficacy of a 3-month treatment with Pycnogenol for 156 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Pycnogenol significantly decreased joint pain and improved joint function as evaluated using the WOMAC score and walking performance of patients on a treadmill. In this study, we further investigated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Pycnogenol in a subset of the osteoarthritis patients presenting with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) and plasma-free radicals. Elevated CRP levels have been suggested to be associated with disease progression in osteoarthritis. In our study, 29 subjects of the Pycnogenol group and 26 patients in the placebo group showed CRP levels higher than 3 mg/l at baseline. Comparison of blood specimens drawn at baseline and after 3-month treatment showed that Pycnogenol significantly decreased plasma free radicals to 70.1% of baseline values. Plasma CRP levels decreased from baseline 3.9 mg/l to 1.1 mg/l in the Pycnogenol group whereas the control group had initial values of 3.9 mg/l which decreased to 3.6 mg/l. The CRP decrease in the Pycnogenol was statistical significant as compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Fibrinogen levels were found to be lowered to 62.8% of initial values (P < 0.05) in response to Pycnogenol. No significant changes for plasma free radicals, CRP and fibrinogen were found in the placebo-treated group. The decrease of systemic inflammatory markers suggests that Pycnogenol may exert anti-inflammatory activity in osteoarthritic joints and patients did not present with other ailments or infections. The nature of the anti-inflammatory effects of Pycnogenol with regard to CRP warrants further investigation.

  20. Can C-reactive protein and white blood cell count alone rule out an urgent condition in acute abdominal pain?

    PubMed

    Paolillo, Ciro; Spallino, Ilenia

    2016-02-01

    Up to 10% of all patients at the Emergency Department present for acute abdominal pain. The C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) are routinely determined as part of the workup of patients with abdominal pain. Three large prospective cohort studies comprising a total of 2961 adult patients with acute abdominal pain were selected. CRP levels and WBC counts were compared between patients with urgent and nonurgent final diagnoses. These studies conclude that the laboratory values individually are weak discriminators and cannot be used as a triage instrument in the selection of patients with acute abdominal pain requiring additional diagnostic tests.

  1. Use of heterologous immunoassays for quantification of serum proteins: The case of canine C-reactive protein

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Prieto, Alberto; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Escribano, Damián; Martínez-Subiela, Silvia; Cerón, José J.

    2017-01-01

    The use of heterologous immunoassays containing antibodies raised against a different biological species for quantification of serum proteins is studied and discussed, taking as example the case of the use of a commercially available heterologous assay containing antibodies against human C-reactive protein (hCRP) for quantification of CRP in serum of dogs. This assay was adapted and validated for measurements of canine CRP (cCRP) and compared with three different homologous assays containing species-specific canine antibodies, which are currently commercially available for cCRP determination. Serum samples from healthy and diseased dogs (n = 44) were used. Analytical evaluation included precision, accuracy, limit of detection and lower limit of quantification for all assays. In the case of the heterologous assay also cross-reactivity of the antibody of the heterologous assay with cCRP was evaluated by a Western-Blot analysis giving a positive result. The heterologous assay showed similar results than the homologous assays in all the tests of the analytical evaluation that indicated that the assay was precise and accurate. Method comparison showed a high correlation between all assays (r≥0.9). The Bland-Altman test revealed that the heterologous assay showed a proportional error when compared with the homologous automated assays and a random error when compared with the point-of-care assay. All four CRP assays were able to detect higher CRP values in dogs with inflammatory conditions compared with healthy dogs. It is concluded that heterologous immunoassays could be used for quantification of serum proteins in different species, provided that the antibody has cross-reactivity with the protein to be measured and the assay give satisfactory results in the analytical validation tests. In addition, use of species-specific calibrators and an appropriate batch validation are recommended in these cases. PMID:28222144

  2. Use of heterologous immunoassays for quantification of serum proteins: The case of canine C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Prieto, Alberto; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Escribano, Damián; Martínez-Subiela, Silvia; Cerón, José J

    2017-01-01

    The use of heterologous immunoassays containing antibodies raised against a different biological species for quantification of serum proteins is studied and discussed, taking as example the case of the use of a commercially available heterologous assay containing antibodies against human C-reactive protein (hCRP) for quantification of CRP in serum of dogs. This assay was adapted and validated for measurements of canine CRP (cCRP) and compared with three different homologous assays containing species-specific canine antibodies, which are currently commercially available for cCRP determination. Serum samples from healthy and diseased dogs (n = 44) were used. Analytical evaluation included precision, accuracy, limit of detection and lower limit of quantification for all assays. In the case of the heterologous assay also cross-reactivity of the antibody of the heterologous assay with cCRP was evaluated by a Western-Blot analysis giving a positive result. The heterologous assay showed similar results than the homologous assays in all the tests of the analytical evaluation that indicated that the assay was precise and accurate. Method comparison showed a high correlation between all assays (r≥0.9). The Bland-Altman test revealed that the heterologous assay showed a proportional error when compared with the homologous automated assays and a random error when compared with the point-of-care assay. All four CRP assays were able to detect higher CRP values in dogs with inflammatory conditions compared with healthy dogs. It is concluded that heterologous immunoassays could be used for quantification of serum proteins in different species, provided that the antibody has cross-reactivity with the protein to be measured and the assay give satisfactory results in the analytical validation tests. In addition, use of species-specific calibrators and an appropriate batch validation are recommended in these cases.

  3. Interleukin-1 Blockade With Canakinumab to Improve Exercise Capacity in Patients With Chronic Systolic Heart Failure and Elevated High Sensitivity C-reactive Protein (Hs-CRP)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-22

    Prior Acute Myocardial Infarction; Evidence of Systemic Inflammation (C Reactive Protein Plasma >2 mg/l); Reduced Left Ventricle Ejection Fraction (<50%); Symptoms of Heart Failure (NYHA Class II-III)

  4. Protection from Streptococcus pneumoniae infection by C-reactive protein and natural antibody requires complement but not Fc gamma receptors.

    PubMed

    Mold, Carolyn; Rodic-Polic, Bojana; Du Clos, Terry W

    2002-06-15

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen and the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Both adaptive and innate immune mechanisms provide protection from infection. Innate immunity to S. pneumoniae in mice is mediated by naturally occurring anti-phosphocholine (PC) Abs and complement. The human acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) also protects mice from lethal S. pneumoniae infection. CRP and anti-PC Ab share the ability to bind to PC on the cell wall C-polysaccharide of S. pneumoniae and to activate complement. CRP and IgG anti-PC also bind to Fc gamma R. In this study, Fc gamma R- and complement-deficient mice were used to compare the mechanisms of protection conferred by CRP and anti-PC Ab. Injection of CRP protected wild-type, FcR gamma-chain-, Fc gamma RIIb-, and Fc gamma RIII-deficient mice from infection. Complement was required for the protective effect of CRP as cobra venom factor treatment eliminated the effect of CRP in both gamma-chain-deficient and wild-type mice, and CRP failed to protect C3- or C4-deficient mice from infection. Unexpectedly, gamma-chain-deficient mice were extremely sensitive to pneumococcal infection. This sensitivity was associated with low levels of natural anti-PC Ab. Gamma-chain-deficient mice immunized with nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae produced both IgM- and IgG PC-specific Abs, were protected from infection, and were able to clear the bacteria from the bloodstream. The protection provided by immunization was eliminated by complement depletion. The results show that in this model of systemic infection with highly virulent S. pneumoniae, protection from lethality by CRP and anti-PC Abs requires complement, but not Fc gamma R.

  5. Monomeric C-reactive protein-a key molecule driving development of Alzheimer’s disease associated with brain ischaemia?

    PubMed Central

    Slevin, M.; Matou, S.; Zeinolabediny, Y.; Corpas, R.; Weston, R.; Liu, D.; Boras, E.; Di Napoli, M.; Petcu, E.; Sarroca, S.; Popa-Wagner, A.; Love, S.; Font, M. A.; Potempa, L. A.; Al-baradie, R.; Sanfeliu, C.; Revilla, S.; Badimon, L.; Krupinski, J.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) increases dramatically in patients with ischaemic stroke. Monomeric C-reactive protein (mCRP) appears in the ECM of ischaemic tissue after stroke, associating with microvasculature, neurons and AD-plaques, Aβ, also, being able to dissociate native-CRP into inflammatory, mCRP in vivo. Here, mCRP injected into the hippocampal region of mice was retained within the retrosplenial tract of the dorsal 3rd ventrical and surrounding major vessels. Mice developed behavioural/cognitive deficits within 1 month, concomitant with mCRP staining within abnormal looking neurons expressing p-tau and in beta-amyloid 1-42-plaque positive regions. mCRP co-localised with CD105 in microvessels suggesting angiogenesis. Phospho-arrays/Western blotting identified signalling activation in endothelial cells and neurons through p-IRS-1, p-Tau and p-ERK1/2-which was blocked following pre-incubation with mCRP-antibody. mCRP increased vascular monolayer permeability and gap junctions, increased NCAM expression and produced haemorrhagic angiogenesis in mouse matrigel implants. mCRP induced tau244–372 aggregation and assembly in vitro. IHC study of human AD/stroke patients revealed co-localization of mCRP with Aβ plaques, tau-like fibrils and IRS-1/P-Tau positive neurons and high mCRP-levels spreading from infarcted core regions matched reduced expression of Aβ/Tau. mCRP may be responsible for promoting dementia after ischaemia and mCRP clearance could inform therapeutic avenues to reduce the risk of future dementia. PMID:26335098

  6. Effects of C-reactive protein on adipokines genes expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Guoyue; Jia, Jue; Di, Liangliang; Zhou, Libin; Dong, Sijing; Ye, Jingjing; Wang, Dong; Yang, Ling; Wang, Jifang; Li, Lianxi; Yang, Ying; Mao, Chaoming; Chen, Mingdao

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRP increases TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 genes expression in matured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRP suppresses adiponectin, leptin and PPAR-{gamma} mRNA levels in matured 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wortmannin reverses effects of CRP on adiponectin, TNF-{alpha} and leptin mRNA levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRP may regulate IR, obesity and metabolic syndrome by this mechanism. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue is now recognized to be an important endocrine organ, secreting a variety of adipokines that are involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. C-reactive protein (CRP) is considered as one of the most sensitive markers of inflammation. A number of studies have shown that elevation of CRP concentrations is an independent predictive parameter of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is also strongly associated with various components of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of CRP on adipokines genes expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that CRP inhibited adiponectin, leptin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-{gamma}) genes expression and raised tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA levels in matured 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose and time-dependent manner. Pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3 kinase by wortmannin partially reversed the effects of CRP on adiponectin, TNF-{alpha} and leptin genes expression. These results collectively suggest that CRP regulates adiponectin, TNF-{alpha}, leptin, IL-6 and PPAR-{gamma} genes expression, and that might represent a mechanism by which CRP regulates insulin resistance, obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  7. Vascular C-reactive protein in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease: role of vascular inflammation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Nobutaka

    2006-12-01

    Atherosclerosis is considered to be a chronic inflammatory disease. Vascular inflammation occurs in response to injury induced by various stimuli, such as oxidative stress, shear stress, infection, and so on. This concept is supported by the recent clinical findings that C-reactive protein (CRP) is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. CRP, which was originally identified as a protein that could precipitate the C-polysaccharide of pneumococcal cell walls, has been widely used as a clinical marker of the state of inflammation, since its production by hepatocytes increases during the acute phase of the inflammatory response. Recent investigations have provided two new concepts for the research field of CRP, namely, its extra-hepatic production and its potent biological activities such as the induction of adhesion molecules and chemokines. Recently, we demonstrated that smooth muscle cells and macrophages in coronary arteries expressed CRP protein and mRNA, as evaluated using coronary specimens of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients obtained by atherectomy. The expression of vascular CRP was closely associated with NAD(P)H oxidase, an important enzymatic origin of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vessel walls. Furthermore, CRP directly up-regulated NAD(P)H oxidase p22(phox) and enhanced ROS generation in cultured coronary artery smooth muscle cells. Thus, vascular CRP is likely to be a direct participant in vascular inflammation and lesion formation via its potent biological effects. Since lysophosphatidylcholine, a major atherogenic lipid of oxidized LDL, was reported to activate vascular NAD(P)H oxidase, we speculate that there is a vicious circle consisting of vascular NAD(P)H oxidase, ROS and oxidized LDL. Since phagocytic NAD(P)H oxidase is at the first line of the host defense system, it is important to selectively suppress vascular NAD(P)H oxidase in the localized inflammatory lesions in therapeutic strategies for CAD. In this review, we

  8. Prognostic Value of High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, Procalcitonin and Pancreatic Stone Protein in Pediatric Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiong; Nie, Jun; Wu, Fu-xia; Zou, Xiu-lan; Chen, Feng-yi

    2017-01-01

    Background To investigate the prognostic value of procalcitonin (PCT), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and pancreatic stone protein (PSP) in children with sepsis. Material/Methods A total of 214 patients with sepsis during hospitalization were enrolled. Serum levels of PCT, hs-CRP, and PSP were measured on day 1 of hospitalization and the survival rates of children were recorded after a follow-up of 28 days. Pearson’s correlation analysis was conducted to test the association of PCT, hs-CRP, and PSP with pediatric critical illness score (PCIS). Logistic regression models were used to analyze the risk factors contributing to patients’ death. The AUC was used to determine the value of PCT, hs-CRP, and PSP in the prognosis of patients with sepsis. Results The expression of PCT, hs-CRP, and PSP in the dying patients was higher than in the surviving patients (p<0.001). Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that serum PCT, hs-CRP, and PSP levels were negatively correlated with PCIS (p<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that PCT, hs-CRP, and PSP were independent risk factors for the prognosis of patients with sepsis (p<0.001). ROC analysis showed the AUC values of PCT, hs-CRP, and PSP were 0.83 (95% CI, 0.77–0.88), 0.76 (95% CI, 0.70–0.82), and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.67–0.79), respectively. The combined AUC value of PCT, hs-CRP, and PSP, was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.87–0.95), which was significantly increased compared with PCT, hs-CRP, or PSP (p<0.001). Conclusions The combination of serum PCT, hs-CRP, and PSP represents a promising biomarker of risk, and is a useful clinical tool for risk stratification of children with sepsis. PMID:28358790

  9. [The evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of technique of detection of C-reactive protein under diagnostic of infectious complications in patients with acute lymphoblastic leucosis receiving chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Vladimirova, S G; Tarasova, L N; Dokshina, I A; Cherepanova, V A

    2014-11-01

    The C-reactive protein is a generally recognized marker of inflammation and bacterial infection. However, issue of diagnostic effectiveness of this indicator is still open-ended in case of patients with oncologic hematological diseases. The level of C-reactive protein can increase under neoplastic processes. On the contrary, the inhibition of immune response observed under cytoplastic therapy can decrease synthesis of this protein. The study was organized to establish levels of C-reactive protein as markers of infection in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leucosis under application of chemotherapy and to evaluate their diagnostic effectiveness. The sampling included 34 patients with acute lymphoblastic leucosis all patients had infectious complications at various stages of treatment. The levels of C-reactive protein in groups of patients with localized infections (mucositis, abscess, pneumonia, etc.) or fever of unknown genesis had no statistical differences but were reliably higher in patients without infectious complications. The concentrations of C-reactive protein in patients with syndrome of systemic inflammatory response and sepsis had no differences. At the same time, level of C-reactive protein under systemic infection (syndrome of systemic inflammatory response, sepsis) was reliably higher than in case of localized infection. The diagnostically reliable levels of C-reactive protein were established as follows: lower than 11 mg/l--infectious complications are lacking; higher than 11 mg/l--availability of infectious process; higher than 82 mg/l--generalization of infection. The given levels are characterized by high diagnostic sensitivity (92% and 97% correspondingly) and specificity (97% and 97%) when patients receive therapy without application of L-asparaginase. At the stages of introduction of this preparation effecting protein synthesizing function of liver sensitivity of proposed criteria are decreased (69% and 55% correspondingly). However; due

  10. Effects of Metformin on Tissue Oxidative and Dicarbonyl Stress in Transgenic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Expressing Human C-Reactive Protein

    PubMed Central

    Malínská, Hana; Oliyarnyk, Olena; Škop, Vojtěch; Šilhavý, Jan; Landa, Vladimír; Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Šimáková, Miroslava; Strnad, Hynek; Kazdová, Ludmila; Pravenec, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative and dicarbonyl stress play important roles in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Metformin is the first-line drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes because it effectively suppresses gluconeogenesis in the liver. However, its “pleiotropic” effects remain controversial. In the current study, we tested the effects of metformin on inflammation, oxidative and dicarbonyl stress in an animal model of inflammation and metabolic syndrome, using spontaneously hypertensive rats that transgenically express human C-reactive protein (SHR-CRP). We treated 8-month-old male transgenic SHR-CRP rats with metformin (5 mg/kg/day) mixed as part of a standard diet for 4 weeks. A corresponding untreated control group of male transgenic SHR-CRP rats were fed a standard diet without metformin. In a similar fashion, we studied a group of nontransgenic SHR treated with metformin and an untreated group of nontransgenic SHR controls. In each group, we studied 6 animals. Parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and oxidative and dicarbonyl stress were measured using standard methods. Gene expression profiles were determined using Affymetrix GeneChip Arrays. Statistical significance was evaluated by two-way ANOVA. In the SHR-CRP transgenic strain, we found that metformin treatment decreased circulating levels of inflammatory response marker IL-6, TNFα and MCP-1 while levels of human CRP remained unchanged. Metformin significantly reduced oxidative stress (levels of conjugated dienes and TBARS) and dicarbonyl stress (levels of methylglyoxal) in left ventricles, but not in kidneys. No significant effects of metformin on oxidative and dicarbonyl stress were observed in SHR controls. In addition, metformin treatment reduced adipose tissue lipolysis associated with human CRP. Possible molecular mechanisms of metformin action–studied by gene expression profiling in the liver–revealed deregulated genes from inflammatory and insulin signaling, AMP-activated

  11. Developing column material for the separation of serum amyloid P and C reactive protein from biological sources.

    PubMed

    Ersöz, Arzu; Ünlüer, Özlem Biçen; Dönmez, Gülnur; Hür, Deniz; Say, R Dvan

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we have investigated the isolation of serum amyloid P (SAP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) from rainbow trout. It has recently been found that SAP is deposited in atherosclerotic lesions or neurofibrillary tangles, which are related to aging process and Alzheimer's disease. Given the importance of CRP, the CRP level in blood is becoming recognized as a potential means of monitoring cardiovascular risk. These two proteins, members of the pentraxin family of oligomeric serum proteins, were isolated from rainbow trout using N-methacryloyl-phosphoserine (MA-pSer) immobilized poly (2-hydroxy ethylmethacrylate) (PHEMA) cryogels as a column material in a fast protein liquid chromatography system. The separation process was verified in two steps. First, SAP and CRP proteins were isolated together from serum sample of rainbow trout using MA-pSer/PHEMA cryogel columns. Second, SAP protein was separated chromatographically from CRP protein using the Ca(2+) ion immobilized PHEMA cryogel column. According to the data, a new and effective technique has been developed for the isolation of SAP and CRP proteins from a biological source, rainbow trout. Finally, purified SAP and CRP were loaded using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel and western blot analysis to investigate the purity of chromatographically isolated SAP and CRP compared with commertial SAP and CRP.

  12. Cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein for predicting all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei-Jie; Chen, Xu-Miao; Nie, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Jing; Cheng, Yun-Jiu; Lin, Xiao-Xiong; Wu, Su-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease. However, the relationship between these two biomarker levels and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis to quantify the association of cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein levels with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Relevant studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE database through November 2013. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they reported the long-term all-cause or cardiovascular mortality of chronic kidney disease patients with abnormally elevated serum levels of cardiac troponin or C-reactive protein. Summary estimates of association were obtained using a random-effects model. Thirty-two studies met our inclusion criteria. From the pooled analysis, cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein were significantly associated with all-cause (HR 2.93, 95% CI 1.97-4.33 and HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.14-1.29, respectively) and cardiovascular (HR 3.27, 95% CI 1.67-6.41 and HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.10-1.28, respectively) mortality. In the subgroup analysis of cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein, significant heterogeneities were found among the subgroups of population for renal replacement therapy and for the proportion of smokers and the C-reactive protein analysis method. Elevated serum levels of cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein are significant associated with higher risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Further studies are warranted to explore the risk stratification in chronic kidney disease patients. PMID:26017799

  13. Cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein for predicting all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Jie; Chen, Xu-Miao; Nie, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Jing; Cheng, Yun-Jiu; Lin, Xiao-Xiong; Wu, Su-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Elevated serum levels of cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease. However, the relationship between these two biomarker levels and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis to quantify the association of cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein levels with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Relevant studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE database through November 2013. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they reported the long-term all-cause or cardiovascular mortality of chronic kidney disease patients with abnormally elevated serum levels of cardiac troponin or C-reactive protein. Summary estimates of association were obtained using a random-effects model. Thirty-two studies met our inclusion criteria. From the pooled analysis, cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein were significantly associated with all-cause (HR 2.93, 95% CI 1.97-4.33 and HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.14-1.29, respectively) and cardiovascular (HR 3.27, 95% CI 1.67-6.41 and HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.10-1.28, respectively) mortality. In the subgroup analysis of cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein, significant heterogeneities were found among the subgroups of population for renal replacement therapy and for the proportion of smokers and the C-reactive protein analysis method. Elevated serum levels of cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein are significant associated with higher risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Further studies are warranted to explore the risk stratification in chronic kidney disease patients.

  14. C-reactive protein inhibits high-molecular-weight adiponectin expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanxin; Liu, Cuiping; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Su; Yang, Qichao; Jiang, Dan; Yuan, Guoyue

    2016-03-25

    Adiponectin, an adipose-specific protein hormone, is secreted from white adipose tissue and involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. It is assembled into low-molecular-weight trimer (LMW), middle-molecular-weight hexameric (MMW) and high-molecular-weight (HMW), among which HMW exhibits higher activity. In this study, we proved that C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker, inhibited adiponectin expression, especially HMW in time-and dose-dependent manners. Furthermore, CRP decreased the HMW/total adiponectin ration and reduced adiponectin assembly by increasing ERp44, and decreasing Ero1-α and DsbA-L. CRP activated pAkt, the downstream of PI3K. Inhibition of PI3K or pAkt abolished the effect of CRP. Our study suggested that CRP decreased adiponectin expression and multimerization, while CRP-induced decline in adiponectin might be mediated through the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  15. [Content of C-reactive protein in patients in an acute period of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Globa, M V; Lisyanyi, M I; Tsimeyko, A; Litvak, S O

    2015-03-01

    A content of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the blood serum was determined in 36 patients in acute period of a ruptured intracranial arterial aneurysm (AA). It was significantly more, than in a control group, and have exceeded 10 mg/I in 1 - 4th day of the disease. The level of CRP have had differ, depending on severity of cerebral vasospasm (CVS), determined in accordance to the ultrasound investigation data. In a pronounced CVS in majority of patients the level of CRP in the blood serum have had exceed 10 mg/l, and have secured elevated in a spinal liquor on the 7 - 10th day of the disease, differing from this index in patients with moderately pronounced CVS or without it. In patients with severe invalidization or those, who have died, the level of CRP was trust-worthy higher.

  16. Immunoassay of C-reactive protein by hot electron induced electrochemiluminescence using integrated electrodes with hydrophobic sample confinement.

    PubMed

    Ylinen-Hinkka, T; Niskanen, A J; Franssila, S; Kulmala, S

    2011-09-19

    C-reactive protein (CRP) was determined in the concentration range 0.01-10 mg L(-1) using hot electron induced electrochemiluminescence (HECL) with devices combining both working and counter electrodes and sample confinement on a single chip. The sample area on the electrodes was defined by a hydrophobic ring, which enabled dispensing the reagents and the analyte directly on the electrode. Immunoassay of CRP by HECL using integrated electrodes is a good candidate for a high-sensitivity point-of-care CRP-test, because the concentration range is suitable, miniaturisation of the measurement system has been demonstrated and the assay method with integrated electrodes is easy to use. High-sensitivity CRP tests can be used to monitor the current state of cardiovascular disease and also to predict future cardiovascular problems in apparently healthy people.

  17. The association between burnout, depression, anxiety, and inflammation biomarkers: C-reactive protein and fibrinogen in men and women.

    PubMed

    Toker, Sharon; Shirom, Arie; Shapira, Itzhak; Berliner, Shlomo; Melamed, Samuel

    2005-10-01

    Following the demonstrated association of employee burnout or vital exhaustion with several risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD risk, the authors investigated the possibility that one of the mechanisms linking burnout with CVD morbidity is microinflammation, gauged in this study by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and fibrinogen concentrations. Their sample included 630 women and 933 men, all apparently healthy, who underwent periodic health examinations. The authors controlled for possible confounders including 2 other negative affective states: depression and anxiety. In women, burnout was positively associated with hs-CRP and fibrinogen concentrations, and anxiety was negatively associated with them. In men, depression was positively associated with hs-CRP and fibrinogen concentrations, but not with burnout or anxiety. Thus, burnout, depression, and anxiety are differentially associated with microinflammation biomarkers, dependent on gender.

  18. C-reactive protein inhibits survivin expression via Akt/mTOR pathway downregulation by PTEN expression in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Beom Seob; Kim, Soo Hyuk; Oh, Jaewon; Jin, Taewon; Choi, Eun Young; Park, Sungha; Lee, Sang-Hak; Chung, Ji Hyung; Kang, Seok-Min

    2014-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is one of the most important biomarkers for arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have shown that CRP affects cell cycle and inflammatory process in cardiac myocytes. Survivin is also involved in cardiac myocytes replication and apoptosis. Reduction of survivin expression is associated with less favorable cardiac remodeling in animal models. However, the effect of CRP on survivin expression and its cellular mechanism has not yet been studied. We demonstrated that treatment of CRP resulted in a significant decrease of survivin protein expression in a concentration-dependent manner in cardiac myocytes. The upstream signaling proteins of survivin, such as Akt, mTOR and p70S6K, were also downregulated by CRP treatment. In addition, CRP increased the protein and mRNA levels of PTEN. The siRNA transfection or specific inhibitor treatment for PTEN restored the CRP-induced downregulation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway and survivin protein expression. Moreover, pretreatment with a specific p53 inhibitor decreased the CRP-induced PTEN expression. ERK-specific inhibitor also blocked the p53 phosphorylation and PTEN expression induced by CRP. Our study provides a novel insight into CRP-induced downregulation of survivin protein expression in cardiac myocytes through mechanisms that involved in downregulation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway by expression of PTEN.

  19. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and exercise-induced changes in subjects suspected of coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Mouridsen, Mette Rauhe; Nielsen, Olav Wendelboe; Carlsen, Christian Malchau; Mattsson, Nick; Ruwald, Martin H; Binici, Zeynep; Sajadieh, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Background Inflammation plays a major role in the development of atherosclerosis. We wanted to investigate the effects of exercise on high-sensitivity (hs) C-reactive protein (CRP) in subjects who were suspected of having coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods Blood samples were obtained before, 5 minutes after, and 20 hours after an exercise test in 155 subjects who were suspected of CAD. Coronary anatomy was evaluated by computed tomography coronary angiography and/or coronary angiography. Results Median baseline hs-CRP was higher in subjects with ≥50% coronary artery lumen diameter stenosis (n=41), compared with non-CAD-subjects (n=114), 2.93 mg/L (interquartile range 1.03–5.06 mg/L) and 1.30 mg/L (interquartile range 0.76–2.74 mg/L), respectively, P=0.007. In multivariate analyses testing conventional risk factors, hs-CRP proved borderline significant, odds ratio =2.32, P=0.065. Adding baseline hs-CRP to the results of the exercise test did not improve the diagnostic evaluation. Baseline natural logarithm (Ln) hs-CRP was positively associated with body mass index and baseline Ln-transformed hs troponin T levels, and negatively associated with the daily life activity level. An increase in hs-CRP of 0.13 mg/L (interquartile range 0.05–0.24 mg/L) from baseline to 5 minutes after peak exercise was found (P<0.0001), but the increase was not associated with presence of CAD. From baseline to 20 hours after exercise, no increase in hs-CRP was found. Conclusion In conclusion, hs-CRP was not independently associated with CAD. Hs-CRP increased immediately as a response to the exercise, and the increase was modest and not associated with CAD. The results indicate that exercise has potential to cause unwanted variations in hs-CRP and that exercise prior to hs-CRP measurements in subjects included in epidemiological studies, therefore, should be avoided. PMID:24715762

  20. Ascitic Fluid High Sensitive C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP). A Prognostic Marker in Cirrhosis with Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Kadam, Nakul; Shukla, Samarth; Gupta, Kriti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is an acute phase reactant. Its level increases in the presence of acute or chronic inflammation and infections. High sensitive CRP (hs-CRP) is more sensitive than CRP as an inflammatory marker. High sensitive CRP has been known to be elevated in chronic liver diseases and Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP). Aim The aim of the study was to establish the role of ascitic fluid high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs –CRP) as a prognostic indicator in patients with SBP. Materials and Methods A total of 100 patients with decompensated cirrhosis admitted in medicine ward and ICU were included, of which 50 patients of acute bacterial peritonitis were used as study group and 50 patients of sterile ascites were used as control group. Hs-CRP level of cases and controls were estimated. SBP cases were treated with its standard recommended antibiotic therapy and hs-CRP level was again estimated after 5 days of antibiotic therapy or at the time of discharge. Results The mean level of hs-CRP before antibiotic therapy of the patients with SBP was significantly higher than that of the patients without spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (t98=17.72; p=0.0001). The mean level of hs-CRP at 5th day or discharge after initiation of antibiotic therapy was significantly lower than that of level of hs-CRP before initiation of antibiotic therapy (p<0.05). The mean hs-CRP of the cases with poor outcome (death and prolonged hospital stay) was significantly higher than others. Conclusion Ascitic fluid hs-CRP level can be considered as a surrogate prognostic marker in cases of Cirrhosis with SBP. PMID:27190862

  1. Accuracy of leukocyte indices and C-reactive protein for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, O; Ohlsson, A; Kenyon, C

    1995-05-01

    To evaluate the value of C-reactive protein and leukocyte indices in the workup of patients suspected of having infection in a neonatal intensive care setting, a literature search was conducted in all languages using MEDLINE (1966 to May, 1994), EMBASE (1988 to May, 1994), bibliographic lists of primary and review articles and personal files. Citations identified as potentially relevant were reviewed by two independent investigators; only studies meeting preset criteria for population, diagnostic test and data presentation were included. Two observers independently assessed studies using explicit methodologic criteria. All data from the articles were extracted by one observer, whereas the second reviewer checked these data for accuracy. Four of the selected studies dealt with leukocyte count and ratios. The chi square test for homogeneity of proportions revealed significant heterogeneity across studies (P = 0.014 for the ratios; P < 0.001 for white blood cell count), suggesting that test properties varied widely across studies. Fifteen of the selected studies evaluated C-reactive protein; of these six were qualitative using a latex agglutination method. Among these studies the chi square test for homogeneity of proportions was highly significant (P < 0.01), reflecting the great heterogeneity across studies. Among the nine studies that evaluated five different quantitative methods heterogeneity was again present (P < 0.001). Because of the striking heterogeneity among the studies evaluated, pooling to give a summary point estimate of the sensitivity and specificity of the various studies was not possible and the results are reported as ranges.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Comparison of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fetuin-A levels before and after treatment for subjects with subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Bilgir, Oktay; Bilgir, Ferda; Topcuoglu, Tuba; Calan, Mehmet; Calan, Ozlem

    2014-03-01

    This study was designed to show the effect of propylthiouracil treatment on sCD40L, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and fetuin-A levels on subjects with subclinical hyperthyroidism. After checking sCD40L, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and fetuin-A levels of 35 patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism, each was given 50 mg tablets of propylthiouracil three times daily. After 3 months, sCD40L, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and fetuin-A levels were then compared to the levels before treatment. Although high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and sCD40L levels were normal in the subclinical hyperthyroidism patients compared to the healthy controls, fetuin-A levels were statistically significantly higher (*p = 0.022). After treatment, fetuin-A levels of subclinical hyperthyroidism patients decreased statistically significantly compared to the levels before treatment (**p = 0.026). sCD40L and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels did not have a statistically significant difference compared to the control group and post-propylthiouracil treatment. In subclinical hyperthyroidism patients, high fetuin-A levels before propylthiouracil treatment and decreases in these levels after treatment in cases with subclinical hyperthyroidism indicated the possibility of preventing long-term cardiac complications with propylthiouracil treatment.

  3. External Quality Control for Dried Blood Spot Based C-reactive Protein Assay: Experience from the Indonesia Family Life Survey and the Longitudinal Aging Study in India

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Peifeng; Herningtyas, Elizabeth H.; Kale, Varsha; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Risbud, Arun R.; McCreath, Heather; Lee, Jinkook; Strauss, John; O’Brien, Jennifer C.; Bloom, David E.; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation, in dried blood spots has been increasingly incorporated in community-based social surveys internationally. Although the dried blood spot based CRP assay protocol has been validated in the United States, it remains unclear whether laboratories in other less developed countries can generate C-reactive protein results of similar quality. We therefore conducted external quality monitoring for dried blood spot based C-reactive protein measurement for the Indonesia Family Life Survey and the Longitudinal Aging Study in India. Our results show that dried blood spot based C-reactive protein results in these two countries have excellent and consistent correlations with serum-based values and dried blood spot based results from the reference laboratory in the United States. Even though the results from duplicate samples may have fluctuations in absolute values over time, the relative order of C-reactive protein levels remains similar and the estimates are reasonably precise for population-based studies that investigate the association between socioeconomic factors and health. PMID:25879265

  4. Seafood intake, polyunsaturated fatty acids, blood mercury, and serum C-reactive protein in US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2006).

    PubMed

    Emanuele, Erin; Meliker, Jaymie

    2017-04-01

    We examined the association between seafood consumption, mercury concentration, polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium, and Vitamin D in relation to C-reactive protein using the cross-sectional US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. We hypothesized that seafood consumption and fatty acids will be negatively associated, and mercury will be positively associated with C-reactive protein, and that statistical adjustment for these factors will alleviate confounding thereby making these associations more apparent. The study sample included 1217 participants (706 males, 511 females) aged 16-49. Sex-stratified sample weighted multiple linear regression models revealed no associations of mercury, polyunsaturated fatty acids, fish intake, selenium, or vitamin D with serum C-reactive protein. However, when all variables were included together in one model, fish intake was associated with lower levels of CRP in females suggesting confounding in models that do not mutually adjust for seafood contaminants and nutrients. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  5. Effect of Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Serum C-reactive Protein Levels Using ELISA in Both Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Bharat; Patil, Neha; Yadav, Manoj; Tripathi, Shashank; Sinha, Saurabh; Sharma, Saurabh; Gupta, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Background Periodontitis can be defined as a local inflammatory process which mediates destruction of periodontal tissues & is triggered by bacterial insult. In periodontal infections, the levels of C reactive proteins are elevated as compared to the levels in a periodontally healthy individual. The study was done to determine the relative levels of serum CRP in aggressive, chronic and periodontally healthy subjects and to evaluate the effect of surgical periodontal therapy on serum C-reactive protein levels. Materials and Methods Serum samples were collected from 150 participants (50 healthy control patients (non-periodontitis), 50 patients with chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis. Serum C- reactive protein levels were assessed by means of immunoturbidimetric assay at baseline for subjects in all the 3 groups and 3 months after completion of surgical therapy. Results The mean baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in the Groups I, II and III were 1.65±0.57 mg/L, 3.03±2.14 mg/L and 3.09±2.27 mg/L respectively. After treatment, the mean C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in Groups II and III reduced from 3.03±1.67 mg/L to 1.46±1.67 mg/L and from 3.09±1.21 to 1.43±1.21 mg/L respectively. Similar results were found for probing depth and all indexes in Group II and III after treatment. Also, the mean attachment loss in Groups II and III reduced, so the results were highly significant. Conclusion Successful periodontal treatment results in significant decrease in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in otherwise healthy subjects. PMID:26557605

  6. Cognitive Changes during Prolonged Stay at High Altitude and Its Correlation with C-Reactive Protein.

    PubMed

    Hu, Sheng Li; Xiong, Wei; Dai, Zhi Qiang; Zhao, Heng Li; Feng, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitive C-reaction protein (hsCRP) may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment resulting from Alzheimer's disease (AD), stroke, and vascular dementia. This study explored the correlation of peripheral blood hsCRP level with cognitive decline due to high altitude exposure. The study was conducted on 100 male military participants who had never been to high altitude. Cerebral oxygen saturation monitoring, event related potentials (P300, N200) detection, and neurocognitive assessment was performed and total hsCRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and homocysteine was estimated at 500 m altitude, 3650 m altitude, 3 day, 1, and 3 month post arriving at the base camp (4400 m), and 1 month after coming back to the 500 m altitude. High altitude increased brain oxygen saturation, prolonged P300 and N200 latencies, injured cognitive functions, and raised plasma hsCRP levels. But they all recovered in varying degrees at 1 and 3 month post arriving at the base camp (4400 m). P300 latencies and hsCRP levels were strongly correlated to cognitive performances. These results suggested that cognitive deterioration occurred during the acute period of exposure to high altitude and may recover probably owning to acclimatization after extended stay at high altitude. Plasma hsCRP is inversely correlated to neurological cognition and it may be a potential biomarker for the prediction of high altitude induced cognitive dysfunction.

  7. Synthesis of water-soluble CdSe quantum dots with various fluorescent properties and their application in immunoassay for determination of C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, V K

    2014-09-01

    Effects of various factors on synthesis and fluorescent properties of CdSe quantum dots were studied. It was shown that variation of pH, stabilizer and concentration of precursors brings to obtaining of quantum dots with various fluorescent properties. The nanoparticles prepared were conjugated with rabbit antibodies to C-Reactive protein and C-Reactive protein for competitive immunoassay for determination of CRP. It was shown that interaction of these dots as a result of antigen-antibody reaction brings to resonance energy transfer and these changes in fluorescence spectra correlate with concentration of CRP. This approach permits to determine CRP in range between 4-100 ng.

  8. Modified C-reactive protein interacts with platelet glycoprotein Ibα.

    PubMed

    Boncler, Magdalena; Rywaniak, Joanna; Szymański, Jacek; Potempa, Lawrence A; Rychlik, Błażej; Watała, Cezary

    2011-01-01

    Herein, we investigated the possible mechanisms by which recombinant modified CRP(m(r)CRP) modulates blood platelet function. Modified CRP could activate blood platelets and stimulate their adhesion and aggregation in the absence of any other physiological stimuli. Preincubation of isolated blood platelets with m(r)CRP at a concentration as low as 2 μg/ml resulted in significant platelet degranulation (fraction of CD62-positive platelets increased 2-fold, p < 0.0002), and at concentrations of 20 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml, increased exposure of the platelet procoagulant surface was observed (expression of annexin V-positive platelets increased to 5.7 ± 1.0% and 10.4 ± 2.2%, respectively, p < 0.03, vs. 2.9 ± 0.2% in control). Furthermore, m(r)CRP (100 μg/ml) strongly augmented spontaneous and ADP-induced fibrinogen binding to platelets (p < 0.05), platelet adhesion to fibrinogen and platelet aggregation. Using the Biacore™ surface plasmon resonance technique and glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα) immobilized on the sensor surface, we demonstrated direct binding between platelet GPIbα and m(r)CRP. Binding of m(r)CRP to GPIbα and C1q was also observed by ELISA, irrespective of the immobilized ligand. These outcomes strongly support a role of the GPIb-IX-V complex in the interactions of m(r)CRP with blood platelets.

  9. Value of C reactive protein in the assessment of erosive osteoarthritis of the hand

    PubMed Central

    Punzi, L; Ramonda, R; Oliviero, F; Sfriso, P; Mussap, M; Plebani, M; Podswiadek, M; Todesco, S

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Ninety eight patients, 67 with EOA and 31 with non-EOA of the hand, were included in the study and analysed for radiographic score (RS), number of erosions, and joint count (JC) at clinical observation and at bone scintigraphy. CRP was assayed in a serum sample by a highly sensitive immunonephelometric method. Results: The median (interquartile range) CRP level was 4.7 (2.4–6.9) mg/l in the EOA and 2.1 (0.5–4.9) mg/l in the non-EOA group (p = 0.001). In all patients, CRP correlated with RS (rs = 0.43, p<0.001), and mainly with JC at clinical observation (rs = 0.72, p<0.001) and at bone scintigraphy (rs = 0.47, p<0.001). The correlation of CRP with RS and JC was confirmed at clinical observation and at bone scintigraphy in the EOA subgroup, but only with JC at clinical observation in the non-EOA subgroup. Conclusions: CRP levels are higher in EOA than in non-EOA patients. These levels probably reflect the disease activity of EOA, as suggested by correlations between CRP and JC at clinical observation and at bone scintigraphy. PMID:15897314

  10. Aptamer-conjugated live human immune cell based biosensors for the accurate detection of C-reactive protein

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jangsun; Seo, Youngmin; Jo, Yeonho; Son, Jaewoo; Choi, Jonghoon

    2016-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a pentameric protein that is present in the bloodstream during inflammatory events, e.g., liver failure, leukemia, and/or bacterial infection. The level of CRP indicates the progress and prognosis of certain diseases; it is therefore necessary to measure CRP levels in the blood accurately. The normal concentration of CRP is reported to be 1–3 mg/L. Inflammatory events increase the level of CRP by up to 500 times; accordingly, CRP is a biomarker of acute inflammatory disease. In this study, we demonstrated the preparation of DNA aptamer-conjugated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (Apt-PBMCs) that specifically capture human CRP. Live PBMCs functionalized with aptamers could detect different levels of human CRP by producing immune complexes with reporter antibody. The binding behavior of Apt-PBMCs toward highly concentrated CRP sites was also investigated. The immune responses of Apt-PBMCs were evaluated by measuring TNF-alpha secretion after stimulating the PBMCs with lipopolysaccharides. In summary, engineered Apt-PBMCs have potential applications as live cell based biosensors and for in vitro tracing of CRP secretion sites. PMID:27708384

  11. Evidence for sodium azide as an artifact mediating the modulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase by C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Lafuente, Nuria; Azcutia, Verónica; Matesanz, Nuria; Cercas, Elena; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos F; Peiró, Concepción

    2005-03-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase protein identified as a cardiovascular risk marker. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have investigated the possible direct effects of CRP on the vasculature, using mainly commercial CRP. In the present work, a potential role for CRP as a modulator of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induction was explored. Cultured human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HASMC) were stimulated for 18 hours with 10 ng/mL interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), resulting in a marked increase of iNOS levels and NO production, as determined by Western blotting and nitrite measurement, respectively. Commercial CRP (1 to 100 microg/mL) concentration-dependently inhibited the effects elicited by IL-1beta. Unexpectedly, similar results were observed when the commercial CRP solution was replaced by the corresponding vehicle medium containing growing concentrations of sodium azide. The inhibitory effects of commercial CRP or vehicle medium were lost on sodium azide removal by dialysis. In conclusion, sodium azide from the commercial CRP solution, but not CRP itself, mainly accounts for the inhibitory effect on IL-1beta-evoked iNOS induction and NO release. Care should be taken before attributing any biologic role to commercial CRP containing sodium azide.

  12. Aptamer-conjugated live human immune cell based biosensors for the accurate detection of C-reactive protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jangsun; Seo, Youngmin; Jo, Yeonho; Son, Jaewoo; Choi, Jonghoon

    2016-10-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a pentameric protein that is present in the bloodstream during inflammatory events, e.g., liver failure, leukemia, and/or bacterial infection. The level of CRP indicates the progress and prognosis of certain diseases; it is therefore necessary to measure CRP levels in the blood accurately. The normal concentration of CRP is reported to be 1–3 mg/L. Inflammatory events increase the level of CRP by up to 500 times; accordingly, CRP is a biomarker of acute inflammatory disease. In this study, we demonstrated the preparation of DNA aptamer-conjugated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (Apt-PBMCs) that specifically capture human CRP. Live PBMCs functionalized with aptamers could detect different levels of human CRP by producing immune complexes with reporter antibody. The binding behavior of Apt-PBMCs toward highly concentrated CRP sites was also investigated. The immune responses of Apt-PBMCs were evaluated by measuring TNF-alpha secretion after stimulating the PBMCs with lipopolysaccharides. In summary, engineered Apt-PBMCs have potential applications as live cell based biosensors and for in vitro tracing of CRP secretion sites.

  13. Effect of whey supplementation on circulating C-reactive protein: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ling-Mei; Xu, Jia-Ying; Rao, Chun-Ping; Han, Shufen; Wan, Zhongxiao; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2015-02-09

    Whey supplementation is beneficial for human health, possibly by reducing the circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) level, a sensitive marker of inflammation. Thus, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted to evaluate their relationship. A systematic literature search was conducted in July, 2014, to identify eligible studies. Either a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model was used to calculate pooled effects. The meta-analysis results of nine trials showed a slight, but no significant, reduction of 0.42 mg/L (95% CI -0.96, 0.13) in CRP level with the supplementation of whey protein and its derivates. Relatively high heterogeneity across studies was observed. Subgroup analyses showed that whey significantly lowered CRP by 0.72 mg/L (95% CI -0.97, -0.47) among trials with a daily whey dose≥20 g/day and by 0.67 mg/L (95% CI -1.21, -0.14) among trials with baseline CRP≥3 mg/L. Meta-regression analysis revealed that the baseline CRP level was a potential effect modifier of whey supplementation in reducing CRP. In conclusion, our meta-analysis did not find sufficient evidence that whey and its derivates elicited a beneficial effect in reducing circulating CRP. However, they may significantly reduce CRP among participants with highly supplemental doses or increased baseline CRP levels.

  14. [Relationship of food groups intake and C-reactive protein in healthy adults from Mexicali, Baja California, México].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Esparza, Josefina; Robinson-Navarro, Octavio; Ortega-Vélez, María Isabel; Diaz-Molina, Raúl; Carrillo-Cedillo, Eugenia Gabriela; Soria-Rodriguez, Carmen G

    2013-09-01

    The high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is an important biomarker in inflammatory processes. The objective was to analyze the relationship between the concentrations of hs-CRP in adults from a northern Mexico region with their typical food intake patterns. A sample of 72 university professors underwent clinical and anthropometric assessments and their hs-CRP levels were quantified with an immunoenzymometric assay. Additionally, they filled out a food intake frequency questionnaire, from which the servings of different food groups were obtained with the ESHA software. The average age of participants was 49.75 +/- 10.05 years and the average hs-CRP concentration was 1.66 (0.97, 3.52) mg/L. The value of the association between fruit consumption and hs-CRP level was protective, according to the logistic regression analysis, being the Odds Ratio (OR) 0.23 (95% CI: 0.05, 1.03); while for vegetables the OR was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.12, 3.68). Furthermore, high protein content foods, dairy products, oils and fats were associated with elevated levels of hs-CRP. In conclusion, in our study, the intake of some food groups like fruits and vegetables, and to a lesser extent cereals, were associated with low values of hs-PCR.

  15. High-affinity RNA aptamers to C-reactive protein (CRP): newly developed pre-elution methods for aptamer selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orito, N.; Umekage, S.; Sato, K.; Kawauchi, S.; Tanaka, H.; Sakai, E.; Tanaka, T.; Kikuchi, Y.

    2012-03-01

    We have developed a modified SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) method to obtain RNA aptamers with high affinity to C-reactive protein (CRP). CRP is a clinical biomarker present in plasma, the level of which increases in response to infections and noninfectious inflammation. The CRP level is also an important prognostic indicator in patients with several syndromes. At present, CRP content in blood is measured immunochemically using antibodies. To develop a more sensitive method using RNA aptamers, we have attempted to obtain high-affinity RNA aptamers to CRP. We succeeded in obtaining an RNA aptamer with high affinity to CRP using a CRP-immobilized Sepharose column and pre-elution procedure. Pre-elution is a method that removes the weak binding portion from a selected RNA population by washing for a short time with buffer containing CRP. By surface plasmon-resonance (SPR) analysis, the affinity constant of this aptamer for CRP was calculated to be KD = 2.25×10-9 (M). The secondary structure, contact sites with CRP protein, and application of this aptamer will be described.

  16. Low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein are selectively bound by aggregated C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    de Beer, F C; Soutar, A K; Baltz, M L; Trayner, I M; Feinstein, A; Pepys, M B

    1982-07-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP), the classical acute-phase protein, can bind phospholipids by virtue of its specific, calcium-dependent reactivity with phosphorylcholine residues. However, analysis of acute-phase serum by gel filtration and by density gradient ultracentrifugation showed that the CRP was in a free, uncomplexed form, despite the coexistent presence of the various classes of serum lipoproteins, all of which contain phospholipids. In contrast, when isolated CRP was aggregated by immobilization at a sufficient density on a solid phase and then exposed to normal human serum, it selectively bound low density lipoprotein (LDL) and traces of very low density lipoprotein. The reaction was calcium dependent and reversible by free phosphorylcholine but not by heparin. LDL isolated from normal plasma was also bound by aggregated CRP. CRP reacts in vitro with a wide variety of different ligands both of extrinsic and of autogenous origin, e.g., microbial products and damaged cell membranes, respectively. If CRP aggregated in vivo by complexing with these ligands than acquires the capacity to selectively bind LDL, the phenomenon may have significant implications for the function of CRP and for the metabolism, clearance, and deposition of LDL.

  17. Label-free detection of C-reactive protein using reflectometric interference spectroscopy-based sensing system.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyung Woo; Sakata, Yasuhiko; Kurihara, Yoshikazu; Ooya, Tooru; Takeuchi, Toshifumi

    2012-05-30

    Reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS) is a label-free, time-resolved technique, and suitable for detecting antibody-antigen interaction. This work describes a continuous flow biosensor for C-reactive protein (CRP), involving an effective immobilization method of a monoclonal antibody against CRP (anti-CRP) to achieve highly sensitive RIfS-based detection of CRP. The silicon nitride-coated silicon chip (SiN chip) for the RIfS sensing was first treated with trimethylsilylchloride (TMS), followed by UV-light irradiation to in situ generation of homogeneous silanols on the surface. Following amination by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, carboxymethyldextran (CMD) was grafted, and subsequently, protein A was immobilized to create the oriented anti-CRP surface. The immobilization process of protein A and anti-CRP was monitored with the RIfS system by consecutive injections of an amine coupling reagent, protein A and anti-CRP, respectively, to confirm the progress of each step in real time. The sensitivity was enhanced when all of the processes were adopted, suggesting that the oriented immobilization of anti-CRP via protein A that was coupled with the grafted CMD on the aminated surface of TMS-treated SiN chip. The feasibility of the present sensing system was demonstrated on the detection of CRP, where the silicon-based inexpensive chips and the simple optical setup were employed. It can be applied to other target molecules in various fields of life science as a substitute of surface plasmon resonance-based expensive sensors.

  18. Angiotensin II induces the expression of c-reactive protein via MAPK-dependent signal pathway in U937 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Liu, Juntian; Han, Chunjie; Wang, Bin; Pang, Xiaoming; Mao, Junjun

    2011-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease in the vessel wall. As an inflammatory molecule, C-reactive protein (CRP) participates in all stages of atherosclerotic process. Although angiotensin II (Ang II) can stimulate the vascular cells to produce CRP, it is unknown whether Ang II induces CRP expression in macrophages. The present study was to observe effect of Ang II on CRP production and the related signal pathway in U937 macrophages so as to provide more evidence for the proinflammatory action of Ang II. The results showed that Ang II significantly increased mRNA and protein expression of CRP in U937 macrophages in time- and concentration-dependent manners. AT(1) receptor blocker losartan blocked Ang II -induced CRP expression in mRNA and protein levels in U937 macrophages. Losartan and complex II inhibitor TIFA decreased Ang II -stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and antioxidant NAC completely abolished Ang II -induced CRP expression in U937 macrophages. The further study indicated that losartan, NAC, MEK1/2 inhibitor PD98059, p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 obviously inhibited ERK1/2 and p38MAPK phosphorylation, and PD98059, SB203580 and NF-κB inhibitor PDTC reduced Ang II -induced mRNA and protein expression of CRP in U937 macrophages. These demonstrate that Ang II is capable of inducing CRP generation in macrophages via AT(1)-ROS-ERK1/2/p38MAPK-NF-κB signal pathway, which contributes to better understanding of the proinflammatory and proatherosclerotic actions of Ang II.

  19. C-reactive protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... higher than 3.0 mg/L. Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results. The examples above show the common measurements for results for these tests. Some laboratories use ...

  20. Depression, C-reactive protein and length of post-operative hospital stay in coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Poole, Lydia; Kidd, Tara; Leigh, Elizabeth; Ronaldson, Amy; Jahangiri, Marjan; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of C-reactive protein (CRP) in mediating the association between greater pre-operative depression symptoms and longer post-operative length of stay in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We used a sample of 145 elective CABG patients and measured depression symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) prior to surgery and collected baseline measures of CRP. Participants were followed up during their in-hospital stay to measure early (1-3 days post-surgery) and persistent (4-8 days post-surgery) CRP responses to surgery. We found that compared with participants with low depression symptoms, those with elevated depression symptoms (BDI>10) prior to CABG were at increased odds of a hospital stay of greater than one week (OR 3.51, 95% CI 1.415-8.693, p=0.007) and that greater persistent CRP responses mediated this association. Further work is needed to explore the exact physiological pathways through which depression and CRP interact to affect recovery in CABG patients.

  1. Serum C-reactive protein predicts early mortality in hospitalized patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, ShaoMing; Waili, Yulituzi; Qi, XiaoTing; Chen, YueMei; Lou, YuFeng; Chen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The serum C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory marker. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether CRP could serve as a potential surrogate marker for 30-day mortality in hospitalized patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis (HBV-DeCi). This was a retrospective cohort study that included 140 patients with HBV-DeCi. All patients were followed up for 1-month. A panel of clinical and biochemical variables were analyzed for potential associations with outcomes using multiple regression models. The serum CRP was significantly higher in nonsurviving patients than in surviving patients. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that CRP levels (odds ratio: 1.047, P = 0.002) and the model for end-stage liver disease score (odds ratio: 1.370, P = 0.001) were independent predictors for mortality. Serum CRP is a simple marker that may serve as an additional predictor of 1-month mortality in hospitalized patients with HBV-DeCi. PMID:28121954

  2. Relationship between C-Reactive Protein Level and Diabetic Retinopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Song; Duan, Hongtao; Kong, Jiahui; Li, Zedong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To date, the relationship between C-reactive protein (CRP) level and diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains controversial. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis was used to reveal the potential relationship between CRP level and DR. Methods A systematic search of PubMed, Embase.com, and Web of Science was performed to identify all comparative studies that compared the CRP level of two groups (case group and control group). We defined that diabetic patients without retinopathy and /or matched healthy persons constituted the control group, and patients with DR were the case group. Results Two cross sectional studies and twenty case control studies including a total of 3679 participants were identified. After pooling the data from all 22 studies, obvious heterogeneity existed between the studies, so a subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were performed. Removing the sensitivity studies, the blood CRP levels in the case group were observed to be higher than those in the control group [SMD = 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.11–0.34], and the blood CRP levels in the proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) group were also higher than those in the non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) group [SMD = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.30–0.70]. Conclusions The results from this current meta-analysis indicate that the CRP level might be used as a biomarker to determine the severity of DR. PMID:26636823

  3. Detection of c-reactive protein based on a magnetic immunoassay by using functional magnetic and fluorescent nanoparticles in microplates.

    PubMed

    Yang, S F; Gao, B Z; Tsai, H Y; Fuh, C Bor

    2014-11-07

    We report the preparation and application of biofunctional nanoparticles to detect C-reactive protein (CRP) in magnetic microplates. A CRP model biomarker was used to test the proposed detection method. Biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles, CRP, and biofunctional fluorescent nanoparticles were used in a sandwich nanoparticle immunoassay. The CRP concentrations in the samples were deduced from the reference plot, using the fluorescence intensity of the sandwich nanoparticle immunoassay. When biofunctional nanoparticles were used to detect CRP, the detection limit was 1.0 ng ml(-1) and the linear range was between 1.18 ng ml(-1) and 11.8 μg ml(-1). The results revealed that the method involving biofunctional nanoparticles exhibited a lower detection limit and a wider linear range than those of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and most other methods. For CRP measurements of serum samples, the differences between this method and ELISA in CRP measurements of serum samples were less than 13%. The proposed method can reduce the analysis time to one-third that of ELISA. This method demonstrates the potential to replace ELISA for rapidly detecting biomarkers with a low detection limit and a wide dynamic range.

  4. Role of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein for discrimination between tumor fever and infection in patients with hematological diseases.

    PubMed

    Hangai, Sho; Nannya, Yasuhito; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2015-04-01

    Tumor fever is a common complication in patients with hematological malignancies. We retrospectively analyzed the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) in patients with lymphoid malignancies and fever that was attributed to tumor (39 episodes, group I) or infection (26 episodes, group II) before chemotherapy, and bloodstream infection (26 episodes, group III) after chemotherapy. The PCT level and PCT/CRP ratio were significantly higher in groups II and III than in group I (p = 0.003, p = 0.0005, respectively for groups II and I, and p = 0.003, p = 0.00002, respectively for groups III and I). At the cut-off level of 0.071 or 0.014 for PCT/CRP, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of PCT/CRP were 53.8% or 96.2%, 89.7% or 53.8%, 77.8% or 58.1% and 74.5% or 95.5%, respectively, for discrimination between groups I and II or groups I and III. PCT/CRP ratio was the best marker for discrimination between tumor fever and infection.

  5. Effect of nutritional status and dietary patterns on human serum C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 concentrations.

    PubMed

    Smidowicz, Angelika; Regula, Julita

    2015-11-01

    The inflammatory process plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, and metabolic syndrome. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are widely tested inflammatory markers involved in the development of these diseases. Several studies indicate a relation between nutritional status and the concentrations of human high-sensitivity CRP and IL-6. Similarly, the role of diet in reducing inflammation and thereby modulating the risk of non-communicable diseases is supported by numerous studies. This review focuses on the effects of the selected nutrition models in humans on the concentrations of CRP and IL-6. It seems that the Mediterranean diet model is most effective in inhibiting inflammation. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension model and the plant nutrition model also have proven to be beneficial. The data on low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets are inconclusive. Comprehensive studies are necessary, taking into account the cumulative effect of dietary and other factors on the inflammatory process.

  6. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence. 80. C-reactive protein determination at high amplification with [Ru(bpy)3]2+-containing microspheres.

    PubMed

    Miao, Wujian; Bard, Allen J

    2004-12-01

    Biotinylated anti-C-reactive protein (CRP) species were attached to the surface of streptavidin-coated magnetic beads (MB) and avidin-coated polystyrene microspheres/beads (PSB) entrapping a large number of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) labels ( approximately 10(9) Ru(bpy)(3)[B(C(6)F(5))(4)](2)/bead) to form anti-CRP<-->MB and Ru(II) subsetPSB/avidin<-->anti-CRP conjugates, respectively. Sandwich-type Ru(II) subsetPSB/avidin<-->anti-CRP CRP anti-CRP<-->MB aggregates were formed when Ru(II) subsetPSB/avidin<-->anti-CRP was mixed with anti-CRP<-->MB conjugates in the presence of analyte CRP. The newly formed aggregates were magnetically separated from the reaction media and dissolved in MeCN containing tri-n-propylamine as an ECL coreactant. ECL was carried out with a potential scan from 0 to 2.8 V vs Ag/Ag(+), and the ECL intensity was found to be proportional to the analyte CRP concentration over the range of 0.010-10 mug/mL. The CRP concentration of an unknown human plasma specimen was measured by the standard addition method based on this technique. Elimination of the nonspecific adsorption of the CRP system with several different blocking agents was also studied, and 2.0% bovine serum albumin was found to be best.

  7. Selective detection and estimation of C-reactive protein in serum using surface-functionalized gold nano-particles.

    PubMed

    Raj, Vidya; Sreenivasan, K

    2010-03-10

    A new method for the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum using functionalized gold nano-particles (GNP) is reported. The affinity towards CRP is imparted to GNP by tethering O-phosphorylethanolamine (PEA) onto their surface. GNP and modified GNP were characterized using TEM, particle size analysis, zeta potential measurements, absorption spectroscopy and FT-IR techniques. The event of binding of CRP onto the PEA-GNP is followed by visibly observable colour change. We observed a red shift as well as a decrease in absorption in the plasmon peak of the modified GNP with the concentration of CRP. When the concentration of CRP exceeded 450 ng mL(-1), particles were aggregated and the solution became turbid. The method exhibited a linear range for CRP from 50 to 450 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 50 ng mL(-1). The colour change and the variation in absorption of the GNP were highly specific to CRP even in the presence of albumin. We estimated CRP in blood serum collected from patients and the results obtained compared well with the estimation using the technique of nephelometry based on the antibody-antigen interaction.

  8. Molecular switching fluorescence based high sensitive detection of label-free C-reactive protein on biochip.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shahinul; Yu, Hyunung; Lee, Hee Gu; Kang, Seong Ho

    2010-11-15

    A novel detection technique on biochip for the quantification of label-free C-reactive protein (CRP) based on molecular switching of fluorescence (MSF) is demonstrated by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. It alters fluorescence intensity of fluoreseinamine isomer 1 (FAI) upon binding with its specific ligand, O-phosphorylethanolamine (PEA). In the MSF-based detection, FAI was used as an ink, printed on a 3-glycidoxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (GPTS)-coated glass coverslip. With the addition of GPTS conjugated PEA solution to the FAI-printed coverslip, the fluorescence intensity was remarkably decreased. Addition of CRP increased fluorescence intensity linearly in the range of 800 aM to 500 fM (R=0.997). The MSF-based biochip assay for the estimation of CRP in human sera showed ∼200 times increased detection sensitivity in less than a third of the time to obtain results using a conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This biochip detection is a promising new technique for the quantification of CRP molecules from trace amounts of clinical samples.

  9. Multiplex detection of B-type natriuretic peptide, cardiac troponin I and C-reactive protein with photonic suspension array.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenbin; Fu, Cong; Chen, Yong; Lu, Jun; Yao, Yuyu; Shen, Chengxing; Gu, Zhongze

    2012-01-01

    A novel photonic suspension array has been developed for multiplex immunoassay. The carriers of this array were silica colloidal crystal beads (SCCBs). The codes of these carriers have characteristic reflection peaks originating from their structural periodicity; therefore they do not suffer from fading, bleaching, quenching or chemical instability. In addition, the fluorescence background of SCCBs is negligible because no fluorescence materials or dyes are involved. With a sandwich method, the proposed suspension array was used for simultaneous multiplex detection of heart failure (HF) and coronary heart disease (CAD) biomarkers in one test tube. The results showed that the three biomarkers: cardiac troponin I (cTnI), C-reactive protein (CRP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) could be assayed in the ranges of 0.1-500 ng/ml, 1-500 mg/L and 0.02-50 ng/ml with detection limits of 0.01 ng/ml, 0.36 mg/L and 0.004 ng/ml at 3σ, respectively. There were no significant differences between the photonic suspension array and traditional parallel single-analyte test. This novel method demonstrated acceptable accuracy, high detection sensitivity and reproducibility and excellent storage stability. This technique provides a new strategy for low cost, automated, and simultaneous multiplex immunoassays of bio-markers.

  10. Comparison of optomagnetic and AC susceptibility readouts in a magnetic nanoparticle agglutination assay for detection of C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Fock, Jeppe; Parmvi, Mattias; Strömberg, Mattias; Svedlindh, Peter; Donolato, Marco; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2017-02-15

    There is an increasing need to develop biosensor methods that are highly sensitive and that can be combined with low-cost consumables. The use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is attractive because their detection is compatible with low-cost disposables and because application of a magnetic field can be used to accelerate assay kinetics. We present the first study and comparison of the performance of magnetic susceptibility measurements and a newly proposed optomagnetic method. For the comparison we use the C-reactive protein (CRP) induced agglutination of identical samples of 100nm MNPs conjugated with CRP antibodies. Both methods detect agglutination as a shift to lower frequencies in measurements of the dynamics in response to an applied oscillating magnetic field. The magnetic susceptibility method probes the magnetic response whereas the optomagnetic technique probes the modulation of laser light transmitted through the sample. The two techniques provided highly correlated results upon agglutination when they measure the decrease of the signal from the individual MNPs (turn-off detection strategy), whereas the techniques provided different results, strongly depending on the read-out frequency, when detecting the signal due to MNP agglomerates (turn-on detection strategy). These observations are considered to be caused by differences in the volume-dependence of the magnetic and optical signals from agglomerates. The highest signal from agglomerates was found in the optomagnetic signal at low frequencies.

  11. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein-based decision tree model for distinguishing PFAPA flares from acute infections.

    PubMed

    Kraszewska-Głomba, Barbara; Szymańska-Toczek, Zofia; Szenborn, Leszek

    2016-03-10

    As no specific laboratory test has been identified, PFAPA (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis) remains a diagnosis of exclusion. We searched for a practical use of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in distinguishing PFAPA attacks from acute bacterial and viral infections. Levels of PCT and CRP were measured in 38 patients with PFAPA and 81 children diagnosed with an acute bacterial (n=42) or viral (n=39) infection. Statistical analysis with the use of the C4.5 algorithm resulted in the following decision tree: viral infection if CRP≤19.1 mg/L; otherwise for cases with CRP>19.1 mg/L: bacterial infection if PCT>0.65ng/mL, PFAPA if PCT≤0.65 ng/mL. The model was tested using a 10-fold cross validation and in an independent test cohort (n=30), the rule's overall accuracy was 76.4% and 90% respectively. Although limited by a small sample size, the obtained decision tree might present a potential diagnostic tool for distinguishing PFAPA flares from acute infections when interpreted cautiously and with reference to the clinical context.

  12. C-reactive protein as a predictor of hypertension in the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study (CRISPS) cohort.

    PubMed

    Cheung, B M Y; Ong, K L; Tso, A W K; Leung, R Y H; Xu, A; Cherny, S S; Sham, P C; Lam, T H; Lam, K S L

    2012-02-01

    Inflammation contributes to the development of hypertension. Whether C-reactive protein (CRP) has a causal role in hypertension remains unknown. We studied the relationship between circulating CRP levels and hypertension. The role of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRP gene as determinants of its plasma levels and the propensity to develop hypertension was investigated. Plasma CRP and genotypes of nine SNPs were determined in 1925 unrelated subjects from the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study-2 (CRISPS-2) in 2000-2004. Among 1378 subjects normotensive in CRISPS-2, 1115 subjects had been followed up in CRISPS-3 after a median interval of 5.3 years, 236 of whom had developed hypertension. Plasma CRP was independently associated with the development of hypertension in CRISPS-3 (odds ratio per quartile=1.26, P=0.010). Six SNPs were associated with plasma CRP (all P<0.001). However, none of the SNPs was significantly associated with blood pressure, prevalent or incident hypertension, or change in blood pressure. In conclusion, plasma CRP predicts the development of hypertension. Genetic variants in the CRP gene are significantly associated with plasma CRP but not with hypertension. The future risk of hypertension is therefore more related to plasma CRP than SNPs in the CRP gene in this population.

  13. Effect of L-carnitine Supplementation on Circulating C-reactive Protein Levels: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background C-reactive protein (CRP) has been proposed as a risk marker and risk factor of cardiovascular disease. There have been a number of clinical reports suggesting that supplementation with L-carnitine can modulate systemic inflammation and lower circulating CRP concentrations, but the results have not been consistent. Methods A comprehensive literature search in Medline, Scopus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was performed in December 2012 to identify clinical trials investigating the impact of oral L-carnitine supplementation on serum/plasma CRP concentration. A random effect method was used to calculate the combined effect size. Results Six studies comprising 541 cases and 546 controls met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of included trials revealed a significant reduction of circulating CRP concentrations in subjects under L-carnitine intervention compared to the control treatment. The calculated combined weighted mean reduction in CRP concentrations was −0.39 mg/L [95% CI (−0.62 – −0.16)]. This effect size estimate was found to be robust and remained unaffected by the removal of each single study. Conclusions The overall findings of the present meta-analysis support the clinically relevant benefit of L-carnitine supplementation in lowering the circulating levels of CRP. PMID:28356827

  14. Elevated Levels of Interleukin 6 and C-Reactive Protein Associated With Cognitive Impairment in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Athilingam, Ponrathi; Moynihan, Jan; Chen, Leway; D’Aoust, Rita; Groer, Maureen; Kip, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    There is abundant evidence on inflammatory mechanisms in heart failure (HF) that are used for prognostication of the disease; however, data are lacking regarding the association between elevated cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), and cognition in HF. A cross-sectional pilot study of 38 patients with HF, aged 62 years (standard deviation± 9 years), predominantly men (68%) and Cau casian (79%) were screened for cognitive function using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The study aimed to examine cognitive scores on MoCA with cytokines, interleukin 6 [IL-6] and tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α], and CRP as indicators of early cognitive changes in HF. The result showed no direct correlation between cardiac variables and the MoCA score. The MoCA score, however, was inversely associated with IL-6 (r=−0.53, P=.001) and CRP (r=−0.34, P=.04), with no association to TNF-α. Regression analysis on the MoCA score and log-transformed IL-6 accounted for an additional 11% variation and remained statistically significant (P=.008) after controlling for covariates of education, living arrangements, and loneliness. The large effect size (R2=0.87) found in this pilot study provides rationale for a larger exploratory study to examine associations between cognitive function, cytokines, and CRP levels and help design future intervention studies. PMID:23057677

  15. Detection of the Inflammation Biomarker C-Reactive Protein in Serum Samples: Towards an Optimal Biosensor Formula

    PubMed Central

    Fakanya, Wellington M.; Tothill, Ibtisam E.

    2014-01-01

    The development of an electrochemical immunosensor for the biomarker, C-reactive protein (CRP), is reported in this work. CRP has been used to assess inflammation and is also used in a multi-biomarker system as a predictive biomarker for cardiovascular disease risk. A gold-based working electrode sensor was developed, and the types of electrode printing inks and ink curing techniques were then optimized. The electrodes with the best performance parameters were then employed for the construction of an immunosensor for CRP by immobilizing anti-human CRP antibody on the working electrode surface. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was then constructed after sample addition by using anti-human CRP antibody labelled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The signal was generated by the addition of a mediator/substrate system comprised of 3,3,5',5'-Tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride (TMB) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Measurements were conducted using chronoamperometry at −200 mV against an integrated Ag/AgCl reference electrode. A CRP limit of detection (LOD) of 2.2 ng·mL−1 was achieved in spiked serum samples, and performance agreement was obtained with reference to a commercial ELISA kit. The developed CRP immunosensor was able to detect a diagnostically relevant range of the biomarker in serum without the need for signal amplification using nanoparticles, paving the way for future development on a cardiac panel electrochemical point-of-care diagnostic device. PMID:25587427

  16. Serum thymidine kinase 1 and C-reactive protein as biomarkers for screening clinically healthy dogs for occult disease.

    PubMed

    Selting, K A; Sharp, C R; Ringold, R; Knouse, J

    2015-12-01

    Thymidine kinase (TK1) is a biomarker that correlates well with diagnosis and prognosis in certain canine cancers. Canine C-reactive protein (cCRP) is a widely accepted marker of inflammation correlated with increased risk and severity of various diseases. We evaluated serum TK1 and cCRP concentrations in apparently healthy dogs (n = 360). All dogs were followed up for a minimum of 6 months by health questionnaire. All dogs with cancer were identified using a proprietary dual-biomarker algorithm [termed Neoplasia Index (NI)]. Specificity of positive NI is 0.91 and high positive is 0.98. All-cause mortality was 20% in dogs with elevated cCRP and 3% in dogs with low cCRP. The performance of serum TK1 and cCRP as tools for screening for occult cancer is improved when evaluated together. Serum TK1 and cCRP (unified in the NI) are useful in the screening of occult canine cancer. cCRP is useful in screening for other serious diseases.

  17. Novel Pretreatment Scoring Incorporating C-reactive Protein to Predict Overall Survival in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Sorafenib Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Kurosaki, Masayuki; Tsuchiya, Kaoru; Yasui, Yutaka; Higuchi, Mayu; Yoshida, Tsubasa; Komiyama, Yasuyuki; Takaura, Kenta; Hayashi, Tsuguru; Kuwabara, Konomi; Nakakuki, Natsuko; Takada, Hitomi; Ueda, Masako; Tamaki, Nobuharu; Suzuki, Shoko; Itakura, Jun; Takahashi, Yuka; Izumi, Namiki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to build a prediction score of prognosis for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after sorafenib treatment. Methods A total of 165 patients with advanced HCC who were treated with sorafenib were analyzed. Readily available baseline factors were used to establish a scoring system for the prediction of survival. Results The median survival time (MST) was 14.2 months. The independent prognostic factors were C-reactive protein (CRP) <1.0 mg/dL [hazard ratio (HR) =0.51], albumin >3.5 g/dL (HR =0.55), alpha-fetoprotein <200 ng/mL (HR =0.45), and a lack of major vascular invasion (HR =0.39). Each of these factors had a score of 1, and after classifying the patients into five groups, the total scores ranged from 0 to 4. Higher scores were linked to significantly longer survival (p<0.0001). Twenty-nine patients (17.6%) with a score of 4 had a MST as long as 36.5 months, whereas MST was as short as 2.4 and 3.7 months for seven (4.2%) and 22 (13.3%) patients with scores of 0 and 1, respectively. Conclusions A novel prognostic scoring system, which includes the CRP level, has the ability to stratify the prognosis of patients with advanced stage HCC after treatment with sorafenib. PMID:27781198

  18. Effect of Nutritional Status and Dietary Patterns on Human Serum C-Reactive Protein and Interleukin-6 Concentrations12

    PubMed Central

    Smidowicz, Angelika; Regula, Julita

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory process plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, and metabolic syndrome. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are widely tested inflammatory markers involved in the development of these diseases. Several studies indicate a relation between nutritional status and the concentrations of human high-sensitivity CRP and IL-6. Similarly, the role of diet in reducing inflammation and thereby modulating the risk of non-communicable diseases is supported by numerous studies. This review focuses on the effects of the selected nutrition models in humans on the concentrations of CRP and IL-6. It seems that the Mediterranean diet model is most effective in inhibiting inflammation. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension model and the plant nutrition model also have proven to be beneficial. The data on low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets are inconclusive. Comprehensive studies are necessary, taking into account the cumulative effect of dietary and other factors on the inflammatory process. PMID:26567198

  19. Serum C-reactive protein predicts early mortality in hospitalized patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, ShaoMing; Waili, Yulituzi; Qi, XiaoTing; Chen, YueMei; Lou, YuFeng; Chen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The serum C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory marker. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether CRP could serve as a potential surrogate marker for 30-day mortality in hospitalized patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis (HBV-DeCi).This was a retrospective cohort study that included 140 patients with HBV-DeCi. All patients were followed up for 1-month. A panel of clinical and biochemical variables were analyzed for potential associations with outcomes using multiple regression models.The serum CRP was significantly higher in nonsurviving patients than in surviving patients. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that CRP levels (odds ratio: 1.047, P = 0.002) and the model for end-stage liver disease score (odds ratio: 1.370, P = 0.001) were independent predictors for mortality.Serum CRP is a simple marker that may serve as an additional predictor of 1-month mortality in hospitalized patients with HBV-DeCi.

  20. MOSFET-BJT hybrid mode of the gated lateral bipolar junction transistor for C-reactive protein detection.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Heng; Kwon, Hyurk-Choon; Yeom, Se-Hyuk; Kwon, Dae-Hyuk; Kang, Shin-Won

    2011-10-15

    In this study, we propose a novel biosensor based on a gated lateral bipolar junction transistor (BJT) for biomaterial detection. The gated lateral BJT can function as both a BJT and a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) with both the emitter and source, and the collector and drain, coupled. C-reactive protein (CRP), which is an important disease marker in clinical examinations, can be detected using the proposed device. In the MOSFET-BJT hybrid mode, the sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility of the gated lateral BJT for biosensors were evaluated in this study. According to the results, in the MOSFET-BJT hybrid mode, the gated lateral BJT shows good selectivity and reproducibility. Changes in the emitter (source) current of the device for CRP antigen detection were approximately 0.65, 0.72, and 0.80 μA/decade at base currents of -50, -30, and -10 μA, respectively. The proposed device has significant application in the detection of certain biomaterials that require a dilution process using a common biosensor, such as a MOSFET-based biosensor.

  1. Elevated copper, hs C-reactive protein and dyslipidemia in drug free schizophrenia: Relation with psychopathology score.

    PubMed

    Devanarayanan, Sivasankar; Nandeesha, Hanumanthappa; Kattimani, Shivanand; Sarkar, Siddharth; Jose, Jancy

    2016-12-01

    Inflammation, dyslipidemia and altered copper levels have been reported in several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. However, their association with the severity of psychopathology in schizophrenia is yet to be established. The present study was designed to assess the serum levels of copper, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and lipid profile and to explore their association with psychopathology scores in schizophrenia. 40 cases and 40 controls were included in the study. Serum copper, hs-CRP and lipid profile were estimated in all the subjects. Disease severity was assessed using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Copper, hs-CRP, total cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol were significantly increased and HDL-Cholesterol was significantly reduced in schizophrenia cases when compared with controls. Copper was positively correlated with hs-CRP (r=0.338, p=0.003). Total cholesterol was significantly correlated with PANSS total (r=0.452, p=0.003) and negative symptom scores (r=0.337, p=0.033). Triacylglycerol was positively correlated with general psychopathology symptom score (r=0.416, p=0.008). Copper and hs-CRP were increased and correlated well with each other in schizophrenia cases. Though total cholesterol and triacylglycerol showed positive association with severity of the psychopathology, copper and hs-CRP were not associated with the disease severity.

  2. Increased serum C-reactive protein level in Japanese patients of psoriasis with cardio- and cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Iinuma, Shin; Honma, Masaru; Iizuka, Hajime

    2014-11-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which may be associated with metabolic syndrome accompanied by cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. We investigated the relation between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases in Japanese psoriasis vulgaris patients. Ninety-seven psoriasis vulgaris patients and 79 healthy controls were assessed for serum CRP levels by immunoturbidimetry. The data were analyzed in terms of Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scores, and comorbidity of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Serum CRP levels in psoriasis vulgaris patients were significantly higher than those of healthy controls. There was no significant difference between male and female CRP levels in either psoriasis or healthy controls. No correlation was detected between PASI scores and serum CRP levels, either. Psoriasis with cardio- and cerebrovascular disease showed significantly higher CRP levels compared with those without the diseases. Furthermore, psoriasis with metabolic syndrome showed significantly higher serum CRP levels than those without the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, serum CRP level is increased in psoriasis, and may be a useful marker for the prediction of the future risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease.

  3. Relationship Between the Hypersensitive c-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Level and the Prognosis of Acute Brainstem Infarction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Huang, Wen-Juan; Yu, Zhi-Gang

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between the hypersensitive c-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level and the prognosis of acute brainstem infarction. Serum levels of hs-CRP were measured in 68 patients with acute brainstem infarction 72 h after disease onset. The hs-CRP levels in the U.S. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score group and in the modified RANKIN scale (mRS) score group were compared. The independent risk factors of brainstem infarction were analyzed using Logistic binary regression. The hs-CRP level was significantly higher in the group with NIHSS >5 compared with the one with NIHSS ≤ 5 (P = 0.004). In the group with mRS > 2, the age, smoking history, and blood glucose level were significantly higher than those in the group with mRS ≤ 2 (P < 0.05), whereas the hs-CRP level was significantly higher (P = 0.001). Age and hs-CRP level were the independent prognostic factors of the brainstem infarction. The serum hs-CRP level is closely related with the severity and prognosis of brainstem infarction, and is an independent risk factor of acute brainstem infarction.

  4. Procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive Protein (CRP) as severe systemic infection markers in febrile neutropenic adults

    PubMed Central

    Massaro, Karin SR; Costa, Silvia F; Leone, Claudio; Chamone, Dalton AF

    2007-01-01

    Background Procalcitonin (PCT) is an inflammatory marker that has been used as indicator of severe bacterial infection. We evaluated the concentrations of PCT as a marker for systemic infection compared to C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients neutropenic febrile. Methods 52 adult patients were enrolled in the study. Blood sample was collected in order to determine the serum concentrations of PCT, CRP and other hematological parameters at the onset of fever. The patients were divided into 2 groups, one with severe infection (n = 26) and the other in which the patients did not present such an infection (n = 26). Then PCT and CRP concentrations at the fever onset were compared between groups using non parametric statistical tests, ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio, and Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results The mean of PCT was significantly higher in the group with severe infection (6.7 ng/mL versus 0.6 ng/mL – p = 0.0075) comparing with CRP. Serum concentrations of 0.245 ng/mL of PCT displayed 100% de sensitivity and 69.2% specificity. PCT concentrations of 2,145 ng/mL presented a likelihood ratio of 13, which was not observed for any concentration of CRP. Conclusion PCT seems to be an useful marker for the diagnosis of systemic infection in febrile neutropenic patients, probably better than CRP. PMID:18034890

  5. Correlation of C-reactive protein level and obesity in Chinese adults and children: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Lv, G

    2013-09-01

    This meta-analysis evaluated the correlations between C-reactive protein (CRP) and obesity in Chinese adults and children. We searched three Chinese databases [Wanfang, WEIPU, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)] in addition to PubMed. The search was restricted to only Chinese studies published online before January 9, 2013. Data from 28 articles were independently abstracted by two reviewers. The articles' characteristics were abstracted as follows: 1) first author name; 2) year of publication; 3) study population; 4) sample size; 5) sex, age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and CRP level of the study population; 6) Pearson correlation coefficients, Spearman correlation coefficients, or odds ratios between CRP level and obesity. The metaanalysis was conducted to pool the Pearson correlation coefficients using a random-effects model. The pooled Pearson correlation coefficient between CRP and BMI was 0.45 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33-0.56] in Chinese adults and 0.46 (95% CI: 0.31-0.62) in Chinese children, and the pooled Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.24-0.40) in the general Chinese population and 0.53 (95% CI: 0.42-0.64) in the obese Chinese population. Significant correlation was thus found between CRP and obesity in Chinese adults and children.

  6. High sensitivity C-reactive protein distribution in the elderly: the Bambuí Cohort Study, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Assunção, L.G.S.; Eloi-Santos, S.M.; Peixoto, S.V.; Lima-Costa, M.F.; Vidigal, P.G.

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of the serum concentration of the acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) provides a useful marker in clinical practice. However, the distribution of CRP is not available for all age and population groups. This study assessed the distribution of high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) by gender and age in 1470 elderly individuals from a Brazilian community that participates in the Bambuí Cohort Study. Blood samples were collected after 12 h of fasting and serum samples were stored at -70°C. Measurements were made with a commercial hs-CRP immunonephelometric instrument. More than 50% of the results were above 3.0 mg/L for both genders. Mean hs-CRP was higher in women (3.62 ± 2.58 mg/L) than in men (3.03 ± 2.50 mg/L). This difference was observed for all ages, except for the over-80 age group. This is the first population-based study to describe hs-CRP values in Latin American elderly subjects. Our results indicate that significant gender differences exist in the distribution of hs-CRP, and suggest that gender-specific cut-off points for hs-CRP would be necessary for the prediction of cardiovascular risks. PMID:23011406

  7. Prognostic value of the C-reactive protein/albumin ratio in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shi-tong; Zhou, Zhiwei; Cai, Qian; Liang, Faya; Han, Ping; Chen, Renhui; Huang, Xiao-ming

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The present study was designed to retrospectively evaluate the prognostic value of the C-reactive protein/albumin (CRP/ALB) ratio in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Methods One hundred and twenty-nine newly diagnosed LSCC patients admitted between May 2006 and October 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Their serum CRP and ALB were quantified preoperatively. The relationship between the CRP/ALB ratio and the clinicopathologic features was analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to calculate the prognostic value of the CRP/ALB ratio. Then, the Cox proportional hazards model was used in univariate and multivariate analyses to identify significant prognostic factors associated with disease-free survival and overall survival. Results The cutoff value for CRP/ALB ratio was 0.047. An elevated CRP/ALB ratio was significantly associated with nodal metastasis, late disease stage, and recurrence. Also, high values of CRP/ALB ratio were significant predictors for poor overall survival and disease-free survival on multivariate analysis. Conclusion Pretreatment CRP/ALB ratio may be a significant prognostic marker in LSCC. PMID:28243123

  8. Prognostic Role of the Pretreatment C-Reactive Protein/Albumin Ratio in Solid Cancers: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Tian, Guang-Wei; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Zi-hui; Li, Guang

    2017-01-01

    The C-reactive protein/albumin ratio (CAR) has been shown to play a significant prognostic role in several cancers. We aimed to comprehensively explore the potential role of the CAR as a prognostic indicator in solid cancers. In this meta-analysis, we collected data from 10 studies that examined the association between serum CAR and overall survival in patients with cancer. This meta-analysis included 4592 tumor patients. The eligible studies were found through the PubMed and Web of Science databases updated on 6 Oct 2016. The pooled hazard ratio (2.01, 95% CI: 1.58–2.56, p < 0.001) indicated that high CAR yielded worse survival in different cancers. Subgroup analyses showed a significant association between CAR and prognosis, regardless of the cutoff value, cutoff value selection, treatment method, country, sample size, stage and cancer type. This meta-analysis suggests that CAR may be a potential prognostic marker in solid cancers. However, further large prospective studies should be conducted to explore the critical role of CAR in survival of cancer patients. PMID:28128229

  9. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein-based decision tree model for distinguishing PFAPA flares from acute infections

    PubMed Central

    Kraszewska-Głomba, Barbara; Szymańska-Toczek, Zofia; Szenborn, Leszek

    2016-01-01

    As no specific laboratory test has been identified, PFAPA (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis) remains a diagnosis of exclusion. We searched for a practical use of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in distinguishing PFAPA attacks from acute bacterial and viral infections. Levels of PCT and CRP were measured in 38 patients with PFAPA and 81 children diagnosed with an acute bacterial (n=42) or viral (n=39) infection. Statistical analysis with the use of the C4.5 algorithm resulted in the following decision tree: viral infection if CRP≤19.1 mg/L; otherwise for cases with CRP>19.1 mg/L: bacterial infection if PCT>0.65ng/mL, PFAPA if PCT≤0.65 ng/mL. The model was tested using a 10-fold cross validation and in an independent test cohort (n=30), the rule’s overall accuracy was 76.4% and 90% respectively. Although limited by a small sample size, the obtained decision tree might present a potential diagnostic tool for distinguishing PFAPA flares from acute infections when interpreted cautiously and with reference to the clinical context. PMID:27131024

  10. Interferon-alpha in viral and bacterial gastroenteritis: a comparison with C-reactive protein and interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Mangiarotti, P; Moulin, F; Palmer, P; Ravilly, S; Raymond, J; Gendrel, D

    1999-06-01

    The aim of the study was to identify serum markers able to differentiate bacterial and viral origin in acute diarrhoea. Interferon-alpha (INF-alpha), C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 were determined on admission in the sera of 119 children aged between 1 mo and 14 y who were hospitalized for rotavirus (n = 60) or bacterial diarrhoea (Salmonella spp. 39 cases, Shigella spp. 15 cases, Campylobacter jejuni 5 cases). CRP concentration was >10 mg/l in 48.3% of children with viral gastroenteritis and 86.4% of children with bacterial gastroenteritis. IL6 concentration was >100 pg/ml in 11.7% and 26.3% of cases, respectively. INF-alpha was detected in 79.1% of children with rotavirus (sens 79%) and in 3.5% (spec 93%) with bacterial gastroenteritis. However the INF-alpha assay takes 48 h and pathogens are often identified from stools before interferon results are available. We found that serum markers are not discriminating enough to differentiate between viral and bacterial gastroenteritis in emergency cases.

  11. Assesment of severity and changes in C-reactive protein concentration and various biomarkers in dogs with pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    SATO, Toru; OHNO, Koichi; TAMAMOTO, Takashi; OISHI, Mariko; KANEMOTO, Hideyuki; FUKUSHIMA, Kenjiro; GOTO-KOSHINO, Yuko; TAKAHASHI, Masashi; TSUJIMOTO, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Canine pancreatitis is a relatively common disorder, and its mortality rate remains high. However, prognostic factors for pancreatitis based on evidence are limited. Moreover, the relationship between changes in C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration—an important prognostic factor for human patients with acute pancreatitis—and the prognosis of dogs with pancreatitis has not been widely studied. Therefore, we examined prognostic factors for canine pancreatitis during the first medical examination and evaluated the usefulness of serial CRP measurements during hospitalization. Sixty-five dogs met the inclusion criteria, including 22 that were hospitalized and treated. In Study 1, a multivariate analysis revealed that three factors— decreased platelet count and a marked (greater than 1,000 µg/l) elevation of specific canine pancreatic lipase (Spec cPL) concentration at the first medical examination, as well as elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and/or creatinine (CRE) level—were significantly different between the survivors and nonsurvivors. Moreover, CRP concentrations on the third and fourth days were significantly different between the two groups in Study 2. An evaluation of the decreased platelet count, remarkable elevation of Spec cPL concentration at the first medical examination, elevation of BUN and/or CRE as well as serial CRP concentration measurements may be useful for predicting the prognosis of canine pancreatitis. PMID:27666150

  12. Sleep duration during the school week is associated with C-reactive protein Risk Groups in healthy adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Martica H.; Lee, Laisze; Matthews, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of short sleep duration in adolescence and the relevance of early risk factors to cardiovascular disease in adulthood suggest that adolescence is an opportune time to evaluate links between sleep duration and cardiovascular disease risk. We examined associations among actigraphy-assessed sleep duration and sleep debt with elevated C-Reactive Protein (CRP), a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Methods Participants were 244 (137 Blacks, 116 males) healthy high school students, each of whom wore wrist actigraphs for one week and provided a fasting blood draw. CRP was examined as both a continuous and categorical outcome, with CRP > 3 mg/L identifying a High Risk Group. Results Sleep duration and sleep debt were significantly associated with CRP High Risk Group in covariate-adjusted analyses. Shorter sleep duration on school nights was associated with a greater likelihood of being in the High Risk CRP Group. Likelihood of being in the High Risk CRP Group was doubled in students who obtained an average of two or more hours of “catch up” sleep on weekend nights. Conclusions Reduced weekday sleep duration and sleep debt were both associated with CRP Risk Group in adolescence. That these relationships may be observed prior to the onset of clinical disease suggests that adolescence may provide an opportune period for disease prevention. PMID:25468623

  13. Alexithymia, Suicide Ideation, C-Reactive Protein, and Serum Lipid Levels Among Outpatients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    De Berardis, Domenico; Serroni, Nicola; Campanella, Daniela; Marini, Stefano; Rapini, Gabriella; Valchera, Alessandro; Iasevoli, Felice; Mazza, Monica; Fornaro, Michele; Perna, Giampaolo; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2017-01-02

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between alexithymia, suicide ideation, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), and serum lipid levels in adult outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Seventy consecutive patients with GAD were recruited and evaluated. Measures were the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Scale of Suicide Ideation (SSI), and the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). All patients were assessed for: CRP, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceridaemia (TG), and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C). TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were also evaluated. Alexithymic patients showed higher scores on almost all rating scales and altered serum CRP and lipid levels vs. non-alexithymics. In the hierarchical regression model, the presence of higher MADRS scores together with higher scores at the Difficulty in Identifying Feelings dimension of TAS-20 were associated with higher rates of suicide ideation. Although alexithymic subjects with GAD may show a CRP and cholesterol dysregulation, this latter seems independent on increased suicide ideation, rather to Difficulty in Identifying Feelings, and subthreshold depressive symptoms. Study limitations and future research implications are discussed.

  14. Association of C-Reactive Protein (rs1205) Gene Polymorphism with Susceptibility to Psoriasis in South Indian Tamils

    PubMed Central

    Sudhesan, Anjana; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Ananthanarayanan, Palghat Hariharan; Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Satheesh, Santhosh; Chandrasekaran, Adithan; Devaraju, Panneer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Psoriasis is a multi-factorial heritable T-helper Th-1/Th-17 mediated inflammatory disease, affecting the skin. It is associated with co-morbidities such as Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is a good inflammatory marker. CRP rs1205 polymorphism is associated with circulating plasma CRP levels. Although there is association between the rs1205 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) and CVD, there are no prior reports regarding the association of CRP rs1205 SNP with psoriasis susceptibility. Aim To study the association of the genetic variant rs1205 in the CRP gene with susceptibility to the disease and protein levels in South Indian Tamils with psoriasis. Materials and Methods In this case-control genetic study, 300 cases of psoriasis and 300 age and gender matched controls were genotyped for CRP SNP rs1205 using Taq Man 5’allele discrimination assay at Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India from February 2014 to January 2016. Plasma high sensitivity (hs)-CRP levels were estimated by ELISA. Disease severity was assessed by Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI). Results CRP genetic variation rs1205 was not associated with psoriasis risk in our South Indian Tamil population. However, the circulating levels of hs-CRP was significantly higher in patients with psoriasis, as compared with controls (p < 0.0001) and the protein levels were significantly associated with disease severity, as assessed by PASI scoring. No genotype was found significantly associated with PASI or CRP levels. Conclusion Our results suggest that plasma CRP levels are higher in patients with psoriasis and correlate with disease severity, whilst CRP rs1205 is not associated with susceptibility to psoriasis in South Indian Tamils. PMID:27891353

  15. A 1-year lifestyle intervention for weight loss in individuals with type 2 diabetes reduces high C-reactive protein levels and identifies metabolic predictors of change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: We examined whether a 1-year intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss reduced elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in obese individuals with diabetes and identified metabolic and fitness predictors of hs-CRP change. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Look A...

  16. Lifestyle intervention and/or statins for the reduction of C-reactive Protein in Type 2 diabetes: From the Look AHEAD Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Cardiovascular risk remains high despite statin use. Overweight/obese diabetic persons usually have normal/low LDL-cholesterol but high C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. We aimed to examine the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention for weight loss (ILI) on CRP levels in overweight/ob...

  17. Do preoperative C-reactive protein and mean platelet volume levels predict development of postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting?

    PubMed Central

    Düzyol, Çağrı; Aksoy, Rezan; Özcan, Kazım Serhan; Güngör, Barış; İdiz, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) operation is associated with increased risk of prolonged hospitalisation, health expenses and adverse clinical outcomes. Aim To investigate the relationship of atrial fibrillation after an isolated coronary artery bypass operation with levels of mean platelet volume and C-reactive protein. Material and methods Among 1240 patients who underwent operations for isolated coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass between January 2007 and May 2014, 1138 (91.8%) patients with preoperative normal sinusal rhythm were enrolled in the study. Patients were assigned to group 1 (n = 294) comprising patients who developed atrial fibrillation in the first 72 postoperative hours or group 2 (n = 844) comprising patients who remained in normal sinusal rhythm in the postoperative period. Results The incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation was 25.8%. The preoperative mean platelet volume (fl) and C-reactive protein (mg/dl) values in group 1 were 9.1 ±0.5 and 1.1 ±0.9 respectively, while these values were 8.3 ±0.6 and 0.5 ±0.3 respectively in group 2, which was statistically significant (p = 0.0001). Length of stay in the hospital (p = 0.0001) was higher in group 1. The values of mean platelet volume (fl) and mean C-reactive protein (mg/dl) were 9.9 ±0.9 and 30.9 ±3.4 respectively in group 1, while the values of mean platelet volume (fl) and mean C-reactive protein (mg/dl) were 8.8 ±0.6 and 24.9 ±4.8 respectively in group 2 (p = 0.0001 for mean platelet volume, p = 0.0001 for C-reactive protein). The difference between the groups was statistically significant in terms of postoperative neurologic events (p = 0.0001) and hospital mortality (p = 0.001). Increased C-reactive protein and mean platelet volume levels were found to be independent predictors of postoperative atrial fibrillation. Conclusions In our study, elevated preoperative mean platelet volume and C-reactive

  18. [Relationship between serum levels of C-reactive protein and alpha1-antitrypsin and insulin resistance in obese women].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Alvarado, María Matilde; Sánchez Roitz, César

    2014-09-01

    Adipose tissue produces cytokines involved in insulin resistance (IR) such as IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha and proinflammatory molecules such as C reactive protein (CRP). alpha1-antitrypsin is an inflammation-sensitive plasma protein. The objective of this study is to determine the correlation between serum CRP high-sensitivity (CRPhs) and alpha1-antitrypsin levels with IR indices in obese Venezuelan women. The study population consisted of 15 normal weight women (BMI 21.8 +/- 1.9 kg/m2) and 15 obese women (BMI 35.3 +/- 5.3 kg/m2). Obese and lean women underwent a 2 h-75 g oral glucose tolerance test and the following indices were calculated: homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostatic model assessment of beta cell function (HOMA-beta), Matsuda Index and Insulinogenic Index. The relationship between serum CRPhs and alpha1-antitrypsin levels and these indices were determined. Obese women had higher CRPhs levels (p = 0.001) compared with normal weight women. In obese women, serum CRPhs levels were positively correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.73, p = 0.0021), HOMA-beta (r = 0.53, p = 0.031) and negatively correlated with the Matsuda Index (r = -0.60, p = 0.017). No correlation between serum levels of alpha1-antitrypsin and IR indices in the obese group and the lean group was observed. There was a relation between serum CRPhs levels and insulin resistance, suggesting a role of subclinical inflammation in IR.

  19. Common variants in the CRP promoter are associated with a high C-reactive protein level in Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Jung; Yun, Sin Weon; Yu, Jeong Jin; Yoon, Kyung Lim; Lee, Kyung-Yil; Kil, Hong-Ryang; Kim, Gi Beom; Han, Myung Ki; Song, Min Seob; Lee, Hyoung Doo; Byeon, Jung Hye; Sohn, Saejung; Hong, Young Mi; Jang, Gi Young; Lee, Jong-Keuk

    2015-02-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute self-limiting form of vasculitis that afflicts infants and children and manifests as fever and signs of mucocutaneous inflammation. Children with KD show various laboratory inflammatory abnormalities, such as elevations in their white blood cell (WBC) count, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). We here performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 178 KD patients to identify the genetic loci that influence 10 important KD laboratory markers: WBC count, neutrophil count, platelet count, CRP, ESR, hemoglobin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin, and total protein. A total of 165 loci passed our arbitrary stage 1 threshold for replication (p < 1 × 10(-5)). Of these, only 2 SNPs (rs12068753 and rs4786091) demonstrated a significant association with the CRP level in replication study of 473 KD patients (p < 0.05). The SNP located at the CRP locus (rs12068753) demonstrated the most significant association with CRP in KD patients (beta = 4.73 and p = 1.20 × 10(-6) according to the stage 1 GWAS; beta = 3.65 and p = 1.35 × 10(-8) according to the replication study; beta = 3.97 and p = 1.11 × 10(-13) according to combined analysis) and explained 8.1% of the phenotypic variation observed. However, this SNP did not demonstrate any significant association with CRP in the general population (beta = 0.37 and p = 0.1732) and only explained 0.1% of the phenotypic variation in this instance. Furthermore, rs12068753 did not affect the development of coronary artery lesions or intravenous immunoglobulin resistance in KD patients. These results indicate that common variants in the CRP promoter can play an important role in the CRP levels in KD.

  20. Increased systemic elastase and C-reactive protein in aggressive periodontitis (CLOI-D-00160R2).

    PubMed

    Wohlfeil, Martin; Scharf, Susanne; Siegelin, Yasemin; Schacher, Beate; Oremek, Gerhard M; Sauer-Eppel, Hildegund; Schubert, Ralf; Eickholz, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The inflammatory mediators, serum elastase and C-reactive protein (CRP), are associated with an increased risk for coronary heart disease. Thus, the aim of this study is to compare systemic inflammatory mediators in periodontally healthy controls (C), patients with untreated aggressive (AgP) and chronic (ChP) periodontitis. C [periodontal pocket probing depth (PPD)  <3.6 or <5 mm without bleeding (BOP), BOP < 10%], ChP (PDD ≥ 3.6 mm and probing attachment loss ≥5 mm at >30% of sites; age >35 years), and AgP (clinically healthy; PDD ≥ 3.6 mm at >30% of sites, bone loss ≥50% at ≥2 teeth; age ≤35 years) were examined clinically, and the body mass index was assessed. Blood was sampled for assessment of serum levels of elastase, CRP, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), interleukin (IL) 6, 8, and leukocyte counts. Thirty C, 31 ChP, and 29 AgP were analyzed. Elastase, CRP, LBP, and IL-6 levels were elevated in AgP compared to C (p < 0.013), whereas leukocyte counts and IL-8 were similar. Multiple regression analysis identified AgP (p < 0.001) and education level (p < 0.001) to explain 47% of the variation of elastase. AgP (p = 0.003), African origin (p = 0.006), female sex (p = 0.002), and BMI (p < 0.001) explained 39% of the variation of CRP. Serum elastase and CRP are significantly elevated in AgP compared to C. AgP patients exhibit a stronger systemic inflammatory burden than C patients.

  1. Solubilization and purification of recombinant modified C-reactive protein from inclusion bodies using reversible anhydride modification.

    PubMed

    Potempa, Lawrence A; Yao, Zhen-Yu; Ji, Shang-Rong; Filep, János G; Wu, Yi

    The precise function of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a regulator of inflammation in health and disease continues to evolve. The true understanding of its role in host defense responses has been hampered by numerous reports of comparable systems with contradictory interpretations of CRP as a stimulator, suppressor, or benign contributor to such processes. These discrepancies may be explained in part by the existence of a naturally occurring CRP isoform, termed modified CRP (i.e., mCRP), that is expressed when CRP subunits are dissociated into monomeric structures. The free mCRP subunit undergoes a non-proteolytic conformational change that has unique solubility, antigenicity, and bioactivity compared to the subunits that remain associated in the native, pentameric CRP molecule (i.e., pCRP). As specific reagents have been developed to identify and quantify mCRP, it has become apparent that this isoform can be formed spontaneously in calcium-free solutions. Furthermore, mCRP can be expressed on perturbed cell membranes with as little as 24-48 h incubation in tissue culture. Because mCRP has the same size as pCRP subunits as evaluated by SDS-PAGE, its presence in a pCRP reagent would not be apparent using this technique to evaluate purity. Finally, because many antibody reagents purported to be specific for "CRP" contains some, or substantial specificity to mCRP, antigen-detection techniques using such reagents may fail to distinguish the specific CRP isoform detected. All these caveats concerning CRP structures and measurements suggest that the aforementioned contradictory studies may reflect to some extent on distinctive bioactivities of mCRP rather than on pCRP. To provide a reliable, abundant supply of mCRP for separate and comparable studies, a recombinant protein was engineered and expressed in E. coli (i.e., recombinant mCRP or rmCRP). Synthesized protein was produced as inclusion bodies which proved difficult to solubilize for purification and characterization

  2. Dietary total antioxidant capacity from different assays in relation to serum C-reactive protein among young Japanese women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) from different assays and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) has not been assessed in non-Western populations. We examined the association between dietary TAC and serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women using different four TAC assays. Methods The subjects were 443 young Japanese women aged 18–22 years. Dietary TAC was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire and the TAC value of each food using the following four assays: ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP); oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC); Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). Serum CRP concentrations were measured by highly sensitive nephelometry. Results The major contributor to dietary TAC was green, barley, and oolong tea (FRAP: 53%, ORAC: 45%, TEAC: 36%, and TRAP: 44%). The prevalence of elevated CRP concentrations (≥ 1 mg/L) was 5.6%. TAC from FRAP was inversely associated with serum CRP concentrations (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for elevated CRP concentration in high [compared with low] dietary TAC group: 0.39 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16-0.98]; P = 0.04). TAC from ORAC was inversely associated with CRP, although the association was not significant (OR: 0.48 [95% CI: 0.20-1.14]; P = 0.10). TAC from TEAC was inversely associated with CRP (OR: 0.32 [95% CI: 0.12-0.82]; P = 0.02), as was TAC from TRAP (OR: 0.31 [95% CI: 0.12-0.81]; P = 0.02). Conclusions Dietary TAC was inversely associated with serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women regardless of assay. Further studies are needed in other populations to confirm these results. PMID:23110638

  3. C-reactive protein and its relation to high blood pressure in overweight or obese children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Noronha, Juliana Andreia F.; Medeiros, Carla Campos M.; Cardoso, Anajás da Silva; Gonzaga, Nathalia Costa; Ramos, Alessandra Teixeira; Ramos, André Luiz C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between C-reactive protein (CRP) and high blood pressure (BP) in overweight or obese children and adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 184 overweight or obese children and adolescents aged from two to 18 years old, from April, 2009 to April, 2010. The classification of nutritional status used the body mass index (BMI). Based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention curve, individuals were classified as: overweight (BMI between the 85th-95th percentiles), obesity (BMI between 95th-97th percentiles) and severe obesity (BMI >97th percentile). Abnormal values were considered for systolic BP (SBP) and/or diastolic (DBP) if ≥90th percentile of the BP curve recommended for children and adolescents in the V Brazilian Guidelines on Hypertension, for waist circumference (WC) if ≥90th percentile of the curve established by the National Cholesterol Education Program, and for high sensitive CRP (hs-CRP) if >3mg/dL. To evaluate the association of inadequate values of CRP and the studied groups, chi-square test and analysis of variance were applied, using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17.0 and adopting a significance level of 5%. RESULTS Among the evaluated sample, 66.3% were female, 63.5%, non-white, 64.1% had severe obesity, 78.3% had altered WC and 70.6% presented high BP. There was a significant association of CRP high levels with altered WC and BMI ≥97th percentile. In adolescents, high CRP was related to high SBP. CRP mean values were higher in individuals with elevated SBP. CONCLUSIONS Inadequate values of hs-CRP were associated with severe obesity and high SBP in the studied population. These markers can be used to identify children and adolescents at higher risk for developing atherosclerosis. PMID:24142315

  4. The diagnostic value of white cell count, C-reactive protein and bilirubin in acute appendicitis and its complications

    PubMed Central

    Parashar, D; Lin, R; Antonowicz, S; Wells, AD; Bajwa, FM; Krijgsman, B

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Inflammatory markers such as white cell count (WCC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and, more recently, bilirubin have been used as adjuncts in the diagnosis of appendicitis. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the above markers in acute and perforated appendicitis as well as their value in excluding the condition. Methods A retrospective analysis of 1,169 appendicectomies was performed. Patients were grouped according to histological examination of appendicectomy specimens (normal appendix = NA, acute appendicitis = AA, perforated appendicitis = PA) and preoperative laboratory test results were correlated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve area analysis (area under the curve [AUC]) was performed to examine diagnostic accuracy. Results ROC analysis of all laboratory variables showed that no independent variable was diagnostic for AA. Good diagnostic accuracy was seen for AA when all variables were combined (WCC/CRP/bilirubin combined AUC: 0.8173). In PA, the median CRP level was significantly higher than that of AA (158mg/l vs 30mg, p<0.0001). CRP also showed the highest sensitivity (100%) and negative predictive value (100%) for PA. CRP had the highest diagnostic accuracy in PA (AUC: 0.9322) and this was increased when it was combined with WCC (AUC: 0.9388). Bilirubin added no diagnostic value in PA. Normal levels of WCC, CRP and bilirubin could not rule out appendicitis. Conclusions CRP provides the highest diagnostic accuracy for PA. Bilirubin did not provide any discriminatory value for AA and its complications. Normal inflammatory markers cannot exclude appendicitis, which remains a clinical diagnosis. PMID:23827295

  5. Procalcitonin Is a Better Biomarker than C-Reactive Protein in Newborns Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: The PROKINECA Study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Sara Bobillo; Rodríguez-Fanjul, Javier; García, Iolanda Jordan; Hernando, Julio Moreno; Iriondo Sanz, Martín

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the kinetics of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in newborns after cardiothoracic surgery (CS), with and without cardiopulmonary bypass, and to assess whether PCT was better than CRP in identifying sepsis in the first 72 hours after CS. PATIENTS AND METHODS This is a prospective study of newborns admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit after CS. INTERVENTIONS PCT and CRP were sequentially drawn 2 hours before surgery and at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery. RESULTS A total of 65 patients were recruited, of which 14 were excluded because of complications. We compared the kinetics of PCT and CRP after CS in bypass and non-bypass groups without sepsis; there were no differences in the PCT values at any time (24 hours, P = 0.564; 48 hours, P = 0.117; 72 hours, P = 0.076). Thirty-five patients needed bypass, of whom four were septic (11.4%). Significant differences were detected in the PCT values on comparing the septic group to the nonseptic group at 48 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass (P = 0.018). No differences were detected in the CRP values in these groups. A suitable cutoff for sepsis diagnosis at 48 hours following bypass would be 5 ng/mL, with optimal area under the curve of 0.867 (confidence interval 0.709–0.958), P < 0.0001, and sensitivity and specificity of 87.5% (29.6–99.7) and 72.6% (53.5–86.4), respectively. CONCLUSION This is a preliminary study but PCT seems to be a good biomarker in newborns after CS. Values over 5 ng/mL at 48 hours after CS should alert physicians to the high risk of sepsis in these patients. PMID:27840575

  6. Impact of C-reactive protein test results on evidence-based decision-making in cases of bacterial infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background C-reactive protein (CRP) is widely used to detect bacterial infection in children. We investigated the impact of CRP test results on decision-making and summarized the evidence base (EB) of CRP testing. Methods We collected information from the hospital records of 91 neonates with suspected sepsis and of 152 febrile children with suspected infection on the number of ordered CRP tests, the number of EB-CRP tests, and the impact of the test results on decision-making. CRP diagnostic accuracy studies focusing on pediatric infections were reviewed critically. The main outcomes were the proportion of CRP tests that were EB and the proportion of tests that affected decision-making. A secondary outcome was the overall one-year expenditure on CRP testing. Results The current EB for CRP testing in pediatric infections is weak and suggests that CRP is of low diagnostic value. Approximately 54.8% of tests performed for suspected neonatal sepsis and 28% of tests performed for other infections were EB; however, the results of only 12.9% of neonatal sepsis tests and of 29.9% of tests on children with other infections informed decision-making. The one-year overall cost for CRP testing and related health care was $26,715.9. Conclusions The routine ordering of CRP for children with infections is based on weak evidence. The impact of the CRP test results on decision-making is rather small, and CRP ordering may contribute to unnecessary health care expenditures. Better quality research is needed to definitively determine the diagnostic accuracy of CRP levels in children with infections. PMID:22943554

  7. Prognostic significance of preoperative C-reactive protein: albumin ratio in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen; Shao, Yingjie; Fan, Min; Zhuang, Qianfeng; Wang, Kun; Cao, Wei; Xu, Xianlin; He, Xiaozhou

    2015-01-01

    We undertook a retrospective analysis to evaluate the C-reactive protein/albumin (CRP/Alb) ratio for its prognostic value in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC). The study comprised 406 CCRCC patients undergoing nephrectomy between 2003 and 2012 in our hospital. The correlations among the pretreatment CRP/Alb ratio, clinicopathological parameters, and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. An elevated CRP/Alb ratio was associated with older age at surgery (P=0.007), more advanced TNM stage (P<0.001), more presence of tumor necrosis (P<0.001) and lymphovascular invasion (P<0.001), lower concentration of hemoglobin (P<0.001) and calcium (P=0.005), and shorter OS (P<0.001). The multivariate analysis confirmed that the CRP/Alb ratio independently predicted the OS of patients with CCRCC (P<0.001), the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) (P=0.001) and modified GPS (mGPS) (P=0.019) were independent prognostic factors also. At last, we evaluated the prognostic value of the CRP/Alb ratio compared with the similar inflammation-based prognostic scores GPS and mGPS using the area under the curve (AUC). Although the differences were not statistically significant, the AUC value of the CRP/Alb ratio (continuous, categorical) was higher compared with the GPS and mGPS, except that the AUC value for the CRP/Alb ratio (categorical) at 3 years was lower than that for the GPS. The CRP/Alb ratio could take the place of the GPS and mGPS in terms of predicting prognosis in CCRCC. PMID:26823819

  8. Slower Decline in C-Reactive Protein after an Inflammatory Insult Is Associated with Longer Survival in Older Hospitalised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Goodbrand, James A.; Donnan, Peter T.; McGilchrist, Mark M.; Frost, Helen; McMurdo, Marion E. T.; Witham, Miles D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Enhancing biological resilience may offer a novel way to prevent and ameliorate disease in older patients. We investigated whether changes in C-reactive protein (CRP), as a dynamic marker of the acute inflammatory response to diverse stressors, may provide a way to operationalize the concept of resilience in older adults. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether such changes could predict prognosis by identifying which individuals are at greater risk of 6-month mortality. Methods Analysis of prospective, routinely collected datasets containing data on hospitalization, clinical chemistry and rehabilitation outcomes for rehabilitation inpatients between 1999 and 2011. Maximum CRP response during acute illness and CRP recovery indices (time and slope of CRP decay to half maximum, and to <50mg/L if peak values were greater than 50mg/L) was derived from biochemistry data. 6-month survival plots were conducted on quartiles of CRP recovery indices. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test univariate and multivariate predictors of 6-month mortality. Covariates included age, sex, number of medications, serum calcium, haemoglobin level, renal function, and the presence of previous myocardial infarction, stroke, chronic heart failure, COPD and diabetes. Results 3723 patients, mean age 84 years, were included. 1535 (41%) were male and 733 (20%) died during six-month follow-up. The lower an individual’s peak CRP reading, and the longer the time taken for their CRP to fall, the better their 6-month survival. The time for CRP to reach half of its maximum value was the best dynamic CRP index of survival (HR 0.93 per week, 95% CI 0.89 to 0.98; p = 0.004); this remained significant even after adjustment for maximum CRP level and covariates listed above. Conclusion CRP recovery indices are associated with survival in older people; further work is required to explain differences in physiology between patients with a fast and slow CRP recovery. PMID:27467771

  9. A significant correlation between C - reactive protein levels in blood monocytes derived macrophages versus content in carotid atherosclerotic lesions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is a complex disease involving different cell types, including macrophages that play a major role in the inflammatory events occurring in atherogenesis. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is a sensitive systemic marker of inflammation and was identified as a biomarker of cardiovascular diseases. Histological studies demonstrate CRP presence in human atherosclerotic lesions, and we have previously shown that macrophages express CRP mRNA. CRP could be locally secreted in the atherosclerotic lesion by arterial macrophages and local regulation of CRP could affect its pro-atherogenic effects. Moreover, human blood derived macrophages (HMDM) expression of CRP could reflect atherosclerotic lesion secretion of CRP. Methods Ten type 2 diabetic patients and ten non-diabetic patients scheduled to undergo carotid endarterectomy were enrolled in this study, and their blood samples were used for serum CRP, lipid determination, and for preparation of HMDM further analyzed for their CRP mRNA expression and CRP content. Carotid lesions obtained from the patients were analyzed for their CRP and interleukin 6 (IL-6) content by immunohistochemistry. Results Lesions from diabetic patients showed substantially higher CRP levels by 62% (p = 0.05) than lesions from non diabetic patients, and CRP staining that co-localized with arterial macrophages. CRP carotid lesion levels positively correlated with CRP mRNA expression (r2 = 0.661) and with CRP content (r2 = 0.611) in the patient’s HMDM. Conclusions Diabetes up-regulated carotid plaques CRP levels and CRP measurements in HMDM could reflect atherosclerotic lesion macrophages secretion of CRP. Understanding the regulation of locally produced macrophage CRP in the arterial wall during atherogenesis could be of major importance in identifying the underlying mechanisms of inflammatory response pathways during atherogenesis. PMID:24588988

  10. Procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and serum lactate dehydrogenase in the diagnosis of bacterial sepsis, SIRS and systemic candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Miglietta, Fabio; Faneschi, Maria Letizia; Lobreglio, Giambattista; Palumbo, Claudio; Rizzo, Adriana; Cucurachi, Marco; Portaccio, Gerolamo; Guerra, Francesco; Pizzolante, Maria

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), platelet count (PLT) and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as early markers for diagnosis of SIRS, bacterial sepsis and systemic candidiasis in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Based on blood culture results, the patients were divided into a sepsis group (70 patients), a SIRS group (42 patients) and a systemic candidiasis group (33 patients). PCT, CRP, LDH and PLT levels were measured on day 0 and on day 2 from the sepsis symptom onset. PCT levels were higher in Gram negative sepsis than those in Gram positive sepsis, although the P value between the two subgroups is not significant (P=0.095). Bacterial sepsis group had higher PCT and CRP levels compared with the systemic candidiasis group, whereas PLT and LDH levels showed similar levels in these two subgroups. The AUC for PCT (AUC: 0.892, P <0.001) was larger than for CRP (AUC: 0.738, P <0.001). The best cut-off values for PCT and CRP were 0.99 ng/mL and 76.2 mg/L, respectively. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for PCT were 84.3% and 81.8% whereas CRP showed a sensitivity of 77.2% and a specificity of 63.6%. However, PCT was unable to discriminate between SIRS and systemic candidiasis groups (P=0.093 N.S.). In conclusion, PCT can be used as a preliminary marker in the event of clinical suspicion of systemic candidiasis; however, low PCT levels (<0.99 ng/mL) necessarily require the use of other specific markers of candidaemia to confirm the diagnosis, due to great uniformity of PCT levels in systemic candidiasis and SIRS groups.

  11. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on serum C-reactive protein level: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Saboori, S; Shab-Bidar, S; Speakman, J R; Yousefi Rad, E; Djafarian, K

    2015-08-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of chronic inflammation, has a major role in the etiology of chronic disease. Vitamin E may have anti-inflammatory effects. However, there is no consensus on the effects of vitamin E supplementation on CRP levels in clinical trials. The aim of this study was to systematically review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that report on the effects of vitamin E supplementation (α- and γ-tocopherols) on CRP levels. A systematic search of RCTs was conducted on Medline and EMBASE through PubMed, Scopus, Ovid and Science Direct, and completed by a manual review of the literature up to May 2014. Pooled effects were estimated by using random-effects models and heterogeneity was assessed by Cochran's Q and I(2) tests. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression analyses were also performed according to intervention duration, dose of supplementation and baseline level of CRP. Of 4734 potentially relevant studies, only 12 trials met the inclusion criteria with 246 participants in the intervention arms and 249 participants in control arms. Pooled analysis showed a significant reduction in CRP levels of 0.62 mg/l (95% confidence interval = -0.92, -0.31; P < 0.001) in vitamin E-treated individuals, with the evidence of heterogeneity across studies. This significant effect was maintained in all subgroups, although the univariate meta-regression analysis showed that the vitamin E supplementation dose, baseline level of CRP and duration of intervention were not the sources of the observed heterogeneity. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that supplementation with vitamin E in the form of either α-tocopherol or γ-tocopherol would reduce serum CRP levels.

  12. Evolution of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels in neutropenic leukaemia patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis or mucormycosis.

    PubMed

    Roques, Marjorie; Chretien, Marie Lorraine; Favennec, Camille; Lafon, Ingrid; Ferrant, Emmanuelle; Legouge, Caroline; Plocque, Alexia; Golfier, Camille; Duvillard, Laurence; Amoureux, Lucie; Bastie, Jean Noel; Maurin-Bernier, Lory; Dalle, Frederic; Caillot, Denis

    2016-06-01

    Unlike bacterial infections, the value of procalcitonin (PCT) in detecting fungal infections in leukaemia patients is not clear. To determine whether the monitoring of PCT coupled with C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen (Fib) could be helpful in the management of pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) or mucormycosis (PM), we retrospectively analysed the evolution of PCT, CRP and Fib levels in 94 leukaemia patients with proven/probable IPA (n = 77) or PM (n = 17) from D-12 to D12 relative to IFI onset defined as D0. Overall, 2140 assays were performed. From D-12 to D0, 12%, 5% and 1.4% of patients had PCT >0.5, 1 and 1.5 μg l(-1) , respectively, while CRP was >50, 75 and 100 mg l(-1) in 84%, 70% and 57% and Fib was >4, 5 and 6 g l(-1) in 96%, 80% and 61% of cases respectively (P < 10(-7) ). The same trends were observed from D1 to D12. Overall, between D-12 and D12, only 6.4% of patients had PCT >1.5 μg l(-1) , while CRP >100 mg l(-1) and Fib >6 g l(-1) were observed in 80% and 75% of cases respectively (P < 10(-7) ). In leukaemia patients, IPA or PM was accompanied by a significant increase in CRP and Fib while PCT remained low.

  13. Concomitant Impact of High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Renal Dysfunction in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yong Un; Kim, Min Jee; Choi, Joon Seok; Kim, Chang Seong; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Ahn, Young-Keun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kim, Young Jo; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present study aimed to investigate the impact of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and renal dysfunction on clinical outcomes in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Materials and Methods The study involved a retrospective cohort of 8332 patients admitted with AMI. The participants were divided into 4 groups according to the levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and hs-CRP: group I, no renal dysfunction (eGFR ≥60 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2) with low hs-CRP (≤2.0 mg/dL); group II, no renal dysfunction with high hs-CRP; group III, renal dysfunction with low hs-CRP; and group IV, renal dysfunction with high hs-CRP. We compared major adverse cardiac events (MACE) over a 1-year follow-up period. Results The 4 groups demonstrated a graded association with increased MACE rates (group I, 8.8%; group II, 13.8%; group III, 18.6%; group IV, 30.1%; p<0.001). In a Cox proportional hazards model, mortality at 12 months increased in groups II, III, and IV compared with group I [hazard ratio (HR) 2.038, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.450-2.863, p<0.001; HR 3.003, 95% CI 2.269-3.974, p<0.001; HR 5.087, 95% CI 3.755-6.891, p<0.001]. Conclusion High hs-CRP, especially in association with renal dysfunction, is related to the occurrence of composite MACE, and indicates poor prognosis in AMI patients. PMID:24339298

  14. Anti-depressant medication use and C-reactive protein: results from two population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Mark; Batty, G D; Marmot, Michael G; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika

    2011-01-01

    The use of anti-depressant medication has been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined the association between anti-depressant medication use and a marker of low grade systemic inflammation as a potential pathway linking anti-depressant use and CVD in two population based studies. Data were collected in a representative sample of 8131 community dwelling adults (aged 47.4±15.9 years, 46.7% male) from the Scottish Health Surveys (SHS). The use of anti-depressant medication was coded according to the British National Formulary and blood was drawn for the measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP). In a second study, we attempted to replicate our findings using longitudinal data from the Whitehall II study (n=4584, aged 55.5±5.9 years, mean follow-up 5.5 years). Antidepressants were used in 5.6% of the SHS sample, with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) being the most common. There was a higher risk of elevated CRP (>3 mg/L) in users of tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) medication (multivariate adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.52, 95% CI, 1.07-2.15), but not in SSRI users (multivariate adjusted OR=1.07, 95% CI, 0.81-1.42). A longitudinal association between any antidepressant use and subsequent CRP was confirmed in the Whitehall cohort. In summary, the use of anti-depressants was associated with elevated levels of systemic inflammation independently from the symptoms of mental illness and cardiovascular co-morbidity. This might be a potential mechanism through which antidepressant medication increases CVD risk. Further data are required to explore the effects of dosage and duration of antidepressant treatment.

  15. Relationship between dyslipidemia, C-reactive protein and serological evidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in Turkish patients with coronary artery diseases.

    PubMed

    Turkoglu, C; Sonmez, E; Aydinli, A

    2004-07-01

    Relationship between dyslipidemia, C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and serological evidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae was investigated in a Turkish population with coronary artery disease. This prospective, randomized, blinded study was carried out in Florence Nightingale Hospital which is affiliated to Kadir Has University, Medical Faculty. Thirty-two patients with acute coronary artery diseases (ACAD), 32 patients with chronic coronary artery diseases (CCAD) and 26 healthy controls (HC) were included in the study. We detected serum concentrations of C. pneumoniae IgG, IgA and IgM by ELISA method. We measured total cholesterol, trigliseride, LDL and HDL- cholesterol levels to determine dyslipidemia which was defined as total cholesterol >200 mg/dL, trigliserid > 150 mg/dL, LDL >130 mg/dL, HDL <45 mg/dL. CRP levels were also measured. Seropositivity to C. pneumoniae IgG was 84.3%, 100% and 65.3%; seropositivity to IgA was 9.3%, 6.2%, and 3.8%; and seropositivity to IgM was 12.5%, 15.3%, and 15.4% in patients with ACAD, CCAD and HC, respectively. Dyslipidemia was found as 93.7%, 78. 1% and 0% of patients with ACAD, CCAD and HC, respectively. CRP level was high in all patients (ACAD, CCAD) but not in healthy controls. As a conclusion, we found a significant association between seropositivity to C. pneumoniae IgG and dyslipidemia and CRP levels in ACAD and CCAD patients (p<0.05). C. pneumoniae IgG antibodies should be evaluated together with serum lipids and CRP levels in patients with ACAD and CCAD in Turkish population. This may help clinicians in treatment of C. pneumoniae infection and decrease the risk of coronary artery diseases.

  16. Child Maltreatment, Inflammation, and Internalizing Symptoms: Investigating the Roles of C-Reactive Protein, Gene Variation and Neuroendocrine Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Cicchetti, Dante; Handley, Elizabeth D.; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has found inconsistent evidence regarding the association among childhood adversity, inflammation, and internalizing symptoms, perhaps because previous studies have yet to adequately integrate important factors such as the timing of the adversity, genetic variation, and other relevant processes such as neuroendocrine regulation. The aims of the present study were threefold: 1) Determine whether the effect of the timing of child maltreatment on C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker, varies by CRP gene variation; 2) Explore whether links between salivary CRP and childhood internalizing symptoms depend on the presence and timing of maltreatment experiences; 3) Investigate the role of CRP in the relations between child neuroendocrine regulation and internalizing symptoms and examine whether these associations are moderated by the presence and timing of child maltreatment. Participants included a sample of 267 maltreated and 222 nonmaltreated children (M age= 9.72, SD=0.99; 52.4% male; 66% African-American) who attended a summer day camp research program designed for school-aged low-income children. Department of Human Services records were examined to determine the onset and recency of maltreatment for children in the maltreated group. Results indicated that among children with recent onset maltreatment, those with at least one A allele from CRP SNP rs1417938 evidenced significantly higher CRP levels compared to recently maltreated children carrying the TT genotype. Moreover, higher levels of CRP were associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms only for recently maltreated children. Finally, we did not find support for salivary CRP as a mechanism in the relation between neuroendocrine regulation and childhood internalizing symptoms. Our findings highlight the importance of the timing of child maltreatment and have important implications for characterizing variability in inflammation and internalizing symptoms among youth. PMID

  17. Post-surgical highly sensitive C-reactive protein and prognosis in early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tibau, Ariadna; Ennis, Marguerite; Goodwin, Pamela J

    2013-10-01

    Obesity, associated with inflammation, has been linked to poor prognosis in breast cancer. Research investigating the potential role of C-reactive protein (CRP), an obesity-associated systemic marker of inflammation, as a mediator of adverse prognostic effects of obesity has yielded inconsistent results. We examined the association of highly sensitive CRP (hsCRP) with obesity-related factors and breast cancer outcome. A cohort of 535 non-diabetic women diagnosed with T1-3, N0-1, M0 breast cancer, was assembled between 1989 and 1996 and followed prospectively. Circulating levels of hsCRP were analyzed on blood obtained postoperatively, prior to systemic therapy, in 501 women. Correlations and prognostic associations were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (r) and Cox models. hsCRP was significantly correlated with body mass index (r = 0.60), insulin (r = 0.44), leptin (r = 0.54), and lipids, but not T or N stage, grade or estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor. At a median follow-up of 12 years, hsCRP was not associated with distant disease-free survival or overall survival in univariable [Q4 vs. Q1 hazard ratio (HR) 1.03, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.69-1.52, P = 0.9 and HR 1.27, 95 % CI 0.86-1.86, P = 0.24, respectively] or multivariable [Q4 vs Q1 HR 1.02, 95 % CI 0.66-1.59, P = 0.93 and HR 1.17, 95 % CI 0.76-1.81, P = 0.48 respectively] analyses. hsCRP was associated with age, comorbidities, and the insulin resistance syndrome but not with breast cancer outcome.

  18. Gene-specific DNA methylation association with serum levels of C-reactive protein in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan V; Lazarus, Alicia; Smith, Jennifer A; Chuang, Yu-Hsuan; Zhao, Wei; Turner, Stephen T; Kardia, Sharon L R

    2013-01-01

    A more thorough understanding of the differences in DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles in populations may hold promise for identifying molecular mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to human diseases. Inflammation is a key molecular mechanism underlying several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, and it affects DNAm profile on both global and locus-specific levels. To understand the impact of inflammation on the DNAm of the human genome, we investigated DNAm profiles of peripheral blood leukocytes from 966 African American participants in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study. By testing the association of DNAm sites on CpG islands of over 14,000 genes with C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory biomarker of cardiovascular disease, we identified 257 DNAm sites in 240 genes significantly associated with serum levels of CRP adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and smoking status, and corrected for multiple testing. Of the significantly associated DNAm sites, 80.5% were hypomethylated with higher CRP levels. The most significant Gene Ontology terms enriched in the genes associated with the CRP levels were immune system process, immune response, defense response, response to stimulus, and response to stress, which are all linked to the functions of leukocytes. While the CRP-associated DNAm may be cell-type specific, understanding the DNAm association with CRP in peripheral blood leukocytes of multi-ethnic populations can assist in unveiling the molecular mechanism of how the process of inflammation affects the risks of developing common disease through epigenetic modifications.

  19. Whole grains are associated with serum concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein among premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gaskins, Audrey J; Mumford, Sunni L; Rovner, Alisha J; Zhang, Cuilin; Chen, Liwei; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Perkins, Neil J; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2010-09-01

    In premenopausal women, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations have been associated with an increased risk of negative reproductive outcomes. Whole grain consumption has been associated with lower CRP concentrations in older women; however, less is known about this relationship in younger women. We investigated whether whole grain intake was associated with serum high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) concentrations in young women. BioCycle was a prospective cohort study conducted at the University of Buffalo from 2005 to 2007, which followed 259 healthy women aged 18-44 y for or= 1 serving/d had 12.3% lower hs-CRP concentrations (P = 0.02) compared with nonconsumers. Women who consumed >or= 1 serving/d of whole grain had a lower probability of having moderate (P = 0.008) or elevated (P = 0.001) hs-CRP according to the AHA criteria compared with nonconsumers. Given that elevated concentrations of hs-CRP have been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes and pregnancy complications, interventions targeting whole grain consumption may have the potential to improve health status among young women.

  20. Aldosterone Receptor Antagonism Reduces Urinary C-Reactive Protein Excretion in Angiotensin II-Infused, Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Mamalis, Andrew; Navar, L. Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    Background Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) may contribute to elevated arterial pressure in Ang II-dependent hypertension. However, the in vivo effects of Ang II and of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism on CRP during Ang II-dependent hypertension have not been examined. In addition, urinary CRP excretion as a method to monitor the progression of Ang II-induced inflammation has not been evaluated. Methods Urine samples were collected from three groups (n = 10/group) of rats: 1) normotensive control, 2) angiotensin II infused (Ang II; 60 ng/min), and 3) Ang II + eplerenone (epl; 25 mg/d). A diet containing epl (0.1 %) was provided after 1 week of Ang II infusion. Results After 28 d, Ang II increased SBP from 136 ± 5 to 207 ± 8 mmHg; this response in SBP was not altered following MR antagonism (215 ± 6 mmHg). Ang II-infusion increased plasma CRP from 14 ± 2 to 26 ± 3 μg/mL and increased urinary CRP excretion nearly 8-fold (143 ± 26 vs 1102 ± 115 ng/d). Treatment with eplerenone reduced plasma CRP by 25 % and urinary immunoreactive CRP (irCRP) by 34 % in Ang II-infused rats suggesting that aldosterone contributes to the CRP-associated inflammatory response in Ang II-dependent hypertension. Conclusions The increase in SBP preceded the increase in irCRP excretion by at least 4 days suggesting that CRP does not significantly contribute to increased arterial blood pressure in Ang II-dependent hypertension. The blockade of MR reduced plasma CRP and urinary irCRP excretion demonstrating the contribution of aldosterone to the Ang II-induced generation of CRP. Furthermore, urinary CRP may serve as a non-invasive index for monitoring cardiovascular inflammation during hypertension. PMID:20161115

  1. Genetic variation in C-reactive protein (CRP) in relation to colon and rectal cancer risk and survival

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, Martha L.; Curtin, Karen; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Duggan, David J.; Samowitz, Wade S.; Peters, Ulrike; Caan, Bette J.; Potter, John D.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Background C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker of inflammation has been shown to be influenced by genetic variation in the CRP gene. Methods In this study, we test the hypothesis that genetic variation in CRP influences both the risk of developing colon and rectal cancer and survival. Two population-based studies of colon cancer (n=1574 cases, 1970 controls) and rectal (n=791 cases, 999 controls) were conducted. We evaluated four CRP tagSNPs: rs1205 (G>A, 3’ UTR); rs1417938 (T>A, intron); rs1800947 (G>C, L184L); and rs3093075 (C>A, 3’ flanking). Results The CRP rs1205 AA genotype was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer (OR 1.3, 95%CI 1.1-1.7), whereas the rs3093075 A allele was associated with a reduced risk of rectal cancer (OR 0.7, 95%CI 0.5-0.9). The strongest association for the rs1205 polymorphism and colon cancer was observed among those with KRAS2 mutations (OR 1.5, 95%CI 1.1-2.0). The CRP rs1205 AA genotype also was associated with an increased risk of CIMP+ rectal tumors (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.3); conversely, the rs1417938 A allele was associated with a reduced risk of CIMP+ rectal tumors (OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.3-0.9). We observed interactions between CRP rs1800947 and BMI and family history of CRC in modifying risk of both colon and rectal cancer. Conclusions These data suggest that genetic variation in the CRP gene influences risk of both colon and rectal cancer development. PMID:20949557

  2. Legionella pneumophila DNA in serum samples during Legionnaires' disease in relation to C-reactive protein levels.

    PubMed

    van de Veerdonk, F L; de Jager, C P C; Schellekens, J J A; Huijsmans, C J J; Beaumont, F; Hermans, M H A; Wever, P C

    2009-04-01

    Legionella pneumophila DNA can be detected in serum from patients with Legionnaires' disease (LD). We explored this observation studying the kinetics of L. pneumophila DNA in serum samples in relation to C-reactive protein (CRP). Eleven hospitalized patients with LD were studied. Diagnosis was made by Legionella urinary antigen test in 8 patients and seroconversion in 3 patients. A macrophage infectivity potentiator (MIP) real-time PCR was performed on 31 serum samples, including 20 follow-up serum samples. Serum samples obtained on the day of admission were MIP PCR-positive in 7 (64%) and MIP PCR-negative in 4 (36%) patients. Three (75%) of the 4 patients with a MIP PCR-negative serum sample on the day of admission became positive during follow-up. Overall, L. pneumophila DNA was detected in serum samples from 10 of the 11 patients (91%). CRP levels in the 7 patients with a positive MIP PCR serum sample on day of admission (499 +/- 144 mg/l; median +/- SD) were significantly higher than those in the 4 patients with a negative MIP PCR serum sample on the day of admission (244 +/- 97 mg/l). No difference in the severity of the disease on the day of admission was found between these patients. The presence of L. pneumophila DNA in serum is a common phenomenon in hospitalized patients with LD, although in some cases it is not yet present on the day of admission. L. pneumophila DNA in serum on the day of admission correlates with high CRP levels, but not with the severity of the disease.

  3. Interaction between C-reactive protein and cognitive functions according to APOE gene polymorphism in post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Gujski, Mariusz; Pinkas, Jarosław; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Owoc, Alfred; Humeniuk, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A potential factor increasing the risk of the development of cognitive impairment with age is apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 carrier status. A subsequent factor which may increase the risk of development of cognitive impairment at an older age is the concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP). The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between cognitive functions and the concentration of CRP in post-menopausal women who were carriers of particular apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) polymorphisms. Material and methods A group of 402 women was recruited to the study. The inclusion criteria were: minimum two years after the last menstruation, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentration 30 U/ml, no dementi signs on Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The computerized battery of the Central Nervous System Vital Signs (CNS VS) test was used to diagnose cognitive functions. APOE genotyping was performed by multiplex PCR. The blood plasma CRP levels were determined. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica software. Results The level of neurocognitive index (NCI) and cognitive functions in post-menopausal women depends on apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism (p < 0.001) and the concentration of CRP (p < 0.05). A negative correlation was found between CRP and NCI (p = 0.018), and the reaction time (p = 0.008) of women with APOE ε2/ε3. A positive correlation was observed between CRP and visual memory (p = 0.025) in women with APOE ε3/ε3, and verbal memory (p = 0.023) in women with APOE ε3/ε4 or ε4/ε4. Conclusions Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism may modify the relationship between CRP concentration and cognitive functions in post-menopausal women. PMID:27904515

  4. The relationship between the change in serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels and IVF success.

    PubMed

    Seckin, Berna; Ozaksit, Gulnur; Batioglu, Sertac; Ozel, Murat; Aydoğan, Munube; Senturk, Bahar

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the extent of the change in high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels is related with in vitro fertilization (IVF) success. A total of 69 IVF cycles using long luteal GnRH agonist protocol at the IVF unit, were prospectively studied. The serum levels of hs-CRP were measured on the day of initiation of gonadotrophin stimulation and 7 days after embryo transfer. CRP ratio was defined as the levels of CRP on day 7 of transfer/day of initiation of ovarian stimulation. Clinical pregnancy rates were examined. The mean concentrations of hs-CRP were not significantly different on the first day of ovarian stimulation and on day 7 after embryo transfer among pregnant and non-pregnant women. There was a significant rise in hs-CRP levels at 7th day after embryo transfer as compared with the first day of gonadotrophin treatment in both groups (10.58 ± 11.35 versus 3.61 ± 2.86 mg/L for pregnant women and 9.14 ± 11.36 versus 3.24 ± 2.68 mg/L for non-pregnant women, p = 0.001). In addition, the mean CRP ratio was not different between the pregnant and non-pregnant groups. Our data show that serum hs-CRP levels increase during IVF treatment, but the extent of the rise in CRP levels is not a predictive marker of IVF success.

  5. Relationship of socioeconomic status to C-reactive protein and arterial stiffness in urban Japanese civil servants.

    PubMed

    Saijo, Yasuaki; Yoshioka, Eiji; Fukui, Tomonori; Kawaharada, Mariko; Kishi, Reiko

    2008-09-01

    This study investigates whether the two socioeconomic status indicators, educational level and employment grade, are associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and arterial stiffness among Japanese urban civil servants. Brachial-ankle pulse-wave velocity (baPWV) as an indicator of arterial stiffness, CRP, occupational stress and conventional risk factors were evaluated in 3412 men and 854 women. Although the socioeconomic gradient showed a significant association with the CRP levels in men after adjustment for age, the significance disappeared after multivariate adjustment, whereas in women, the socioeconomic gradient showed no significant association with the CRP levels. In men, educational level was significantly associated with the baPWV value after adjustment for conventional risk factors, CRP and occupational stress (P for trend <0.0001). With regards to employment grade, only low-level non-manual workers had a significantly lower baPWV value as compared to manual workers at a fully adjusted model, and trend significance disappeared. However, in women, neither educational level nor employment grade was associated with the baPWV value. In summary, the socioeconomic gradient, especially the educational level, was significantly inversely related to the baPWV value in men. In women, the socioeconomic gradient was not related to the baPWV value. An inverse relationship between the socioeconomic gradient and CRP levels was found in men only after age adjustment. We suggest that because the educational level is an important aspect in the adolescent environment and hence might influence the future lifestyle, early health education should be provided to prevent an unfavourable lifestyle and atherosclerotic diseases in later life.

  6. Child maltreatment, inflammation, and internalizing symptoms: Investigating the roles of C-reactive protein, gene variation, and neuroendocrine regulation.

    PubMed

    Cicchetti, Dante; Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred A

    2015-05-01

    Prior research has found inconsistent evidence regarding the association among childhood adversity, inflammation, and internalizing symptoms, perhaps because previous studies have yet to adequately integrate important factors such as the timing of the adversity, genetic variation, and other relevant processes such as neuroendocrine regulation. The aims of the present study were threefold: (a) to determine whether the effect of the timing of child maltreatment on C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker, varies by CRP gene variation; (b) to explore whether links between salivary CRP and childhood internalizing symptoms depend on the presence and timing of maltreatment experiences; and (c) to investigate the role of CRP in the relations between child neuroendocrine regulation and internalizing symptoms and examine whether these associations are moderated by the presence and timing of child maltreatment. Participants included a sample of 267 maltreated and 222 nonmaltreated children (M age = 9.72, SD = 0.99; 52.4% male; 66% African American) who attended a summer day camp research program designed for school-aged low-income children. Department of Human Services records were examined to determine the onset and recency of maltreatment for children in the maltreated group. The results indicated that among children with recent onset maltreatment, those with at least one A allele from CRP single nucleotide polymorphism rs1417938 evidenced significantly higher CRP levels compared to recently maltreated children carrying the TT genotype. Moreover, higher levels of CRP were associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms only for recently maltreated children. Finally, we did not find support for salivary CRP as a mechanism in the relation between neuroendocrine regulation and childhood internalizing symptoms. Our findings highlight the importance of the timing of child maltreatment and have important implications for characterizing variability in inflammation

  7. Associations of childhood adversity and adulthood trauma with C-reactive protein: A cross-sectional population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Joy E; Neylan, Thomas C; Epel, Elissa; O'Donovan, Aoife

    2016-03-01

    Mounting evidence highlights specific forms of psychological stress as risk factors for ill health. Particularly strong evidence indicates that childhood adversity and adulthood trauma exposure increase risk for physical and psychiatric disorders, and there is emerging evidence that inflammation may play a key role in these relationships. In a population-based sample from the Health and Retirement Study (n=11,198, mean age 69 ± 10), we examine whether childhood adversity, adulthood trauma, and the interaction between them are associated with elevated levels of the systemic inflammatory marker high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). All models were adjusted for age, gender, race, education, and year of data collection, as well as other possible confounds in follow-up sensitivity analyses. In our sample, 67% of individuals had experienced at least one traumatic event during adulthood, and those with childhood adversity were almost three times as likely to have experienced trauma as an adult. Childhood adversities and adulthood traumas were independently associated with elevated levels of hsCRP (β=0.03, p=0.01 and β=0.05, p<0.001, respectively). Those who had experienced both types of stress had higher levels of hsCRP than those with adulthood trauma alone, Estimate=-0.06, 95% CI [-0.003, -0.12], p=0.04, but not compared to those with childhood adversity alone, Estimate=-0.06, 95% CI [0.03, -0.16], p=0.19. There was no interaction between childhood and adulthood trauma exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine adulthood trauma exposure and inflammation in a large population-based sample, and the first to explore the interaction of childhood adversity and adulthood trauma with inflammation. Our study demonstrates the prevalence of trauma-related inflammation in the general population and suggests that childhood adversity and adulthood trauma are independently associated with elevated inflammation.

  8. Serum C-reactive protein in asthma and its ability in predicting asthma control, a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Monadi, Mahmoud; Firouzjahi, Alireza; Hosseini, Amin; Javadian, Yahya; Sharbatdaran, Majid; Heidari, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased serum high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in asthma and its association with disease severity has been investigated in many studies. This study aimed to determine serum hs-CRP status in asthma versus healthy controls and to examine its ability in predicting asthma control. Methods: Serum CRP was measured by ELISA method using a high sensitive CRP kit. Severity of asthma was determined using Asthma Control Test. Spearman and chi square tests were used for association and correlation respectively. The predictive ability was determined by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Accuracy was determined by determination of area under the ROC curve (AUC). Results: A total of 120 patients and 115 controls were studied. Median serum hs-CRP in asthma was higher than control (P=0.001. In well controlled asthma the hs-CRP decreased significantly compared with poorly controlled (P=0.024) but still was higher than control (P=0.017). Serum hs-CRP at cutoff level of 1.45 mg/L differentiated the patients and controls with accuracy of 63.5 % (AUC= 0.635±0.037, P=0.001). Serum hs-CRP ≤ 2.15 mg/L predicted well controlled asthma with accuracy of 62.5% (AUC= 0.625±0.056, p=0.025). After adjusting for age, sex, weight and smoking, there was an independent association between serum hs-CRP >1.45 mg/L and asthma by adjusted OR=2.49, p=0.018). Conclusion: These findings indicate that serum hs-CRP in asthma is higher than healthy control and increases with severity of asthma and decreases with. Thus, serum hs-CRP measurement can be helpful in predicting asthma control and treatment response. PMID:26958331

  9. Relationship of serum osteoprotegerin levels with coronary artery disease severity, left ventricular hypertrophy and C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young; Kim, Se-Yeon; Kim, Byung-Jin; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Bum-Su; Kang, Jin-Ho; Oh, Ki-Won; Oh, Eun-Sook; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Kang, Moo-Ii; Woo, Hee-Yeon; Park, Hyo-Soon; Kim, Sun-Woo; Lee, Man-Ho; Park, Jung-Roe

    2005-03-01

    OPG (osteoprotegerin) is an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis and recent work suggests it has a role in atherosclerosis. Therefore we measured serum OPG levels in patients with coronary artery disease, compared the serum OPG levels among the different groups according to the number of stenotic vessels and determined whether there was any correlation with aortic calcification, LV (left ventricular) mass index and serum CRP (C-reactive protein) levels. Subjects (n=100; mean age, 57 years) who underwent coronary angiograms were enrolled. Blood pressure, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, lipid profiles and CRP levels were measured and the LV mass indices were calculated using ECGs. Serum OPG levels were measured by ELISA. The presence of calcification in the aortic notch was checked by a chest X-ray. The subjects were divided into four groups according to the number of stenotic vessels. The mean serum OPG levels increased significantly as the number of stenotic vessels increased, and the mean serum OPG levels were higher in the group with three-vessel disease compared with the groups with no- or one-vessel disease. The mean serum CRP level was significantly higher in the group with three-vessel disease compared with the groups with no-, one- and two-vessel disease. Age and LV mass index showed significant positive correlations with serum OPG levels, although significance was lost after an adjustment for age. Serum CRP levels were positively correlated with serum OPG levels even after an adjustment for age. There were no differences in serum OPG levels according to the presence of fasting hyperglycaemia or aortic calcification. In conclusion, serum OPG level was related to the severity of stenotic coronary arteries and serum CRP levels. LV mass indices showed no significant correlation with OPG levels. The precise mechanism for the role of OPG in atherosclerosis needs to be investigated further.

  10. Clinical and angiographic correlation of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Tanveer, Syed; Banu, Shaheena; Jabir, Nasimudeen Rehumathbeevi; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Manjunath, Nanjappa Cholenahally; Tabrez, Shams

    2016-01-01

    Vascular inflammation and associated ongoing inflammatory responses are considered as the critical culprits in the pathogenesis of acute atherothrombotic events such as acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and myocardial infarction (MI). ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is considered as one of the prominent clinical forms of ACS. Moreover, C-reactive protein (CRP) is an important acute phase prsotein, which may be estimated using high-sensitivity methods (hs-CRP), and its elevated level in body fluids reflects chronic inflammatory status. The circulating hs-CRP level has been proposed as a promising inflammatory marker of coronary artery disease (CAD). The present study investigated the correlation of hs-CRP level with clinical and angiographic features of STEMI, various other traditional risk factors, complications of myocardial infarction and angiographically significant CAD. Out of 190 patients with STEMI that were analyzed, the interval between symptom onset and reperfusion therapy (window period) varied from 0.5 to 24 h. The hs-CRP value was found to be higher in non-diabetic patients (0.61 mg/dl) compared with diabetic patients (0.87 mg/dl). Moreover, a significant correlation between hs-CRP and hs-troponin T was also recorded (P<0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the mean hs-CRP values in patients with or without mortality. It is considered that the present study will increase the understanding of atherosclerosis in general and may also have clinical applications in the targeting of therapy for this harmful disease. PMID:28105138

  11. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with acute ischemic stroke, C-reactive protein, and short-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Alfieri, Daniela Frizon; Lehmann, Márcio Francisco; Oliveira, Sayonara Rangel; Flauzino, Tamires; Delongui, Francieli; de Araújo, Maria Caroline Martins; Dichi, Isaias; Delfino, Vinícius Daher; Mezzaroba, Leda; Simão, Andréa Name Colado; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is associated with acute ischemic stroke, inflammatory markers, and short-term outcome. 168 acute ischemic stroke patients and 118 controls were included. The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was applied up to 8 h of admission (baseline) and after three-months follow-up, and blood samples were obtained up to 24 h of admission to evaluate serum levels of 25-hydroxivitamin D [25(OH)D] and inflammatory markers. Vitamin D levels classified the individuals in sufficient (VDS ≥ 30.0 ng/mL), insufficient (VDI 20.0-29.9 ng/mL), and deficient (VDD < 20.0 ng/mL) status. Patients had lower levels of 25(OH)D, higher frequency of VDD (43.45% vs. 5.08%, OR: 16.64, 95% CI: 5.66-42.92, p < 0.001), and higher inflammatory markers than controls (p < 0.05). Patients with VDD showed increased high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels than those with VDS status (p = 0.043); those with poor outcome presented with lower 25(OH)D levels than those with good outcome (p = 0.008); moreover, 25(OH)D levels were negatively correlated with mRS after three-months follow-up (r = -0.239, p = 0.005). The associations between VDD and higher hsCRP levels and between 25(OH)D levels and poor outcome at short-term in acute ischemic stroke patients suggest the important role of vitamin D in the inflammatory response and pathophysiology of this ischemic event.

  12. Is procalcitonin to C-reactive protein ratio useful for the detection of late onset neonatal sepsis?

    PubMed

    Hahn, Won-Ho; Song, Joon-Hwan; Kim, Ho; Park, Suyeon

    2017-02-21

    Procalcitonin (PCT) has been reported as a sensitive marker for neonatal bacterial infections. Recently, small numbers of studies reported usefulness of PCT/C-reactive protein (CRP) ratio in detection of infectious conditions in adults. Thus, we conducted this study to evaluate PCT/CRP ratio in late onset neonatal sepsis. Serum PCT and CRP was measured in blood samples from 7-60 days after birth in 106 of neonates with late onset sepsis and 212 of controls who were matched with gestational age, postnatal age, birth weight and gender. Areas under ROC curve (AUC) were calculated and pairwise comparisons between ROC curves were performed. As a result, CRP (AUC 0.96) showed best performance in detection of sepsis from healthy controls compared with PCT (AUC 0.87) and PCT/CRP ratio (AUC 0.62); CRP > PCT > PCT/CRP ratio in pairwise comparison (P<0.001). Both of CRP (AUC 0.94) and PCT (AUC 0.96) was found to discriminate proven sepsis from healthy controls compared with PCT/CRP ratio (AUC 0.54); CRP = PCT > PCT/CRP ratio in pairwise comparison (P<0.001). However, in the detection of blood culture proven sepsis from suspected sepsis, PCT (AUC 0.70) and PCT/CRP ratio (AUC 0.73) showed better performance compared with CRP (AUC 0.51); PCT = PCT/CRP ratio > CRP in pairwise comparison (P<0.001 and P = 0.006, respectively). In conclusion, CRP and PCT showed good performance in discrimination between sepsis and healthy controls. However, PCT/CRP ratio seems to be helpful in distinguishing proven sepsis from suspected sepsis together with PCT. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the efficacy of PCT/CRP ratio with enrollment of enough numbers of infants.

  13. The C-reactive protein/albumin ratio predicts overall survival of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mengwan; Guo, Jing; Guo, Lihong; Zuo, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the prognostic value of the C-reactive protein/albumin (CRP/Alb) ratio in cancer. However, the role of the CRP/Alb ratio in advanced pancreatic cancer (PC) has not been examined. A retrospective study of 233 patients with advanced PC was conducted. We investigated the relationship between the CRP/Alb ratio, clinicopathological variables, and overall survival (OS). The optimal cutoff point of the CRP/Alb ratio was 0.54. A higher CRP/Alb ratio was significantly associated with an elevated neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (P < 0.001) and higher modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS) (P < 0.001). Using univariate analyses, we found that the age (P = 0.009), disease stage (P < 0.001), NLR (P < 0.001), mGPS (P < 0.001), and CRP/Alb ratio (P < 0.001) were significant predictors of OS. Patients with a higher CRP/Alb ratio had a worse OS than patients with a lower CRP/Alb ratio (hazard ratio (HR) 3.619; 95 % CI 2.681-4.886; P < 0.001). However, the CRP/Alb ratio was identified as the only inflammation-based parameter with an independent prognostic ability in the multivariate analyses (P < 0.001). The pretreatment CRP/Alb ratio is a superior prognostic and therapeutic predictor of OS in advanced PC.

  14. The longitudinal relationship between circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 in patients undergoing resection for renal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, S; Lamb, G W A; Aitchison, M; McMillan, D C

    2006-10-23

    The systemic inflammatory response, as evidenced by elevated circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein, is a stage-independent prognostic factor in patients undergoing curative nephrectomy for localised renal cancer. However, it is not clear whether the systemic inflammatory response arises from the tumour per se or as a result of an impaired immune cytokine response. The aim of the present study was to examine C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 concentrations before and following curative resection of renal cancer. Sixty-four patients with malignant renal disease and 12 with benign disease, undergoing resection were studied. Preoperatively, a blood sample was collected for routine laboratory analysis with a further sample stored before analysis of interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The blood sampling procedure and analyses were repeated at approximately 3 months following resection. Circulating concentrations of both interleukin-6 and interleukin (P< or =0.01) were higher and a greater proportion were elevated (P<0.05) in malignant compared with benign disease. The renal cancer patients were grouped according to whether they had evidence of a systemic inflammatory response. In the inflammatory group T stage was higher (P<0.01), both interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 concentrations were higher (P<0.001) and elevated (P<0.10) compared with the non-inflammatory group. Tumour volume was weakly correlated with C-reactive protein (r(2)=0.20, P=0.002), interleukin-6 (r(2)=0.20, P=0.002) and interleukin-10 (r(2)=0.24, P=0.001). Following nephrectomy the proportion of patients with elevated C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 concentrations did not alter significantly. An elevated preoperative C-reactive protein was associated with increased tumour stage, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 concentrations. However, resection of the primary tumour did not appear to be

  15. Evaluation of C-reactive protein as a clinical biomarker in naturally heartworm-infected dogs: a field study.

    PubMed

    Venco, Luigi; Bertazzolo, Walter; Giordano, Guglielmo; Paltrinieri, Saverio

    2014-11-15

    Canine heartworm disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis is considered a pulmonary disease, which leads to pulmonary hypertension, and in the late stage, may induce right cardiac insufficiency. Adult worms are localized in the pulmonary arteries, which undergo endothelial damage (proliferative endoarteritis), the severity of which depends on the duration of infection and the worm burden. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a major canine acute-phase protein that rapidly increases in a wide range of inflammatory conditions and rapidly decreases when inflammation resolves. CRP is therefore considered a sensitive but nonspecific marker of inflammation. Pulmonary arterial damage in canine heartworm may induce an increase in CRP concentrations similar to what occurs in humans with endoarteritis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether CRP may be a diagnostic and/or prognostic marker in canine heartworm, whether it may be used for staging and monitoring canine heartworm, and whether its concentration depends on worm burden or on pulmonary arterial damage. Serum CRP concentrations were determined in 57 dogs with heartworm disease, 47 of which were grouped according to parasite burden (low: n=11; high: n=10) or on severity of pulmonary hypertension (mild: n=16; severe: n=10). An additional 23 heartworm-free cardiopathic dogs were grouped on the absence of pulmonary hypertension (n=8), presence of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) (n=6), or presence of cardiomyopathy and pulmonary hypertension (n=3) due to previous heartworm disease that had been treated (n=6). Twenty control dogs also were sampled for CRP concentrations. Results show that CRP was significantly increased (p<0.001) in dogs with heartworm or cardiomyopathy compared with concentrations in controls. In the heartworm group, CRP was significantly increased (p<0.001) in dogs with mild or severe pulmonary hypertension but not in dogs with low or high parasite burden without pulmonary hypertension. Heartworm

  16. Changes in plasma C-reactive protein and hemostatic factors prior to and after a first myocardial infarction with a median follow-up time of 8 years.

    PubMed

    Thøgersen, Anna M; Nilsson, Torbjörn K; Weinehall, Lars; Boman, Kurt; Eliasson, Mats; Hallmans, Göran; Jansson, Jan-Håkan

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a first myocardial infarction leads to increased plasma levels of hemostatic factors and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and whether the association between theses biomarkers and myocardial infarction was greater at follow-up compared with baseline. Of more than 36,000 persons screened in northern Sweden, 78 developed a first myocardial infarction (on average 18 months after sampling) in a population-based, prospective, nested patient-referent study. Fifty of these had participated in a follow-up health survey (on average 8 and a half years between surveys) and were sex-matched and age-matched with 56 referents. The mean increases in hs-CRP, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mass, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mass, and tPA/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex concentration and von Willebrand factor among patients and referents were comparable during follow-up. Conditional logistic regression indicated that hs-CRP was not significantly associated with first myocardial infarction in a univariate analysis, whereas high plasma levels of tPA and creatinine were significantly associated with outcome at baseline and follow-up. tPA/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex was not superior to tPA as a risk marker in this study. A first myocardial infarction did not in this study induce significantly different changes in plasma levels of hs-CRP and hemostatic factors among patients compared with referents during follow-up.

  17. Changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels after laparoscopic gastric stapling procedures versus laparoscopic gastric banding.

    PubMed

    Gebhart, Alana; Young, Monica; Villamere, James; Shih, Anderson; Nguyen, Ninh T

    2014-10-01

    Obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia are risk factors for the development of coronary artery disease. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is an inflammatory biomarker that has been shown to be an independent predictor for cardiovascular risk. The aim of the current study was to examine the changes in cardiovascular risk profile in morbidly obese patients who underwent laparoscopic gastric stapling procedures (bypass and sleeve) compared with laparoscopic gastric banding. Levels of hs-CRP were measured preoperatively and at 12 to 24 months postoperatively. Based on hs-CRP levels, cardiovascular risk was categorized as low (less than 1 mg/L), moderate (1 to 3 mg/L), or high (greater than 3 mg/L). A total of 52 patients underwent gastric stapling procedures and 49 underwent gastric banding and both had preoperative and postoperative hs-CRP levels measured. There were no significant differences in age, gender, or preoperative body mass index (BMI) between groups. At baseline, 48.0 per cent of patients undergoing gastric stapling and 38.8 per cent of patients undergoing gastric banding had moderate or high cardiovascular risk. BMI at 24 months was significantly lower in the gastric stapling compared with the gastric banding group (30.4 ± 5.4 vs 36.1 ± 5.5 kg/m(2), respectively, P < 0.01). Of the patients with elevated cardiovascular risk, 64.0 per cent of gastric stapling versus 57.8 per cent of gastric banding patients had a reduction in risk category at 12 to 24 months follow-up, whereas 1.9 per cent of patients undergoing gastric stapling versus 4.1 per cent of patients undergoing gastric banding had an increase in risk category. The mean reduction in hs-CRP level for patients with elevated cardiovascular risk was greater for gastric stapling compared with gastric banding procedures (-1.10 ± 0.94 mg/L vs -0.67 ± 0.82 mg/L, respectively, P < 0.05). Cardiovascular risk improved in the majority of patients after bariatric surgery, but a more

  18. Effect of trimetazidine on serum interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein concentrations in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Szkodzinski, J; Danikiewicz, A; Hudzik, B; Szewczyk, M; Gąsior, M; Zubelewicz-Szkodzinska, B

    2015-01-01

    Trimetazidine is widely used in the treatment of stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and its cytoprotective effect has been confirmed in animal studies and in many clinical trials. Given the inflammatory milieu of CAD and trimetazidine effect on the inflow of neutrophilis to the ischemic area, it is interesting to consider whether trimetazidine actions could be also explained through the inhibition of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines. The aim of this study was to (i) examine the influence of treadmill exercise test (TET) on serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and (ii) the influence of three-month trimetazidine therapy on serum CRP and IL-6 concentrations. One hundred and fifty-six patients with stable CAD were included. TET was performed (according to the standard Bruce protocol) twice for all subjects – at baseline and after the three-month trimetazidine treatment. Serum IL-6 and CRP concentrations were determined prior to and after performing each TET. Exercise led to the increase of CRP (2.35 vs 2.81 mg/L, p < 0.05) and IL-6 concentrations (1.64 vs 1.92 pg/ml, p=0.0318) in patients without trimetazidine. Three-month treatment resulted in the increase in the TET duration (378.0s vs 410.9s, p < 0.05) and decrease in serum CRP concentration, both before (2.35 vs 1.51 mg/L, p < 0.05) and after TET (2.81 vs 1.69 mg/L, p < 0.05). There was no significant increase of CRP after the second TET (1.51 vs 1.69 mg/l, p=NS). Three-month trimetazidine treatment increased IL-6 concentrations (1.64 vs 2.23 pg/mL, p < 0.05). TET was not associated with further changes in IL-6 concentrations (2.23 vs 2.18 pg/mL, p=NS). Serum IL-6 and CRP concentrations increase during exercise in patients without trimetazidine. Three-month trimetazidine prolonged the duration of TET. Moreover, it resulted in the reduction of CRP concentration The increase of IL-6 concentration after three-month trimetazidine treatment and the lack of changes of its concentration

  19. Association of Vitamin D Levels With Outcome in Patients With Melanoma After Adjustment For C-Reactive Protein

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shenying; Sui, Dawen; Wang, Yuling; Liu, Huey; Chiang, Yi-Ju; Ross, Merrick I.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Cormier, Janice N.; Royal, Richard E.; Lucci, Anthony; Wargo, Jennifer; Hu, Mimi I.; Gardner, Julie M.; Reveille, John D.; Bassett, Roland L.; Wei, Qingyi; Amos, Christopher I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate for an association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (vitamin D) and outcome measures in patients with melanoma after evaluation is controlled for systemic inflammatory response (SIR) on the basis of simultaneous C-reactive protein (CRP) measurement. Materials and Methods Plasma samples from 1,042 prospectively observed patients with melanoma were assayed for vitamin D and CRP. The associations of demographics and CRP with vitamin D were determined, followed by a determination of the association between vitamin D and stage and outcome measures from the date of blood draw. The vitamin D level was considered sufficient if it was 30 to 100 ng/mL. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed. Results The median vitamin D level was 25.0 ng/mL. The median follow-up time was 7.1 years. A lower vitamin D was associated with the blood draw during fall/winter months (P < .001), older age (P = .001), increased CRP (P < .001), increased tumor thickness (P < .001), ulcerated tumor (P = .0105), and advanced melanoma stage (P = .0024). On univariate analysis, lower vitamin D was associated with poorer overall (OS; P < .001), melanoma-specific survival (MSS; P = .0025), and disease-free survival (DFS; P = .0466). The effect of vitamin D on these outcome measures persisted after adjustment for CRP and other covariates. Multivariable hazards ratios per unit decrease of vitamin D were 1.02 for OS (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.04; P = .0051), 1.02 for MSS (95% CI, 1.00 to 1.04; P = .048), and 1.02 for DFS (95% CI, 1.00 to 1.04; P = .0427). Conclusion Lower vitamin D levels in patients with melanoma were associated with poorer outcomes. Although lower vitamin D was strongly associated with higher CRP, the associations of lower vitamin D with poorer OS, MSS, and DFS were independent of this association. Investigation of mechanisms responsible for these associations may be of value to patients with melanoma. PMID:27001565

  20. Relation of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and cardiorespiratory fitness to risk of systemic hypertension in men.

    PubMed

    Jae, Sae Young; Kurl, Sudhir; Laukkanen, Jari A; Lee, Chong-Do; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Fernhall, Bo; Franklin, Barry A

    2015-06-15

    We investigated the relation between inflammation and incident hypertension, independent of obesity, and tested the associations of cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) and indexes of inflammation for the development of hypertension in 2,475 normotensive men. Inflammatory markers were C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen. Fitness was directly measured by peak oxygen uptake during sign/symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing to volitional fatigue; 266 men (10.7%) developed hypertension during an average of 4 years follow-up. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for incident hypertension in those in the upper tertile versus lower tertile were 1.55 (95% CI 1.15 to 2.09) for CRP and 1.51 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.06) for fibrinogen. Although the association between fibrinogen and incident hypertension persisted after adjusting for body mass index (p = 0.049), the relation between CRP and incident hypertension was no longer statistically significant (p = 0.08). Fit men had a 27% decreased (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.94) risk of incident hypertension compared with unfit men in a multivariable adjusted model. In the joint analysis, unfit men with upper CRP had 1.81 times (95% CI 1.21 to 2.70) and unfit men with upper fibrinogen had 2.03 times (95% CI 1.33 to 3.12) greater risks of incident hypertension compared with fit men with low CRP and fibrinogen, respectively. However, these risks did not significantly increase in fit men with upper CRP (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.63) and fibrinogen (RR 1.26, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.85) groups. In conclusion, these results suggest that heightened levels of fibrinogen, but not CRP, are associated with incident hypertension, independent of body weight, and that high fitness attenuates the risk of incident hypertension across upper levels of inflammatory markers in men.

  1. Associations between serum C-reactive protein and serum zinc, ferritin, and copper in Guatemalan school children.

    PubMed

    Bui, Vinh Q; Stein, Aryeh D; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Flores-Ayala, Rafael C; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Grant, Frederick K; Villalpando, Salvador; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2012-08-01

    Inflammation affects trace nutrient concentrations, but research on copper and particularly in children is limited. We assessed associations between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and zinc, iron, copper, and other biomarkers (alkaline phosphatase, hemoglobin, and albumin), in 634 healthy 6- to 11-year-old Guatemalan schoolchildren. CRP was measured by a standardized, high-sensitive method. For significant associations with CRP, we stratified nutrient concentrations across categories of CRP and compared concentrations above and below several CRP cutoff points (0.5, 1, 3, 5, and 10 mg/L), and then adjusted values using correction factors (ratios of geometric means of the nutrients in the low and high groups). Prevalence of serum zinc (<65 μg/dL0, ferritin (<15 μg/L), and copper (<90 μg/dL) deficiency were 21%, 2.1%, and 23.8%, respectively. Median (25th and 75th percentiles) CRP was 0.56 (0.26 and 1.54) mg/L. CRP concentration was positively associated with ferritin and copper concentrations (r = 0.23 and 0.29, respectively; P < 0.0001) but not with zinc and other biomarkers (P > 0.05). Regardless of CRP cutoffs, high (> cutoff) vs. low (≤ cutoff) CRP levels had higher ferritin and copper concentrations and lower prevalence of copper deficiency of <90 μg/dL (P < 0.05). Adjustment for inflammation had the greatest influence on recalculated prevalence for the CRP 0.5 mg/L cutoff. The low ferritin prevalence hardly changed (from 2.1% to 2.5%) while the low copper prevalence changed appreciably (from 23.8% to 31.2%). In conclusion, CRP was positively associated with ferritin and copper but not with zinc concentrations. Adjustment for inflammation had little effect on low ferritin prevalence, low to begin with, and a large impact on low copper prevalence. High-sensitive CRP methods and the use of very low CRP cutoffs may be more accurate than traditional CRP methods in the adjustment of serum copper concentrations for inflammation in healthy school children.

  2. Sex Differences in High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Subjects with Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Vinicius Pacheco; Rocha, Helena Naly Miguens; Sales, Allan Robson Kluser; Rocha, Natália Galito; da Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a prototypic marker of inflammation usually increased in MetS. Women with MetS-related diseases present higher hsCRP levels than men with MetS-related diseases, suggesting sex differences in inflammatory markers. However, it is unclear whether serum hsCRP levels are already increased in men and/or women with MetS risk factors and without overt diseases or under pharmacological treatment. Objective To determine the impact of the number of MetS risk factors on serum hsCRP levels in women and men. Methods One hundred and eighteen subjects (70 men and 48 women; 36 ± 1 years) were divided into four groups according to the number of MetS risk factors: healthy group (CT; no risk factors), MetS ≤ 2, MetS = 3, and MetS ≥ 4. Blood was drawn after 12 hours of fasting for measurement of biochemical variables and hsCRP levels, which were determined by immunoturbidimetric assay. Results The groups with MetS risk factors presented higher serum hsCRP levels when compared with the CT group (p < 0.02). There were no differences in hsCRP levels among groups with MetS risk factors (p > 0.05). The best linear regression model to explain the association between MetS risk factors and hsCRP levels included waist circumference and HDL cholesterol (r = 0.40, p < 0.01). Women with MetS risk factors presented higher hsCRP levels when compared with men (psex < 0.01). Conclusions Despite the absence of overt diseases and pharmacological treatment, subjects with MetS risk factors already presented increased hsCRP levels, which were significantly higher in women than men at similar conditions. PMID:27027366

  3. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence determination of C-reactive protein with carboxyl CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shijun; Harris, Emma; Shi, Jian; Chen, Alfred; Parajuli, Suman; Jing, Xiaohui; Miao, Wujian

    2010-09-14

    Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of water-soluble core/shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) coated with carboxylated polyethylene glycol polymers ("Qdot 625") was investigated in aqueous solutions using 2-(dibutylamino)ethanol (DBAE) and tri-n-propylamine (TPrA) as ECL coreactants. In both cases, ECL emissions at glassy carbon (GC) electrode appeared at the same potential of approximately 0.80 V vs. Ag/AgCl (3.0 M KCl), which was approximately 200 and approximately 150 mV more positive compared with the oxidation potentials for DBAE (approximately +0.60 V vs. Ag/AgCl) and TPrA (approximately +0.65 V vs. Ag/AgCl), respectively. The ECL intensity, however, was significantly affected by the type and the concentration of the ECL coreactant used as well as the nature of the working electrode. Under the present experimental conditions, ECL from DBAE was approximately 17 times stronger than that from TPrA. The maximum ECL was obtained at GC electrode when [DBAE] approximately = 53 mM, where a ratio of 11:3:1 in ECL intensity was evaluated for GC, Au, and Pt electrodes, respectively. The ECL emission of the Qdot 625/DBAE system had an apparent peak value of approximately 625 nm that matched well the fluorescence data. The QD as a label for ECL-based immunoassays of C-reactive protein (CRP) was realized by covalent binding of avidin on its surface, which allowed biotinylated anti-CRP to be attached and interacted with solution-phase CRP and the anti-CRP linked to micro-sized magnetic beads. The newly formed sandwich type aggregates were separated magnetically from the solution matrix, followed by the ECL generation at partially transparent Au nanoparticle-coated ITO electrode or Au/CD electrode in the presence of DBAE. Much stronger ECL responses were observed from the Au/CD electrode, at which a dynamic range of 1.0-10.0 microg mL(-1) CRP and a limit of detection of 1.0 microg mL(-1) CRP were obtained, respectively.

  4. The Relationship between C-Reactive Protein Level and Discharge Outcome in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Geng, He-Hong; Wang, Xin-Wang; Fu, Rong-Li; Jing, Meng-Juan; Huang, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker, was associated with stroke severity and long-term outcome. However, the relationship between the acute-phase CRP level and discharge outcome has received little attention. We prospectively studied 301 patients with acute ischemic stroke (over a period of two weeks) from two hospital stroke wards and one rehabilitation department in Henan, China. Patients’ demographic and clinical data were collected and evaluated at admission. Poor discharge outcome was assessed in patients at discharge using the Modified Rankin Scale (MRS > 2). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors of poor discharge outcome after adjusting for potential confounders. Poor discharge outcome was observed in 78 patients (25.9%). Univariate analyses showed that factors significantly influencing poor discharge outcome were age, residence, recurrent acute ischemic stroke, coronary heart disease, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at admission, non-lacunar stroke, time from onset of stroke to admission, CRP, TBIL (total bilirubin), direct bilirubin (DBIL), ALB (albumin), FIB (fibrinogen) and D-dimer (p < 0.05). After adjusting for age, residence, recurrent ischemic stroke, coronary heart disease, NIHSS score at admission, lacunar stroke, time from onset of stroke to admission, CRP, TBIL, DBIL, ALB, FIB and D-dimer, multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that poor outcome at discharge was associated with recurrent acute ischemic stroke (OR, 2.115; 95% CI, 1.094–4.087), non-lacunar stroke (OR, 2.943; 95% CI, 1.436–6.032), DBIL (OR, 1.795; 95% CI, 1.311–2.458), and CRP (OR, 4.890; 95% CI, 3.063–7.808). In conclusion, the CRP level measured at admission was found to be an independent predictor of poor outcome at discharge. Recurrent acute ischemic stroke, non-lacunar stroke and DBIL were also significantly associated with discharge

  5. Increased serum C-reactive protein concentrations in dogs with congestive heart failure due to myxomatous mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    Reimann, M J; Ljungvall, I; Hillström, A; Møller, J E; Hagman, R; Falk, T; Höglund, K; Häggström, J; Olsen, L H

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease in humans and dogs is associated with mildly increased circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP). Few studies have evaluated associations between circulating CRP and canine myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and the results reported have been divergent. The aim of this study was to investigate whether serum concentrations of CRP, determined using a novel automated canine-specific high-sensitivity CRP assay (Gentian hsCRP), were associated with severity of MMVD and selected clinical variables in dogs. The study included 188 client-owned dogs with different severities of MMVD. Dogs were classified based on ACVIM consensus statement guidelines (group A, n = 58; group B1, n = 56; group B2, n = 38; group C, n = 36). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. Dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF; group C) had significantly higher CRP concentrations (median, 2.65 mg/L; quartile 1-quartile 3, 1.09-5.09) compared to dogs in groups A (median, 0.97 mg/L; quartile 1-quartile 3, <0.50-1.97; P = 0.001), B1 (median, 0.78 mg/L; quartile 1-quartile 3, <0.50-1.73, P <0.0001) and B2 (median, 0.60 mg/L; quartile 1-quartile 3, <0.50-1.23; P <0.0001). Other variables reflecting disease severity, including left atrial to aortic root ratio (P = 0.0002, adjusted r(2) = 0.07) and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter normalised for bodyweight (P = 0.0005, adjusted r(2) = 0.06), were positively associated with CRP concentration, but the association disappeared if dogs with CHF were excluded from analysis. In conclusion, slightly higher CRP concentrations were found in dogs with CHF whereas severity of asymptomatic MMVD showed no association with CRP concentrations.

  6. C-reactive protein in outpatients with acute exacerbation of COPD: its relationship with microbial etiology and severity

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, Miguel; Pomares, Xavier; Capilla, Silvia; Marcos, Maria Angeles; Suárez, David; Monsó, Eduard; Montón, Concepción

    2016-01-01

    Background C-reactive protein (CRP) measurement has proven valuable for detecting exacerbations, but its usefulness in predicting etiology remains controversial. Likewise, its potential value as a marker of severity, which is well established in patients with pneumonia, remains unproven in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. Methods A cohort study of 118 patients with severe COPD and acute infectious exacerbations were included and followed up over 1 year. Episodes of exacerbations meeting Anthonisen’s criteria type I–II were evaluated, analyzing the etiology and inflammatory response as measured by CRP in blood. Results A total of 380 episodes were recorded. Full microbiological analysis was available in 265 samples. Haemophilus influenzae was the most commonly isolated bacteria and rhinovirus the most common virus. Median CRP levels from the 265 episodes were higher in the cases with positive cultures for bacteria (58.30 mg/L, interquartile range [IQR] 21.0–28.2) than in episodes only positive for viruses (37.3 mg/L, IQR 18.6–79.1) and cases negative for any microorganism (36.4 mg/L, IQR 10.8–93.7) (P<0.014). H. influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae reached the highest CRP levels of 74.5 mg/L (IQR 23.9–167.9) and 74.1 mg/L (IQR 42.0–220.7), respectively. In the 380 exacerbations studied, 227 (~60%) were community-managed, while 153 (~40%) required hospital admission. In the multivariate analysis to assess the influence of inflammatory response on exacerbation severity, baseline hypercapnia (odds ratio [OR]: 2.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46–4.9) and CRP levels >100 mg/L (OR: 4.23, 95% CI: 2.12–8.44) were independent predictors after adjustment for baseline characteristics. Conclusion CRP level was higher in bacterial infections, especially when H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae were isolated. CRP values >100 mg/L were associated with a fourfold increased risk of hospital admission. Therefore, CRP blood levels may

  7. [Diagnostic value of determination of the blood concentrations of serotonin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients with tick-borne encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Sumlivaia, O N; Vorob'eva, N N; Karakulova, Iu V

    2014-01-01

    The paper shows the informative value of changes in the serum levels of serotonin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in 44 patients in the acute period of tickborne encephalitis. Group 1 included 35 patients with non-paralytic neuroinfection; Group 2 comprised 9 patients with paralytic neuroinfection. The serum level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein increased and that of serotonin decreased in relation to the form and severity of the disease at its height. The elevated level of the former and the low concentration of the latter may serve as an early predictor of the development of a severe paralytic form. Investigating their serum concentrations should be included into an examination plan for patients with acute tick-borne encephalitis.

  8. Inverse Association of Plasma IgG Antibody to Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and High C-Reactive Protein Levels in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome and Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Thanakun, Supanee; Pornprasertsuk-Damrongsri, Suchaya; Gokyu, Misa; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Izumi, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    The association between clinically diagnosed periodontitis, a common chronic oral infection, and metabolic syndrome has been previously reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of plasma IgG levels against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia, C-reactive protein, and periodontal status with metabolic syndrome. Plasma IgG levels and C-reactive protein were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and salivary levels of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Among 127 individuals aged 35-76 years, 57 participants had metabolic syndrome and severe periodontitis, 25 had metabolic syndrome and an absence of severe periodontitis, 17 healthy individuals had severe periodontitis, and 28 healthy individuals were without severe periodontitis. Patients with metabolic syndrome had reduced humoral immune response to A. actinomycetemcomitans (p = 0.008), regardless of their salivary levels or periodontitis status compared with healthy participants. The IgG antibody response to P. gingivalis, regardless of their salivary levels or participants' health condition, was significantly higher in severe periodontitis patients (p<0.001). Plasma IgG titers for P. intermedia were inconsistent among metabolic syndrome or periodontal participants. Our results indicate that the presence of lower levels of IgG antibodies to A. actinomycetemcomitans (OR = 0.1; 95%CI 0.0-0.7), but not P. gingivalis, a severe periodontitis status (OR = 7.8; 95%CI 1.1-57.0), high C-reactive protein levels (OR = 9.4; 95%CI 1.0-88.2) and body mass index (OR = 3.0; 95%CI 1.7-5.2), are associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. The role of the decreased IgG antibody response to A. actinomycetemcomitans, increased C-reactive protein levels on the association between periodontal disease and metabolic syndrome in a group of Thai patients is suggested.

  9. Effect of point of care testing for C reactive protein and training in communication skills on antibiotic use in lower respiratory tract infections: cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Christopher C; Hopstaken, Rogier M; Hood, Kerenza; Dinant, Geert-Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of general practitioner testing for C reactive protein (disease approach) and receiving training in enhanced communication skills (illness approach) on antibiotic prescribing for lower respiratory tract infection. Design Pragmatic, 2×2 factorial, cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting 20 general practices in the Netherlands. Participants 40 general practitioners from 20 practices recruited 431 patients with lower respiratory tract infection. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was antibiotic prescribing at the index consultation. Secondary outcomes were antibiotic prescribing during 28 days’ follow-up, reconsultation, clinical recovery, and patients’ satisfaction and enablement. Interventions General practitioners’ use of C reactive protein point of care testing and training in enhanced communication skills separately and combined, and usual care. Results General practitioners in the C reactive protein test group prescribed antibiotics to 31% of patients compared with 53% in the no test group (P=0.02). General practitioners trained in enhanced communication skills prescribed antibiotics to 27% of patients compared with 54% in the no training group (P<0.01). Both interventions showed a statistically significant effect on antibiotic prescribing at any point during the 28 days’ follow-up. Clinicians in the combined intervention group prescribed antibiotics to 23% of patients (interaction term was non-significant). Patients’ recovery and satisfaction were similar in all study groups. Conclusion Both general practitioners’ use of point of care testing for C reactive protein and training in enhanced communication skills significantly reduced antibiotic prescribing for lower respiratory tract infection without compromising patients’ recovery and satisfaction with care. A combination of the illness and disease focused approaches may be necessary to achieve the greatest reduction in antibiotic prescribing for this

  10. Associations between change in sleep duration and inflammation: findings on C-reactive protein and interleukin 6 in the Whitehall II Study.

    PubMed

    Ferrie, Jane E; Kivimäki, Mika; Akbaraly, Tasnime N; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Miller, Michelle A; Gimeno, David; Kumari, Meena; Davey Smith, George; Shipley, Martin J

    2013-09-15

    Cross-sectional evidence suggests associations between sleep duration and levels of the inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. This longitudinal study uses data from the London-based Whitehall II study to examine whether changes in sleep duration are associated with average levels of inflammation from 2 measures 5 years apart. Sleep duration (≤5, 6, 7, 8, ≥9 hours on an average week night) was assessed in 5,003 middle-aged women and men in 1991/1994 and 1997/1999. Fasting levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were measured in 1997/1999 and 2002/2004. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that shorter sleep is associated with higher levels of inflammatory markers. Longitudinal analyses showed that each hour per night decrease in sleep duration between 1991/1994 and 1997/1999 was associated with higher levels of C-reactive protein (8.1%) and interleukin-6 (4.5%) averaged across measures in 1997/1999 and 2002/2004. Adjustment for longstanding illness and major cardiometabolic risk factors indicated that disease processes may partially underlie these associations. An increase in sleep duration was not associated with average levels of inflammatory markers. These results suggest that both short sleep and reductions in sleep are associated with average levels of inflammation over a 5-year period.

  11. Interactions of C-Reactive Protein and Serum Amyloid P Component with Interleukin-8 and Their Role in Regulation of Neutrophil Functions.

    PubMed

    Galkina, Elena V.; Nazarov, Peter G.; Polevschikov, Alexander V.; Berestovaya, Larissa K.; Galkin, Vitold E.; Bychkova, Natalia V.

    2000-12-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid P component (SAP) are acute phase proteins, whose concentrations increase within 24 h of inflammation along with concentration of IL-8. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNs) form the earliest barrier protecting an injured organ during acute phase response. The aim of present work was to study interactions between CRP, SAP and IL-8, and to estimate the role of these interactions in regulation of neutrophil transendothelial migration. The results have shown that IL-8 binds to immobilized but not to free CRP. Binding of IL-8 to immobilized SAP was less strong. SAP like IL-8 increased CD11/CD18 integrin expression. IL-8 did not abolish the effect of SAP, and the mixture of IL-8 and SAP has stimulated CD11/CD18 expression. CRP upregulated CD18 but not CD11b expression. Under simultaneous action of CRP and IL-8, the stimulatory effect on CD11b and CD18 was abolished. The expression of fibronectin receptor was reduced by either IL-8 or CRP but increased by SAP. Effect of each protein was downregulated after following preincubations: CRP+SAP, CRP+IL-8 or SAP+IL-8. The mixtures of CRP with SAP, CRP with IL-8 or SAP with IL-8 showed no chemotactic activity, although each of the proteins was chemoattractive. Thus, acute phase proteins and IL-8 can act as anti-inflammatory factors upon binding each other. In summary, CRP and SAP influence PMN adhesion, migration and expression of CD11b/CD18 and fibronectin receptors, and can modulate the action of IL-8 on PMN attachment to endothelium and fibronectin, and on PMN traffic through the extracellular matrix during transendothelial migration.

  12. [LEVELS OF SERUM ANTIBODIES TO ENTEROBACTERIAL LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH CONCENTRATION OF C-REACTIVE PROTEIN IN DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS].

    PubMed

    Gordienko, A I

    2015-01-01

    We examined patients with type 1 (DM 1) and type 2 (DM 2) diabetes mellitus. The concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the blood and levels of serum antibodies to different classes of enterobacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were determined by ELISA. Using cluster analysis it was shown that in 40.8% DM-1 patients the increased concentration of CRP is associated with a decrease in the levels of serum anti-LPS-IgA, anti-LPS-IgM and anti-LPS-IgG. In 56.7% of DM-2 patients with increased concentration of CRP levels of serum anti-LPS-IgA and anti-LPS-IgM were not significantly different from the normal values, but the levels of serum anti-LPS-IgG were significantly increased. Activation of inflammation and increase of concentration of the CRP in the blood of DM-2 patients is accompanied by a significant increase in the levels of serum anti-LPS-A and anti-LPS-G, as well as the tendency to reduce the levels of anti-LPS-IgM. The results of this study suggest an association between low intensity inflammation and immune response to enterobacterial LPS in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Lymphocyte count was significantly associated with hyper-LDL cholesterolemia independently of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in apparently healthy Japanese.

    PubMed

    Oda, Eiji; Kawai, Ryu; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between leukocyte subtype counts and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia. Logistic regressions using hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia as a dependent variable and total leukocyte, basophil, eosinophil, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts as an independent variable were calculated adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), smoking, drinking, and physical activity in apparently healthy Japanese men (1,803) and women (1,150). The odds ratio (OR) of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia for total leukocyte, eosinophil, and lymphocyte counts, the OR of hypertriglyceridemia for total leukocyte, eosinophil, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and the OR of hypo-HDL cholesterolemia for total leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were significant in men, and the OR of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, for lymphocyte count, and the OR of hypo-HDL cholesterolemia for eosinophil count were significant in women. Lymphocyte count was significantly associated with hyper-LDL cholesterolemia independently of hs-CRP in apparently healthy Japanese.

  14. Mutations of C-reactive protein (CRP) -286 SNP, APC and p53 in colorectal cancer: implication for a CRP-Wnt crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Su, Hai-Xiang; Zhou, Hai-Hong; Wang, Ming-Yu; Cheng, Jin; Zhang, Shi-Chao; Hui, Feng; Chen, Xue-Zhong; Liu, Shan-Hui; Liu, Qin-Jiang; Zhu, Zi-Jiang; Hu, Qing-Rong; Wu, Yi; Ji, Shang-Rong

    2014-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an established marker of inflammation with pattern-recognition receptor-like activities. Despite the close association of the serum level of CRP with the risk and prognosis of several types of cancer, it remains elusive whether CRP contributes directly to tumorigenesis or just represents a bystander marker. We have recently identified recurrent mutations at the SNP position -286 (rs3091244) in the promoter of CRP gene in several tumor types, instead suggesting that locally produced CRP is a potential driver of tumorigenesis. However, it is unknown whether the -286 site is the sole SNP position of CRP gene targeted for mutation and whether there is any association between CRP SNP mutations and other frequently mutated genes in tumors. Herein, we have examined the genotypes of three common CRP non-coding SNPs (rs7553007, rs1205, rs3093077) in tumor/normal sample pairs of 5 cancer types (n = 141). No recurrent somatic mutations are found at these SNP positions, indicating that the -286 SNP mutations are preferentially selected during the development of cancer. Further analysis reveals that the -286 SNP mutations of CRP tend to co-occur with mutated APC particularly in rectal cancer (p = 0.04; n = 67). By contrast, mutations of CRP and p53 or K-ras appear to be unrelated. There results thus underscore the functional importance of the -286 mutation of CRP in tumorigenesis and imply an interaction between CRP and Wnt signaling pathway.

  15. Cinnamon may have therapeutic benefits on lipid profile, liver enzymes, insulin resistance, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients.

    PubMed

    Askari, Faezeh; Rashidkhani, Bahram; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2014-02-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent cause of hepatic injury in the world. One of the most important therapeutic strategies for this disease is modulating insulin resistance and oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that supplementation with cinnamon exerts an insulin sensitizer effect in patients with NAFLD. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with two parallel groups, fifty patients with NAFLD were randomized to receive daily supplementation with either two capsules of cinnamon (each capsule contain 750 mg cinnamon) or 2 placebo capsules, daily for 12 weeks. During the intervention, all patients were given advice on how to implement a balanced diet and physical activity into their daily lives. In the treatment group (P < .05), significant decreases in HOMA (Homeostatic Model Assessment) index, FBS (fasting blood glucose), total cholesterol, triglyceride, ALT (alanine aminotransferase), AST (aspartate aminotransferase), GGT (gamma glutamine transpeptidase), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were seen, but there was no significant change in serum high-density lipoproteins levels (P = .122). In both groups, low-density lipoproteins decreased significantly (P < .05). In conclusion, the study suggests that taking 1500 mg cinnamon daily may be effective in improving NAFLD characteristics.

  16. C-reactive protein and brain natriuretic peptide as predictors of adverse events after lower extremity endovascular revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Patrick A.; Schlarb, Haley; Campbell, John E.; Williams, David; Thompson, Stephanie N.; John, Molly; Campbell, James R.; AbuRahma, Ali F.

    2015-01-01

    Background High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) have been shown to be independent predictors of adverse cardiovascular outcomes and increased risk of secondary interventions or limb loss in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). To assist clinicians in decision-making about treatment approaches and predicting postprocedure mortality and morbidity, we retrospectively examined patients with preprocedure hsCRP and BNP levels who underwent elective angioplasty or stent placement for lower extremity PAD. Methods The study period was from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2012, and patients were included who had angioplasty or stenting for PAD. Minimal required follow-up for study inclusion was at least one postoperative ankle-brachial index, contrast angiography, or duplex imaging of the treated limb. Events of interest included major adverse limb events (MALE), defined as target vessel revascularization, amputation, or disease progression by 1 year, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; stroke, myocardial infarction, or death) by 2 years. Elevated/abnormal values for our biomarkers of interest were established by the upper limits of our institution's clinical laboratory reference range (hsCRP, >0.80 mg/dL; BNP, >100 pg/mL). Results A total of 159 limbs in 118 patients were included in analysis (42% men; median age [range], 64 [42-87] years). All limbs were symptomatic (Rutherford classification: 1-6). Iliac artery revascularization without other adjunct lower extremity intervention was performed in 60% of the limbs. High hsCRP levels (>0.80 mg/dL) were present in 32 patients (27%) and high BNP values (>100 pg/mL) in 24 patients (20%). Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank comparison demonstrated that elevated hsCRP levels were associated with MALE but only in limbs receiving interventions distal to the iliac arteries (P = .005). High BNP levels did not affect MALE rates (P = .821). Conversely, both elevated BNP

  17. Synthesis of grafted phosphorylcholine polymer layers as specific recognition ligands for C-reactive protein focused on grafting density and thickness to achieve highly sensitive detection.

    PubMed

    Kamon, Yuri; Kitayama, Yukiya; Itakura, Akiko N; Fukazawa, Kyoko; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Takeuchi, Toshifumi

    2015-04-21

    We studied the effects of layer thickness and grafting density of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) thin layers as specific ligands for the highly sensitive binding of C-reactive protein (CRP). PMPC layer thickness was controlled by surface-initiated activators generated by electron transfer for atom transfer radical polymerization (AGET ATRP). PMPC grafting density was controlled by utilizing mixed self-assembled monolayers with different incorporation ratios of the bis[2-(2-bromoisobutyryloxy)undecyl] disulfide ATRP initiator, as modulated by altering the feed molar ratio with (11-mercaptoundecyl)tetra(ethylene glycol). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ellipsometry measurements were used to characterize the modified surfaces. PMPC grafting densities were estimated from polymer thickness and the molecular weight obtained from sacrificial initiator during surface-initiated AGET ATRP. The effects of thickness and grafting density of the obtained PMPC layers on CRP binding performance were investigated using surface plasmon resonance employing a 10 mM Tris-HCl running buffer containing 140 mM NaCl and 2 mM CaCl2 (pH 7.4). Furthermore, the non-specific binding properties of the obtained layers were investigated using human serum albumin (HSA) as a reference protein. The PMPC layer which has 4.6 nm of thickness and 1.27 chains per nm(2) of grafting density showed highly sensitive CRP detection (limit of detection: 4.4 ng mL(-1)) with low non-specific HSA adsorption, which was improved 10 times than our previous report of 50 ng mL(-1).

  18. C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and Pig-Major acute phase protein profiles of pigs infected experimentally by different isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Saco, Y; Martínez-Lobo, F; Cortey, M; Pato, R; Peña, R; Segalés, J; Prieto, C; Bassols, A

    2016-02-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) is the etiologic agent of PRRS, one of the most important diseases in swine worldwide. In the present work, the effects of different PRRSV strains were tested on a piglet experimental model to study the induced acute phase response. For this purpose, pigs (n=15 for each group) were intranasally inoculated with one of five PRRSV strains (isolates EU10, 12, 17, 18 from genotype 1 and isolate JA-142 from genotype 2). The acute phase response was monitored by measuring acute phase proteins (APPs). Specifically, the serum concentration of haptoglobin (Hp), C-reactive protein (CRP) and Pig-Major Acute Protein (Pig-MAP) was determined at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 days p.i. Clinical signs and growth performance were also monitored during the experiment. All animals became viremic after inoculation during the study period. The APP response was heterogeneous and dependent on the strain, being strains EU10, EU 18 and JA-142 those that induced the highest response and the strongest clinical signs. In general, Hp was the most sensitive biomarker for PRRSV infection, CRP behaved as moderate and Pig-MAP was the less responsive during the course of PRRSV experimental infection. Hp and CRP were significantly discriminatory between infected and control pigs, but not Pig-MAP.

  19. The value of synovial biopsy, joint aspiration and C-reactive protein in the diagnosis of late peri-prosthetic infection of total knee replacements.

    PubMed

    Fink, B; Makowiak, C; Fuerst, M; Berger, I; Schäfer, P; Frommelt, L

    2008-07-01

    We analysed the serum C-reactive protein level, synovial fluid obtained by joint aspiration and five synovial biopsies from 145 knee replacements prior to revision to assess the value of these parameters in diagnosing late peri-prosthetic infection. Five further synovial biopsies were used for histological analysis. Samples were also obtained during the revision and incubated and analysed in an identical manner for 14 days. A total of 40 total knee replacements were found to be infected (prevalence 27.6%). The aspiration technique had a sensitivity of 72.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 58.7 to 86.3), a specificity of 95.2% (95% CI 91.2 to 99.2), a positive predictive value of 85.3% (95% CI 73.4 to 100), a negative predictive value of 90.1% (95% CI 84.5 to 95.7) and an accuracy of 89%. The biopsy technique had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 98.1% (95% CI 95.5 to 100), a positive predictive value of 95.2% (95% CI 88.8 to 100), a negative predictive value of 100% and an accuracy of 98.6%. C-reactive protein with a cut-off-point of 13.5 mg/l had a sensitivity of 72.5% (95% CI 58.7 to 86.3), a specificity of 80.9% (95% CI 73.4 to 88.4), a positive predictive value of 59.2% (95% CI 45.4 to 73.0), a negative predictive value of 88.5% (95% 81.0 to 96.0 CI) and an accuracy of 78.1%. We found that biopsy was superior to joint aspiration and C-reactive protein in the diagnosis of late peri-prosthetic infection of total knee replacements.

  20. Delivery Mode, Duration of Labor, and Cord Blood Adiponectin, Leptin, and C-Reactive Protein: Results of the Population-Based Ulm Birth Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Chad A.; Thiel, Larissa; Bornemann, Rebecca; Koenig, Wolfgang; Reister, Frank; Brenner, Hermann; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Genuneit, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have reported associations between delivery mode and health outcomes in infancy and later life. Previous smaller studies indicated a relationship between delivery mode and newborn inflammation potentially constituting a mediating factor. We aimed to determine the influence of delivery mode and duration of labor on cord blood concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Methods In the Ulm SPATZ Health Study, 934 singleton newborns and their mothers were recruited during their hospital stay in the University Medical Center Ulm, Southern Germany, from 04/2012-05/2013. Inflammatory biomarkers were measured by ELISAs (n = 836). Delivery mode was analyzed categorically (elective cesarean (reference), active labor delivery: emergency cesarean, assisted vaginal, and spontaneous vaginal); duration of labor continuously. Following log-transformation, linear regression was used to estimate geometric means ratios (GMR) adjusted for potential confounders for the effects of delivery mode and duration of labor on each biomarker separately. Independent replication was sought in the similarly conducted Ulm Birth Cohort Study recruited from 11/2000-11/2001. Results Individually, active labor delivery modes as well as increasing duration of labor were associated with higher leptin and hs-CRP concentrations. After mutual adjustment, the associations with delivery modes were attenuated but those for duration of labor remained statistically significant (GMR (95%CI) 1.10 (1.00; 1.21) and 1.15 (1.04; 1.27) for leptin and hs-CRP per hour of labor, respectively). No significant adjusted associations were observed between delivery modes and adiponectin concentrations. These findings were replicated in an independent birth cohort study. Conclusions Cord blood leptin and hs-CRP concentrations were associated with duration of labor rather than delivery mode. Further research is warranted to investigate these associations

  1. Evaluating the Effect of Lidocaine on the Interactions of C-reactive Protein with Its Aptamer and Antibody by Dynamic Force Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiping; Wang, Qing; Yang, Xiaohai; Wang, Kemin; Du, Shasha; Zhang, Hua; Gao, Lei; Zheng, Yan; Nie, Wenyan

    2017-03-21

    Effects of medicine on the biomolecular interaction have been given extensive attention in biochemistry and biomedicine because of the complexity of the environment in vivo and the increasing opportunity of exposure to medicine. Herein, the effect of lidocaine on the interactions of C-reactive protein (CRP) with its aptamer and antibody under different temperature was investigated through dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS). The results revealed that lidocaine could reduce the binding probabilities and binding affinities of the CRP-aptamer and the CRP-antibody. An interesting discovery was that lidocaine had differential influences on the dynamic force spectra of the CRP-aptamer and the CRP-antibody. The energy landscape of the CRP-aptamer turned from two activation barriers to one after the treatment of lidocaine, while the one activation barrier in energy landscape of the CRP-antibody almost remained unchanged. In addition, similar results were obtained for 25 and 37 °C. In accordance with the result of molecular docking, the reduction of binding probabilities might be due to the binding of lidocaine on CRP. Additionally, the alteration of the dissociation pathway of the CRP-aptamer and the change of binding affinities might be caused by the conformational change of CRP, which was verified through synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. Furthermore, differential effects of lidocaine on the interactions of CRP-aptamer and CRP-antibody might be attributed to the different dissociation processes and binding sites of the CRP-aptamer and the CRP-antibody and different structures of the aptamer and the antibody. This work indicated that DFS provided information for further research and comprehensive applications of biomolecular interaction, especially in the design of biosensors in complex systems.

  2. The association of high-sensitivity c-reactive protein and other biomarkers with cardiovascular disease in patients treated for HIV: a nested case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population, but its role as a predictive marker in HIV-positive patients remains unclear. Aim of the study was to evaluate whether hsCRP or other biomarkers are independent predictors of CVD risk in HIV-infected patients. Methods Retrospective, nested case–control study. HIV-positive men and women (35–69 years of age) receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) were included. Cases (n = 35) had a major CVD event. Controls (n = 74) free from CVD events for at least 5 years from starting ART were matched on diabetes and smoking. HsCRP, D-dimer, P-selectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were measured. Results High hsCRP was associated with CVD risk, independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, HIV replication and the type of ART received at the time of sampling (adjusted odds ratio 8.00 [1.23-51.94] comparing >3.3 mg/L with <0.9 mg/L; P = 0.03). Higher IL-6 and P-selectin levels were also independently associated with increased CVD risk, although the association was weaker than for hsCRP. Higher total cholesterol and lower HDL cholesterol increased CVD risk, independent of hsCRP. Conclusion hsCRP may be a useful additional biomarker to predict CVD risk in HIV-infected patients receiving cART. PMID:24004495

  3. Combined measurement of ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, retinol binding protein, and C-reactive protein by an inexpensive, sensitive, and simple sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique.

    PubMed

    Erhardt, Juergen G; Estes, John E; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Biesalski, Hans K; Craft, Neal E

    2004-11-01

    The measurement of vitamin A (VA) and iron status is very important in the assessment of nutritional deficiencies. The objective of this research was to develop a sandwich ELISA technique for the simultaneous measurement of ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, retinol binding protein, and C-reactive protein (CRP) as indicators for VA and iron status. The inclusion of CRP as marker of infection allows for more accurate interpretation of VA and iron status. This is accomplished in a 30-microL serum or plasma sample using an ELISA with different capture and detection antibodies and different dilutions of the sample. Commercially available clinical serum controls were used for calibration purposes. The developed assays were compared to commercially available traditional tests. Regression coefficients comparing both assays were better than 0.84 (P < 0.001). Using a limited sample set, the sandwich ELISA assay produced very similar specificity and sensitivity compared to traditional methods when common cutoff values were applied. Intra- and interassay variability was between 5 and 14% for all tests. The cost of the materials for all 5 measurements decreases to less than $1/sample if a large number of samples is analyzed. Due to the low cost, high throughput, and comparability to traditional tests, this procedure has several advantages for assessing VA and iron status in population surveys.

  4. The inverse association between cardiorespiratory fitness and C-reactive protein is mediated by autonomic function: a possible role of the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway.

    PubMed

    Jae, Sae Young; Heffernan, Kevin S; Yoon, Eun Sun; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Fernhall, Bo; Park, Won Hah

    2009-01-01

    Although studies have shown an inverse association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. There is emerging evidence that autonomic nervous system function is related to CRP levels. Because high CRF is related to improved autonomic function, we hypothesized that the association between high CRF and low CRP levels would be affected by autonomic nervous system function. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on 2,456 asymptomatic men who participated in a medical screening program. Fasting blood samples for cardiovascular disease risk factors were analyzed, and CRF was measured by maximal exercise treadmill test with expired gas analysis. We used an index of cardiac autonomic imbalance defined as the ratio of resting heart rate to 1 min of heart rate recovery after exercise (RHR/HRR). CRF was significantly correlated with CRP (r = -0.16, P < 0.05), and RHR/HRR (r = -0.48, P < 0.05), while RHR/HRR was significantly correlated with CRP (r = 0.25, P < 0.05). In multivariable linear regression models that adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking, disease status, medications, lipid profiles, glucose, and systolic blood pressure, CRF was inversely associated with CRP (beta = -0.09, P < 0.05). However, this relationship was no longer significant after adjusting for RHR/HRR in a multivariable linear regression model (beta = -0.03, P = 0.29). These results suggest that autonomic nervous system function significantly affects the relationship between CRF and inflammation in middle-aged men. Thus, physical activity or exercise training may favorably affect the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway, but additional research is needed to confirm this finding.

  5. Blood/Brain Biomarkers of Inflammation After Stroke and Their Association With Outcome: From C-Reactive Protein to Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Alejandro; Simats, Alba; Vilar-Bergua, Andrea; García-Berrocoso, Teresa; Montaner, Joan

    2016-10-01

    Stroke represents one of the most important causes of disability and death in developed countries. However, there is a lack of prognostic tools in clinical practice to monitor the neurological condition and predict the final outcome. Blood biomarkers have been proposed and studied in this indication; however, no biomarker is currently used in clinical practice. The stroke-related neuroinflammatory processes have been associated with a poor outcome in stroke, as well as with poststroke complications. In this review, we focus on the most studied blood biomarkers of this inflammatory processes, cytokines, and C-reactive protein, evaluating its association with outcome and complications in stroke through the literature, and performing a systematic review on the association of C-reactive protein and functional outcome after stroke. Globally, we identified uncertainty with regard to the association of the evaluated biomarkers with stroke outcome, with little added value on top of clinical predictors such as age or stroke severity, which makes its implementation unlikely in clinical practice for global outcome prediction. Regarding poststroke complications, despite being more practical scenarios in which to make medical decisions following a biomarker prediction, not many studies have been performed, although there are now some candidates for prediction of poststroke infections. Finally, as potential new candidates, we reviewed the pathophysiological actions of damage-associated molecular patterns as triggers of the neuroinflammatory cascade of stroke, and their possible use as biomarkers.

  6. Concentrations of C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and haptoglobin in uterine arterial and peripheral blood in bitches with pyometra.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, Roman; Kostro, Krzysztof; Szczubiał, Marek

    2013-09-15

    Pyometra is a life-threatening reproductive disorder that affects the uterus of female dogs. This study was designed to identify the possible indicators of uterine inflammation by comparing C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and haptoglobin (Hp) concentrations in uterine arterial and peripheral venous blood in bitches with open- and closed-cervix pyometra. CRP, SAA, and Hp concentrations were higher in bitches with closed-cervix pyometra irrespective of the site of blood collection. Higher acute-phase protein concentrations were observed in peripheral compared with uterine arterial blood in bitches with closed-cervix pyometra, whereas the levels were comparable in dogs with open-cervix pyometra. Our results indicate that mean acute-phase protein concentrations differ according to pyometra type/severity and blood source and suggest the possible use of peripheral blood levels of CRP, SAA, and Hp to monitor inflammation during the course of pyometra.

  7. Association of -717A>G Polymorphism in the C-Reactive Protein Gene (CRP) with Schizotypal Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Alfimova, M V; Golimbet, V E; Lezheiko, T V; Kondrat'ev, N V

    2016-11-01

    Associations between schizotypal traits and genes coding for inflammation markers (Creactive protein and TNF-α) were studied in 222 healthy men who completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-74). CRP -717A>G and TNFα -308 G>A polymorphisms were genotyped. Carriers of low-active allele G of the CRP gene differed from subjects with genotype AA by a trend toward more manifest schizotypal traits in general and scores on the Interpersonal factor, which corresponds to negative syndrome in schizophrenia, and Constricted affect and Odd behavior scales. These results could be interpreted in favor of the hypothesis on a compensatory increase of CRP concentrations in subjects with abnormalities of CNS development that predispose to schizophrenia.

  8. Comparison of a qualitative canine C-reactive protein test to a quantitative test and traditional markers of inflammation - Short communication.

    PubMed

    Smuts, Celia M; Mills, Jennifer N; Gaál, Tibor

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative tests for C-reactive protein (CRP) are available for use in dogs, and provide a rapid in-house method of detecting acute inflammation. The aim of this study was to compare results from a qualitative CRP lateral flow test (Teco CRP FASTest) to those obtained from a quantitative CRP ELISA and to traditional methods of detecting inflammation, including total leukocyte and neutrophil numbers, presence of immature neutrophils and a left shift, presence or absence of toxic changes in neutrophils and plasma fibrinogen concentration in whole blood and serum samples collected from 113 client-owned dogs. More dogs had CRP FASTest positive results than had quantitatively increased CRP (ELISA) or increases in traditional methods used for measuring inflammation. Few dogs had increases in markers of inflammation but no elevated CRP. The qualitative CRP FASTest was found to be a sensitive test for detecting increased CRP concentration and was positive more frequently than were traditional markers of inflammation.

  9. AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor-Based Biosensor for the Detection of C-Reactive Protein

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee Ho; Bae, Myunghan; Jo, Sung-Hyun; Shin, Jang-Kyoo; Son, Dong Hyeok; Won, Chul-Ho; Jeong, Hyun-Min; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kang, Shin-Won

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT)-based biosensor for the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) using a null-balancing circuit. A null-balancing circuit was used to measure the output voltage of the sensor directly. The output voltage of the proposed biosensor was varied by antigen-antibody interactions on the gate surface due to CRP charges. The AlGaN/GaN HFET-based biosensor with null-balancing circuit applied shows that CRP can be detected in a wide range of concentrations, varying from 10 ng/mL to 1000 ng/mL. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was carried out to verify the immobilization of self-assembled monolayer with Au on the gated region. PMID:26225981

  10. Persistently Elevated C-Reactive Protein Level in the First Year of Antiretroviral Therapy, Despite Virologic Suppression, Is Associated With HIV Disease Progression in Resource-Constrained Settings.

    PubMed

    Shivakoti, Rupak; Yang, Wei-Teng; Berendes, Sima; Mwelase, Noluthando; Kanyama, Cecilia; Pillay, Sandy; Samaneka, Wadzanai; Santos, Breno; Poongulali, Selvamuthu; Tripathy, Srikanth; Riviere, Cynthia; Lama, Javier R; Cardoso, Sandra W; Sugandhavesa, Patcharaphan; Balagopal, Ashwin; Gupte, Nikhil; Semba, Richard D; Campbell, Thomas B; Bollinger, Robert C; Gupta, Amita

    2016-04-01

    A case-cohort analysis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was performed within a multicountry randomized trial (PEARLS) to assess the prevalence of persistently elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, based on serial measurements of CRP levels, and their association with HIV clinical failure. A persistently elevated CRP level in plasma (defined as ≥ 5 mg/L at both baseline and 24 weeks after ART initiation) was observed in 50 of 205 individuals (24%). A persistently elevated CRP level but not an elevated CRP level only at a single time point was independently associated with increased clinical failure, compared with a persistently low CRP level, despite achievement of virologic suppression. Serial monitoring of CRP levels could identify individuals who are at highest risk of HIV progression and may benefit from future adjunct antiinflammatory therapies.

  11. Rapid communication: acute exposure to mercury from dental amalgam does not affect the levels of C-reactive protein or interleukin-6 in peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Sandborgh-Englund, Gunilla; af Geijersstam, Eric; Loftenius, Annika

    2003-03-28

    In a previous study, a significant increase in serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) was apparent after an acute low-level mercury (Hg) exposure, achieved by removal of amalgam fillings (Loftenius et al., 1998). In the present study, 11 healthy volunteers were exposed to an oral dose of 1 g of pulverized amalgam powder. Hg, IL-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in plasma were followed before and up to 72 h after exposure. The Hg levels were low and stable prior to exposure and increased rapidly after exposure. The median Hg increase was 12.9 nmol/L, which is considerably higher than in the previous study. No significant change over time was observed for IL-6 and CRP levels. Therefore, it cannot be ruled out that our previous finding of increasing IL-6 levels detected after acute low-level Hg exposure through removal of amalgam fillings was due to the dental treatment per se.

  12. Effects of psychological stress on plasma interleukins-1 beta and 6, C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor alpha, anti-diuretic hormone and serum cortisol.

    PubMed

    Dugué, B; Leppänen, E A; Teppo, A M; Fyhrquist, F; Gräsbeck, R

    1993-10-01

    The study was undertaken to determine whether psychological stress influences immunobiological functions and is an important preanalytical factor to be considered in connection with blood specimen collection. Two kinds of stress were applied, the Stroop colour conflict test and the thrill of a novice about to make the first jump with a parachute. In both test situations, the level of the stress indicators cortisol or anti-diuretic hormone rose significantly. The concentrations of the cytokines studied did not change significantly. However, in the parachute test significant positive correlations were found, e.g. between the changes of cortisol and C-reactive protein and between anti-diuretic hormone and interleukin-1 beta. This suggests that there is an interaction between the endocrine and the immune systems in the response to a psychological stress.

  13. Incremental predictive value of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein for incident hypertension: the Hypertension-Diabetes Daegu Initiative study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jang Hoon; Yang, Dong Heon; Park, Hun Sik; Cho, Yongkeun; Lee, Won Kee; Chun, Byung Yeol; Chae, Shung Chull

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and incident hypertension. Study subjects were 452 Koreans who were enrolled in a cohort study. Log-transformed hs-CRP (odds ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-3.39; p = 0.035) was an independent predictor of incident hypertension. Inclusion of hs-CRP showed significant increase in the area under the curve from 0.697 to 0.720 (p = 0.042), the net reclassification improvement (0.394, p < 0.001) and integrated discrimination improvement (0.0111, p = 0.045). The hs-CRP added incremental value to the combination of systolic blood pressure and conventional risk factors in predicting incident hypertension.

  14. Young overweight and obese women with lower circulating osteocalcin concentrations exhibit higher insulin resistance and concentrations of C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Lucey, Alice J; Paschos, Georgios K; Thorsdottir, Inga; Martínéz, J Alfredo; Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Máireád

    2013-01-01

    The role of the skeleton in the regulation of energy metabolism in humans is not clear. This study investigates the hypothesis that biomarkers of bone turnover are associated with indices of glucose homeostasis and systemic inflammation in young adults. A cross-sectional study investigating the relationships between biomarkers of bone turnover (serum total and uncarboxylated osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, C-telopeptide of type I collagen, urinary N-telopeptide of type I collagen) and glucose metabolism (fasting plasma glucose [FPG], insulin, insulin resistance [homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance]), systemic inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP] and interleukin-6), adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), and body composition was conducted in 268 young, nondiabetic overweight and obese adults aged 20 to 40 years (116 men, 152 women; body mass index, 27.5-32.5 kg/m(2)). Data on diet, physical activity, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and parathyroid hormone were also collected. In women, there was a stepwise increase in lean body mass (P < .05) and a decrease in serum hsCRP (P < .001) across tertiles of total osteocalcin. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant inverse associations between total osteocalcin and FPG (β = -0.350; P = .016; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.35 to -0.04), insulin (β = -0.455; P = .002; 95% CI, -1.9 to -0.46), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (β = -0.508; P = .001; 95% CI, -10.93 to -3.17) in women with total osteocalcin concentrations below the group median. Men in the lowest tertile of uncarboxylated osteocalcin had twice the concentration of hsCRP than did other men (P = .05). In this sample, women with less lean body mass had lower circulating total osteocalcin concentrations and exhibited higher FPG, insulin resistance, and hsCRP compared with their similarly sized counterparts, suggesting that associations between osteocalcin and systemic

  15. Impact of subcutaneous infiltration of 0.5% bupivacaine on post-operative C-reactive protein serum titer after craniotomy surgery

    PubMed Central

    Moharari, Reza Shariat; Zade, Saber Amin; Najafi, Atabak; Khajavi, Mohammad Reza; Bidabadi, Mohammad Shirani; Tabriz, Hadieh Moradi

    2013-01-01

    Background Tissue injuries may provoke neuro-hormonal response which in turn may lead to release of inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesize that block of afferent sensory pathways by infiltration of 0.5% bupivacaine in the scalp may decrease neuro-hormonal response in the neurosurgical patient. Methods After obtaining informed consent, forty ASA physical statuses I, II, or III patients between the ages of 18 and 65 years were enrolled randomly into two equal groups to receive either 20 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine (group A) or 20 ml of 0.9% normal saline as a placebo (group B) in the site of pin insertion and scalp incision. As the primary outcome we checked serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels before implementation of noxious stimulus, 24h, and 48h after the end of surgery to compare these values between groups. In addition, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were checked at baseline (after the induction of anesthesia), one minute after pin fixation and 5, 10, and 15 minute after skin incision and the recorded values were compared between groups. Results No significant difference was found between serum CRP levels of the two groups. Comparison of mean HR between groups shows no significant difference. The mean of MAP was significantly lower in the group A in comparison with the group B (p< 0.001). Conclusion The results of this study confirm that 0.5% bupivacaine scalp infiltration before skull-pin holder fixation and skin incision could not decrease post-operative C-reactive protein level. PMID:23483125

  16. Synovial Fluid C-reactive Protein as a Diagnostic Marker for Periprosthetic Joint Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chi; Wang, Qi; Li, Rui; Duan, Jin-Yan; Wang, Cheng-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is the main cause of failure following total joint arthroplasty. Until now, the diagnosis of PJI is still confronted with technical limitations, and the question of whether synovial fluid biomarker, C-reactive protein (CRP), can provide high value in the diagnosis of PJI remains unanswered and, therefore, was the aim of the study. Methods: First, we conducted a systematic review on CRP in the diagnosis of PJI by searching online databases using keywords such as “periprosthetic joint infection”, “synovial fluid”, and “C-reactive protein”. Eligible studies providing sufficient data to construct 2 × 2 contingency tables were then selected based on the list of criteria and the quality of included studies was assessed subsequently. Finally, the reported sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve, and the area under the SROC (AUSROC) were pooled together and used to evaluate overall diagnostic performance. Results: Seven studies were included in our review, six of which comprising a total of 456 participants were further investigated in our meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and DOR were 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.86–0.96), 0.90 (95% CI: 0.87–0.93), and 101.40 (95% CI: 48.07–213.93), respectively. The AUSROC was 0.9663 (standard error, 0.0113). Conclusions: Synovial fluid CRP is a good biomarker for the diagnosis of PJI with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:27503025

  17. Development of C-reactive protein certified reference material NMIJ CRM 6201-b: optimization of a hydrolysis process to improve the accuracy of amino acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Megumi; Kinumi, Tomoya; Yoshioka, Mariko; Goto, Mari; Fujii, Shin-Ichiro; Takatsu, Akiko

    2015-04-01

    To standardize C-reactive protein (CRP) assays, the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) has developed a C-reactive protein solution certified reference material, CRM 6201-b, which is intended for use as a primary reference material to enable the SI-traceable measurement of CRP. This study describes the development process of CRM 6201-b. As a candidate material of the CRM, recombinant human CRP solution was selected because of its higher purity and homogeneity than the purified material from human serum. Gel filtration chromatography was used to examine the homogeneity and stability of the present CRM. The total protein concentration of CRP in the present CRM was determined by amino acid analysis coupled to isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS-AAA). To improve the accuracy of IDMS-AAA, we optimized the hydrolysis process by examining the effect of parameters such as the volume of protein samples taken for hydrolysis, the procedure of sample preparation prior to the hydrolysis, hydrolysis temperature, and hydrolysis time. Under optimized conditions, we conducted two independent approaches in which the following independent hydrolysis and liquid chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS) were combined: one was vapor-phase acid hydrolysis (130 °C, 24 h) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) method, and the other was microwave-assisted liquid-phase acid hydrolysis (150 °C, 3 h) and pre-column derivatization liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The quantitative values of the two different amino acid analyses were in agreement within their uncertainties. The certified value was the weighted mean of the results of the two methods. Uncertainties from the value-assignment method, between-method variance, homogeneity, long-term stability, and short-term stability were taken into account in evaluating the uncertainty for a certified value. The certified value and the

  18. Changes in haptoglobin, C-reactive protein and pig-MAP during a housing period following long distance transport in swine.

    PubMed

    Salamano, Germana; Mellia, Elisabetta; Candiani, Denise; Ingravalle, Francesco; Bruno, Renato; Ru, Giuseppe; Doglione, Luca

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a housing period following long distance transport on haptoglobin (Hp), C-reactive protein (CRP) and pig major acute phase protein (pig-MAP) in swine. After transportation, 80 gilts were allotted to group A, B, C, or D. Blood samples were collected on arrival and 28 days later; additional samples were collected from Group C on day 14, and from Group D on days 3, 5 and 14. Acute phase proteins (APPs) in Group A were significantly lower on day 28 than on day 1; the opposite occurred in Group B because of a tail biting episode. In Group C, values remained elevated on day 14 and showed a reduction on day 28; in Group D elevated levels detected on day 14 were preceded by a decrease from days 1 to 5. The results indicate that stressors associated with transportation and new accommodation can cause an increase in APPs that could be useful indicators of welfare during transport and routine management.

  19. Disposable integrated bismuth citrate-modified screen-printed immunosensor for ultrasensitive quantum dot-based electrochemical assay of C-reactive protein in human serum.

    PubMed

    Kokkinos, Christos; Prodromidis, Mamas; Economou, Anastasios; Petrou, Panagiota; Kakabakos, Sotirios

    2015-07-30

    A novel immunosensor based on graphite screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) modified with bismuth citrate was developed for the voltammetric determination of C-reactive protein (CRP) in human serum using quantum dots (QDs) labels. The sandwich-type immunoassay involved physisorption of CRP capture antibody on the surface of the sensor, sequential immunoreactions with CRP and biotinylated CRP reporter antibody and finally reaction with streptavidin-conjugated PbS QDs. The quantification of the target protein was performed with acidic dissolution of the PbS QDs and anodic stripping voltammetric detection of the Pb(II) released. Detection was performed at bismuth nanodomains formed on the sensor surface during the electrolytic preconcentration step, as bismuth citrate was reduced to metallic bismuth simultaneously with the deposition of Pb on the surface of the immunosensor. Under optimal conditions, the response was linear over the range 0.2-100 ng mL(-1) CRP and the limit of detection was 0.05 ng mL(-1) CRP. Since the modified SPE serves as both the biorecognition element and the QDs reader, the analytical procedure is simplified, the drawbacks of existing electroplated immunosensors are minimized while the proposed disposable sensing platform provides convenient, low-cost and ultrasensitive detection of proteins and wider scope for mass-production.

  20. Common variants in the CRP gene are associated with serum C-reactive protein levels and body mass index in healthy individuals in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Flores-Alfaro, E; Fernández-Tilapa, G; Salazar-Martínez, E; Cruz, M; Illades-Aguiar, B; Parra-Rojas, I

    2012-08-13

    Variants in the C-reactive protein (CRP) gene have been found to be associated with various phenotypic traits. We evaluated the effect of four SNPs in the CRP gene on serum levels of protein and body mass index (BMI) in 150 unrelated Mexican subjects from 18 to 25 years old, without hypertension, non-overweight, and without inflammatory diseases, non-smoking and non-consumers of alcohol. Subjects were measured for BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, and serum glucose and triglycerides. The identification of SNPs was performed by PCR-RFLP. Three of the four SNPs were associated with variation in serum levels of CRP, increased in TT (rs1130864) and GG (rs2794521) genotypes, and decreased in the AA genotype of rs1205. The TT genotype was associated with a significant increase in BMI (β = 1.1 kg/m², P = 0.04). Two haplotypes were significantly associated with increased serum levels of CRP, but not with BMI. We conclude that variation in the CRP gene affects serum protein levels.

  1. Localized surface plasmon resonance nanosensing of C-reactive protein with poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-grafted gold nanoparticles prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Yukiya; Takeuchi, Toshifumi

    2014-06-03

    Highly sensitive and selective protein nanosensing based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on which polymerized specific ligands were grafted as an artificial protein recognition layer for the target protein were demonstrated. As a model, optical nanosensing for C-reactive protein (CRP), a known biomarker for chronic inflammation that predicts the risk of arteriosclerosis or heart attacks, was achieved by measuring the shift of LSPR spectra derived from the change of permittivity of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-grafted AuNPs (PMPC-g-AuNPs) upon interacting with CRP, in which the PMPC-g-AuNPs layer were grafted on AuNPs by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). This nanosensing system was effective even for detecting CRP concentrations in a human serum solution diluted to 1% (w/w), at which point a limit of detection was ~50 ng/mL and nonspecific adsorption of other proteins was negligible. The nanosensing system using specific ligand-grafted AuNPs has several strengths, such as low preparation cost, avoiding the need for expensive instruments, no necessary complex pretreatments, and high stability, because it does not contain biobased molecules. We believe this novel synthetic route for protein nanosensors, composed of AuNPs and a polymerized specific ligand utilizing surface-initiated controlled/living radical polymerization, will provide a foundation for the design and synthesis of nanosensors targeting various other biomarker proteins, paving the way for future advances in the field of biosensing.

  2. Resting Serum Concentration of High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) in Sportsmen and Untrained Male Adults.

    PubMed

    Niyi-Odumosu, F A; Bello, O A; Biliaminu, S A; Owoyele, B V; Abu, T O; Dominic, O L

    2017-03-06

    There is an inverse relationship between regular physical activity and concentration of serum inflammatory markers, with variations in resting CRP in trained and untrained subjects. The effect of acute and prolonged exercises has been studied on inflammatory markers with dearth of information and controversies on the resting serum values of high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP). Therefore, this study sought to identify and compare variations that occur in serum levels of high sensitivity CRP in groups of sportsmen (6) and physically active untrained subjects. Eighty-one healthy male participants made up of 21 untrained (control), 10 footballers, 10 athletes, 10 karates, 10 volleyballers, 10 basketballers, and 10 baseballers voluntarily participated in the study. Participants rested while in sitting position for about 30 minutes during which blood pressures and heart rates were taken. 5 mls of venous blood was withdrawn from the antecubital vein of the participants (aseptically) between 7:00 and 10:00 am into lithium heparin bottles following an overnight fast. The supernatant was decanted and centrifuged at 3000 rpm, serum was collected and stored at -20ºC prior to biochemical assay which was done with the use of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits for hs-CRP. Differences in the means within the sporting groups were analysed using one-way ANOVA while the difference between the trained sportsmen and untrained young adults was analysed using the independent T-test. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. The Mean ±SEM age, weight, height, and BMI of the participants were 22.0±0.8 years, 64.1±2.2 kg, 1.74±0.3 m, and 20.6±0.2 kg/m2 respectively. The resting concentration of hs-CRP (µg/ml) was 1.0±0.2 in the untrained, 2.6±0.7 in footballers, 3.6±2.1 in track athletes, 2.4±0.5 in basketballers, 2.2±0.5 in volleyballers, 2.4±1.3 in baseballers, and 1.7±0.5 in karate respectively. There was no significant difference in the resting hs-CRP amongst the

  3. Measurement of C-reactive protein and prostaglandin F2α metabolite concentrations in differentiation of canine pyometra and cystic endometrial hyperplasia/mucometra.

    PubMed

    Enginler, S O; Ateş, A; Diren Sığırcı, B; Sontaş, B H; Sönmez, K; Karaçam, E; Ekici, H; Evkuran Dal, G; Gürel, A

    2014-08-01

    Canine pyometra is a dioestrus period disease in which systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a common outcome due to the response of the body to the bacterial infection. The purpose of this study was i) to differentiate canine pyometra and cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH)/mucometra by measuring serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and prostaglandin F2α metabolite (PGFM) concentrations in blood and ii) to compare serum concentrations of CRP and PGFM in bitches with a pathological uterus (pyometra or CEH/mucometra) to concentrations in bitches with a healthy uterus. Mean CRP concentrations were found significantly higher (p < 0.001) in dogs with pyometra compared to those with CEH/mucometra or healthy uterus. However, no statistical difference could be detected between the groups for mean PGFM concentrations. Mean white blood cell count (WBC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total protein concentrations were found significantly higher (p < 0.001) in dogs with pyometra. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated microorganism from dogs with pyometra (64.3%). Edwardsiella spp. was detected in a single case of pyometra for the first time. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that serum CRP concentrations were increased in dogs with pyometra and thus we conclude that serum CRP concentration but not PGFM might be useful as a marker to differentiate a case of CEH/mucometra from pyometra in female dogs. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report in which Edwardsiella spp. has been isolated in the canine uterus.

  4. Macrophage uptake of low-density lipoprotein bound to aggregated C-reactive protein: possible mechanism of foam-cell formation in atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Tao; Borensztajn, Jayme

    2002-01-01

    Foam cells found in atherosclerotic lesions are believed to derive from macrophages that take up aggregated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles bound to the extracellular matrix of arterial walls. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase protein found in atherosclerotic lesions, which when immobilized on a solid phase, can bind and cluster LDL particles in a calcium-dependent manner. In the present study, we examined whether CRP-bound aggregated LDL could be taken up by macrophages in culture. CRP molecules were aggregated in the presence of calcium and immobilized on the surface of polystyrene microtitre wells. Human LDL added to the wells bound to and aggregated on the immobilized CRP, also in a calcium-dependent manner. On incubation with macrophages, the immobilized CRP-bound LDL aggregates were readily taken up by the cells, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy, by the cellular accumulation of cholesterol and by the overexpression of adipophilin. Immunofluorescence microscopy and flow-cytometry analysis established that the uptake of the LDL-CRP complex was not mediated by the CRP receptor CD32. These observations with immobilized CRP and LDL, approximating the conditions that exist in the extracellular matrix of the arterial wall, thus suggest that CRP may contribute to the formation of foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions by causing the aggregation of LDL molecules that are then taken up by macrophages through a CD32-independent pathway. PMID:12033985

  5. High levels of circulating adrenomedullin in severe illness: correlation with C-reactive protein and evidence against the adrenal medulla as site of origin.

    PubMed

    Ehlenz, K; Koch, B; Preuss, P; Simon, B; Koop, I; Lang, R E

    1997-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) is a novel vasorelaxing peptide which was originally isolated from the extracts of human pheochromocytoma. It is produced by a number of organs among which the adrenal gland exhibits by far the highest concentrations. The peptide circulates in blood and its plasma levels have been reported to be increased in several diseases such as renal failure and sepsis. In the present study plasma concentrations of AM were measured in various forms of severe illness and compared to clinical and biochemical parameters in order to gain an insight into the factors controlling the plasma levels of this peptide. The highest concentrations of AM were found in patients with sepsis (344.4 +/- 60.4 pg/ml, n = 16) who exhibited up to 12-fold higher levels than a group of healthy subjects (74.1 +/- 4.1 pg/ml, n = 20). Markedly elevated levels were also measured in hemorrhagic (250.1 +/- 37.9 pg/ml, n = 9) and cardiogenic (216.2 +/- 29.4 pg/ml, n = 7) shock as well as in patients with cancer of the gastrointestinal tract (155.6 +/- 32.5 pg/ml, n = 11) or the lungs (146.5 +/- 19.1 pg/ml, n = 22). Plasma AM levels were positively correlated with serum creatinine concentrations in shock (r = 0.06, p < 0.001) and with C-reactive protein levels in patients with cancer (r = 0.64, p < 0.001) or sepsis (r = 0.63, p < 0.01). In order to examine the potential role of the adrenal gland as a site of AM release, hypoglycemia was induced in a group of healthy volunteers by graded infusion of insulin. Despite a more than 20-fold increase in plasma adrenalin indicating maximal stimulation of the adrenal medulla, no significant alterations of the plasma AM levels were observed. The study demonstrates that not only sepsis but also various forms of cancer and shock are associated with high levels of circulating AM. The correlation with C-reactive protein levels suggests a role of cytokines in mediating the elevations in plasma AM observed in sepsis and cancer. Reduced clearance of the

  6. Phylogeny and expression analysis of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-P (SAP) like genes reveal two distinct groups in fish.

    PubMed

    Lee, P T; Bird, S; Zou, J; Martin, S A M

    2017-03-20

    The acute phase response (APR) is an early innate immune function that is initiated by inflammatory signals, leading to the release of acute phase proteins to the bloodstream to re-establish homeostasis following microbial infection. In this study we analysed the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) whole-genome database and identified five C-reactive protein (CRP)/serum amyloid P component (SAP) like molecules namely CRP/SAP-1a, CRP/SAP-1b, CRP/SAP-1c, CRP/SAP-2 and CRP/SAP-3. These CRP/SAP genes formed two distinct sub-families, a universal group (group I) present in all vertebrates and a fish/amphibian specific group (group II). Salmon CRP/SAP-1a, CRP/SAP-1b and CRP/SAP-1c and CRP/SAP-2 belong to the group I family whilst salmon CRP/SAP-3 is a member of group II. Gene expression analysis showed that the salmon CRP/SAP-1a as well as serum amyloid A-5 (SAA-5), one of the major acute phase proteins, were significantly up-regulated by recombinant cytokines (rIL-1β and rIFNγ) in primary head kidney cells whilst the other four CRP/SAPs remained refractory. Furthermore, SAA-5 was produced as the main acute phase protein (APP) in Atlantic salmon challenged with Aeromonas salmonicida (aroA(-) strain) whilst salmon CRP/SAPs remained unaltered. Overall, these data illustrate the potential different functions of expanded salmon CRP/SAPs to their mammalian homologues.

  7. Body mass index moderates the relationship between C-reactive protein and depressive symptoms: evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Tingting; Liu, Wenhua; Yin, Minghui; Shu, Chang; Yan, Mingming; Zhang, Jianyuan; Yin, Ping

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of abnormal body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) in the depression-CRP (C-reactive protein) relationship in a healthy middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. Analytical samples were drawn from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), and participants were categorized by different BMI levels. Depressive subtypes were evaluated both at baseline and follow-up using the Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression scale. Hs-CRP and other variables were measured at baseline. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between depression and baseline hs-CRP. Depression was significantly negatively associated with BMI (ρ = −0.077, p < 0.0001), with underweight associated with worse depressive symptoms than other BMI groups. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between serum hs-CRP and depressive subtypes were significantly positive in the underweight group (p < 0.05). However, in the other BMI groups (from normal weight to obesity), the CRP-depression relationship was no longer significant (p > 0.05). The significant relationship between CRP and depression in the underweight group suggested that not only obesity but also a low BMI could explain a substantial portion of the inflammation-depression link. PMID:28128231

  8. Effects of Low-intensity Pulsed Ultrasound and Cryotherapy on Recovery of Joint Function and C-reactive Protein Levels in Patients after Total Knee Replacement Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong Il; Kim, Yong-Nam; Choi, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] We investigated the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and cryotherapy on joint function recovery and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels of patients with total knee replacement. [Subjects] Forty-six patients with total knee replacement were recruited and allocated to either low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy (n=15), cryotherapy (n=15), or a combination of both (n=16). Therapy was administered once a day, 5 times a week for 3 weeks. To determine functional joint recovery and reduction of inflammation, changes in the Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (K-WOMAC), range of motion (ROM), and CRP were assessed postsurgically and four times over a 3-week period. Using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), homogeneity tests were performed based on participants’ general characteristics. To recognize changes in time-variant K-WOMAC, ROM, and CRP values between groups, repeated measures ANOVA was performed, and Tukey’s test was used for post-test analysis. Values at α=0.05 were considered significant. [Results] We found a difference between groups and times, and the group that received the combined therapies showed greater changes in outcomes than the group that received low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy alone. [Conclusion] Applying both low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and cryotherapy can relieve inflammation and enhance joint function in patients who undergo total knee replacement. PMID:25140090

  9. Development of a new microparticle-enhanced turbidimetric assay for C-reactive protein with superior features in analytical sensitivity and dynamic range.

    PubMed

    Eda, S; Kaufmann, J; Roos, W; Pohl, S

    1998-01-01

    Novel assay techniques were applied to a newly developed microparticle-based assay for C-reactive protein (CRP). By using two different sized microparticles covalently coated with two monoclonal antibodies of different reactivity, high analytical sensitivity and a high upper measuring limit could be simultaneously attained, resulting in a remarkably wide dynamic range. This range was further increased by calculating the signal (reaction rate) optimally with a new software capability of COBAS INTEGRA, a clinical chemistry analyzer. The assay showed high precision between 2 mg/l and 160 mg/l with use of only 2.5 microl specimen. The detection limit was estimated as 0.3 mg/l CRP. The assay was four to eight times more sensitive and precise than existing turbidimetric or nephelometric assays with comparable upper measuring limits. The assay also showed good linearity and correlated well with commercial assays. This new microparticle-based CRP assay provides the accuracy and precision that are required to determine CRP at low concentrations where new clinical implications such as prognosis of cardiovascular diseases are envisaged. The assay's wide dynamic range will additionally lead to a reduction in the number of repeated analyses, thus improving the efficiency of CRP determinations in clinical laboratories.

  10. Evaluation of a modified early warning system for acute medical admissions and comparison with C-reactive protein/albumin ratio as a predictor of patient outcome.

    PubMed

    Fairclough, Emily; Cairns, Eleanor; Hamilton, Jennifer; Kelly, Clive

    2009-02-01

    The modified early warning score (MEWS) was developed as a track and trigger tool for the prompt identification of seriously ill patients on an acute medical ward. This paper examines its value in the setting of an acute medical admissions unit (MAU) and compares it to biochemical markers of acute and chronic disease. Three hundred unselected acute admissions to the MAU of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Gateshead, were assessed. Correlations between MEWS score and C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin separately were assessed, and then the relationship between MEWS and the CRP/albumin ratio across the age spectrum was examined. The findings demonstrated a strong correlation between the MEWS score and CRP/albumin ratio (r=0.88, p<0.001) across the whole age spectrum. Length of stay correlated poorly with MEWS (r=0.08) and CRP/albumin ratio (r=0.15). Overall mortality was 5% and was predicted by both tools, with a MEWS score of >4 (relative risk (RR)=7.8) outperforming a CRP/albumin of >2 (RR=2.6). MEWS remains the gold standard for assessing outcome in acute medical admissions, but does have limitations in the elderly (those aged over 70 years). A raised CRP/albumin ratio was less sensitive for overall mortality than MEWS. It did, however, appear to be of greater value in the elderly, especially in those with acute exacerbations of chronic disease. Neither test accurately predicted length of stay.

  11. Ratio of C-Reactive Protein/Albumin is An Inflammatory Prognostic Score for Predicting Overall Survival of Patients with Small-cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ting; Zhan, Jianhua; Hong, Shaodong; Hu, Zhihuang; Fang, Wenfeng; Qin, Tao; Ma, Yuxiang; Yang, Yunpeng; He, Xiaobo; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Huang, Yan; Zhao, Hongyun; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the C-reactive protein/ albumin (CRP/Alb) ratio is associated with clinical outcomes in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We examined the prognostic value of this ratio in patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). In this retrospective study, a total of 367 eligible SCLC patients were analyzed and the correlation between the pretreatment CRP/Alb ratio and overall survival (OS) was investigated. The optimal cutoff level of CRP/Alb ratio was at 0.441. A low and high CRP/Alb ratio was assigned to 65.1% and 34.9% of patients, respectively. The median OS of patients with a high CRP/Alb ratio was worse than those in the low group (13.70 vs 18.90 months HR, 1.34; p = 0.005). Disease stage (p < 0.001), performance status (PS) (p < 0.001) and pretreatment LDH (p < 0.001) were also significant predictors of OS. Multivariate analyses showed that the CRP/Alb ratio is an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.025). This study demonstrated that the CRP/Alb ratio could independently predict OS in patients with SCLC, and had comparable prognostic value to other known prognostic markers. Therefore, the CRP/Alb ratio could have prognostic value and be a measurable biomarker in patients with SCLC. PMID:26084991

  12. C-reactive protein and N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide as biomarkers in acute exacerbations of COPD leading to hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Virginia; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Leipsic, Jonathon A.; Hague, Cameron J.; DeMarco, Mari L.; FitzGerald, J. Mark; McManus, Bruce M.; Ng, Raymond T.; Sin, Don D.

    2017-01-01

    There are currently no accepted and validated blood tests available for diagnosing acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). In this study, we sought to determine the discriminatory power of blood C-reactive protein (CRP) and N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in the diagnosis of AECOPD requiring hospitalizations. The study cohort consisted of 468 patients recruited in the COPD Rapid Transition Program who were hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of AECOPD, and 110 stable COPD patients who served as controls. Logistic regression was used to build a classification model to separate AECOPD from convalescent or stable COPD patients. Performance was assessed using an independent validation set of patients who were not included in the discovery set. Serum CRP and whole blood NT-proBNP concentrations were highest at the time of hospitalization and progressively decreased over time. Of the 3 classification models, the one with both CRP and NT-proBNP had the highest AUC in discriminating AECOPD (cross-validated AUC of 0.80). These data were replicated in a validation cohort with an AUC of 0.88. A combination of CRP and NT-proBNP can reasonably discriminate AECOPD requiring hospitalization versus clinical stability and can be used to rapidly diagnose patients requiring hospitalization for AECOPD. PMID:28328968

  13. A new surgical technique versus an old marker: can expansion sphincter pharyngoplasty reduce C-reactive protein levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea?

    PubMed

    Binar, Murat; Akcam, Timur; Karakoc, Omer; Sagkan, Rahsan Ilikci; Musabak, Ugur; Gerek, Mustafa

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) before and after expansion sphincter pharyngoplasty (ESP) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. Fifty-one patients with newly diagnosed OSA were prospectively enrolled in this study. We performed ESP in twenty-three patients in the surgery group and twenty-eight patients were included in the CPAP group. Serum levels of high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays before and 3 months after treatment. The relations between CRP and the apnea hypopnea index (AHI), visual analog scale (VAS), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and saturation parameters were evaluated. Both surgical and CPAP treatments caused significant improvements in the clinical and laboratory parameters. However, only the patients whose postoperative AHI levels improved to final AHI of <5 (n = 6) after ESP, had significant decrease in their serum CRP levels (p = 0.028). CPAP group and the rest of the patients in the surgery group did not show statistically significant difference in CRP levels after treatment. We suggest that the successful surgical treatment for OSA-ESP in this study-, which provides OSA cure, can decrease serum levels of CRP and reduce possible cardiovascular morbidity.

  14. Mean cell volume of neutrophils and monocytes compared with C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and white blood cell count for prediction of sepsis and nonsystemic bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Mardi, D; Fwity, B; Lobmann, R; Ambrosch, A

    2010-08-01

    Clinicians are in need of better diagnostic markers for rapid diagnosis of severe infections. Therefore, we studied the diagnostic significance of mean cell volume of neutrophils (MNV) and monocytes (MMV) compared with Interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count for predicting systemic clinical infection (sepsis). MNV and MMV were obtained by volume conductivity scatter (VCS) technique of the Coulter LH 750 hematology analyzer during automated differential counts, and blood samples from patients with sepsis (n = 37), nonsystemic bacterial infections (n = 39) and controls (n = 48) were studied. We observed a significant increase in MNV and MMV in the sepsis group compared with limited infections and controls. However, at a designated cut-off point of 250 pg/ml, IL-6 seemed to be the best predictor for sepsis with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 76%. Compared with CRP (cut-off point 60 mg/dl), MNV at a cut-off of 150 had a comparable sensitivity and specificity and was the most predictive VCS parameter. Taken together, MNV and MMV seemed to be potential parameters to discriminate between sepsis and nonsystemic infections.

  15. Electrical detection of C-reactive protein using a single free-standing, thermally controlled piezoresistive microcantilever for highly reproducible and accurate measurements.

    PubMed

    Yen, Yi-Kuang; Lai, Yu-Cheng; Hong, Wei-Ting; Pheanpanitporn, Yotsapoom; Chen, Chuin-Shan; Huang, Long-Sun

    2013-07-29

    This study demonstrates a novel method for electrical detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a means of identifying an infection in the body, or as a cardiovascular disease risk assay. The method uses a single free-standing, thermally controlled piezoresistive microcantilever biosensor. In a commonly used sensing arrangement of conventional dual cantilevers in the Wheatstone bridge circuit, reference and gold-coated sensing cantilevers that inherently have heterogeneous surface materials and different multilayer structures may yield independent responses to the liquid environmental changes of chemical substances, flow field and temperature, leading to unwanted signal disturbance for biosensing targets. In this study, the single free-standing microcantilever for biosensing applications is employed to resolve the dual-beam problem of individual responses in chemical solutions and, in a thermally controlled system, to maintain its sensor performance due to the sensitive temperature effect. With this type of single temperature-controlled microcantilever sensor, the electrical detection of various CRP concentrations from 1 µg/mL to 200 µg/mL was performed, which covers the clinically relevant range. Induced surface stresses were measured at between 0.25 N/m and 3.4 N/m with high reproducibility. Moreover, the binding affinity (KD) of CRP and anti-CRP interaction was found to be 18.83 ± 2.99 µg/mL, which agreed with results in previous reported studies. This biosensing technique thus proves valuable in detecting inflammation, and in cardiovascular disease risk assays.

  16. C-reactive protein haplotype is associated with high PSA as a marker of metastatic prostate cancer but not with overall cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Eklund, C M; Tammela, T L J; Schleutker, J; Hurme, M

    2009-01-01

    Growing evidence points to a role for inflammation in prostate carcinogenesis. The significance of C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory and innate immunity molecule, has not been evaluated thoroughly in prostate cancer (PC). In this study of 739 Finnish patients with PC and 760 healthy men, we evaluated the associations of CRP genotypes and haplotypes with total PC risk and PC progression, using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a marker of metastatic disease. Although the haplotype frequencies were similar in patients and controls, an association between haplotype ACCCA and patients' PSA levels was found. The carriers more often had a high PSA than non-carriers (P=0.0002) and the SNP rs2794521 A-allele and rs1800947 C-allele carriers had a higher PSA than non-carriers (P=0.009 and P=0.0004, respectively). A trend for a younger age at diagnosis was found among the carriers of ACCCA (P=0.07) and the rs1800947 C-allele (P=0.06), as well as a trend for the latter to have more likely metastases (P=0.06), but not after Bonferroni correction (α=0.00208). This is the first study to suggest association between PSA and CRP variants in PC and, therefore, further studies are warranted. CRP alleles previously found to protect against increased CRP levels are now suggested to be associated with metastatic PC, indicated by elevated PSA. PMID:19436291

  17. Association of Serum Pentraxin-3 and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein with the Extent of Coronary Stenosis in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Vuković-Dejanović, Vesna; Bogavac-Stanojević, Nataša; Spasić, Slavica; Spasojević-Kalimanovska, Vesna; Kalimanovska-Oštrić, Dimitra; Topalović, Mirko; Jelić-Ivanović, Zorana

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background We compared factors of inflammation – high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and pentraxin-3 (PTX3), and we explored their relationship with coronary artery disease (CAD). Also, we tested the usefulness of hsCRP and PTX3 in the risk assessment of coronary stenosis development and the diagnostic ability of these biomarkers to detect disease severity. Methods The study group consisted of 93 CAD patients undergoing coronary angiography. Patients were divided into CAD(0), representing subclinical stenosis, and CAD (1–3), representing significant stenosis in one, two or three vessels. Results We determined the concentration of lipid status parameters, hsCRP and PTX3. We found significantly lower PTX3 and hsCRP concentrations in CAD(0) than in CAD(1–3) group. Concentration of PTX3 showed an increasing trend with the increasing number of vessels affected. The area under ROC curve (AUC) for the combinations of hsCRP and PTX3 with lipid parameters had useful accuracy for detecting CAD(1–3) patients (AUC=0.770, p<0.001). Conclusion PTX3 is a promising independent diagnostic marker for identifying patients with CAD, and a useful indicator of disease progression. In all the analyses PTX3 showed better performance than hsCRP. A combination of PTX3, hsCRP with the lipid status parameters provides risk stratification of the development of coronary stenosis and better classification than their individual application. PMID:28356853

  18. Are serum gamma-glutamyl transferase, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and ischaemia-modified albumin useful in diagnosing PCOS?

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Mustafa; Keskin, Ugur; Ozturk, Ozlem; Ulubay, Mustafa; Alanbay, İbrahim; Aydin, Aytekin; Yenen, Müfit Cemal

    2016-10-01

    We assessed the serum levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and ischaemia-modified albumin (IMA) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Fifty-three patients with PCOS were included in our study along with 40 women with no PCOS as the control group. The patients were divided according to their body mass index (BMI). GGT levels were significantly higher in the women with PCOS than the women in the control group (p < 0.05). They were also significantly higher in the PCOS women who were normoweight and overweight than the normoweight and overweight women in the control group (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the circulating levels of hsCRP and IMA between the women with PCOS and the controls or between the normoweight and overweight subgroups. GGT may be associated with the diagnosis of PCOS when the threshold is set at >15.5 U/L. With the application of this threshold, raised GGT levels had 83% sensitivity (95% CI 0.70-0.90) and 67.5% specificity (95% CI 0.52-0.79), for the diagnosis of PCOS. In our study, GGT levels were elevated in the PCOS patients independent of BMI and could thus be an important marker of PCOS.

  19. C-reactive protein, waist circumference, and family history of heart attack are independent predictors of body iron stores in apparently healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Ortegón, M F; Arbeláez, A; Mosquera, M; Méndez, F; Aguilar-de Plata, C

    2012-08-01

    Ferritin levels have been associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prediction of ferritin levels by variables related to cardiometabolic disease risk in a multivariate analysis. For this aim, 123 healthy women (72 premenopausal and 51 posmenopausal) were recruited. Data were collected through procedures of anthropometric measurements, questionnaires for personal/familial antecedents, and dietary intake (24-h recall), and biochemical determinations (ferritin, C reactive protein (CRP), glucose, insulin, and lipid profile) in blood serum samples obtained. Multiple linear regression analysis was used and variables with no normal distribution were log-transformed for this analysis. In premenopausal women, a model to explain log-ferritin levels was found with log-CRP levels, heart attack familial history, and waist circumference as independent predictors. Ferritin behaves as other cardiovascular markers in terms of prediction of its levels by documented predictors of cardiometabolic disease and related disorders. This is the first report of a relationship between heart attack familial history and ferritin levels. Further research is required to evaluate the mechanism to explain the relationship of central body fat and heart attack familial history with body iron stores values.

  20. The Role of Interleukin-6 and C-Reactive Protein in Non-Thyroidal Illness in Premature Infants Followed in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Dilmen, Uğur

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in non-thyroidal illness (NTI) in premature infants. Methods: Serum levels of IL-6 and CRP, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxine (T4), free T4 (fT4), total triiodothyronine (T3), and free T3 (fT3) were determined at the 1st, 2nd and 4th weeks of postnatal life in 148 premature infants born before 33 weeks of gestation. Results: At the 1st week, serum T3 was negatively correlated with IL-6(r= -0.33, p= 0.001) and CRP (r= -0.17, p= 0.03). Serum T3 was negatively and more strongly correlated with IL-6 (r= -0.49, p= 0.001) and CRP (r=- 0.33,p= 0.03) at the 2nd week, at which time sepsis frequency and low T3 rates were the highest. At the 4th week, mortality rate was higher among infants with lower T3 levels. Conclusions: High IL-6 and CRP values related to neonatal sepsis might have a significant role in the pathogenesis of NTI in premature infants. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:22672862

  1. Effect of dietary fiber on circulating C-reactive protein in overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jun; Xu, Jia-Ying; Zhang, Weiguo; Han, Shufen; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies suggested that dietary fiber intake may have a lowing effect on circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) level, a sensitive marker of inflammation, in overweight/obese adults with inconsistent results. A literature search was performed in April 2014 for related randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analysis was conducted. Meta-analysis including 14 RCTs showed that intervention with dietary fiber or fiber-rich food, compared with control, produced a slight, but significant reduction of 0.37 mg/L (95% CI -0.74, 0) in circulating CRP level among this population. Subgroup analyses showed that such a significant reduction was only observed after combining studies where the total fiber intake was 8 g/d higher in the intervention group than in the control group. No obvious heterogeneity and publication bias were found in the meta-analysis. In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides evidence that dietary fiber or food naturally rich in fiber has beneficial effects on circulating CRP level in overweight/obese adults.

  2. Effects of 12-week exercise training on osteocalcin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and insulin resistance in elderly females with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Kijin

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. However, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations tended to decrease in all groups after 12 weeks of exercise and showed an inverse correlation with osteocalcin concentration; however, no statistical significance was observed. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that an exercise program in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis effectively reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture and related diseases since it improves bone density and physical fitness and reduces inflammatory marker levels.

  3. Qualitative study of primary care clinicians’ views on point-of-care testing for C-reactive protein for acute respiratory tract infections in family medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Victoria; Thompson, Matthew; Keppel, Gina A; Alto, William; Dirac, M Ashworth; Neher, Jon; Sanford, Christopher; Hornecker, Jaime; Cole, Allison

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore clinicians views of the barriers and facilitators to use of C-reactive protein (CRP) point-of-care tests (POCT) in US family medicine clinics for the management of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in adults. Setting Five family medicine clinics across two US states. Participants 30 clinicians including 18 physicians, 9 physician residents, 2 physician assistants and 1 nurse practitioner, took part in the study. Design A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach to thematically analyse focus group interviews. Results These clinicians had limited access to diagnostic tests for patients with ARTI, and very little knowledge of CRP POCT. Three major themes were identified and included the potential clinical role of CRP POCT, concerns related to implementing CRP POCT and evidence needed prior to wider adoption in family medicine. Clinicians believed CRP POCT could support decision-making for some presentations of ARTIs and patient populations when used in conjunction with clinical criteria. Clinicians had concerns about possible overuse and inaccuracy of CRP POCT which they believed might increase antibiotic prescribing rates. Other concerns identified included integration of the test with clinic workflows and cost-effectiveness. Conclusions Clinicians stand at the forefront of antibiotic stewardship efforts, but have few diagnostic tests to help them confidently manage ARTIs. CRP POCT may facilitate some aspects of clinical practice. Incorporating CRP POCT with clinical guidelines may strengthen utility of this test, when there is diagnostic uncertainty. PMID:28122829

  4. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 and C-reactive protein concentrations before and after ovariohysterectomy in bitches with pyometra.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, Roman; Szczubiał, Marek; Kostro, Krzysztof; Wawron, Władysław; Ceron, Jose J; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta

    2015-03-01

    Pyometra is one of the most common diseases of the reproductive system in bitches. The inflammatory processes occurring in the uterus result in changes in concentrations of numerous serum biomarkers, which are used for monitoring the postoperative period. The aim of the present report was to study the evolution of serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in bitches suffered from pyometra and after ovariohysterectomy in comparison with the control group of healthy dogs submitted to the surgery. Our results indicate that the serum level of IGF-1 is decreased (101.6 ng/mL [73.8-177.8 ng/mL]), whereas CRP is increased (114.6 μg/mL [95.3-131.6 μg/mL]) during severe inflammation. When inflammation caused by pyometra and surgery is resolved, the level of IGF-1 is increased (186.0 ng/mL [94.6-344.3 ng/mL], P < 0.05) and CRP decreased (23.3 μg/mL [9.9-77.0 μg/mL], P < 0.01), suggesting that these markers could be useful for assessment of the postoperative period in bitches.

  5. The burden of comorbidity and the C-reactive protein levels in nonthyroidal illness syndrome with metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular complications.

    PubMed

    Martocchia, Antonio; Cola, Silvia; Frugoni, Patrizia; Indiano, Ilaria; D'Urso, Rosaria; Falaschi, Paolo

    2010-04-01

    Thyroid hormones undergo significant modifications during severe illnesses, and the low T3 levels are the hallmark of nonthyoidal illness syndrome (NTIS), due to a reduced extrathyroidal conversion from T4. We examined 41 patients with NTIS by a modified cumulative illness rating scale (CIRS) and the measurement of FT3, FT4, TSH, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Fifty-seven control subjects were enrolled. We observed reduced FT3 and increased FT4 levels in NTIS patients (P < 0.05). The CIRS scores (severity and comordity index) were inversely related to FT3 and positively related to FT4 levels (P < 0.05). The CRP and the FT4 concentrations were positively associated (P < 0.01). Our study showed that the reduced FT3 and increased FT4 levels were significantly related to the comorbidity and severity of systemic illnesses, probably as a result of impairment in the peripheral hormonal conversion. The CIRS scale and the CRP are useful tools for a better evaluation of these patients.

  6. The Effect of Symbiotic Supplementation on Liver Enzymes, C-reactive Protein and Ultrasound Findings in Patients with Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Asgharian, Atefe; Askari, Gholamreza; Esmailzade, Ahmad; Feizi, Awat; Mohammadi, Vida

    2016-01-01

    Background: Regarding to the growing prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), concentrating on various strategies to its prevention and management seems necessary. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of symbiotic on C-reactive protein (CRP), liver enzymes, and ultrasound findings in patients with NAFLD. Methods: Eighty NAFLD patients were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Participants received symbiotic in form of a 500 mg capsule (containing seven species of probiotic bacteria and fructooligosaccharides) or a placebo capsule daily for 8 weeks. Ultrasound grading, CRP, and liver enzymes were evaluated at the baseline and the end of the study. Results: In the symbiotic group, ultrasound grade decreased significantly compared to baseline (P < 0.005) but symbiotic supplementation was not associated with changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels. In the placebo group, there was no significant change in steatosis grade whereas ALT and AST levels were significantly increased (P = 0.002, P = 0.02, respectively). CRP values remained static in either group. Conclusions: Symbiotic supplementation improved steatosis in NAFLD patients and might be useful in the management of NAFLD or protective against its progression. PMID:27076897

  7. Combined detection of liver stiffness and C-reactive protein in patients with hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis, with and without hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Ma, Li-Na; Yan, Ting-Ting; Lu, Zhen-Hui; Tang, Yuan-Yuan; Luo, Xia; Ding, Xiang-Chun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of combined detection of liver stiffness (LS) and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver cirrhosis (LC). A total of 156 cases of previously untreated patients with HBV-related LC were classified into the LC group [LC without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)] and the HCC group (LC with HCC). Comparative analyses of LS and serum CRP level were conducted between these two groups. LS values and serum CRP levels were found to be significantly higher in the HCC group compared with those in the LC group (P<0.01). The LS values and serum CRP levels were not significantly different between α-fetoprotein (AFP)-positive and -negative patients. A high LS value was a high-risk factor for HCC in patients with chronic hepatitis B. The CRP-positive rate was significantly higher in the HCC group compared with that in LC group in a subset of patients with high LS values (P<0.01). In conclusion, the combined detection of LS and serum CRP may complement the measurement of AFP in the diagnosis of HBV-related HCC, improve the identification of patients with AFP-negative HCC and help distinguish HCC from LC.

  8. C-reactive protein and N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide as biomarkers in acute exacerbations of COPD leading to hospitalizations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Wei Roy; Chen, Virginia; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Leipsic, Jonathon A; Hague, Cameron J; DeMarco, Mari L; FitzGerald, J Mark; McManus, Bruce M; Ng, Raymond T; Sin, Don D

    2017-01-01

    There are currently no accepted and validated blood tests available for diagnosing acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). In this study, we sought to determine the discriminatory power of blood C-reactive protein (CRP) and N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in the diagnosis of AECOPD requiring hospitalizations. The study cohort consisted of 468 patients recruited in the COPD Rapid Transition Program who were hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of AECOPD, and 110 stable COPD patients who served as controls. Logistic regression was used to build a classification model to separate AECOPD from convalescent or stable COPD patients. Performance was assessed using an independent validation set of patients who were not included in the discovery set. Serum CRP and whole blood NT-proBNP concentrations were highest at the time of hospitalization and progressively decreased over time. Of the 3 classification models, the one with both CRP and NT-proBNP had the highest AUC in discriminating AECOPD (cross-validated AUC of 0.80). These data were replicated in a validation cohort with an AUC of 0.88. A combination of CRP and NT-proBNP can reasonably discriminate AECOPD requiring hospitalization versus clinical stability and can be used to rapidly diagnose patients requiring hospitalization for AECOPD.

  9. One-step kinetics-based immunoassay for the highly sensitive detection of C-reactive protein in less than 30 min.

    PubMed

    Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Czilwik, Gregor; van Oordt, Thomas; von Stetten, Felix; Zengerle, Roland; Marion Schneider, E; Luong, John H T

    2014-07-01

    This article reveals a rapid sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the highly sensitive detection of human C-reactive protein (CRP) in less than 30 min. It employs a one-step kinetics-based highly simplified and cost-effective sandwich ELISA procedure with minimal process steps. The procedure involves the formation of a sandwich immune complex on capture anti-human CRP antibody-bound Dynabeads in 15 min, followed by two magnet-assisted washings and one enzymatic reaction. The developed sandwich ELISA detects CRP in the dynamic range of 0.3 to 81 ng ml(-1) with a limit of detection of 0.4 ng ml(-1) and an analytical sensitivity of 0.7 ng ml(-1). It detects CRP spiked in diluted human whole blood and serum with high analytical precision, as confirmed by conventional sandwich ELISA. Moreover, the results of the developed ELISA for the determination of CRP in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid plasma samples of patients are in good agreement with those obtained by the conventional ELISA. The developed immunoassay has immense potential for the development of rapid and cost-effective in vitro diagnostic kits.

  10. Modulation of C-reactive protein and plasma omega-6 fatty acid levels by phospholipase A2 gene polymorphisms following a 6-week supplementation with fish oil.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, B L; Rudkowska, I; Couture, P; Lemieux, S; Julien, P; Vohl, M C

    2015-12-01

    This clinical trial investigated the impact of a six-week supplementation with fish oil and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PLA2G4A and PLA2G6 genes on total omega-6 fatty acid (n-6 FA) levels in plasma phospholipids (PL) and plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in 191 subjects. Interaction effects between SNPs and supplementation modulated total n-6 FAs and CRP levels in both men and women. Associations between SNPs and total n-6 FA levels and between SNPs and CRP levels were identified in men, independently of supplementation. Supplementation decreased total n-6 FAs without affecting plasma CRP levels. Changes in CRP levels correlated positively with changes in total n-6 FAs in men (r=0.25 p=0.01), but not in women. In conclusion, total n-6 FA levels in plasma PL and plasma CRP levels are modulated by SNPs within PLA2G4A and PLA2G6 genes alone or in combination with fish oil supplementation.

  11. Effects of 12-week exercise training on osteocalcin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and insulin resistance in elderly females with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Kijin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. However, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations tended to decrease in all groups after 12 weeks of exercise and showed an inverse correlation with osteocalcin concentration; however, no statistical significance was observed. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that an exercise program in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis effectively reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture and related diseases since it improves bone density and physical fitness and reduces inflammatory marker levels. PMID:27630402

  12. Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein: A delicate sentinel elevated in drug-free acutely agitated patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shujuan; Tan, Yunlong; Yao, Shangwu; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Xiong, Jing

    2016-12-30

    Increased levels of high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) have been reported in schizophrenia, but to date, no study is designed to examine serum hsCRP in acutely agitated patients with schizophrenia, an extreme state that requires immediate diagnosis and medical treatment. Serum hsCRP levels were assessed in 32 clinically acutely agitated patients and 42 healthy control subjects matched for demographic properties. Further, serum hsCRP levels in acutely agitated patients were compared with control subjects and with the levels after the patients were treated with anti-psychiatric medications. Meanwhile, the influence of clinical subtypes, family history, and gender, as well as the levels of white blood cell (WBC) counts were also considered. In results, serum hsCRP levels were significantly higher in acutely agitated patients with schizophrenia than in healthy subjects. The elevation of serum hsCRP in patients was not affected by gender, family history (P>0.05), and clinical classification of schizophrenia (P>0.05). However, the elevation of hsCRP was suppressed by the medical treatment for schizophrenia with acute agitation (P<0.05). In addition, WBC counts, another inflammation-related indicator, were also increased significantly in acutely agitated patients compared with healthy subjects, consistent with the elevation of serum hsCRP. In conclusion, hsCRP is an important indicator of immune alterations in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and has potential to be developed into a sensitive marker for the acute agitation in schizophrenia.

  13. Lifestyle intervention and/or statins for the reduction of C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetes: From the Look AHEAD Study

    PubMed Central

    Belalcazar, L.M.; Haffner, S.M.; Lang, W.; Hoogeveen, R.C.; Rushing, J.; Schwenke, D.C.; Tracy, R.P.; Pi-Sunyer, F.X.; Kriska, A.M.; Ballantyne, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cardiovascular risk remains high despite statin use. Overweight/obese diabetic persons usually have normal/low LDL-cholesterol but high C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. We aimed to examine the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention for weight loss (ILI) on CRP levels in overweight/obese diabetic individuals by statin use. Design and Methods Look AHEAD was a randomized trial in overweight/obese type 2 diabetic individuals testing whether ILI would reduce cardiovascular mortality, when compared to usual care. We evaluated CRP changes in 1,431 participants with biomarker levels, who remained on or off statin treatment for 1-year. Results The reduction in CRP levels with ILI at 1 year in men and women on statins was −44.9 and −42.3 %, respectively, compared to −13.7 and −21.0 % for those on statins and usual care (p<0.0001). At 1 year, median CRP levels were: 1.8 mg/L in participants randomized to ILI on statin therapy; 2.6 mg/L for those on statins randomized to usual care and 2.9 mg/L for participants not on statins but randomized to ILI. Weight loss was associated with 1-year CRP reduction (p<0.0001) in statin and non-statin users. Conclusions Our findings suggest that in overweight/obese diabetic persons, ILI and statin therapy may have substantial additive anti-inflammatory benefits. PMID:23512860

  14. Prognostic role of serum concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: results from the ITACa trial

    PubMed Central

    Scarpi, Emanuela; Maltoni, Paolo; Dorizzi, Romolo M.; Passardi, Alessandro; Frassineti, Giovanni Luca; Cortesi, Pietro; Giannini, Maria Benedetta; Marisi, Giorgia; Amadori, Dino; Lucchesi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Serum levels of C-reactive protein are (CRP) higher in patients with neoplastic conditions and numerous studies have been performed to clarify the etiologic and prognostic role of the high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) in cancer. Our study was conducted on patients enrolled in the prospective randomized “Italian Trial in Advanced Colorectal Cancer (ITACa)” to assess hs-CRP levels and their impact on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Serum samples from 132 ITACa patients were collected at baseline and 2 months after starting first-line chemotherapy. The supernatant was immediately transferred to cryovials and stored at −80°C. After thawing, hs-CRP was measured with the Cobas c501 analyzer. High levels of hs-CRP (≥ 13.1 mg/L) were associated with poorer median PFS (p < 0.0001) and OS (p < 0.0001) than low hs-CRP levels (< 13.1 mg/L). hs-CRP values in 107 patients were evaluated again after 2 months of therapy, revealing that patients with low hs-CRP levels in both baseline and second serum samples had the best median PFS and OS. Our study confirms the prognostic value of hs-CRP in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma. PMID:26848624

  15. Prospective evaluation of the usefulness of C-reactive protein in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in a sub-Saharan African region

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sepsis is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in the newborn. Early diagnosis and treatment is vital to improve outcome. The present study was therefore carried out to determine the usefulness of C-reactive protein (CRP) for evaluation of neonatal sepsis in Port Harcourt, Nigeria in Sub-Saharan Africa. Method Four hundred and twenty neonates with clinical suspicion of sepsis were prospectively studied over a 6 month period. Blood was obtained from each subject recruited for the qualitative estimation of CRP. Blood culture was used as gold standard for diagnosis of NNS. Results Of 420 neonates studied, 196 (46.7%) had positive CRP while 181 (43.1%) had positive blood culture. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of CRP were 74.0%, 74.1%, 68.4% and 79.0% respectively. Conclusion The qualitative method of estimating CRP which is cheap and rapid has moderate sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value. PMID:22958461

  16. Preprocedural C-Reactive Protein Predicts Outcomes after Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients with ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction a systematic meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mincu, Raluca-Ileana; Jánosi, Rolf Alexander; Vinereanu, Dragos; Rassaf, Tienush; Totzeck, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is critical in order to provide adequate treatment. We performed a systematic meta-analysis to assess the predictive role of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). We included 7 studies, out of 1,033 studies, with a total of 6,993 patients with STEMI undergoing PPCI, which were divided in the high or low CRP group, according to the validated cut-off values provided by the corresponding CRP assay. High CRP values were associated with increased in-hospital and follow-up all-cause mortality, in-hospital and follow-up major adverse cardiac events (MACE), and recurrent myocardial infarction (MI). The pre-procedural CRP predicted in-hospital target vessel revascularization (TVR), but was not associated with acute/subacute and follow-up in-stent restenosis (ISR), and follow-up TVR. Thus, pre-procedural serum CRP could be a valuable predictor of global cardiovascular risk, rather than a predictor of stent-related complications in patients with STEMI undergoing PPCI. This biomarker might have the potential to improve the management of these high-risk patients.

  17. Preprocedural C-Reactive Protein Predicts Outcomes after Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients with ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction a systematic meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mincu, Raluca-Ileana; Jánosi, Rolf Alexander; Vinereanu, Dragos; Rassaf, Tienush; Totzeck, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is critical in order to provide adequate treatment. We performed a systematic meta-analysis to assess the predictive role of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). We included 7 studies, out of 1,033 studies, with a total of 6,993 patients with STEMI undergoing PPCI, which were divided in the high or low CRP group, according to the validated cut-off values provided by the corresponding CRP assay. High CRP values were associated with increased in-hospital and follow-up all-cause mortality, in-hospital and follow-up major adverse cardiac events (MACE), and recurrent myocardial infarction (MI). The pre-procedural CRP predicted in-hospital target vessel revascularization (TVR), but was not associated with acute/subacute and follow-up in-stent restenosis (ISR), and follow-up TVR. Thus, pre-procedural serum CRP could be a valuable predictor of global cardiovascular risk, rather than a predictor of stent-related complications in patients with STEMI undergoing PPCI. This biomarker might have the potential to improve the management of these high-risk patients. PMID:28128312

  18. Association of the C-Reactive Protein Gene (CRP) rs1205 C>T Polymorphism with Aortic Valve Calcification in Patients with Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Wypasek, Ewa; Potaczek, Daniel P.; Undas, Anetta

    2015-01-01

    Elevation in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels have been shown in patients with aortic valve stenosis (AS). Minor allele of the CRP gene (CRP) rs1205 C>T polymorphism has been associated with lower plasma CRP concentrations in cohorts of healthy and atherosclerotic patients. Considering the existing similarities between atherosclerosis and AS, we examined the effect of CRP rs1205 C>T polymorphism on the AS severity. Three hundred consecutive Caucasian patients diagnosed with AS were genotyped for the rs1205 C>T polymorphism using the TaqMan assay. Severity of the AS was assessed using transthoracic echocardiography. The degree of calcification was analyzed semi-quantitatively. Carriers of the rs1205 T allele were characterized by elevated serum CRP levels (2.53 (1.51–3.96) vs. 1.68 (0.98–2.90) mg/L, p < 0.001) and a higher proportion of the severe aortic valve calcification (70.4% vs. 55.1%, p = 0.01) compared with major homozygotes. The effect of CRP rs1205 polymorphism on CRP levels is opposite in AS-affected than in unaffected subjects, suggesting existence of a disease-specific molecular regulatory mechanism. Furthermore, rs1205 variant allele predisposes to larger aortic valve calcification, potentially being a novel genetic risk marker of disease progression. PMID:26473826

  19. Impact of Probiotic Administration on Serum C-Reactive Protein Concentrations: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Control Trials

    PubMed Central

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Rezaie, Peyman; Ferns, Gordon A.; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the effect of probiotic administration on serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. We searched PubMed-Medline, Web of Science, the Cochrane, and Google Scholar databases (until May 2016) to identify prospective studies evaluating the impact of probiotic administration on CRP. We used a random effects models and generic inverse variance methods to synthesize quantitative data, followed by a leave-one-out method for sensitivity analysis. The systematic review registration number was: CRD42016039457. From a total of 425 entries identified via searches, 20 studies were included in the final analysis. The meta-analysis indicated a significant reduction in serum CRP following probiotic administration with a weighted mean difference (WMD) of −1.35 mg/L, (95% confidence interval (CI) −2.15 to −0.55, I2 65.1%). The WMDs for interleukin 10 (IL10) was −1.65 pg/dL, (95% CI −3.45 to 0.14, I2 3.1%), and −0.45 pg/mL, (95% CI −1.38 to 0.48, I2 10.2%) for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). These findings were robust in sensitivity analyses. This meta-analysis suggests that probiotic administration may significantly reduce serum CRP while having no significant effect on serum IL10 and TNF-α. PMID:28054937

  20. New compact-type latex photometric immunoassay system for hemoglobin and three acute inflammation markers: neutrophil count, C-reactive protein, and anti-streptolysin O.

    PubMed

    Fukumori, Tatsuo; Ohta, Hironobu; Okubo, Akio; Hino, Masayuki; Ohta, Kensuke; Yamane, Takahisa; Tatsumi, Noriyuki

    2002-01-01

    A new compact-type latex photometric immunoassay system, SPOTCHEM IM SI-3510 (ARKRAY, Inc., Kyoto, Japan), which assays three kinds of inflammatory markers-neutrophil count (NPC), C-reactive protein (CRP), and anti-streptolysin O (ASO)-was evaluated. Hemoglobin (Hb), which is a good marker for anemia, can also be measured with it. NPC and CRP are measured using antibodies against neutrophilic elastase and CRP, purified streptolysin O was used for ASO determination, and Hb was measured by an azide-methemoglobin method. Whole blood, serum, and plasma specimens can be used as samples with this system. In this study, whole blood treated with dipotassium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid was used for evaluation. Linearity and reproducibility were good for all of the items studied. Good correlations were observed between the results obtained by this system and those obtained by routine methods. Since NPC exhibited a high correlation with the routine white blood cell (WBC) counts, it was judged to be useful as a substitute for WBC counting. Since this system is small and easy to operate, and evaluation revealed reliable results, it was judged to be practical for small laboratories, and satellite testing in hospitals and physicians' office laboratories for patients suspected to have acute inflammation.

  1. Diagnostic utility of plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and C-reactive protein levels in differential diagnosis of pericardial constriction and restrictive cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Karaahmet, Tansu; Yilmaz, Fatih; Tigen, Kursat; Mutlu, Bulent; Cevik, Cihan; Basaran, Yelda

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the diagnostic utility of plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT proBNP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the differential diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis (CP) and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RC). Twenty-five patients with high clinical suspicion of either CP or RC were enrolled. Mean plasma NT proBNP levels were significantly higher in patients with RC compared to those with CP (2641 +/- 2902 pg/mL vs 628 +/- 678 pg/mL; P=.003). The NT proBNP level that provided the best sensitivity and specificity for the differentiation of CP and RC was 800 pg/mL. Mean CRP levels were higher in patients with CP than with RC (1.41 +/- 1.73 mg/dL vs 0.38 +/- 0.21 mg/dL; P=.03). The CRP level that provided the best sensitivity and specificity for the differentiation of CP and RC was 0.57 mg/dL. Plasma NT proBNP and CRP levels can be useful in the differential diagnosis of RC and CP.

  2. A novel inflammation-based prognostic score for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: the c-reactive protein/prognostic nutritional index ratio

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng; Yang, Xun; Feng, Ji-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background Inflammation plays a critical role in cancer prognosis. In the current study, we proposed a novel inflammation-based prognostic score, named c-reactive protein/prognostic nutritional index ratio (CRP/PNI ratio), for predicting the prognosis for patients with resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Results The optimal cut-off value was 0.10 for CRP/PNI ratio according to the ROC curve. Patients with CRP/PNI ratio ≤0.10 had a significantly better 5-year CSS compared to CRP/PNI ratio >0.10 (44.5% vs. 15.7%, P<0.001). On multivariate analyses, we revealed that CRP/PNI ratio was a significant predictive factor of CSS (P=0.009). A nomogram could be more accuracy for CSS. The Harrell's c-index for CSS prediction was 0.688. Materials and Methods A total of 308 patients with resectable ESCC were enrolled in this retrospective study. The optimal cuf-off value for CRP/PNI ratio was calculated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to analyse the cancer-specific survival (CSS). Univariate and multivariate analyses were evaluated for CSS. A nomogram was also established to predict the prognosis for CSS. Conclusion The CRP/PNI ratio is a novel and useful prognostic score for CSS in patients with resectable ESCC. PMID:27557504

  3. Associations of erythrocyte membrane fatty acids with the concentrations of C-reactive protein, interleukin 1 receptor antagonist and adiponectin in 1373 men.

    PubMed

    Takkunen, M J; de Mello, V D F; Schwab, U S; Ågren, J J; Kuusisto, J; Uusitupa, M I J

    2014-10-01

    Dietary and endogenous fatty acids could play a role in low-grade inflammation. In this cross-sectional study the proportions of erythrocyte membrane fatty acids (EMFA) and the concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and adiponectin were measured and their confounder-adjusted associations examined in 1373 randomly selected Finnish men aged 45-70 years participating in the population based Metsim study in Eastern Finland. The sum of n-6 EMFAs, without linoleic acid (LA), was positively associated with concentrations of CRP and IL-1Ra (r partial=0.139 and r partial=0.115, P<0.001). These associations were especially strong among lean men (waist circumference <94 cm; r partial=0.156 and r partial=0.189, P<0.001). Total n-3 EMFAs correlated inversely with concentrations of CRP (r partial=-0.098, P<0.001). Palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) correlated positively with CRP (r partial=0.096, P<0.001). Cis-vaccenic acid (18:1n-7) was associated with high concentrations of adiponectin (r partial=0.139, P<0.001). In conclusion, n-6 EMFAs, except for LA, correlated positively with the inflammatory markers. Palmitoleic acid was associated with CRP, whereas, interestingly, its elongation product, cis-vaccenic acid, associated with anti-inflammatory adiponectin.

  4. Effect of Flaxseed Intervention on Inflammatory Marker C-Reactive Protein: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guan-Yu; Chen, Chun-Yang; Chen, Guo-Chong; Chen, Wei-Guo; Pan, An; Pan, Chen-Wei; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Qin, Li-Qiang; Chen, Li-Hua

    2016-03-04

    Functional food-flaxseed and its derivatives (flaxseed oil or lignans) are beneficial for human health, possibly because of their anti-inflammatory effects. C-reactive protein (CRP), a sensitive marker of inflammation was chosen to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of flaxseed. We searched randomized controlled trials from PubMed and the Cochrane Library in October 2015 and conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of flaxseed and its derivatives on CRP. The mean differences (net change) in CRP (mg/L) concentrations were pooled with a random- or a fixed-effects model depending on the results of heterogeneity tests. Overall, flaxseed interventions had no effects on reduction of CRP (p = 0.428). The null effects were consistent in the subgroup analysis with multiple studies and population characteristics. Significant heterogeneity was observed in most of the analyses. Meta-regression identified baseline body mass index (BMI) as a significant source of heterogeneity (P-interaction = 0.032), with a significant reduction in CRP of 0.83 mg/L (95% confidence interval -1.34 to -0.31; p = 0.002) among subjects with a BMI of ≥30 kg/m². In conclusion, our meta-analysis did not find sufficient evidence that flaxseed and its derivatives have a beneficial effect on reducing circulating CRP. However, they may significantly reduce CRP in obese populations.

  5. The significance of the C-reactive protein to albumin ratio as a marker for predicting survival and monitoring chemotherapeutic effectiveness in patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Shibutani, Masatsune; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Nagahara, Hisashi; Iseki, Yasuhito; Hirakawa, Kosei; Ohira, Masaichi

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation has been reported to play an important role in cancer progression and various inflammatory markers have been reported to be useful prognostic markers. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the significance of the C-reactive protein to albumin (CRP/ALB) ratio in colorectal cancer patients who received palliative chemotherapy. We performed a retrospective review of 99 patients who underwent palliative chemotherapy for unresectable colorectal cancer between 2005 and 2010. The cutoff value of the CRP/ALB ratio was determined based on a receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. The relationship between the CRP/ALB ratio and survival was assessed. The cutoff value for the CRP/ALB ratio was 0.183. The high pretreatment CRP/ALB ratio group showed significantly worse overall survival. Patients with a high pretreatment CRP/ALB ratio and in whom the CRP/ALB ratio normalized after chemotherapy tended to have better overall survival than those in whom both the pretreatment and posttreatment CRP/ALB ratios were high. The CRP/ALB ratio is a useful marker for predicting survival and monitoring chemotherapeutic effectiveness in patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer.

  6. Effects of febuxostat on insulin resistance and expression of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients with primary gout.

    PubMed

    Meng, Juan; Li, Yanchun; Yuan, Xiaoxu; Lu, Yuewu

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of febuxostat on IR and the expression of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with primary gout. Forty-two cases of primary gout patients without uric acid-lowering therapy were included in this study. After a physical examination, 20 age- and sex-matched patients were included as normal controls. The levels of fasting insulin (INS), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and hs-CRP were determined. IR was assessed using the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Gout patients had higher levels of UA, INS, HOMA-IR, and hs-CRP than normal controls (P < 0.05). After 4-, 12-, and 24-week febuxostat treatments, UA and hs-CRP concentrations were significantly lower than baseline (P < 0.05). INS and HOM-IR decreased slightly after a 4-week treatment with febuxostat but declined significantly after 12 and 24 weeks of treatment. Importantly, hs-CRP values positively correlated with those of HOMA-IR (r = 0.353, P = 0.018) and INS (r = 0.426, P = 0.034). Our findings confirm that IR exists in gout patients and implicate that febuxostat can effectively control the level of serum UA and increase insulin sensitivity in primary gout patients.

  7. C-Reactive Protein at Discharge, Diabetes Mellitus and ≥ 1 Hospitalization During Previous Year Predict Early Readmission in Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Crisafulli, Ernesto; Torres, Antoni; Huerta, Arturo; Méndez, Raúl; Guerrero, Mónica; Martinez, Raquel; Liapikou, Adamantia; Soler, Néstor; Sethi, Sanjay; Menéndez, Rosario

    2015-06-01

    Recurrent hospitalizations in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) patients have clinical and economic consequences; particularly those readmitted soon after discharge. The aim of our observational study was to determine predictors of early readmission to hospital (30 days from discharge). Prospective data on 125 hospitalized AECOPD patients were collected over a 30-month period at two Spanish university hospitals. Based on readmission after discharge, patients were divided into non-readmitted (n = 96) and readmitted (n = 29). Measures of serum inflammatory biomarkers were recorded on admission to hospital, at day 3 and at discharge; data on clinical, laboratory, microbiological and severity features were also recorded. In a multivariate model, C-reactive protein (CRP) at discharge ≥ 7.6 mg/L, presence of diabetes and ≥ 1 hospitalization for AECOPD during previous year were significant risk factors for predicting readmission. Presence of all 3 risk factors perfectly identified the readmitted patients (positive and negative predictive values of 1.000; 95% CI, 1.00-1.00). A combination of 3 readily available clinical and biochemical parameters is accurate in identifying hospitalized AECOPD patients at risk for early readmission.

  8. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Bearing Phosphorylcholine Groups for Metal-Free, Antibody-Free, and Low-Impedance Biosensors Specific for C-Reactive Protein.

    PubMed

    Goda, Tatsuro; Toya, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Akira; Miyahara, Yuji

    2015-12-16

    Conducting polymers possessing biorecognition elements are essential for developing electrical biosensors sensitive and specific to clinically relevant biomolecules. We developed a new 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) derivative bearing a zwitterionic phosphorylcholine group via a facile synthesis through the Michael-type addition thiol-ene "click" reaction for the detection of an acute-phase biomarker human C-reactive protein (CRP). The phosphorylcholine group, a major headgroup in phospholipid, which is the main constituent of plasma membrane, was also expected to resist nonspecific adsorption of other proteins at the electrode/solution interface. The biomimetic EDOT derivative was randomly copolymerized with EDOT, via an electropolymerization technique with a dopant sodium perchlorate, onto a glassy carbon electrode to make the synthesized polymer film both conductive and target-responsive. The conducting copolymer films were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The specific interaction of CRP with phosphorylcholine in a calcium-containing buffer solution was determined by differential pulse voltammetry, which measures the altered redox reaction between the indicators ferricyanide/ferrocyanide as a result of the binding event. The conducting polymer-based protein sensor achieved a limit of detection of 37 nM with a dynamic range of 10-160 nM, covering the dynamically changing CRP levels in circulation during the acute phase. The results will enable the development of metal-free, antibody-free, and low-impedance electrochemical biosensors for the screening of nonspecific biomarkers of inflammation and infection.

  9. Correlation of C-reactive protein haplotypes with serum C-reactive protein level and response to anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy in UK rheumatoid arthritis patients: results from the Biologics in Rheumatoid Arthritis Genetics and Genomics Study Syndicate cohort

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In many European countries, restrictions exist around the prescription of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Eligibility and response to treatment is assessed by using the disease activity score 28 (DAS28) algorithm, which incorporates one of two inflammatory markers, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) or C-reactive protein (CRP). Although DAS28-CRP provides a more reliable measure of disease activity, functional variants exist within the CRP gene that affect basal CRP production. Therefore, we aimed to determine the relation between functional genetic variants at the CRP gene locus and levels of serum CRP in RA patients, and whether these variants, alone or in combination, are correlated with DAS28-CRP and change in DAS28-CRP after anti-TNF treatment. Methods DNA samples from the Biologics in Rheumatoid Arthritis Genetics and Genomics Study Syndicate (BRAGGSS) were genotyped for rs1205, rs1800947, and rs3091244 by using either TaqMan or the Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX system. Estimated haplotypes were constructed for each sample by using the expectation maximization algorithm implemented in the haplo.stats package within the R statistical program. CRP values were log transformed, and the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), haplotypes of SNPs and baseline CRP, baseline DAS28-CRP, and change in DAS28-CRP were evaluated by using linear regression in STATA v.10. Results Baseline CRP measurements were available for 599 samples with 442 also having data 6 months after treatment with an anti-TNF. For these 442 samples, the study had > 80% power to detect a clinically meaningful difference of 0.6 DAS28 Units for an allele frequency of 5%. Estimated haplotype frequencies corresponded with previous frequencies reported in the literature. Overall, no significant association was observed between any of the markers investigated and baseline CRP levels. Further, CRP haplotypes did not correlate

  10. Label-free optical detection of C-reactive protein by nanoimprint lithography-based 2D-photonic crystal film.

    PubMed

    Endo, Tatsuro; Kajita, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Yukio; Kosaka, Terumasa; Himi, Toshiyuki

    2016-06-01

    The development of high-sensitive, and cost-effective novel biosensors have been strongly desired for future medical diagnostics. To develop novel biosensor, the authors focused on the specific optical characteristics of photonic crystal. In this study, a label-free optical biosensor, polymer-based two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D-PhC) film fabricated using nanoimprint lithography (NIL), was developed for detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) in human serum. The nano-hole array constructed NIL-based 2D-PhC (hole diameter: 230 nm, distance: 230, depth: 200 nm) was fabricated on a cyclo-olefin polymer (COP) film (100 µm) using thermal NIL and required surface modifications to reduce nonspecific adsorption of target proteins. Antigen-antibody reactions on the NIL-based 2D-PhC caused changes to the surrounding refractive index, which was monitored as reflection spectrum changes in the visible region. By using surface modified 2D-PhC, the calculated detection limit for CRP was 12.24 pg/mL at an extremely short reaction time (5 min) without the need for additional labeling procedures and secondary antibody. Furthermore, using the dual-functional random copolymer, CRP could be detected in a pooled blood serum diluted 100× with dramatic reduction of nonspecific adsorption. From these results, the NIL-based 2D-PhC film has great potential for development of an on-site, high-sensitivity, cost-effective, label-free biosensor for medical diagnostics applications.

  11. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern results in significant reductions in C-reactive protein levels in adults: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Neale, E P; Batterham, M J; Tapsell, L C

    2016-05-01

    Consumption of healthy dietary patterns has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Dietary intervention targets disease prevention, so studies increasingly use biomarkers of underlying inflammation and metabolic syndrome progression to examine the diet-health relationship. The extent to which these biomarkers contribute to the body of evidence on healthy dietary patterns is unknown. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of healthy dietary patterns on biomarkers associated with adiposity, insulin resistance, and inflammation in adults. A systematic search of Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (all years to April 2015) was conducted. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials; effects of dietary patterns assessed on C-reactive protein (CRP), total adiponectin, high-molecular-weight adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin:leptin, resistin, or retinol binding protein 4. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to assess the weighted mean differences in change or final mean values for each outcome. Seventeen studies were included in the review. These reflected research on dietary patterns associated with the Mediterranean diet, Nordic diet, Tibetan diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern was associated with significant reductions in CRP (weighted mean difference, -0.75 [-1.16, -0.35]; P = .0003). Non-significant changes were found for all other biomarkers. This analysis found evidence for favorable effects of healthy dietary patterns on CRP, with limited evidence for other biomarkers. Future research should include additional randomized controlled trials incorporating a greater range of dietary patterns and biomarkers.

  12. Prediction of Cortical Defect Using C-Reactive Protein and Urine Sodium to Potassium Ratio in Infants with Febrile Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Su Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated whether C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, urine protein-creatinine ratio (uProt/Cr), and urine electrolytes can be useful for discriminating acute pyelonephritis (APN) from other febrile illnesses or the presence of a cortical defect on 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scanning (true APN) from its absence in infants with febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Materials and Methods We examined 150 infants experiencing their first febrile UTI and 100 controls with other febrile illnesses consecutively admitted to our hospital from January 2010 to December 2012. Blood (CRP, electrolytes, Cr) and urine tests [uProt/Cr, electrolytes, and sodium-potassium ratio (uNa/K)] were performed upon admission. All infants with UTI underwent DMSA scans during admission. All data were compared between infants with UTI and controls and between infants with or without a cortical defect on DMSA scans. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, the ability of the parameters to predict true APN was analyzed. Results CRP levels and uProt/Cr were significantly higher in infants with true APN than in controls. uNa levels and uNa/K were significantly lower in infants with true APN than in controls. CRP levels and uNa/K were relevant factors for predicting true APN. The method using CRP levels, u-Prot/Cr, u-Na levels, and uNa/K had a sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 65%, positive predictive value of 60%, and negative predictive value of 95% for predicting true APN. Conclusion We conclude that these parameters are useful for discriminating APN from other febrile illnesses or discriminating true APN in infants with febrile UTI. PMID:26632389

  13. Three-month variation of plasma pentraxin 3 compared with C-reactive protein, albumin and homocysteine levels in haemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Sjöberg, Bodil; Snaedal, Sunna; Stenvinkel, Peter; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Heimbürger, Olof; Bárány, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Inflammatory markers vary considerably over time in haemodialysis (HD) patients, yet the variability is poorly defined. The aim of the study was to assess changes of plasma levels of pentraxin-3 (PTX-3), C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin and homocysteine (Hcy) over 3 months and the association between the changes in these biomarkers and mortality. Methods In 188 prevalent HD patients, inflammatory markers were measured at inclusion and after 3 months. Mortality was recorded during a median follow-up of 41 months. The changes of the biomarker levels were categorized according to change in tertile for the specific biomarker. The variation was calculated as the intra-class correlation (ICC). Mortality was analysed by Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards model. The predictive strength was calculated for single measurements and for the variation of each inflammatory marker. Results The intra-individual variation (low ICC) was largest for PTX-3 [ICC 0.44; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33–0.55], albumin (ICC 0.58; 95% CI: 0.49–0.67) and CRP (ICC 0.59; 95% CI: 0.51–0.68) and lowest for Hcy (ICC 0.81; 95% CI: 0.77–0.86). During follow-up, 88 patients died. Conclusions PTX-3 measurements are less stable and show higher variation within patients than CRP, albumin and Hcy. Persistently elevated PTX-3 levels are associated with high mortality. Moreover, in multivariate logistic regression we found that stable high PTX-3 adds to the mortality risk, even after inclusion of clinical factors and the three other biomarkers. The associations of decreasing albumin levels as well as low Hcy levels with worse outcome reflect protein-energy wasting. PMID:25852911

  14. Synergistic enhancement of cytokine-induced human monocyte matrix metalloproteinase-1 by C-reactive protein and oxidized LDL through differential regulation of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and prostaglandin E2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yahong; Wahl, Larry M

    2006-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) are associated with inflammatory lesions, such as coronary artery disease, in which monocytes and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may play a major role in the rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Monocytes are recruited to inflammation sites by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), which may also participate in the activation of monocytes. The objective of this study was to compare the individual and combined effect of CRP and ox-LDL on human monocyte MMP-1 and the role of MCP-1 in this effect. Although CRP or ox-LDL failed to induce MMP-1 in control monocytes, these molecules enhanced MMP-1 production induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) with a synergistic increase in MMP-1 occurring in the presence of both mediators. Enhancement of MMP-1 by CRP and ox-LDL was attributable to a differential increase in MCP-1 and prostaglandin E2(PGE2). CRP, at physiological concentrations, induced high levels of MCP-1 and relatively low levels of PGE2, whereas ox-LDL caused a significant enhancement of PGE2 with little affect on MCP-1. Accordingly, CRP- and ox-LDL-induced MMP-1 production by monocytes was inhibited by anti-MCP-1 antibodies and indomethacin, respectively. Moreover, addition of exogenous MCP-1 or PGE2 enhanced MMP-1 production by TNF-alpha- and GM-CSF-stimulated monocytes. These results show that the combination of CRP and ox-LDL can cause a synergistic enhancement of the role of monocytes in inflammation, first, by increasing MCP-1, which attracts more monocytes and directly enhances MMP-1 production by activated monocytes, and second, by elevating PGE2 production, which also leads to higher levels of MMP-1.

  15. Effect of pioglitazone therapy on high sensitive C-reactive protein and lipid profile in diabetic patients with renal transplantation; a randomize clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Arashnia, Rana; Roohi-Gilani, Kobra; Karimi-Sari, Hamidreza; Nikjoo, Niloofar; Bahramifar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inflammation has a major role in disease lead to renal failure and diabetes mellitus, controlling inflammation in diabetic kidney receivers could decrease morbidity and mortality. Objectives: This study designed for evaluating the efficacy of pioglitazone on C-reactive protein and lipid profile in diabetic kidney transplant receivers. Patients and Methods: In this double blinded clinical trial, 58 diabetic renal transplant receivers, in first month after transplantation, randomized into two groups; receiving insulin and pioglitazone (15 mg tablet daily, group A); and insulin and placebo (group B). Blood pressure, weight, body mass index (BMI) and laboratory data compared in before and after 4-month treatment in two groups by SPSS. Results: Fifty-eight patients with mean age of 44.15 ± 2 years included. There were no significant difference between groups in demographic data and other baseline measured variables (P > 0.05) .The mean weigh and BMI were slightly increased in group A and decreased in group B. The mean hs-CRP was decreased 4.82 mg/dL in group A and 1.93 mg/dL in group B (P = 0.007). The mean total serum cholesterol was significantly decreased 34 mg/dL in group A and 18.07 mg/dL in group B (P = 0.027). The mean serum HDL-C was significantly increased 13.31 mg/dL in group A and 5.89 mg/dl in group B (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Pioglitazone seems to be a safe drug for reducing serum lipids and CRP in kidney transplant receivers with diabetes mellitus in short term. Long term effect of this drug could be evaluated in future studies. PMID:25964889

  16. Circulating levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α and risk of colorectal adenomas: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Liu, Shanglong; Zhou, Yanbing

    2016-01-01

    Results from publications on inflammatory markers of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and risk of colorectal adenomas are not consistent. A meta-analysis was conducted to explore the above-mentioned associations. Relevant studies were identified by a search of Embase, Medline and PubMed through February 2016. A random effect model was adopted to combine study-specific odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Between-study heterogeneity and publications bias were assessed. Dose–response relationships were assessed by restricted cubic splines. Nineteen observational studies were included. For highest vs. lowest levels, results from this meta-analysis did not support an association between circulating levels of CRP [OR (95% CI): 1.15 (0.94-1.40)], IL-6 [1.17 (0.94-1.46)] and TNF-α [0.99 (0.75-1.31)] and risk of colorectal adenomas, respectively. The findings were supported by sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis. In dose-response analysis, the risk of colorectal adenomas increased by 2% [1.02 (0.97-1.08)] for each 1 mg/L increment in circulation CRP levels, 9% [1.09 (0.91-1.31)] for each 1 ng/L increment in circulation IL-6 levels, and 6% [1.06 (0.93-1.21)] for each 1 pg/mL increment in circulation TNF-α levels. Moderate between-study heterogeneity was found. No evidence of publication bias was found. Circulation levels of CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α might be not useful biomarkers for identifying colorectal adenomas, respectively. PMID:27608842

  17. The C-reactive Protein/Albumin Ratio Is an independent Prognostic Factor for Overall Survival in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Receiving Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Chang-Juan; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Feng; Feng, Xing-Lai; Jin, Qi-Feng; Jin, Ting; Piao, Yong-Feng; Chen, Xiao-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the prognostic value of the C-reactive protein/albumin (CRP/ALB) ratio in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) era. A total of 719 patients with NPC treated between January 2007 and December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Serum albumin and CRP levels were measured before treatment. The associations between the CRP/ALB ratio and clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. Multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model were performed to identify significant prognostic factors associated with overall survival (OS). The prognostic value of the CRP/ALB ratio was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The optimal CRP/ALB ratio cutoff value was 0.141. High CRP/ALB ratio was significantly associated with older age (P < 0.001), more advanced T category (P < 0.001) and advanced TNM stage (P = 0.024). Patients with an elevated CRP/ALB ratio (≥ 0.141) had poorer OS than those with a CRP/ALB ratio < 0.141 (5-year OS rates: 91.9% vs. 78.1%; P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis suggested clinical T category [hazard ratio (HR) 2.284; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.429-3.652; P = 0.001]; clinical N category (HR 1.575; 95% CI, 1.007-2.464; P = 0.047) and CRP/ALB ratio (HR 2.173; 95% CI, 1.128-3.059; P = 0.015) were independently associated with OS. In conclusion, pretreatment CRP/ALB ratio is an objective biomarker with significant prognostic value for OS in NPC. The CRP/ALB ratio can enhance conventional TNM staging to stratify patients and may help facilitate individualized treatment of high-risk cases. PMID:27877215

  18. Quantitative trait locus on chromosome 20q13 for plasma levels of C-reactive protein in healthy whites: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    PubMed

    Lakka, Timo A; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rice, Treva; Leon, Arthur S; Rao, D C; Skinner, James S; Bouchard, Claude

    2006-10-11

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive marker of systemic low-grade inflammation. Increased plasma levels of CRP predict the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Although genetic factors account for 30-40% of individual differences in plasma CRP levels, genomic regions contributing to CRP levels remain unknown. We performed a genome-wide linkage scan for plasma CRP levels in healthy whites from the HERITAGE Family Study. CRP was measured with a high-sensitivity assay. Multipoint linkage analyses were performed in 280 sibling pairs with 654 markers using regression and variance components-based methods. Data were adjusted for independent correlates of plasma CRP. We showed the strongest evidence of linkage for plasma CRP levels on chromosome 20q13. Markers which gave suggestive linkages in this region were D20S52 [logarithm of odds (LOD) score 3.18, P = 0.00006], D20S857 (LOD score 2.87, P = 0.00014), D20S869 (LOD score 2.75, P = 0.0002), D20S480 (LOD score 2.59, P = 0.0003), D20S501 (LOD score 2.55, P = 0.0003), D20S840 (LOD score 2.18, P = 0.0008), and D20S876 (LOD score 2.07, P = 0.001). We also detected suggestive linkage on chromosome 5p13 for marker D5S1470 (LOD score 2.23, P = 0.0007). Chromosome 20q13 may contribute to plasma CRP levels in healthy whites. This region contains genes that are important in the inflammatory process and may play a role in the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. The present findings may be useful in the ongoing effort to search for genes contributing to inflammation and to identify individuals at an increased risk of chronic inflammatory diseases.

  19. Assessing the Association between Serum Ferritin, Transferrin Saturation, and C-Reactive Protein in Northern Territory Indigenous Australian Patients with High Serum Ferritin on Maintenance Haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, Paul D.; Barzi, Federica; Cass, Alan; Hughes, Jaquelyne T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine the significance of high serum ferritin observed in Indigenous Australian patients on maintenance haemodialysis in the Northern Territory, we assessed the relationship between ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) as measures of iron status and ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP) as markers of inflammation. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of data from adult patients (≥18 years) on maintenance haemodialysis (>3 months) from 2004 to 2011. Results. There were 1568 patients. The mean age was 53.9 (11.9) years. 1244 (79.3%) were Indigenous. 44.2% (n = 693) were male. Indigenous patients were younger (mean age [52.3 (11.1) versus 57.4 (15.2), p < 0.001]) and had higher CRP [14.7 mg/l (7–35) versus 5.9 mg/l (1.9–17.5), p < 0.001], higher median serum ferritin [1069 µg/l (668–1522) versus 794.9 µg/l (558.5–1252.0), p < 0.001], but similar transferrin saturation [26% (19–37) versus 28% (20–38), p = 0.516]. We observed a small positive correlation between ferritin and TSAT (r2 = 0.11, p < 0.001), no correlation between ferritin and CRP (r2 = 0.001, p < 0.001), and positive association between high serum ferritin and TSAT (p < 0.001), Indigenous ethnicity (p < 0.001), urea reduction ratio (p = 0.001), and gender (p < 0.001) after adjustment in mixed regression analysis. Conclusion. Serum ferritin and TSAT may inadequately reflect iron status in this population. The high ferritin was poorly explained by inflammation. PMID:28243472

  20. Prognostic and diagnostic value of eosinopenia, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and circulating cell-free DNA in critically ill patients admitted with suspicion of sepsis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were to assess the reliability of circulating cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) concentrations, compared with C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and eosinophil count, in the diagnosis of infections in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and their prognostic values in a cohort of critically ill patients. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study in a medical-surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital. Eosinophil count and concentrations of cf-DNA, CRP, and PCT were measured in patients who fulfilled SIRS criteria at admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and a second determination 24 hours later. DNA levels were determined by a PCR method using primers for the human beta-haemoglobin gene. Results One hundred and sixty consecutive patients were included: 43 SIRS without sepsis and 117 with sepsis. Levels of CRP and PCT, but not cf-DNA or eosinophil count, were significantly higher in patients with sepsis than in SIRS-no sepsis group on days 1 and 2. PCT on day 1 achieves the best area under the curve (AUC) for sepsis diagnosis (0.87; 95% confidence interval = 0.81-0.94). Levels of cf-DNA do not predict outcome and the accuracy of these biomarkers for mortality prediction was lower than that shown by APACHE II score. PCT decreases significantly from day 1 to day 2 in survivors in the entire cohort and in patients with sepsis without significant changes in the other biomarkers. Conclusions Our data do not support the clinical utility of cf-DNA measurement in critical care patients with SIRS. PCT is of value especially for infection identification in patients with SIRS at admission to the ICU. PMID:24903083

  1. A population-based dietary inflammatory index predicts levels of C-reactive protein in the Seasonal Variation of Blood Cholesterol Study (SEASONS)

    PubMed Central

    Shivappa, Nitin; Steck, Susan E; Hurley, Thomas G; Hussey, James R; Ma, Yunsheng; Ockene, Ira S; Tabung, Fred; Hébert, James R

    2013-01-01

    Objective To perform construct validation of the population-based Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) using dietary data from two different dietary assessments and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) as the construct validator. Design Using data derived from (i) three 24 h dietary recalls (24HR) at baseline and at the end of each subsequent quarter (i.e. up to fifteen over a year) and (ii) a 7 d dietary recall (7DDR) measured at baseline and then quarterly, regression analyses were conducted to test the effect of the DII score on serum hs-CRP as dichotomous (≤3mg/l, >3mg/l), while controlling for important potential confounders. Setting Existing data from the Seasonal Variation of Blood Cholesterol Study (SEASONS), a longitudinal observational study of healthy participants recruited in Worcester, MA, USA and participants were followed for 1 year. Subjects Participants who had at least one hs-CRP measurement over her/his 1-year participation (n 495 for 24HR, n 559 for 7DDR). Results Higher DII scores were associated with values of hs-CRP >3 mg/l (OR = 1·08; 95% CI 1·01, 1·16, P = 0·035 for the 24HR; and OR = 1·10; 95% CI 1·02, 1·19, P = 0·015 for the 7DDR). Conclusions The population-based DII was associated with interval changes in hs-CRP using both the 24HR and 7DDR. The success of this first-of-a-kind attempt at relating individuals’ intakes of inflammation-modulating foods using this refined DII, and the finding that there is virtually no drop-off in predictive capability using a structured questionnaire in comparison to the 24HR standard, sets the stage for use of the DII in a wide variety of other epidemiological and clinical studies. PMID:24107546

  2. Prospective Evaluation of Procalcitonin, Soluble Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1 and C-Reactive Protein in Febrile Patients with Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chou-Han; Hsieh, Song-Chou; Keng, Li-Ta; Lee, Ho-Sheng; Chang, Hou-Tai; Liao, Wei-Yu; Ho, Chao-Chi; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Background Both procalcitonin (PCT) and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) have been investigated separately as indicators of infection in patients with autoimmune diseases. Our study simultaneously evaluated both PCT and sTREM-1 along with C-reactive protein (CRP) in febrile patients with autoimmune diseases. Methods Fifty-nine patients were enrolled in the study. The patients were categorized into the infection group (n = 24) or the disease flare group (n = 35). sTREM-1, PCT and CRP concentrations at fever onset were compared between the two groups of patients. Results sTREM-1 and CRP did not differ between the two groups. PCT [median (range), ng/ml] was higher in the infection group than in the disease flare group [0.53 (0.02–12.85) vs. 0.12 (0.02–19.23), p = 0.001]. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) for diagnosis of infection was 0.75 for PCT (p = 0.001), 0.63 for CRP (p = 0.09) and 0.52 for sTREM-1 (p = 0.79). Using 0.2 ng/ml as the cutoff value for PCT, sensitivity was 0.75 and specificity was 0.77. Negative predictive values for PCT were 92%, 87% and 82% for a prevalence of infection of 20%, 30%, and 40%, respectively. Neither immunosuppressants nor biomodulators affected the level of the three biomarkers. However, in patients treated with corticosteroids, the levels of sTREM-1 and CRP were significantly decreased compared with the untreated patients. Conclusions Setting PCT at a lower cutoff value could provide useful information on excluding infection in febrile patients with autoimmune diseases. The possible effect of corticosteroids on the level of sTREM-1 as an infection marker deserves further study. PMID:27096761

  3. Evaluation of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 & serum amyloid A as diagnostic biomarkers of bacterial infection in febrile patients

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Junyan; Lü, Xiaoju; Liu, Yanbin; Wang, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Early identification of bacterial infection in patients with fever is important for prompt treatment. However, the available parameters such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and leukocyte counts are not very specific. This study was aimed to assess the diagnostic value of procalcitonin (PCT), CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and serum amyloid A (SAA) for bacterial infection in febrile patients. Methods: Serum samples were collected from febrile patients between January and December 2012 and processed for blood cultures. PCT, IL-6, CRP and SAA levels were measured. The patients were divided into three groups according to the final diagnosis: bacteraemia group (group1), bacterial infection with negative blood culture (group 2) and non-bacterial infection group (group 3). Results: There were significant (P<0.05) difference in the levels of PCT, CRP, IL-6 and SAA among the three groups. The PCT levels of patients with Gram-positive bacterial infections were lower than Gram-negative bacterial infections (0.53 vs 2.13, P < 0.01). The best cut-off value to detect bacterial infections was 0.26 ng/ml for PCT. PCT, CRP, IL-6 and SAA had areas under the curve of 0.804, 0.693, 0.658 and 0.687, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed PCT as a valuable marker of bacterial infections in febrile patients. PCT was superior to CRP, IL-6 or SAA in the early identification of bacterial infection. More prospective and large scale studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:25963492

  4. Effects of L-carnitine supplement on serum inflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein, lipoprotein (a), and oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients with Lp (a) hyperlipoproteinemia.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Azam; Tabibi, Hadi; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2010-10-01

    Inflammation, oxidative stress, and high concentration of serum lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)] are common complications in hemodialysis patients. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of L-carnitine supplement on serum inflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), Lp (a), and oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients with Lp (a) hyperlipoproteinemia [hyper Lp (a)]. This was an unblinded, randomized clinical trial. Thirty-six hyper Lp (a) hemodialysis patients (23 men and 13 women) were randomly assigned to either a carnitine or control group. Patients in the carnitine group received 1000 mg/d oral L-carnitine for 12 weeks, whereas patients in the control group did not receive any L-carnitine supplement. At baseline and the end of week 12, 5 mL of blood were collected after a 12- to 14-hours fast and serum free carnitine, CRP, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α, Lp (a), and oxidized low-density lipoprotein were measured. Serum free carnitine concentration increased significantly by 86% in the carnitine group at the end of week 12 compared with baseline (P<0.001), while serum CRP and IL-6 showed a significant decrease of 29% (P<0.05) and 61% (P<0.001), respectively. No significant changes were observed in serum free carnitine, CRP, and IL-6 in the control group. There were no significant differences between the two groups in mean changes of serum interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, Lp (a), and oxidized low-density lipoprotein concentrations. L-carnitine supplement reduces inflammation in hemodialysis patients, but has no effect on hyper Lp (a) and oxidative stress.

  5. Comparison of relative and attributable risk of myocardial infarction and stroke according to C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Pischon, Tobias; Möhlig, Matthias; Hoffmann, Kurt; Spranger, Joachim; Weikert, Cornelia; Willich, Stefan N; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Boeing, Heiner

    2007-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) was proposed as a stronger predictor of cardiovascular events than low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C); however, these associations may differ between myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. We compared statistically the associations of CRP and LDL-C levels with risk of MI versus stroke and examined to what extent consideration of CRP or LDL-C increases the population attributable fractions (PAFs) of MI and stroke beyond traditional risk factors among 27,548 subjects from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam Study in a case-cohort design. Among subjects without prior MI or stroke, 156 developed MI and 132 stroke during 6.0 years of follow-up. In adjusted competing risk analyses CRP was positively related to MI and stroke (P difference between endpoints = 0.55), whereas LDL-C was related to MI but not stroke (P difference between endpoints = 0.003). The PAF for smoking, diabetes, and hypertension combined was 0.76 for MI, and 0.58 for stroke. With additional consideration of CRP the PAFs were 0.80 and 0.68, while with addition of LDL-C the PAFs were 0.88 and 0.55. We conclude that CRP is equally strongly related to risk of MI and stroke, whereas LDL-C is related to risk of MI but not stroke. Consideration of LDL-C beyond smoking, diabetes and hypertension may increase the PAF of MI slightly more than CRP. In contrast, consideration of CRP but not of LDL-C may increase the PAF of stroke beyond these factors.

  6. Elevated levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein correlate positively with C-reactive protein in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-chen; Wei, Jing-jing; Wang, Fei; Chen, Man-tian; Zhang, Mao-zhen

    2012-03-01

    The relationship between oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is unknown. We, therefore, measured serum levels of Ox-LDL and high-sensitivity (hs)-CRP in 90 ACS patients, 45 stable angina pectoris (SAP) patients, and 66 healthy controls using sandwich ELISA. ACS patients were subdivided into: (1) acute myocardial infarction (AMI; n = 45); (2) unstable angina pectoris (UAP; n = 45) groups. In AMI patients, Ox-LDL (177.5 mmol/l) and hs-CRP (25.40 mg/l) levels were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than in UAP (Ox-LDL:107.5 mmol/l, hs-CRP:10.7 mg/l) and SAP (Ox-LDL:82.3 mmol/l, hs-CRP:2.10 mg/l) patients as well as controls (Ox-LDL:41.4 mmol/l, hs-CRP:1.76 mg/l). Ox-LDL/hs-CRP levels in UAP patients were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than in SAP patients and controls. Importantly, a positive correlation was found between Ox-LDL and CRP (r = 0.622; P < 0.01) levels. Serum levels of total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol did not differ among these patient groups. In conclusion, our data show that Ox-LDL and hs-CRP levels correlate positively in ACS patients, supporting the hypothesis that Ox-LDL and CRP may play a direct role in promoting the inflammatory component of atherosclerosis in these individuals. We suggest that Ox-LDL/CRP elevated levels may serve as markers of the severity of the disease in evaluation and management of ACS patients.

  7. Effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on C-reactive protein and homocysteine as the inflammatory markers in hemodialysis patients; a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Zahed, Narges-Sadat; Ghassami, Maryam; Nikbakht, Hajar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The most leading cause of death in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients are cardiovascular disease and inflammatory markers are related to coronary events. CO-Q10 (coenzyme Q10) is a protective supplement from free radical oxidative damage. In addition, hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factor. Objectives: Due to increasing oxidative stress in dialysis patients, and the effect of CO-Q10 in decrease oxidative stress, in this work, we assessed the effect of CO-Q10 on C-reactive protein (CRP) level as an inflammatory marker and homocysteine in dialysis patients. Patients and Methods: This was a single-blind, randomized cross over clinical trial. Patients with ESRD were randomly allotted to two groups. All patients received placebo and C0- Q10 100mg/d during the three months in each stage, with two week washout period. Plasma level of CRP and homocysteine from the start of the work and at the conclusion of each menses, are evaluated. Results: Thirty-four patients randomized, but 26 patients complete study protocol. The treatment effect of CO-Q10 on CRP level is significant (P < 0.001) (95% CI = -20.1 to -10.5) and it was also significant for the increasing albumin level. (P = 0.044) (95% CI = 0. 0-0.6), But there was not any substantial effect on serum homocysteine level (P = 0.630). Conclusions: CO-Q10 could significantly decrease CRP level as an inflammatory marker and can protect cardiovascular events. PMID:27047809

  8. New variants including ARG1 polymorphisms associated with C-reactive protein levels identified by genome-wide association and pathway analysis.

    PubMed

    Vinayagamoorthy, Nadimuthu; Hu, Hae-Jin; Yim, Seon-Hee; Jung, Seung-Hyun; Jo, Jaeseong; Jee, Sun Ha; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2014-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a general marker of systemic inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The genetic contribution to differences in CRP levels remains to be explained, especially in non-European populations. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify genetic loci associated with CRP levels in Korean population. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using SNPs from 8,529 Korean individuals (7,626 for stage 1 and 903 for stage 2). We also performed pathway analysis. We identified a new genetic locus associated with CRP levels upstream of ARG1 gene (top significant SNP: rs9375813, Pmeta = 2.85×10(-8)), which encodes a key enzyme of the urea cycle counteract the effects of nitric oxide, in addition to known CRP (rs7553007, Pmeta = 1.72×10(-16)) and HNF1A loci (rs2259816, Pmeta = 2.90×10(-10)). When we evaluated the associations between the CRP-related SNPs with cardiovascular disease phenotypes, rs9375813 (ARG1) showed a marginal association with hypertension (P = 0.0440). To identify more variants and pathways, we performed pathway analysis and identified six candidate pathways comprised of genes related to inflammatory processes and CVDs (CRP, HNF1A, PCSK6, CD36, and ABCA1). In addition to the previously reported loci (CRP, HNF1A, and IL6) in diverse ethnic groups, we identified novel variants in the ARG1 locus associated with CRP levels in Korean population and a number of interesting genes related to inflammatory processes and CVD through pathway analysis.

  9. New Variants Including ARG1 Polymorphisms Associated with C-Reactive Protein Levels Identified by Genome-Wide Association and Pathway Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Seon-Hee; Jung, Seung-Hyun; Jo, Jaeseong; Jee, Sun Ha; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2014-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a general marker of systemic inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The genetic contribution to differences in CRP levels remains to be explained, especially in non-European populations. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify genetic loci associated with CRP levels in Korean population. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using SNPs from 8,529 Korean individuals (7,626 for stage 1 and 903 for stage 2). We also performed pathway analysis. We identified a new genetic locus associated with CRP levels upstream of ARG1 gene (top significant SNP: rs9375813, Pmeta = 2.85×10−8), which encodes a key enzyme of the urea cycle counteract the effects of nitric oxide, in addition to known CRP (rs7553007, Pmeta = 1.72×10−16) and HNF1A loci (rs2259816, Pmeta = 2.90×10−10). When we evaluated the associations between the CRP-related SNPs with cardiovascular disease phenotypes, rs9375813 (ARG1) showed a marginal association with hypertension (P = 0.0440). To identify more variants and pathways, we performed pathway analysis and identified six candidate pathways comprised of genes related to inflammatory processes and CVDs (CRP, HNF1A, PCSK6, CD36, and ABCA1). In addition to the previously reported loci (CRP, HNF1A, and IL6) in diverse ethnic groups, we identified novel variants in the ARG1 locus associated with CRP levels in Korean population and a number of interesting genes related to inflammatory processes and CVD through pathway analysis. PMID:24763700

  10. Label-free C-reactive protein electronic detection with an electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor-based immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Magliulo, Maria; De Tullio, Donato; Vikholm-Lundin, Inger; Albers, Willem M; Munter, Tony; Manoli, Kyriaki; Palazzo, Gerardo; Torsi, Luisa

    2016-06-01

    In this contribution, we propose a label-free immunosensor, based on a novel type of electrolyte-gated field-effect transistor (EGOFET), for ultrasensitive detection of the C-reactive protein (CRP). The recognition layer of the biosensor is fabricated by physical adsorption of the anti-CRP monoclonal antibody onto a poly-3-hexyl thiophene (P3HT) organic semiconductor surface. A supplementary nonionic hydrophilic polymer is used as a blocking agent preventing nonspecific interactions and allowing a better orientation of the antibodies immobilized onto the P3HT surface. The whole biomolecule immobilization procedure does not require any pretreatment of the organic semiconductor surface, and the whole functionalization process is completed in less than 30 min. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements were performed to assess the amount of biomolecules physisorbed onto the P3HT and to evaluate the CRP binding proprieties of the deposited anti-CRP layer. A partial surface coverage of about 23 % of adsorbed antibody molecules was found to most efficiently sense the CRP. The electrical performance of the EGOFET immunosensor was comparable to that of a bare P3HT EGOFET device, and the obtained CRP calibration curve was linear over six orders of magnitude (from 4 pM to 2 μM). The relative standard deviation of the individual calibration points, measured on immunosensors fabricated on different chips, ranged between 1 and 14 %, and a detection limit of 2 pM (220 ng/L) was established. The novel electronic immunosensor is compatible with low-cost fabrication procedures and was successfully employed for the detection of the CRP biomarker in the clinically relevant matrix serum. Graphical abstract Schematic of the EGOFET immunosensor for CRP detection. The anti-CRP monoclonal antibody layer is physisorbed on the P3HT organic semiconductor and the CRP is directly measured by a label-free electronic EGOFET transducer.

  11. Association between arterial elasticity, C-reactive protein and maximal oxygen consumption in well-trained cadets during three days extreme physical load: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kampus, Priit; Kals, Jaak; Unt, Eve; Zilmer, Kersti; Eha, Jaan; Teesalu, Rein; Normak, Aivo; Zilmer, Mihkel

    2008-04-01

    Regular aerobic training has beneficial effects on inflammatory pathways and on arterial elasticity, which are both important cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of extreme physical load on arterial elasticity and inflammatory markers in well-trained healthy men who participated in a high-ranking combat course. Seven well-trained male cadets were examined during an international military combat course of 3.5 days duration. Small (C2) and large (C1) artery elasticity was assessed using diastolic pulse wave analysis. Inflammatory markers and arterial elasticity measurement were performed before and after the competition. The extreme prolonged physical load caused individually different responses in arterial elasticity, C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatine kinase in individual cadets. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2) max kg(-1)) correlated significantly with the change (Delta-difference between baseline and 24 h recovery period) of creatine kinase (r= -0.78; p=0.04) and DeltaC2 (r=0.78; p=0.04) and DeltaC1 (r=0.82; p=0.02). In multivariate analysis (R(2)=0.89, p=0.01) the DeltaC2 correlated strongly with VO(2) max kg(-1) (p=0.005) and with the DeltaCRP (p=0.03), whereas the DeltaC1 correlated only with VO(2) max kg(-1) and did not correlate significantly with the DeltaCRP. Changes in small arterial elasticity induced by extreme physical load were significantly related to VO(2) max kg(-1) and DeltaCRP, whereas the change of large artery elasticity was only associated with VO(2) max kg(-1). Our preliminary results indicate that acute exercise-induced inflammation may affect small artery elasticity. However, further, more extensive studies are needed in this area.

  12. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein and C-reactive protein have combined utility for better predicting prognosis after acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-chen; Tang, Yong; Chen, Yu; Huang, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Min; Chen, Jian; Sun, Ying-gang; Li, Yi-gang

    2014-03-01

    It has been shown that the elevated concentrations of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) are predictive of future cardiovascular events for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. But, the combined value of Ox-LDL and hs-CRP for predicting cardiovascular events is still unknown. Serum concentrations of Ox-LDL, hs-CRP, and cTnT were measured in a prospective cohort of 425 selective ACS patients followed 3-5 years for the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or death (AMI/death). Among 425 enrolled patients, 124 patients demonstrated AMI/death. Baseline levels of Ox-LDL, hs-CRP, and cTnT were significantly higher in AMI/death group than the event-free survival group. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses supported that elevations in Ox-LDL or hs-CRP predicted increased cardiovascular events risks. However, the strongest risk prediction was achieved by assessing Ox-LDL and hs-CRP together. Patients with high levels of Ox-LDL and hs-CRP were more likely to experience AMI or death than those with either Ox-LDL or hs-CRP elevated. Receiver-operating characteristic curves showed that Ox-LDL and hs-CRP have higher sensitivity and specificity than those of cTnT for predicting AMI or death. This was reflected by the AUC values for Ox-LDL, hs-CRP, and cTnT, which were 0.891, 0.834, and 0.626, respectively. The combined use of Ox-LDL and hs-CRP may improve prognosis after ACS with high-sensitivity and specificity.

  13. Serum Zinc Concentration and C-Reactive Protein in Individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: the Positive Living with HIV (POLH) Study.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Krishna C; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana

    2016-05-01

    Low zinc levels and chronic inflammation are common in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Zinc deficiency may promote systemic inflammation, but research on the role of zinc in inflammation among HIV-positive individuals taking account of anti-retroviral therapy is lacking. We assessed the association between serum zinc and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration in a cohort of HIV-positive individuals. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 311 HIV-positive individuals (177 men and 134 women) aged 18-60 years residing in Kathmandu, Nepal. High-sensitive or regular serum CRP concentrations were measured by the latex agglutination nephelometry or turbidimetric method, and zinc concentrations were measured by the atomic absorption method. Relationships were assessed using multiple linear regression analysis. The geometric means of zinc in men and women were 73.83 and 71.93 ug/dL, respectively, and of CRP were 1.64 and 0.96 mg/L, respectively. Mean serum CRP concentration was significantly decreased with increasing serum zinc concentration across zinc tertiles (P for trend = 0.010), with mean serum CRP concentration in the highest tertile of serum zinc concentration was 44.2 % lower than that in the lowest tertile. The mean serum CRP concentrations in men and women in the highest tertile of serum zinc concentrations were 30 and 35.9 % lower, respectively, than that in the lowest tertile (P for trend = 0.263 and 0.162, respectively). We found a significant inverse relation between log zinc and log CRP concentrations (beta for 1 unit change in log zinc; β = -1.79, p = 0.0003). Serum zinc concentration may be inversely associated with serum CRP concentration in HIV-positive individuals.

  14. Does sucrose intake affect antropometric variables, glycemia, lipemia and C-reactive protein in subjects with type 1 diabetes?: a controlled-trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is unclear if the sugar intake may affect metabolic parameters in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sucrose intake in glycemic, lipemic, anthropometric variables, as well as in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in these individuals. Methods Thirty-three subjects with type 1 diabetes were evaluated at baseline and 3-months after intervention. Volunteers were randomized into groups: sucrose-free (diet without sucrose) or sucrose-added (foods containing sucrose in composition). Both groups received the same macronutrient composition and used the carbohydrate counting methods. All underwent an interview and anthropometric evaluation. Blood was drawn for glycated haemoglobin, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, and CRP measurement, and the medical charts were reviewed in all cases. Results At baseline, anthropometric, clinical and laboratory variables did not differ between groups, except for the triglycerides. Although at baseline triglycerides levels were higher in the sucrose-added group (p = 0.01), they did not differ between groups after the intervention (p = 0.92). After 3-months, CRP was higher in the sucrose-added than in the sucrose-free group (p = 0.04), but no further differences were found between the groups, including the insulin requirements, anthropometric variables, body composition, and glycemic control. Both groups showed sugars intake above the recommendations at baseline and after intervention. Conclusions Sucrose intake, along with a disciplined diet, did not affect insulin requirements, anthropometric variables, body composition, lipemic and glycemic control. However, although the sucrose intakes increase CRP levels, the amount of sugar in the diet was not associated with this inflammatory marker. PMID:24499591

  15. Changes in C-reactive protein during weight loss and the association with changes in anthropometric variables in men and women: LIFE Study

    PubMed Central

    Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Jeffery, Robert W; Langer, Shelby L; Mitchell, Nathan; Flood, Andrew P; Welsh, Ericka M; Jaeb, Melanie A; Laqua, Patricia S; Crowell, Michael; Levy, Rona L

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether sex differences exist in the pattern of change in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels during weight loss, and whether the associations between weight change and CRP change differ by the types of anthropometric variables. Design Longitudinal, prospective analysis of subjects participating in an intentional weight loss trial (the Lose It For Ever: LIFE Study) followed-up for 30 months. Subjects 212 healthy, obese men and women (age: 23–77y, BMI: 30–39kg/m2). Measurements Body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), CRP, and lifestyle variables repeatedly measured at baseline, 6, 12, 18, and 30-month follow-up. Results Weight change was J-shaped with a nadir at 12-months in both men and women (P for month2 <0.0001). CRP level was consistently higher in women than in men, but the differences were less prominent and were not statistically significant at 12-month and 18-month follow-up. CRP changes between any two consecutive visits were significantly associated with changes in BMI during the same period in women. However, the associations between CRP changes and changes in waist or hip circumference were not as consistent, especially between 18- to 30-month follow-up when CRP significantly increased. The associations in men were generally similar among the different anthropometric measures. The association between changes in BMI and CRP were stronger in men than in women. Conclusion BMI change generally correlated well with CRP changes in both men and women in the course of follow-up. Significant sex-difference in CRP level at baseline diminished at 12- and 18-month follow-up, when both sexes had maintained the lost weight. PMID:20856254

  16. The added value of C-reactive protein measurement in diagnosing pneumonia in primary care: a meta-analysis of individual patient data

    PubMed Central

    Minnaard, Margaretha C.; de Groot, Joris A.H.; Hopstaken, Rogier M.; Schierenberg, Alwin; de Wit, Niek J.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Broekhuizen, Berna D.L.; van Vugt, Saskia F.; Neven, Arie Knuistingh; Graffelman, Aleida W.; Melbye, Hasse; Rainer, Timothy H.; Steurer, Johann; Holm, Anette; Gonzales, Ralph; Dinant, Geert-Jan; van de Pol, Alma C.; Verheij, Theo J.M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is increasingly being included in the diagnostic work-up for community-acquired pneumonia in primary care. Its added diagnostic value beyond signs and symptoms, however, remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis of individual patient data to quantify the added value of CRP measurement. METHODS: We included studies of the diagnostic accuracy of CRP in adult outpatients with suspected lower respiratory tract infection. We contacted authors of eligible studies for inclusion of data and for additional data as needed. The value of adding CRP measurement to a basic signs-and-symptoms prediction model was assessed. Outcome measures were improvement in discrimination between patients with and without pneumonia in primary care and improvement in risk classification, both within the individual studies and across studies. RESULTS: Authors of 8 eligible studies (n = 5308) provided their data sets. In all of the data sets, discrimination between patients with and without pneumonia improved after CRP measurement was added to the prediction model (extended model), with a mean improvement in the area under the curve of 0.075 (range 0.02–0.18). In a hypothetical cohort of 1000 patients, the proportion of patients without pneumonia correctly classified at low risk increased from 28% to 36% in the extended model, and the proportion with pneumonia correctly classified at high risk increased from 63% to 70%. The number of patients with pneumonia classified at low risk did not change (n = 4). Overall, the proportion of patients assigned to the intermediate-risk category decreased from 56% to 51%. INTERPRETATION: Adding CRP measurement to the diagnostic work-up for suspected pneumonia in primary care improved the discrimination and risk classification of patients. However, it still left a substantial group of patients classified at intermediate risk, in which clinical decision-making remains challenging. PMID:27647618

  17. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in >80,000 subjects identifies multiple loci for C-reactive protein levels

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Abbas; Dupuis, Josée; Barbalic, Maja; Bis, Joshua C; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Lu, Chen; Pellikka, Niina; Wallaschofski, Henri; Kettunen, Johannes; Henneman, Peter; Baumert, Jens; Strachan, David P; Fuchsberger, Christian; Vitart, Veronique; Wilson, James F; Paré, Guillaume; Naitza, Silvia; Rudock, Megan E; Surakka, Ida; de Geus, Eco JC; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Guralnik, Jack; Shuldiner, Alan; Tanaka, Toshiko; Zee, Robert YL; Schnabel, Renate B; Nambi, Vijay; Kavousi, Maryam; Ripatti, Samuli; Nauck, Matthias; Smith, Nicholas L; Smith, Albert V; Sundvall, Jouko; Scheet, Paul; Liu, Yongmei; Ruokonen, Aimo; Rose, Lynda M; Larson, Martin G; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Freimer, Nelson B; Teumer, Alexander; Tracy, Russell P; Launer, Lenore J; Buring, Julie E; Yamamoto, Jennifer F; Folsom, Aaron R; Sijbrands, Eric JG; Pankow, James; Elliott, Paul; Keaney, John F; Sun, Wei; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Fontes, João D; Badola, Sunita; Astor, Brad C; Hofman, Albert; Pouta, Anneli; Werdan, Karl; Greiser, Karin H; Kuss, Oliver; Meyer zu Schwabedissen, Henriette E; Thiery, Joachim; Jamshidi, Yalda; Nolte, Ilja M; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Timothy D; Völzke, Henry; Parker, Alexander N; Aspelund, Thor; Bates, David; Young, Lauren; Tsui, Kim; Siscovick, David S; Guo, Xiuqing; Rotter, Jerome I; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Rudan, Igor; Hicks, Andrew A; Penninx, Brenda W; Thorand, Barbara; Gieger, Christian; Coresh, Joe; Willemsen, Gonneke; Harris, Tamara B; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Rice, Kenneth; Radke, Dörte; Salomaa, Veikko; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Boerwinkle, Eric; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gibson, Quince D; Bandinelli, Stefania; Snieder, Harold; Boomsma, Dorret I; Xiao, Xiangjun; Campbell, Harry; Hayward, Caroline; Pramstaller, Peter P; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Peltonen, Leena; Psaty, Bruce M; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Ridker, Paul M; Homuth, Georg; Koenig, Wolfgang; Ballantyne, Christie M; Witteman, Jacqueline CM; Benjamin, Emelia J; Perola, Markus; Chasman, Daniel I

    2011-01-01

    Background C-reactive protein (CRP) is a heritable marker of chronic inflammation that is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease. We aimed to identify genetic variants that are associated with CRP levels. Methods and Results We performed a genome wide association (GWA) analysis of CRP in 66,185 participants from 15 population-based studies. We sought replication for the genome wide significant and suggestive loci in a replication panel comprising 16,540 individuals from ten independent studies. We found 18 genome-wide significant loci and we provided evidence of replication for eight of them. Our results confirm seven previously known loci and introduce 11 novel loci that are implicated in pathways related to the metabolic syndrome (APOC1, HNF1A, LEPR, GCKR, HNF4A, and PTPN2), immune system (CRP, IL6R, NLRP3, IL1F10, and IRF1), or that reside in regions previously not known to play a role in chronic inflammation (PPP1R3B, SALL1, PABPC4, ASCL1, RORA, and BCL7B). We found significant interaction of body mass index (BMI) with LEPR (p<2.9×10−6). A weighted genetic risk score that was developed to summarize the effect of risk alleles was strongly associated with CRP levels and explained approximately 5% of the trait variance; however, there was no evidence for these genetic variants explaining the association of CRP with coronary heart disease. Conclusion We identified 18 loci that were associated with CRP levels. Our study highlights immune response and metabolic regulatory pathways involved in the regulation of chronic inflammation. PMID:21300955

  18. Prasugrel Results in Higher Decrease in High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Level in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Comparing to Clopidogrel

    PubMed Central

    Hajsadeghi, Shokoufeh; Chitsazan, Mandana; Chitsazan, Mitra; Salehi, Negar; Amin, Ahmad; Bidokhti, Arash Amin; Babaali, Nima; Bordbar, Armin; Hejrati, Maral; Moghadami, Samar

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES A growing body of clinical and laboratory evidence indicates that inflammation plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis. In the present study, we compared the effects of clopidogrel and prasugrel on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS The present randomized, double-blind clinical trial included 120 patients who underwent PCI. Eligible patients were randomly assigned 2:1 to one of the two groups: 80 patients in the first group received clopidogrel (Plavix®; loading dose and maintenance dose of 300 and 75 mg daily, respectively) and 40 patients in the second group received prasugrel (Effient®; loading dose and maintenance dose of 60 and 10 mg, respectively) for 12 weeks. The hs-CRP levels between baseline and 12th week were compared. RESULTS Of the 120 patients, 69 patients (57.5%) were male. Pretreatment hs-CRP level was statistically comparable in clopidogrel (median, 15.10 mg/dL; interquartile range [IQR], 9.62–23.75 mg/dL) and prasugrel groups (median, 18 mg/dL; IQR, 14.25–22 mg/dL; P = 0.06). Patients taking clopidogrel showed a significant reduction in hs-CRP level compared with the baseline values (P < 0.001). Prasugrel administration also resulted in a significant reduction in hs-CRP level (P < 0.001). A significant 73% overall reduction in the hs-CRP level was seen with prasugrel compared with 39% overall reduction in hs-CRP level with clopidogrel (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION Prasugrel seems to be superior to clopidogrel in the reduction of hs-CRP in patients undergoing PCI. PMID:27597810

  19. Prognostic Impact of Baseline High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Based on Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Khurshid; Chakraborty, Rabin; Cho, Kyung Hoon; Sim, Doo Sun; Hong, Young Joon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Hachinohe, Daisuke; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Kim, Young Jo

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is a marker of inflammation and may lead to the development of atherosclerosis, adversely affecting mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between baseline hs-CRP level and 12-month clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) according to their body mass index (BMI) status. Subjects and Methods Using data from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry from November 2005 to September 2008, a total of 8174 consecutive AMI patients were studied. Cox proportional hazard model revealed that higher baseline levels of hs-CRP was associated with 12-month all-cause mortality (p=0.045). To further understand this association, patients were divided into 3 groups based on their body mass index: 1) overweight/obese, 2) normal weight, and 3) underweight patients. Then each group was stratified into quartiles based on their hs-CRP. Results In overweight/obese patients, Cox model showed significant association of hs-CRP with 12-month mortality when adjusted for age and gender (p<0.001), however, after adjustment with multiple covariates, mortality was highest in the 4th quartile {HR 2.382, (1.079-5.259), p=0.032} though statistically insignificant (p=0.172). We observed no significant association of serum hs-CRP with 12-month mortality in normal weight (p=0.681) and underweight (p=0.760) patients. Conclusion Higher baseline hs-CRP level (≥4.08 mg/dL) in overweight/obese AMI patients showed significant association with 12-month all-cause mortality independent of other prognostic markers. PMID:22493611

  20. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I, iron, C-reactive protein, and serum amyloid A for prediction of outcome in dogs with pyometra.

    PubMed

    Jitpean, Supranee; Holst, Bodil Ström; Höglund, Odd V; Pettersson, Ann; Olsson, Ulf; Strage, Emma; Södersten, Fredrik; Hagman, Ragnvi

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra, accumulation of pus in the uterus, is a bacterial infection that frequently initiates systemic inflammation. The disease may have lethal consequences when the systemic effects are severe or complications occur. Markers for identifying high-risk patients and predicting outcome are therefore in high demand. The objective of this study was to measure serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), iron, C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum amyloid A (SAA) in bitches with pyometra and to explore the possible value of these variables for detection of increased morbidity. In total, 31 bitches were diagnosed with pyometra and destined for surgical treatment (ovariohysterectomy) and 17 healthy bitches were included in the study. Concentrations of IGF-I and iron were lower in the pyometra group (mean concentration 221.2 ± 22.5 ng/mL and 16.9 ± 1.6 μmol/L, respectively) compared with the healthy control group (mean concentration 366.7 ± 46.2 ng/mL and 38.1 ± 2.7 μmol/L, respectively). In contrast, concentrations of CRP and SAA were significantly higher in bitches with pyometra (mean concentrations 212.9 ± 17.3 mg/L and 119.9 ± 8.5 mg/L, respectively) compared with the control group (<5 mg/L and <10 mg/L, respectively). None of the explored variables were associated with morbidity as measured by duration of postoperative hospitalization. In conclusion, IGF-I and iron concentrations were decreased in pyometra, whereas SAA and CRP concentrations were increased in the disease. Although unspecific, measurement of these variables may be valuable as adjunctive markers for prognosis in cases of pyometra.